WorldWideScience

Sample records for inner-galaxy alfa low-latitude

  1. Properties of Cold HI Emission Clouds in the Inner-Galaxy ALFA Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, James Marcus; Gibson, Steven J.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Newton, Jonathan; Koo, Bon-Chul; Douglas, Kevin A.; Peek, Joshua Eli Goldston; Park, Geumsook; Kang, Ji-hyun; Korpela, Eric J.; Heiles, Carl E.; Dame, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    Star formation, a critical process within galaxies, occurs in the coldest, densest interstellar clouds, whose gas and dust content are observed primarily at radio and infrared wavelengths. The formation of molecular hydrogen (H2) from neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) is an essential early step in the condensation of these clouds from the ambient interstellar medium, but it is not yet completely understood, e.g., what is the predominant trigger? Even more troubling, the abundance of H2 may be severely underestimated by standard tracers like CO, implying significant "dark" H2, and the quantity of HI may also be in error if opacity effects are neglected. We have developed an automated method to account for both HI and H2 in cold, diffuse clouds traced by narrow-line HI 21-cm emission in the Arecibo Inner-Galaxy ALFA (I-GALFA) survey. Our algorithm fits narrow (2-5 km/s), isolated HI line profiles to determine their spin temperature, optical depth, and true column density. We then estimate the "visible" H2 column in the same clouds with CfA and Planck CO data and the total gas column from dust emission measured by Planck, IRAS, and other surveys. Together, these provide constraints on the dark H2 abundance, which we examine in relation to other cloud properties and stages of development. Our aim is to build a database of H2-forming regions with significant dark gas to aid future analyses of coalescing interstellar clouds. We acknowledge support from NSF, NASA, Western Kentucky University, and Williams College. I-GALFA is a GALFA-HI survey observed with the 7-beam ALFA receiver on the 305-meter William E. Gordon Telescope. The Arecibo Observatory is a U.S. National Science Foundation facility operated under sequential cooperative agreements with Cornell University and SRI International, the latter in alliance with the Ana G. Mendez-Universidad Metropolitana and the Universities Space Research Association.

  2. Low Latitude Plasma Blobs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly P. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been renewed activity in the study of local plasma density enhancements in the low latitude F region ionosphere (low latitude plasma blobs. Satellite, all-sky airglow imager, and radar measurements have identified the characteristics of these blobs, and their coupling to Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs. New information related to blobs has also been obtained from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS satellite. In this paper, we briefly review experimental, theoretical and modeling studies related to low latitude plasma blobs.

  3. TeV Diffuse Emission From the Inner Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amid Nayerhoda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The TeV diffuse emission from the Galactic plane is produced by multi TeV electrons and nuclei interacting with radiation fields and ambient gas, respectively. Measurements of the TeV diffuse emission help constrain CR origin and transport properties. We present a preliminary analysis of HAWC diffuse emission data from the inner Galaxy. The HAWC measurements will be used to constrain particle transport properties close to the Galaxy center correlating the HAWC maps with predictions of the DRAGON code.

  4. A new perspective on mapping the inner Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majewski S.R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the very strong interstellar extinction in the inner Galaxy, the stellar complexities of this region have only recently begun to be explored, with many infrared surveys now taking advantage of the reduced extinction at longer wavelengths to study the geometry, chemistry, and dynamics of the Milky Way’s innermost kiloparsecs. The new approach presented here applies the RJCE extinction correction method and the longitude-magnitude visualization technique to an extensive near+mid-infrared database (2MASS + GLIMPSE, and we assess the usefulness of this approach in exploring large-scale Galactic structure. By deriving physical parameters of the long bar and central bulge, we demonstrate this approach’s efficacy in using archived data to trace large-scale structures previously only mapped by time-intensive, dedicated surveys.

  5. Fourteen candidate RR Lyrae star streams in the inner Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu, Cecilia; Read, Justin I.; Kawata, Daisuke

    2018-03-01

    We apply the GC3 stream-finding method to RR Lyrae stars (RRLSs) in the Catalina survey. We find 2 RRLS stream candidates at >4σ confidence and another 12 at >3.5σ confidence over the Galactocentric distance range 4 < D/kpc < 26. Of these, only two are associated with known globular clusters (NGC 1261 and Arp2). The remainder are candidate `orphan' streams, consistent with the idea that globular cluster streams are most visible close to dissolution. Our detections are likely a lower bound on the total number of dissolving globulars in the inner galaxy, since many globulars have few RRLSs, while only the brightest streams are visible over the Galactic RRLS background, particularly given the current lack of kinematical information. We make all of our candidate streams publicly available and provide a new galstreamsPYTHON library for the footprints of all known streams and overdensities in the Milky Way.

  6. Topside electron density at low latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezquer, R.G.; Cabrera, M.A.; Flores, R.F.; Mosert, M.

    2002-01-01

    The validity of IRI to predict the electron density at the topside electron density profile over the low latitude region is checked. The comparison with measurements obtained with the Taiyo satellite during low solar activity shows that, the disagreement between prediction and measurement is lower than 40% for 70% of considered cases. These IRI predictions are better than those obtained in a previous work at the southern peak of the equatorial anomaly for high solar activity. Additional studies for low solar activity, using ionosonde data as input parameters in the model, are needed in order to check if the observed deviations are due to the predicted peak characteristics or to the predicted shape of the topside profile. (author)

  7. Effects of geomagnetic storm on low latitude ionospheric total ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 5. Effects of geomagnetic storm on low latitude ionospheric total electron content: A case study from Indian sector. Monti Chakraborty Sanjay Kumar Barin Kumar De Anirban Guha. Volume 124 Issue 5 July 2015 pp 1115-1126 ...

  8. Cosmic ray protons in the inner Galaxy and the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Eric; Profumo, Stefano

    2014-07-01

    A gamma-ray excess over background has been claimed in the inner regions of the Galaxy, triggering some excitement about the possibility that the gamma rays originate from the annihilation of dark matter particles. We point out that the existence of such an excess depends on how the diffuse gamma-ray background is defined, and on the procedure employed to fit such background to observations. We demonstrate that a gamma-ray emission with spectral and morphological features closely matching the observed excess arises from a population of cosmic ray protons in the inner Galaxy, and provides proof of principle and arguments for the existence of such a population, most likely originating from local supernova remnants. Specifically, the "Galactic center excess" is readily explained by a recent cosmic ray injection burst, with an age in the 1-10 kilo-year range, while the extended inner Galaxy excess points to mega-year old injection episodes, continuous or impulsive. We conclude that it is premature to argue that there are no standard astrophysical mechanisms that can explain the excess.

  9. Multiflash whistlers in ELF-band observed at low latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiflash whistler-like event in the ELF-band, observed during March 1998 at low latitude station Jammu, is reported. The most prominent feature of these events is the multiflash nature along with the decrease in frequency within a very short span of time resembling similar to terrestrial whistlers. The events have a significantly smaller time duration (0.5–3.5 s than those reported earlier from high, mid and low latitudes and also display a diurnal maximum occurring around 09:30 h (IST. There have been similar reportings from other latitudes, but whistlers in the ELF-band with a multiflash nature along with a precursor emission have never been reported. Lightning seems to be the dominant source for the ELF whistlers reported here.

  10. Distinguishing dark matter from unresolved point sources in the Inner Galaxy with photon statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Samuel K. [Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, 400 Jadwin Hall, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States); Lisanti, Mariangela [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Jadwin Hall, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States); Safdi, Benjamin R., E-mail: samuelkl@princeton.edu, E-mail: mlisanti@princeton.edu, E-mail: bsafdi@princeton.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., 6-304, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope suggests that there is an extended excess of GeV gamma-ray photons in the Inner Galaxy. Identifying potential astrophysical sources that contribute to this excess is an important step in verifying whether the signal originates from annihilating dark matter. In this paper, we focus on the potential contribution of unresolved point sources, such as millisecond pulsars (MSPs). We propose that the statistics of the photons—in particular, the flux probability density function (PDF) of the photon counts below the point-source detection threshold—can potentially distinguish between the dark-matter and point-source interpretations. We calculate the flux PDF via the method of generating functions for these two models of the excess. Working in the framework of Bayesian model comparison, we then demonstrate that the flux PDF can potentially provide evidence for an unresolved MSP-like point-source population.

  11. Earth's magnetosphere formed by the low-latitude boundary layer

    CERN Document Server

    Heikkila, W J

    2011-01-01

    The author argues that, after five decades of debate about the interactive of solar wind with the magnetosphere, it is time to get back to basics. Starting with Newton's law, this book also examines Maxwell's equations and subsidiary equations such as continuity, constitutive relations and the Lorentz transformation; Helmholtz' theorem, and Poynting's theorem, among other methods for understanding this interaction. Includes chapters on prompt particle acceleration to high energies, plasma transfer event, and the low latitude boundary layer More than 200 figures illustrate the text Includes a color insert.

  12. Multifractal analysis of low-latitude geomagnetic fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. A. Bolzan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The technique of large deviation multifractal spectrum has shown that the high-latitude (77.5° N, 69.2° W geomagnetic fluctuations can be described from direct dissipation process or loading-unloading regimes of the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. In this paper, we analyze the H-component of low-latitude (22.4° S, 43.6° W geomagnetic field variability observed during the month of July 2000 at the Geomagnetic Observatory, Vassouras, RJ, Brazil. The variability pattern during this period is a mixture of quiet and disturbed days including the Bastille Day intense geomagnetic storm on 15 July. Due to the complexity of this data, we pursue a detailed analysis of the geomagnetic fluctuations in different time scales including a multifractal approach using the singular power spectrum deviations obtained from the wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM. The results suggest, as observed from high-latitude data, the occurrence of low-latitude multifractal processes driving the intermittent coupling between the solar wind-magnetosphere and geomagnetic field variations. On finer scales possible physical mechanisms in the context of nonlinear magnetosphere response are discussed.

  13. Biomarkers of a Low-Latitude Neoproterozoic Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott, A. N.; Sessions, A. L.; Corsetti, F. A.; Kaufman, A. J.

    2005-12-01

    Neoproterozoic low-latitude glaciations are often considered times of great biologic limitation because of the hypothesized presence of thick, global sea ice. Alternatively, climate models have suggested that tropical oceans could have remained ice-free, or covered by only thin sea ice, allowing life to continue unimpeded throughout the glaciations. The analysis of organic remains from synglacial sediments provides an approach to address the debate. Here we describe molecular, isotopic, and petrographic analyses of organic rich strata (up to 3.0 percent TOC) deposited in southeastern Brazil during Neoproterozoic low-latitude glaciation ca. 700 Ma. These strata contain extractable biomarkers, including 2-α-methyl hopanes, 2,3,6-trimethylarylisoprenoids, C29-C31 hopanes, and C27-C29 steranes. The preserved biomarkers reflect the presence of a complex and productive ecosystem comprised of both aerobic and anaerobic phototrophs, heterotrophs, and eukaryotes. The biomarker data indicate euxinia extending into the photic zone, providing evidence that the oceans were strongly stratified. Significantly, the occurrence of photosynthetic cyanobacteria and green sulfur bacteria at this time indicates that sea-ice cover at this location was thin to nonexistent, and is incompatible with models for snowball Earth that envision kilometers of ice thickness.

  14. Orbital control of low-latitude seasonality during the Eemian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Amos; Paul, A.; Nyberg, J.; Oba, T.; Lundberg, J.; Schrag, D.; Taggart, Bruce E.

    2003-01-01

    We used Sr/Ca and stable isotope data from well dated and preserved corals from the northeastern Caribbean to determine the seasonal environmental conditions for four continuous years during the Eemian, the last time the Earth was in a prolonged warm phase. We determined that the seasonal range in SST during the Eemian was 25°–30° C. This is ∼1–2° larger than at present and caused primarily by winter cooling and, only to a small degree, by summer warming. As climate modeling studies indicate, the bias towards colder winters can be explained by changes in low latitude insolation induced by altered orbital parameters, modulated by atmospheric CO2 levels that were lower than today. Milankovitch forcing at higher latitudes was probably less important.

  15. Hook whistlers observed at low latitude ground station Varanasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosa, P.N.; Lalmani; Ahmed, M.M.; Singh, B.D.

    1983-01-01

    Employing the Haselgrove ray tracing equations and a diffusive equilibrium model of the ionosphere, the propagation characteristics of hook whistlers recorded at low-latitude ground station Varanasi (geomag. lat., 16 0 6'N) are discussed. It is shown that the two traces of the hook whistlers are caused by the VLF waves radiated from the return stroke of a lightning discharge which after penetrating the ionosphere at two different entry points, propagated to the opposite hemisphere in the whistler mode and were received at 16 geomagnetic latitude. Further the crossing of ray paths for the same frequency leads to the explanation of the hook whistler. The lower and higher cut-off frequencies are explained in terms of their deviating away from the bunch of the recorded whistler waves and crossing of ray paths for the same frequency. (Auth.)

  16. A review of recent MLT studies at low latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Clemesha

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have shown a continuing interest in studies of the mesosphere-lower thermosphere region at low latitudes, with more than 50 papers dealing specifically with this area published over the past 5 years. Experimental ground-based work has been carried out mainly in South America and the Caribbean, India and the Pacific areas. Subjects of interest include gravity waves, tides and planetary waves, the temperature structure of the mesopause region, with special reference to temperature inversions and the two-level mesopause, sporadic neutral layers and their relationship with ionized layers, the possible effects of the micrometeoroid influx, and long-term trends in the MLT region. Experimental techniques in use include MF, MST and meteor radar, lidar, airglow (including satellite-borne limb-scanning measurements and rocket-borne instruments. Airglow imaging has shown itself to be a particularly useful technique, mainly for studying gravity wave propagation in the MLT region. This paper will present highlights of recent work and will discuss some of the problems which remain to be resolved.

  17. Low latitude southern hemisphere mesospheric dynamics from meteor radars measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Paulo; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Clemesha, Barclay; Buriti, Ricardo; Paulino, Ana Roberta; Guharay, Amitava; Andrioli, Vania Fatima

    Three meteor radars of the SkiYmet type have been installed in Brazil covering low, tropical and sub-tropical latitudes. The first at Cachoeira Paulista(22.7° S, 45.0° W) started in march 1999, the second at Cariri(7.4° S, 36.5° W) in May, 2005, and the last one at Santa Maria( 29.7° S, 53.8° W) in December, 2005. Data obtained in coincident periods of measurements permitted the determination of the Mean Winds, Planetary Waves, Tides and Gravity Wave Variances for these different latitudes and the comparison of them. Amplitude and phase structures are similar for Cachoeira Paulista and Santa Maria, but differ from the near-equatorial site Cariri. Also the Lunar Semidiurnal Tides have been studied at the three sites for the period January 2005 to December 2008. Amplitudes between 1 and 8 m/s were determined with the meridional winds being larger than the zonal in the three sites. It is found that northern hemisphere SSW’s affect the QTDW , and the Solar and Lunar tides at southern low latitudes but the 2002 southern hemisphere major SSW had a small effect in tropical MLT. Wind measurements have also been used to study Kelvin waves, terdiurnal Tide and QTDW variability. In this presentation we summarize the main results obtained.

  18. Early onset of significant local warming in low latitude countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstein, I; Knutti, R; Solomon, S; Portmann, R W

    2011-01-01

    The Earth is warming on average, and most of the global warming of the past half-century can very likely be attributed to human influence. But the climate in particular locations is much more variable, raising the question of where and when local changes could become perceptible enough to be obvious to people in the form of local warming that exceeds interannual variability; indeed only a few studies have addressed the significance of local signals relative to variability. It is well known that the largest total warming is expected to occur in high latitudes, but high latitudes are also subject to the largest variability, delaying the emergence of significant changes there. Here we show that due to the small temperature variability from one year to another, the earliest emergence of significant warming occurs in the summer season in low latitude countries (∼25 deg. S-25 deg. N). We also show that a local warming signal that exceeds past variability is emerging at present, or will likely emerge in the next two decades, in many tropical countries. Further, for most countries worldwide, a mean global warming of 1 deg. C is sufficient for a significant temperature change, which is less than the total warming projected for any economically plausible emission scenario. The most strongly affected countries emit small amounts of CO 2 per capita and have therefore contributed little to the changes in climate that they are beginning to experience.

  19. The Abnormal Quiet Days in SQ(H) in Mid and Low Latitudes Regions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the analysis and study of abnormal quiet days (AQDs) at mid and low latitudes locations, it was found that there is difference between the characteristics of phase variability Sq (H) of the low latitude locations. This suggests that the origin and cause of AQDs are of different sources in the two latitude regions. The AQDs ...

  20. Drotrecogin alfa Eli Lilly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, E.

    2002-01-01

    Drotrecogin alfa (Xigris, recombinant activated protein C) is an anticoagulant developed and launched by Eli Lilly & Co for the treatment of sepsis [333781], [339372], [430133], [436271]. The FDA and the EMEA accepted the brand name Xigris for drotrecogin alfa in June 2001. This trade name had been

  1. Low mass X-ray binaries in the Inner Galaxy: implications for millisecond pulsars and the GeV excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, Daryl; Heinke, Craig; Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim

    2017-05-01

    If millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are responsible for the excess gamma-ray emission observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center, the same region should also contain a large population of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). In this study, we compile and utilize a sizable catalog of LMXBs observed in the the Milky Way's globular cluster system and in the Inner Galaxy, as well as the gamma-ray emission observed from globular clusters, to estimate the flux of gamma rays predicted from MSPs in the Inner Galaxy. From this comparison, we conclude that only up to $\\sim$4-23% of the observed gamma-ray excess is likely to originate from MSPs. This result is consistent with, and more robust than, previous estimates which utilized smaller samples of both globular clusters and LMXBs. If MSPs had been responsible for the entirety of the observed excess, INTEGRAL should have detected $\\sim$$10^3$ LMXBs from within a $10^{\\circ}$ radius around the Galactic Center, whereas only 42 LMXBs (and 46 additional LMXB candidates) have been observed.

  2. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  3. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  4. Effect of Magnetic Activity on Ionospheric Time Delay at Low Latitude

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of magnetic activity on ionospheric time delay at low latitude Station Bhopal (geom. lat. 23.2°N, geom. long. 77.6°E) using ... Space Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462 026, India. National Institute of Technical, ...

  5. Effects of High-Latitude Forcing Uncertainty on the Low-Latitude and Midlatitude Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedatella, N. M.; Lu, G.; Richmond, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Ensemble simulations are performed using the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) in order to understand the role of high-latitude forcing uncertainty on the low-latitude and midlatitude ionosphere response to the April 2010 geomagnetic storm. The ensemble is generated by perturbing either the high-latitude electric potential or auroral energy flux in the assimilative mapping for ionosphere electrodynamics (AMIE). Simulations with perturbed high-latitude electric potential result in substantial intraensemble variability in the low-latitude and midlatitude ionosphere response to the geomagnetic storm, and the ensemble standard deviation for the change in NmF2 reaches 50-100% of the mean change. Such large intraensemble variability is not seen when perturbing the auroral energy flux. In this case, the effects of the forcing uncertainty are primarily confined to high latitudes. We therefore conclude that the specification of high-latitude electric fields is an important source of uncertainty when modeling the low-latitude and midlatitude ionosphere response to a geomagnetic storm. A multiple linear regression analysis of the results indicates that uncertainty in the storm time changes in the equatorial electric fields, neutral winds, and neutral composition can all contribute to the uncertainty in the ionosphere electron density. The results of the present study provide insight into the possible uncertainty in simulations of the low-latitude and midlatitude ionosphere response to geomagnetic storms due to imperfect knowledge of the high-latitude forcing.

  6. Multipoint Observations of Low Latitude ULF Pc3 Waves in South ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of studying the spatial structure of hydromagnetic waves in the earth's magnetosphere. The solar wind ... external to the magne- tosphere. At low latitudes (L < 3) wave energy predominates in the Pc3 ..... J. Radio and Space Phys., 14, 42. Ansari, I. A., Fraser, B. J., McNabb, P. W. 1985, Indian J. Radio and Space Phys., 14, 1.

  7. Characteristics of Low-latitude Coronal Holes near the Maximum of Solar Cycle 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmeister, Stefan J.; Veronig, Astrid; Reiss, Martin A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the statistics of 288 low-latitude coronal holes extracted from SDO/AIA-193 filtergrams over the time range of 2011 January 01–2013 December 31. We analyze the distribution of characteristic coronal hole properties, such as the areas, mean AIA-193 intensities, and mean magnetic fie...

  8. Westward tilt of low-latitude plasma blobs as observed by the Swarm constellation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jaeheung; Luehr, Hermann; Michaelis, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigate the three-dimensional structure of low-latitude plasma blobs using multi-instrument and multisatellite observations of the Swarm constellation. During the early commissioning phase the Swarm satellites were flying at the same altitude with zonal separation of about 0...

  9. Source Region Identification for Low Latitude Whistlers (L=1.08)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokani, S. A.; Singh, R.; Maurya, A. K.; Bhaskara, V.; Cohen, M.; Kumar, S.; Lichtenberger, J.

    2014-12-01

    Though whistlers are known and studied from past one century, the scientific community still strives to understand the generation and propagation mechanism of whistlers in very low latitude region. One of the solutions comes from locating the causative lightning discharges and source region of low latitude whistlers. In the present study, ~ 2000 whistlers recorded during period of one year (Dec, 2010 to Jan, 2011) at Allahabad (Geomag. lat. 16.79o N; L=1.08), India are correlated with lightning activity detected by World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) at and around conjugate region. About 63% of whistlers are correlated with the lightning strikes around conjugate region. Further to confirm this correlation, arrival azimuths of causative sferics are determined and the obtained azimuths points towards conjugate region of Allahabad. The characteristics of thunder cloud generating these whistlers are examined and found that the clouds with South-East alignment are more prone to trigger whistler waves. The seasonal and diurnal variation of whistler parameters such as occurrence rate, power spectral density and dispersion are also studied and explained on the basis of ionospheric conditions in low latitudes. The results obtained open a new window to look for the propagation mechanism of low latitude whistlers.

  10. Effect of Magnetic Activity on Ionospheric Time Delay at Low Latitude

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of magnetic activity on ionospheric time delay at low latitude Station Bhopal (geom. lat. 23.2°N, geom. long. 77.6°E) using dual frequency (1575.42 and 1227.60 MHz) GPS measurements. Data from GSV4004A GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC ...

  11. Star formation in the inner galaxy: A far-infrared and radio study of two H2 regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D. F.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Werner, M. W.; Harvey, P. M.; Evans, N. J., II; Brown, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Far-infrared and radio continuum maps have been made of the central 6' of the inner-galaxy H II regions G30.8-0.0 (in the W43 complex) and G25.4-02., along with radio and molecular line measurements at selected positions. An effort is made to understand far infrared wavelingths allow the dust temperature structures and total far infrared fluxes to be determined. Comparison of the radio and infrared maps shows a close relationship between the ionized gas and the infrared-emitting material. There is evidence that parts of G30.8 are substantially affected by extinction, even at far-infrared wavelengths. For G25.4-0.2, the radio recombination line and CO line data permit resolution of the distance ambiguity for this source. The confusion in distance determination is found to result from an extraordinary near-superposition of two bright H II regions. Using revised distances of 4.3 kpc for G26.4SE and 12 kpc for G25.4NW, that the latter, which is apparently the fainter of the two sources, is actually the more luminous. Though it is not seen on the Palomar Sky Survey, G25.4SE is easily visible in the 9532A line of S III and is mapped in this line. The ratio of total luminosity to ionizing luminosity is very similar to that of H II regions in the solar circle. Assuming a coeval population of ionizing stars, a normal initial mass function is indicated.

  12. SAMI2 model results for the quiet time low latitude ionosphere over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. S.; Sharma, Shweta; Pandey, R.

    2018-04-01

    Efficacy of SAMI2 model for the Indian low latitude region around 75°E longitudes has been tested for different levels of solar flux. With a slight modification of the plasma drift velocity the SAMI2 model has been successful in reproducing quiet time ionospheric low latitude features like Equatorial Ionization Anomaly. We have also showed the formation of electron hole in the topside equatorial ionosphere in the Indian sector. Simulation results show the formation of electron hole in the altitude range 800-2500 km over the magnetic equator. Indian zone results reveal marked differences with regard to the time of occurrence, seasonal appearances and strength of the electron hole vis-a-vis those reported for the American equatorial region.

  13. Direction finding of very-low-latitude whistlers and their propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, M.; Ohta, K.; Shimakura, S.

    Spaced direction finding measurements of very-low-latitude whistlers were carried out in January 1988 at three stations in South China; Zhanjiang (geomagnetic latitude 10.1 deg), Guilin (14.1 deg) and Wuchang (19.4 deg). Two horizontal magnetic and one vertical electric field components were simultaneously recorded over a wide frequency range to enable comprehensive direction finding. The analyses of whistler data on several days have indicated that the ionospheric transmission latitude of equatorial latitude whistlers is restricted to the geomagnetic latitude range of 10-14 deg, and the presence of high occurrence of echo-train whistlers is a strong indication of their field-aligned propagation. The propagation mechanism of very-low-latitude whistlers is discussed.

  14. Low-latitude active longitudes on the Sun and in interplanetary space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumba, V.; Hejna, L.

    1991-01-01

    Following a short review of the history of the development of the active longitude concept, several graphs are given of the longitudinal distribution of various low-latitude phenomena of solar activity published by various authors. The inclinations of the active longitudes found were calculated. A summary picture of all these inclinations demonstrates the concentration of such active longitudes into two main directions. Two values of synodic rotation: 26.77 days and 27.16 days, correspond to these two types of low-latitude active longitudes, rotating faster than Carrington's rotation. The summary graph of all active longitudes belonging to these two types shows that active longitudes of different activity phenomena and from different authors overlap to a relatively high degree and that they run at least through three eleven-year cycles. The first of these active longitudes moves around the whole Sun in about 45-55 rotations and the second one in about 200 Carrington's rotations. It is believed that both these low-latitude active longitudes have their reflections in the two main inclinations of the interplanetary magnetic field sector boundaries demonstrated by Svalgaard and Wilcox (1975), their synodic rotations being 26.84 days and 27.14 days. (author). 9 figs., 25 refs

  15. LION: A dynamic computer model for the low-latitude ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Bittencourt

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A realistic fully time-dependent computer model, denominated LION (Low-latitude Ionospheric model, that simulates the dynamic behavior of the low-latitude ionosphere is presented. The time evolution and spatial distribution of the ionospheric particle densities and velocities are computed by numerically solving the time-dependent, coupled, nonlinear system of continuity and momentum equations for the ions O+, O2+, NO+, N2+ and N+, taking into account photoionization of the atmospheric species by the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation, chemical and ionic production and loss reactions, and plasma transport processes, including the ionospheric effects of thermospheric neutral winds, plasma diffusion and electromagnetic E×B plasma drifts. The Earth's magnetic field is represented by a tilted centered magnetic dipole. This set of coupled nonlinear equations is solved along a given magnetic field line in a Lagrangian frame of reference moving vertically, in the magnetic meridian plane, with the electromagnetic E×B plasma drift velocity. The spatial and time distribution of the thermospheric neutral wind velocities and the pattern of the electromagnetic drifts are taken as known quantities, given through specified analytical or empirical models. The model simulation results are presented in the form of computer-generated color maps and reproduce the typical ionization distribution and time evolution normally observed in the low-latitude ionosphere, including details of the equatorial Appleton anomaly dynamics. The specific effects on the ionosphere due to changes in the thermospheric neutral winds and the electromagnetic plasma drifts can be investigated using different wind and drift models, including the important longitudinal effects associated with magnetic declination dependence and latitudinal separation between geographic and geomagnetic equators. The model runs in a normal personal computer (PC and generates color maps illustrating the

  16. Low-latitude geomagnetic signatures during major solar energetic particle events of solar cycle-23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rawat

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of occurrence of disruptive transient processes in the Sun is enhanced during the high solar activity periods. Solar cycle-23 evidenced major geomagnetic storm events and intense solar energetic particle (SEP events. The SEP events are the energetic outbursts as a result of acceleration of heliospheric particles by solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs. The present work focuses on the geomagnetic variations at equatorial and low-latitude stations during the four major SEP events of 14 July 2000, 8 November 2000, 24 September 2001 and 4 November 2001. These events have been reported to be of discernible magnitude following intense X-ray flares and halo coronal mass ejections. Low-latitude geomagnetic records evidenced an intense main phase development subsequent to the shock impact on the Earth's magnetosphere. Satellite observations show proton-flux enhancements associated with solar flares for all events. Correlation analysis is also carried out to bring out the correspondence between the polar cap magnetic field perturbations, AE index and the variations of low-latitude magnetic field. The results presented in the current study elucidate the varying storm development processes, and the geomagnetic field response to the plasma and interplanetary magnetic field conditions for the energetic events. An important inference drawn from the current study is the close correspondence between the persistence of a high level of proton flux after the shock in some events and the ensuing intense magnetic storm. Another interesting result is the role of the pre-shock southward IMF Bz duration in generating a strong main phase.

  17. Stable isotopes and their relationship to temperature and precipitation as recorded in low latitude ice cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.G.; Davis, M.E.; Pin-Nan, Lin

    2002-01-01

    The potential of stable isotopic ratios ( 18 O/ 16 O and 2 H/ 1 H) in mid to low latitude glaciers as modern tools for paleoclimate reconstruction is reviewed. The isotopic composition of precipitation should be viewed not only as a powerful proxy indicator of climate, but also as an additional parameter for understanding climate-induced changes in the water cycle, on both regional and global scales. To interpret quantitatively the ice core isotopic records, the response of the isotopic composition of precipitation to long-term fluctuations of key climatic parameters (temperature, precipitation amount, relative humidity) over a given area should be known. Furthermore, it is important to establish the transfer functions that relate the climate-induced changes of the isotopic composition of precipitation to the isotope record preserved in the glacier. The factors that govern the values of stable isotopes in snowfall are enigmatic and as yet no satisfactory model has been developed to link them directly with any one meteorological or oceanographic factor. This is particularly problematic in the high altitude glaciers in the tropics, where complications are present due not only to continental effects, but also to altitude effects and convective air mass instability, particularly in the monsoon climates of the tropics. This paper presents long and short-term perspectives of isotopic composition variations in ice cores spanning the last 25,000 years from the mid- to low-latitude glaciers. The isotopic records will also be examined as a function of the altitude of the individual coring sites which ranges from 5325 meters to 7200 meters. On the short, term isotopic records from ice cores from the Andes of South America, the Tibetan Plateau and Kilimanjaro in Africa through the year 2000 will be presented. All the tropical glaciers for which data exist are disappearing, and these sites show isotopic enrichment in the 20th century that suggests that large scale low latitude

  18. On the cause of IMF By related mid- and low latitude magnetic disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Christiansen, Freddy; Olsen, Nils

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the effect of the IMF By on near-Earth low and mid-latitude magnetic disturbances is presented. In particular the contribution from field-aligned currents ( FACs) connected to the polar regions is investigated. Based on statistically determined high-latitude FAC patterns for various...... that the long-distance effect of the high-latitude FACs constitute the major source to IMF By and B-z related magnetic east-west disturbances at mid-and low latitudes....

  19. Study of ionospheric disturbances over the China mid- and low-latitude region with GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yafei; Tang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Ionospheric disturbances constitute the main restriction factor for precise positioning techniques based on global positioning system (GPS) measurements. Simultaneously, GPS observations are widely used to determine ionospheric disturbances with total electron content (TEC). In this paper, we present an analysis of ionospheric disturbances over China mid- and low-latitude area before and during the magnetic storm on 17 March 2015. The work analyses the variation of magnetic indices, the amplitude of ionospheric irregularities observed with four arrays of GPS stations and the influence of geomagnetic storm on GPS positioning. The results show that significant ionospheric TEC disturbances occurred between 10:30 and 12:00 UT during the main phase of the large storm, and the static position reliability for this period are little affected by these disturbances. It is observed that the positive and negative disturbances propagate southward along the meridian from mid-latitude to low-latitude regions. The propagation velocity is from about 200 to 700 m s-1 and the amplitude of ionospheric disturbances is from about 0.2 to 0.9 TECU min-1. Moreover, the position dilution of precession (PDOP) with static precise point positioning (PPP) on storm and quiet days is 1.8 and 0.9 cm, respectively. This study is based on the analysis of ionospheric variability with differential rate of vertical TEC (DROVT) and impact of ionospheric storm on positioning with technique of GPS PPP.

  20. Low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations at cap and low latitude during October 29-31, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Santarelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available On October-November 2003 complex interplanetary structures, originated by a series of solar eruptions, hit the Earth, triggering violent Sun-Earth connection events. In this paper we analyze the low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations detected on the ground during Oct. 29-31, 2003, a time period characterized by extremely high solar wind speed values and by out-of-ecliptic interplanetary magnetic field orientation for intervals of several hours. We analyze geomagnetic field measurements at four high latitude stations located in the polar cap, three in the southern and one in the northern hemisphere. From a comparison with simultaneous measurements at low latitude, we address the question of the global character of the observed phenomena. The results show, for selected time intervals, the occurrence of simultaneous fluctuations at all the stations, with high coherence even between high and low latitude; it is interesting that these fluctuations are detected during open magnetospheric conditions, when the high latitude stations are situated well within the polar cap, i.e. far from closed field lines.

  1. Post-midnight spread-F occurrence during solar minimum conditions at Brazilian low latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli Candido, Claudia Maria; Batista, Inez S.; Becker-Guedes, Fabio; Pimenta, A. A.; Abdu, Mangalathayil Ali; Sobral, José; Bittencourt, Jose A.

    The equatorial ionospheric plasma irregularities are characterized by fluctuations in the plasma density presenting scale sizes spanning several orders of magnitude from centimeters to tens of kilometers and depletions from 2-3 orders of magnitude with relation the ambient plasma. The Rayleigh-Taylor plasma instability is the mechanism which explains the generation of F-layer bottomside plasma irregularities at sunset times, which can evolve to high altitudes in the ionosphere and map to latitudes far out of the magnetic equator (equatorial plasma bubbles, EPB). The ionogram signatures of these irregularities are characterized by diffuse echoes superposed to the main trace, usually classified as range spread-F. At low latitudes, the spread-F as seen by ionosondes or imaging systems is mostly associated with EPB, mainly during the "spread-F season", between the months of September and April of high solar activity periods. Moreover, their climatology includes seasonal and longitudinal variability, besides an intriguing daily variability. On the other hand, during low solar activity and the June solstice periods, the observation of EPBs at low latitude sites is very rare, except during disturbed periods. However, analyzing a digital ionosonde and all-sky imaging system database for a Brazilian low latitude site, Cachoeira Paulista, CP (22.7° S, 45.0° W, mag lat: 16° S, dip angle: -22.3° ) we have observed that, despite the low neutral and plasma densities typical of these periods, the occurrence of spread-F at this station is very frequent, mainly at midnight/post-midnight local times. In this work we present a study of this intriguing occurrence of spread-F at CP, between May and August under low solar conditions years (1996 and 2006). By inspection of the equatorial ionosphere at São Luis, SL (2.33° S, 44.2° W, mag lat 1.6° S, dip angle: -2.7° ), a using a digital ionosonde, we suggest that the spread-F manifestations over Cachoeira Paulista are not

  2. NeQuick 2 and IRI Plas VTEC predictions for low latitude and South American sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquer, R. G.; Scidá, L. A.; Migoya Orué, Y.; Nava, B.; Cabrera, M. A.; Brunini, C.

    2018-04-01

    Using vertical total electron content (VTEC) measurements obtained from GPS satellite signals the capability of the NeQuick 2 and IRI Plas models to predict VTEC over the low latitude and South American sector is analyzed. In the present work both models were used to calculate VTEC up to the height of GPS satellites. Also, comparisons between the performance of IRI Plas and IRI 2007 have been done. The data correspond to June solstice and September equinox 1999 (high solar activity) and they were obtained at nine stations. The considered latitude range extends from 18.4°N to -64.7°N and the longitude ranges from 281.3°E to 295.9°E in the South American sector. The greatest discrepancies among model predictions and the measured VTEC are obtained at low latitudes stations placed in the equatorial anomaly region. Underestimations as strong as 40 TECU [1 TECU = 1016 m-2] can be observed at BOGT station for September equinox, when NeQuick2 model is used. The obtained results also show that: (a) for June solstice, in general the performance of IRI Plas for low latitude stations is better than that of NeQuick2 and, vice versa, for highest latitudes the performance of NeQuick2 is better than that of IRI Plas. For the stations TUCU and SANT both models have good performance; (b) for September equinox the performances of the models do not follow a clearly defined pattern as in the other season. However, it can be seen that for the region placed between the Northern peak and the valley of the equatorial anomaly, in general, the performance of IRI Plas is better than that of NeQuick2 for hours of maximum ionization. From TUCU to the South, the best TEC predictions are given by NeQuick2. The source of the observed deviations of the models has been explored in terms of CCIR foF2 determination in the available ionosonde stations in the region. Discrepancies can be also related to an unrealistic shape of the vertical electron density profile and or an erroneous prediction of

  3. Abrupt climate change and high to low latitude teleconnections as simulated in climate models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvijanovic, Ivana

    of the present day atmospheric mid-latitude energy transport compared to that of the Last Glacial Maximum, suggesting its ability to reorganize more easily and thereby dampen high latitude temperature anomalies that could arise from changes in the oceanic transport. The role of tropical SSTs in the tropical......High to low latitude atmospheric teleconnections have been a topic of increasing scientific interest since it was shown that high latitude extratropical forcing can induce tropical precipitation shifts through atmosphere-surface ocean interactions. In this thesis, several aspects of high to low...... precipitation shifts was further re-examined in idealized simulations with the fixed tropical sea surface temperatures, showing that the SST changes are fundamental to the tropical precipitation shifts. Regarding the high latitude energy loss, it was shown that the main energy compensation comes from...

  4. The effect of vibrationally excited nitrogen on the low-latitude ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jenkins

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The first five vibrationally excited states of molecular nitrogen have been included in the Sheffield University plasmasphere ionosphere model. Vibrationally excited molecular nitrogen reacts much more strongly with atomic oxygen ions than ground-state nitrogen; this means that more O+ ions are converted to NO+ ions, which in turn combine with the electrons to give reduced electron densities. Model calculations have been carried out to investigate the effect of including vibrationally excited molecular nitrogen on the low-latitude ionosphere. In contrast to mid-latitudes, a reduction in electron density is seen in all seasons during solar maximum, the greatest effect being at the location of the equatorial trough.

  5. Measurement of the stochasticity of low-latitude geomagnetic temporal variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Wanliss

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground magnetometer measurements of total magnetic field strength from 6 stations at low latitudes were analyzed using power spectrum and Hurst range scaling techniques. The Hurst exponents for most of these time-series were near 0.5, which indicates stochasticity, with the highest latitude stations exhibiting some persistence with Hurst exponents greater than 0.6. Although no definite correlations are evident, the relative increase of the Hurst exponent with latitude suggests the possibility that the underlying dynamics of the magnetosphere change with latitude. This result may help quantify the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere itself without the direct presence of the solar wind driver.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; plasmasphere – Space plasma physics (nonlinear phenomena

  6. Measurement of the stochasticity of low-latitude geomagnetic temporal variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Wanliss

    Full Text Available Ground magnetometer measurements of total magnetic field strength from 6 stations at low latitudes were analyzed using power spectrum and Hurst range scaling techniques. The Hurst exponents for most of these time-series were near 0.5, which indicates stochasticity, with the highest latitude stations exhibiting some persistence with Hurst exponents greater than 0.6. Although no definite correlations are evident, the relative increase of the Hurst exponent with latitude suggests the possibility that the underlying dynamics of the magnetosphere change with latitude. This result may help quantify the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere itself without the direct presence of the solar wind driver.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; plasmasphere – Space plasma physics (nonlinear phenomena

  7. The electron edge of the low latitude boundary layer during accelerated flow events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Thomsen, M.F.; Bame, S.J.; Onsager, T.G.; Russel, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetosheath plasma entering the Earth's magnetosphere to populate the low latitude boundary layer, LLBL, is often accelerated to speeds considerably greater than are observed in the adjacent magnetosheath. Measurements made during such accelerated flow events reveal separate electron and ion edges to the LLBL, with the electron edge being found earthward of the ion edge. Plasma electron velocity distributions observed at the earthward edge of the LLBL are often highly structured, exhibiting large asymmetries parallel and antiparallel, as well as perpendicular, to the local magnetic field. These features can consistently be interpreted as time-of-flight effects on recently reconnected field lines, and thus are strong evidence in support of the reconnection interpretation of accelerated plasma flow events

  8. Linear theory of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the low-latitude boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, R.; Sibeck, D. G.; Mcentire, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility is examined of establishing characteristic profiles across the magnetospheric low-latitude boundary layer for the Kelvin-Helmholtz mode so that these profiles can be compared with satellite observations or a latitudinal chain of ground stations. An anisotropic collisionless fluid model is used instead of conventional MHD, and the finite thickness of the boundary layer and the thickness and position of the current layer are taken into account. The instability is found to be enhanced by a decrease in the thickness of the shear layer and of the current layer and by the proximity of the 'current layer' to the outer edge of the shear layer. The velocity threshold for the onset of instability is insensitive to the thickness. Characteristic profiles of the variation of plasma and field parameters across the boundary are obtained, and the importance of parameters specifying the current layer position and thickness is demonstrated.

  9. The Zambezi Channel: A new perspective on submarine channel evolution at low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, E.; Green, A.; Watkeys, M.; Jokat, W.

    2017-06-01

    Submarine channels are not stand-alone systems. They are long-lived systems modified by imperceptibly slow processes and rapid gravity flows, in some part controlled by hinterland dynamics. The submarine Zambezi Channel, within the Mozambique Channel, receives sediment from the Zambezi River catchment which has a dynamic tectonic and morphological history. Using recently collected multibeam bathymetry and PARASOUND data we discuss the geomorphology of the Zambezi Channel. Results show this system to be distinct in geomorphologic character when compared to other low-latitude submarine channels, sharing similarities with high-latitude systems. We propose a new, source-to-sink, hypothesis for the evolution of the Zambezi Channel, taking in to consideration hinterland tectonics, palaeo-lake development, river capture and rapid gravity flows. This hypothesis accounts for the unique present-day anatomy of the Zambezi Channel within the dynamic framework of the systems regional setting.

  10. ALFA beam halo

    CERN Document Server

    Komarek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This note serves as a final report about CERN Summer Student Programme 2014 project. The beam halo is an undesired phenomenon for physics analyses on particle accelerators. It surrounds the beam core and constitutes an important part of background for signal measurements on some detectors, eg. in the forward region. In this study, the data from the ALFA detector were used, specifically from the run 191373 ($\\beta^*=90\\unit{m}$) and the run 213268 ($\\beta^*=1\\unit{km}$). Using the ROOT framework, a software for beam halo events selection was created and beam halo properties were examined. In the run 213268, excessive beam halo is suspected to be the reason for multiple beam scrapings that occurred. A kinematic reconstruction of beam halo particles is attempted in order to understand beam halo properties in the interaction point. Some further simulations are employed to find constraints for beam halo particles in order to survive in the accelerator for a longer time/many revolutions. This work represents a st...

  11. Chandra X-ray Observations of Jovian Low-latitude Emissions: Morphological, Temporal, and Spectral Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Cravens, Thomas E.; Waiate J. Hunter, Jr.; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Ford, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Chandra observed X-rays from Jupiter during 24-26 February 2003 for about 40 hours with the ACIS-S and HRC-I instruments. The analysis of Jovian low-latitude "disk" Xray emissions are presented and compared with the high-latitude "auroral" emissions. We report the first Chandra ACIS-S measured X-ray spectrum (0.3-2 keV) of Jupiter's low-latitude disk The disk X-ray emission is harder and extends to higher energies than the auroral spectrum. The temporal variation in the Jovian disk X-rays is on an average consistent with those in the solar X-rays observed by GOES, and TIMED/SSE. Contrary to the auroral X-rays, the disk emissions are uniformly distributed over Jupiter; no indication of longitudinal dependence or correlation with surface magneh field strength is visible. Also, unlike the approx. 40 +/- 20 min periodic oscillations seen in the auroral X-ray emissions, the disk emissions do not show any periodic oscillations. The disk spectrum seems to be consistent with resonant and fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays by the Jovian upper atmosphere. Jupiter's disk is found to be about 50% dimmer in soft X-rays in February 2003 compared that in December 2000, which is consistent with the decrease in solar activity. No evidence of lightning-induced X-rays is seen in the Chandra X-ray data. The Jovian disk spectra observed with Chandra-ACIS is stronger than that observed with XMM-Newton two months later during April 28-29, 2003. The XMM-Newton Xray image of Jupiter shows evidence of limb darkening on the anti-sunward side as seen from Earth, as well as an asymmetry with respect to the subsolar point: suggesting a solar driven process.

  12. Response of equatorial and low latitude mesosphere lower thermospheric dynamics to the northern hemispheric sudden stratospheric warming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushik, N.; Kumar, Karanam Kishore; Ramkumar, Geetha; Subrahmanyam, K. V.

    2018-04-01

    The changes in zonal mean circulation and meridional temperature gradient brought about by Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) events in polar middle atmosphere are found to significantly affect the low latitude counterparts. Several studies have revealed the signatures of SSW events in the low latitude Mesosphere- Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region. Using meteor wind radar observations, the present study investigates the response of semidiurnal oscillations and quasi 2-day waves in the MLT region, simultaneously over low latitude and equatorial stations Thumba (8.5oN, 76.5oE) and Kototabang (0.2oS, 100oE). Unlike many case studies, the present analysis examines the response of low and equatorial latitude MLT region to typical polar stratospheric conditions viz., Quiet winter, Major SSW winter and Minor SSW winter. The present results show that (i) the amplitudes of semidiurnal oscillations and quasi 2-day waves in the equatorial and low latitude MLT region enhance in association with major SSW events, (ii) the semidiurnal oscillations show significant enhancement selectively in the zonal and meridional components over the Northern Hemispheric low latitude and the equatorial stations, respectively (iii) The minor SSW event of January 2012 resulted in anomalously large amplitudes of quasi 2- day waves without any notable increase in the amplitude of semidiurnal oscillations. The significance of the present study lies in comprehensively bringing out the signatures of SSW events in the semidiurnal oscillations and quasi 2-day waves in low latitude and equatorial MLT region, simultaneously for the first time over these latitudes.

  13. Ionospheric variations over Indian low latitudes close to the equator and comparison with IRI-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pavan Chaitanya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze daytime observations of the critical frequencies of the F2 (foF2 and F3 (foF3 layers based on ionosonde observations made from Indian low latitudes close to the magnetic equator and study their local time, seasonal, planetary-scale variations (including the solar rotation effect, and solar activity dependence. Given the occurrence of the F3 layer, which has remarkable local time, seasonal and solar activity dependences, variations in foF2 have been evaluated. Local time variations in foF2 and foF3 show noon "bite-out" in all seasons and in all solar activity conditions, which are attributed to vertically upward plasma transport by the zonal electric field and meridional neutral wind. Comparison of observed foF2 with those of the IRI-2012 model clearly shows that the model values are always higher than observed values and the largest difference is observed during noontime owing to the noon bite-out phenomenon. Peak frequency of the F layer (foF2 / foF3, however, is found to have better agreement with IRI-2012 model. Seasonal variations of foF2 and foF3 show stronger asymmetry at the solstices than at the equinoxes. The strong asymmetry at the solstice is attributed to the asymmetry in the meridional neutral wind with a secondary contribution from E × B drifts, and the relatively weak asymmetry observed at the equinox is attributed to the asymmetry in E × B drifts. Variations in foF2 and foF3 with solar flux clearly show the saturation effect when F10.7 exceeds ~ 120 sfu, which is different from that of the mid-latitudes. Irrespective of solar flux, both foF2 and foF3 in summer, however, are found to be remarkably lower than those observed in other seasons. Variations in foF2 show dominant periods of ~ 27, ~ 16 and ~ 6 days. Intriguingly, amplitudes of ~ 27-day variations in foF2 are found to be maximum in low solar activity (LSA, moderate in medium solar activity (MSA and minimum in high solar activity (HSA, while the

  14. Isotopic composition of low-latitude paleoprecipitation during the Early Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, M.B.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Vega, F.J.; Alvarado-Ortega, J.

    2009-01-01

    likely underestimated tropical to subtropical precipitation and evaporation fluxes. The limited latitudinal constraints for earlier isotope mass balance modeling of the Albian hydrologic cycle of the Northern Hemisphere Americas resulted in extrapolated low-latitude precipitation ??18O values that were much heavier (up to 3???) than the values observed in this study. The lighter values identified in this study indicate a more pronounced rainout effect for tropical regions and quite possibly a more vigorous evaporation effect. These and additional low-latitude data are required to better constrain changes in the hydrologic cycle during the Cretaceous greenhouse period, and to reduce the uncertainties resulting from limited geographic coverage of proxy data. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  15. Analysis of ionosphere variability over low-latitude GNSS stations during 24th solar maximum period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Ratnam, D.; Sivavaraprasad, G.; Latha Devi, N. S. M. P.

    2017-07-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) is a remote sensing tool of space weather and ionospheric variations. However, the interplanetary space-dependent drifts in the ionospheric irregularities cause predominant ranging errors in the GPS signals. The dynamic variability of the low-latitude ionosphere is an imperative threat to the satellite-based radio communication and navigation ranging systems. The study of temporal and spatial variations in the ionosphere has triggered new investigations in modelling, nowcasting and forecasting the ionospheric variations. Hence, in this paper, the dynamism in the day-to-day, month-to-month and seasonal variability of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) has been explored during the solar maximum period, January-December 2013, of the 24th solar cycle. The spatial and temporal variations of the ionosphere are analysed using the TEC values derived from three Indian low-latitude GPS stations, namely, Bengaluru, Guntur and Hyderabad, separated by 13-18° in latitude and 77-81° in longitude. The observed regional GPS-TEC variations are compared with the predicted TEC values of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012 and 2007) models. Ionospheric parameters such as Vertical TEC (VTEC), relative TEC deviation index and monthly variations in the grand-mean of ionosphere TEC and TEC intensity, along with the upper and lower quartiles, are adopted to investigate the ionosphere TEC variability during quiet and disturbed days. The maximum ionospheric TEC variability is found during March and September equinoxes, followed by December solstice while the minimum variability is observed during June solstice. IRI models are in reasonable agreement with GPS TEC but are overestimating during dawn hours (01:00-06:00 LT) as compared to the dusk hours. Higher percentage deviations are observed during equinoctial months than summer over EIA stations, Guntur and Hyderabad. GPS TEC variations are overestimated during dawn hours for all the

  16. Combined TOPEX/Poseidon TEC and ionosonde observations of negative low-latitude ionospheric storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. W. Lynn

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric storms showing a strong depression in daytime foF2 values were sought which penetrated to low-latitudes, as identified by vertical ionosondes operating at Darwin and Townsville over the period 1992-1998. The 32 storms thus identified showed a seasonal occurrence peaking near the equinoxes with a bias to the summer side. Of these storms, three (27 March 1995, 25 October 1997, 8 November 1997 combined Australian and South East Asian ionosonde observations with local afternoon TOPEX/Poseidon measurements of TEC. The equatorial anomaly is usually well developed at this time of day and consequently these storms were chosen for detailed study. The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite provided vertical profiles of the ionosphere across both hemispheres, thus allowing the totality of storm behaviour to be observed for the first time at low-latitudes and related directly to the ionosonde observations. The three storms were remarkably consistent in their behaviour, the negative ionospheric storm day followed some 24-36h after the beginning of a magnetic storm and the development of the equatorial anomaly was suppressed. However, the suppression of the equatorial anomaly was not the main cause of the strong depression in foF2 observed by the Southern Hemisphere ionosondes. The latter was associated with an additional bite-out in both TEC and foF2 that occurred on the southern side of the magnetic equator. None of the three storms produced any major negative disturbance outside the range of normal variability of TEC and foF2 at the northern latitude sites for which data was available, despite the absence of the anomaly. The satellite measurements show the strength of the anomaly to be highly variable from day-to-day and anomaly peaks are frequently not present even on magnetically quiet days. Thus, an absence of anomaly peaks is contained within the normal variability of non-storm days. The north-south asymmetry and seasonal occurrence are consistent with

  17. Low-latitude scintillation occurrences around the equatorial anomaly crest over Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Abadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated low-latitude ionospheric scintillation in Indonesia using two GPS receivers installed at Bandung (107.6° E, 6.9° S; magnetic latitude 17.5° S and Pontianak (109.3° E, 0.02° S; magnetic latitude 8.9° S. This study aimed to characterise climatological and directional ionospheric scintillation occurrences, which are useful not only for the physics of ionospheric irregularities but also for practical use in GNSS (global navigation satellite system-based navigation. We used the deployed instrument's amplitude scintillation (S4 index data from 2009, 2010, and 2011; the yearly SSN (sunspot-smoothed numbers were 3.1, 16.5, and 55.9, respectively. In summary, (1 scintillation occurrences in the post-sunset period (18:00–01:00 LT during equinox months (plasma bubble season at the two sites can be ascribed to the plasma bubble; (2 using directional analyses of the two sites, we found that the distribution of scintillation occurrences is generally concentrated between the two sites, indicating the average location of the EIA (equatorial ionisation anomaly crest; (3 scintillation occurrence enhancements for the two sites in field-aligned directions are herein reported for the first time by ground-based observation in a low-latitude region; (4 distribution of scintillation occurrences at Pontianak are concentrated in the southern sky, especially in the southwest direction, which is very likely associated with the plasma bubble tilted westward with increasing latitude; and (5 scintillation occurrence in the post-midnight period in the non-plasma-bubble season is the most intriguing variable occurring between the two sites (i.e. post-midnight scintillations are observed more at Bandung than Pontianak. Most of the post-midnight scintillations observed at Bandung are concentrated in the northern sky, with low elevation angles. This might be due to the amplitude of irregularities in certain directions, which may be effectively enhanced by

  18. On the matter of proposed new low-latitude solar reference spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, M.A. [School of Engineering, University of Technology, Jamaica 237 Old Hope Road Kingston 6, WI (Jamaica); Owusu, Y.A.; Chapman, H.; Dargan, T. [FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, 2525 Pottsdamer Street, Tallahassee, Fl 32310 (United States); Ruscher, P. [Department of Meteorology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Fl 32306 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    For decades, photovoltaic (PV) modules have been manufactured and tested under conditions that are not globally representative. With the emergence of renewable energy as a viable alternative to fossil fuel, a greater level of scrutiny is being targeted towards standards by which this renewable energy generation is being attended. Standard test conditions (STC) along with the established mid-latitude-based reference spectra are among the standards used to rate PV modules internationally. However, with the global impact that renewable energy technology is currently having and will continue to have in the future, such a new system that accounts for low-latitude regions of the world is imperative; and it has been proposed through this research paper. The model capitalizes on the gains of the current standards used, in order to account for the differences in the combination of spectral distribution, module temperature, solar irradiance and meteorological conditions that are representative of lower latitude regions. Equally important, the development of regional spectra is expected to increase the level of interest and investments in this technology, yielding an economy of scale reduction in the cost of solar PV systems in the region. This work centers on the need to develop a system of regional standardization using the Caribbean and Latin America as a test case. New reference spectra are proposed with the advantage of more relevant solar ratings for the region. The methodology employed in this research paper is also being proposed as a generic tool for other regions exploring regional standardization. (author)

  19. Surface-temperature trends and variability in the low-latitude North Atlantic since 1552

    KAUST Repository

    Saenger, Casey

    2009-06-21

    Sea surface temperature variability in the North Atlantic Ocean recorded since about 1850 has been ascribed to a natural multidecadal oscillation superimposed on a background warming trend1-6. It has been suggested that the multidecadal variability may be a persistent feature6-8, raising the possibility that the associated climate impacts may be predictable7,8. owever, our understanding of the multidecadal ocean variability before the instrumental record is based on interpretations of high-latitude terrestrial proxy records. Here we present an absolutely dated and annually resolved record of sea surface temperature from the Bahamas, based on a 440-year time series of coral growth rates. The reconstruction indicates that temperatures were as warm as today from about 1552 to 1570, then cooled by about 1° C from 1650 to 1730 before warming until the present. Our estimates of background variability suggest that much of the warming since 1900 was driven by anthropogenic forcing. Interdecadal variability with a period of 15-25 years is superimposed on most of the record, but multidecadal variability becomes significant only after 1730. We conclude that the multidecadal variability in sea surface temperatures in the low-latitude western Atlantic Ocean may not be persistent, potentially making accurate decadal climate forecasts more difficult to achieve. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Support for equatorial anisotropy of Earth's inner-inner core from seismic interferometry at low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Song, Xiaodong

    2018-03-01

    Anisotropy of Earth's inner core provides a key role to understand its evolution and the Earth's magnetic field. Recently, using autocorrelations from earthquake's coda, we found an equatorial anisotropy of the inner-inner core (IIC), in apparent contrast to the polar anisotropy of the outer-inner core (OIC). To reduce the influence of the polar anisotropy and reduce possible contaminations from the large Fresnel zone of the PKIKP2 and PKIIKP2 phases at low frequencies, we processed coda noise of large earthquakes (10,000-40,000 s after magnitude ≥7.0) from stations at low latitudes (within ±35°) during 1990-2013. Using a number of improved procedures of both autocorrelation and cross-correlation, we extracted 52 array-stacked high-quality empirical Green's functions (EGFs), an increase of over 60% from our previous study. The high-quality data allow us to measure the relative arrival times by automatic waveform cross correlation. The results show large variation (∼10.9 s) in the differential times between the PKIKP2 and PKIIKP2 phases. The estimated influence of the Fresnel zone is insignificant (global dataset, including the fast axis and two low-velocity open rings, thus providing further support for the equatorial anisotropy model of the IIC. Speculations for the shift of the fast axis between the OIC and the IIC include: change of deformation regimes during the inner core history, change of geomagnetic field, and a proto-inner core.

  1. Study of Brightness Waves occurrence at low latitudes of Brazilian sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, C. S.; Pimenta, A. A.; Schuch, N. J.

    2013-05-01

    The Thermospheric Midnight Temperature Maximum (MTM) is an enhancement in the thermal structure of the upper atmosphere that occurs during nighttime period (near local midnight) at low latitudes. This phenomenon is accompanied by an increase in pressure, responsible for generating a decrease of the thermospheric wind speed or even a change in its direction of propagation, which is usually towards the equator. This modification in the winds to a poleward direction serves to move the F region plasma down along the magnetic field lines to altitudes where it can dissociatively recombine in order to produce 630.0 nm airglow emission, which is the optical signature of MTM, known as Brightness Wave. This work presents a study of Brightness Waves occurrence using data from an all-sky imager installed at Cachoeira Paulista Observatory (22.7 degrees south; 45.0 degrees west) observing the OI 630.0 nm airglow emission. The incidence of the phenomenon is investigated in relation of Solar Cycle, months of the year and level of geomagnetic activity. Also, some specific events of Brightness Wave are analyzed using photometer (OI 630.0 nm, OI 557.7 nm and OI 777.4 nm emissions) and ionosonde data collected from Cachoeira Paulista Observatory.

  2. Plasma structure near the low-latitude boundary layer: A rebuttal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sckopke, N.

    1991-01-01

    A recent reanalysis of a well-documented interval of plasma and magnetic field data led its authors to offer a new model for the structure of the outer magnetosphere and the magnetosheath on the northern dawnside. On November 6, 1977, ISEE 1 and 2 had observed a series of quasi-periodic pulses of magnetosheath-like plasma on northward oriented magnetic field lines which were originally interpreted as repeated encounters of a pulsed low-latitude boundary layer inside a smooth magnetopause followed by a single outward crossing of the magnetopause. D.G. Sibeck and coworkers reinterpreted the ISEE observations as being due to quasi-periodic magnetopause motion causing the satellites to repeatedly exit the magnetosphere and to observe draped northward magnetosheath magnetic field lines in the plasma depletion layer. Their model is based on qualitative arguments concerning the amount of field line draping in the magnetosheath as well as the behavior of energetic electrons near the magnetopause. It is shown in this paper that both arguments are not in accordance with the available evidence

  3. Storm-time ionization enhancements at the topside low-latitude ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dmitriev

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ion density enhancements at the topside low-latitude ionosphere during a Bastille storm on 15–16 July 2000 and Halloween storms on 29–31 October 2003 were studied using data from ROCSAT-1/IPEI experiment. Prominent ion density enhancements demonstrate similar temporal dynamics both in the sunlit and in the nightside hemispheres. The ion density increases dramatically (up to two orders of magnitude during the main phase of the geomagnetic storms and reaches peak values at the storm maximum. The density enhancements are mostly localized in the region of a South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA, which is characterized by very intense fluxes of energetic particles. The dynamics of near-Earth radiation was studied using SAMPEX/LEICA data on >0.6 MeV electrons and >0.8 MeV protons at around 600 km altitude. During the magnetic storms the energetic particle fluxes in the SAA region and in its vicinity increase more than three orders of magnitude. The location of increased fluxes overlaps well with the regions of ion density enhancements. Two mechanisms were considered to be responsible for the generation of storm-time ion density enhancements: prompt penetration of the interplanetary electric field and abundant ionization of the ionosphere by enhanced precipitation of energetic particles from the radiation belt.

  4. The structure of low-latitude Pc3 pulsations observed by CHAMP and on the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Ndiitwani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of low-latitude continuous pulsations termed Pc3, which are naturally occurring MHD waves in the Earth's magnetosphere, were studied by comparing ground and satellite magnetic field measurements. Data from two induction magnetometers, located at Hermanus and Sutherland in South Africa were used in conjunction with Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP satellite observations to study a Pc3 event observed on 15 February 2003, at a time when CHAMP was passing over the ground stations. We observed a number of discrete frequency oscillations for the fast mode wave, one of which drives a field line resonance (FLR at characteristic latitude as detected by both ground and satellite measurements. Consequently, our observations confirmed the compressional wave as being the driver of the field line resonance. The toroidal mode frequency observed on CHAMP experienced a Doppler frequency shift due to the rapid motion across the resonance region. Polarization hodograms in the resonance region clearly showed the expected 90° rotation of the field line resonant magnetic field components.

  5. Characteristics of Low-latitude Coronal Holes near the Maximum of Solar Cycle 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmeister, Stefan J.; Veronig, Astrid; Reiss, Martin A.; Temmer, Manuela [University of Graz, Institute of Physics, IGAM-Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Graz (Austria); Vennerstrom, Susanne [National Space Institute, DTU Space (Denmark); Vršnak, Bojan [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, Zagreb (Croatia); Heber, Bernd, E-mail: stefan.hofmeister@uni-graz.at [Universität Kiel, Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Kiel (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the statistics of 288 low-latitude coronal holes extracted from SDO /AIA-193 filtergrams over the time range of 2011 January 01–2013 December 31. We analyze the distribution of characteristic coronal hole properties, such as the areas, mean AIA-193 intensities, and mean magnetic field densities, the local distribution of the SDO /AIA-193 intensity and the magnetic field within the coronal holes, and the distribution of magnetic flux tubes in coronal holes. We find that the mean magnetic field density of all coronal holes under study is 3.0 ± 1.6 G, and the percentaged unbalanced magnetic flux is 49 ± 16%. The mean magnetic field density, the mean unsigned magnetic field density, and the percentaged unbalanced magnetic flux of coronal holes depend strongly pairwise on each other, with correlation coefficients cc > 0.92. Furthermore, we find that the unbalanced magnetic flux of the coronal holes is predominantly concentrated in magnetic flux tubes: 38% (81%) of the unbalanced magnetic flux of coronal holes arises from only 1% (10%) of the coronal hole area, clustered in magnetic flux tubes with field strengths >50 G (10 G). The average magnetic field density and the unbalanced magnetic flux derived from the magnetic flux tubes correlate with the mean magnetic field density and the unbalanced magnetic flux of the overall coronal hole (cc>0.93). These findings give evidence that the overall magnetic characteristics of coronal holes are governed by the characteristics of the magnetic flux tubes.

  6. Some unusual discrete VLF emissions observed at a low-latitude ground station at Agra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Singh

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the VLF emissions data obtained during occasional whistler campaigns at the low-latitude ground station Agra (geomagnetic latitude 17°1' N, L = 1.15 has yielded some unusual discrete VLF emissions of the rising type. These include (1 emissions occurring at time intervals increasing in ge ommetrical progression, (2 emissions occuring simulta neously in different frequency ranges and (3 emissions observed during daytime. In the present study, the observed characteristics of these emissions are described and interpreted. It is shown that the increasing time delay between different components of the emissions match closely with the propagation time delays between different hops of a whistler of dispersion 19 s1/2, the unusual occurrence of the emissions in two different frequency ranges approximately at the same time may possibly be linked with their generation at two different locations, and the occurrence of emissions during daytime may be due to propagation under the influence of equatorial anomaly.

  7. Some unusual discrete VLF emissions observed at a low-latitude ground station at Agra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Singh

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the VLF emissions data obtained during occasional whistler campaigns at the low-latitude ground station Agra (geomagnetic latitude 17°1' N, L = 1.15 has yielded some unusual discrete VLF emissions of the rising type. These include (1 emissions occurring at time intervals increasing in ge ommetrical progression, (2 emissions occuring simulta neously in different frequency ranges and (3 emissions observed during daytime. In the present study, the observed characteristics of these emissions are described and interpreted. It is shown that the increasing time delay between different components of the emissions match closely with the propagation time delays between different hops of a whistler of dispersion 19 s1/2, the unusual occurrence of the emissions in two different frequency ranges approximately at the same time may possibly be linked with their generation at two different locations, and the occurrence of emissions during daytime may be due to propagation under the influence of equatorial anomaly.

  8. Time variations of oxygen emission lines and solar wind dynamic parameters in low latitude region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamlongkul, P.; Wannawichian, S.; Mkrtichian, D.; Sawangwit, U.; A-thano, N.

    2017-09-01

    Aurora phenomenon is an effect of collision between precipitating particles with gyromotion along Earth’s magnetic field and Earth’s ionospheric atoms or molecules. The particles’ precipitation occurs normally around polar regions. However, some auroral particles can reach lower latitude regions when they are highly energetic. A clear emission from Earth’s aurora is mostly from atomic oxygen. Moreover, the sun’s activities can influence the occurrence of the aurora as well. This work studies time variations of oxygen emission lines and solar wind parameters, simultaneously. The emission’s spectral lines were observed by Medium Resolution Echelle Spectrograph (MRES) along with 2.4 meters diameter telescope at Thai National Observatory, Intanon Mountain, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Oxygen (OI) emission lines were calibrated by Dech-Fits spectra processing program and Dech95 2D image processing program. The correlations between oxygen emission lines and solar wind dynamics will be analyzed. This result could be an evidence of the aurora in low latitude region.

  9. Signature of ionospheric irregularities under different geophysical conditions on SBAS performance in the western African low-latitude region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Abe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rate of change of TEC (ROT and its index (ROTI are considered a good proxy to characterize the occurrence of ionospheric plasma irregularities like those observed after sunset at low latitudes. SBASs (satellite-based augmentation systems are civil aviation systems that provide wide-area or regional improvement to single-frequency satellite navigation using GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System constellations. Plasma irregularities in the path of the GNSS signal after sunset cause severe phase fluctuations and loss of locks of the signals in GNSS receiver at low-latitude regions. ROTI is used in this paper to characterize plasma density ionospheric irregularities in central–western Africa under nominal and disturbed conditions and identified some days of irregularity inhibition. A specific low-latitude algorithm is used to emulate potential possible SBAS message using real GNSS data in the western African low-latitude region. The performance of a possible SBAS operation in the region under different ionospheric conditions is analysed. These conditions include effects of geomagnetic disturbed periods when SBAS performance appears to be enhanced due to ionospheric irregularity inhibition. The results of this paper could contribute to a feasibility assessment of a European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System-based SBAS in the sub-Saharan African region.

  10. Impact of high-latitude energy input on the mid- and low-latitude ionosphere and thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G.; Sheng, C.

    2017-12-01

    High-latitude energy input has a profound impact on the ionosphere and thermosphere especially during geomagnetic storms. Intense auroral particle precipitation ionizes neutral gases and modifies ionospheric conductivity; collisions between neutrals and fast-moving ions accelerate the neutral winds and produce Joule frictional heating; and the excess Joule and particle heating causes atmospheric upwelling and changes neutral composition due to the rising of the heavier, molecular-rich air. In addition, impulsive Joule heating launches large-scale gravity waves that propagate equatorward toward middle and low latitudes and even into the opposite hemisphere, altering the mean global circulation of the thermosphere. Furthermore, high-latitude electric field can also directly penetrate to lower latitudes under rapidly changing external conditions, causing prompt ionospheric variations in the mid- and low-latitude regions. To study the effects of high-latitude energy input, we apply the different convection and auroral precipitation patterns based on both empirical models and the AMIE outputs. We investigate how the mid- and low-latitude regions respond to the different specifications of high-latitude energy input. The main purpose of the study is to delineate the various dynamical, electrodynamical, and chemical processes and to determine their relative importance in the resulting ionospheric and thermospheric properties at mid and low latitudes.

  11. Dedicated Low Latitude Diurnal CO2 Frost Observation Campaigns by the Mars Climate Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueux, S.; Kass, D. M.; Kleinboehl, A.; Hayne, P. O.; Heavens, N. G.; McCleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.; Shirley, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    In December 2016 (Ls≈280, MY33) and July 2017 (Ls≈30, MY34), the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) conducted two distinct observation campaigns. The first one aimed at 1) confirming the presence of low latitude diurnal CO2 frost on Mars, and 2) refining the estimated mass of carbon dioxide condensed at the surface, whereas the second campaign was designed to 3) search for temporally and spatially varying spectral characteristics indicative of frost properties (i.e., crystal size, contamination, etc.) and relationship to the regolith. To meet these goals, MCS acquired thermal infrared observations of the surface and atmosphere at variable local times (≈1.70-3.80 h Local True Solar Time) and in the 10°-50°N latitude band where very low thermal inertia material (<< 100 Jm-2K-1s-0.5) is present. Atmospherically corrected surface brightness temperatures were retrieved in a wavelength region around 32 μm (MCS channel B1) as well as at 12 μm, 16 μm and 22 μm (MCS channels A4, A1, A5) where possible. A preliminary analysis of the data suggests a good general agreement between these new observations and earlier predictions in terms of frost distribution and spectral properties. In addition, pre-frost deposition surface cooling rates are found to be consistent with those predicted by numerical models (i.e., 1-2K per hour). Finally, we observe buffered surface temperatures near the local frost point, indicating a surface emissivity ≈1. (i.e., optically thin frost layers, or dust contaminated frost, or slab-like ice) and no discernable frost metamorphism. We will present a detailed analysis of these new and unique observations, and elaborate on the potential relationship between the regolith and this recurring frost cycle.

  12. Longitudinal Differences in the Low-latitude Ionosphere and in the Ionospheric Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharenko, L. P.; Zhang, S.; Liu, H.; Tsugawa, T.; Batista, I. S.; Reinisch, B. W.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of longitudinal differences in ionospheric parameters can illuminate variety of mechanisms responsible for ionospheric variability. In this study, we aim to 1) quantitatively describe major features of longitudinal differences in peak electron density in the low-latitude ionosphere; 2) examine differences in ionospheric variability at different longitude sectors, and 3) illustrate longitudinal differences in ionospheric response to a large disturbance event, sudden stratospheric warming of 2016. We examine NmF2 observations by a network of ionosondes in the American (30-80W) and Asian (110-170E) longitudinal sectors. Selected instruments are located in the vicinity of EIA troughs (Jicamarca, Sao Luis, Guam, Kwajalein), northern and southern crests of EIA (Boa Vista, Tucuman, Cachoeira Paulista, Okinawa), and beyond EIA crests (Ramey, Yamagawa, Kokubunji). To examine main ionospheric features at each location, we use long-term datasets collected at each site to construct empirical models that describe variations in NmF2 as a function of local time, season, solar flux, and geomagnetic activity. This set of empirical models can be used to accurately describe background ionospheric behavior and serve as a set of observational benchmarks for global circulation models. It reveals, for example, higher NmF2 in the EIA trough in the Asian sector as compared to the American sector. Further, we quantitatively describe variability in NmF2 as a difference between local observations and local empirical model, and find that American sector's EIA trough has overall higher variability that maximizes for all local times during wintertime, while Asian sector trough variability does not change significantly with season. Additionally, local empirical models are used to isolate ionospheric features resulting from dynamical disturbances of different origin (e.g. geomagnetic storms, convective activity, sudden stratospheric warming events, etc.). We illustrate this approach with

  13. Observations of the intraseasonal oscillations over two Brazilian low latitude stations: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guharay, A.; Batista, P. P.; Clemesha, B. R.; Buriti, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    A comparative study of intraseasonal oscillations (ISO) in the period range 20-110 days is carried out in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) zonal wind at two low latitude stations, Cariri (7.4°S, 36.5°W) and Cachoeira Paulista (22.7°S, 45°W) located far from the convective anomaly region. Considerable seasonal and interannual variability is observed. The ISO in the MLT and lower atmosphere are found to be well correlated during winter and spring indicating a coupling of the atmospheric regions through the ISO. On the other hand, relatively less correlation during summer and fall may suggest a dominance of the in situ excitation of the ISO in the MLT relative to the lower atmospheric contribution. The correlation between the MLT and lower atmosphere is found to be a little higher at Cachoeira Paulista than Cariri. The ISO in the MLT shows good correlation between the two stations, but correlation is insignificant in the case of lower atmosphere. The ISO is most prominent in the upper troposphere, upper stratosphere and MLT. The waves responsible for communicating the ISO signature from the troposphere to the middle atmosphere in the tropics are believed to refract through mid-latitudes in course of their propagation. An evident height variation of the high amplitude ISO in the upper troposphere is observed with a clear annual oscillation at Cariri. The observed behaviors of the ISO at the present sites are discussed in the light of plausible physical mechanisms.

  14. Unusual nighttime impulsive foF2 enhancements at low latitudes: Phenomenology and possible explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, L.; Pezzopane, M.; Zuccheretti, E.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; Cabrera, M. A.; Ezquer, R. G.

    2014-08-01

    This paper is focused on unusual nighttime impulsive electron density enhancements that are rarely observed at low latitudes on a wide region of South America, under quiet and medium/high geomagnetic conditions. The phenomenon under investigation is very peculiar because besides being of brief duration, it is characterized by a pronounced compression of the ionosphere. The phenomenon was studied and analyzed using both the F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) and the virtual height of the base of the F region (h‧F) values recorded at five ionospheric stations widely distributed in space, namely: Jicamarca (-12.0°, -76.8°, magnetic latitude -2.0°), Peru; Sao Luis (-2.6°, -44.2°, magnetic latitude +6.2°), Cachoeira Paulista (-22.4°, -44.6°, magnetic latitude -13.4°), and São José dos Campos (-23.2°, -45.9°, magnetic latitude -14.1°), Brazil; Tucumán (-26.9°, -65.4°, magnetic latitude -16.8°), Argentina. In a more restricted region over Tucumán, the phenomenon was also investigated by the total electron content (TEC) maps computed by using measurements from 12 GPS receivers. A detailed analysis of isoheight ionosonde plots suggests that traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) caused by gravity wave (GW) propagation could play a significant role in causing the phenomenon both for quiet and for medium/high geomagnetic activity; in the latter case however a recharging of the fountain effect, due to electric fields penetrating from the magnetosphere, joins the TID propagation and plays an as much significant role in causing impulsive electron density enhancements.

  15. Evaluation of olive flowering at low latitude sites in Argentina using a chilling requirement model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aybar, V.E.; Melo-Abreu, J.P. de; Searles, P.S.; Matias, A.G.; Del Rio, C.; Caballero, C. M.; Rousseaux, M.C.

    2015-07-01

    Olive production has expanded significantly from the Mediterranean Basin into the New World over the last two decades. In some cases, cultivars of European origin have been introduced at a large commercial scale with little previous evaluation of potential productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a temperature-driven simulation model developed in the Mediterranean Basin to predict normal flowering occurrence and flowering date using cultivar-specific thermal requirements was suitable for the low latitude areas of Northwest Argentina. The model was validated at eight sites over several years and a wide elevation range (350–1200 m above mean sea level) for three cultivars (‘Arbequina’, ‘Frantoio’, ‘Leccino’) with potentially different chilling requirements. In ‘Arbequina’, normal flowering was observed at almost all sites and in all years, while normal flowering events in ‘Frantoio’ and ‘Leccino’ were uncommon. The model successfully predicted if flowering would be normal in 92% and 83% of the cases in ‘Arbequina’ and ‘Frantoio’, respectively, but was somewhat less successful in ‘Leccino’ (61%). When flowering occurred, the predicted flowering date was within ± 7 days of the observed date in 71% of the cases. Overall, the model results indicate that cultivar-specific simulation models may be used as an approximate tool to predict whether individual cultivars will be successful in new growing areas. In Northwest Argentina, the model could be used to identify cultivars to replace ‘Frantoio’ and ‘Leccino’ and to simulate global warming scenarios. (Author)

  16. Generation of baroclinic topographic waves by a tropical cyclone impacting a low-latitude continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S.; Morey, Steven L.; O'Brien, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Numerical model experiments have been performed to analyze the low-latitude baroclinic continental shelf response to a tropical cyclone. The theory of coastally trapped waves suggests that, provided appropriate slope, latitude, stratification and wind stress, bottom-intensified topographic Rossby waves can be generated by the storm. Based on a scale analysis, the Nicaragua Shelf is chosen to study propagating topographic waves excited by a storm, and a model domain is configured with simplified but similar geometry. The model is forced with wind stress representative of a hurricane translating slowly over the region at 6 km h -1. Scale analysis leads to the assumption that baroclinic Kelvin wave modes have minimal effect on the low-frequency wave motions along the slope, and coastal-trapped waves are restricted to topographic Rossby waves. Analysis of the simulated motions suggests that the shallow part of the continental slope is under the influence of barotropic topographic wave motions and at the deeper part of the slope baroclinic topographic Rossby waves dominate the low-frequency motions. Numerical solutions are in a good agreement with theoretical scale analysis. Characteristics of the simulated baroclinic waves are calculated based on linear theory of bottom-intensified topographic Rossby waves. Simulated waves have periods ranging from 153 to 203 h. The length scale of the waves is from 59 to 87 km. Analysis of energy fluxes for a fixed volume on the slope reveals predominantly along-isobath energy propagation in the direction of the group velocity of a topographic Rossby wave. Another model experiment forced with a faster translating hurricane demonstrates that fast moving tropical cyclones do not excite energetic baroclinic topographic Rossby waves. Instead, robust inertial oscillations are identified over the slope.

  17. Magnetospheric Ion Evolution Across the Low-Latitude Boundary Layer Separatrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, S. K.; Fuselier, S. A.; Trattner, K. J.; Burch, J. L.; Allen, R. C.; Petrinec, S. M.; Anderson, B. J.; Webster, J. M.; Ergun, R. E.; Giles, B. L.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-10-01

    On 20 September 2015, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft crossed the dusk magnetopause after a compression of the magnetosphere. Enhanced densities and fluxes of both colder (≤10 eV) and hotter (>1 keV) magnetospheric and magnetosheath heavy ion species were observed reaching the magnetopause. The evolution of the velocity distributions for H+, He+, and O+ measured by the Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer on MMS during this magnetopause crossing is presented. In particular, this study focuses on the changes in the species' distribution functions as MMS passes from the magnetosphere through the electron edge of the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) separatrix and then into the LLBL. Two types of processes are suggested to play a role in the heating of colder magnetospheric ions across the LLBL separatrix in the region between the separatrix and the electron and ion edges of the LLBL. One mechanism leads to the formation and enhancement of ring distributions in this layer of the LLBL as the magnetospheric ions propagate across the separatrix. A second mechanism leading first to perpendicular heating and then to parallel heating of colder protons may arise from a possible two-stream instability as the magnetospheric ions first encounter the warmer magnetosheath electrons in the electron layer and then the warmer magnetosheath ions between the electron and ion edges of the LLBL separatrix. Perpendicular heating of He+ and O+ is seen more so in the main reconnection exhaust, due to nonadiabatic behavior of these ions as they are accelerated up to the bulk flow speed.

  18. Feasibility of precise navigation in high and low latitude regions under scintillation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, José Miguel; Sanz, Jaume; González-Casado, Guillermo; Rovira-Garcia, Adrià; Camps, Adriano; Riba, Jaume; Barbosa, José; Blanch, Estefania; Altadill, David; Orus, Raul

    2018-02-01

    Scintillation is one of the most challenging problems in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) navigation. This phenomenon appears when the radio signal passes through ionospheric irregularities. These irregularities represent rapid changes on the refraction index and, depending on their size, they can produce also diffractive effects affecting the signal amplitude and, eventually producing cycle slips. In this work, we show that the scintillation effects on the GNSS signal are quite different in low and high latitudes. For low latitude receivers, the main effects, from the point of view of precise navigation, are the increase of the carrier phase noise (measured by σϕ) and the fade on the signal intensity (measured by S4) that can produce cycle slips in the GNSS signal. With several examples, we show that the detection of these cycle slips is the most challenging problem for precise navigation, in such a way that, if these cycle slips are detected, precise navigation can be achieved in these regions under scintillation conditions. For high-latitude receivers the situation differs. In this region the size of the irregularities is typically larger than the Fresnel length, so the main effects are related with the fast change on the refractive index associated to the fast movement of the irregularities (which can reach velocities up to several km/s). Consequently, the main effect on the GNSS signals is a fast fluctuation of the carrier phase (large σϕ), but with a moderate fade in the amplitude (moderate S4). Therefore, as shown through several examples, fluctuations at high-latitude usually do not produce cycle slips, being the effect quite limited on the ionosphere-free combination and, in general, precise navigation can be achieved also during strong scintillation conditions.

  19. Low latitude ice core evidence for dust deposition on high altitude glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, P.; Thompson, L. G.

    2017-12-01

    Polar ice cores from Antarctica and Greenland have provided a wealth of information on dust emission, transport and deposition over glacial to interglacial timescales. These ice cores mainly entrap dust transported long distances from source areas such as Asia for Greenland and South America for Antarctica. Thus, these dust records provide paleo-information about the environmental conditions at the source and the strength/pathways of atmospheric circulation at continental scales. Ice cores have also been extracted from high altitude glaciers in the mid- and low-latitudes and provide dust records generally extending back several centuries and in a few cases back to the last glacial period. For these glaciers the potential sources of dust emission include areas that are close or adjacent to the drilling site which facilitates the potential for a strong imprinting of local dust in the records. In addition, only a few high altitude glaciers allow the reconstruction of past snow accumulation and hence the expression of the dust records in terms of fluxes. Due to their extreme elevation, a few of these high altitude ice cores offer dust histories with the potential to record environmental conditions at remote sources. Dust records (in terms of dust concentration/size, crustal trace elements and terrigenous cations) from Africa, the European Alps, South America and the Himalayas are examined over the last millennium. The interplay of the seasonal atmospheric circulation (e.g. westerlies, monsoons and vertical convection) is shown to play a major role in determining the intensity and origin of dust fallout to the high altitude glaciers around the world.

  20. Statistical evaluation of GLONASS amplitude scintillation over low latitudes in the Brazilian territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Moraes, Alison; Muella, Marcio T. A. H.; de Paula, Eurico R.; de Oliveira, César B. A.; Terra, William P.; Perrella, Waldecir J.; Meibach-Rosa, Pâmela R. P.

    2018-04-01

    The ionospheric scintillation, generated by the ionospheric plasma irregularities, affects the radio signals that pass through it. Their effects are widely studied in the literature with two different approaches. The first one deals with the use of radio signals to study and understand the morphology of this phenomenon, while the second one seeks to understand and model how much this phenomenon interferes in the radio signals and consequently in the services to which these systems work. The interest of several areas, particularly to those that are life critical, has increased using the concept of satellite multi-constellation, which consists of receiving, processing and using data from different navigation and positioning systems. Although there is a vast literature analyzing the effects of ionospheric scintillation on satellite navigation systems, the number of studies using signals received from the Russian satellite positioning system (named GLONASS) is still very rare. This work presents for the first time in the Brazilian low-latitude sector a statistical analysis of ionospheric scintillation data for all levels of magnetic activities obtained by a set of scintillation monitors that receive signals from the GLONASS system. In this study, data collected from four stations were used in the analysis; Fortaleza, Presidente Prudente, São José dos Campos and Porto Alegre. The GLONASS L-band signals were analyzed for the period from December 21, 2012 to June 20, 2016, which includes the peak of the solar cycle 24 that occurred in 2014. The main characteristics of scintillation presented in this study include: (1) the statistical evaluation of seasonal and solar activity, showing the chances that an user on similar geophysical conditions may be susceptible to the effects of ionospheric scintillation; (2) a temporal analysis based on the local time distribution of scintillation at different seasons and intensity levels; and (3) the evaluation of number of

  1. CONSTRAINING THE DISTRIBUTION OF DARK MATTER IN THE INNER GALAXY WITH AN INDIRECT DETECTION SIGNAL: THE CASE OF A TENTATIVE 130 GeV γ-RAY LINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ruizhi; Feng Lei; Li Xiang; Fan Yizhong

    2013-01-01

    Dark matter distribution in the very inner region of our Galaxy is still debated. In N-body simulations, a cuspy dark matter halo density profile is favored. Several dissipative baryonic processes, however, are found to be able to significantly flatten dark matter distribution, and a cored dark matter halo density profile is possible. Baryons dominate the gravitational potential in the inner Galaxy, hence a direct constraint on the abundance of dark matter particles is rather challenging. Recently, a few groups have identified a tentative 130 GeV line signal in the Galactic center, which could be interpreted as the signal of dark matter annihilation. Using current 130 GeV line data and adopting the generalized Navarro-Frenk-White profile of the dark matter halo—local dark matter density ρ 0 = 0.4 GeV cm –3 and r s = 20 kpc—we obtain a 95% confidence level lower (upper) limit on the inner slope of dark matter density distribution, α = 1.06 (the cross section of dark matter annihilation into γ-rays (σv) χχ →γ γ = 1.3 × 10 –27 cm 3 s –1 ). Such a slope is consistent with the results of some N-body simulations and, if the signal is due to dark matter, suggests that baryonic processes may be unimportant.

  2. A cusp catastrophe model of mid-long-term landslide evolution over low latitude highlands of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yun; Cao, Jie; Hu, Jinming; Dai, Zhicheng

    2013-04-01

    Based on a model describing a certain landslide case and catastrophe theory, we derived a cusp catastrophe model and corresponding inversion method to study mid-long-term landslide evolution. According to data of landslides, precipitation, and socioeconomic development from 1976 to 2008, the cusp catastrophe model describing this landslide evolution across a low-latitude highland area in China is obtained with the least squares method. Results of the model indicate that human activity determines landslide intensity. Local precipitation also impacts yearly landslide intensity to some extent, and controls the time when a strong and abrupt change in landslides occurs. During the period 1976-2008, there was an abrupt decrease of landslide intensity during 1994-1995, and an abrupt increase during 1995-1996. Since then, there have been frequent landslides in the low-latitude highland, with greater intensity. All these factors provide a scientific basis for formulating a contingency plan regarding landslide disasters.

  3. How to Recognize and Distinguish Low-Latitude Ionospheric Storms Disturbances Produced by TIDs or PPEFs During Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, P. R.; Ribeiro, B. A.; Kavutarapu, V.; Fejer, B. G.; Pillat, V. G.

    2016-12-01

    The effects of geomagnetic storms on ionosphere are one of the important aspects of the space weather and identifying the possible sources of these perturbations is important. Among the possible sources of ionospheric perturbations, the Travelling Ionospheric Disturbance (TID) and Prompt Penetration Electric Field (PPEF) are the most important. In this study, we present and discuss the ionospheric response in the Brazilian sector due to geomagnetic storms occurred during January 2013 and March 2015. These space weather events were investigated using a network of 100 GPS-TEC stations. It has been noticed that the VTEC was disturbed during main phase in both storms. During the first event (January), a positive ionospheric storm peak in TEC is observed first beyond the EIA crest and sometime later at low-latitude and equatorial region. This delayed response at different latitudes could be a signature of TID propagation. In this specific event a TID propagating to northwest direction with a velocity of about 200 m/s. However, during the second event (March), 3 positive ionospheric storm peaks were observed in the VTEC from equator to low latitudes during the storm main phase, but these 3 peaks do not present wave propagation characteristics. Probably, an eastward electric field penetrated at equatorial and low-latitude regions uplifts the F-region where the recombination rates are lower leading to a positive ionospheric storm. To distinguish if the positive ionospheric storm was produced by TID or PPEF, it is important to observe the positive ionospheric storm changes along the meridional direction. In case of TIDs, a meridional propagation of the disturbance wave with a phase and speed will be observed. Therefore, the perturbation occurs first beyond the EIA crest and sometime later at the low latitudes and finally at the equatorial region. In case of PPEF the positive ionospheric storm takes place almost simultaneously from beyond the EIA crest to equatorial region.

  4. Potential impacts of wintertime soil moisture anomalies from agricultural irrigation at low latitudes on regional and global climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Hao-Wei; Lo, Min-Hui; Lee, Shih-Yu; Yu, Jin-Yi; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2015-10-01

    Anthropogenic water management can change surface energy budgets and the water cycle. In this study, we focused on impacts of Asian low-latitude irrigation on regional and global climates during boreal wintertime. A state-of-the-art Earth system model is used to simulate the land-air interaction processes affected by irrigation and the consequent responses in atmospheric circulation. Perturbed experiments show that wet soil moisture anomalies at low latitudes can reduce the surface temperature on a continental scale through atmospheric feedback. The intensity of prevailing monsoon circulation becomes stronger because of larger land-sea thermal contrast. Furthermore, anomalous upper level convergence over South Asia and midlatitude climatic changes indicate tropical-extratropical teleconnections. The wintertime Aleutian low is deepened and an anomalous warm surface temperature is found in North America. Previous studies have noted this warming but left it unexplained, and we provide plausible mechanisms for these remote impacts coming from the irrigation over Asian low-latitude regions.

  5. Evidence for GeV cosmic rays from white dwarfs in the local cosmic ray spectra and in the gamma-ray emissivity of the inner Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Makishima, Kazuo; Shibata, Shinpei; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2018-02-01

    Recent observations found that electrons are accelerated to ˜10 GeV and emit synchrotron hard X-rays in two magnetic white dwarfs (WDs), also known as cataclysmic variables (CVs). In nova outbursts of WDs, multi-GeV gamma-rays were detected, implying that protons are accelerated to 100 GeV or higher. In recent optical surveys, the WD density is found to be higher near the Sun than in the Galactic disk by a factor ˜2.5. The cosmic rays (CRs) produced by local CVs and novae will accumulate in the local bubble for 106-107 yr. On these findings, we search for CRs from historic CVs and novae in the observed CR spectra. We model the CR spectra at the heliopause as sums of Galactic and local components based on observational data as much as possible. The initial Galactic CR electron and proton spectra are deduced from the gamma-ray emissivity, the local electron spectrum from the hard X-ray spectra at the CVs, and the local proton spectrum from gamma-ray spectra at novae. These spectral shapes are then expressed in a simple set of polynomial functions of CR energy and regressively fitted until the high-energy (>100 GeV) CR spectra near Earth and the Voyager-1 spectra at the heliopause are reproduced. We then extend the modeling to nuclear CR spectra and find that one spectral shape fits all local nuclear CRs, and that the apparent hardening of the nuclear CR spectra is caused by the roll-down of local nuclear spectra around 100-200 GeV. All local CR spectra populate a limited energy band below 100-200 GeV and enhance gamma-ray emissivity below ˜10 GeV. Such an enhancement is observed in the inner Galaxy, suggesting the CR fluxes from CVs and novae are substantially higher there.

  6. Large enhancements in low latitude total electron content during 15 May 2005 geomagnetic storm in Indian zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dashora

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Results pertaining to the response of the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere to a major geomagnetic storm that occurred on 15 May 2005 are presented. These results are also the first from the Indian zone in terms of (i GPS derived total electron content (TEC variations following the storm (ii Local low latitude electrodynamics response to penetration of high latitude convection electric field (iii effect of storm induced traveling atmospheric disturbances (TAD's on GPS-TEC in equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA zone.

    Data set comprising of ionospheric TEC obtained from GPS measurements, ionograms from an EIA zone station, New Delhi (Geog. Lat. 28.42° N, Geog. Long. 77.21° E, ground based magnetometers in equatorial and low latitude stations and solar wind data obtained from Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE has been used in the present study. GPS receivers located at Udaipur (Geog. Lat. 24.73° N, Geog. Long. 73.73° E and Hyderabad (Geog. Lat. 17.33° N, Geog. Long. 78.47° E have been used for wider spatial coverage in the Indian zone. Storm induced features in vertical TEC (VTEC have been obtained comparing them with the mean VTEC of quiet days. Variations in solar wind parameters, as obtained from ACE and in the SYM-H index, indicate that the storm commenced on 15 May 2005 at 02:39 UT. The main phase of the storm commenced at 06:00 UT on 15 May with a sudden southward turning of the Z-component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz and subsequent decrease in SYM-H index. The dawn-to-dusk convection electric field of high latitude origin penetrated to low and equatorial latitudes simultaneously as corroborated by the magnetometer data from the Indian zone. Subsequent northward turning of the IMF-Bz, and the penetration of the dusk-to-dawn electric field over the dip equator is also discernible. Response of the low latitude ionosphere to this storm may be characterized in terms of (i

  7. Equatorial and Low-Latitude Ionospheric Response to the Extreme Space Weather Event of March 2015, in the Brazilian Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, P. R.; Cardoso, F. A.; Fejer, B. G.; Kavutarapu, V.; Ribeiro, B. A.; Pillat, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    Fagundes PR, Cardoso FA and Venkatesh KPhysics and Astronomy Laboratory, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil In the present investigation we discuss the results on the response of the ionosphere (F-region) in the Brazilian sector, during extreme space weather event of March 2015. This geomagnetic storm has been considered as one of strongest storms in the solar cycle 24 where, the Dst index reached a minimum of -227 nT at 23:00 UT (17/03/2015) with KP reaching to 8-, and the monthly mean F10.7 solar flux was 125 sfu. This space weather event was studied using a large network of 110 GPS stations. It has been noticed that the Total Electron Content (TEC) was severely disturbed during the geomagnetic storm main and recovery phases. A wavelike oscillation with three peaks is observed from equator to low latitudes during the storm main phase on 17th and 18th March, 2015. Using a latitudinal chain of 8 GPS stations from equatorial region to low latitudes the storm time behavior of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) is investigated. It was noticed that the wavelike oscillation peak latitudinal extent decreases from the beginning of main phase to the recovery phase. The first maximum extends beyond from 2oS to 20oS, the second one from 8oS to 18oS and the third one from 13oS to 17oS. In addition, a strong negative phase in TEC variations is observed during the recovery phase on March 18, 2015. This negative phase is found to be stronger at low-latitude compared to the equatorial region. An anomalous behavior of EIA caused by the wavelike oscillations is observed during the main phase on March 17, 2015. Also, due to the strong negative phase in TEC resulted in strong EIA suppression on March 18, 2015.

  8. Case study on total electron content enhancements at low latitudes during low geomagnetic activities before the storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo Liu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes the ionospheric total electron content (TEC is significantly enhanced during low geomagnetic activities before storms. In this article, we investigate the characteristics of those interesting TEC enhancements using regional and global TEC data. We analyzed the low-latitude TEC enhancement events that occurred around longitude 120° E on 10 February 2004, 21 January 2004, and 4 March 2001, respectively. The TEC data are derived from regional Global Positioning System (GPS observations in the Asia/Australia sector as well as global ionospheric maps (GIMs produced by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL. Strong enhancements under low geomagnetic activity before the storms are simultaneously presented at low latitudes in the Asia/Australia sector in regional TEC and JPL GIMs. These TEC enhancements are shown to be regional events with longitudinal and latitudinal extent. The regions of TEC enhancements during these events are confined at narrow longitude ranges around longitude 120° E. The latitudinal belts of maxima of enhancements locate around the northern and southern equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA crests, which are consistent with those low-latitude events presented by Liu et al. (2008. During the 4 March 2001 event, the total plasma density Ni observed by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP spacecraft F13 at 840 km altitude are of considerably higher values on 4 March than on the previous day in the TEC enhanced regions. Some TEC enhancement events are possibly due to contributions from auroral/magnetospheric origins; while there are also quasi-periodic enhancement events not related to geomagnetic activity and associated probably with planetary wave type oscillations (e.g. the 6 January 1998 event. Further investigation is warrented to identify/separate contributions from possible sources.

  9. The low-latitude boundary layer at mid-altitiudes: Relation to large-scale Birkeland currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woch, J.; Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R.; Potemra, T.A.; Zanetti, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    In this work the authors seek to test a projected relationship between the low latitude boundary layer (LLBL) and field aligned currents (FAC), or Birkeland currents. They use the procedure developed by Woch and Lundin for identifying LLBL boundaries. They look for correlations between properties of the FAC and properties of the LLBL. Their results show that in most cases the FAC observed are totally inside the region which exhibits LLBL plasma precipitation. The authors argue that within the biases to their data because of its source, and relative sensitivities, their conclusions support earlier work which argues for the LLBL acting as a source region for FAC features

  10. Common origin of positive ionospheric storms at middle latitudes and the geomagnetic activity effect at low latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proelss, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    The author looks for a correlation between two different atmospheric effects. They are a positive atmospheric storm (an anomalous increase in the F2 region ionization density), observed at middle latitudes, and the geomagnetic activity effect (the anomalous changes of temperature and gas density seen in the thermosphere), observed at low latitudes. A temporal correlation is sought to test the argument that both of these effects are the result of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TAD). A TAD is a pulselike atmospheric wave thought to be generated by substorm activity, and to propagate with high velocity (600 m/s) from polar latitudes toward equatorial latitudes. The author looks at data from five separate events correlating magnetic, ionospheric, and neutral atmospheric measurements. The conclusion is that there is a positive correlation between magnetic substorm activity at high latitudes, and positive ionospheric storms at middle latitudes and geomagnetic activity at low latitudes. The time correlations are consistent with high propagation speeds between these events. The author also presents arguments which indicate that the middle latitude positive ionospheric storms are not the result of electric field effects

  11. Comparative study on the ionospheric response to minor and major sudden stratospheric events in the Brazilian equatorial and low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Kavutarapu, Venkatesh; Gil Pillat, Valdir; Vieira, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The Total electron Content (TEC), derivate from GPS, becomes one of the most powerful techniques to study the space-time ionospheric (F-region) electrodynamics, during the quiet and disturbed periods. The number of GPS stations in Brazil increased significantly during the last few years; currently more than 100 GPS stations are in operation over the Brazilian region. The GPS-TEC values are derived using the differential delay technique from the dual frequency measurements at L1 and L2 frequencies over the considered locations at equatorial and low latitudes. The present study investigates the ionospheric total electron content (GPS-TEC) response in the Southern Hemisphere equatorial and low latitudes, due to major and minor sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events, which took place during 2009 and 2012. During both the SSW events, the TEC values are depleted to the order of 20-30% all over the Brazil from equator to beyond Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) regions. In addition, the EIA were suppressed during the SSW events for several days. However, the TEC depletion and EIA suppression lasted for a longer period during SSW-2012 when compared with the SSW-2009; despite the SSW-2012 is considerd as a minor event.

  12. Climatology of the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere over Brazil during solar minimum of solar cycle 23/24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli Candido, C. M.; Batista, I. S.; Santos, A.

    2012-12-01

    We present a study of the Brazilian equatorial and low latitude ionosphere during the solar minimum of the solar cycle 23 and the initial phase of solar cycle 24. We analyzed data from ground-based sounding with digisondes at two equatorial sites, São Luís (44.2° W, 2.33° S, dip angle: -6.9°) and Fortaleza (38.45°W, 3.9° S, dip angle: -16°) and at a low latitude site Cachoeira Paulista (22.4° S, 45° W, dip angle: -37°). The plasma densities and the F-layer heights presented values lower than the previous solar minimum of solar cycle 22/23. The spread-F occurrence was investigated and revealed some distinct features such as the occurrence of abnormal spread-F signatures in ionograms associated with post-midnight irregularities. In the equatorial region, it was observed significant decreases in the plasma densities during nighttime hours lasting for several hours with no-echoes in ionograms. We present a statistic study of the plasma irregularities occurrence as well as some examples of unusual signatures of spread-F/plasma irregularities observed in ionograms.

  13. Theoretical simulation of O+ and H+ densities in the Indian low latitude F-region and comparison with observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Singh

    Full Text Available The O+ and H+ ion density distributions in the Indian low latitude F-region, within ± 15° magnetic latitudes, are simulated using a time dependent model developed on the basis of solution of the plasma continuity equation. The simulated ion densities for solar minimum June and December solstices are then compared with ionosonde observations from the period 1959–1979 and measurements made by the Indian SROSS C2 satellite during 1995–1996 at an altitude of ~ 500 km. The simulated O+ density has a minimum around pre-sunrise hours and a maximum during noontime. H+ density is higher at nighttime and lower during the day. The simulations reproduced the well-known equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA observed in electron density at the peak of the F2-region in the Indian low latitude sector during solar minimum. In situ measurement of O+ density by the SROSS C2, however, showed a single peak of ionization around the equator.Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; modeling and forecasting

  14. "Alfa" i "Võmpel" bez maski / Andrei Sharov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sharov, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    Venemaa FSB keskuse, mille koosseisu kuuluvad ka eriüksused Alfa ja Võmpel, töötajad osalevad terroristide neutraliseerimise ja pantvangide vabastamise erioperatsioonides. Intervjuu keskuse staabi uue juhiga

  15. In situ measurements of sub-meter plasma waves over low-latitude ionosphere during Leonid-99 meteor storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Gupta

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In situ probe measurements of plasma parameters were carried out on 18 and 20 November 1999 from Sriharikota, India, a low-latitude rocket launching station to investigate the effect of a Leonid meteor storm. Results obtained on plasma waves using a high frequency Langmuir probe are discussed. The characteristics of the sub-meter scale size plasma waves observed for the first time during Leonid meteor storm are presented. Based on the results obtained from both the rocket flights and comparison with the results obtained from previous rocket flights from the same location, it appears these sub-meter waves are associated with intense meteoric activity. A possible mechanism based on the dependence of the meteoric activity and its limitations are discussed.

  16. Low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations at low latitude during the passage of a higher pressure solar wind region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The passage of a higher pressure solar wind region at the Earth's orbit marked the onset of low latitude (L=1.6 fluctuations in the frequency range (0.8–5.5 mHz for both the horizontal geomagnetic field components. Spectral peaks mostly occur at the same frequencies as the spectral enhancements which appeared in the long term analysis of experimental measurements from the same station and were tentatively interpreted in terms of ground signatures of global magnetospheric modes. A comparison with simultaneous observations discussed by previous investigations allows us to conclude that the same set of frequencies is enhanced in a wide portion of the Earth's magnetosphere.

  17. Reviewing the Mechanisms Underlying the Pre-reversal Enhancement of the Vertical Plasma Drift in the Low Latitude Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, J. V.; St-Maurice, J.; Schunk, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    The evening pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) of the zonal electric field and the corresponding vertical plasma drift in the low-latitude ionosphere is an important feature in determining the structure and stability of the ionosphere. There are three competing theories of the cause of the PRE; curl free response [Eccles, 1998a and Rishbeth, 1972], off-equator Hall current divergence [Farley et al., 1986]; and equatorial electrojet current divergence [Harendel and Eccles, 1992]. We review these theories of the PRE cause in the context of field-line-integrated electrodynamics model and then examine the viability of each proposed cause using simplified electrodynamics simulations. While all three physical theories are real physical processes occurring in the evening low latitude ionosphere, we demonstrate that the PRE arises primarily from a curl-free response to the rapid temporal evolution of the vertical electric field as proposed by Eccles [1998a] in support of a short comment by Rishbeth [1972] within his paper on the F region dynamo. The curl-free effect magnitude has three components: (1) the exchange of the dominance of the E region dynamo to the F region dynamo as the E region Pedersen conductivity in conjugant hemispheres decay around sunset, (2) the acceleration of the F region zonal neutral wind as the ion-neutral drag diminishes around sunset, and (3) the apex altitude range of operation of the F region dynamo current. The maximum PRE magnitude occurs at E region sunset when the integrated E region Pedersen conductivities of both hemispheres decrease to less than the integrated F region Pedersen conductivity. The mechanism proposed by Farley et al. [1986] is examined. While the off-equator gradient of the Hall currents can affect the zonal electric field near sunset, it only provides a modest adjustment to the PRE magnitude. The Farley mechanism is limited due to the slow acceleration of the zonal neutral wind prior to E region sunset. It is also

  18. Ionospheric E–F valley observed by a sounding rocket at the low-latitude station Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Shi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the sounding rocket experiment conducted at Hainan ionospheric observatory (19.5° N, 109.1° E, a valley between the E layer and F layer in the ionospheric electron density profile is observed and presented. The sounding rocket was launched in the morning (06:15 LT on 7 May 2011, and the observed electron density profile outside the valley agrees with the simultaneous observation by the DPS-4 digisonde at the same station. The width of the observed valley was about 42 km, the depth almost 50%, and the altitude of the electron density minimum 123.5 km. This is the first observation of the E–F valley in the low-latitude region in the East Asian sector. The results are also compared with models, and the physical mechanism of the observed valley is discussed in this paper.

  19. Equinoctial asymmetry of a low-latitude ionosphere-thermosphere system and equatorial irregularities: evidence for meridional wind control

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    T. Maruyama

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal ionospheric height variations were analyzed along the meridian of 100° E by using ionosonde data. Two ionosondes were installed near the magnetic conjugate points at low latitudes, and the third station was situated near the magnetic equator. Ionospheric virtual heights were scaled every 15 min and vertical E×B drift velocities were inferred from the equatorial station. By incorporating the inferred equatorial vertical drift velocity, ionospheric bottom heights with the absence of wind were modeled for the two low-latitude conjugate stations, and the deviation in heights from the model outputs was used to infer the transequatorial meridional thermospheric winds. The results obtained for the September and March equinoxes of years 2004 and 2005, respectively, were compared, and a significant difference in the meridional wind was found. An oscillation with a period of approximately 7 h of the meridional wind existed in both the equinoxes, but its amplitude was larger in September as compared to that in March. When the equatorial height reached the maximum level due to the evening enhancement of the zonal electric field, the transequatorial meridional wind velocity reached approximately 10 and 40 m/s for the March and September equinoxes, respectively. This asymmetry of the ionosphere-thermosphere system was found to be associated with the previously reported equinoctial asymmetry of equatorial ionospheric irregularities; the probability for equatorial irregularities to occur is higher in March as compared to that in September at the Indian to Western Pacific longitudes. Numerical simulations of plasma bubble developments were conducted by incorporating the transequatorial neutral wind effect, and the results showed that the growth time (e-folding time of the bubble was halved when the wind velocity changed from 10 to 40 m/s.

  20. Impact of the 15 January 2010 annular solar eclipse on the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere over the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S. K.; Gedam, S. S.; Rajaram, G.; Sripathi, S.; Bhaskar, A.

    2015-12-01

    The annular solar eclipse of 15 January 2010 over southern India was studied with a multi-instrument network consisting of magnetometer, ionosonde and GPS receivers. The presence of a counter electrojet (weakened or westward zonal electric field) during the eclipse and adjacent days suggests the strong gravitational tidal effect associated with the exceptional Sun-Moon-Earth alignment around the eclipse day. With a strong backup of magnetometer recordings on the day of eclipse, its adjacent days and the normal electrojet day, it is argued that the regular eastward electric field for the whole day at the equator was not just weakened, but actually was flipped for several hours by the influence of enhanced lunar tides. The effect of flipping the electric field was clearly seen in the equatorial ionosonde data and through the large array of GPS receivers that produced the total electron content (TEC) data. The main impact of flipping the electric field was poor feeding of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) due to the severely weakened fountain effect on the eclipse day, with the regular anomaly crest shifting towards the equator. The equatorial ionosonde profile was also showing an enhanced F2 region peak in spite of a reduced vertical TEC. While the plasma density depletion at the lower F region altitude over the equator was due to the temporary lack of photo-ionization, the reductions in high altitude plasma density beyond the equator were caused by the electrodynamics taking place around the eclipse. The important finding of this analysis is that the electrodynamical consequences on the low latitude ionosphere were mainly due to the combination of eclipse and lunar tides which were far more significant and influenced the EIA density rather than eclipse alone. Based on these findings, it is argued that the prevailing lunar tidal impact also needs to be taken into account while seeking to understand the electrodynamical impact of the solar eclipse on the low

  1. Variability of Total Electron Content at Low Latitude Region During Solar Minimum 2008: Impact of High Speed Streams, HSSs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli Candido, C. M.; Batista, I. S.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Klausner, V.

    2015-12-01

    The solar minimum period of solar cycle 23 was unusually long and quiet in comparison to other solar minima in last century. Several reports have analyzed its features and its impact under diverse points-of-view. In this work, we analyze the low latitude ionosphere behavior in Brazil and its response during this peculiar period. The ionospheric variation is analyzed through typical parameters such as vertical total electron content (VTEC), the peak height of F2 layer and its critical frequency, hmF2 and foF2, in 2008, around the southern crest of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA), in Cachoeira Paulista (22.5o S, 45.0 o W, mag. lat: 16 o S, dip angle: -32.3o) and at an equatorial station, São Luís (2.33o S, 44.2o W, dip angle: -6.7o). VTEC values present a semiannual variation pattern and two well-defined peaks in March and October. Daily maximum values are observed around 15:00 LT. It was observed periodicities observed of 9, 13.5 and 27 days in VTEC and hmF2, mainly at the first and the second half of 2008. These periods match with the observed periods in solar and geomagnetic indexes such as Vsw, Kp and AE and are associated with occurrence of high speed streams (HSS) coming from solar coronal holes. A complex response of the low latitude ionosphere is observed, with prominent increases and decreases of VTEC at daytime during the interval of occurrence of HSSs. It is suggested that a combination of several factors such as prompt penetration of electric field, disturbed dynamo electric field, meridional winds, thermal expansion of thermosphere and composition changes of neutral atmosphere are responsible for the high day-to-day variability of the ionosphere

  2. Administration of follitropin alfa and lutropin alfa combined in a single injection: a feasibility assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinetto Rita

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotrophins are routinely administered in assisted reproductive technology (ART treatment protocols. Recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH; follitropin alfa and recombinant human luteinizing hormone (r-hLH; lutropin alfa can be administered individually or in a fixed combination. The ability to vary the FSH to LH dose ratio in a single injection without compromising the bioactivity of either gonadotrophin or generating losses of active principle is important for physicians and patients alike. Methods This study investigated whether follitropin alfa (GONAL-f (R, as lyophilized powder for reconstitution or solution from the GONAL-f (R (filled-by-mass [FbM] Prefilled Pen, could be used to reconstitute Pergoveris TM (follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder. In Ratio Groups 1 and 2, the r-hFSH:r-hLH ratio was 3:1; in Ratio Groups 3 and 4, the ratios of r-hFSH:r-hLH were 5:1 and 8:1, respectively. The protein content and bioactivity of each mixed solution were evaluated. The r-hFSH and r-hLH content was determined using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The biological activity of r-hFSH and r-hLH was assessed using the Steelman-Pohley and Van Hell in vivo bioassays in rats, respectively. Results Follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder could be successfully mixed with follitropin alfa 75 IU FbM solution that was either reconstituted from lyophilized powder or injected directly from the prefilled pen to create solutions with ratios of r-hFSH and r-hLH from 3:1 to 8:1. The measured content of r-hFSH and r-hLH corresponded favourably with the target protein content in Ratio Groups 1–4. The in vivo target and measured bioactivity of r-hFSH and r-hLH were also closely matched in all Ratio Groups. Conclusion Follitropin alfa lyophilized powder or solution can be accurately mixed with follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder to

  3. Implementation of Trigger Tiles for ALFA Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rehaag, Thomas Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS (ALFA) experiment was designed to accurately measure the luminosity of the intersecting proton beams at the ATLAS interaction point [1]. However, the ALFA experiment has shifted its primary purpose from luminosity measurement to elastic and inelastic proton collisions. This change was the result of difficulty in fitting parameters in the region governed by Coulomb scattering. The operational principle for luminosity measurement with ALFA relied on detecting elastic proton collisions, so the detector is suited to its role in proton collision measurements. The ALFA detector consists of several sensitive components, including the main detector (MD), overlap detectors (ODs) and trigger tiles. A diagram of the ALFA detector is shown in Figure 1. The main detector is composed of layers of 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 cross section scintillating fibres with an active area of 0.48 × 0.48 mm2, which are directed diagonally across the detector with 64 fibres in each layer. The 20 total layers ar...

  4. Interferon alfa with or without ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, L L; Krogsgaard, K; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of interferon alfa with or without ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C.......To assess the efficacy and safety of interferon alfa with or without ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C....

  5. Low frequency modulation of transionospheric radio wave amplitude at low-latitudes: possible role of field line oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Sinha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric scintillations of radio waves at low-latitudes are associated with electron density irregularities. These irregularities are field-aligned and can provide excitation energy all along the field line to non-local field-aligned oscillations, such as the local field line oscillations. Eigen-periods of toroidal field line oscillations at low-latitudes, computed by using the dipole magnetic field and ion distributions obtained from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI for typical nighttime conditions, fall in the range of 20–25 s. When subjected to spectral analysis, signal strength of the radio waves recorded on the 250 MHz beacon at Pondicherry (4.5° N dip, Mumbai (13.4° N dip and Ujjain (18.6° N dip exhibit periodicities in the same range. For the single event for which simultaneous ground magnetic data were available, the geomagnetic field also oscillated at the same periodicity. The systematic presence of a significant peak in the 20–25 s range during periods of strong radio wave scintillations, and its absence otherwise suggests the possibility that field line oscillations are endogenously excited by the irregularities, and the oscillations associated with the excited field line generate the modulation characteristics of the radio waves received on the ground. The frequency of modulation is found to be much lower than the characteristic frequencies that define the main body of scintillations, and they probably correspond to scales that are much larger than the typical Fresnel scale. It is possible that the refractive mechanism associated with larger scale long-lived irregularities could be responsible for the observed phenomenon. Results of a preliminary numerical experiment that uses a sinusoidal phase irregularity in the ionosphere as a refracting media are presented. The results show that phase variations which are large enough to produce a focal plane close to the ground can reproduce features that are not

  6. Low frequency modulation of transionospheric radio wave amplitude at low-latitudes: possible role of field line oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Sinha

    Full Text Available Ionospheric scintillations of radio waves at low-latitudes are associated with electron density irregularities. These irregularities are field-aligned and can provide excitation energy all along the field line to non-local field-aligned oscillations, such as the local field line oscillations. Eigen-periods of toroidal field line oscillations at low-latitudes, computed by using the dipole magnetic field and ion distributions obtained from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI for typical nighttime conditions, fall in the range of 20–25 s. When subjected to spectral analysis, signal strength of the radio waves recorded on the 250 MHz beacon at Pondicherry (4.5° N dip, Mumbai (13.4° N dip and Ujjain (18.6° N dip exhibit periodicities in the same range. For the single event for which simultaneous ground magnetic data were available, the geomagnetic field also oscillated at the same periodicity. The systematic presence of a significant peak in the 20–25 s range during periods of strong radio wave scintillations, and its absence otherwise suggests the possibility that field line oscillations are endogenously excited by the irregularities, and the oscillations associated with the excited field line generate the modulation characteristics of the radio waves received on the ground. The frequency of modulation is found to be much lower than the characteristic frequencies that define the main body of scintillations, and they probably correspond to scales that are much larger than the typical Fresnel scale. It is possible that the refractive mechanism associated with larger scale long-lived irregularities could be responsible for the observed phenomenon. Results of a preliminary numerical experiment that uses a sinusoidal phase irregularity in the ionosphere as a refracting media are presented. The results show that phase variations which are large enough to produce a focal plane close to the ground can reproduce features that are not

  7. OPPORTUNITIES OF DORNASE ALFA IN PEDIATRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Simonova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Early treatment with Pulmozyme (dornase alfa and its prolonged use in combination with basis therapy results in decrease of exacerbation rate, prolongation of remission of bronchopulmonary process with normal ventilation functions of lungs and gives patients with cystic fibrosis an opportunity to live an active life. The drug is effective as a conservative treatment of chronic sinusitis polyposis; it’s frequent complication of cystic fibrosis. Dornase alfa has 3 clinical effects: strong mucolytic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effect. That is the reason for the treatment of other chronic bronchopulmonary diseases with this drug. Efficacy of dornase alpha depends on rough maintenance of the terms of drug use.Key words: children, dornase alfa, cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchopulmonary diseases, chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, nebulizer therapy.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 145–152

  8. Field-aligned current associated with low-latitude plasma blobs as observed by the CHAMP satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we give two examples of low-latitude plasma blobs accompanied by linearly polarized perpendicular magnetic deflections which imply that associated field-aligned currents (FACs have a 2-D sheet structure located at the blob walls. The estimated FAC density is of the order of 0.1 μA/m2. The direction of magnetic deflections points westward of the magnetic meridian and there is a linear correlation between perpendicular and parallel variations. All these properties are similar to those of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs. According to CHAMP observations from August 2000 to July 2004, blobs show except for these two good examples no clear signatures of 2-D FAC sheets at the walls. Generally, perpendicular magnetic deflections inside blobs are weaker than inside EPBs on average. Our results are consistent with existing theories: if a blob exists, (1 a significant part of EPB FAC will be closed through it, exhibiting similar perpendicular magnetic deflection inside EPBs and blobs, (2 the FAC closure through blobs leads to smaller perpendicular magnetic deflection at its poleward/downward side, and (3 superposition of different FAC elements might result in a complex magnetic signature around blobs.

  9. Short- and Long-Timescale Thermospheric Variability as Observed from OI 630.0 nm Dayglow Emissions from Low Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallamraju, Duggirala; Das, Uma; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2011-01-01

    We carried out high-cadence (5 min) and high-spatial resolution (2deg magnetic latitude) observations of daytime OI 630.0 nm airglow emission brightness from a low-latitude station to understand the behavior of neutral dynamics in the daytime. The results indicate that the wave periodicities of 12.20 min, and 2 h exist over a wide spatial range of around 8deg-12deg magnetic latitudes. The 20.80 min periodicities in the dayglow seem to appear more often in the measurements closer to the magnetic equator and not at latitudes farther away. Further, periodicities in that range are found to be frequent in the variations of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) strength as well. We show that wave periodicities due to the neutral dynamics, at least until around 8deg magnetic latitude, are influenced by those that affect the EEJ strength variation as well. Furthermore, the average daily OI 630.0 nm emission brightness over 3 months varied in consonance with that of the sunspot numbers indicating a strong solar influence on the magnitudes of dayglow emissions.

  10. Features of TEC behaviour over the low-latitude North-American region during the period of medium solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, M. A.; Maltseva, O. A.; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; De la Luz, V.; Corona-Romero, P.

    2017-10-01

    The study is focused on Total Electron Content (TEC) behavior in low-latitude North-American region within the twelve-year period from 2005 to 2016. The obtained systematic (regular) TEC variations (diurnal, seasonal patterns) conform to the known tendencies described by climatological TEC models. TEC variations during disturbances have a number of distinctive features. The majority of positive TEC enhancements occur already with Dst Dst-index minimum value. Almost all cases of day-time TEC disturbances are accompanied by night-time disturbances with the possibility of relative night-time deviations being larger that is confirmed by data of low-orbit satellites CHAMP and DMSP. The simultaneity of changes of critical frequencies of the ionosphere with changes of TEC during disturbances was observed at Ramey (Puerto Rico) and Eglin (U.S.A.) stations when ionosonde data was available. This proves that TEC reflects the character of ionospheric disturbances. Spatial non-synchronism of TEC change that was sometimes observed can be explained by local character of the area covered with positive TEC disturbance. It was shown the potential provided by local GNSS networks for the detailed analysis of TEC variations over the considered region and estimation of the ionosphere state in near-real time.

  11. Projected changes of the low-latitude north-western Pacific wind-driven circulation under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jing; Chen, Zhaohui; Wu, Lixin

    2017-05-01

    Based on the outputs of 25 models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, the projected changes of the wind-driven circulation in the low-latitude north-western Pacific are evaluated. Results demonstrate that there will be a decrease in the mean transport of the North Equatorial Current (NEC), Mindanao Current, and Kuroshio Current in the east of the Philippines, accompanied by a northward shift of the NEC bifurcation Latitude (NBL) off the Philippine coast with over 30% increase in its seasonal south-north migration amplitude. Numerical simulations using a 1.5-layer nonlinear reduced-gravity ocean model show that the projected changes of the upper ocean circulation are predominantly determined by the robust weakening of the north-easterly trade winds and the associated wind stress curl under the El Niño-like warming pattern. The changes in the wind forcing and intensified upper ocean stratification are found equally important in amplifying the seasonal migration of the NBL.

  12. Effect of equatorial electrodynamics on low-latitude thermosphere as inferred from neutral optical dayglow emission observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, D. K.; Duggirala, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    The diurnal variations in daytime airglow emission intensity measurements at three wavelengths OI 777.4 nm, OI 630.0 nm, and OI 557.7 nm made from a low-latitude location, Hyderabad (Geographic 17.50 N, 78.40 E; 8.90 N Mag. Lat) in India have been investigated. The intensity patterns showed both symmetric and asymmetric behavior in their respective diurnal emission variability with respect to local noon. The asymmetric diurnal behavior is not expected considering the photochemical nature of the production mechanisms. The reason for this observed asymmetric diurnal behavior has been found to be predominantly the temporal variation in the equatorial electrodynamics. The plasma that is transported across latitudes due to the action of varying electric field strength over the magnetic equator in the daytime contributes to the asymmetric diurnal behavior in the neutral daytime airglow emissions. Independent magnetic and radio measurements support this finding. It is also noted that this asymmetric diurnal behavior in the neutral emission intensities has a solar cycle dependence with more number of days during high solar activity period showing asymmetric diurnal behavior compared to those during low-solar activity epoch. These intensity variations over long time scale demonstrate that the daytime neutral optical emissions are extremely sensitive to the changes in the eastward electric field over low- and equatorial-latitudes.

  13. Performance evaluation of linear time-series ionospheric Total Electron Content model over low latitude Indian GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbakuti, J. R. K. Kumar; Venkata Ratnam, D.

    2017-10-01

    Precise modeling of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is a critical aspect of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) services intended for the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications as well as Earth Observation System (EOS), satellite communication, and space weather forecasting applications. In this paper, linear time series modeling has been carried out on ionospheric TEC at two different locations at Koneru Lakshmaiah University (KLU), Guntur (geographic 16.44° N, 80.62° E; geomagnetic 7.55° N) and Bangalore (geographic 12.97° N, 77.59° E; geomagnetic 4.53° N) at the northern low-latitude region, for the year 2013 in the 24th solar cycle. The impact of the solar and geomagnetic activity on periodic oscillations of TEC has been investigated. Results confirm that the correlation coefficient of the estimated TEC from the linear model TEC and the observed GPS-TEC is around 93%. Solar activity is the key component that influences ionospheric daily averaged TEC while periodic component reveals the seasonal dependency of TEC. Furthermore, it is observed that the influence of geomagnetic activity component on TEC is different at both the latitudes. The accuracy of the model has been assessed by comparing the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model TEC and TEC measurements. Moreover, the absence of winter anomaly is remarkable, as determined by the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the linear model TEC and GPS-TEC. On the contrary, the IRI2012 model TEC evidently failed to predict the absence of winter anomaly in the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) crest region. The outcome of this work will be useful for improving the ionospheric now-casting models under various geophysical conditions.

  14. Geomagnetic storm effects on the occurrences of ionospheric irregularities over the African equatorial/low-latitude region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, P. O.; Oyeyemi, E. O.; Akala, A. O.

    2018-04-01

    The study investigated the effects of intense geomagnetic storms of 2015 on the occurrences of large scale ionospheric irregularities over the African equatorial/low-latitude region. Four major/intense geomagnetic storms of 2015 were analyzed for this study. These storms occurred on 17th March 2015 (-229 nT), 22nd June 2015 (-204 nT), 7th October 2015 (-124 nT), and 20th December 2015 (-170 nT). Total Electron Content (TEC) data obtained from five African Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) stations, grouped into eastern and western sectors were used to derive the ionospheric irregularities proxy indices, e.g., rate of change of TEC (ROT), ROT index (ROTI) and ROTI daily average (ROTIAVE). These indices were characterized alongside with the disturbance storm time (Dst), the Y component of the Interplanetary Electric Field (IEFy), polar cap (PC) index and the H component of the Earth's magnetic field from ground-based magnetometers. Irregularities manifested in the form of fluctuations in TEC. Prompt penetration of electric field (PPEF) and disturbance dynamo electric field (DDEF) modulated the behaviour of irregularities during the main and recovery phases of the geomagnetic storms. The effect of electric field over both sectors depends on the local time of southward turning of IMF Bz. Consequently, westward electric field inhibited irregularities during the main phase of March and October 2015 geomagnetic storms, while for the June 2015 storm, eastward electric field triggered weak irregularities over the eastern sector. The effect of electric field on irregularities during December 2015 storm was insignificant. During the recovery phase of the storms, westward DDEF suppressed irregularities.

  15. The INTERBALL-Tail ELECTRON experiment: initial results on the low-latitude boundary layer of the dawn magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-A. Sauvaud

    Full Text Available The Toulouse electron spectrometer flown on the Russian project INTERBALL-Tail performs electron measurements from 10 to 26 000 eV over a 4 solid angle in a satellite rotation period. The INTERBALL-Tail probe was launched on 3 August 1995 together with a subsatellite into a 65° inclination orbit with an apogee of about 30 RE. The INTERBALL mission also includes a polar spacecraft launched in August 1996 for correlated studies of the outer magnetosphere and of the auroral regions. We present new observations concerning the low-latitude boundary layers (LLBL of the magnetosphere obtained near the dawn magnetic meridian. LLBL are encountered at the interface between two plasma regimes, the magnetosheath and the dayside extension of the plasma sheet. Unexpectedly, the radial extent of the region where LLBL electrons can be sporadically detected as plasma clouds can reach up to 5 RE inside the magnetopause. The LLBL core electrons have an average energy of the order of 100 eV and are systematically field-aligned and counterstreaming. As a trend, the temperature of the LLBL electrons increases with decreasing distance to Earth. Along the satellite orbit, the apparent time of occurrence of LLBL electrons can vary from about 5 to 20 min from one pass to another. An initial first comparison between electron- and magnetic-field measurements indicates that the LLBL clouds coincide with a strong increase in the magnetic field (by up to a factor of 2. The resulting strong magnetic field gradient can explain why the plasma-sheet electron flux in the keV range is strongly depressed in LLBL occurrence regions (up to a factor of sim10. We also show that LLBL electron encounters are related to field-aligned current structures and that wide LLBL correspond to northward interplanetary magnetic field. Evidence for LLBL/plasma-sheet electron leakage into the magnetosheath during southward IMF is also presented.

  16. Impact of Sudden Stratospheric Warming of 2009 on the Equatorial and Low-Latitude Ionosphere of the Indian Longitudes: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sneha; Pant, Tarun K.; Choudhary, R. K.; Vineeth, C.; Sunda, Surendra; Kumar, K. K.; Shreedevi, P. R.; Mukherjee, S.

    2017-10-01

    Using the equatorial electrojet (EEJ)-induced surface magnetic field and total electron content (TEC) measurements, we investigated the impact of the sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) of January 2009 on the equatorial electrodynamics and low-latitude ionosphere over the Indian longitudes. Results indicate that the intensity of EEJ and the TEC over low latitudes (extending up to 30°N) exhibit significant perturbations during and after the SSW peak. One of the interesting features is the deviation of EEJ and TEC from the normal quiet time behavior well before the onset of the SSW. This is found to coincide with the beginning of enhanced planetary wave (PW) activity over high latitudes. The substantial amplification of the semidiurnal perturbation after the SSW peak is seen to be coinciding with the onset of new and full moons. The response of TEC to SSW is found to be latitude dependent as the near-equatorial (NE) stations show the semidiurnal perturbation only after the SSW peak. Another notable feature is the presence of reduced ionization in the night sector over the NE and low-latitude regions, appearing as an "ionization hole," well after the SSW peak. The investigation revealed the existence of a quasi 16 day wave in the TEC over low latitudes similar to the one present in the EEJ strength. These results have been discussed in the light of changes in the dynamical background because of enhanced PW activity during SSW, which creates favorable conditions for the amplification of lunar tides, and their subsequent interaction with the lower thermospheric tidal fields.

  17. Functionality and performance of the ALFA_CTPIN module

    CERN Document Server

    Iwanski, Wieslaw; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Oechsle, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The ALFA_CTPIN module has been designed in response to increased internal processing time of the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) of the ATLAS experiment which resulted in reducing time left to the ALFA detector to deliver its own triggers to the CTP within specified latency. Accelerated extraction of ALFA triggers from encoded signals and the possibility to perform local triggers processing by this module allowed ALFA to contribute to global triggering of the ATLAS detector. A huge number of implemented scalers and flexibility in defining triggers processing criteria make also from this module a very attractive tool for in-depth analysis of properties of the LHC beam.

  18. Low-latitude expressions of high-latitude forcing during Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Younger Dryas in northern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, André; Hoffmann, Julia; Schönfeld, Joachim; Schmidt, Matthew W.; Nürnberg, Dirk; Batenburg, Sietske J.; Voigt, Silke

    2018-01-01

    Changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) strength exert a major influence on global atmospheric circulation patterns. However, the pacing and mechanisms of low-latitude responses to high-latitude forcing are insufficiently constrained so far. To elucidate the interaction of atmospheric and oceanic forcing in tropical South America during periods of major AMOC reductions (Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Younger Dryas) we generated a high-resolution foraminiferal multi-proxy record from off the Orinoco River based on Ba/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios, as well as stable isotope measurements. The data clearly indicate a three-phased structure of HS1 based on the reconfiguration of ocean currents in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The initial phase (HS1a) is characterized by a diminished North Brazil Current, a southward displacement of the ITCZ, and moist conditions dominating northeastern Brazil. During subsequent HS1b, the NBC was even more diminished or yet reversed and the ITCZ shifted to its southernmost position. Hence, dryer conditions prevailed in northern South America, while eastern Brazil experienced maximally wet conditions. During the final stage, HS1c, conditions are similar to HS1a. The YD represents a smaller amplitude version of HS1 with a southward-shifted ITCZ. Our findings imply that the low-latitude continental climate response to high-latitude forcing is mediated by reconfigurations of surface ocean currents in low latitudes. Our new records demonstrate the extreme sensitivity of the terrestrial realm in tropical South America to abrupt perturbations in oceanic circulation during periods of unstable climate conditions.

  19. Study of spread-F events associated with occurrence of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed at low latitudes in the Brazilian sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli Candido, Claudia Maria; Pimenta, A. A.; Batista, Inez; Abdu, M. A.; Sahai, Yogeshwar; Becker-Guedes, Fabio

    Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances or MSTIDs are frequently referred as manifestation of gravity waves at ionospheric F-region heights. Also, MSTIDs are believed to be associated to electrodynamics instabilities at mid-latitudes, possibly due to Perkins instability. Several studies have reported the occurrence of MSTIDs at mid-latitudes by different observing techniques: ionosonde, optical imaging, MU radar, GPS, etc. The occurrence of spread-F at mid-latitude ionograms is sometimes associated with the occurrence of MSTIDs. In the South American sector the MSTIDs were recently reported using all-sky imaging observations of the F-region emissions and they are characterized by the appearance of dark band structures in the OI 630.0 nm emission, propagating from southeast to northwest direction with velocities ranging from 40 to 250 m/s. We have analyzed simultaneous ionospheric and OI 630.0 nm all-sky observations data carried out at a Brazilian low latitude site (Cachoeira Paulista, 22.7 S, 45.0 W; mag. lat. 13.2 S) on the nights of 11-12 July 1996, 18-19 July 1998, 28-29 July 1998, and 16-17 July 1999 (all geomagnetically quiet nights), during the passage of MSTIDs. We have observed that the MSTID events are associated with the F-layer rise and depletions in the peak density (the critical frequency -foF2) of the F-region. The MSTIDs analyzed in this study have produced height rises from 30 to 70 km, and foF2 decrease from 1 to 2.5 MHz. Further we show that on all the four nights studied, the passage of MSTIDs is accompanied by spread-F in the ionograms over the low latitude station. It appears that some cases of the spread-F observed over low latitude in association with the MSTIDs is an extension of the mid-latitude spread-F.

  20. Propagation of gravity waves and spread F in the low-latitude ionosphere over Tucumán, Argentina, by continuous Doppler sounding: First results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chum, Jaroslav; Bonomi, F. A. M.; Fišer, Jiří; Cabrera, M. A.; Ezquer, R. G.; Burešová, Dalia; Laštovička, Jan; Baše, Jiří; Hruška, František; Molina, M. G.; Ise, J. E.; Cangemi, J. I.; Šindelářová, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 8 (2014), s. 6954-6965 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2440; GA ČR GP13-09778P Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : low latitude ionosphere * Ionospheric irregularities * equatorial spread F * gravity waves * scintillation * remote sensing * Doppler sounding Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.426, year : 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020184/abstract

  1. Sequential combination of glucocorticosteroids and alfa interferon versus alfa interferon alone chronic hepatitis B. Protocol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K; Mathurin, P

    2000-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B has serious effects on morbidity and mortality. Alfa interferon has been shown to increase the rates of HBeAg-clearance as well as seroconversion to anti-HBe, but response rates are unsatisfactory. Glucocorticosteroid pretreatment may increase the response to alfa interferon....

  2. Daytime, low latitude, vertical ExB drift velocities, inferred from ground-based magnetometer observations in the Peruvian, Philippine and Indian longitude sectors under quiet and disturbed conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, D; Chau, J; Yumoto, K; Bhattacharya, A; Alex, S

    2006-01-01

    Daytime, low latitude, vertical ExB drift velocities, inferred from ground-based magnetometer observations in the Peruvian, Philippine and Indian longitude sectors under quiet and disturbed conditions

  3. Winds, temperatures, and tides in the MLT region at low latitudes during the 1st CAWSES Tidal Campaign 2005 from meteor radar and satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Werner; Hoffmann, Peter; Buriti, R.; Batista, Paulo; Oberheide, Jens; Nakamura, Takuji; Clemesha, Barclay; Riggin, Dennis; Ramkumar, Geetha

    Winds at mesospheric/lower thermospheric altitudes between 80 and 100 km and temperatures around 90 km are derived from all-sky meteor radar observations at latitudes between 9° N and 22° S and longitudes between 77° E and 315° E. The data are acquired with identical radar systems and detection software. The six SKiYMET radars are located at Trivandrum (9° N, 77° E), Kototabang (0.2° S, 100° E), Cariri (7° S, 323° E), Learmonth (22° S, 114° E), Rarotonga (21° S, 200° E), and Cachoeira Paulista (22° S, 315° E). Using 4-d, 10-d, and 60-d composite days, wind tides are determined for the year 2005 when the 1st CAWSES Tidal Campaign took place. The results provide information about the variability of the diurnal, semi-diurnal, and ter-diurnal tide at low latitudes. The seasonal variability of mean winds, temperatures, and tides is discussed. For the latitude 22° S the seasonal variation of the migrating tides is estimated using the observations at three sites well separated in longitude. The radar results obtained from 60-d composite days agree well with diurnal tides derived from TIDI observations on the TIMED satellite. The tidal results obtained for the 1st CAWSES Tidal Campaign in September/October 2005 at low latitudes are discussed in relation to observations at middle and high northern latitudes.

  4. A 60-year record of 129I in Taal Lake sediments (Philippines): Influence of human nuclear activities at low latitude region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Luyuan; Hou, Xiaolin; Li, Hong-chun

    2017-01-01

    The influence of human nuclear activities on environmental radioactivity is not well known at low latitude region that are distant from nuclear tests sites and nuclear facilities. A sediment core collected from Taal Lake in the central Philippines was analyzed for 129I and 127I to investigate...... this influence in a low-latitude terrestrial system. A baseline of 129I/127I atomic ratios was established at (2.04–5.14) × 10−12 in the pre-nuclear era in this region. Controlled by the northeasterly equatorial trade winds, increased 129I/127I ratios of (20.1–69.3) × 10−12 suggest that atmospheric nuclear...... weapons tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the central Pacific Ocean was the major source of 129I in the sediment during 1956–1962. The 129I/129I ratios, up to 157.5 × 10−12 after 1964, indicate a strong influence by European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The East Asian Winter Monsoon is found...

  5. JSC “ALFA-BANK” marketing policy. problems and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kirillov, A.; Kuznetcova, E.; Martirosian, M.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the results of JSC “Alfa-Bank” consumers’ segmentation and the following complex marketing research. The article suggests the ways of the bank’s marketing policy improvement.

  6. Treatment of anemia with darbepoetin alfa in systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swedberg, Karl; Young, James B; Anand, Inder S

    2013-01-01

    Patients with systolic heart failure and anemia have worse symptoms, functional capacity, and outcomes than those without anemia. We evaluated the effects of darbepoetin alfa on clinical outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure and anemia.......Patients with systolic heart failure and anemia have worse symptoms, functional capacity, and outcomes than those without anemia. We evaluated the effects of darbepoetin alfa on clinical outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure and anemia....

  7. The temporal behavior of upper stratospheric ozone at low latitudes - Evidence from Nimbus 4 BUV data for short-term responses to solar ultraviolet variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    Ozone mixing ratios at pressure levels near 2 mbar are analyzed for the purpose of estimating the average response of the upper stratospheric ozone to solar UV variability on the time scale of the solar rotation period. The data were obtained from observations made with the Nimbus 4 backscattering UV radiometer in 13 latitude zones between 65 degrees N and 65 degrees S. The anaysis showed that temporal variations are negatively correlated with changes in zonally averaged equivalent temperature measured simultaneously by Nimbus 4 radiometer. A linear regression analysis is performed in order to obtain estimates of the average percent change of ozone at low latitudes, on the considered time scale for given changes in 10.7-cm flux, and in the UV flux model developed by Lean et al. (1982). Reproductions of the ozone profiles are provided.

  8. Space weather in the thermospheric-ionospheric domain over the Brazilian region: Climatology of ionospheric plasma bubbles in the subequatorial and low-latitude region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, D.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; de Castilho, V. M.; Mascarenhas, M.; Arruda, D. C. S.; Zamlutti, C. J.; Takahashi, H.; Medeiros, A. F.; Buriti, R. A.

    2011-07-01

    The climatology of ionospheric plasma bubbles is studied here by means of a comparison of the frequency of occurrence of the spread-F/plasma bubble events over the South American region using the images from two OI 630 nm imager systems located at the subequatorial station São João do Cariri—CA (7.4 S, 36.5 W, 20 S dip) and the low-latitude station Cachoeira Paulista—CP (22.5 S, 45 W, 33 S dip) in Brazil during the years of 2004 and 2005. The results are discussed in the light of current theory and geomagnetic parameters of the two observation stations.

  9. Effects of polar field-aligned currents on the distribution of the electric field and current in the middle and low latitudes ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Koichiro

    1978-01-01

    According to the analysis of the magnetic records from the Triad satellite, it has been found that there are two regions of the field-aligned current of magnetospheric origin along the auroral oval; Region 1 in higher latitude and Region 2 in lower latitude. These currents seem to have important effect on the distribution of electric field and current in the ionosphere, in addition to the Sq electric field and current of ionospheric origin. The global current systems generated by the field-aligned current were calculated, using some simplified ionospheric models. The effect of the field-aligned current on the distribution of electric field and current of the ionosphere at middle and low latitudes was investigated. (Yoshimori, M.)

  10. Humpback whale "super-groups" - A novel low-latitude feeding behaviour of Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae in the Benguela Upwelling System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken P Findlay

    Full Text Available Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae generally undertake annual migrations from polar summer feeding grounds to winter calving and nursery grounds in subtropical and tropical coastal waters. Evidence for such migrations arises from seasonality of historic whaling catches by latitude, Discovery and natural mark returns, and results of satellite tagging studies. Feeding is generally believed to be limited to the southern polar region, where Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba has been identified as the primary prey item. Non-migrations and / or suspended migrations to the polar feeding grounds have previously been reported from a summer presence of whales in the Benguela System, where feeding on euphausiids (E. lucens, hyperiid amphipods (Themisto gaudichaudii, mantis shrimp (Pterygosquilla armata capensis and clupeid fish has been described. Three recent research cruises (in October/November 2011, October/November 2014 and October/November 2015 identified large tightly-spaced groups (20 to 200 individuals of feeding humpback whales aggregated over at least a one-month period across a 220 nautical mile region of the southern Benguela System. Feeding behaviour was identified by lunges, strong milling and repetitive and consecutive diving behaviours, associated bird and seal feeding, defecations and the pungent "fishy" smell of whale blows. Although no dedicated prey sampling could be carried out within the tightly spaced feeding aggregations, observations of E. lucens in the region of groups and the full stomach contents of mantis shrimp from both a co-occurring predatory fish species (Thyrsites atun and one entangled humpback whale mortality suggest these may be the primary prey items of at least some of the feeding aggregations. Reasons for this recent novel behaviour pattern remain speculative, but may relate to increasing summer humpback whale abundance in the region. These novel, predictable, inter-annual, low latitude

  11. Integrating both interaction pathways between warming and pesticide exposure on upper thermal tolerance in high- and low-latitude populations of an aquatic insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op de Beeck, Lin; Verheyen, Julie; Stoks, Robby

    2017-05-01

    Global warming and chemical pollution are key anthropogenic stressors with the potential to interact. While warming can change the impact of pollutants and pollutants can change the sensitivity to warming, both interaction pathways have never been integrated in a single experiment. Therefore, we tested the effects of warming and multiple pesticide pulses (allowing accumulation) of chlorpyrifos on upper thermal tolerance (CTmax) and associated physiological traits related to aerobic/anaerobic energy production in the damselfly Ischnura elegans. To also assess the role of latitude-specific thermal adaptation in shaping the impact of warming and pesticide exposure on thermal tolerance, we exposed larvae from replicated high- and low-latitude populations to the pesticide in a common garden rearing experiment at 20 and 24 °C, the mean summer water temperatures at high and low latitudes. As expected, exposure to chlorpyrifos resulted in a lower CTmax. Yet, this pesticide effect on CTmax was lower at 24 °C compared to 20 °C because of a lower accumulation of chlorpyrifos in the medium at 24 °C. The effects on CTmax could partly be explained by reduction of the aerobic scope. Given that these effects did not differ between latitudes, gradual thermal evolution is not expected to counteract the negative effect of the pesticide on thermal tolerance. By for the first time integrating both interaction pathways we were not only able to provide support for both of them, but more importantly demonstrate that they can directly affect each other. Indeed, the warming-induced reduction in pesticide impact generated a lower pesticide-induced climate change sensitivity (in terms of decreased upper thermal tolerance). Our results indicate that, assuming no increase in pesticide input, global warming might reduce the negative effect of multiple pulse exposures to pesticides on sensitivity to elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of geomagnetically induced currents at a low-latitude region over the solar cycles 23 and 24: comparison between measurements and calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Cleiton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC are a space weather effect, which affects ground-based technological structures at all latitudes on the Earth’s surface. GIC occurrence and amplitudes have been monitored in power grids located at high and middle latitudes since 1970s and 1980s, respectively. This monitoring provides information about the GIC intensity and the frequency of occurrence during geomagnetic storms. In this paper, we investigate GIC occurrence in a power network at low latitudes (in the central Brazilian region during the solar cycles 23 and 24. Calculated and measured GIC data are compared for the most intense geomagnetic storms (i.e. −50 < Dst < −50 nT of the solar cycle 24. The results obtained from this comparison show a good agreement. The success of the model employed for the calculation of GIC leads to the possibility of determining GIC for events during the solar cycle 23 as well. Calculated GIC in one transformer reached ca. 30 A during the “Halloween storm” in 2003 whilst most frequent intensities lie below 10 A. The normalized inverse cumulative frequency for GIC data was calculated for the solar cycle 23 in order to perform a statistical analysis. It was found that a q-exponential Tsallis distribution fits the calculated GIC frequency distribution for more than 99% of the data. This analysis provides an overview of the long-term GIC monitoring at low latitudes and suggests new insight into critical phenomena involved in the GIC generation.

  13. Simulation of low-latitude ionospheric response to 2015 St. Patrick's Day super geomagnetic storm using ionosonde-derived PRE vertical drifts over Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, L. M.; Sripathi, S.; Singh, Ram

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present low-latitude ionospheric response over Indian longitude to the recent super geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015, using the Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere (SAMI2) model which incorporates ionosonde-derived vertical drift impacted by prompt penetration eastward electric field occurring during the evening prereversal enhancement (PRE) in the vertical drift. The importance of this storm is that (1) Dst reaches as low as -228 nT and (2) prompt penetration of eastward electric field coincided with evening hours PRE. The daytime vertical E × B drifts in the SAMI2 model are, however, considered based on Scherliess-Fejer model. The simulations indicate a significant enhancement in F layer height and equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in the post sunset hours on 17 March 2015 vis-a-vis quiet day. The model simulations during recovery phase, considering disturbance dynamo vertical E × B drift along with equatorward disturbance wind, indicate suppression of the daytime EIA. SAMI2 simulations considering the disturbance wind during the recovery phase suggest that equatorward wind enhances the ionospheric density in the low latitude; however, its role in the formation of the EIA depends on the polarity of the zonal electric field. Comparison of model derived total electron content (TEC) with the TEC from ground GPS receivers indicates that model does reproduce enhancement of the EIA during the main phase and suppression of the EIA during the recovery phase of the superstorm. However, peculiarities pertaining to the ionospheric response to prompt penetration electric field in the Indian sector vis-a-vis earlier reports from American sector have been discussed.

  14. Humpback whale "super-groups" - A novel low-latitude feeding behaviour of Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Benguela Upwelling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Ken P; Seakamela, S Mduduzi; Meÿer, Michael A; Kirkman, Stephen P; Barendse, Jaco; Cade, David E; Hurwitz, David; Kennedy, Amy S; Kotze, Pieter G H; McCue, Steven A; Thornton, Meredith; Vargas-Fonseca, O Alejandra; Wilke, Christopher G

    2017-01-01

    Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) generally undertake annual migrations from polar summer feeding grounds to winter calving and nursery grounds in subtropical and tropical coastal waters. Evidence for such migrations arises from seasonality of historic whaling catches by latitude, Discovery and natural mark returns, and results of satellite tagging studies. Feeding is generally believed to be limited to the southern polar region, where Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been identified as the primary prey item. Non-migrations and / or suspended migrations to the polar feeding grounds have previously been reported from a summer presence of whales in the Benguela System, where feeding on euphausiids (E. lucens), hyperiid amphipods (Themisto gaudichaudii), mantis shrimp (Pterygosquilla armata capensis) and clupeid fish has been described. Three recent research cruises (in October/November 2011, October/November 2014 and October/November 2015) identified large tightly-spaced groups (20 to 200 individuals) of feeding humpback whales aggregated over at least a one-month period across a 220 nautical mile region of the southern Benguela System. Feeding behaviour was identified by lunges, strong milling and repetitive and consecutive diving behaviours, associated bird and seal feeding, defecations and the pungent "fishy" smell of whale blows. Although no dedicated prey sampling could be carried out within the tightly spaced feeding aggregations, observations of E. lucens in the region of groups and the full stomach contents of mantis shrimp from both a co-occurring predatory fish species (Thyrsites atun) and one entangled humpback whale mortality suggest these may be the primary prey items of at least some of the feeding aggregations. Reasons for this recent novel behaviour pattern remain speculative, but may relate to increasing summer humpback whale abundance in the region. These novel, predictable, inter-annual, low latitude feeding events

  15. Humpback whale “super-groups” – A novel low-latitude feeding behaviour of Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Benguela Upwelling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seakamela, S. Mduduzi; Meÿer, Michael A.; Kirkman, Stephen P.; Barendse, Jaco; Cade, David E.; Hurwitz, David; Kennedy, Amy S.; Kotze, Pieter G. H.; McCue, Steven A.; Thornton, Meredith; Vargas-Fonseca, O. Alejandra; Wilke, Christopher G.

    2017-01-01

    Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) generally undertake annual migrations from polar summer feeding grounds to winter calving and nursery grounds in subtropical and tropical coastal waters. Evidence for such migrations arises from seasonality of historic whaling catches by latitude, Discovery and natural mark returns, and results of satellite tagging studies. Feeding is generally believed to be limited to the southern polar region, where Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been identified as the primary prey item. Non-migrations and / or suspended migrations to the polar feeding grounds have previously been reported from a summer presence of whales in the Benguela System, where feeding on euphausiids (E. lucens), hyperiid amphipods (Themisto gaudichaudii), mantis shrimp (Pterygosquilla armata capensis) and clupeid fish has been described. Three recent research cruises (in October/November 2011, October/November 2014 and October/November 2015) identified large tightly-spaced groups (20 to 200 individuals) of feeding humpback whales aggregated over at least a one-month period across a 220 nautical mile region of the southern Benguela System. Feeding behaviour was identified by lunges, strong milling and repetitive and consecutive diving behaviours, associated bird and seal feeding, defecations and the pungent “fishy” smell of whale blows. Although no dedicated prey sampling could be carried out within the tightly spaced feeding aggregations, observations of E. lucens in the region of groups and the full stomach contents of mantis shrimp from both a co-occurring predatory fish species (Thyrsites atun) and one entangled humpback whale mortality suggest these may be the primary prey items of at least some of the feeding aggregations. Reasons for this recent novel behaviour pattern remain speculative, but may relate to increasing summer humpback whale abundance in the region. These novel, predictable, inter-annual, low latitude feeding

  16. H I superclouds in the inner Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.; IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights; Vassar College Observatory, Poughkeepsie, NY)

    1987-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen clouds in the Weaver-Williams 21 cm survey are found in the vicinity of the largest molecular cloud complexes in the first Galactic quadrant. The atomic masses are estimated in several ways, including a new method where the clouds are assumed to be composed of cool clumps immersed in a warm interclump medium. The clouds are found to contain between a million and 40 million solar masses of atoms at an average density of about 9/cu cm. They appear gravitationally bound, their molecular mass fractions decrease from 70 percent to 5 percent with increasing distance from the Galactic center, and they are located in the spiral arms. The importance of these clouds for the large-scale distributions of interstellar mass, molecular fraction, and star formation is discussed. 103 references

  17. Managing anemia with epoetin alfa in patients with rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velenik, V.; Oblak, I.; Kodre, V.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Anemia is one of the most challenging problems in clinical oncology due to its high prevalence among the patients with malignant diseases. The purposes of our study were: (1) to assess the potential of epoetin alfa therapy to prevent the decline in Hb concentrations that typically accompanies chemotherapy/ radiotherapy (ChT/RT) of the patients with rectal cancer; (2) to test the hypothesis that the use of epoetin alfa significantly reduces the transfusion requirements in the patients with rectal cancer treated with ChT/RT after surgery, and (3) to evaluate the safety profile of the administration of epoetin alfa in the clinical setting. Methods. Sixty patients who underwent surgery for rectal cancer were prospectively enrolled. Group A consisted of 39 patients with Hb concentrations ≤13 g/dl at the start of ChT/RT following surgery, and group B of 17 patients with Hb concentrations ≥13 g/dl at the start of ChT/RT following surgery, but whose Hb concentrations fell below 13 g/dl during the ChT/RT protocol. The starting dose of epoetin alfa in both groups was 10,000 IU subcutaneously (sc) three times a week (tiw). The following major parameters were evaluated: (1) change in Hb concentrations relative to the baseline as measured at 4-week intervals, (2) allogenic blood transfusion requirements in relation to Hb concentrations, and (3) incidence and severity of adverse events and their potential relationship to epoetin alfa administration. Results. The study protocol was completed in 56/60 patients. In group A, a statistically significant increase in Hb concentration (p<0.001) was observed after the first 4 weeks of epoetin alfa treatment compared to the baseline values, with the mean increase of Hb concentration of 1.97 g/dl ± 0.91 g/dl and Hb concentrations remained significantly increased through the whole study (p=0.0017). In group B, a continuous decrease in Hb concentrations was observed during the first weeks of therapy, reaching the level of

  18. Extended dosing of darbepoetin alfa in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridges Ian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anemia is common among peritoneal dialysis (PD patients, and most patients require erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA to maintain their hemoglobin concentrations within current guideline recommendations. Darbepoetin alfa is an ESA with a 3-fold longer half-life and greater in vivo biological activity than recombinant human erythropoietin, allowing less frequent dosing that may simplify anemia management in these patients, providing benefits to patients, care givers and health care providers. Clinical studies have confirmed the efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa administered at extended dosing intervals. However, there are limited data on the management of anemia with ESAs in PD patients in routine clinical practice. The aim of this multicenter observational study in European and Australian dialysis patients was to evaluate darbepoetin alfa administered once every 2 weeks (Q2W in routine clinical practice for 12 months. Methods PD patients ≥18 years old and converting to treatment with darbepoetin alfa Q2W were eligible for enrollment regardless of previous or current ESA use. Patients enrolled in the study were treated according to local usual clinical practice. Data were collected up to 6 months prior to and 12 months after conversion to darbepoetin alfa Q2W. The primary endpoint was hemoglobin concentration 12 months after conversion to darbepoetin alfa Q2W. Results Of the 741 eligible PD patients (mean age, 61 years; male, 57%, 640 (86% completed the study. Mean hemoglobin concentration (g/dL was 11.69 (95% CI, 11.53-11.86 6 months before the conversion, 12.25 (95% CI, 12.13-12.38 at conversion, and 11.88 (95% CI, 11.74-12.02 12 months after conversion to darbepoetin alfa Q2W. The weekly equivalent ESA dose (μg/wk was a geometric mean of 25.24 (95% CI, 23.46-27.15 6 months before conversion, 20.90 (95% CI, 19.13-22.83 immediately before conversion, 18.89 (95% CI, 18.13-19.68 at conversion and 19.04 (95% CI, 17

  19. Day and nighttime L-Band amplitude scintillations during low solar activity at a low latitude station in the South Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ramendra; Kumar, Sushil

    2017-12-01

    A morphological study of GPS L-band amplitude scintillations observed at a low latitude station, Suva (18.1°S, 178.4°E), Fiji, during low solar activity year 2010 of solar cycle 24, has been presented. Out of a total of 480 scintillation events recorded during 2010, 84.4% were weak (0.2 ≤ S4 lightning activity around the observing station. Annual percentage occurrence shows that scintillations occurred mostly in the daytime with peak occurrence at around 05:00-09:00 LT. The daytime strong scintillation events were not associated with vTEC depletions and phase scintillations, but the signal to noise ratio during the scintillation events decreased with increase in scintillation index (S4). However, the post-midnight strong amplitude scintillations were associated with vTEC depletions and phase scintillations indicative of large scale irregularities (spread-F). The geomagnetic activity effect showed enhanced occurrence on geomagnetically disturbed days as compared to quite conditions. The geomagnetic storm effect on scintillations for 17 storms of different strengths (Dst ≤ 50 nT) during 2010-2011 showed an increase in the occurrence of post-storm scintillations, on the days following the storm.

  20. Numerical modeling of ionospheric effects in the middle- and low-latitude F region during geomagnetic storm sequence of 9-14 September 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, M. V.; Klimenko, V. V.; Ratovsky, K. G.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Vesnin, A. M.

    2011-06-01

    This study presents the Global Self-Consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Protonosphere (GSM TIP) numerical simulations of the 9-14 September 2005 geomagnetic storm effects in the middle- and low-latitude ionosphere. Recent modifications to the GSM TIP model include adding an empirical model of high-energy electron precipitation and introducing a high-resolution (1 min) calculation of region 2 field-aligned currents and a cross-cap potential difference. These modifications resulted in better representation of such effects as penetration of the magnetospheric convection electric field to lower latitudes and the overshielding. The model also includes simulation of solar flare effects. Comparison of model results with observational data at Millstone Hill (42.6°N, 71.5°W, USA), Arecibo (18.3°N, 66.8°W, Puerto Rico), Jicamarca (11.9°S, 76.9°W, Peru), Palmas (10.2°S, 48.2°W, Brazil), and San Jose Campos (23.2°S, 45.9°W, Brazil) shows good agreement of ionospheric disturbances caused by this storm sequence. In this paper we consider in detail the formation mechanism of the additional layers in an equatorial ionosphere during geomagnetic storms. During geomagnetic storms, the nonuniform in height zonal electric field is generated at the geomagnetic equator. This electric field forms the additional layers in the F region of equatorial ionosphere.

  1. Longitudinal and Seasonal Variations of the Electron Temperature and Density in the Low-Latitude Topside Ionosphere Observed by KOMPSAT-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejun Kim

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The electron density and temperature in the topside ionosphere are observed by the Ionosphere Measurement Sensor (IMS onboard the KOMPSAT-1, which has the sun-synchronous orbit of the altitude of 685 km and the orbital inclination of 98deg with a descending node at 22:50LT. Observations have been analyzed to determine the seasonal variations of the electron density and temperature in the low-latitude region. Only the night-time (22:50LT behavior on magnetically quiet days (Kp < 4 has been examined. Observations show a strong longitudinal and seasonal variation. Generally, in the dip equator the density increases and the temperature decreases. In equinox the latitudinal distributions of the electron density and temperature are quite symmetric about the dip equator. However, the local maximum of the density and the local minimum of the temperature shift toward the Northern hemisphere in summer solstice but the Southern hemisphere in winter solstice. Such variations are due to the influences of field-aligned plasma transport induced by F region neutral wind. Compared with the IRI95 model, the observed electron density and temperature show significant differences from those predicted by the IRI95 model.

  2. Statistical analysis of the occurrence of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances over Brazilian low latitudes using OI 630.0 nm emission all-sky images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido, C. M. N.; Pimenta, A. A.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Becker-Guedes, F.

    2008-09-01

    In this work we report a statistical analysis of the occurrence frequency of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) observed over Cachoeira Paulista (22.7°S, 45.0°W, -13.2° mag lat), Brazil. The optical signatures of the low-latitude MSTIDs in the southern hemisphere observed in the OI 630.0 nm emission images can be a single dark band structure or alternating dark/light bands aligned in the northeast-southwest direction and propagating towards northwest. Because this feature these events were also referred as thermospheric dark band structures. The statistical study is based on 28 events of MSTIDs observed during seven years of optical data, obtained during low, medium, and high solar activities, for geomagnetically quiet nights. We find that the occurrence frequency of the MSTIDs presents a maximum during low solar activity, decreasing during medium solar activity with no occurrences during high solar activity. Also, the occurrence rates are greater near the June-solstice months.

  3. Lidar observations of middle atmospheric gravity wave activity over a low-latitude site (Gadanki, 13.5° N, 79.2° E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sivakumar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The low-latitude middle atmospheric gravity wave characteristics are presented using 310 nights of Rayleigh lidar observations made at Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E over the period from March 1998 to December 2002. The gravity wave characteristics are presented in terms of vertical wave number and frequency spectra, along with the estimated potential energy for the four seasons, namely, spring, summer, autumn and winter. The computed wave number spectra for both the stratosphere and the mesosphere are found to differ significantly from a saturated model predicted spectrum. The spectra were found to be shallower at lower wave numbers and steeper at higher wave numbers with transition at ~8.85×10-4 cy/m. The computed frequency spectra seem to follow the model plot with a power law index of -5/3 above a frequency of ~2×10-4 Hz. The estimated potential energy per unit mass increases gradually up to ~60 km and then rather rapidly above this height to reach values of the order of 200J/kg at ~70 km.

  4. Epoetin alfa ja namaluva nefrotoksicnosta inducirana so cisplatin kaj staorci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimce Zafirov

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Klinickata efikasnost na cisplatin kako antitumorski lek e nesomnena, no dozno-limitiracki faktor za negova upotreba pretstavuva izrazitata nefrotoksicnost. Najnovite istrazuvawa pokazuvaat deka epoetin alfa moze da ima znacajna uloga ne samo vo terapiski celi za korekcija na razni vidovi na anemii, tuku istiot moze da bide efikasen i kako nevroprotektiv, hepatoprotektiv, kardioprotektiv i osobeno znacajno kako nefroprotektiv kaj nefrotoksicnost inducirana od preparati na baza na platina. Glavna cel na ovaa studija bese da se utvrdi efektot na epoetin alfa vo prevencijata na nefrotoksicnost eksperimentalno inducirana so dolgotrajna administracija na cisplatin vo doza od 2 mg/kg/t.t./nedela vo tek na 8 nedeli, kaj Wistar staorci. Dobienite rezultati od ovaa studija pokazuvaat deka epoetin alfa signifikantno gi ublazuva funkcionalnite bubrezni poremetuvawa inducirani so dolgotrajna administracija na cisplatin, ja podobruva opstata sostojba i go namaluva mortalitetot kaj ispituvanite zivotni.

  5. Darbepoetin alfa once every 2 weeks for treatment of anemia in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J; Kessler, M; Villa, Giulio Palludan

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Darbepoetin alfa has a longer half-life than epoetin-(EPO) alfa or beta, allowing administration at less frequent intervals for the treatment of renal anemia. The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of an every-2-week (Q2W) schedule of darbepoetin alfa...

  6. Darbepoetin alfa once every 2 weeks for treatment of anemia in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J; Kessler, M; Villa, Giulio Palludan

    2007-01-01

    in a large cohort of dialysis patients. METHODS: Data were combined from eight similarly designed 24-week phase 3b European studies, in which patients receiving EPO alfa or beta once-weekly were converted to Q2W darbepoetin alfa. Darbepoetin alfa dosage was titrated to maintain hemoglobin (Hb) between 10...

  7. Resolution and t-spectrum for the ALFA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Guergouri, Hichem

    2016-01-01

    My report as Summer Student is in two parts. In the first part I report about my attendance to the run of the ALFA detector to test different collimation schemas and find a new way to get rid of the background. The second part is about the measurement of the resolution of the ALFA detector and comparing the real data with the Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations. First of all I tried to be more familiar with ROOT, worked on understanding the code used to access to the data in the trees inside the Ntuples, plotting histograms,… This was done using old Ntuples which contain MC data.

  8. Statistical study of the medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances using OI 630 nm emission all-sky observations at low latitudes in the Brazilian sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli Candido, Claudia Maria; Pimenta, A. A.; Sahai, Yogeshwar

    Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance, MSTID, is an ionospheric phenomena, characterized by wave-like fluctuations at the ionospheric F-region heights. MSTIDs observations are commonly observed at mid-latitude sites, and are sometimes associated with midlatitude Spread-F. Optical imaging using wide-angle systems based enables us to observe intensity fluctuations from the emissions coming from the upper atmosphere. The OI 630.0 nm emission occurs at bottom side of the F-layer (240-300 km) and it is due to the dissociative recombination processes involving molecular oxygen ions and electrons. Recent imaging observations in the South American sector have shown the presence of MSTIDs. The MSTIDs are optical signatures in which dark band structures propagates along southeast to northwest direction in the southern hemisphere, with velocities range between 40-250 m/s and is followed by light bands/or breaks into a combination of dark and light band structures propagating in the same direction. The band structures observed in the OI 630.0 nm emission images are associated with the vertical movements of the F-layer. In this work we have investigated statistical features of the MSTIDs observed with the imaging observations of the OI 630.0 nm emission at a low latitude Brazilian site: Cachoeira Paulista (22.7S, 45.0W, mag. lat. 13.2 S) with nights having geomagnetically quiet conditions. We have analyzed seven years of optical data obtained during low, medium, and high solar activities. We have observed an inverse dependence of the occurrence frequency of the MSTIDs with the solar activity and a maximum occurrence near the June-solstice months (winter in the southern hemisphere).

  9. Variability of the ionospheric plasma density, NmF2, and of Total Electron Content, TEC, over equatorial and low latitude region in Brazil during solar minimum activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido, Claudia; Batista, Inez S.; Negreti, Patricia M. S.; Klausner, Virginia

    The recent solar minimum period was unusually deep and prolonged, which opened a window to observe the ionospheric behavior under unprecedented low solar activity conditions. This work is part of a multi-instrumental effort to investigate the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere over Brazilian sector during low solar activity. We present a study of the ionospheric plasma densities variations through ionosondes measurements and dual frequency GPS receivers (L1= 1275.4 MHz, L2 = 1227.6 MHz) for two equatorial stations, Sao Luis (3° S, 45º W) e Fortaleza (4° S, 39.5° W), and for a station close to the south crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly region, Cachoeira Paulista (23º S, 45º W). From ionosondes we extract the plasma critical frequency foF2 which is related to F2 region peak electron density, NmF2, by the relationship: NmF2 = 1.24 x 104 (foF2)2, and the F2 layer peak height, hmF2. From GPS receivers we used the quantity VTEC (Vertical total electron content). We analyzed the seasonal and local time variations of NmF2 and VTEC, as well as the differences between two solar minima, 2008-2009 and 1996. We observe that the ionospheric plasma densities were lower in 2008-2009 than in 1996 for both regions. In addition, we observe that the lowest plasma densities persisted longer during 2008/2009 than in 1996, especially for nighttime periods. Finally, we applied the wavelet technique to investigate the impact of some distinct time scales drivers on the ionosphere, such as the wave activity from below that seems have been better observed and appreciated during this unusual solar quiescence.

  10. Investigation of the occurrence of Medium Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances over low latitudes Brazilian region during both low and high solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Danielle; Pimenta, A. A.

    By using all-sky images of OI 630 nm emission, we have detected dark band structures aligned from southwest to northeast, propagating towards northwest. These dark bands are probably generated on medium latitudes in the southern hemisphere, by Perkins plasma instability, and propagate to low latitudes. They have an average speed of 50-200 m/s and their manifestation are between 21:00 LT and 05:00 LT and most of occurrences is at midnight. Such phenomenon occurs mainly during low solar activity periods, followed by descending and ascending solar activity periods. During high solar activity period, no occurrences were recorded on all-sky images. Ionosonde data show an abrupt rising of F-layer at the same time that the passage of the dark bands was recorded on all-sky images. Ionograms also show frequency spread-F due to the passage of the structures. By using ionosonde data, we have seen that during high solar activity period, such phenomenon occurs as well, but the rising of F-layer is not so abrupt like in other phases of the solar cycle, which is not sufficient to be seen on all-sky images. Such behavior is due to the solar cycle dependence of the Perkins instability. In addition, in this work, we present a study of the occurrence of medium scale traveling ionospheric disturbances during low and high solar activity period with ionosonde data from the digisonde installed on Cachoeira Paulista (22.7o S, 45o W). We compare ionospheric parameters h'F, hmF2 and foF2 obtained during both low and high solar activity in order to show the difference on the rise of F-layer during such periods, and its relation to Perkins plasma instability.

  11. Study of Magnetic Field Spatial Variations in the Southern Hemisphere's Low Latitudes due to Different Interplanetary Structures Using the 3-D MHD SWMF/BATSRUS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, V. M. C. E. S.; Jauer, P. R.; Alves, L. R.; Padilha, A. L.; Padua, M. B.; Vitorello, I.; Alves, M. V.; Da Silva, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Interplanetary structures such as Coronal Mass Ejections (CME), Shocks, Corotating Interaction Regions (CIR) and Magnetic Clouds (MC) interfere directly on Space Weather conditions and can cause severe and intense disturbances in the Earth's magnetic field as measured in space and on the ground. During magnetically disturbed periods characterized by world-wide, abrupt variations of the geomagnetic field, large and intense current systems can be induced and amplified within the Earth even at low latitudes. Such current systems are known as geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) and can cause damage to power transmission lines, transformers and the degradation of pipelines. As part of an effort to estimate GIC intensities throughout the low to equatorial latitudes of the Brazilian territory, we used the 3-D MHD SWMF/BATSRUS code to estimate spatial variations of the geomagnetic field during periods when the magnetosphere is under the influence of CME and MC structures. Specifically, we used the CalcDeltaB tool (Rastatter et al., Space Weather, 2014) to provide a proxy for the spatial variations of the geomagnetic field, with a 1 minute cadence, at 31 virtual magnetometer stations located in the proposed study region. The stations are spatially arranged in a two-dimensional network with each station being 5 degrees apart in latitude and longitude. In a preliminary analysis, we found that prior to the arrival of each interplanetary structure, there is no appreciable variation in the components of the geomagnetic field between the virtual stations. However, when the interplanetary structures reach the magnetosphere, each station perceives the magnetic field variation differently, so that it is not possible to use a single station to represent the magnetic field perturbation throughout the Brazilian region. We discuss the minimum number and spacing between stations to adequately detail the geomagnetic field variations in this region.

  12. VHF and L-band scintillation characteristics over an Indian low latitude station, Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. S. Rama Rao

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of simultaneous VHF (244 MHz and L-band (1.5 GHz scintillations recorded at a low-latitude station, Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E, during the low sunspot activity year of March 2004 to March 2005, suggest that the occurrence of scintillations is mainly due to two types, namely the Plasma Bubble Induced (PBI, which maximizes during the post sunset hours of winter and equinoctial months, and the Bottom Side Sinusoidal (BSS type, which maximizes during the post-midnight hours of the summer solstice months. A detailed study on the spectral characteristics of the scintillations at both the frequencies show that the post-sunset scintillations are strong with fast fading (≈40 fad/min and are multiple in nature in scattering, giving rise to steep spectral slopes, whereas the post-midnight scintillations, which occur mostly on the VHF signal with low fading rate (≈4 fad/min, are of the BSS type, often showing typical Fresnel oscillations with reduced roll off spectral slopes, indicating that the type of irregularity resembles a thin screen structure giving rise to weak scattering. Using the onset times of several similar scintillation patches across the two satellite (FLEETSAT 73° E, INMARSAT 65° E ray paths (sub-ionospheric points are separated by 82 km, the East ward movement of the irregularity patches is found to vary from 150 to 250 m/s during the post sunset hours and decrease slowly during the post midnight hours. Further, the east-west extent of the PBI type of irregularities is found to vary from 100 to 500 km, while that of the BSS type extend up to a few thousand kilometers. Keywords. Ionosphere (Ionospheric irregularities; Auroral ionosphere; Electric fields and currents

  13. O2 nightglow snapshots of the 1.27 μm emission at low latitudes on Mars with a static field-widened Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Ward, William E.; Zhang, Chunmin

    2017-12-01

    A static field-widened Michelson interferometer is designed to observe the atmospheric dynamics at low latitudes of Mars, targeting the 1.27 μm O2(a1Δg) nightglow, which has not yet been accurately detected due to its low intensity. To the best of our knowledge, this design is the first demonstration of implementing divided-mirror technique by refringent materials in a field-widened Michelson interferometer. Different optical path difference (OPD) in each quadrant is generated by four highly reflective pyramid-shaped prisms made of different refringent materials attached to each solid arm of Michelson interferometer. In this way four samples of interferogram are obtained simultaneously, from which the airglow volume emission rate, as well as the line-of-sight velocity and temperature of the air parcel where the emission forms can be derived in a single integration time. To achieve the best field-widening, compactness and thermal compensation, all possible combination of ten pieces of glasses were searched within the Sumita glass catalogue using a computer program and some interesting results are listed. The OPD used in this calculation concerns rays in the plane perpendicular to the sides of the prism only, other cases need further examination. This instrument's performance in measuring atmospheric dynamics is analysed, using the wind velocity uncertainty as primary criterion. Calculations show that it can measure the wind with an accuracy better than 2 m/s if the band volume emission rate of O2 nightglow is greater than 5 kph cm-3 s-1.

  14. New Synthesis of .alfa.,.omega.-Diiodoalkynes and Capped Iodobutadiynes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavatý, Jaromír; Kavan, Ladislav; Štícha, M.

    - (2002), s. 705-706 ISSN 1472-7781 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0634 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : .alfa.,. omega .-diiodoalkynes * capped iodobutadiynes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.181, year: 2002

  15. Carbonaceous Polymers and Nanotubes from .alfa., .omega.-Dialkali Hexatriynides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavatý, Jaromír; Kavan, Ladislav; Okabe, K.; Oya, A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 7 (2002), s. 1147-1150 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0634 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * chemically modified carbon * .alfa.,. omega .-dialkali hexatriynides Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.048, year: 2002

  16. Physics prospects with the ALFA and AFP detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hamal, Petr; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS ALFA and AFP detectors - the experimental challenge of measuring forward protons at the LHC. We will describe the experimental challenge presented by the measurement of the forward protons at the LHC. The ATLAS ALFA and AFP projects involve the deployment of detectors capable of detecting protons that emerge intact from the interaction with very small scattering angles. In the case of the ALFA detector, located at ±240m from the ATLAS interaction point, this measurement has to be performed using special high \\beta* beam optics. The detector chosen for the task is a nearly edgeless scintillating fibre tracker capable of making measurements at very low t – below 10-3 GeV2 – in the Nuclear Coulomb interference region. In order to reach these very small t-values we need to deploy the detector very near to the beam line utilizing Roman Pots. The main purpose of the ALFA detector is to measure the total p-p cross-section, a fundamental quantity in hadronic physics of importance to particle and to cos...

  17. Treatment persistence in and cost of therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C: Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin versus peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixner, Diana I; Ye, Xin; Chu, Teng-Chiao; Blumentals, William A; Hassanein, Tarek I

    2009-12-15

    Treatment persistence and cost of therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treated with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin and peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin were evaluated. This retrospective database analysis used eligibility, pharmacy, and medical claims data from a large U.S. health plan for patients with CHC treated with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin and peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin from January 2002 through June 2006. For the purposes of this analysis, the study population included all hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes. Comparable groups for assessment of outcomes were constructed using propensity score matching to reduce the effect of known sources of bias. Outcome variables included treatment persistence and annualized overall and HCV-attributable health care costs. A total of 1783 matched pairs were analyzed. Compared with patients receiving peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin, patients receiving peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin were 18% less likely to be persistent with therapy at week 48 (p = 0.013). During the first six months of follow-up, mean all-cause costs (p = 0.0368) and HCV-attributable costs (p costs (p = 0.0060) and HCV-attributable costs (p = 0.0167) over the entire follow-up period were significantly lower for patients treated with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin versus peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin. Analysis of information from a health care claims database suggests that treating CHC with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin may improve treatment persistence and help reduce the health care costs imposed by CHC compared with treatment with peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin.

  18. Reversing factor Xa inhibitors – clinical utility of andexanet alfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaatz S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scott Kaatz,1 Hardik Bhansali,1 Joseph Gibbs,2 Robert Lavender,3 Charles E Mahan,4 David G Paje5 1Division of Hospital Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, 3Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, 4University of New Mexico, Presbyterian Healthcare Services, Albuquerque, NM, 5Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Approximately half of patients started on an oral anticoagulant in the USA now receive one of the newer direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs. Although there is an approved reversal agent for the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran, a specific reversal agent for the anti-factor Xa (FXa DOACs has yet to be licensed. Unlike the strategy to reverse the only oral direct thrombin inhibitor with idarucizumab, which is a humanized monoclonal antibody fragment, a different approach is necessary to design a single agent that can reverse multiple anti-FXa medications. Andexanet alfa is a FXa decoy designed to reverse all anticoagulants that act through this part of the coagulation cascade including anti-FXa DOACs, such as apixaban, edoxaban and rivaroxaban, and indirect FXa inhibitors such as low-molecular-weight heparins. This narrative reviews the development of andexanet alfa and explores its basic science, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, animal models, and human studies. Keywords: factor Xa, DOAC, andexanet alfa, reversal, rivaroxaban, apixaban

  19. Physics prospects with the ALFA and AFP detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hamal, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    We will describe the experimental challenge presented by the measurement of the forward protons at the LHC. The ATLAS ALFA and AFP projects involve the deployment of detectors capable of detecting protons that emerge intact from the interaction with very small scattering angles. In the case of the ALFA detector, located at $\\pm${240}~m from the ATLAS interaction point, this measurement has to be performed using special high $\\beta^*$ beam optics. The detector chosen for the task is a nearly edgeless scintillating fibre tracker capable of making measurements at very low $t$ - below $10^{-3} \\text{GeV}^2$ - in the Nuclear Coulomb interference region. In order to reach these very small $t$ values we need to deploy the detector very near to the beam line utilizing Roman Pots. The main purpose of the ALFA detector is to measure the total p-p cross-section, a fundamental quantity in hadronic physics of importance to particle and to cosmic ray physicists and to provide absolute measurement of luminosity which includ...

  20. Statistical study of the location and size of the electron edge of the Low-Latitude Boundary Layer as observed by Cluster at mid-altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Bogdanova

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The nature of particle precipitations at dayside mid-altitudes can be interpreted in terms of the evolution of reconnected field lines. Due to the difference between electron and ion parallel velocities, two distinct boundary layers should be observed at mid-altitudes between the boundary between open and closed field lines and the injections in the cusp proper. At lowest latitudes, the electron-dominated boundary layer, named the "electron edge" of the Low-Latitude Boundary Layer (LLBL, contains soft-magnetosheath electrons but only high-energy ions of plasma sheet origin. A second layer, the LLBL proper, is a mixture of both ions and electrons with characteristic magnetosheath energies. The Cluster spacecraft frequently observe these two boundary layers. We present an illustrative example of a Cluster mid-altitude cusp crossing with an extended electron edge of the LLBL. This electron edge contains 10–200 eV, low-density, isotropic electrons, presumably originating from the solar wind halo population. These are occasionally observed with bursts of parallel and/or anti-parallel-directed electron beams with higher fluxes, which are possibly accelerated near the magnetopause X-line. We then use 3 years of data from mid-altitude cusp crossings (327 events to carry out a statistical study of the location and size of the electron edge of the LLBL. We find that the equatorward boundary of the LLBL electron edge is observed at 10:00–17:00 magnetic local time (MLT and is located typically between 68° and 80° invariant latitude (ILAT. The location of the electron edge shows a weak, but significant, dependence on some of the external parameters (solar wind pressure, and IMF BZ- component, in agreement with expectations from previous studies of the cusp location. The latitudinal extent of the electron edge has been estimated using new multi-spacecraft techniques. The Cluster tetrahedron crosses the electron and ion boundaries of the LLBL/cusp with

  1. A trial of darbepoetin alfa in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeffer, Marc A; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Chen, Chao-Yin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and renal events among patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Although darbepoetin alfa can effectively increase hemoglobin levels, its effect on clinical outcomes in these patients has not been adequately...... tested. METHODS: In this study involving 4038 patients with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and anemia, we randomly assigned 2012 patients to darbepoetin alfa to achieve a hemoglobin level of approximately 13 g per deciliter and 2026 patients to placebo, with rescue darbepoetin alfa when the hemoglobin...... assigned to darbepoetin alfa and 496 patients assigned to placebo (Pchronic kidney disease...

  2. Validation of measured poleward TEC gradient using multi-station GPS with Artificial Neural Network based TEC model in low latitude region for developing predictive capability of ionospheric scintillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, D.; Paul, A.

    2017-12-01

    The equatorial ionosphere shows sharp diurnal and latitudinal Total Electron Content (TEC) variations over a major part of the day. Equatorial ionosphere also exhibits intense post-sunset ionospheric irregularities. Accurate prediction of TEC in these low latitudes is not possible from standard ionospheric models. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based Vertical TEC (VTEC) model has been designed using TEC data in low latitude Indian longitude sector for accurate prediction of VTEC. GPS TEC data from the stations Calcutta (22.58°N, 88.38°E geographic, magnetic dip 32°), Baharampore (24.09°N, 88.25°E geographic, magnetic dip 35°) and Siliguri (26.72°N, 88.39°E geographic; magnetic dip 40°) are used as training dataset for the duration of January 2007-September 2011. Poleward VTEC gradients from northern EIA crest to region beyond EIA crest have been calculated from measured VTEC and compared with that obtained from ANN based VTEC model. TEC data from Calcutta and Siliguri are used to compute VTEC gradients during April 2013 and August-September 2013. It has been observed that poleward VTEC gradient computed from ANN based TEC model has shown good correlation with measured values during vernal and autumnal equinoxes of high solar activity periods of 2013. Possible correlation between measured poleward TEC gradients and post-sunset scintillations (S4 ≥ 0.4) from northern crest of EIA has been observed in this paper. From the observation, a suitable threshold poleward VTEC gradient has been proposed for possible occurrence of post-sunset scintillations at northern crest of EIA along 88°E longitude. Poleward VTEC gradients obtained from ANN based VTEC model are used to forecast possible ionospheric scintillation after post-sunset period using the threshold value. It has been observed that these predicted VTEC gradients obtained from ANN based VTEC model can forecast post-sunset L-band scintillation with an accuracy of 67% to 82% in this dynamic low latitude

  3. Rayleigh LiDAR investigation of stratospheric sudden warming over a low latitude station, Gadanki (13.5ºN; 79.2ºE) – a statistical study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Charyulu, DV

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available such interesting event used to occur in the middle atmosphere temperature profile, is SSW. The SSW is used to occur during winter and mostly in polar region. The strength of the warming and the direction of meridional circulations lead the effect of SSW even... (HALOE) on board the UARS satellite. Since there have not been any extensive statistical studies on the SSW for low latitude using long database, we believe that our results is the first of its kind. 2. DATA a. LiDAR data The data set presented...

  4. Oraal semi-chronisch toxiciteitsonderzoek van alfa-HCH bij de rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper HA; den Tonkelaar EM; van Leeuwen FXR; Franken MAM; Dormans JAMA

    1986-01-01

    Zowel voor lindaan (gamma-HCH) als zijn isomeren alfa- en beta-HCH die in levensmiddelen kunnen voorkomen is nu de semi-chronische toxiciteit onderzocht. Uit het onderzoek met alfa-HCH blijkt dat hierbij de lever het belangrijkste doelwitorgaan is, met name de toename van het levergewicht, inductie

  5. Pyoderma gangrenosum in a patient with cryoglobulinemia and hepatitis C successfully treated with interferon alfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J B; Shenefelt, P D; Soto, O; Valeriano, J

    1996-05-01

    We describe a patient with long-standing pyoderma gangrenosum unresponsive to therapy. The patient had concomitant cryoglobulinemia and hepatitis C. When the hepatitis C was treated with interferon alfa-2a his pyoderma gangrenosum resolved. Whether this was from the interferon alfa or spontaneous resolution is not known.

  6. Alternative method for quantification of alfa-amylase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF. Farias

    Full Text Available A modification of the sensitive agar diffusion method was developed for macro-scale determination of alfa-amylase. The proposed modifications lower costs with the utilisation of starch as substrate and agar as supporting medium. Thus, a standard curve was built using alfa-amylase solution from Aspergillus oryzae, with concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1. Clear radial diffusion zones were measured after 4 hours of incubation at 20 °C. A linear relationship between the logarithm of enzyme activities and the area of clear zones was obtained. The method was validated by testing α-amylase from barley at the concentrations of 2.4; 60; 300 and 1,500 U.mL-1. The proposed method turned out to be simpler, faster, less expensive and able to determine on a macro-scale α-amylase over a wide range (2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1 in scientific investigation as well as in teaching laboratory activities.

  7. A challenging alfa-fetoprotein in a cirrhotic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, P; Gentilucci, U Vespasiani; Taffon, C; Galati, G; De Vincentis, A; Muda, A Onetti; Picardi, A

    2014-03-01

    A 57-year-old Italian man was admitted to our Hospital for investigation of a progressively raising alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) on the background of chronic hepatitis B infection. At abdominal imaging,liver morphology was suspected for advanced fibrosis but without any focal lesion. Clinical and ultrasonographic examinations were negative for testicular masses. When the patient was screened for gastroesophageal varices, upper intestinal endoscopy did not show signs of portal hypertension, while it revealed a gastric lesion which was histologically characterized as hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS), with strong immunohistochemical positivity for AFP. The patient underwent subtotal gastrectomy and AFP fell within the normal range. This is a very rare case in which AFP-producing gastric cancer (AFPPGC), in the form of HAS, presented in a patient with chronic liver disease. Physicians should be particularly aware of AFPPGC when following patients with liver disorders due to the common use of AFP in this setting.

  8. Variation in occurrence of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) using All Sky Imager from low latitude station Kolhapur (16.8 °N, 74.2 °E, 10.6° dip. Lat.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. K.; Gurav, O. B.; Chavan, G. A.; Gaikwad, H. P.; Ghodpage, R. N.; Patil, P. T.

    2017-12-01

    All Sky Imager (ASI) data of over 351 nights with OI 630.0 nm emission recorded during 2011 to 2015 (increasing phase of 24th solar cycle) are analyzed to study the percentage occurrence of EPBs. The ASI is installed at low latitude station Kolhapur (16.8 °N, 74.2 °E, 10.6° dip. Lat.) which has 140° field of view (FOV). In this paper we have studied hourly, daily, seasonal and yearly percentage of occurrence of EPBs and their variation with solar and magnetic activity. The EPBs onset occurs at around 20:00 IST and extends towards dawn with a peak around midnight. We analyzed all the disturbed nights (Ap > 18) from the period of 2011 to 2015 and observed that the magnetic activity suppresses the occurrence of EPBs. Also the EPBs are fairly correlated with solar activity (10.7 cm solar flux).

  9. Seasonal, longitude, local time, and altitude distributions of electric field, magnetic field, and plasma density components of depletions, structures, and waves observed on the C/NOFS satellite in the low latitude ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the C/NOFS equatorial satellite provides simultaneous measurements of electric field, magnetic field, and plasma density irregularities associated with the equatorial ionosphere and in particular with plasma depletions. C/NOFS was launched into a 401 km by 857 km orbit with a 13 degree inclination in April, 2008 and gathered near continuous data until November, 2015. We present C/NOFS observations that address a variety of questions regarding the nature of equatorial plasma depletions, irregularities, and Alfven waves in the low latitude ionosphere. The presentation includes distributions of the different components with respect to longitude, latitude, local time, altitude, and season. Among the predominant findings are: (1) the strong tendency for plasma depletions to occur post-midnight in the April-September time frame where they were also observed predominantly in the African sector; (2) the prevalence of nighttime electric field structures to exist without corresponding density depletions or irregularities, particularly during solar minimum conditions; and (3) AC magnetic field observations which we interpret as signatures of small-scale filamentary currents and/or Alfven waves which were most pronounced in the South American sector after sunset. We focus in particular on the magnetic signatures which were strongest towards the end of the mission where solar activity (and hence the ambient plasma density) was moderately elevated and the satellite sampling altitudes were lowest. The AC magnetic field signatures appear in two categories: wave-like strutures, which do not appear to be organized about the magnetic equator and may represent Alfven waves propagating between hemispheres along closed magnetic field lines, and magnetic structures associated with plasma density depletions which, when combined with simultaneous electric field structures, reveal Poynting Flux energy flow in the poleward direction. The

  10. Alfa tahab TeliaSonerat Türgis üle pakkuda / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    TeliaSoneraga, kellele kuulub 37 protsenti Türgi operaatorfirma Turkcell aktsiatest, konkureerib täiendava 27 protsendise aktsiapaki ostmises Venemaa operaatorfirmaga Alfa Telecom. Lisa: Kaasosanike huvid põrkuvad. Diagramm: Konkurendid Vene MegaFonis

  11. Towards a Total Cross Section Measurement with the ALFA Detector at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Trzebiński, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    The main goals of the Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS (ALFA) detector is to provide an absolute luminosity and total cross section measurement. The measurement method used, the detector alignment and the quality of the collected data are discussed.

  12. Simulation of the ATLAS ALFA detector in comparison with testbeam data

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Felix-Fabian; Stenzel, H

    2010-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity for ATLAS) is a scintillating fiber detector for the determination of the absolute luminosity. ALFA con- sists of eight Roman Pots, four on each side of ATLAS at a distance of 240 m. Each detector is made of scintillating fibers with quadratic cross section, glued in UV geometry on ten double sided layers. The detectors are mounted in moveable Roman Pots and can approach the LHC beam up to 1.5 mm, to determine the luminosity from the differential t spectrum of elastically scattered protons using the optical theorem. This is done in special LHC calibration runs with large β ∗ , special focusing and low instant luminosity. The results of ALFA are needed for the calibration of ATLAS luminosity monitors like LUCID. This diploma thesis deals with the simulation of ALFA and the most recent testbeam campaign. A special focus is put on the comparison of results from simulation and testbeam.

  13. The development and validation of a sensitive, dual-flow cell, SPR-based biosensor immunoassay for the detection, semi-quantitation, and characterization of antibodies to darbepoetin alfa and epoetin alfa in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytych, Daniel T; La, Stephon; Barger, Troy; Ferbas, John; Swanson, Steven J

    2009-02-20

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor immunoassay was developed and validated using the Biacore 3000 instrument to detect, semi-quantitate, and characterize serum antibodies against darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp) and epoetin alfa (EPOGEN). In this sensitive, dual-flow cell assay, epoetin alfa and darbepoetin alfa are covalently immobilized onto consecutive flow cells of a carboxymethyl dextran-coated sensor chip. Diluted human serum samples are injected sequentially over both surfaces. The binding of serum antibodies to the immobilized proteins are detected and recorded in real time based on the principles of SPR. Furthermore, antibody binding is confirmed with a secondary anti-human immunoglobulin antibody. Positive samples are further characterized to determine the relative concentration of the antibodies using an affinity-purified, rabbit anti-epoetin alfa antibody as a reference control. The assay can detect 80ng/ml and 100ng/ml of antibody to epoetin alfa and darbepoetin alfa, respectively. The dynamic range of the assay is from 0.078microg/ml to 10microg/ml using a rabbit antibody with demonstrated accuracy and intra- and inter-assay precision. Approximately 80 serum samples can be analyzed on each sensor chip while maintaining a stable baseline and consistent immunological reactivity. The analysis of serum samples from subjects administered with epoetin alfa or darbepoetin alfa provided evidence that the assay can detect varying concentrations of antibodies of different off rates, isotypes, and IgG subclasses.

  14. Forward Detectors in ATLAS: ALFA, ZDC and LUCID

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    In order to determine the experimental cross sections for the observed physics processes, an estimation of the absolute luminosity is needed. In fact a careful study of “well known” processes will be one of the first steps of the LHC experiments as it can provide possible signatures of new physics which consist in deviations with respect to the Standard Model (SM) predictions. The methodologies for luminosity monitoring and total cross section estimation at the LHC will be reviewed in this talk along with the dedicated detectors of the ATLAS experiment. ATLAS will make extensive usage of the detectors in the forward region each one with a different task: LUCID (LUminosity measurement using Cherenkov Integrating Detector) is a system of 40 (2 x 20) Cherenkov tubes, surrounding the beam pipe at about 17 m from the interaction region. It will be able to monitor the collision-by-collision luminosity by detecting and counting the number of charged particles coming from the impact point. ALFA (Absolute Luminosi...

  15. Low Latitude Aeronomy Study in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    bubbles . Due to delay in deploying the instruments, we were not able to validate the TIEGCM results with new observations from Africa. However, the new...collaboration in the future. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Equatorial ionosphere, plasma bubble , thermospheric wind observations. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES). Enter the name and address of the organization(s) financially responsible for and

  16. Role of neutral wind and storm time electric fields inferred from the storm time ionization distribution at low latitudes: in-situ measurements by Indian satellite SROSS-C2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Subrahmanyam

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a renewal of interest in the study of the effects of solar weather events on the ionization redistribution and irregularity generation. The observed changes at low and equatorial latitudes are rather complex and are noted to be a function of location, the time of the storm onset and its intensity, and various other characteristics of the geomagnetic storms triggered by solar weather events. At these latitudes, the effects of geomagnetic storms are basically due to (a direct penetration of the magnetospheric electric fields to low latitudes, (b development of disturbance dynamo, (c changes in atmospheric neutral winds at ionospheric level and (d changes in neutral composition triggered by the storm time atmospheric heating.

    In the present study an attempt is made to further understand some of the observed storm time effects in terms of storm time changes in zonal electric fields and meridional neutral winds. For this purpose, observations made by the Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA payload on board the Indian satellite SROSS-C2 are examined for four prominent geomagnetic storm events that occurred during the high solar activity period of 1997-2000. Available simultaneous observations, from the GPS satellite network, are also used. The daytime passes of SROSS-C2 have been selected to examine the redistribution of ionization in the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA region. In general, EIA is observed to be weakened 12-24 h after the main phase onset (MPO of the storm. The storm time behaviour inferred by SROSS-C2 and the GPS satellite network during the geomagnetic storm of 13 November 1998, for which simultaneous observations are available, is found to be consistent. Storm time changes in the delay of received GPS signals are noted to be ~1-3 m, which is a significant component of the total delay observed on a quiet day.

    An attempt is made to identify and

  17. The origin of scattering in the inner Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharamaiah, K. R.; Narayan, Ramesh

    1988-01-01

    It is argued that the enhanced scattering of radiowaves observed at low Galactic longitude and latitude is caused by the low-density outer envelopes of H II regions in the inner 8 kpc of the Galaxy. A simple phenomenological theory is developed to estimate the strength of density fluctuations in a turbulent medium and apply the theory to the H II envelopes, using the densities and sizes determined from a recent 325-MHz recombination-line survey. The predicted values are in good agreement with the observations.

  18. Home infusion program for Fabry disease: experience with agalsidase alfa in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Kisinovsky

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by inherited deficiency of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. Enzyme replacement treatment using agalsidase alfa significantly reduces pain, improves cardiac function and quality of life, and slows renal deterioration. Nevertheless, it is a life-long treatment which requires regular intravenous infusions and entails a great burden for patients. Our objective was to evaluate retrospectively the safety and tolerability of the home infusion of agalsidase alfa in patients with Fabry disease in Argentina. We evaluated all the patients with Fabry disease who received home infusion with agalsidase alfa 0.2 mg/kg between January 2005 and June 2011. The program included 87 patients; 51 males (mean age: 30 years and 36 females (mean age: 34 years. A total of 5229 infusions (mean: 59 per patient; range: 1-150 were administered. A total of 5 adverse reactions were seen in 5 patients (5.7% of patients and 0.9% of the total number of infusions. All were mild in severity and resolved by reducing the rate of infusion and by using antihistaminics. All these 5 patients were positive for IgG antibodies, but none of them presented IgE antibodies and none suffered an anaphylactic shock. In our group 18 patients were switched from agalsidase beta to agalsidase alfa without complications. Home infusion with agalsidase alfa is safe, well tolerated and is associated to high compliance.

  19. Effects of MAPP Compatibilization and Acetylation Treatment Followed by Hydrothermal Aging on Polypropylene Alfa Fiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura Hamour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effect of hydrothermal aging on the properties of polypropylene/alfa fiber composites. Hydrothermal aging was induced in an environmental testing chamber at 65°C and 75% relative humidity (RH over a 1000 h period. At the beginning (t=0 h, the results showed that Young’s moduli of the untreated alfa fibers and the acetylation-treated fibers increased by 21% and 36%, respectively, compared with the virgin polypropylene (PP. Additionally, Young’s moduli decreased by 7% for the compatibilized composites composed of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP. After 1000 h of aging, Young’s moduli decreased by 36% for untreated alfa fibers and 29% for the acetylation-treated alfa fibers and the compatibilized composites. Significant degradation was observed in the untreated alfa fiber samples. The Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR allows us to distinguish the characteristic absorption bands of the main chemical functions present in the composite material before and after aging. The thermal properties showed that the thermal stability and the degree of crystallinity of the composites decreased after hydrothermal aging; this result was corroborated by the dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA results.

  20. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin is more effective than peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for treating chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Antonio; De Luca, Massimo; Tartaglione, Maria Teresa; Lampasi, Filippo; Di Costanzo, Giovan Giuseppe; Lanza, Alfonso Galeota; Picciotto, Francesco Paolo; Marino-Marsilia, Giuseppina; Fontanella, Luca; Leandro, Gioacchino

    2010-01-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are frequently treated with a combination of pegylated interferon (peginterferon) and ribavirin. This study compared the efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a and peginterferon alfa-2b, each in combination with ribavirin. A total of 320 consecutive, treatment-naive, HCV RNA-positive patients with chronic hepatitis were randomly assigned to once-weekly peginterferon alfa-2a (180 microg, group A) or peginterferon alfa-2b (1.5 microg/kg, group B) plus ribavirin 1000 mg/day (body weight or=75 kg) for 48 weeks (genotype 1 or 4) or 24 weeks (genotype 2 or 3). The primary end point was sustained virological response (SVR) by intention-to-treat. More patients in group A than group B achieved an SVR (110/160 [68.8%] vs 87/160 [54.4%]; P = .008). Higher SVR rates were obtained in group A than group B among patients with genotype 1/4 (51/93 [54.8%] vs 37/93 [39.8%]; P = .04), with genotype 2/3 (59/67 [88.1%] vs 50/67 [74.6%]; P = .046), without cirrhosis (96/127 [75.6%] vs 75/134 [55.9%]; P = .005), and with baseline levels HCV RNA >500,000 IU/mL (58/84 [69%] vs 43/93 [46.2%]; P = .002). SVR rates in groups A and B were not statistically different among patients with baseline HCV RNA alfa-2a plus ribavirin produced a significantly higher SVR rate than peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin. Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Possibilities of uranium recovering as by product of copper lixiviation solution in Salobo 3-Alfa-Carajas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohn, H.; Ferraioli, R.N.M.

    1983-05-01

    Geochemical and geophysics regional surveys performed by Nuclebras in 'Carajas, Para' State, show several favourable areas for uranium prospecting, including the 'Salobo 3-Alfa' copper mine. Some studies for increasing the Knowledge of uranium quantity and proportion and for accompanying the pilot plant installation, aiming the uranium extraction during the cycel of ore treatment in 'Salobo 3-Alfa' mine are described [pt

  2. Impact of illegal trade on the quality of epoetin alfa in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiou, Fotis; Aravind, Suresh; Wang, Ping-Ping; Nerapusee, Osot

    2009-02-01

    Reports from the World Health Organization have suggested that counterfeit medicines pose a serious problem in developing countries. An investigation of anti-erythropoietin antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia in Thailand found evidence of drug smuggling, which may have serious safety implications. This study assessed the authenticity and quality of epoetin alfa samples in Thailand. Samples of epoetin alfa-prefilled syringes were collected from the pharmacies at 2 major hospitals (62 samples), 8 retail pharmacies (41 samples), and Thai authorities (30 samples confiscated from smugglers at 2 airports, and 6 samples from a condominium used by smugglers). These samples were tested against the European Union Pharmacopeia specifications for aggregate content in epoetins of packaging components (eg, batch number, expiration date, appearance, letter size), and company's confidential features (eg, nature of the ink, type and quality of the paper, other covered features) were also investigated. The main outcome measures were protein aggregate content, determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting; and isoform distribution, assessed by isoelectric focusing and Western blotting. Epoetin alfa samples obtained from the company's cold-chain and authorized distribution channels met all quality standards, as did all epoetin alfa samples obtained from the hospital pharmacies. However, evidence showed that some samples were being smuggled or sold illegally through certain unauthorized retail pharmacies. The epoetin alfa samples obtained from both airports and the condominium were stored improperly at room temperature. Aggregate levels exceeded the specification of packaging were found to be authentic. This investigation found evidence that some epoetin alfa samples were smuggled into Thailand without proper cold chain, contained high levels of protein aggregates, and were sold illegally through certain retail pharmacies. The Thai

  3. Labile anger during interferon alfa treatment is associated with a polymorphism in tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrich, Francis E; Ferrell, Robert E; Rabinovitz, Mordechai; Pollock, Bruce G

    2010-07-01

    Inflammatory cytokines may influence both labile anger and depression. Both psychiatric conditions can occur during interferon alfa-based treatments. Evidence also indicates a central nervous system role for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), whose expression may be increased by interferon alfa. A polymorphism in the promoter region of TNF-alpha has been associated with various inflammatory illnesses. We therefore hypothesized that this TNF-alpha polymorphism would influence susceptibility to psychiatric symptoms during interferon alfa therapy. One hundred five patients with hepatitis C, initially without active major depression (major depressive disorder), were treated with interferon alfa and then prospectively monitored using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, the Beck Depression Inventory II, the Anger Irritability and Assault Questionnaire, and circulating TNF-alpha levels. The A-308G polymorphism (rs1800629) was determined using the 5'-nuclease assay. Repeated-measure mixed-effect analyses compared changes in symptoms over time. Beck Depression Inventory II score increased during interferon alfa therapy (F = 6.2; P depression incidence (chi = 0.0; P = 0.99) or increased Beck Depression Inventory II (F = 1.2; P = 0.31). Labile anger was not predicted by the serotonin transporter polymorphism (F = 0.8; P = 0.59). During treatment with an exogenous cytokine, vulnerability to worsening labile anger-distinct from major depression-is associated with genetic variability in TNF-alpha. This has implications both for patients being treated with interferon alfa and our understanding of genetic vulnerability for different subtypes of dysphoric and mood disorders.

  4. Estabilización de holo-alfa-lactoalbúmina en presencia de polioles

    OpenAIRE

    Albis, Alberto; Lozano, José; Romero, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio sistemático sobre el efecto de las soluciones acuosas de eritritol, xilitol, sorbitol e inositol con diferentes concentraciones, sobre la estabilidad térmica de la holo- alfa-lactoalbúmina bovina con pH 6,5 usando espectroscopia UV-VIS. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los polioles usados estabilizan la holo-alfa-lactoalbúmina en un grado significativamente menor al reportado para otras proteínas. Se sugiere que este menor efecto de estabilización o...

  5. ESTABILIZACIÓN DE HOLO-alfa-LACTOALBÚMINA EN PRESENCIA DE POLIOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Albis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un estudio sistemático sobre el efecto de las soluciones acuosas de eritritol, xilitol, sorbitol e inositol con diferentes concentraciones, sobre la estabilidad térmica de la holo- alfa-lactoalbúmina bovina con pH 6,5 usando espectroscopia UV-VIS. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los polioles usados estabilizan la holo-alfa-lactoalbúmina en un grado significativamente menor al reportado para otras proteínas. Se sugiere que este menor efecto de estabilización ocurre debido a que esta proteína presenta un estado desnaturalizado parcialmente desdoblado.

  6. Oxygenation of a rodent adenocarcinoma is improved by darbepoetin alfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, J.P.; Snyder, S.A.; Zhao, Y.; Peltz, C.; Brizel, D.M.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Blackwell, K.L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Tumor hypoxia, particularly in anemia, increases the risk of distant metastases and decreases survival. However, the benefits of stimulating erythropoiesis to supraphysiological levels are unclear. This study examines the effect of darbepoetin alfa (DEPA) on tumor oxygenation and the response to therapeutic radiation (XRT) in rats with initially normal hematocrit. R3230 adenocarcinoma was transplanted into the flank of female Fisher 344 rats. Starting on Day 4 post transplant, the rats received DEPA 3 μg/kg or normal saline sc tiw. At 3 weeks post transplant, pO2 was measured and the tumor excised, or the tumor was irradiated. pO2 was determined using an optical microprobe. In histologic studies, rats were injected with pimonidazole prior to sacrifice, and the tumors excised and stained with an antibody to pimonidazole (PIMO). Extent/intensity of staining was assessed by 3 observers and averaged to yield an IHC score. Rats ± DEPA with tumors 7 -12mm diameter were randomised to receive 32 Gy in 4 bid doses or sham irradiation. Tumor diameters in the 4 groups (±DEPA x ±XRT, total n=41) were measured by calipers. Failure was defined by the tumor reaching 15mm in diameter and used to generate Kaplan-Meier curves. Hematocrit at transplant averaged 45% (n=104) versus 67% in the DEPA-treated rats (n=18, p<0.0001) and 44% in the control animals (n=21.) Median pO2 in the DEPA-treated rats vs. controls did not differ significantly (17 vs. 13 mm Hg, p=0.10.) However, the fraction of tumor pO2 measurements <10mm Hg in the DEPA-treated rats was lower (21% vs. 37%, p=0.046.) IHC score was also less in the DEPA group (p=0.03.) XRT significantly improved failure-free survival (p<0.0001.) While the addition of DEPA to either the XRT or control groups did not significantly increase survival, the trend in both cases favored the DEPA-treated groups. In this tumor, treatment with DEPA improves oxygenation. However, no significant enhancement in radioesponsiveness by DEPA

  7. The role of the zonal E×B plasma drift in the low-latitude ionosphere at high solar activity near equinox from a new three-dimensional theoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A new three-dimensional, time-dependent theoretical model of the Earth's low and middle latitude ionosphere and plasmasphere has been developed, to take into account the effects of the zonal E×B plasma drift on the electron and ion number densities and temperatures, where E and B are the electric and geomagnetic fields, respectively. The model calculates the number densities of O+(4S, H+, NO+, O2+, N2+, O+(2D, O+(2P, O+(4P, and O+(2P* ions, the electron density, the electron and ion temperatures using a combination of the Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches and an eccentric tilted dipole approximation for the geomagnetic field. The F2-layer peak density, NmF2, and peak altitude, hmF2, which were observed by 16 ionospheric sounders during the 12–13 April 1958 geomagnetically quiet time high solar activity period are compared with those from the model simulation. The reasonable agreement between the measured and modeled NmF2 and hmF2 requires the modified equatorial meridional E×B plasma drift given by the Scherliess and Fejer (1999 model and the modified NRLMSISE-00 atomic oxygen density. In agreement with the generally accepted assumption, the changes in NmF2 due to the zonal E×B plasma drift are found to be inessential by day, and the influence of the zonal E×B plasma drift on NmF2 and hmF2 is found to be negligible above about 25° and below about –26° geomagnetic latitude, by day and by night. Contrary to common belief, it is shown, for the first time, that the model, which does not take into account the zonal E×B plasma drift, underestimates night-time NmF2 up to the maximum factor of 2.3 at low geomagnetic latitudes, and this plasma transport in geomagnetic longitude is found to be important in the calculations of NmF2 and hmF2 by night from about –20° to about 20° geomagnetic latitude. The longitude dependence of the night-time low-latitude influence of the zonal E×B plasma drift on NmF2, which is found for the first time, is

  8. A comparative study of night-time enhancement of TEC at a low latitude station on storm and quiet nights including the local time, seasonal and solar activity dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Unnikrishnan

    Full Text Available The main characteristics of night-time enhancements in TEC during magnetic storms are compared with those during quiet nights for different seasons and solar activity conditions at Palehua, a low latitude station during the period 1980–1989. We find that the mean amplitude has both a seasonal and solar activity dependence: in winter, the values are higher for weak storms as compared to those during quiet nights and increase with an increase in solar activity. In summer, the mean amplitude values during weak storms and quiet nights are almost equal. But during equinox, the mean amplitude values for quiet nights are greater than those during weak storms. The mean half-amplitude duration is higher during weak storms as compared to that during quiet nights in summer. However, during winter and equinox, the durations are almost equal for both quiet and weak storm nights. For the mean half-amplitude duration, the quiet night values for all the seasons and equinoctial weak storm values increase with an increase in solar activity. The occurrence frequency (in percent of TEC enhancement during weak storms is greater than during quiet nights for all seasons. The mean amplitude, the mean half-amplitude duration and the occurrence frequency (in percent of TEC enhancement values are higher during major storms as compared to those during quiet nights. The above parameters have their highest values during pre-midnight hours. From the data analysed, this behaviour is true in the case of major storms also.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; plasma convection Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  9. Interferon alfa in the treatment paradigm for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamm, D.; Brausi, M.; O'Donnell, M.A.; Witjes, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this article, we review the various options for and the potential role of interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) in the treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). METHODS: PubMed was searched for journal articles on IFN-alpha use in treating bladder cancer. The references listed in

  10. Treatment of human papillomavirus with peg-interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.P. Pavan

    Full Text Available We reported one case of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus co-infected patient who presented a significant improvement of human papillomavirus (HPV lesions during the treatment of chronic hepatitis using peg-interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin.

  11. A Trial of Darbepoetin Alfa in Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeffer, Marc A.; Burdmann, Emmanuel A.; Chen, Chao-Yin; Cooper, Mark E.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Feyzi, Jan M.; Ivanovich, Peter; Kewalramani, Reshma; Levey, Andrew S.; Lewis, Eldrin F.; McGill, Janet B.; McMurray, John J. V.; Parfrey, Patrick; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Singh, Ajay K.; Solomon, Scott D.; Toto, Robert

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and renal events among patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Although darbepoetin alfa can effectively increase hemoglobin levels, its effect on clinical outcomes in these patients has not been adequately

  12. Valorization of Tunisian alfa fibres and sumac tannins for the elaboration of biodegradable insulating panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Houda; Charrier, Bertrand; Ayed, Naceur; Charrier-El-Bouhtoury, Fatima

    2017-10-01

    Alfa leaves are important renewable raw materials in Tunisia where they are used basically in handcrafts and paper industry. Sumac is also an abundant species in Tunisia known for its high tannin content and is basically used in traditional medicine. To valorize these natural resources, we studied, for the first time, the possibility of making insulating panels based on alfa fibres and sumac tannins based adhesive. Firstly, alfa leaves were treated with an alkali solution as it is one of the standard procedures commonly used in the paper industry to extract cellulosic fibres. Mercerization effects were studied by characterizing fibres thermal properties and fibres surface morphology. Secondly, the sumac tannin based resin was formulated and characterized. Finally, the insulating panel was elaborated and characterized by determining its thermal conductivity. The thermal gravimetric analysis results show improvement in the thermal stability of fibres after alkali treatment. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy showed changes on treated alfa surface which could promote the fibre-matrix adhesion. The reactivity of sumac tannins to formaldehyde test (Stiasny number) showed the possible use of sumac tannins in wood adhesive formulation. Thermomechanical analysis and strength analysis of sumac tannin/hexamin based resin highlighted acceptable bonding properties. The thermal conductivity measurement showed an average value equal to 0.110 W/m K. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  13. Use of drotrecogin alfa (activated) in older patients with severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Sherri L; Ernst, Frank R

    2006-04-01

    Drotrecogin alfa (activated) has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of patients at high risk of death from severe sepsis. Severe sepsis is common, and its occurrence increases dramatically with age. Clinical use data, however, suggest that drotrecogin alfa (activated) may be underused in older patients, possibly due to concern over the drug's anticoagulant effects and perceived high cost. In addition, clinicians often treat older patients less aggressively than younger patients. We reviewed a subgroup analysis of patients aged 75 years and older from a large clinical trial evaluating efficacy and safety of drotrecogin alfa (activated), as well as cost-effectiveness data from real-world clinical use of the drug in older patients. We also explored ethical dilemmas of treating older patients with sepsis. Drotrecogin alfa (activated) is safe, effective, and cost-effective in older patients with severe sepsis and should be considered for elderly intensive care patients who are high risk of death and who have no contraindications to treatment.

  14. Arecibo Pulsar Survey Using ALFA. III. Precursor Survey and Population Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swiggum, J.K.; Lorimer, D.R.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Bates, S.D.; Champion, D.J.; Ransom, S.M.; Lazarus, P.; Brazier, A.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Nice, D.J.; Ellis, J.; Senty, T.R.; Allen, B.; Bhat, N.D.R.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J.M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.S.; Freire, P.C.C.; Jenet, F.A.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V.M.; Knispel, B.; Lee, K.J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lynch, R.; Lyne, A.G.; Scholz, P.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I.H.; Stappers, B.W.; Stovall, K.; Venkataraman, A.; Zhu, W.W.

    2014-01-01

    The Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) Survey uses the ALFA 7-beam receiver to search both inner and outer Galactic sectors visible from Arecibo (32° lsim ℓ lsim 77° and 168° lsim ℓ lsim 214°) close to the Galactic plane (|b| lsim 5°) for pulsars. The PALFA survey is sensitive to sources

  15. Spotlight on taliglucerase alfa in the treatment of pediatric patients with type 1 Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta P

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Punita Gupta,1 Gregory M Pastores2 1Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, St. Joseph’s Children’s Hospital, Paterson, New Jersey, USA; 2National Center for Inherited Metabolic Disorders, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Abstract: Gaucher disease (GD is a heritable storage disorder caused by functional defects of the lysosomal acid β-glucosidase and the accumulation of glucosylceramide within macrophages, resulting in multiple organ dysfunction. There are three commercially available enzyme replacement therapy (ERT products for the treatment of GD type 1 (GD1: imiglucerase, velaglucerase alfa, and taliglucerase alfa. Imiglucerase and velaglucerase alfa are produced in different mammalian cell systems; imiglucerase requires postproduction deglycosylation to expose terminal α-mannose residues, which are required for mannose receptor-mediated uptake by target macrophages. These steps are critical to the success of ERT for the treatment of visceral and hematologic manifestations of GD. Taliglucerase alfa is the first US Food and Drug Administration-approved plant-cell-expressed recombinant human protein, using carrot root cell cultures. Furthermore, it does not require postproduction glycosidic modifications. It is indicated for treatment of adults with GD1 in the US, Israel, Australia, Canada, Chile, Brazil, and other countries, and it is additionally approved for the treatment of pediatric patients in the US, Australia, and Canada and for the treatment of hematologic manifestations in pediatric patients with Type 3 GD in Canada and other countries. Our review focuses on the role of taliglucerase alfa in the pediatric population. A literature search through PubMed (from 1995 up till November 2016 of English language articles was performed with the following terms: Gaucher disease, lysosomal storage disease, taliglucerase. Secondary and tertiary references were obtained by reviewing

  16. Secondary hyperpigmentation during interferon alfa treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilika, Katerina; Tran, Albert; Trucchi, Régine; Pop, Sinziana; Anty, Rodolphe; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Passeron, Thierry

    2013-06-01

    Interferon alfa remains the central treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Cases of cutaneous and mucous hyperpigmentations during interferon alfa treatment have been reported, but they are considered rare adverse effects. To study the clinical presentation and frequency of hyperpigmentation in patients receiving interferon alfa treatment for chronic HCV infection. Prospective, descriptive clinical trial. Monocentric study performed in the Departments of Hepatology and Dermatology of the University Hospital of Nice, Nice, France. Consecutive patients treated with pegylated interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin for chronic HCV infection. Demographic data and medical history were noted. A systematic clinical and dermoscopic examination of skin, nails, and mucous membranes was performed, and skin biopsies were performed if needed. Of 77 patients who were included, 16 (21%) presented with hyperpigmentation. Hyperpigmentation of the oral mucous membrane, acquired longitudinal melononychia, and hyperpigmentation of the face were each observed in 7 patients (9%). All patients with hyperpigmentation of the skin had skin type III or IV and worked outside without sun protection. The intensity of pigmentation was reported to decrease progressively when interferon treatment was discontinued. Most patients with hyperpigmentation of the oral mucosa also had melanonychia. However, patients with hyperpigmentation of the skin did not have mucosal or nail involvement, suggesting 2 distinct mechanisms. Secondary hyperpigmentation during interferon alfa treatment occurs as an adverse event in 21% of patients, especially in those with dark skin types who have unprotected sun exposure. Physicians should be aware of the adverse effects of interferon treatment and advise patients in the use of sun protection, especially patients with darker skin types.

  17. Biostratigraphy and assemblage evolution in Planktic Foraminifera across the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition in low latitude, northern and southern Tethys realm: El Kef GSSP, Elles (Tunisia) and Agost, Caravaca (Betic Cordillera, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallala, N.; Zaghbib-Turki, D.; Turki, M. M.; Arenillas, I.; Arz, J. A.; Molina, E.

    2009-04-01

    The detailed planktic foraminiferal biostratigraphic and quantitative study from the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) transition interval of the most expanded and continuous sections located in Spanish (Agost, Caravaca) and Tunisian sections (El Kef and Ellès), allows us to establish the zonation and subzonation of this interval and to distinguish four Acme-stages across the K/Pg transition interval of these low latitude sections. The uppermost Maastrichtian in Tunisian and Spanish sections, is characterized by standard planktic foraminiferal zones: Abathomphalus mayaroensis subdivided into Plummerita hantkeninoides Subzones. This index species is absent at middle and high-latitude twice in Atlantic and Antarctic oceans. Consequently, this species is considered to be restricted to the tropical and subtropical deep seawater. The lower Danian is characterized by Guembelitria cretacea, Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina, and Parasubbotina pseudobulloides biozones. The Guembelitria cretacea Zone was subdivided into the Hedbergella holmdelensis and Parvularugoglobigerina longiapertura Subzones; the Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina Zone into the Parvularugoglobigerina sabina and Eoglobigerina simplicissima Subzones; and the Parasubbotina pseudobulloides Zone into the Eoglobigerina trivialis and Subbotina triloculinoides Subzones. These zones and subzones are less expanded at the Caravaca and Agost sections than in Tunisian sections: El Kef (Global Stratotype Section and Point for the K/Pg) and Ellès, but it is sufficiently expanded to analyze correctly the planktic foraminiferal assemblage evolution across the K-Pg transition. Across this transition, at the Tethys area, we have identified four Acme-stages: Acme-stage 0: is typical of the upper Maastrichtian interval is dominated by cosmopolitan species dwelling surface and intermediate seawater. Acme-stage 1: is typical of the G. cretacea Zone and is dominated by Guembelitria species belonging to "Cretaceous survivors" species

  18. Inter-comparison of cosmogenic in-situ 3He, 21Ne and 36Cl at low latitude along an altitude transect on the SE slope of the Kilimanjaro volcano (3°S, Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelpfennig, I.; Williams, A.; Pik, R.; Burnard, P.; Niedermann, S.; Finkel, R. C.; Benedetti, L.; Schneider, B.

    2010-12-01

    Because the intensity and energy spectrum of the cosmic ray flux is affected by atmospheric depth and geomagnetic-field strength, cosmogenic nuclide production rates increase considerably with altitude and to a lesser degree with latitude. The scaling methods used to account for spatial variability in production rates assume that all cosmogenic nuclides have the same altitude dependence. In this study we evaluate whether the production rates of cosmogenic 36Cl, 3He and 21Ne change differently with altitude, which is plausible due to the different energy-thresholds of their production reactions. If so, nuclide-specific scaling factors would be required. Concentrations of the three cosmogenic nuclides were determined in mafic phenocrysts over an altitude transect between 1000 and 4300 m at Kilimanjaro volcano (3° S). Altitude-dependence of relative production rates was assessed in two ways: by determination of concentration ratios and by calculation of apparent exposure age ratios for all nuclide pairs. The latter accounts for characteristics of 36Cl that the stable nuclides 3He and 21Ne do not possess (radioactive decay, high sensitivity to mineral composition and significant contributions from production reactions other than spallation). All ratios overlap within error over the entire transect, and altitudinal variation in relative production rates is not therefore evident. This suggests that nuclide-specific scaling factors are not required for the studied nuclides at this low latitude location. However, because previous studies [1,2] documented anomalous altitude-dependent variations of 3He production at mid-latitude sites, the effect of latitude on cross-calibrations should be further evaluated. We determined cosmogenic 21Ne/3He concentration ratios of 0.187 ± 0.010 in pyroxenes and 0.375 ± 0.015 in olivines, agreeing with those reported in previous studies. Despite the absence of independently determined ages for the studied lava surfaces, the consistency in

  19. Features of 3–7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations in F-layer vertical drift and equatorial spread F observed over two low-latitude stations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhu

    2017-06-01

    characteristics. The results highlight the role of planetary-wave-type oscillations in the initiation and development of ESF in the Chinese low-latitude region.

  20. Stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and anemia treated with Darbepoetin Alfa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skali, Hicham; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2011-01-01

    More strokes were observed in the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT) among patients assigned to darbepoetin alfa. We sought to identify baseline characteristics and postrandomization factors that might explain this association....

  1. Comparison of GPS-TEC measurements with NeQuick2 and IRI model predictions in the low latitude East African region during varying solar activity period (1998 and 2008-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, E.; Damtie, B.; Moldwin, M. B.; Nigussie, M.

    2018-03-01

    shorter timescales (roughly periods of less than 16 days). In this case, NeQuick2 derived TEC shows better agreement with a long term period variations of GPS-TEC, while IRI-2016 and IRI-2007 show better agreement with observations during short term periodic variations. This indicates that the dependence of NeQuick2 derived TEC on F10.7 is seasonal. Hence, we suggest that representation of geomagnetic activity indices is required for better performance over the low latitude region.

  2. A Study of Diffractive Scattering with the ATLAS and ALFA Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2097773

    This thesis presents a study of diffractive scattering of high-energy protons. Hadronic diffraction is not well-understood and many alternative approaches exist. The Monte Carlo event generator Pythia 8 follows a Pomeron-based approach, where the invariant mass of the diffractive system and the squared momentum transfer $t$ of the system is set up according to a phenomenological Pomeron flux parameterization, which is parameterized by the super-critical Pomeron trajectory, $\\alpha(t) = 1 + \\varepsilon + \\alpha' t$, where the intercept parameter $\\varepsilon$ and the slope parameter $\\alpha'$ can be tuned by the user. A fast detector response simulation of the ALFA and ATLAS detectors has been developed in the Rivet toolkit for the purposes of this thesis. The developed simulation framework is able to handle the beam transport of diffractively scattered protons as well as impose the kinematic acceptance of the ALFA detector which was found to be approximately $\\xi \\lesssim 0.22$, with a pseudorapidity coverag...

  3. AN IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF BASIC THERAPY IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS (MUCOVYSCIDOSIS IN CHILDREN: DORNASE ALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Simonova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dornase alpha plays an important role in the basic treatment of cystic fibrosis, having three clinical effects: powerful mucolytic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. Early drug inclusion and its permanent administration in the basic therapy allows patients with cystic fibrosis to have an active life, with occasional illness recrudescence, long-lasting remissions, stable function of external respiration. The drug is appropriate to prescribe as preventive and curative for chronic bronchitis and chronic polypoid pansinusitis immediately if the diagnosis of «Cystic fibrosis» is established. The effectiveness of dornase alfa depends on strict adherence to the rules of its use. Key words: cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchopulmonary disease, mukostasis, children, chronic pansinusitis, nasal polyps, basic therapy,  dornase alfa, the rules of administration, inhalation therapy. (Pediatric Pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (5: 122–126.

  4. Agalsidase alfa versus agalsidase beta for the treatment of Fabry disease: an international cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Maarten; Biegstraaten, Marieke; Wanner, Christoph; Sirrs, Sandra; Mehta, Atul; Elliott, Perry M; Oder, Daniel; Watkinson, Oliver T; Bichet, Daniel G; Khan, Aneal; Iwanochko, Mark; Vaz, Frédéric M; van Kuilenburg, André B P; West, Michael L; Hughes, Derralynn A; Hollak, Carla E M

    2018-02-07

    Two recombinant enzymes (agalsidase alfa 0.2 mg/kg/every other week and agalsidase beta 1.0 mg/kg/every other week) have been registered for the treatment of Fabry disease (FD), at equal high costs. An independent international initiative compared clinical and biochemical outcomes of the two enzymes. In this multicentre retrospective cohort study, clinical event rate, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), antibody formation and globotriaosylsphingosine (lysoGb3) levels were compared between patients with FD treated with agalsidase alfa and beta at their registered dose after correction for phenotype and sex. 387 patients (192 women) were included, 248 patients received agalsidase alfa. Mean age at start of enzyme replacement therapy was 46 (±15) years. Propensity score matched analysis revealed a similar event rate for both enzymes (HR 0.96, P=0.87). The decrease in plasma lysoGb3 was more robust following treatment with agalsidase beta, specifically in men with classical FD (β: -18 nmol/L, Pbeta (OR 2.8, P=0.04). LVMI decreased in a higher proportion following the first year of agalsidase beta treatment (OR 2.27, P=0.03), while eGFR slopes were similar. Treatment with agalsidase beta at higher dose compared with agalsidase alfa does not result in a difference in clinical events, which occurred especially in those with more advanced disease. A greater biochemical response, also in the presence of antibodies, and better reduction in left ventricular mass was observed with agalsidase beta. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. AlfaMC: A fast alpha particle transport Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, Luis, E-mail: luis@lip.pt [Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas (Portugal); Louro, Alina [Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas (Portugal)

    2014-02-11

    AlfaMC is a Monte Carlo simulation code for the transport of alpha particles. This code is based on the Continuous Slowing Down Approximation and uses the NIST/ASTAR stopping-power database. The code uses a powerful geometrical package, which allows coding of complex geometries. A flexible histogramming package is used as well, which greatly eases the scoring of results. The code is tailored for microdosimetric applications in which speed is a key factor. Comparison with the SRIM code is made for deposited energy in thin layers and range for air, mylar, aluminum and gold. The general agreement between the two codes is good for beam energies between 1 and 12 MeV. -- Highlights: • AlfaMC is a Monte Carlo program for fast alpha particle transport in matter. • The model is accurate within a few percent in the energy range of 1–12 MeV. • AlfaMC uses a combinatorial geometry package allowing the modeling of complex bodies.

  6. Preparation And Properties Of Bionanocomposite Films Reinforced With Nanocellulose Isolated From Moroccan Alfa Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Benyoussif

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulose (NC were extracted from the Moroccan Alfa plant (Stipa tenacissima L. and characterised. These Alfa cellulosic nanoparticles were used as reinforcing phase to prepare bionanocomposite films using carboxymethyl cellulose as matrix. These films were obtained by the casting/evaporation method. The crystallinity of NC was analysed by X-ray diffraction, the dimension of NC by atomic force microscopy, molecular interactions due to incorporation of NC in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC matrix were supported by Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The properties of the ensuing bionanocomposite films were investigated using tensile tests, water vapour permeability (WVP study and thermogravimetric analysis. With the progress of purification treatment of cellulose, the crystallinity is improved compared to the untreated fibres; this can be explained by the disappearance of the amorphous areas in cellulose chain of the plant. Consequently, the tensile modulus and tensile strength of CMC film increased by 60 and 47%, respectively, in the bionanocomposite films with 10 wt% of NC, and decrease by 8.6% for WVP with the same content of NC. The NC obtained from the Moroccan Alfa fibres can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bionanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials.

  7. Effect of darbepoetin alfa on physical function in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørager, C B; Jensen, M B; Madsen, M R

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether perioperative treatment with darbepoetin alfa (DA) improves physical performance following colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Patients admitted for planned colorectal cancer surgery were randomized to receive either weekly placebo or DA 300 or 150 microg depending...... day 7. RESULTS: Of 221 included patients, 151 were evaluable. Baseline characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. Patients receiving DA had a significantly better working capacity on day 7 (p = 0.03) and day 30 (p = 0.03) compared with the placebo group. There were no statistically significant...

  8. Expressão local do fator de necrose tumoral alfa na ruptura prematura de membranas

    OpenAIRE

    Roveran,Valquíria; Silva,Maria Antonieta Longo Galvão; Yamano,Lucia; Rodrigues,Lilian Paiva; Vasquez,Mônica Lopez; Piato,Sebastião

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: comparar a expressão do fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α) em membranas ovulares com ruptura prematura (RPM) e com ruptura oportuna das mesmas; verificar a associação entre a expressão do TNF-α em membranas ovulares e o grau de corioamnionite das mesmas e correlacionar a expressão do TNF-α e o tempo de ruptura das membranas. MÉTODOS: foram analisadas as membranas ovulares de 31 parturientes com RPM, com idade gestacional acima de 34 semanas, e de 14 parturientes co...

  9. Induction and characterization of an unusual Alfa-D-galactosidase from Talaromyces flavus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simerská, Pavla; Monti, D.; Čechová, Ivana; Pelantová, Helena; Macková, M.; Bezouška, Karel; Riva, S.; Křen, Vladimír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 1 (2007), s. 61-71 ISSN 0168-1656 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0172; GA MŠk OC D25.002; GA MŠk LC06010; GA MŠk OC D25.001 Grant - others:US(US) NATO LST.CLG.980125 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: N - neverejné zdroje Keywords : alfa-d-galactosidase * talaromyces flavus * enzyme purification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.565, year: 2007

  10. A redesigned follitropin alfa pen injector for infertility: results of a market research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbotts C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Carole Abbotts1, Cristiana Salgado-Braga2, Céline Audibert-Gros31Pharmaceutical Marketing Research Consultancy, London, UK; 2Fertility and Endocrinology Global Business Unit, 3Business Intelligence, Merck Serono SA, Geneva, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient-learning and nurse-teaching experiences when using a redesigned prefilled, ready-to-use follitropin alfa pen injector.Methods: Seventy-three UK women of reproductive age either administering daily treatment with self-injectable gonadotropins or about to start gonadotropin treatment for infertility (aged 24–47 years; 53 self-injection-experienced and 20 self-injection-naïve and 28 nurses from UK infertility clinics were recruited for the study. Following instruction, patients and nurses used the redesigned follitropin alfa pen to inject water into an orange and completed questionnaires to evaluate their experiences with the pen immediately after the simulated injections.Results: Most (88%, n = 64 patients found it easy to learn how to use the pen. Among injection-experienced patients, 66% (n = 35 agreed that the redesigned pen was easier to learn to use compared with their current method and 70% (n = 37 also said they would prefer its use over current devices for all injectable fertility medications. All nurses considered the redesigned pen easy to learn and believed it would be easy to teach patients how to use. Eighty-six percent (n = 24 of the nurses thought it was easy to teach patients to determine the remaining dose to be dialed and injected in a second pen if the initial dose was incomplete. Compared with other injection devices, 96% (n = 27 thought it was "much easier" to "as easy" to teach patients to use the redesigned pen. Based on ease of teaching, 68% (n = 19 of nurses would choose to teach the pen in preference to any other injection method. Almost all (93%, n = 26 nurses considered that having the same pen format for a range of

  11. GSI Helmholz Centre for Heavy Ion Research - ALFA: Next generation concurrent framework for ALICE and FAIR experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    FAIR is a new, unique international accelerator facility for the research with antiprotons and ions. It is being built at the GSI Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany. The commonalities between the ALICE and FAIR experiments and their computing requirements led to the development of a common software framework in an experiment independent way; ALFA (ALICE-FAIR framework). ALFA is designed for high quality parallel data processing and reconstruction on heterogeneous computing systems. It provides a data transport layer and the capability to coordinate multiple data processing components. ALFA is a flexible, elastic system which balances reliability and ease of development with performance by using a message based multi-processing in addition to multi-threading. The framework allows for usage of heterogeneous computing architectures by offloading (portions of code are accelerated on the device) or natively (where the full program is executed on the device ).

  12. Changes in plasma and urine globotriaosylceramide levels do not predict Fabry disease progression over 1 year of agalsidase alfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffmann, Raphael; Ries, Markus; Blankenship, Derek; Nicholls, Kathy; Mehta, Atul; Clarke, Joe T R; Steiner, Robert D; Beck, Michael; Barshop, Bruce A; Rhead, William; West, Michael; Martin, Rick; Amato, David; Nair, Nitin; Huertas, Pedro

    2013-12-01

    Globotriaosylceramide concentrations were assessed as potential predictors of change from baseline after 12 months by estimated glomerular filtration rate and left-ventricular mass index using pooled data from three randomized, placebo-controlled agalsidase alfa trials and open-label extensions of patients with Fabry disease. Males (aged 18 years or older) with Fabry disease received agalsidase alfa (0.2 mg/kg every other week for 12 months). A backward-elimination approach evaluated potential predictors (baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate and left-ventricular mass index; age at first dose; baseline and change from baseline at 12 months of globotriaosylceramide (urine, plasma); urine protein excretion; and systolic and diastolic blood pressure). Subgroups included patients randomized to placebo or agalsidase alfa (double-blind phase), then to agalsidase alfa (open-label extensions; placebo→agalsidase alfa or agalsidase alfa→agalsidase alfa, respectively) and stage 2/3 chronic kidney disease patients. Baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, age at first dose, baseline urine globotriaosylceramide excretion, and baseline and change from baseline urine protein excretion significantly predicted change from baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate in the analysis population (N = 73; all P<0.05), although not in all subgroups. Change from baseline urine and plasma globotriaosylceramide (baseline and change from baseline) concentrations did not predict change from baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate. No predictors of left-ventricular mass index were significant. Changes in globotriaosylceramide concentrations do not appear to be useful biomarkers for prediction of Fabry disease-related changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate or left-ventricular mass index.

  13. Addition of highly purified HMG after corifollitropin alfa in antagonist-treated poor ovarian responders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyzos, N P; De Vos, M; Corona, R; Vloeberghs, V; Ortega-Hrepich, C; Stoop, D; Tournaye, H

    2013-05-01

    Will sequential administration of highly purified (hp)-HMG after corifollitropin alfa in a GnRH antagonist protocol benefit women with poor ovarian response according to the Bologna criteria? Corifollitropin alfa followed by hp-HMG in a GnRH antagonist protocol results in very promising pregnancy rates, albeit only in young (effect in young poor ovarian responders fulfilling the Bologna criteria. The data provide the rationale for performing a randomized controlled trial to determine if there is sound evidence for a clinical introduction of this protocol. No conflicts of interest to declare. No specific funding was received for this study.

  14. alfa-Deuterium kinetic isotope effects in reactions of methyllithium. Is better aggregation the cause of lower reactivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil

    1996-01-01

    The value of kH/kD for alfa deuterium kinetic isotope effects for the reaction of methyllithium and methylmagnesium iodid with a series of substrates are consistently ca. 10-15 % higher for the lithium reagent. This may indicate a pre-equilibrium......The value of kH/kD for alfa deuterium kinetic isotope effects for the reaction of methyllithium and methylmagnesium iodid with a series of substrates are consistently ca. 10-15 % higher for the lithium reagent. This may indicate a pre-equilibrium...

  15. Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossetto, C.J.; Bortoletto, N.; Carvalho, C.R.L.; Castro, J.V. de; Pinto, A.C. de Q.; Cortelazzo, A.L.

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

  16. Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, C.J.; Bortoletto, N., E-mail: rossetto@iac.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Votuporanga, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Noroeste Paulista; Walder, J.M.M.; Mastrangelo, T. de A., E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, C.R.L.; Castro, J.V. de, E-mail: climonta@iac.sp.gov.b, E-mail: josalba@iac.sp.gov.b [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pinto, A.C. de Q. [EMBRAPA, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Cortelazzo, A.L., E-mail: angelo@unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2006-07-01

    The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

  17. Interleukin-10 promoter polymorphism predicts initial response of chronic hepatitis B to interferon alfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Weimin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to examine whether variation in interleukin-10 promoter polymorphism would predict the likelihood of sustain response of chronic hepatitis B to treatment with interferon alfa (IFN-α, the inheritance of 3 biallelic polymorphisms in the IL-10 gene promoter in patients with 52 chronic hepatitis B were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-bared techniques, restriction enzyme digestion or direct sequencing. The relationship to the outcome of antiviral therapy for chronic HBV infection was studied in 24 patients who had a virologically sustained response(SR and in 28 non-responder(NR to interferon alfa-2b and several IL-10 variants were more frequent among SR compared with NR. Carriage of the -592A allele, -592A/A genotype and -1082/-1819/-592 ATA haplotype was associated with SR. Our findings indicate that heterogeneity in the promoter region of the IL-10 gene has a role in determining the initial response of chronic hepatitis B to IFN-α therapy.

  18. FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction characterization of microcrystalline cellulose obtained from alfa fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trache D.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many cereal straws have been used as raw materials for the preparation of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC. These raw materials were gradually replaced with wood products; nevertheless about 10% of the world overall pulp production is obtained from non-wood raw material. The main interest in pulp made from straw is that it provides excellent fibres for different industries with special properties, and that it is the major available source of fibrous raw material in some geographical areas. The aim of the present work was to characterize microcrystalline cellulose prepared from alfa fibers using the hydrolysis process. The products obtained are characterized with FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. As a result, FTIR spectroscopy is an appropriate technique for studying changes occurred by any chemical treatment. The spectrum of alfa grass stems shows the presence of lignin and hemicelluloses. However, the cellulose spectrum indicates that the extraction of lignin and hemicellulose was effective. The X-ray analysis indicates that the microcrystalline cellulose is more crystalline than the source material.

  19. De-squeeze the beams: the TOTEM and ATLAS/ALFA experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    A special week-long proton–proton run with larger beam sizes at the interaction point is intended to probe the p-p elastic scattering regime at small angles.   Nicola Turini, deputy spokesperson for TOTEM, in front of one of the experiment’s ‘Roman Pot’ detectors in the LHC tunnel. (Photo: Maximilien Brice/CERN) Usually, the motto of the LHC is “maximum luminosity”. But for a few days per year, the LHC ignores its motto to run at very low luminosity for the forward experiments. This week, the LHC will provide the TOTEM and ATLAS/ALFA experiments with data for a broad physics programme. The TOTEM experiment at Point 5 and the ATLAS/ALFA experiment at Point 1 study the elastic scattering of protons, which are not observable in normal operation runs. In the elastic scattering process, the two protons survive their encounter intact and only change directions by exchanging momentum. To allow this special run, the operators play with the so-c...

  20. Dornase Alfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis. It breaks down the thick secretions in the airways, allowing ... symptoms are severe or do not go away. voice changes sore throat hoarseness eye irritation rash If ...

  1. Hyporesponsiveness to Darbepoetin Alfa in Patients With Heart Failure and Anemia in the RED-HF Study (Reduction of Events by Darbepoetin Alfa in Heart Failure): Clinical and Prognostic Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Peter; Grote Beverborg, Niels; Pfeffer, Marc A; Olson, Kurt; Anand, Inder S; Westenbrink, B Daan; McMurray, John J V; Swedberg, Karl; Young, James B; Solomon, Scott D; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J

    2018-02-01

    A poor response to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents such as darbepoetin alfa has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and anemia; whether this is also true in heart failure is unclear. We performed a post hoc analysis of the RED-HF trial (Reduction of Events by Darbepoetin Alfa in Heart Failure), in which 1008 patients with systolic heart failure and anemia (hemoglobin level, 9.0-12.0 g/dL) were randomized to darbepoetin alfa. We examined the relationship between the hematopoietic response to darbepoetin alfa and the incidence of all-cause death or first heart failure hospitalization during a follow-up of 28 months. For the purposes of the present study, patients in the lowest quartile of hemoglobin change after 4 weeks were considered nonresponders. The median initial hemoglobin change in nonresponders (n=252) was -0.25 g/dL and +1.00 g/dL in the remainder of patients (n=756). Worse renal function, lower sodium levels, and less use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers were independently associated with nonresponse. Although a low endogenous erythropoietin level helped to differentiate responders from nonresponders, its predictive value in a multivariable model was poor (C statistic=0.69). Nonresponders had a higher rate of all-cause death or first heart failure hospitalization (hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.54) and a higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.63) than responders. A poor response to darbepoetin alfa was associated with worse outcomes in heart failure patients with anemia. Patients with a poor response were difficult to identify using clinical and biochemical biomarkers. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00358215. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Randomized, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority study of the CONSORT algorithm for individualized dosing of follitropin alfa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivennes, F.; Trew, G.; Borini, A.; Broekmans, F.; Arriagada, P.; Warne, D. W.; Howles, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    In this randomized, controlled, open-label, phase IV study, ovarian response after a follitropin alfa starting dose determined by the CONSORT calculator was compared with a standard dose (150 IU). Normo-ovulatory women (aged 18-34 years) eligible for assisted reproductive techniques were recruited

  3. Daclatasvir plus peginterferon alfa and ribavirin for treatment-naive chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 or 4 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hézode, Christophe; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Ghesquiere, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of daclatasvir, an HCV NS5A inhibitor with pangenotypic activity, administered with peginterferon-alfa-2a/ribavirin. DESIGN: In this Phase 2b double-blind, placebo-controlled study, treatment-naive adults with HCV genotype 1 (N=365) or 4 (N=30) infec...

  4. Generation of an alfa-L-rhamnosidase Library and its Application for the Selective Derhamnosylation of Natural Products

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monti, D.; Pišvejcová, Andrea; Křen, Vladimír; Lama, M.; Riva, S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 6 (2004), s. 763-771 ISSN 0006-3592 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D25.002 Grant - others:GANATO(XX) No LSTCLG.980125 Keywords : alfa-l-rhamnosidases * glycosidases * natural glycosides Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.216, year: 2004

  5. Increased risk of stroke with darbepoetin alfa in anaemic heart failure patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello, Natalie A.; Lewis, Eldrin F.; Desai, Akshay S.; Anand, Inder S.; Krum, Henry; McMurray, John J. V.; Olson, Kurt; Solomon, Scott D.; Swedberg, Karl; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Young, James B.; Pfeffer, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The use of an erythropoesis-stimulating agent, darbepoetin alfa (DA), to treat anaemia in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease was associated with a heightened risk of stroke and neutral efficacy in the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events with Aranesp Therapy (TREAT),

  6. Characterization of IXINITY® (Trenonacog Alfa, a Recombinant Factor IX with Primary Sequence Corresponding to the Threonine-148 Polymorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dougald M. Monroe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of these studies was to extensively characterize the first recombinant FIX therapeutic corresponding to the threonine-148 (Thr-148 polymorph, IXINITY (trenonacog alfa [coagulation factor IX (recombinant]. Gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism, and gel filtration were used to determine purity and confirm structure. Chromatographic and mass spectrometry techniques were used to identify and quantify posttranslational modifications. Activity was assessed as the ability to activate factor X (FX both with and without factor VIIIa (FVIIIa and in a standard clotting assay. All results were consistent across multiple lots. Trenonacog alfa migrated as a single band on Coomassie-stained gels; activity assays were normal and showed 97%  γ-carboxylation and underwent the appropriate structural change upon binding calcium ions. Trenonacog alfa was activated normally with factor XIa (FXIa; once activated it bound to FVIIIa and FXa. When activated to FIXa, it was inhibited efficiently by antithrombin. Glycosylation patterns were similar to plasma-derived FIX with sialic acid content consistent with the literature reports of good pharmacokinetic performance. These studies have shown that trenonacog alfa is a highly pure product with a primary sequence and posttranslational modifications consistent with the common Thr-148 polymorphism of plasma-derived FIX.

  7. Dificuldades na identificação laboratorial da talassemia alfa Difficulty on laboratory identification of alpha thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlla Greick Batista Dias-Penna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Talassemia alfa é uma síndrome associada à redução da síntese de cadeias de globina do tipo alfa. A gravidade das manifestações clínicas está relacionada com a quantidade de globinas produzida e a estabilidade das cadeias beta presentes em excesso. A talassemia alfa mínima resulta da deleção de apenas um dos quatro genes a (-α/αα. Clinicamente apresenta anemia leve com microcitose ou ausência de anemia, sendo o diagnóstico realizado por meio de visualização da hemoglobina (Hb H por eletroforese alcalina em acetato de celulose ou por identificação de inclusões celulares de Hb H coradas pelo azul de crezil brilhante. Objetivo: Avaliar portadores de talassemia alfa e seus respectivos progenitores, correlacionando perfil hematológico e presença de Hb H, utilizando procedimentos laboratoriais clássicos em três diferentes amostragens. Discussão e conclusão: Os dados obtidos mostram que a presença de Hb H, indicativo de talassemia alfa, pode não ser confirmada em uma análise posterior. Entre os fatores que podem influenciar no não aparecimento de Hb H em pessoa comprovadamente com talassemia alfa está a deficiência de ferro. A talassemia alfa está associada a defeitos envolvendo os genes codificadores da cadeia alfa, mas também pode estar relacionada com desbalanciamento temporário na expressão dos genes globina, diminuição de alfa ou aumento de beta, o que poderia explicar o aparecimento de tetrâmeros de cadeia beta (Hb H, sugerindo diagnóstico de talassemia alfa mínima.Introduction: Alpha thalassemia is a syndrome with associated with the reduction of alpha globin chain synthesis. The severity of clinical manifestations is related to the amount of globins produced and the stability of beta chains that are present in excess. Alpha thalassemia minor is caused by the deletion of one of the four genes a (-α/αα. Clinically, it presents mild anemia with microcytosis or absence of anemia. The

  8. Using ALFA for high throughput, distributed data transmission in the ALICE O2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzynek, A.; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter (the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider). ALICE has been successfully collecting physics data in Run 2 since spring 2015. In parallel, preparations for a major upgrade of the computing system, called O2 (Online-Offline), scheduled for the Long Shutdown 2 in 2019-2020, are being made. One of the major requirements of the system is the capacity to transport data between so-called FLPs (First Level Processors), equipped with readout cards, and the EPNs (Event Processing Node), performing data aggregation, frame building and partial reconstruction. It is foreseen to have 268 FLPs dispatching data to 1500 EPNs with an average output of 20 Gb/s each. In overall, the O2 processing system will operate at terabits per second of throughput while handling millions of concurrent connections. The ALFA framework will standardize and handle software related tasks such as readout, data transport, frame building, calibration, online reconstruction and more in the upgraded computing system. ALFA supports two data transport libraries: ZeroMQ and nanomsg. This paper discusses the efficiency of ALFA in terms of high throughput data transport. The tests were performed with multiple FLPs pushing data to multiple EPNs. The transfer was done using push-pull communication patterns and two socket configurations: bind, connect. The set of benchmarks was prepared to get the most performant results on each hardware setup. The paper presents the measurement process and final results - data throughput combined with computing resources usage as a function of block size. The high number of nodes and connections in the final set up may cause race conditions that can lead to uneven load balancing and poor scalability. The performed tests allow us to validate whether the traffic is distributed evenly over all receivers. It also measures the behaviour of

  9. Efficacy and safety of once-weekly intravenous epoetin alfa in maintaining hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Francesco; Villa, Giuseppe; Messa, Piergiorgio; Filippini, Armando; Cannella, Giuseppe; De Ferrari, Giacomo; Naso, Agostino; Rossi, Egidio; Formica, Marco; Lombardi, Luigi; Rotolo, Ugo; Conte, Feruccio

    2008-01-01

    Although an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) is most frequently administered intravenously for treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease who are on dialysis, few studies have compared the efficacy of different intravenous (i.v.) dosing schedules. This multicenter, phase IIIb, open-label, controlled study randomized 289 stable hemodialysis patients to continue with conventional dosing of i.v. epoetin alfa or darbepoetin, or to switch to once-weekly i.v. epoetin alfa at the same cumulative weekly starting dose, to maintain hemoglobin levels at 11.0-13.0 g/dL, and within 1.0 g/dL of the baseline value. Hemoglobin levels and ESA doses were recorded every 4 weeks for 28 weeks. Hemoglobin levels fell significantly and ESA doses increased significantly between baseline and week 28 (mean of week 16-28 values) in the once-weekly epoetin alfa group, compared with the conventional treatment group (phemoglobin levels between the groups was 0.73 g/dL (greater than the threshold for therapeutic equivalence of 0.5 g/dL). The changes between groups from baseline was significant at all time points for hemoglobin levels (0.36, 0.46, 0.81, 0.87, 0.78, 0.62 and 0.49 g/dL) and from week 12 for ESA dose (718.5, 1,326.5, 1,732.0, 1,839.7 and 1,959.1 IU/week; p=0.005). Hemoglobin was maintained at the target level in 78% and 84% of patients on conventional dosing, and 67% and 64% of those on once-weekly epoetin alfa in the intention-to-treat (p=0.1) and per protocol (p=0.016) populations, respectively. This study did not show therapeutic equivalence of once-weekly i.v. epoetin alfa with conventional dosing regimens.

  10. Expresión de los genes implicados en la glicosilación del alfa-distroglicano en el desarrollo embrionario del pollo (gallus gallus).

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo, A.; Luis, O. de; Gómez-Esquer, F.; Tarilonte, P.; Fano, O.; Raducu, M.; Cruces, J.; Coloma, A.

    2009-01-01

    El distroglicano es el componente fundamental del complejo de glicoproteínas de unión a distrofina, sirviendo de puente entre el citoesqueleto de actina y la matriz extracelular en células musculares y en neuronas. El distroglicano es una glicoproteína formada por dos subunidades alfa y beta unidas por uniones no covalentes. El déficit de glicosilación del alfa-distroglicano da lugar a un tipo de distrofias musculares congénitas con afectación neuronal y ocular, denominadas alfa-distroglicano...

  11. ALGLUCOSIDASE ALFA — A NEW STAGE IN THE THERAPY OF INFANTILE POMPE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Basargina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease is a rare severe hereditary disease caused by excessive glycogen storage in organs and target tissues due to the acid α-glucosidase gene mutation. Infantile and adult Pompe disease is characterized by involvement of cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems in the pathological process. The only specific method of treating Pompe disease is enzyme replacement therapy (intravenous administration of recombinant human acid glucosidase, the effectiveness whereof depends on the time the therapy started. Since such a therapy was introduced into practice, Pompe disease mortality decreased by 79%. 6 children with infantile Pompe disease were observed and treated at the cardiovascular care unit of the Scientific Center of Children’s Health in 2011‑2014. The article presents a clinical case demonstrating capabilities of diagnosing infantile Pompe disease in Russia and effective application of alglucosidase alfa in 4-month-old child. 

  12. Interferon alfa-2b in the management of recurrent conjunctival papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Gautam, Natasha; Gupta, Adit; Kaur, Manpreet

    2016-10-01

    A 2-year-old boy presented with a recurrent strawberry-like reddish mass arising from the left caruncular region for 8 months. An incisional biopsy was performed elsewhere 2 months earlier, followed by an increase in size of mass, significant epiphora, and intermittent bleeding. On examination, exuberant exophytic gelatinous mass with multifocal origin was observed arising from inferior forniceal conjunctiva and caruncle. Clinical differential of multifocal conjunctival papilloma was kept, and topical interferon alfa-2b (INFα-2b) was started. No clinical reduction in mass or symptomatology was observed over 6 weeks. Excision biopsy with cryotherapy and subconjunctival injection of INFα-2b was performed over all foci. Conjunctival papilloma was confirmed on histopathology, and topical INFα-2b was continued in postoperative period for 3 months. At 14 months of follow-up, no recurrence, epiphora, or bleeding was noticed. We advocate a possible role of local INF therapy in managing and preventing recurrences of conjunctival papillomatosis.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UV counterparts in HI clouds using ALFA surveys (Donovan+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan Meyer, J.; Peek, J. E. G.; Putman, M.; Grcevich, J.

    2017-10-01

    GALFA-HI is a survey of Galactic HI conducted with the ALFA seven-beam feed array on the 305 m Arecibo antenna. The survey has both high spatial (FWHM~4') and velocity (0.18 km/s) resolution over 13000 (7520 in DR1) degrees2 of sky between -650 and 650 km/s. Details of the observations and data reduction can be found in Peek et al. (2011ApJS..194...20P). The ALFALFA HI-line survey, now 40% complete, also uses the Arecibo Observatory and its seven-beam feed array to detect potential dwarf galaxies in the vicinity of the Milky Way. The survey, which covers over 7000 (2800 in α.40) deg2 of sky out to 18000 km/s, has the sensitivity to detect 105 Mȯ clouds with 20 km/s linewidths at a distance of 1 Mpc. (2 data files).

  14. Profile of efraloctocog alfa and its potential in the treatment of hemophilia A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George LA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lindsey A George,1,2 Rodney M Camire1–3 1Division of Hematology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Center for Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Hemophilia care has improved dramatically over the past 50 years, evolving from plasma concentrates, to purified plasma proteins, to recombinant clotting factors. These collective developments allowed for home delivery of on-demand and prophylactic treatment, resulting in the reduction of hemophilia morbidity and mortality and improved quality of life. Although efficacious in treating bleeding, conventional factor products' half-lives require frequent venipuncture, which remains a significant burden to patients. Despite the remarkable advances in hemophilia care, no improvements have, until now, been made to the pharmacokinetic properties of factor products. Multiple strategies have more recently been employed to generate novel bioengineered products that, with great hope, represent the next wave of progress in hemophilia care. The use of these products will undoubtedly raise important discussion about choosing conventional factor over new long-acting factor products. Incorporation of these therapies into clinical care is accompanied by unanswered safety questions that will likely be evaluated only in postmarketing surveillance analysis. Further, these products may change current treatment paradigms with unclear cost repercussions and feasibility. This paper will review efraloctocog alfa (FVIII-Fc and its role in the treatment of hemophilia A. Keywords: hemophilia A, factor VIII, Fc fusion, bioengineered products, efraloctocog alfa

  15. IFN Alfa-2B and BCG Therapy Is An Effective Method In Superficial Bladder Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozdemir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The initial therapy for superficial bladder carcinoma is the transurethral resection of the tumor. In spite of successful resections, there are 60-79% recurrence and 15% progression rates. Additional therapies are suggested for the treatment of superficial bladder carcinoma. We compared the efficacy of interferon alfa-2b monotherapy with interferon alfa-2b plus Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG combination therapy with urine interleukin (IL 2, 6 and 10 levels of patients with superficial bladder carcinoma. Material and Method: The patients who underwent TUR-BT for superficial bladder tumor (pathological staging Ta-T1 between 2004 and 2007 at our hospital included in this prospective study. Intravesical immunotherapy was administered once a week for 6 weeks and there after a month for 6 months, starting 4 weeks after TUR-BT. IL levels were measured. Results: IL-2, IL-6 and IL- 10 levels in urine samples were taken at 2nd and 4th hours of intravesical therapy. A statistically significant difference was observed between mean urine IL-2 levels of patients treated with IFN%u03B1-2b monotherapy and IFN%u03B1- 2b plus BCG combination both at 2nd and 4th hours. (p=0.05 In IFN%u03B1-2b plus BCG combination group, there was a statistical significant difference between stages regarding IL-2 and IL-6 levels (p=0.05. Among patients with G3 tumors, IL-2 levels were higher at 2 and 4 hours (p=0.05 but there was no significant difference in IL-6 and IL-10 levels in this group of patients regardless of intravesical therapy received (p=0.05. Discussion: IFN%u03B1-2b and BCG combination therapy is a reliable and effective therapy in the management of superficial bladder tumors.

  16. A large, multicentre, observational, post-marketing surveillance study of the 2:1 formulation of follitropin alfa and lutropin alfa in routine clinical practice for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Klaus; Naether, Olaf G J; Bilger, Wilma

    2014-01-14

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) both have a role to play in follicular development during the natural menstrual cycle. LH supplementation during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) for assisted reproductive technology (ART) is used for patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. However, the use of exogenous LH in COS in normogonadotropic women undergoing ART is the subject of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of infertile women who received the 2:1 formulation of follitropin alfa and lutropin alfa (indicated for stimulation of follicular development in women with severe LH and FSH deficiency) in German clinical practice. A 3-year, multicentre, open-label, observational/non-interventional, post-marketing surveillance study of women (21-45 years) undergoing ART. Primary endpoint: reason for prescribing the 2:1 formulation of follitropin alfa and lutropin alfa. Secondary variables included: COS duration/dose; oocytes retrieved; fertilization; clinical pregnancy; ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). In total, 2220 cycles were assessed; at least one reason for prescribing the 2:1 formulation was given in 1834/2220 (82.6%) cycles. Most common reasons were: poor ovarian response (POR) (39.4%), low baseline LH (17.8%), and age (13.8%). COS: mean dose of the 2:1 formulation on first day, 183.1/91.5 IU; mean duration, 10.8 days. In 2173/2220 (97.9%) cycles, human chorionic gonadotrophin was administered. Oocyte pick-up (OPU) was attempted in 2108/2220 (95.0%) cycles; mean (standard deviation) 8.0 (5.4) oocytes retrieved/OPU cycle. Fertilization (≥1 oocyte fertilized) rates: in vitro fertilization (IVF), 391/439 (89.1%) cycles; intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)/IVF + ICSI, 1524/1613 (94.5%) cycles. Clinical pregnancy rate: all cycles, 25.9%; embryo transfer cycles, 31.3%. OHSS: hospitalization for OHSS, 8 (0.36%) cycles, Grade 2, 60 (2.7%), and Grade 3, 1 (0.05%). In German routine clinical

  17. The role of corifollitropin alfa in controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF in combination with GnRH antagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ayse Seyhan, Baris AtaDivision of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: Corifollitropin alfa is a synthetic recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH molecule containing a hybrid beta subunit, which provides a plasma half-life of ∼65 hours while maintaining its pharmocodynamic activity. A single injection of corifollitropin alfa can replace daily FSH injections for the first week of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. Stimulation can be continued with daily FSH injections if the need arises. To date, more than 2500 anticipated normoresponder women have participated in clinical trials with corifollitropin alfa. It is noteworthy that one-third of women did not require additional gonadotropin injections and reached human chorionic gonadotropin criterion on day 8. The optimal corifollitropin dose has been calculated to be 100 µg for women with a body weight ≤ 60 kg and 150 µg for women with a body weight >60 kg, respectively. Combination of corifollitropin with daily gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist injections starting on stimulation day 5 seems to yield similar or significantly higher numbers of oocytes and good quality embryos, as well as similar ongoing pregnancy rates compared with women stimulated with daily rFSH injections. Stimulation characteristics, embryology, and clinical outcomes seem consistent with repeated corifollitropin-stimulated assisted reproductive technologies cycles. Multiple pregnancy or ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome rates with corifollitropin were not increased over daily FSH regimen. The corifollitropin alfa molecule does not seem to be immunogenic and does not induce neutralizing antibody formation. Drug hypersensitivity and injection-site reactions are not increased. Incidence and nature of adverse events and serious adverse events are similar to daily FSH injections. Current trials do not

  18. The influence of monovalent cations on trimeric G protein Gi1alfa activity in HEK293 cells stably expressing DOR-Gi1alfa (Cys351-Ile351) fusion protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vošahlíková, Miroslava; Svoboda, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2011), s. 541-547 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110606; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GD305/08/H037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : delta-opioid receptor (DOR) * monovalent ions * G(i)1alfa protein Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.555, year: 2011

  19. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of three dosing regimens of agalsidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy was underpowered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Ortiz,1,2 Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño1,2 1Department of Nephrology, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 2Department of Nephrology, Instituto Reina Sofia de Investigación Nefrológica, Madrid, Spain We read with interest the report by Goláň et al on the “Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of three dosing regimens of agalsidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy in adults with Fabry disease”.1 Based on the reported results, the authors conclude that no efficacy or safety differences were found when the approved every-other-week (EOW dosage of agalsidase alfa was increased to weekly administration. However, the key question is whether the study, as designed and performed, could have had a different outcome. View original article by Goláň et al.

  20. Concentração de alfa-tocoferol no soro e colostro materno de adolescentes e adultas

    OpenAIRE

    Dimenstein,Roberto; Pires,Jeane Franco; Garcia,Lígia Rejane Siqueira; Lira,Larissa Queiroz de

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: avaliar a concentração de alfa-tocoferol no soro e colostro materno de puérperas adolescentes e adultas e verificar a adequação nutricional de vitamina E do colostro oferecido ao lactente. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 72 puérperas, sendo 25 adolescentes e 47 adultas. Foram coletados 5 mL de sangue e 2 mL de colostro em condição de jejum para análise dos níveis de alfa-tocoferol. As amostras foram analisadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. A adequação nutricional do...

  1. [Experience of use of allokin-alfa in the treatment of genitourinary infections complicated by excretory-toxic infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, O V; Kostromeev, S A; Dyshkovets, A A

    2013-01-01

    The results of the examination and treatment of 67 patients aged 18 to 45 years are presented. Patients suffered from chronic prostatitis, chronic prostatovesiculitis, chronic uretroprostatitis complicated by excretory-toxic infertility. Pathogens, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs), were identified in all patients. The control group received conventional therapy (causative agents, a-adrenoblockers, enzyme therapy). In the study group, patients received allokin alpha in addition to conventional therapy. The use of allokin-alfa promoted more rapid and complete eradication of STI pathogens, and normalization of the spermogram. The results of this study allow to recommend allokin-alfa for the combined treatment of patients with infectious and inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system, complicated by excretory-toxic infertility.

  2. Efek Pemberian Seduhan Teh Hijau terhadap Gelombang Alfa Otak pada Mahasiswa Tingkat Akhir Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Islam Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Marwa Afifah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Teh merupakan bahan alam yang sudah dikenal memiliki banyak manfaat salah satunya sebagai zat relaksan. Sifat relaksan diperoleh dari kandungan senyawa pada teh terutama teh hijau yaitu L-teanin yang memicu peningkatan aktivitas gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, produksi serotonin dan dopamin, serta menghambat kerja glutamat. Efek keseluruhan L-teanin pada otak memicu seseorang menjadi rileks, kondisi rileks dapat dinilai dari aktivitas gelombang alfa otak. Tujuan penelitian ini menilai efek pemberian seduhan teh hijau terhadap gelombang alfa otak pada mahasiswa tingkat akhir Fakultas Kedokteran Unisba. Penelitian menggunakan metode eksperimental, melalui dua kali perekaman gelombang alfa otak sebelum dan setelah pemberian seduhan teh hijau yang mengandung 50 mg L-teanin dengan menggunakan brain wave sensors. Hasil penelitian dianalisis melalui Uji Wilcoxon. Penelitian dilakukan di Fakultas Kedokteran Unisba pada bulan April–Mei 2014. Sampel yang digunakan adalah mahasiswa tingkat akhir Fakultas Kedokteran Unisba yaitu sebanyak 30 orang, terdiri atas 13 laki-laki dan 17 perempuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada 28 dari 30 orang memperlihatkan peningkatan gelombang alfa otak setelah pemberian seduhan teh hijau dan hanya 2 orang yang memperlihatkan gelombang alfa otak yang lebih rendah. Hasil Uji Wilcoxon menunjukkan nilai signifikansi <0,001. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian seduhan teh hijau memiliki efek meningkatkan gelombang alfa otak pada mahasiswa tingkat akhir Fakultas Kedokteran Unisba. Hal ini dapat disebabkan karena aktivitas L-teanin dalam teh hijau yang dapat memicu aktivitas GABA, serotonin, dan dopamin serta menghambat kerja glutamat sehingga memicu kondisi relaksasi yang dinilai dalam gelombang alfa otak. Kata kunci: Gelombang alfa otak, L-teanin, teh, teh hijau   The Effect of Green Tea to Alpha Brain Waves of Final Students of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Islam Bandung Abstract

  3. Secondary bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia during treatment of chronic hepatitis C: role of pegylated interferon alfa-2a

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Ronaldo Soares; Machado, Juliano Antunes; Teixeira, Rosângela

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of chronic hepatitis C has frequent side effects such as cytopenias and neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, pulmonary toxicity associated with interferon is rarely described. This paper describes the clinical case of a 67-year-old female patient with chronic hepatitis C who presented an acute onset of dry cough, dyspnoea, and fever 36 weeks after the use of pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin. The lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of a bronchiolitis obliterans organizin...

  4. [TNF-alfa (-857C/T) polymorphism in open angle glaucoma in Romania -- results of a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionescu, Ruxandra; Voinea, Liliana; Cornăţeanu, Roxana Sfrenţ

    2013-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy with multiple causative factors including genetic immune disregulation. TNF-alfa has pro-apoptotic effects on the retinal ganglion cells, thus being directly involved in the neurodegeneration of the optic nerve head. Our purpose was to investigate the influence on susceptibility and/or clinical and characteristics of TNF-alfa promoter polymorphism -857 C/T in Romanian patients diagnosed with POAG. We assessed 159 Romanian subjects, 61 diagnosed with glaucoma (F/M 39/22) and 98 healthy unrelated matched controls-HC for the polymorphism -857 C/T, genotyped by Real Time PCR (Taqman SNP Genotyping Assay C_2215707_10, Applied Biosystems, USA). The diagnosis and the staging of the disease in the POAG group were assessed using the current guidelines. Association tests for the SNP were performed using SPSS 11.2 (Fisher test) and p values < or = 0.05 were considered significant. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assessed using Chi-square test was respected in both studied groups- POAG and HC (p = 0.000009 and respectively p = 0.04771). There was no association found between the frequencies of alleles between studied groups (CC/CT/TT= 0.81/0.09/0.08 respectively 0.70/0.23/0.06). TNF-alfa promoter polymorphism -857 C/T doesn't seem to influence the susceptibility to POAG and the results should be confirmed on larger cohorts.

  5. Statistical Evaluation of Forecasts Over the Low-Latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    THIS PAGE (Wen Data Entered), REPORT DOCUMENTTION PAGE EAD INSTRUCTIONSI.f BEFORE COMPLETING FORMI. REPORT NUMBER .... Gfq BO&a : ECIPIENT’S CATALOG...o o .x 1. Introduction .. . ........ .. .- 2. The Models . . . . . . . . . . . ... ... 4 2.1 Filtered barotropic modelo . ....... ... 4 2.1.1

  6. Wavelet Statistical Analysis of Low-Latitude Geomagnetic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, A. R.; Akel, A. F.

    2009-05-01

    Following previous works by our group (Papa et al., JASTP, 2006), where we analyzed a series of records acquired at the Vassouras National Geomagnetic Observatory in Brazil for the month of October 2000, we introduced a wavelet analysis for the same type of data and for other periods. It is well known that wavelets allow a more detailed study in several senses: the time window for analysis can be drastically reduced if compared to other traditional methods (Fourier, for example) and at the same time allow an almost continuous accompaniment of both amplitude and frequency of signals as time goes by. This advantage brings some possibilities for potentially useful forecasting methods of the type also advanced by our group in previous works (see for example, Papa and Sosman, JASTP, 2008). However, the simultaneous statistical analysis of both time series (in our case amplitude and frequency) is a challenging matter and is in this sense that we have found what we consider our main goal. Some possible trends for future works are advanced.

  7. Climatology of ionosphere over low-latitude (Kolkata) using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    using FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellite observation. Gopal Mondal1,∗. , Manojit Gupta2 and Goutam Kumar Sen1 ... Orbiting (LEO) satellite measurement may be an alternative solution not only to this problem but also to the ..... atively small, with large fluctuation in the sum- mer of 2012, when IRI-2007 model output shows.

  8. Projected beam irradiation at low latitudes using Meteonorm database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatwaambo, Sylvester; Perers, Bengt; Karlsson, Björn

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of beam radiation received on a solar concentrator may be understood by evaluating the projected solar height angle or profile angle along the north-south vertical plane. This means that all the sunrays projected along the north-south vertical plane will be intercepted b...

  9. Climatology of ionosphere over low-latitude (Kolkata) using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    COSMIC satellite observation. Gopal Mondal1,∗. , Manojit Gupta2 and Goutam Kumar Sen1. 1School of Oceanographic Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India. 2Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India.

  10. Low latitude electron temperature observed by the CHAMP satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolle, Claudia; Truhlik, V.; Richards, P.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years a growing number of satellite measurements in the ionosphere and thermosphere provide long and continuous data records which enable the investigation of climatological trends and the quantification of regular variations or isolated events. The CHAMP mission provides a valuable base...... Te morning overshoot (MO). Both, data and model revealed an anti-correlation between the equatorial MO amplitude and solar EUV flux at these altitudes. The CHAMP observations also reveal a post sunset electron temperature anomaly in analogy to the equatorial ionisation anomaly at altitudes below 400...

  11. Reconnection at the high and low latitude magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Malcolm; Zhang, Qinghe; Yulia, Bogdanova; Zuyin, Pu; Hiroshi, Hasegawa; Karlheinz, Trattner; Chao, Shen; Jun, Zhong; Matthew, Taylor; Jean, Berchem; Jiankui, Shi; Benoit, Lavraud; Jonathen, Eastwood; Jiansen, He; Martin, Volwerk; Andrew, Fazakerley; David, Sibeck; Dragos, Constantinescu; Harald, Frey; Philippe, Escoubet

    2013-04-01

    Recent investigations have renewed the debate on the occurrence and location of magnetic reconnection (MR) on the Earth's dayside magnetopause, where evidence exists for predominantly component driven X-line regions, independent of guide field conditions, and extending across a wide range of preferred, and often multiple, locations. Recent findings in active sites of MR have also increased the theoretical understanding of the detailed structure within the ion diffusion region surrounding the magnetic X-line or null field, although direct measurements of this small region are still relatively rare. Nevertheless, investigations have benefitted from an unprecedented growth in complexity of multi-scale and multi-point, in situ measurements, on the small and meso-scale, from, for example, the Cluster and THEMIS space missions. Furthermore, during April to July 2007 a combination of 10 spacecraft (Cluster, THEMIS and Double Star TC-1) provided simultaneous monitoring of the dayside magnetopause across a wide range of local times. Here, we first investigate repeated sampling of the ion diffusion region and associated null magnetic field of a high-latitude reconnection site by the four Cluster spacecraft flying in formation to interpret the plasma structures surrounding the X-line, which is located on initially closed field-lines and where the magnetic field orientations inside and outside the magnetopause are close to anti-parallel. The plasma populations confirm details of the ion and electron mixing, time history and acceleration through the current layer. We secondly investigate the plasma distributions near X-line structures for key conjunctions of the Cluster, THEMIS and TC-1 spacecraft around the magnetopause, showing the operation of MR at wide locations along the expected sub-solar merging line. The results are also consistent with the occurrence of reconnection activity, simultaneously across the sub-solar and flank magnetopause, linked to the (large-scale) extended configuration of the merging line. Other small scale spacecraft configurations have revealed substructure in MR regions and details of the 3-D behaviour in multiple X-line scenarios.

  12. Ionospheric irregularities at low latitudes in the American sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.

    1981-10-01

    A detailed analysis of the atomic oxigem airglow emission at the wavelength of 6300 A observed at Cachoeira Paulista (22 0 41'S, 45 0 00'W) shows that intensity perturbations frequently occur and propagate from north to south and from west to east. Such irregularities originated in the ionospheric F region and occur essencially during the premidnight period. These perturbations have a high frequency of occurrence during spring and summer and are rare during winter and fall. The disturbances are correlated with range type spread F detected over Cachoeira Paulista, and have characteristics similar to equatorial ionospheric plasma bubbles (i.e., similar seazonal variation, time of occurrence, ionogram signatures, direction and speed of propagation, etc.). A numerical simulation is carried out for the generation and evolution of ionospheric bubbles based on the theory of the collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability for the equatorial and Cachoeira Paulista regions. Also a study was made of the, evolution of the bubble as a function of the electron density profile and as a function of the amplitude of the initial density perturbation. Assuming the electron density profile perturbed by the bubble, the [OI] 6300 A intensity was calculated for various latitudes arbitrarily taken within the photometer scanning range. The bubble was assumed to be aligned with the Earth's magnetic field and extending from higher altitudes at the equatorial region down to be arbitrary height of 150 Km at which a negligible conductivity is assumed. It was also assumed that the bubble was moving upwards with the velocity of 120 m/s, which in turn was estimated from initial numerical simulation results. The airglow calculation results show that as the bubble goes up, the disturbances in the airglow intensity propagate from north to south, in accord with observed experimental results. (Author) [pt

  13. VHF radar observations of gravity waves at a low latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dutta

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind observations made at Gadanki (13.5°N by using Indian MST Radar for few days in September, October, December 1995 and January, 1996 have been analyzed to study gravity wave activity in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Horizontal wind variances have been computed for gravity waves of period (2-6 h from the power spectral density (PSD spectrum. Exponential curves of the form eZ/H have been fitted by least squares technique to these variance values to obtain height variations of the irregular winds upto the height of about 15 km, where Z is the height in kilometers. The value of H, the scale height, as determined from curve fitting is found to be less than the theoretical value of scale height of neutral atmosphere in this region, implying that the waves are gaining energy during their passage in the troposphere. In other words, it indicates that the sources of gravity waves are present in the troposphere. The energy densities of gravity wave fluctuations have been computed. Polynomial fits to the observed values show that wave energy density increases in the troposphere, its source region, and then decreases in the lower stratosphere.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence; waves and tides

  14. Characteristics of low latitude ionospheric E-region irregularities ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    154°E, dip angle = 37.3°, sub-ionospheric dip = 34°) have been analyzed to study the behaviour of ionospheric E-region irregularities during the active solar and magnetic periods. The autocorrelation functions, power spectral densities, signal de-correlation times are computed to study the temporal features of ionospheric ...

  15. Effects of geomagnetic storm on low latitude ionospheric total ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The interplane- tary magnetic field (IMF) Bz components in GSM coordinates are obtained from the Advanced Com- position Explorer (ACE) satellite level 2 data from. Office of Space Science Mission and Payload Devel- opment Division of the National Aeronautics and. Space Administration (NASA) and the dawn–dusk.

  16. Effects of geomagnetic storm on low latitude ionospheric total ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    netospheric polar cap region causes a disturbance in geomagnetic field. As a result of this distur- bance, the energy inputs from the magnetosphere to the upper atmosphere can cause a dramatic change in electron density of the F region of the ionosphere. Geomagnetic storms produce large and. Keywords. Ionospheric ...

  17. Profile of efraloctocog alfa and its potential in the treatment of hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Lindsey A; Camire, Rodney M

    2015-01-01

    Hemophilia care has improved dramatically over the past 50 years, evolving from plasma concentrates, to purified plasma proteins, to recombinant clotting factors. These collective developments allowed for home delivery of on-demand and prophylactic treatment, resulting in the reduction of hemophilia morbidity and mortality and improved quality of life. Although efficacious in treating bleeding, conventional factor products' half-lives require frequent venipuncture, which remains a significant burden to patients. Despite the remarkable advances in hemophilia care, no improvements have, until now, been made to the pharmacokinetic properties of factor products. Multiple strategies have more recently been employed to generate novel bioengineered products that, with great hope, represent the next wave of progress in hemophilia care. The use of these products will undoubtedly raise important discussion about choosing conventional factor over new long-acting factor products. Incorporation of these therapies into clinical care is accompanied by unanswered safety questions that will likely be evaluated only in postmarketing surveillance analysis. Further, these products may change current treatment paradigms with unclear cost repercussions and feasibility. This paper will review efraloctocog alfa (FVIII-Fc) and its role in the treatment of hemophilia A.

  18. LHC Report: special run with de-squeezed beams for ATLAS/ALFA and TOTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    Helmut Burkhardt for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    The main high-luminosity proton-proton run of the LHC is complemented by one week per year of special proton-proton runs. The special runs are performed with larger beam sizes at the interaction points to allow the forward physics experiments, TOTEM and ATLAS/ALFA, the chance to make precise measurements of protons as they emerge from collisions at small angles.   In standard high-luminosity operation, the beams are squeezed to give small beam sizes at the interaction points to maximise the collision rates. The “squeeze” takes place at top energy and the beam size at the centre of ATLAS (IP1) and CMS (IP5) is reduced from 66 micrometres at the top of the ramp to 18 micrometres before colliding beams are established. Protons that avoid the fate of an inelastic collision but yet still interact – in elastic or diffractive events – are scattered and emerge in the forward direction. The reduction in beam size has a side effect of increasing the an...

  19. Characterization of autoantibodies in autoimmune hemolytic anemia following treatment with interferon alfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencomo Hernandez, Antonio; Gutierrez Diaz, Adys; Avila Cabrera, Onel; Rodriguez, Luis Ramon

    2012-01-01

    We studied 13 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia induced by interferon alfa. They underwent tests for immune protein detection and characterization of IgG subclasses in RBCs by direct antiglobulin test (PAD) and the microplate technique. Also they were applied ELISA test for quantifying immunoglobulins in the red blood cells. It was detected the presence of IgG and C3 in 53.84 % of cases, IgG alone in 23.07 % and in 15.38 % were identified IgG and IgA autoantibodies. In 11 patients the presence of IgG1 was showed and also in one case the subclass IgG3 autoantibodies was identified. The ELISA detected antibodies at concentrations of 183 IgG molecules per erythrocyte in a patient with negative PAD. In high-grade hemolysis patients, it was found a concentration of autoantibodies between 1 500 and 3 180 molecules of IgG per erythrocyte, while in low-grade hemolysis patients it behaved between 183 and 1 000 molecules. There was a negative correlation between Hb and plasma haptoglobin values with the number of IgG molecules per erythrocyte and a positive correlation between the latter with the reticulocyte count

  20. Interferon alfa-2b in the management of recurrent conjunctival papillomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy presented with a recurrent strawberry-like reddish mass arising from the left caruncular region for 8 months. An incisional biopsy was performed elsewhere 2 months earlier, followed by an increase in size of mass, significant epiphora, and intermittent bleeding. On examination, exuberant exophytic gelatinous mass with multifocal origin was observed arising from inferior forniceal conjunctiva and caruncle. Clinical differential of multifocal conjunctival papilloma was kept, and topical interferon alfa-2b (INFα-2b was started. No clinical reduction in mass or symptomatology was observed over 6 weeks. Excision biopsy with cryotherapy and subconjunctival injection of INFα-2b was performed over all foci. Conjunctival papilloma was confirmed on histopathology, and topical INFα-2b was continued in postoperative period for 3 months. At 14 months of follow-up, no recurrence, epiphora, or bleeding was noticed. We advocate a possible role of local INF therapy in managing and preventing recurrences of conjunctival papillomatosis.

  1. Development of solar energy education IASEE-Argentina, Arquisur and Alfa-built

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, S. de; Evans, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Three educational experiences are presented in this paper on the development of national and regional networks to incorporate renewable energy in curricular programmes. IASEE-Argentina, established in 1990 as the National Section of IASEE, the International Association for Solar Energy Education, was designated in 1993 as the Education Working Group of ASADES, the Argentine Association of Solar Energy. It holds annual meetings to coincide with the ASADES conference. Arquisur is a regional network established by Architectural Faculties of State Universities within the Mercosur Region, covering Argentina, southern Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, to promote exchange and development between the 19 faculties involved. A Working Group set up by Arquisur with members from four countries developed the programme for short post-graduate courses on bioclimatic design and rational energy use in buildings, which has been given in Argentina and Uruguay. Alfa-Built, a project supported by the European Union for promoting academic exchange in the field of energy efficient building is also introduced. This paper presents the development and initial results of these educational experiences. (author)

  2. Topical interferon alfa-2b for the treatment of recalcitrant ocular surface squamous neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, David J; Lee, Graham A

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate topical interferon alfa-2b (IFN-alpha2b) for the treatment of recalcitrant ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). Prospective, noncomparative, interventional consecutive case series. Ten patients with recalcitrant OSSN were treated with topical IFN-alpha2b (1 million IU/ml) four times a day until clinical resolution of the lesion or until the lesion appeared nonresponsive-that is, treatment failure. Progress was assessed by clinical examination and photographic records, with a minimum follow-up of six months. Eight of 10 patients achieved clinical resolution from topical IFN-alpha2b treatment. One patient developed invasive squamous cell carcinoma and underwent exenteration. The other patient required further mitomycin C therapy to achieve clinical resolution. The mean duration to clinical resolution for the eight patients treated with IFN-alpha2b was 21.9 weeks (range six to 59 weeks). There have been no recurrences for any of the nine patients during follow-up (mean 55.0 weeks; range 26 to 84 weeks). Topical IFN-alpha2b is an important treatment modality for recalcitrant OSSN; it avoids the risks of further limbal stem cell destruction from other agents and surgical excision. If invasive disease is diagnosed at any stage, topical therapy is contraindicated, necessitating surgical excision.

  3. Testing stable boundary layer parameterizations against the BASE:ALFA measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafè, G.; Tampieri, F.; di Giuseppe, F.; Caporaso, L.

    2010-09-01

    The Po valley in the Northern Italy is a large plain in a semi-closed basin surrounded by complex orography; the Alps to the North and Apennines to the South-East, and closed to the east by the Adriatic sea. As a flatland basin shielded by mountains, calm wind is very frequent and strong temperature inversions are often observed near the ground, during the night and in the winter period the occurrence of a extremely stable boundary layer is common. A complete set of surface and atmospheric measurements have been collected during a four month observational program carried out at San Pietro Capofiume meteo station, in the middle of the Po Valley. The long term dataset has been collected in the contest of the project BASE:ALFA with the main aim of creating a data pool of micro-meteorological /soil data to test and validate numerical weather prediction PBL schemes. The measurement periods span summer, winter and spring and allows to analyse a wide range of PBL stability conditions. Different parameterizations of first and second order moments of velocity and temperature are tested against the collected data. A particular focus is given to stable boundary layer and the values of its height obtained from Nieuwstadt 1984 and Zilitinkievich et al 2005 formulas will be provided and compared against radiosounding profile estimates.

  4. Safety and usage of darbepoetin alfa in children with chronic kidney disease: prospective registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Franz; Hoppe, Bernd; Jungraithmayr, Therese; Klaus, Günter; Pape, Lars; Farouk, Mourad; Addison, Janet; Manamley, Nick; Vondrak, Karel

    2016-03-01

    Limited prospective data are available on the long-term safety of darbepoetin alfa (DA) for treating anemia in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this prospective, phase IV, observational registry study, children ≤16 years of age with CKD anemia and receiving DA were observed for ≤2 years. Adverse events (AEs), DA dosing, hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, and transfusions were recorded. A total of 319 patients were included in the analysis (mean age, 9.1 years), 158 (49.5%) of whom were on dialysis at study entry. Of 434 serious AEs reported in 162 children, the most common were peritonitis (10.0%), gastroenteritis (6.0%), and hypertension (4.1%). Six patients (1.9%) died (unrelated to DA). Four patients (1.3%) experienced six serious adverse drug reactions. The geometric mean DA dose range was 1.4-2.0 μg/kg/month. Mean baseline Hb concentration was 11.1 g/dl; mean values for children receiving and not receiving dialysis at baseline ranged between 10.9 and 11.5 g/dl and 11.2-11.7 g/dl, respectively. Overall, 48 patients (15.0%) received ≥1 transfusion. No new safety signals for DA were identified in children receiving DA for CKD anemia for ≤2 years. Based on Hb concentrations and transfusion requirements, DA was effective at managing anemia in these patients.

  5. Asociación de la actividad alfa-amilasa salivar matutina con índices de psicopatología internalizante en niñas de 8-11 años

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado-Montero, Enrique Francisco

    2014-01-01

    ANTECEDENTES: Recientemente, se ha observado una reducción estadísticamente significativa en los niveles de actividad de la alfa-amilasa salivar en mujeres adolescentes diagnosticadas de depresión mayor (Cubala & Landowski, 2014). OBJETIVO: El objetivo del presente estudio ha sido analizar la relación entre índices de psicopatología internalizada y niveles matutinos de cortisol, de alfa-amilasa salivar y de sus respectivos ratios (cortisol/alfa-amilasa y alfa-amilasa/cortisol) en 45 niños y 5...

  6. Recombinant interferon alfa-2b combined with a regimen containing doxorubicin in patients with advanced follicular lymphoma. Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solal-Celigny, P; Lepage, E; Brousse, N; Reyes, F; Haioun, C; Leporrier, M; Peuchmaur, M; Bosly, A; Parlier, Y; Brice, P

    1993-11-25

    Interferon alfa and cytotoxic drugs have synergistic effects in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In 1986, we designed a clinical trial to evaluate the benefit of concomitant administration of recombinant interferon alfa with a regimen containing doxorubicin in patients with follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The trial involved 242 patients with advanced low-grade follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma selected on the basis of clinical, radiographic, and biologic criteria. All patients were treated with a regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, teniposide, and prednisone (CHVP), given monthly for six cycles and then every two months for one year. After randomization, 123 patients also received interferon alfa-2b at a dosage of 5 million units three times weekly for 18 months. The remaining 119 patients received chemotherapy alone. As compared with the patients treated with CHVP only, the patients treated with CHVP plus interferon alfa had a higher overall rate of response (85 percent vs. 69 percent, P = 0.006), a longer median event-free survival (34 months vs. 19 months, P < 0.001), and a higher rate of survival at 3 years (86 percent vs. 69 percent, P = 0.02). Granulocyte toxicity was greater in the patients treated with CHVP plus interferon alfa than in those treated with CHVP alone. There were no treatment-related deaths. Interferon alfa had to be stopped because of toxic effects (fatigue and hepatitis) in 13 patients (11 percent). The addition of interferon alfa to a regimen containing doxorubicin increased the rate of response, event-free survival, and overall survival in patients with advanced follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, without serious toxicity, although some patients were unable to tolerate the side effects.

  7. LONG TERM MUCOLYTIC THERAPY WITH DORNASE ALFA AT NOVOSIBIRSK CENTER FOR DIAGNOSTICS, TREATMENT, RHEABILITATION AND ADAPTATION OF CHILDREN WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Romanenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The center for diagnostic, treatment, rehabilitation and social adaptation of patients with cystic fibrosis was established in pulmonology department of the children's clinical hospital № 3 of Novosibirsk in 1994. Since 1995 the database of the center has registered 23 patients. the center has carried out an open prospective study of clinical efficacy and safety of dornase alfa (pulmozyme, «F. hoffmannala roche ltd.», basel in 10 patients with cystic fibrosis. The patients have received mucolytic therapy with dornase alfa for 2 years (2003–2005. They have been administered a daily inhalation of 2.5 ml of the solution (pulmozyme inhalation solution containing 2.5 of dornaza alfa. The study has shown an improvement of pulmonary function and elevation of oxygen saturation. The number of respiratory infections have dropped by 33%, the administration of intravenous antibiotics has shortened by 25%, the nutrition status has trended towards improvement. regardless of it's high price, dornasa alfa has proven its' benefits in the treatment of cystic fibrosis in patients of any age and disease severity.Key words: dornase alfa, children, cystic fibrosis, treatment.

  8. Informe sobre el Proyecto Alfa Biblioteca de Babel: ¿Un atajo para la administración de bibliotecas universitarias? Biblioteca de Babel Alfa Project Report: A shortcut for the academic libraries management?

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Laura Rega

    2006-01-01

    El Proyecto Alfa Biblioteca de Babel que reúne bibliotecas universitarias de América Latina y Europa comenzó en marzo de 2005 y prevé su conclusión en marzo de 2007. El presente trabajo intenta describir los objetivos y los resultados esperados, e informa las actividades realizadas por la Red Biblioteca de Babel. Finalmente se analizan las propuestas del proyecto en cuanto al rol de las bibliotecas universitarias, y su relación con la innovación en las prácticas pedagógicas.Biblioteca de Babe...

  9. Análise comparativa do controle interno no contas a receber e a pagar nas empresas Beta Ltda e Alfa Ltda = A comparative internal control analysis of receivable and payable accounts in Beta and Alfa Ltd Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyton de Oliveira Ritta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade constante de um excelente desempenho empresarial leva à busca da qualidade e confiabilidade da informação para o auxílio na tomada de decisão. Neste contexto, a auditoria contábil tem um papel importante na análise das práticas administrativas adotadas pelas entidades. Desse modo, o objetivo deste artigo é comparar a estruturação dos controles internos no contas a receber e a pagar nas empresas Beta Ltda, a qual não contrata serviços de auditoria externa, e Alfa Ltda, que os contrata. Este estudo caracteriza-se como de caso comparativo de caráter descritivo por meio de questionário e entrevista. Os resultados apontam que a empresa Alfa Ltda tem melhores níveis de controle interno e, consequentemente, está menos exposta a erros e fraudes. Desse modo, entende-se que os seviços de auditoria atuam como um instrumento de auxílio para minimização dos riscos operacionais e servem de alerta aos gestores quanto à eficiência das transações. Contudo, percebe-se que a qualidade dos controles internos nas organizações depende diretamente da utilização de procedimentos de monitoramento.The constant need for excellent business performance triggers the quest for information quality and reliability to help in decision making. Considering this context, accounting auditing plays an important role in the analysis of administrative practices adopted by entities. Thus, the objective of this article is to compare the structure of the internal controls for receivable and payable accounts in Beta Ltd companies, which do not contract external auditing services, and Alfa Ltd, which does. This study is a descriptive comparative case study, carried out through questionnaire and interview. The results have showed that Alfa Ltd has better internal control levels and consequently is less exposed to errors and fraud. This way, auditing services are seen as auxiliary instruments to minimize operational risks and serve to alert

  10. Comparative therapeutic effects of velaglucerase alfa and imiglucerase in a Gaucher disease mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Hai Xu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease type 1 is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal enzyme, acid beta-glucosidase (GCase. Regular infusions of purified recombinant GCase are the standard of care for reversing hematologic, hepatic, splenic, and bony manifestations. Here, similar in vitro enzymatic properties, and in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD and therapeutic efficacy of GCase were found with two human GCases, recombinant GCase (CHO cell, imiglucerase, Imig and gene-activated GCase (human fibrosarcoma cells, velaglucerase alfa, Vela, in a Gaucher mouse, D409V/null. About 80+% of either enzyme localized to the liver interstitial cells and <5% was recovered in spleens and lungs after bolus i.v. injections. Glucosylceramide (GC levels and storage cell numbers were reduced in a dose (5, 15 or 60 U/kg/wk dependent manner in livers (60-95% and in spleens ( approximately 10-30%. Compared to Vela, Imig (60 U/kg/wk had lesser effects at reducing hepatic GC (p = 0.0199 by 4 wks; this difference disappeared by 8 wks when nearly WT levels were achieved by Imig. Anti-GCase IgG was detected in GCase treated mice at 60 U/kg/wk, and IgE mediated acute hypersensitivity and death occurred after several injections of 60 U/kg/wk (21% with Vela and 34% with Imig. The responses of GC levels and storage cell numbers in Vela- and Imig-treated Gaucher mice at various doses provide a backdrop for clinical applications and decisions.

  11. CHANGES IN TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALFA DURING TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS BY TRANSIMMUNIZATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kil'dyushevskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the availability of a  large number of treatments for multiple sclerosis with various targets, these treatments are not always effective. According to the literature, experimental studies have shown a  significant decrease in tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF-α with the use of extracorporeal photochemotherapy. Aim: To assess changes in TNF-α in patients with multiple sclerosis during treatment with transimmunization. Materials and methods: The study recruited 13 adult patients with multiple sclerosis. Serum TNF-α was measured by immunochemiluminescence analysis (IMMULITE 1000, Siemens. The patients were treated by transimmunization, i.e. a  modified photopheresis. Two hours before the procedure, Ammifurin (8-methoxypsoralene was administered to all the patients, then their mononuclear cells were isolated under PBSC protocol with Haemonetics MCS+ cell separator. Thereafter, mononuclear cells were irradiated with ultraviolet for 90  minutes and incubated for 20 hours at 37 °С. The next day the cells were re-infused to the patients. The procedure was performed 2  times per week for 6  months, then once per 4  months. Results: Before transimmunization, mean TNF-α level in adult patients with multiple sclerosis was 9.958±0.812  pg/mL (normal, below 8.1 pg/mL. After transimmunization, its level was 6.992±0.367  pg/mL (р<0.05. Conclusion: Ultraviolet irradiation of peripheral blood monocytes with their subsequent incubation (transimmunization led to a 30% decrease of serum TNF-α in patients with multiple sclerosis. This indicates a suppressive effect of transimmunization on TNF-α. Hence, in patients with multiple sclerosis transimmunization exerts an anti-inflammatory effect.

  12. Intervalos de Confianza para el coeficiente alfa de Cronbach: aportes a la investigación pediátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Caycho-Rodríguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, es cada vez más común encontrar estudios que brinden evidencias de la confiabilidad de las puntuaciones obtenidas, por instrumentos de medida utilizadas en investigaciones en ciencias de la salud. Este es el caso de la valiosa contribución de Aguilar-Navarro et al, quienes adaptaron la Escala de Actitudes hacia la Alimentación Infantil de Iowa (IIFAS en México, reportando la confiabilidad a través del alfa de Cronbach.

  13. Comportamiento de glicinina, beta-conglicinina y alfa-amilasa en semillas de soja deterioradas y no deterioradas

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas,Adriana Rita; Yoldjian,Ana Maria; Dietrich,María Lucrecia; Craviotto,Roque Mario; Bisaro,Vilma

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el comportamiento de glicinina y beta-conglicinina y la actividad de alfa-amilasa en semillas deterioradas y no deterioradas de 10 cultivares de soja [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Las semillas se sometieron a dos tratamientos: deterioradas por envejecimiento acelerado y no deterioradas. Se determinó la presencia de las proteínas de reserva a partir de semillas con 0, 3 y 8 días de germinadas por electroforesis en geles de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE). La activida...

  14. Factor de necrosis tumoral alfa en pacientes con preeclampsia a término y pretérmino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Reyna Villasmil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue identificar y comparar las concentraciones de factor de necrosis tumoral alfa en pacientes con preeclampsia a término y pre-término. Se seleccionó un total de 50 pacientes. Se incluyeron a 20 pacientes preeclámpticas pre-término (grupo A y 30 preeclámpticas a término (grupo B. Las muestras de sangre para la determinación de factor de necrosis tumoral alfa se recolectaron en todas las pacientes antes del parto e inmediatamente después del diagnóstico de preeclampsia. No se encontraron diferencias significativas con relación a la edad materna e Índice de masa corporal al momento de la toma de la muestra. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos con respecto a la edad gestacional (p < 0,0001. El valor promedio de la presión arterial sistólica en el grupo A fue de 149,4 ± 11,3 mmHg mientras que en las pacientes del grupo B fue de 148,1 ± 12,3 mmHg (p = 0,7071 y el valor promedio de presión arterial diastólica en el grupo A fue de 103,8 ± 8,6 mmHg y en el grupo B fue de 102,7 ± 7,9 mmHg (p = 0,6436. Las concentraciones de factor de necrosis tumoral alfa fueron similares en el grupo de preeclámpticas pre-término (98,2 ± 45,1 pg/mL comparado con el grupo de preeclámpticas a término (96,6 ± 48,7 pg/mL; p = 0,9072. Al realizar la correlación entre los valores de factor de necrosis tumoral alfa con los valores de presión arterial se observó que no existía correlación con la presión arterial sistólica (r = 0,129; p = 0,374 ni con la de presión arterial diastólica (r = 0,158, p = 0,273. Se concluye que las concentraciones sanguíneas del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa resultaron similares en las pacientes preeclámpticas con embarazo pretérmino y a término. La correlación de las concentraciones de factor de necrosis tumoral alfa con los valores de presión arterial sistólica y diastólica resultó no significativa. Palabras clave:Factor de

  15. Informe sobre el Proyecto Alfa Biblioteca de Babel: ¿Un atajo para la administración de bibliotecas universitarias? Biblioteca de Babel Alfa Project Report: A shortcut for the academic libraries management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Laura Rega

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El Proyecto Alfa Biblioteca de Babel que reúne bibliotecas universitarias de América Latina y Europa comenzó en marzo de 2005 y prevé su conclusión en marzo de 2007. El presente trabajo intenta describir los objetivos y los resultados esperados, e informa las actividades realizadas por la Red Biblioteca de Babel. Finalmente se analizan las propuestas del proyecto en cuanto al rol de las bibliotecas universitarias, y su relación con la innovación en las prácticas pedagógicas.Biblioteca de Babel Alfa Project that assembles academic libraries from Latin America and Europe was approved on March, 2005 and its conclusion is foreseen on March, 2007. This article attempts to describe the aims and the expected results, and reports the activities of the Biblioteca de Babel Network. Finally it analizes the proposals of the project about the role of academic libraries and their relationship with innovations in pedagogical practices.

  16. El ácido alfa lipoico y su poder antioxidante frente al cáncer y las patologías de sensibilización central

    OpenAIRE

    Durand Cavalleri, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es reunir y contrastar información sobre las propiedades antioxidantes del ácido alfa lipoico (ALA) en la prevención y desarrollo de las patologías relacionadas con el estrés oxidativo. L'objectiu del present treball és reunir i contrastar informació sobre les propietats antioxidants de l'àcid alfa lipoico (ALA) en la prevenció i desenvolupament de les patologies relacionades amb l'estrès oxidatiu.

  17. Uso de la tierra y diversidades alfa, beta y gamma de diplópodos en la cuenca del río Otún, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Cobo, Darío Hernán; Grupo Gestión en Agroecosistemas Tropicales Andinos (GATA), Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Vereda La Julita A.A. 97, Pereira; Bueno-Villegas, Julián; Laboratorio de Sistemática Animal, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Km. 4.5 carretera Pachuca - Tulancingo S/N. Colonia Carboneras, Mineral de la Reforma, Hidalgo, 42184; Feijoo-Martínez, Alexander; Grupo Gestión en Agroecosistemas Tropicales Andinos (GATA), Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Vereda La Julita A.A. 97, Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre los cambios promovidos por la intervención humana en ecosistemas y grosistemas y la diversidad alfa, beta y gamma de Diplopoda de la cuenca media del río Otún. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizó un diseño sistemático estratificado con la selección de siete ventanas y 16 puntos de muestreo. Se separaron los diplópodos en familias y morfotipos para calcular la diversidad alfa, beta y gamma relacionada con la heterogeneidad de usos del terreno. Resultados: Se...

  18. Factor de necrosis tumoral alfa en una población infanto-juvenil con sobrepeso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita del R. Carrizo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El sobrepeso infantil está asociado a sobrepeso/obesidad en la edad adulta. El tejido adiposo en obesos produce una cantidad incrementada de citoquinas proinflamatorias como el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-a, ejerciendo un efecto deletéreo sobre la función vascular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar niveles de TNF-a en una población infantojuvenil con sobrepeso y su relación con otras variables. Se estudiaron 30 niños con sobrepeso (12 varones de edades entre 8-13 años, se midió circunferencia de cintura (CC e índice de masa corporal (IMC y fueron comparados con 20 controles de edad y sexo semejantes. Se consideró criterio de inclusión un IMC = 85 < 95 percentilo para edad y sexo. En ambos grupos se determinó: glucemia en ayunas (método glucosa oxidasa, insulina plasmática (ECLIA, fibrinógeno (Fg, método de Clauss, proteína C reactiva ultrasensible (uPCR, método inmunoturbidimétrico, TNF-a (ELISA, perfil lipídico (métodos enzimáticos, eritrosedimentación y se calculó el índice HOMA. Los datos se expresaron como mediana y rango intercuartil y con el coeficiente de Spearman se investigaron las correlaciones entre variables, considerándose significativo un p < 0.05. Los niveles de TNF-a fueron mayores en los sujetos con sobrepeso [15.4 (13.2-24.0 vs. 12.7 (11.2-14.8 pg/ml; p = 0.028]. También resultaron más elevados los valores de Fg, insulina plasmática, índice HOMA, uPCR y triglicéridos. El TNF-a se correlacionó con la CC (r = 0.654; p = 0.021. Los niveles elevados de TNF-a, uPCR y Fg encontrados confirman un estado proinflamatorio asociado a obesidad abdominal en la población estudiada.

  19. Aspectos pulmonares na deficiência de alfa-1-antitripsina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Érika Schmid Melo Neto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A deficiência de α-1-antitripsina é uma desordem genética de herança autossómica recessiva, tendo como fenótipo mais comum o inibidor de protease tipo ZZ. A doença predomina em indivíduos brancos de origem europeia, e a sua frequência, tanto na Europa, como na América do Norte, é comparável à da fibrose quística (1:2000 a 1:7000. Os indivíduos com esta deficiência podem ser assintomáticos, sendo que a manifestação mais prevalente, também apontada como a maior causa de invalidez e morte nesses pacientes, é a doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica. Nos indivíduos portadores da doença, o tabagismo constitui o factor de risco mais importante. A doença é muito pouco diagnosticada. Várias estratégias de tratamento têm sido utilizadas.REV PORT PNEUMOL 2004; X (2: 145-154 ABSTRACT: Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is an autosomal hereditary disorder and the large majority of individuals with severe deficiency are protease inhibitor type ZZ. The disease occurs predominantly in white persons of European origin and its frequency in Europe and North America is comparable to that of cystic fibrosis (1 in 2000 to 1 in 7000. Persons with this deficiency may have no clinical manifestations, but the most prevalent clinical disorder associated, also pointed as the most frequent cause of disability and death, is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In those individuals, tobacco smoking is the major risk. The condition appears to be widely underdiagnosed, based on studies. Several strategies have been explored in the treatment of this deficiency.REV PORT PNEUMOL 2004; X (2: 145-154 Palavras-chave: alfa-1-antitripsina, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica, Key-words: alpha-1-antitripysin, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  20. Estimadores de consistencia interna en las investigaciones en salud: el uso del coeficiente alfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Cascaes da Silva

    Full Text Available La producción académica ha aumentado en el área de la salud, exigiendo cada vez más calidad en las publicaciones de gran impacto. Una de las formas de considerar la calidad es por medio de procedimientos que aumentan la consistencia del análisis de los datos, como la confiabilidad, que dependiendo del tipo de datos, puede ser evaluada por diferentes coeficientes, en especial el coeficiente alfa. Basados en lo anterior, la presente revisión reúne sistemáticamente artículos científicos producidos en los últimos cinco años, que de manera metodológica hicieron uso psicométrico del coeficiente α como un estimador de consistencia interna y de confiabilidad en procesos de construcción, adaptación y validación de instrumentos. La identificación de los estudios fue realizada sistemáticamente en las bases de datos Biomed Central Journals, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, Medline via Pubmed, Scielo, Scopus, Journals@Ovid, BMJ y Springer por medio del Portal de Periódicos CAPES, utilizando criterios de inclusión y exclusión. El análisis de los datos fue realizado por medio de triangulación, análisis de contenido y análisis descriptivo. Se obtuvo que la mayoría de los estudios fueron realizados principalmente en Irán (f=3, España (f=2 y Brasil (f=2, estos estudios tuvieron como objetivo testar las propiedades psicométricas de instrumentos, siendo que ocho estudios utilizaron el coeficiente α para evaluar la confiabilidad y nueve para evaluar la consistencia interna. Todos los estudios fueron clasificados como investigaciones metodológicas al analizar sus objetivos. Adicionalmente, cuatro estudios también fueron clasificados como correlacionales y uno como descriptivo-correlacional. Se puede concluir que a pesar de que el coeficiente α es ampliamente utilizado como uno de los principales parámetros para la evaluación de consistencia interna de instrumentos de medición del tipo cuestionario en el

  1. Long-term effectiveness of agalsidase alfa enzyme replacement in Fabry disease: A Fabry Outcome Survey analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Michael; Hughes, Derralynn; Kampmann, Christoph; Larroque, Sylvain; Mehta, Atul; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Ramaswami, Uma; West, Michael; Wijatyk, Anna; Giugliani, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Outcomes from 5 years of treatment with agalsidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for Fabry disease in patients enrolled in the Fabry Outcome Survey (FOS) were compared with published findings for untreated patients with Fabry disease. Data were extracted from FOS, a Shire-sponsored database, for comparison with data from three published studies. Outcomes evaluated were the annualized rate of change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and left ventricular mass indexed to height (LVMI) as well as time to and ages at a composite morbidity endpoint and at death. FOS data were extracted for 740 treated patients who were followed for a median of ~ 5 years. Compared with no treatment, patients treated with agalsidase alfa demonstrated slower decline in renal function and slower progression of left ventricular hypertrophy. Treated male patients with baseline eGFR Fabry disease in slowing the progression of renal impairment and cardiomyopathy. Treatment also appeared to delay the onset of morbidity and mortality. Interpretation of these findings should take into account that they are based on retrospective comparisons with previously published data.

  2. A novel Blind Start study design to investigate vestronidase alfa for mucopolysaccharidosis VII, an ultra-rare genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmatz, Paul; Whitley, Chester B; Wang, Raymond Y; Bauer, Mislen; Song, Wenjie; Haller, Christine; Kakkis, Emil

    2018-02-12

    Drug development for ultra-rare diseases is challenging because small sample sizes and heterogeneous study populations hamper the ability of randomized, placebo-controlled trials with a single primary endpoint to demonstrate valid treatment effects. To overcome these challenges, a novel Blind Start design was utilized in a study of vestronidase alfa in mucopolysaccharidosis VII (Sly syndrome), an ultra-rare lysosomal disease, that demonstrates the strengths of this approach in a challenging drug-development setting. Twelve subjects were randomized to 1 of 4 blinded groups, each crossing over to active treatment in a blinded fashion at different timepoints with efficacy analysis comparing the last assessment before cross over to after 24 weeks of treatment. Study assessments included: Percentage change from baseline in urinary GAG (uGAG); a Multi-Domain Responder Index (MDRI) using prespecified minimal important differences (6-Minute Walk Test, Forced Vital Capacity, shoulder flexion, visual acuity, and Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency); fatigue as assessed by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ Multidimensional Fatigue Scale; and safety. Vestronidase alfa treatment for 24 weeks significantly reduced uGAG excretion (dermatan sulfate: 64.8%, p design improve statistical power that enhances detection of a positive treatment effect in this rare heterogeneous disease and could be utilized for other ultra-rare diseases. Copyright © 2018 Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Baseline characteristics of patients in the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure trial (RED-HF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, John J.V.; Anand, Inder S.; Diaz, Rafael; Maggioni, Aldo P.; O'Connor, Christopher; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Solomon, Scott D.; Tendera, Michal; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Albizem, Moetaz; Cheng, Sunfa; Scarlata, Debra; Swedberg, Karl; Young, James B.; Amuchastegui, M.; Belziti, C.; Bluguermann, J.; Caccavo, M.; Cartasegna, L.; Colque, R.; Cuneo, C.; Fernandez, A.; Gabito, A.; Goicochea, R.; Gonzalez, M.; Gorosito, V.; Grinfeld, L.; Hominal, M.; Kevorkian, R.; Litvak Bruno, M.; Llanos, J.; Mackinnon, I.; Manuale, O.; Marzetti, E.; Nul, D.; Perna, E.; Riccitelli, M.; Sanchez, A.; Santos, D.; Schygiel, P.; Toblli, J.; Vogel, D.; Aggarwal, A.; Amerena, J.; De Looze, F.; Fletcher, P.; Hare, D.; Ireland, M.; Krum, H.; Lattimore, J.; Marwick, T.; Sindone, A.; Thompson, P.; Waites, J.; Altenberger, J.; Ebner, C.; Lenz, K.; Pacher, R.; Poelzl, G.; Charlier, F.; de Ceuninck, M.; De Keulenaer, G.; Dendale, P.; Maréchal, P.; Mullens, W.; Thoeng, J.; Vanderheyden, M.; Vanhaecke, J.; Weytjens, C.; Wollaert, B.; Albuquerque, D.; Almeida, D.; Aspe y Rosas, J.; Bocchi, E.; Bordignon, S.; Clausell, N.; Kaiser, S.; Leaes, P.; Martins Alves, S.; Montera, M.; Moura, L.; Pereira de Castro, R.; Rassi, S.; Reis, A.; Saraiva, J.; Simões, M.; Souza Neto, J.; Teixeira, M.; Benov, H.; Chompalova, B.; Donova, T.; Georgiev, P.; Gotchev, D.; Goudev, A.; Grigorov, M.; Guenova, D.; Hergeldjieva, V.; Ivanov, D.; Kostova, E.; Manolova, A.; Marchev, S.; Nikolov, F.; Popov, A.; Raev, D.; Tzekova, M.; Czarnecki, W.; Giannetti, N.; Haddad, H.; Heath, J.; Huynh, T.; Lepage, S.; Liu, P.; Lonn, E.; Ma, P.; Manyari, D.; Moe, G.; Parker, J.; Pesant, Y.; Rajda, M.; Ricci, J.; Roth, S.; Sestier, F.; Sluzar, V.; Sussex, B.; Vizel, S.; Antezana, G.; Bugueno, C.; Castro, P.; Conejeros, C.; Manriquez, L.; Martinez, D.; Potthoff, S.; Stockins, B.; Vukasovic, J.; Gregor, P.; Herold, M.; Jerabek, O.; Jirmar, R.; Kuchar, R.; Linhart, A.; Podzemska, B.; Soucek, M.; Spac, J.; Spacek, R.; Vodnansky, P.; Bronnum-Schou, J.; Clemmensen, K.; Egstrup, K.; Jensen, G.; Kjoller-Hansen, L.; Kober, L.; Markenvard, J.; Rokkedal, J.; Skagen, K.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Tuxen, C.; Videbak, L.; Laks, T.; Vahula, V.; Harjola, V.; Kettunen, R.; Kotila, M.; Bauer, F.; Cohen Solal, A.; Coisne, D.; Davy, J.; De Groote, P.; Dos Santos, P.; Funck, F.; Galinier, M.; Gibelin, P.; Isnard, R.; Neuder, Y.; Roul, G.; Sabatier, R.; Trochu, J.; Anker, S.; Denny, S.; Dreykluft, T.; Flesch, M.; Genth-Zotz, S.; Hambrecht, R.; Hein, J.; Jeserich, M.; John, M.; Kreider-Stempfle, H.; Laufs, U.; Muellerleile, K.; Natour, M.; Sandri, M.; Schäufele, T.; von Hodenberg, E.; Weyland, K.; Winkelmann, B.; Tse, H.; Yan, B.; Barsi, B.; Csikasz, J.; Dezsi, C.; Edes, I.; Forster, T.; Karpati, P.; Kerekes, C.; Kis, E.; Kosa, I.; Lupkovics, G.; Nagy, A.; Preda, I.; Ronaszeki, A.; Tomcsanyi, J.; Zamolyi, K.; Agarwal, D.; Bahl, V.; Bordoloi, A.; Chockalingam, K.; Chopda, M.; Chopra, V.; Dugal, J.; Ghaisas, N.; Ghosh, S.; Grant, P.; Hiremath, S.; Iyengar, S.; Jagadeesa Subramania, B.; Jain, P.; Joshi, A.; Khan, A.; Mullasari, A.; Naik, S.; Oomman, A.; Pai, V.; Pareppally Gopal, R.; Parikh, K.; Patel, T.; Prakash, V.; Sastry, B.; Sathe, S.; Sinha, N.; Srikanthan, V.; Subburamakrishnan, P.; Thacker, H.; Wander, G.; Admon, D.; Katz, A.; Klainman, E.; Lewis, B.; Marmor, A.; Moriel, M.; Mosseri, M.; Shotan, A.; Weinstein, J.; Zimlichman, R.; Agostoni, P.; Albanese, M.; Alunni, G.; Bini, R.; Boccanelli, A.; Bolognese, L.; Campana, C.; Carbonieri, E.; Carpino, C.; Checco, L.; Cosmi, F.; D'Angelo, G.; De Cristofaro, M.; Floresta, A.; Fucili, A.; Galvani, M.; Ivleva, A.; Marra, S.; Musca, G.; Peccerillo, N.; Perrone Filardi, P.; Picchio, E.; Russo, T.; Scelsi, L.; Senni, M.; Tavazzi, L.; Erglis, A.; Jasinkevica, I.; Kakurina, N.; Veze, I.; Volans, E.; Bagdonas, A.; Berukstis, E.; Celutkiene, J.; Dambrauskaite, A.; Jarasuniene, D.; Luksiene, D.; Rudys, A.; Sakalyte, G.; Sliaziene, S.; Aguilar-Romero, R.; Cardona-Muñoz, E.; Castro-Jimenez, J.; Chavez-Herrera, J.; Chuquiure Valenzuela, E.; De la Pena, G.; Herrera, E.; Leiva-Pons, J.; Lopez Alvarado, A.; Mendez Machado, G.; Ramos-Lopez, G.; Basart, D.; Buijs, E.; Cornel, J.; de Leeuw, M.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Dunselman, P.; Freericks, M.; Hamraoui, K.; Lenderlink, T.; Linssen, G.; Lodewick, P.; Lodewijks, C.; Lok, D.; Nierop, P.; Ronner, E.; Somsen, A.; van Dantzig, J.; van der Burgh, P.; van Kempen, L.; van Vlies, B.; Voors, A.; Wardeh, A.; Willems, F.; Dickstein, K.; Gundersen, T.; Hole, T.; Thalamus, J.; Westheim, A.; Dabrowski, M.; Gorski, J.; Korewicki, J.; Kuc, K.; Miekus, P.; Musial, W.; Niegowska, J.; Piotrowski, W.; Podolec, P.; Polonski, L.; Ponikowski, P.; Rynkiewicz, A.; Szelemej, R.; Trusz-Gluza, M.; Ujda, M.; Wojciechowski, D; Wysokinski, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims This report describes the baseline characteristics of patients in the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure trial (RED-HF) which is testing the hypothesis that anaemia correction with darbepoetin alfa will reduce the composite endpoint of death from any cause or hospital admission for worsening heart failure, and improve other outcomes. Methods and results Key demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings, along with baseline treatment, are reported and compared with those of patients in other recent clinical trials in heart failure. Compared with other recent trials, RED-HF enrolled more elderly [mean age 70 (SD 11.4) years], female (41%), and black (9%) patients. RED-HF patients more often had diabetes (46%) and renal impairment (72% had an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Patients in RED-HF had heart failure of longer duration [5.3 (5.4) years], worse NYHA class (35% II, 63% III, and 2% IV), and more signs of congestion. Mean EF was 30% (6.8%). RED-HF patients were well treated at randomization, and pharmacological therapy at baseline was broadly similar to that of other recent trials, taking account of study-specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Median (interquartile range) haemoglobin at baseline was 112 (106–117) g/L. Conclusion The anaemic patients enrolled in RED-HF were older, moderately to markedly symptomatic, and had extensive co-morbidity. PMID:23329651

  4. SPECIFIC DISORDERS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS. CLINICAL EFFICACY OF THERAPY WITH DORNASE ALFA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Simanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to specific disorders of the respiratory system in cystic fibrosis. 64 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF aged 2 months to 32 years and residing in the Udmurtian Republic were studied. Epidemiological and genetic specifics of this disease in the mentioned region of the RF were examined. Clinical, X-ray, functional and microbiological studies of the CF patients’ respiratory system were conducted. It was found that genotype delF508 and chronic infection Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus cause severe structural changes to the bronchopulmonary system more often. The obtained data suggest the advisability of identifying the groups of CF patients at the highest risk of severe respiratory system disorders in order to optimise therapeutic efforts. The article provides indicators of clinical efficacy of a dornase alfa therapy in CF children.Key words: cystic fibrosis, genotype, delF508 mutation, respiratory organs, pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, staphylococcal infection, respiratory function, mucolytic function, dornase alfa. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(6:44-48

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Observed red supergiants in the inner Galaxy (Messineo+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messineo, M.; Zhu, Q.; Menten, K. M.; Ivanov, V. D.; Figer, D. F.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Rosie, Chen C.-H.

    2018-02-01

    Spectroscopic observations were carried out with the Son of ISAAC (SofI; Moorwood et al. 1998Msngr..91....9M) Spectrograph on the ESO/New Technology Telescope (NTT) 3.58 m telescope of the La Silla Observatory, on the three nights from UT 2015 June 16 to 19-program ID 095.D-0252(A). Spectra with the low-resolution red grism, and the 0.6" wide slit, delivering resolution R~980 over the wavelength range λ=1.53-2.52 μm were obtained for 94 targets. For each target a minimum number of four exposures, nodded along the slit, were taken in an ABBA sequence. Typical integration times per frame ranged from 2 to 100 s (DITsxNDITs). (1 data file).

  6. The GeV Excess Shining Through: Background Systematics for the Inner Galaxy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calore, Francesca; Cholis, Ilias; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-02-10

    Recently, a spatially extended excess of gamma rays collected by the Fermi-LAT from the inner region of the Milky Way has been detected by different groups and with increasingly sophisticated techniques. Yet, any final conclusion about the morphology and spectral properties of such an extended diffuse emission are subject to a number of potentially critical uncertainties, related to the high density of cosmic rays, gas, magnetic fields and abundance of point sources. We will present a thorough study of the systematic uncertainties related to the modelling of diffuse background and to the propagation of cosmic rays in the inner part of our Galaxy. We will test a large set of models for the Galactic diffuse emission, generated by varying the propagation parameters within extreme conditions. By using those models in the fit of Fermi-LAT data as Galactic foreground, we will show that the gamma-ray excess survives and we will quantify the uncertainties on the excess emission morphology and energy spectrum.

  7. ATLASGAL-selected massive clumps in the inner Galaxy. V. Temperature structure and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, A.; Leurini, S.; Wyrowski, F.; Urquhart, J.; Csengeri, T.; Menten, K. M.; König, C.; Güsten, R.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Observational identification of a solid evolutionary sequence for high-mass star-forming regions is still missing. Spectroscopic observations give the opportunity to test possible schemes and connect the phases identified to physical processes. Aims: We aim to use the progressive heating of the gas caused by the feedback of high-mass young stellar objects to prove the statistical validity of the most common schemes used to observationally define an evolutionary sequence for high-mass clumps, and characterise the sensitivity of different tracers to this process. Methods: From the spectroscopic follow-ups carried out towards submillimeter continuum (dust) emission-selected massive clumps (the ATLASGAL TOP100 sample) with the IRAM 30 m, Mopra, and APEX telescopes between 84 GHz and 365 GHz, we selected several multiplets of CH3CN, CH3CCH, and CH3OH emission lines to derive and compare the physical properties of the gas in the clumps along the evolutionary sequence, fitting simultaneously the large number of lines that these molecules have in the observed band. Our findings are compared with results obtained from optically thin CO isotopologues, dust, and ammonia from previous studies on the same sample. Results: The chemical properties of each species have a major role on the measured physical properties. Low temperatures are traced by ammonia, methanol, and CO (in the early phases), the warm and dense envelope can be probed with CH3CN, CH3CCH, and, in evolved sources where CO is abundant in the gas phase, via its optically thin isotopologues. CH3OH and CH3CN are also abundant in the hot cores, and we suggest that their high-excitation transitions are good tools to study the kinematics in the hot gas associated with the inner envelope surrounding the young stellar objects that these clumps are hosting. All tracers show, to different degrees according to their properties, progressive warming with evolution. The relation between gas temperature and the luminosity-to-mass (L/M) ratio is reproduced by a simple toy model of a spherical, internally heated clump. Conclusions: The evolutionary sequence defined for the clumps is statistically valid and we could identify the physical processes dominating in different intervals of L/M. For L/M ≾ 2 L⊙M⊙-1 a large quantity of the gas is still accumulated and compressed at the bottom of the potential well. Between 2 L⊙M⊙-1 ≾ L/M ≾ 40 L⊙M⊙-1 the young stellar objects gain mass and increase in luminosity; the first hot cores hosting intermediate- or high-mass ZAMS stars appear around L/M 10 L⊙M⊙-1. Finally, for L/M ≳ 40 L⊙M⊙-1 Hii regions become common, showing that dissipation of the parental clump dominates. Tables from A.1 to A.8 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/603/A33

  8. ATLASGAL - Kinematic distances and the dense gas mass distribution of the inner Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienen, M.; Wyrowski, F.; Menten, K. M.; Urquhart, J. S.; Csengeri, T.; Walmsley, C. M.; Bontemps, S.; Russeil, D.; Bronfman, L.; Koribalski, B. S.; Schuller, F.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The formation of high mass stars and clusters occurs in giant molecular clouds. Objects in evolved stages of massive star formation such as protostars, hot molecular cores, and ultracompact HII regions have been studied in more detail than earlier, colder objects. Further progress thus requires the analysis of the time before massive protostellar objects can be probed by their infrared emission. With this in mind, the APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the whole inner Galactic plane at 870 μm (ATLASGAL) has been carried out to provide a global view of cold dust and star formation at submillimetre wavelengths. Aims: We derive kinematic distances to a large sample of massive cold dust clumps from their measured line velocities. We estimate masses and sizes of ATLASGAL sources, for which the kinematic distance ambiguity is resolved. Methods: The ATLASGAL sample is divided into groups of sources, which are located close together, mostly within a radius of 2 pc, and have velocities in a similar range with a median velocity dispersion of ~1 km s-1. We use NH3, N2H+, and CS velocities to calculate near and far kinematic distances to those groups. Results: We obtain 296 groups of ATLASGAL sources in the first quadrant and 393 groups in the fourth quadrant, which are coherent in space and velocity. We analyse HI self-absorption and HI absorption to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity to 689 complexes of submm clumps. They are associated with 12CO emission probing large-scale structure and 13CO (1-0) line as well as the 870 μm dust continuum on a smaller scale. We obtain a scale height of ~28 ± 2 pc and displacement below the Galactic midplane of ~-7 ± 1 pc. Within distances from 2 to 18 kpc ATLASGAL clumps have a broad range of gas masses with a median of 1050 M⊙ as well as a wide distribution of radii with a median of 0.4 pc. Their distribution in galactocentric radii is correlated with spiral arms. Conclusions: Using a statistically significant ATLASGAL sample we derive a power-law exponent of -2.2 ± 0.1 of the clump mass function. This is consistent with the slope derived for clusters and with that of the stellar initial mass function. Examining the power-law index for different galactocentric distances and various source samples shows that it is independent of environment and evolutionary phase. Fitting the mass-size relationship by a power law gives a slope of 1.76 ± 0.01 for cold sources such as IRDCs and warm clumps associated with HII regions. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/579/A91

  9. Elosulfase alfa enzyme replacement therapy attenuates disease progression in a non-ambulatory Japanese patient with Morquio A syndrome (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Hiramatsu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with elosulfase alfa is the only approved therapy in Japan for patients with Morquio A syndrome, a lysosomal storage disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. The experience with ERT in severely affected, non-ambulatory patients has not been reported in previous studies. This case report describes clinical evidence for the 1-year efficacy and safety of ERT with elosulfase alfa in a severely affected, non-ambulatory, 47-year-old patient with Morquio A syndrome who needs intensive respiratory management. ERT with elosulfase alfa was well tolerated in this patient. Because of the possibility of potential hypersensitivity adverse events, special attention is needed when using ERT in patients with respiratory disorders. However, under the appropriate management of specialists, the patient in this case report showed significant respiratory improvement after starting ERT, and abdominal bloating was improved by gas evacuation. In addition, the patient was able to lift up her arms, reach behind her back, and move her legs slightly, and she recovered her grip strength. Her hearing loss improved and she could hear without a hearing aid. This report shows that ERT with elosulfase alfa can be used with appropriate respiratory care in patients with severe respiratory dysfunction.

  10. The ALFA4Hearing Model (At-a-Glance Labeling for Features of Apps for Hearing Health Care) to Characterize Mobile Apps for Hearing Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglialonga, Alessia; Pinciroli, Francesco; Tognola, Gabriella

    2017-10-12

    The aim of the study was to analyze, by using the ALFA4Hearing model (At-a-Glance Labeling for Features of Apps for Hearing Health Care), a sample of apps over a wide range of services in the hearing health care (HHC) domain in order to take a first picture of the current scenario of apps for HHC. We tested 120 apps, and we characterized them by using the ALFA4Hearing model, which includes 29 features in 5 components (Promoters, Services, Implementation, Users, and Descriptive Information). We analyzed (a) the distribution of the 29 features in the sample, (b) the relationship between the Implementation features and the Services provided by the apps, and (c) the distribution of the 29 features in apps for professional use. The analysis of our sample of apps by means of the ALFA4Hearing model highlighted interesting trends and emerging challenges. Also, results suggested many potential opportunities for research and clinical practice, such as greater involvement of stakeholders, improved evidence base, higher technical quality, and usability. The ALFA4Hearing model is able to represent, at a glance, a large amount of information about apps for HHC, highlighting trends and challenges. It might be useful to HHC professionals as a basis for app characterization and informed decision making.

  11. Ropeginterferon alfa-2b, a novel IFNα-2b, induces high response rates with low toxicity in patients with polycythemia vera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrijtschuk, Oleh; Buxhofer-Ausch, Veronika; Thaler, Josef; Schloegl, Ernst; Gastl, Guenther A.; Wolf, Dominik; Kralovics, Robert; Gisslinger, Bettina; Strecker, Karin; Egle, Alexander; Melchardt, Thomas; Burgstaller, Sonja; Willenbacher, Ella; Schalling, Martin; Them, Nicole C.; Kadlecova, Pavla; Klade, Christoph; Greil, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In this prospective, open-label, multicenter phase 1/2 dose escalation study, we used a next-generation, mono-pegylated interferon (IFN) α-2b isoform, ropeginterferon alfa-2b. The unique feature of ropeginterferon alfa-2b is a longer elimination half-life, which allows administration every 2 weeks. We present data from 51 polycythemia vera patients. The main goal was to define the maximum tolerated dose and to assess safety and efficacy. A dose range of 50 to 540 µg was tested without the appearance of dose-limiting toxicities. All drug-related adverse events were known toxicities associated with IFN-α. The cumulative overall response rate was 90%, comprising complete response in 47% and partial response in 43% of patients; the best individual molecular response level was a complete response in 21% of patients and partial response in 47%. Notably, we did not observe any correlation between the dose level and the response rate or response duration, suggesting that already low levels of ropeginterferon alfa-2b are sufficient to induce significant hematologic and molecular responses. These data suggest promising efficacy and safety of ropeginterferon alfa-2b and support the development of the drug in a randomized phase 3 clinical trial. The study was disclosed at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01193699 before including the first patient. PMID:26261238

  12. An open-label clinical trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of corifollitropin alfa combined with hCG in adult men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Bouloux, Pierre-Marc G; Stegmann, Barbara J; Shankar, R Ravi; Guan, Yanfen; Tzontcheva, Anjela; McCrary Sisk, Christine; Behre, Hermann M

    2017-03-07

    Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in men results in insufficient testicular function and deficiencies in testosterone and spermatogenesis. Combinations of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (recFSH) have been successful in the treatment of HH. Corifollitropin alfa is a long-acting FSH-analog with demonstrated action in women seeking infertility care. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of corifollitropin alfa combined with hCG to increase testicular volume and induce spermatogenesis in men with HH. This was a Phase III, multi-center, open-label, single-arm trial of corifollitropin alfa in azoospermic men aged 18 to 50 years with HH. After 16 weeks of pretreatment of 23 subjects with hCG alone, 18 subjects with normalized testosterone (T) levels who remained azoospermic entered the 52-week combined treatment phase with hCG twice-weekly and 150 μg corifollitropin alfa every other week. The increase in testicular volume (primary efficacy endpoint) and induction of spermatogenesis resulting in a sperm count ≥1 × 10 6 /mL (key secondary efficacy endpoint) during 52 weeks of combined treatment were assessed. Safety was evaluated by the presence of anti-corifollitropin alfa antibodies and the occurrence of adverse events (AEs). Mean (±SD) testicular volume increased from 8.6 (±6.09) mL to 17.8 (±8.93) mL (geometric mean fold increase, 2.30 [95% CI: 2.03, 2.62]); 14 (77.8%) subjects reached a sperm count ≥1 × 10 6 /mL. No subject developed confirmed anti-corifollitropin alfa antibodies during the trial. Treatment was generally well tolerated. Corifollitropin alfa 150 μg administrated every other week combined with twice-weekly hCG for 52 weeks increased testicular volume significantly, and induced spermatogenesis in >75% of men with HH who had remained azoospermic after hCG treatment alone. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01709331 .

  13. Oral sucrosomial iron versus intravenous iron in anemic cancer patients without iron deficiency receiving darbepoetin alfa: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafodda, Antonino; Giuffrida, D; Prestifilippo, A; Azzarello, D; Giannicola, R; Mare, M; Maisano, R

    2017-09-01

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are often used in treatment of patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. Many studies have demonstrated an improved hemoglobin (Hb) response when ESA is combined with intravenous iron supplementation and a higher effectiveness of intravenous iron over traditional oral iron formulations. A new formulation of oral sucrosomial iron featuring an increased bioavailability compared to traditional oral formulations has recently become available and could provide a valid alternative to those by intravenous (IV) route. Our study evaluated the performance of sucrosomial iron versus intravenous iron in increasing hemoglobin in anemic cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and darbepoetin alfa, as well as safety, need of transfusion, and quality of life (QoL). The present study considered a cohort of 64 patients with chemotherapy-related anemia (Hb >8 g/dL iron deficiency, scheduled to receive chemotherapy and darbepoetin. All patients received darbepoetin alfa 500 mcg once every 3 weeks and were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of IV ferric gluconate 125 mg weekly or oral sucrosomial iron 30 mg daily. The primary endpoint was to demonstrate the performance of oral sucrosomial iron in improving Hb response, compared to intravenous iron. The Hb response was defined as the Hb increase ≥2 g/dL from baseline or the attainment Hb ≥ 12 g/dL. There was no difference in the Hb response rate between the two treatment arms. Seventy one percent of patients treated with IV iron achieved an erythropoietic response, compared to 70% of patients treated with oral iron. By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be not statistically significant. There were also no differences in the proportion of patients requiring red blood cell transfusions and changes in QoL. Sucrosomial oral iron was better tolerated. In cancer patients with chemotherapy-related anemia receiving darbepoetin alfa, sucrosomial oral iron provides

  14. O uso da drotrecogina alfa ativada na prática clínica e as atuais evidências Drotrecogin alfa activated in clinical practice and the current evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Soares

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O debate sobre a segurança e eficácia da drotrecogina alfa (DrotAA encontra-se na ordem do dia, principalmente, em função dos resultados negativos observados em ensaios clínicos subseqüentes ao PROWESS e do impacto econômico no sistema de saúde relacionado ao custo elevado do fármaco. O objetivo deste estudo foi rever os principais estudos sobre a utilização da DrotAA em pacientes com sepse grave, com ênfase nas questões ligadas a sua eficácia e segurança. CONTEÚDO: Foram selecionados artigos sobre a utilização da DrotAA em pacientes com sepse publicados nos últimos dez anos no MedLine. Os seguintes unitermos foram utilizados: activated protein C; drotrecogin alfa; sepsis; septic shock; Xigris®. Estudos referenciados nos artigos selecionados na busca também foram utilizados. CONCLUSÕES: As taxas de letalidades e as complicações hemorrágicas associadas com o uso do fármaco foram maiores em grandes estudos observacionais do que aquelas descritas previamente nos ensaios clínicos. A luz dos resultados atualmente disponíveis, o uso da DrotAA deve ser reconsiderado até que novos ensaios clínicos possam subsidiar com informações adicionais sobre eficácia, segurança e na identificação dos subgrupos de pacientes com sepse grave que porventura possam ter benefício com o uso deste medicamento. A DrotAA deve servir de exemplo para que haja maior cautela com a rápida transposição de evidências ainda em construção para recomendações e diretrizes de tratamento de pacientes com sepse grave.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The debate on efficacy and patient safety related to the use of drotrecogin alfa (DrotAA is timely, principally due to the negative results observed in clinical studies performed after the PROWESS study, and the economic cost-related impact of the drug on the healthcare system. The aim of this study was to review the main studies on the use of DrotAA in patients with severe

  15. Diversidad alfa y beta de la comunidad de reptiles en el complejo cenagoso de Zapatosa, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Fabián Medina-Rangel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad es una propiedad de las comunidades, permite describir, caracterizar y entender el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas. Para estudiar la riqueza, abundancia y el recambio de especies de reptiles entre hábitats circundantes al complejo cenagoso de Zapatosa, se realizaron cuatro salidas de campo (noviembre de 2006 y octubre de 2007. Se invirtieron 640h/hombre de muestreo repartido en cinco tipos de hábitat: bosque casmófito, bosque seco, bosque de ribera, palmar y sabana arbolada. Se encontraron 847 individuos de 48 especies, la familia más rica fue Colubridae, se registraron cinco especies endémicas y ocho con algún grado de amenaza en conservación a nivel nacional. El hábitat más diverso fue el bosque de ribera. La representatividad del muestreo en total y para cada hábitat fue superior al 80%, con excepción del palmar (Alfa and beta diversity of reptilian assemblages in Zapatosa wetland complex, Colombia. Diversity is a property of community that can described, characterized, and understood according to the functioning of ecosystems. To study the richness and local abundance and species replacement between habitats around the Zapatosa’s wetland complex (El Cesar Department, I carried out four field trips between November of 2006 and October of 2007. A total of 640 sampling hours/man analyzed five habitat types chasmophyte forest, dry forest, riparian forest, palm-grove and tree-lined savanna; with the exception of the palm-grove sampled at its 75%, the others were sampled up to their 80%. I found 847 reptiles that were distributed in 48 species. The group with the highest number of species was Colubridae with 14, followed by Gekkonidae with five. Five endemic species and eight with some conservation threat grade at a national level a re reported. The riparian forest was the richest and most abundant habitat with 34 species and 196 individuals. For each habitat, Colubridae had the highest number of species, followed by

  16. Efficacy and safety of enzyme-replacement-therapy with agalsidase alfa in 36 treatment-naïve Fabry disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-06-07

    Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting from the α-galactosidase A gene mutations. Enzyme-replacement-therapy (ERT) products for FD currently used include agalsidase alfa and agalsidase beta. There are many reports on efficacy and safety of ERT. However, most of the previous studies are done as a retrospective medical records analysis. The Japan Fabry Research - 002 (JFR-002) was a prospective observational clinical study of 36 ERT-naïve FD patients (14 men and 22 women) at baseline (BL) and after initiation of ERT with agalsidase alfa 0.2 mg/kg every two weeks, a median period 62.5 months. The parameters measured included globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), globotriaosylsphingosine (Lyso-Gb3), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-Trop I), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and anti-agalsidase alfa IgG antibody formation. All parameters remained steady during ERT treatment period. BNP levels in 14 patients whose BL levels were within the normal range (<19.5 pg/mL) remained within the same range, while 22 patients whose BL levels were abnormally high (≥19.5 pg/mL) gradually showed decreased levels after start of ERT. Gb3 and Lyso-Gb3 levels remarkably decreased after the initiation of ERT and remained low. The JFR-002 suggests that agalsidase alfa is effective in maintaining organ function in FD patients, and that the incidence of infusion reactions related to the treatment with agalsidase alfa is low, indicating the good tolerability to this ERT. The JFR-002 was retrospectively registered at Japan Medical Association Center for Clinical Trials (Registration number: JMA-IIA00291 ) on May 19th, 2017.

  17. Estudios sobre alfa-amilasa en saliva como marcador de estrés en la especie humana y otras especies animales= Studies on salivary alpha-amylase as a maker of stress in human and different animal species

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Rubio, María

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVOS 1. Evaluar el uso de la alfa amilasa salivar como marcador de estrés usando técnicas tradicionales (ensayos enzimáticos) en humana, usando como modelo experimental a estudiantes de veterinaria que tenían que realizar una presentación oral de un trabajo en lengua extranjera. 2. Evaluar el uso de la alfa amilasa salivar como marcador de estrés usando técnicas tradicionales (ensayos enzimáticos) en cerdos. 3. Implementar nuevos enfoques para la medición de la alfa-amilasa e...

  18. PEMBUATAN ETANOL DARI BIJI CEMPEDAK (Artocarpus champeden sp. DENGAN HIDROLISIS MENGGUNAKAN ENZIM ALFA AMILASE DAN GLUKOLASE FERMENTASI Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Teguh Santoso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi dari biji cempedak (Artocarpus champedan sp. sebagai bahan baku pembuatan etanol, sekaligus mengetahui apakah variasi penambahan nutrisi ammonium sulfat dan lamanya waktu fermentasi dapat meningkatkan konsentrasi etanol yang dihasilakan. Proses hidrolisis pati dilakukan secara  enzimatis melalui tahap liquifikasi dan sakarifikasi dengan menggunakan enzim alfa-amilase dan glukolase yang akan mengkonversi pati menjadi glukosa. Hasil hidrolisis ditambahkan amonium sulfat sebagai sumber nutrisi dengan variasi 0,1 %, 0,3 % dan 0,5 % (b/v kemudian difermentasi dengan variasi waktu 4, 5 dan 6 hari. Konsentrasi etanol tertinggi berada pada penambahan nutrisi amonium sulfat 0,3 % (b/v dengan waktu fermentasi 6 hari sebesar 8,233 %   Kata Kunci: Etanol, Biji Cempedak (Artocarpus champedan sp. dan Fermentasi.

  19. Deficiência de alfa-1 antitripsina: diagnóstico e tratamento Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquiles A Camelier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência de alfa-1 antitripsina é um distúrbio genético de descoberta recente e que ocorre com freqüência comparável à da fibrose cística. Resulta de diferentes mutações no gene SERPINA1 e tem diversas implicações clínicas. A alfa-1 antitripsina é produzida principalmente no fígado e atua como uma antiprotease. Tem como principal função inativar a elastase neutrofílica, impedindo a ocorrência de dano tecidual. A mutação mais freqüentemente relacionada à doença clínica é o alelo Z, que determina polimerização e acúmulo dentro dos hepatócitos. O acúmulo e a conseqüente redução dos níveis séricos de alfa-1 antitripsina determinam, respectivamente, doença hepática e pulmonar, sendo que esta se manifesta principalmente sob a forma de enfisema de aparecimento precoce, habitualmente com predomínio basal. O diagnóstico envolve a detecção de níveis séricos reduzidos de alfa-1 antitripsina e a confirmação fenotípica. Além do tratamento usual para doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, existe atualmente uma terapia específica com infusão de concentrados de alfa-1 antitripsina. Essa terapia de reposição, aparentemente segura, ainda não teve a eficácia clínica definitivamente comprovada, e o custo-efetividade também é um tema controverso e ainda pouco abordado. Apesar da sua importância, não existem dados epidemiológicos brasileiros a respeito da prevalência da doença ou da freqüência de ocorrência dos alelos deficientes. O subdiagnóstico também tem sido uma importante limitação tanto para o estudo da doença quanto para o tratamento adequado dos pacientes. Espera-se que a criação do Registro Internacional de Alfa-1 venha a resolver essas e outras importantes questões.Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a recently identified genetic disease that occurs almost as frequently as cystic fibrosis. It is caused by various mutations in the SERPINA1 gene, and has numerous clinical

  20. Evaluation of pharmacokinetics, user handling, and tolerability of peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kDa delivered via a disposable autoinjector device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varunok P

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Peter Varunok1, Eric Lawitz2, Kimberly L Beavers3, Gary Matusow4, Ruby Leong5, Nathalie Lambert6, Coen Bernaards7, Jonathan Solsky5, Barbara J Brennan5, Cynthia Wat8, Anne Bertasso51Gastroenterology Associates, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA; 2Alamo Medical Research, San Antonio, TX, USA; 3Asheville Gastroenterology, Asheville, NC, USA; 4Gastroenterology Group, South Jersey, NJ, USA; 5Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 6Roche, Basel, Switzerland; 7Roche, San Francisco, CA, USA; 8Roche, Welwyn, UKBackground: Peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kDa is currently administered using a prefilled syringe. The peginterferon alfa-2a disposable autoinjector is a new safety-engineered device designed to facilitate injection and reduce the risk of needlestick injuries. The analysis of two open-label Phase I trials evaluated the pharmacokinetics, successful administration, and tolerability of peginterferon alfa-2a when using the autoinjector. The studies were performed to support the filing and registration of the autoinjector device.Methods: In trial 1, 50 healthy adult subjects received one 180 µg dose of peginterferon alfa-2a via the autoinjector. Serial blood samples were collected predose, up to 336 hours following drug administration, and at follow-up (28 ± 3 days post-dosing for noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. Trial 2 randomized 60 adult patients with chronic hepatitis C to 180 µg peginterferon alfa-2a once weekly by the autoinjector or prefilled syringe for 3 weeks followed by the alternative device (prefilled syringe or autoinjector, respectively for 3 weeks. Patients also received ribavirin. Administration by the devices was evaluated under direct observation by a study staff member and by patient subjective assessment.Results: In trial 1, following a single dose of peginterferon alfa-2a, the maximum plasma concentration was 16.1 ± 5.3 ng/mL (mean ± standard deviation, and area under the concentration time curve (0–168 hours was 1996 ± 613 ng · hour

  1. Health-related quality of life in patients with high-risk melanoma randomised in the Nordic phase 3 trial with adjuvant intermediate-dose interferon alfa-2b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandberg, Y; Aamdal, S; Bastholt, Lars

    2012-01-01

    To compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and side-effects in patients with high-risk melanoma participating in a randomised phase III trial of adjuvant interferon alfa-2b (IFN).......To compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and side-effects in patients with high-risk melanoma participating in a randomised phase III trial of adjuvant interferon alfa-2b (IFN)....

  2. Peginterferon alpha-2a is associated with higher sustained virological response than peginterferon alfa-2b in chronic hepatitis C: systematic review of randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Tahany; Thorlund, Kristian; Hauser, Goran

    2010-01-01

    ) is most effective. We performed a systematic review of head-to-head randomized trials to assess the benefits and harms of the two treatments. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS through July 2009. Using standardized forms, two reviewers independently...... extracted data from each eligible trial report. We statistically combined data using a random effects meta-analysis according to the intention-to-treat principle. We identified 12 randomized clinical trials, including 5,008 patients, that compared peginterferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin versus peginterferon...... alfa-2b plus ribavirin. Overall, peginterferon alpha-2a significantly increased the number of patients who achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) versus peginterferon alfa-2b (47% versus 41%; risk ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.19; P = 0.004 [eight trials]). Subgroup analyses...

  3. Copolimerização de 1,3-butadieno e alfa-olefinas com catalisadores à base de versatato de neodímio

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Monteiro da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Nesta Dissertação, foram realizadas reações de copolimerização de 1,3-butadieno com diferentes alfa-olefinas (1-hexeno, 1-octeno e 1-dodeceno) utilizando-se um sistema catalítico do tipo Ziegler-Natta ternário constituído por versatato de neodímio, hidreto de diisobutilalumínio e cloreto de t-butila. O sistema catalítico também foi avaliado em reações de homopolimerização com cada alfa-olefina. As condições reacionais, tanto da síntese do catalisador como das reações de polimerização, foram m...

  4. Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging Detects Microstructural Alterations in Brain of alfa-Synuclein Overexpressing Transgenic Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khainar, A.; Latta, P.; Dražanová, Eva; Rudá-Kučerová, J.; Szabó, N.; Arab, A.; Hutter-Paier, B.; Havas, D.; Windisch, M.; Šulcová, A.; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Rektorová, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2015), 281-289 ISSN 1029-8428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : diffusion kurtosis imaging * alfa-Synuclein * TNWT-61 * Parkinson’s disease * Transgenic mice * TBSS Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.140, year: 2015

  5. The efficacy and safety of adjuvant interferon-alfa therapy in the evolving treatment landscape for resected high-risk melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Van Anh; Zobniw, Chrystia; Hwu, Wen-Jen

    2017-08-01

    Patients with resected stage II or III melanoma are at high risk of recurrence, with 5-year mortality rate of 40-60%. Adjuvant interferon-alfa has demonstrated a small RFS and OS benefit versus observation in this patient population. However, the adjuvant treatment landscape is evolving rapidly. Areas covered: This review aims to summarize the safety and efficacy profiles of adjuvant IFNα/PEG-IFNα, revisit the controversy surrounding its application, and reappraise its position in the rapidly changing treatment landscape of resected melanoma. A literature search using PubMed database was undertaken using search words melanoma, interferon-alfa, pegylated interferon-alfa, adjuvant therapy. Expert opinion: Currently, there is no international consensus regarding the optimal dosing schedule for adjuvant IFNα, but HD IFNα-2b remains the most widely used regimen. The AEs of HD IFNα-2b are substantial; however, toxicity management experience amassed over the past 2 decades has significantly improved safety. Many exciting studies are ongoing to examine the roles of immune checkpoint inhibitors and BRAF-targeted therapies in the adjuvant setting and will further delineate the role of adjuvant IFNα.

  6. Influence of wool and thermo-binder fibers relative fractions on the adhesion of non-woven Alfa fibers reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Omri, Med; Triki, A.; Ben Hassen, Med; Arous, M.; Bulou, A.

    2016-10-01

    Alfa/wool/thermo-binder fibers hybrid composites were investigated in order to analyze adhesion state. Bearing in mind the chemical structure of wool and thermo-binder fibers, this study revealed a good compatibility between the reinforcement and the matrix. Dielectric measurements revealed the presence of two dielectric relaxations in the composite. The first relaxation was attributed to the α mode relaxation and the second one was associated with the conductivity noted for high temperature. This study allowed the analysis of the interfacial polarization effect using the Havrilliak-Negami model in the electric modulus formalism. The lowness of this relaxation intensity revealed a good adhesion of the fibers in the matrix. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) showed a slow decrease of the Tg glass transition temperature compared to the matrix, which could be explained by the existence of interactions between the fibers and the matrix. Vibrational analysis, based on FTIR measurements, showed a less hydrophilic character of Alfa fibers owing to a basic dissociation that occurs between the wool fibers and the water molecules associated with Alfa fibers. Furthermore, adhesion mechanism in the composite material was established by covalent and hydrogen bonds. Tensile testing performed on this composite confirmed that such adhesion was improved by increasing the thermo-binder fibers relative fraction.

  7. An Open-label, Single-dose, Pharmacokinetic Study of Factor VIII Activity After Administration of Moroctocog Alfa (AF-CC) in Male Chinese Patients With Hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongzhong; Wu, Runhui; Hu, Pei; Sun, Feifei; Xu, Lihong; Liang, Yali; Nepal, Sunil; Qu, Peng Roger; Huard, Francois; Korth-Bradley, Joan M

    2017-07-01

    Hemophilia A represents up to 80% of all hemophilia cases in China. In patients with this condition, bleeding can be prevented and controlled by administering clotting factor VIII (FVIII). Since their initial availability, recombinant FVIII products have undergone several iterations to enhance their safety. Moroctocog alfa albumin-free cell culture (AF-CC) is among the third generation of recombinant FVIII products and received regulatory approval in China in August 2012. The present study characterizes the single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters of FVIII activity (FVIII:C) after administration of moroctocog alfa (AF-CC) in male Chinese patients with hemophilia A. This multicenter, open-label, single-dose study enrolled 13 male Chinese patients diagnosed with severe hemophilia A (FVIII:C hemophilia A. The pharmacokinetic profile in older patients was similar to that previously reported with recombinant FVIII products in studies with a predominantly white population; younger patients had reduced exposure to FVIII:C. The single doses of moroctocog alfa (AF-CC) were well tolerated; 2 cases of transient, low-titer FVIII inhibitor development were observed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02461992. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Corifollitropin alfa compared to daily rFSH or HP-HMG in GnRH antagonist controlled ovarian stimulation protocol for patients undergoing assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Priscila Morais Galvão; Carvalho, Bruno Ramalho de; Nakagawa, Hitomi Miura; Rassi, Thalita Reis Esselin; Barbosa, Antônio César Paes; Silva, Adelino Amaral

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the outcomes of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with corifollitropin alfa versus daily recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rRFSH) or highly purified human menopausal gonadotropin (HP-HMG) in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles based on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocols. The primary endpoints were total number of oocytes and mature oocytes. This retrospective study looked into 132 controlled ovarian stimulation cycles from IVF or oocyte cryopreservation performed in a private human reproduction center between January 1 and December 31, 2014. Enrollment criteria: women aged 0.05). There were no significant differences in fertilization (76.9% vs. 76.8%, p=1.0), biochemical pregnancy (66.7% vs. 47.2%, p=0.1561) or embryo implantation rates (68.7% vs. 50%, p=0.2588) between the groups using corifollitropin alfa and rFSH or HMG, respectively. Corifollitropin alfa seems to be as effective as rFSH or HP-HMG when used in the first seven days of ovulation induction for patients undergoing assisted reproduction in GnRH antagonist protocols.

  9. Effect of corifollitropin alfa supplemented with or without LH on ovarian stimulation and embryo viability in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viudes-de-Castro, María Pilar; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco; Cedano-Castro, José Isaí; Vicente, José Salvador

    2017-08-01

    There is increasing interest in using rabbits for research as a laboratory model as well as for industrial production of meat, wool and fur. Superovulation in animals is used to produce a maximum number of transferable embryos per donor, in order to either support genetic improvement programs, ex situ conservation or to optimize other biotechnologies. Over time, the use of this biotechnology has shown variable outcomes as a consequence of several factors, such as the origin of exogenous hormone, posology and the effect of gonadotropins used simultaneously, the donor and the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a single injection of corifollitropin alfa (CTP), alone or supplemented with LH, versus a FSH standard protocol of five equal doses administered twice daily to superovulate rabbit does (20 per group and 29 control females). We determined: 1) the impact of this stimulation on in vitro development and mRNA expression at blastocyst stage and 2) in vivo embryo development and viability rate at birth of transferred embryos. Our outcomes showed that the ovulation rate was similar among the different ovarian stimulation groups, reaching more than fourfold the ovulation rate of a control doe. While rates of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage after 48 h of in vitro culture were similar between groups, the hatched blastocyst rate was higher for superovulated embryos from CTP group. Moreover, no significant differences among mRNA expression of OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG genes were detected. Nevertheless, embryos from ovarian stimulated does with CTP + LH showed significantly higher implantation rates and survival at birth among the different ovarian stimulation groups and similar to those in the control group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that a single injection of long acting corifollitropin alfa can be effectively used in rabbits to elicit a more than fourfold increase in ovulation rate compared to control

  10. Kidney function and 24-hour proteinuria in patients with Fabry disease during 36 months of agalsidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy: a Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thofehrn, Scheila; Netto, Cristina; Cecchin, Cláudia; Burin, Maira; Matte, Ursula; Brustolin, Sílvia; Nunes, Ane Cláudia Fernandes; Coelho, Janice; Tsao, Marylin; Jardim, Laura; Giugliani, Roberto; Barros, Elvino José Guardão

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), management of Fabry disease (FD) consisted of symptomatic and palliative measures. ERT has been available for several years using recombinant human agalsidase alfa, an analogue of alpha-galactosidase A (GALA). However, the limitations of ERT in improving kidney function have not been established. This study evaluates the safety and therapeutic effect of agalsidase alfa replacement in terms of kidney function and reduction in 24-hour proteinuria. During the period between January 1, 2002, and August 1, 2005, nine Fabry patients (7 male, 2 female) were treated according to protocol, receiving 0.2 mg/kg agalsidase alfa IV every two weeks. Kidney function was evaluated by measuring the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using chromium ethylene diamine tetra-acetate clearance ((51)Cr-EDTA mL/min/ 1.73 m(2)) at baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months. 24-hour proteinuria was measured at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of ERT. Kidney disease was classified according to National Kidney Foundation Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (NKF/DOQI) Advisory Board criteria, which define stage I chronic kidney disease (CKD) as GFR >or= 90 mL/min/1.73 m(2), stage II as 60-89 mL/min/1.73 m(2), stage III as 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2), stage IV as 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and stage V as < 15 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Six patients completed 36 months of therapy, 2 patients completed 18 months, and 1 patient completed 12 months. Mean patient age at baseline was 34.6 +/- 11.3 years. During the study period, kidney function remained stable in patients with stages I, II, or III CKD. One patient, who entered the study with stage IV CKD, progressed to end-stage chronic kidney disease, beginning hemodialysis after 7 months and receiving a kidney transplant after 12 months of ERT. Proteinuria also remained stable in the group of patients with pathologic proteinuria. The use of agalsidase alfa was well tolerated in 99.5% of the infusions

  11. Randomized, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority study of the CONSORT algorithm for individualized dosing of follitropin alfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivennes, F; Trew, G; Borini, A; Broekmans, F; Arriagada, P; Warne, D W; Howles, C M

    2015-03-01

    In this randomized, controlled, open-label, phase IV study, ovarian response after a follitropin alfa starting dose determined by the CONSORT calculator was compared with a standard dose (150 IU). Normo-ovulatory women (aged 18-34 years) eligible for assisted reproductive techniques were recruited (23 centres: nine European countries and Chile); 200 women were randomized (CONSORT [n = 96]; standard dosing [n = 104]). Significantly lower mean daily (121.5 versus 167.4 IU; P CONSORT group. Clinical pregnancy rates were CONSORT (36.0%) and standard dosing (35.5%); estimated difference (confidence interval 0.6%; -13.5 to 14.6). Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome occurred in 6.3% and 12.5% of patients in the CONSORT and standard-dosing groups, respectively. The primary efficacy analysis found a significantly lower mean [SD] number of oocytes retrieved in the CONSORT (10.0 [5.6]; P = 0.037) versus standard-dosing group (11.8 [5.3]). Although the CONSORT calculator was statistically inferior to standard dosing in the number of oocytes retrieved, clinical pregnancy rates (fresh embryo transfers) were similar in both groups, and incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome was lower in the CONSORT group. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of forward elastic $pp$ scattering at $\\sqrt{s}=8\\text{ TeV}$ with the ALFA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Simon Holm; Hansen, Jørgen Beck

    The elastic $pp$ scattering data analyzed in this thesis was taken at the LHC with the ALFA detector at $\\sqrt{s}=8\\text{ TeV}$ with a $\\beta^*=1\\text{ km}$ collision optics which gave access to the Coulomb-Nuclear-Interference region. An improved procedure was used to fit the observed number of elastic events as a function of the four-momentum transfer with a simulation based on theoretical expectations including experimental effects. The data can not exclude any of the investigated parametrizations for the modulus of the nuclear amplitude. The fit results for the total $pp$ cross section, $\\sigma_\\text{tot}$, and the ratio of the real to imaginary forward elastic scattering amplitude, $\\rho$, are: \\begin{align*} \\sigma_\\text{tot} &= 99.1\\pm 0.3 \\text{ (stat.)}\\pm1.6\\text{ (syst.)} \\text{ mb}\\;,\\\\ \\rho &= 0.166\\pm0.017\\text{ (stat.)}\\pm0.019\\text{ (syst.)}\\;, \\end{align*} which are in agreement with previous measurements. As part of the analysis, the detector distance to the beam was determined with ...

  13. Um imunoensaio rápido para a detecção de alfa-trembolona em urina bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Maria Roncato Duarte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil está entre os países que mantêm o uso de anabolizantes proibido, o que gera dificuldades muito grandes no monitoramento destas substâncias, uma vez que possui o maior rebanho bovino. Contudo, diversas substâncias são largamente utilizadas, entre as quais o acetato de trembolona. Com o consentimento do Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento, foram produzidos anticorpos policlonais para um teste baseado em ELISA ("enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" capazes de detectar acetato de trembolona na urina de bovinos tratados com trembolona. O teste apresentou baixo custo e de fácil execução para a detecção de alfa-trembolone, o principal metabólito na absorção do acetato de trembolona, liberado na urina dos animais. Os resultados foram similares aos obtidos com o "kit" comercial usado pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento do Brasil.

  14. Proton-Proton Central Exclusive Pion Production at $\\sqrt{13}$ TeV with the ALFA and ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bols, Emil Sorensen

    The cross section for proton-proton central exclusive dipion production, $pp\\rightarrow p + \\pi^+ \\pi^- + p$, has been measured at the center of mass energy $\\sqrt{s}=13\\mathrm{TeV}$, where double Pomeron exchange is expected to dominate. The LHC was used to create the central diffractive events, and all the final state particles were measured using the ATLAS and ALFA detector. After correcting for detector inefficiencies and proton acceptance using the Donnachie-Landshoff model with $\\alpha'=0.126\\mathrm{GeV}^{-2}$ and $\\epsilon=0.085$, the cross section was found to be: \\begin{equation} \\sigma_{pp\\rightarrow p+\\pi^+\\pi^-+p}=18.754\\pm0.048(\\mathrm{stat}.)\\pm0.770(\\mathrm{syst}.)\\mu\\mathrm{b} , \\quad |\\eta_{\\pi}| 100\\mathrm{MeV} \\end{equation} The invariant mass spectrum of the pions has been analyzed in order to extract the widths and masses of the $f_0(500)$, $f_0(980)$, $f_2(1275)$ and $f_0(1500)$ mesons. A correlation between the two outgoing protons has been observed, which is not in agreement with Pom...

  15. Benefit of adjuvant interferon alfa-2b (IFN-α) therapy in melanoma patients with high serum MMP-8 levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vihinen, Pia; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important enzymes in tissue turnover and various inflammatory processes. In this study, it was evaluated whether serum MMP-8 can predict the response to adjuvant interferon alfa-2b (IFN-α) therapy in patients with operated high-risk cutaneous melanoma. Pre......-treatment sera from 460 patients with stage IIB-IIIC melanoma were analyzed for MMP-8. The patients were randomized after surgery to adjuvant IFN-α for 12 or 24 months (n = 313) or observation only (n = 147). The median serum MMP-8 level was used to classify the patients into a low MMP-8 (n = 232) and a high MMP......-8 (n = 228) group. In the high MMP-8 subgroup, IFN-α therapy significantly improved relapse-free survival (RFS). RFS was 36.8 months in patients with high MMP-8 levels receiving IFN-α therapy, whereas RFS for those with high MMP-8 levels with observation only was 10.6 months (P = 0.027). Median...

  16. Comparing effects of Beractant and Poractant alfa in decreasing mortality rate due to respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeidi R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Exogenous natural and synthetic surfactants is a rescue treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The goals of the study were to compare the clinical response and side-effects of two frequently used surfactants, poractant alfa (Curosurf and beractant (Survanta, for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants."n "nMethods: This clinical trial study was performed during a two-year period in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. Sample size calculated by a 95% confidence and power of 80, included 104 premature neonates, 74 in survanta and 30 in curosurf groups. The level of statistical significance was considered to be < 0.05."n "nResults: There were no statistically significant differences between the infants treated by survanta or cursurf groups regarding their mean gestational age (30.58 Vs. 29.00 weeks and birth weight (1388 Vs. 1330 g, (p=0.3 There were also no significant differences between the two groups regarding incidences of broncho- pulmonary dysplasia (BPD (40.5% Vs. 40%, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH grades III/IV (13.5% Vs. 13.3%, pneumothorax (both 20%, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA (28/3% Vs. 20% or death (28% Vs. 26.6% on the 28th day postpartum."n "nConclusion: This study showed that survanta and curosurf had similar therapeutic effects in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

  17. Study of forward elastic pp scattering at √ s = 8 TeV with the ALFA detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stark, Simon Holm

    The elastic proton-proton scattering data analyzed in this thesis was taken at the LHC with the ALFA detector at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV with a beta* collision optics which gave access to the Coulomb-Nuclear-Interference region. An improved procedure was used to fit the observed number of elastic events......_tot, and the ratio of the real to imaginary forward elastic scattering amplitude, rho, are: sigma_tot = 99.1 +/- 0.3 (stat.) +/- 1.6 (syst.) mb rho = 0.166 +/- 0.017 (stat.) +/- 0.019 (syst.) which are in agreement with previous measurements. As part of the analysis, the detector distance to the beam was determined...... with an improved method. A new background estimation procedure was developed and also implemented in the determination of the elastic track reconstruction efficiency. The experience gained in this thesis was used to optimize the experimental settings for a new data taking at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV with beta* = 2.5 km...

  18. Unidades fototérmicas e temperatura-base inferior de frutos de Mangueira Alfa, na Baixada Cuiabana Photothermal units and lower base temperature for alfa mango fruit on the Baixada Cuiabana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Paes de Barros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a temperatura-base inferior (Tb a partir da unidade fototérmica (UF para o cultivo experimental de manga Alfa sob condições de cerrado. Foram utilizados dados diários da temperatura do ar disponibilizados pela Estação Agrometeorológica Padre Ricardo Remetter, localizada em Santo Antônio do Leverger-MT (15,8° S e 56,1° W, 140 m, e avaliação sensorial do estádio de maturação dos frutos de manga. A Tb foi determinada pelo método da menor variabilidade das unidades fototérmicas (UF acumuladas do período da floração à colheita dos frutos, variabilidade avaliada pelo coeficiente de variação (cv simulado para diferentes valores da Tb. De julho a novembro de 2007, em três plantas de um pomar demonstrativo irrigado, foram identificados 82 frutos para o acompanhamento do crescimento e maturação. Entre esses frutos, em meados de dezembro de 2007, foi possível identificar 13 frutos que atingiram a maturidade fisiológica, após um período médio de observação de 112 dias. Para exigência fototérmica de 1.878.166,1 UF, encontrou-se Tb de 10 °C, valor consistente com os apresentados na literatura para a cultivar de manga, o que comprova a eficiência do método que combina a ação da temperatura e do fotoperíodo sobre a maturação dos frutos e que confere um caráter mais racional que o método tradicional da soma térmica.In this study was to determine the lower base temperature (Tb for Alfa mango fruit, using the photothermal units (PTU method in cerrado conditions. The meteorological data for the study were acquired from "Padre Ricardo Remetter" meteorological station located at Santo Antonio do Leverger, MT, Brazil (15,8° S and 56,1° W, 140 m, and the fruit data was acquired by sensorial evaluation of mango fruit maturation state. The Tb was determined by less variability of the coefficient of variation (cv method applied to the PTU sum, from flowering to harvest, simulated for

  19. Diversidad alfa y beta de los artrópodos en diferentes ambientes del Parque Nacional Los Cardones, Salta (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Cava

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Los Cardones ubicado en la provincia de Salta protege las ecorregiones de Puna, Monte y Pastizal Altoandino Nublado de la Yungas. Nuestro objetivo es evaluar la diversidad alfa y beta de artrópodos en las ecorregiones del Parque. Se muestrearon tres sitios en cada ecorregión utilizando Pit-fall y G-Vac. Se calcularon estimadores no paramétricos de riqueza de especies, la diversidad entre ecorregiones se comparó a través de los “perfiles de diversidad” y “números efectivos de especies”, se analizó el recambio de especies y la complementariedad entre las ecorregiones y sitios de una misma ecorregión. Se registraron 469 spp/morfoespecies, la diversidad en el Parque fue alta, siendo mayor en los Pastizal Altoandino Nublado, y la más baja en la Puna. El inventario llegó al 81% de completitud. El recambio de especies entre ecorregiones fue alto, de esa manera los diferentes ambientes del Parque contribuyen a conservar la diversidad regional de artrópodos. Las ensambles de artrópodos en sitios de una misma ecorregión mostraron mayor similitud entre sí que con sitios más distantes. Se pudo reconocer tres grupos de artrópodos (arañas, dípteros e himenópteros que son diversos y abundantes, los que podrían ser utilizados en futuros estudios como grupos focales.

  20. Expression of interferon regulatory factor 4 in chronic myeloid leukemia: correlation with response to interferon alfa therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Hochhaus, A; König-Merediz, S A; Brendel, C; Proba, J; Hoppe, G J; Wittig, B; Ehninger, G; Hehlmann, R; Neubauer, A

    2000-10-01

    Mice experiments have established an important role for interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family members in hematopoiesis. We wanted to study the expression of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) in various hematologic disorders, especially chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and its association with response to interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) treatment in CML. Blood samples from various hematopoietic cell lines, different leukemia patients (70 CML, 29 acute myeloid leukemia [AML], 10 chronic myelomonocytic leukemia [CMMoL], 10 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and 10 chronic lymphoid leukemia patients), and 33 healthy volunteers were monitored for IRF4 expression by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Then, with a focus on CML, the IRF4 level was determined in sorted cell subpopulations from CML patients and healthy volunteers and in in vitro-stimulated CML cells. Furthermore, IRF4 expression was compared in the CML samples taken before IFN-alpha therapy and in 47 additional CML samples taken during IFN-alpha therapy. IRF4 expression was then correlated with cytogenetic response to IFN-alpha. IRF4 expression was significantly impaired in CML, AML, and CMMoL samples. The downregulation of IRF4 in CML samples was predominantly found in T cells. In CML patients during IFN-alpha therapy, a significant increase in IRF4 levels was detected, and this was also observed in sorted T cells from CML patients. The increase seen during IFN-alpha therapy was not due to different blood counts. In regard to the cytogenetic response with IFN-alpha, a good response was associated with high IRF4 expression. IRF4 expression is downregulated in T cells of CML patients, and its increase is associated with a good response to IFN-alpha therapy. These data suggest IRF4 expression as a useful marker to monitor, if not predict, response to IFN-alpha in CML.

  1. An Alpha spectrometer for measuring radon daughter individual activity concentration; Spettrometro Alfa per la misura delle concentrazioni individuali in attivita' della progenie del radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berico, M.; Formignani, M. [ENEA, Div. Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche E. Clementel, Bologna (Italy); Mariotti, F. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    2001-07-01

    In the frame of the program of the Institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA, related to the evaluation of dose from radon and thoron progeny, an alpha spectrometer for the continuous air monitoring (CAM type) of radon and thoron has been realized. The constructive characteristics of the device are here presented together with energy and efficiency calibration. The device allows, by means of a screen type diffusion battery and a filter, to determinate the single radioactivity of each radionuclide of the progeny selecting them in relation to their diffusive behaviour (dichotomous particle size selection). The three-count filter method has been employed to measure the concentrations of {sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi in air. Radon and thoron effective doses using a dosimetric, instead of an epidemiologic approach, will be then evaluated. [Italian] Presso l'Istituto per la Radioprotezione, nell'ambito del programma di valutazione di dose da radon e' stato progettato e realizzato uno spettrometro alfa per il monitoraggio continuo in aria (CAM) della progenie del radon e del toron. Le caratteristiche costruttive dello strumento permettono, tramite l'utilizzo di batterie a diffusione a reti, di determinare l'attivita' individuale della progenie per diverse dimensioni granulometriche in particolare per la frazione attaccata e non al particolato amosferico con un taglio granulometrico di qualche nanometro. E' stato inoltre applicato un metodo spettrometrico a tre conteggi per il calcolo delle concentrazioni individuali della progenie del radon, {sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi, effettuando un conteggio alfa di {sup 218}Po e due conteggi alfa di {sup 214}Po. Tale informazione consentira' una valutazione della dose di radon utilizzando il modello dosimetrico in alternativa a quello epidemiologico.

  2. Safety and physiological effects of two different doses of elosulfase alfa in patients with morquio a syndrome: A randomized, double‐blind, pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Barbara K.; Berger, Kenneth I.; Lewis, Gregory D.; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Treadwell, Marsha; Mitchell, John J.; Muschol, Nicole; Jones, Simon A.; Sutton, V. Reid; Pastores, Gregory M.; Lau, Heather; Sparkes, Rebecca; Genter, Fred; Shaywitz, Adam J.

    2015-01-01

    The primary treatment outcomes of a phase 2, randomized, double‐blind, pilot study evaluating safety, physiological, and pharmacological effects of elosulfase alfa in patients with Morquio A syndrome are herewith presented. Patients aged ≥7 years and able to walk ≥200 m in the 6‐min walk test (6MWT) were randomized to elosulfase alfa 2.0 or 4.0 mg/kg/week for 27 weeks. The primary objective was to evaluate the safety of both doses. Secondary objectives were to evaluate effects on endurance (6MWT and 3‐min stair climb test [3MSCT]), exercise capacity (cardio‐pulmonary exercise test [CPET]), respiratory function, muscle strength, cardiac function, pain, and urine keratan sulfate (uKS) levels, and to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. Twenty‐five patients were enrolled (15 randomized to 2.0 mg/kg/week and 10 to 4.0 mg/kg/week). No new or unexpected safety signals were observed. After 24 weeks, there were no improvements versus baseline in the 6MWT, yet numerical improvements were seen in the 3MSCT with 4.0 mg/kg/week. uKS and pharmacokinetic data suggested no linear relationship over the 2.0–4.0 mg/kg dose range. Overall, an abnormal exercise capacity (evaluated in 10 and 5 patients in the 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg/week groups, respectively), impaired muscle strength, and considerable pain were observed at baseline, and there were trends towards improvements in all domains after treatment. In conclusion, preliminary data of this small study in a Morquio A population with relatively good endurance confirmed the acceptable safety profile of elosulfase alfa and showed a trend of increased exercise capacity and muscle strength and decreased pain. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26069231

  3. Influência da vitamina D associada ao interferon alfa-peguilado e ribavirina na resposta virológica sustentada na hepatite C crônica

    OpenAIRE

    Luiza Vitelo ANDRIGHETTO; Jacqueline Shaurich dos SANTOS; Graziella NICOLETTI; Patricia Martins BOCK

    2016-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da vitamina D no tratamento de hepatite C com interferon-alfa peguilado e ribavirina. Foram utilizados artigos científicos relevantes publicados entre os anos de 2000 e 2015. Em diversos estudos foi observado que níveis mais elevados de vitamina D estavam associados à rápida resposta ao tratamento e à maior taxa de RVS, sugerindo que a deficiência de vitamina D pode estar ligada a uma falta de resposta ao tratamento antiviral. A i...

  4. Estudio de la utilidad clínica del perfil de estrés oxidativo en pacientes con déficit de alfa-1 antitripsina

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Corullón, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: Investigaciones recientes en modelos animales sugieren la participación del estrés oxidativo y el daño de oxidativo en la patogénesis del déficit de alfa 1 antitripsina (DAAT). Sin embargo, no hay datos disponibles sobre el estado de estrés oxidativo y la actividad de los enzimas antioxidantes en estos pacientes. Se sabe que el estrés oxidativo está implicado en la patogénesis de enfermedades en otros organismos (aterosclesosis, enfermedades neurodegenerativas, diabetes mel...

  5. Terapia combinada de criocirugía e interferón alfa-2b humano recombinante en el condiloma acuminado

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Trujillo , Israel

    2015-01-01

    Las continuas recidivas de lcondiloma acuminado hace necesario la búsqueda constante de alternativas terapéuticas. Para evaluar la eficacia terapéutica y seguridad del interferón alfa-2b asociado a criocirugía en el condiloma acuminado fue realizado un ensayo clínico abierto en 170 pacientes del hospital “Hermanos Ameijeiras” que fueron aleatorizados a recibir durante 6 semanas (grupo A) 3 x 106 UI de interferón subcutáneo, 3 veces por semana y aplicación quincenal de criocirugía o (grupo B) ...

  6. El ácido alfa lipoico y su poder antioxidante frente al cáncer y las patologías de sensibilización central

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Marisa; Mach Casellas, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El ácido alfa lipoico (ALA) puede controlar y limitar la cantidad de radicales libres, influyendo el desarrollo de patologías como el cáncer o las enfermedades de sensibilización central, aunque los mecanismos moleculares implicados en este proceso aún están dilucidándose. Objetivo: Reunir y contrastar información sobre las propiedades antioxidantes del ALA en la prevención y desarrollo de las patologías relacionadas con el estrés oxidativo. Material y métodos: En este trabajo, ...

  7. Polimorfismo -308 G/A en la región promotora del gen factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNFA) en diferentes subpoblaciones peruanas

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Oscar; Solano, Luis; Oré, Daniel; Salazar Granara, Alberto; Sandoval, José; Fujita, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    El alelo mutante A del polimorfismo -308 Guanina/Adenina (-308 G/A) del gen TNFA (citoquina Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa), esta implicado a una mayor producción de la proteína y asociado a la susceptibilidad a enfermedades inmunológicas, infecciosas e inflamatorias. Nuestro objetivo es establecer la distribución de frecuencias de los alelos y genotipos de este polimorfismo en diferentes subpoblaciones peruanas para evaluar su utilidad como factor de riesgo a dichas enfermedades. Se determi...

  8. Comparable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of two epoetin alfa formulations Eporon® and Eprex® following a single subcutaneous administration in healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sumin Yoon,1 Su-jin Rhee,1 Sun Ju Heo,2 Tae Young Oh,2 Seo Hyun Yoon,1 Joo-Youn Cho,1 SeungHwan Lee,1,3 Kyung-Sang Yu1,3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, 2Dong-A ST Co. Ltd., Seoul, 3Clinical Trials Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: This study aimed to assess and compare the pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD properties following a single subcutaneous injection of epoetin alfa (Eporon® with those of the comparator (Eprex® in healthy male subjects. Subjects and methods: A randomized, double-blind, two-sequence, crossover study was conducted. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a single dose, that is, 4,000 IU, of the test or comparator epoetin alfa. After 4 weeks, all subjects received the alternative formulation. The primary PK parameters, maximum observed concentration (Cmax and area under the curve extrapolated to infinity (AUCinf, were calculated with the serum erythropoietin (EPO concentrations from blood samples collected for 144 h after dosing. The reticulocyte, hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cell counts were measured up to 312 h as PD markers. The primary PD parameters, maximum observed effect (Emax and area under the effect curve (AUEC, were obtained from the baseline-corrected reticulocyte count. The serum EPO concentration and the reticulocyte count were used to assess the concentration–response relationship. The tolerability and immunogenicity profiles were assessed together. Results: Forty-two subjects completed the study. The mean EPO concentration–time profiles were comparable between the two formulations. The geometric mean ratios (90% CI of the Cmax and AUCinf were 0.908 (0.843–0.978 and 1.049 (0.999–1.101, respectively, both of which were within the regulatory range of 0.80–1.25. Additionally, the PD and tolerability profiles were similar between the two

  9. Caracterización del proceso eriptótico desencadenado por concentraciones sublíticas de alfa hemolisina de E.coli

    OpenAIRE

    Carrizo, Fernanda; Maté, Sabina; Bakás, Laura; Herlax, Vanesa Silvana

    2014-01-01

    En la Argentina cepas uropatogénicas de Escherichia coli causan del 75% al 90% de los episodios de infecciones urinarias, prevaleciendo en la infección urinaria neonatal, pediátrica, en la cistitis no complicada o recurrente de la mujer fértil, así como en la pielonefritis. La habilidad de las bacterias para invadir y colonizar tejidos está determinada por un conjunto de factores, entre los que se incluyen a la toxina alfa hemolisina (HlyA).

  10. PURIFICACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE alfa-AMILASA DE PENICILLIUM COMMUNE PRODUCIDA MEDIANTE FERMENTACIÓN EN FASE SÓLIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Esperanza Espinel; Elizabeth López

    2010-01-01

    Este estudio reporta la purificación y caracterización parcial de una alfa-amilasa producida por Penicillium commune mediante fermentación en fase sólida, empleandoyuca blanca colombiana (Manihot esculenta Crantz) como soporte. La enzima fue purificada por precipitación fraccionada con sulfato de amonio, cromatografía de intercambio aniónico (DEAE-Sephadex A-50), cromatografía de filtración por gel (Sephadex G-75) y cromatografía de intercambio catiónico (CM-Sephadex C-50) obteniendo una acti...

  11. Níveis de alfa-tocoferol no soro e colostro de lactantes e associação com variáveis maternas

    OpenAIRE

    Lira,Larissa Queiroz de; Ribeiro,Penha Patrícia Cabral; Grilo,Evellyn Câmara; Lima,Mayara Santa Rosa; Dimenstein,Roberto

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Diagnosticar bioquimicamente o estado nutricional de vitamina E de lactantes por meio da análise do alfa-tocoferol no soro e no colostro, verificar sua associação com variáveis maternas e determinar a prevalência de deficiência de vitamina E nessas mulheres. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 103 puérperas que foram classificadas quanto às seguintes variáveis maternas: idade, estado nutricional pré-gestacional, ganho de peso gestacional, paridade e tipo de parto. Amostras de soro e co...

  12. O papel do Fator de Necrose Tumoral Alfa (TNF-alfa no processo de erosão óssea presente no colesteatoma adquirido da orelha média The role of Tumor Necrosis Factor -Alpha (TNF- alpha in bone resorption present in middle ear cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Faller Vitale

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O colesteatoma adquirido da orelha média causa erosão óssea, com altas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade. O TNF-alfa (TNF-alfa lambda uma das principais citocinas envolvidas neste processo. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel do TNF-alfa na reabsorsão óssea e a ação dele no colesteatoma. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um levantamento e uma revisão crítica da literatura. RESULTADOS: Todos os autores estudados concordam com a importância do TNF-alfa no processo de reabsorção óssea presente no colesteatoma e com o grau de destruição observado. Diferentes trabalhos demonstraram que o TNF-alfa é capaz de provocar erosão óssea, através de diferentes vias de ação. Ele pode estimular a diferenciação e a maturação dos osteoclastos ou, ainda, agir na matriz óssea expondo-a à ação dos osteoclastos. Existe a possibilidade de inibir a ação do TNF-alfa, diminuindo seus efeitos e prevenindo a perda óssea em doenças como a artrite reumatóide. Não existe, entretanto, trabalhos específicos em colesteatoma. Não existe consenso sobre a sua localização. Estas diferenças, provavelmente, ocorrem devido à distribuição dos receptores. CONCLUSÃO: O TNF-alfa, presente no colesteatoma promove a reabsorsão óssea, juntamente com outras citocinas (RANKL e IL-1, estando relacionado com a presença de complicações.Cholesteatoma may cause bone erosion, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Tumor Necrosis Factor -Alpha (TNF-a is one of the main cytokines involved in this process. Our goal was to evaluate the role of TNF-a in Bone Resorption and its effect on cholesteatoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: analysis and critical literature review. RESULTS: Different studies have demonstrated that TNF-a is capable of causing bone erosion. It may stimulate the differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts or it may act on the bone matrix, exposing it to the action of the osteoclasts. It is possible to inhibit TNF-a, reducing its effects and prevent

  13. Switch to agalsidase alfa after shortage of agalsidase beta in Fabry disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Antonio; Bruzzese, Dario; Sabbatini, Massimo; Spinelli, Letizia; Imbriaco, Massimo; Riccio, Eleonora

    2017-03-01

    In 2009, the agalsidase beta shortage resulted in switching to agalsidase alfa treatment for many Fabry disease patients, offering the unique opportunity to compare the effects of the two drugs. Because single studies describing effects of switching on the disease course are limited and inconclusive, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing data. Relevant studies were identified in the PubMed, Cochrane, ISI Web, and SCOPUS databases from July 2009 to September 2015. The following parameters were analyzed: clinical events, changes in organ function or structure, disease-related symptoms, lyso-Gb3 plasma levels, and adverse effects. The nine studies (217 patients) included in our systematic review showed only marginal differences in most of the evaluated parameters. Seven of these studies were included in the meta-analysis (176 patients). The pooled incidence rate of major adverse events was reported for five studies (150 patients) and was equal to 0.04 events per person-year. No significant change was observed after the shift in glomerular filtration rate, whereas left ventricular mass index, left ventricular posterior wall dimension, and ejection fraction were significantly reduced over time. Our data showed that the switch to agalsidase alfa was well tolerated and associated with stable clinical conditions.Genet Med 19 3, 275-282.

  14. Epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and intravenous iron supply in solid tumor patients: early increase of hemoglobin level during chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalle, M.; Antimi, M. [Ospedale S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy). Unita operativa complessa di oncologia medica; Pistillucci, G.; D' Aprile, M. [Ospedale S. Maria Goretti, Latina (Italy). Unita operativa complessa di oncologia medica

    2005-06-15

    The objective of this observational study was the early evaluation of the impact, a week after the first administration of epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and i.v. dose of 62.5 mg sodium ferric gluconate for seven days in improving hemoglobin levels in cancer patients affected by mild/moderate or severe anemia during chemotherapy. Twenty patients affected by solid tumors who received epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and daily i.v. sodium ferric gluconate for one week were evaluated: 90% of the patients showed hemoglobin increase, with a median level of hemoglobin increase of 0.73 g/L from baseline, and 50% of them showing a hemoglobin increase > 1 gr/L. The treatment was well tolerated and no adverse event was observed. The early increase of hemoglobin level from baseline is interesting and suggestive for the possibility of achieving an adequate hemoglobin level with a short-term treatment. It is still necessary to further explore the real need of iron supplementation to maintain adequate erythropoiesis prior and during epoetin therapy.

  15. Tuberculosis en pacientes tratados con antagonistas del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa en un área endémica, ¿vale la pena el riesgo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rojas-Villarraga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los antagonistas del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (infliximab, adalimumab y etanercept son agentes biológicos utilizados en el tratamiento de enfermedades inflamatorias crónicas y autoinmunes. Sin embargo, su uso está asociado con el incremento de la tasa de tuberculosis, micosis endémicas e infecciones bacterianas intracelulares. Dado que la tuberculosis es moderada/altamente endémica en Colombia, el riesgo de esta infección en los pacientes tratados con estos agentes biológicos puede incrementarse y hacer dicha tasa mayor que la informada previamente (tanto en Colombia como en el mundo. Se presentan cuatro pacientes que desarrollaron tuberculosis durante el tratamiento con antagonistas del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa. La presentación de la tuberculosis ocurrió en promedio 15 meses después del inicio del agente biológico y fue independiente de la prueba de tuberculina. Se hace una revisión del tema y se plantea la necesidad de implementar guías y estrategias gubernamentales orientadas a la detección y profilaxis de tuberculosis en este grupo de pacientes.

  16. Epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and intravenous iron supply in solid tumor patients: early increase of hemoglobin level during chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalle, M.; Antimi, M.; Pistillucci, G.; D'Aprile, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this observational study was the early evaluation of the impact, a week after the first administration of epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and i.v. dose of 62.5 mg sodium ferric gluconate for seven days in improving hemoglobin levels in cancer patients affected by mild/moderate or severe anemia during chemotherapy. Twenty patients affected by solid tumors who received epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and daily i.v. sodium ferric gluconate for one week were evaluated: 90% of the patients showed hemoglobin increase, with a median level of hemoglobin increase of 0.73 g/L from baseline, and 50% of them showing a hemoglobin increase > 1 gr/L. The treatment was well tolerated and no adverse event was observed. The early increase of hemoglobin level from baseline is interesting and suggestive for the possibility of achieving an adequate hemoglobin level with a short-term treatment. It is still necessary to further explore the real need of iron supplementation to maintain adequate erythropoiesis prior and during epoetin therapy

  17. Darbepoetin Alfa Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keep this medication in the carton it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Once a vial or prefilled syringe has been taken out of its carton, keep it covered to protect it from room ...

  18. Interferon alfa-2a and interleukin-2 with or without cisplatin in metastatic melanoma: a randomized trial of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Melanoma Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keilholz, U.; Goey, S. H.; Punt, C. J.; Proebstle, T. M.; Salzmann, R.; Scheibenbogen, C.; Schadendorf, D.; Liénard, D.; Enk, A.; Dummer, R.; Hantich, B.; Geueke, A. M.; Eggermont, A. M.

    1997-01-01

    The combination of interferon alfa-2a (IFN alpha) and high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) is active in metastatic melanoma. The addition of cisplatin (CDDP) has resulted in response rates greater than 50%. This study was performed to determine whether the addition of CDDP to a cytokine treatment regimen

  19. Randomized comparison of low-dose versus high-dose interferon-alfa in chronic myeloid leukemia: prospective collaboration of 3 joint trials by the MRC and HOVON groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Buck, Georgina; le Cessie, Saskia; Richards, Sue; Beverloo, H. Berna; Falkenburg, J. H. Frederik; Littlewood, Tim; Muus, Petra; Bareford, David; van der Lelie, Hans; Green, Anthony R.; Roozendaal, Klaas J.; Milne, Alison E.; Chapman, Claire S.; Shepherd, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    The optimal dose of interferon-alfa (IFN) for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is unknown. Retrospective analyses suggest that low doses are as effective as high doses, with less toxicity and fewer patients abandoning the drug. The Dutch Hemato-Oncology Association (HOVON) and British Medical Research

  20. ATLASGAL-selected massive clumps in the inner Galaxy. VI. Kinetic temperature and spatial density measured with formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X. D.; Henkel, C.; Wyrowski, F.; Giannetti, A.; Menten, K. M.; Csengeri, T.; Leurini, S.; Urquhart, J. S.; König, C.; Güsten, R.; Lin, Y. X.; Zheng, X. W.; Esimbek, J.; Zhou, J. J.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Formaldehyde (H2CO) is a reliable tracer to accurately measure the physical parameters of dense gas in star-forming regions. Aim. We aim to determine directly the kinetic temperature and spatial density with formaldehyde for the 100 brightest ATLASGAL-selected clumps (the TOP100 sample) at 870 μm representing various evolutionary stages of high-mass star formation. Methods: Ten transitions (J = 3-2 and 4-3) of ortho- and para-H2CO near 211, 218, 225, and 291 GHz were observed with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) 12 m telescope. Results: Using non-LTE models with RADEX, we derived the gas kinetic temperature and spatial density with the measured para-H2CO 321-220/303-202, 422-321/404-303, and 404-303/303-202 ratios. The gas kinetic temperatures derived from the para-H2CO 321-220/303-202 and 422-321/404-303 line ratios are high, ranging from 43 to >300 K with an unweighted average of 91 ± 4 K. Deduced Tkin values from the J = 3-2 and 4-3 transitions are similar. Spatial densities of the gas derived from the para-H2CO 404-303/303-202 line ratios yield 0.6-8.3 × 106 cm-3 with an unweighted average of 1.5 (±0.1) × 106 cm-3. A comparison of kinetic temperatures derived from para-H2CO, NH3, and dust emission indicates that para-H2CO traces a distinctly higher temperature than the NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) transitions and the dust, tracing heated gas more directly associated with the star formation process. The H2CO line widths are found to be correlated with bolometric luminosity and increase with the evolutionary stage of the clumps, which suggests that higher luminosities tend to be associated with a more turbulent molecular medium. It seems that the spatial densities measured with H2CO do not vary significantly with the evolutionary stage of the clumps. However, averaged gas kinetic temperatures derived from H2CO increase with time through the evolution of the clumps. The high temperature of the gas traced by H2CO may be mainly caused by radiation from embedded young massive stars and the interaction of outflows with the ambient medium. For Lbol/Mclump ≳ 10 L⊙/M⊙, we find a rough correlation between gas kinetic temperature and this ratio, which is indicative of the evolutionary stage of the individual clumps. The strong relationship between H2CO line luminosities and clump masses is apparently linear during the late evolutionary stages of the clumps, indicating that LH_2CO does reliably trace the mass of warm dense molecular gas. In our massive clumps H2CO line luminosities are approximately linearly correlated with bolometric luminosities over about four orders of magnitude in Lbol, which suggests that the mass of dense molecular gas traced by the H2CO line luminosity is well correlated with star formation. Source and H2CO parameters (Tables A.1-A.7) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A6

  1. A first-year dornase alfa treatment impact on clinical parameters of patients with cystic fibrosis: the Brazilian cystic fibrosis multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rozov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical impact of the first year treatment with dornase alfa, according to age groups, in a cohort of Brazilian Cystic Fibrosis (CF patients. METHODS: The data on 152 eligible patients, from 16 CF reference centers, that answered the medical questionnaires and performed laboratory tests at baseline (T0, and at six (T2 and 12 (T4 months after dornase alfa initiation, were analyzed. Three age groups were assessed: six to 11, 12 to 13, and >14 years. Pulmonary tests, airway microbiology, emergency room visits, hospitalizations, emergency and routine treatments were evaluated. Student's t-test, chi-square test and analysis of variance were used when appropriated. RESULTS: Routine treatments were based on respiratory physical therapy, regular exercises, pancreatic enzymes, vitamins, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and antibiotics. In the six months prior the study (T0 phase, hospitalizations for pulmonary exacerbations occurred in 38.0, 10.0 and 61.4% in the three age groups, respectively. After one year of intervention, there was a significant reduction in the number of emergency room visits in the six to 11 years group. There were no significant changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (VEF1, in forced vital capacity (FVC, in oxygen saturation (SpO2, and in Tiffenau index for all age groups. A significant improvement in Shwachman-Kulczychi score was observed in the older group. In the last six months of therapy, chronic or intermittent colonization by P. aeruginosa was detected in 75.0, 71.4 and 62.5% of the studied groups, respectively, while S. aureus colonization was identified in 68.6, 66.6 and 41.9% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment with dornase alfa promoted the maintenance of pulmonary function parameters and was associated with a significant reduction of emergency room visits due to pulmonary exacerbations in the six to 11 years age group, with better clinical scores in the >14 age group, one

  2. Multicenter, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study to evaluate dosing of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women undergoing ovulation induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawroth F

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Frank Nawroth,1 Andreas Tandler-Schneider,2 Wilma Bilger3 1Centre for Reproductive and Prenatal Medicine, Endocrinology and Osteology, Hamburg, Germany; 2Center for Reproductive Medicine, Fertility Center Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Medical Affairs, Fertility, Endocrinology and General Medicine, Merck Serono GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany (an affiliate of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany Abstract: This prospective, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study evaluated doses of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women who were anovulatory or oligomenorrheic and undergoing ovulation induction (OI alone or OI with intrauterine insemination. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved monofollicular or bifollicular development (defined as one or two follicles 15 mm. Secondary endpoints included characteristics of ovulation stimulation treatment, such as mean total and mean daily r-hFSH doses. Data were analyzed for 3,193 patients from 30 German fertility centers. The proportion of patients with monofollicular or bifollicular development was 71.1% (n=2,270 of a total of 3,193 patients; intent-to-treat population. The mean±standard deviation total and daily doses of r-hFSH were 696.9±542.5 IU and 61.7±29.4 IU, respectively. The three doses prescribed most frequently were: 37.5 IU (n=703 from N=3,189; 22.0%, 50.0 IU (n=1,056 from N=3,189; 33.1%, and 75.0 IU (n=738 from N=3,189; 23.1% on the first day of stimulation; and 37.5 IU (n=465 from N=3,189; 14.6%, 50.0 IU (n=922 from N=3,189; 28.9%, and 75.0 IU (n=895 from N=3,189; 28.1% on the last day of stimulation. This noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study found that monofollicular or bifollicular development was achieved in 71% of patients studied and the small dose increment (12.5 IU of the redesigned follitropin alfa pen allowed individualized treatment of women undergoing OI. Keywords: ovulation

  3. Safety, tolerability, and mechanisms of antiretroviral activity of pegylated interferon Alfa-2a in HIV-1-monoinfected participants: a phase II clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmuth, David M; Murphy, Robert L; Rosenkranz, Susan L; Lertora, Juan J L; Kottilil, Shyam; Cramer, Yoninah; Chan, Ellen S; Schooley, Robert T; Rinaldo, Charles R; Thielman, Nathan; Li, Xiao-Dong; Wahl, Sharon M; Shore, Jessica; Janik, Jennifer; Lempicki, Richard A; Simpson, Yaa; Pollard, Richard B

    2010-06-01

    To our knowledge, the antiviral activity of pegylated interferon alfa-2a has not been studied in participants with untreated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection but without chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Untreated HIV-1-infected volunteers without HCV infection received 180 microg of pegylated interferon alfa-2a weekly for 12 weeks. Changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA load, CD4(+) T cell counts, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamic measurements of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) activity, and induction levels of interferon-inducible genes (IFIGs) were measured. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed. Eleven participants completed 12 weeks of therapy. The median plasma viral load decrease and change in CD4(+) T cell counts at week 12 were 0.61 log(10) copies/mL (90% confidence interval [CI], 0.20-1.18 log(10) copies/mL) and -44 cells/microL (90% CI, -95 to 85 cells/microL), respectively. There was no correlation between plasma viral load decreases and concurrent pegylated interferon plasma concentrations. However, participants with larger increases in OAS level exhibited greater decreases in plasma viral load at weeks 1 and 2 (r = -0.75 [90% CI, -0.93 to -0.28] and r = -0.61 [90% CI, -0.87 to -0.09], respectively; estimated Spearman rank correlation). Participants with higher baseline IFIG levels had smaller week 12 decreases in plasma viral load (0.66 log(10) copies/mL [90% CI, 0.06-0.91 log(10) copies/mL]), whereas those with larger IFIG induction levels exhibited larger decreases in plasma viral load (-0.74 log(10) copies/mL [90% CI, -0.93 to -0.21 log(10) copies/mL]). Pegylated interferon alfa-2a was well tolerated and exhibited statistically significant anti-HIV-1 activity in HIV-1-monoinfected patients. The anti-HIV-1 effect correlated with OAS protein levels (weeks 1 and 2) and IFIG induction levels (week 12) but not with pegylated interferon concentrations.

  4. Seguridad de la terapia de interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoan Antonio Sánchez Rodríguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la hepatitis crónica C ha adquirido rango de pandemia. El virus de la hepatitis C se ha convertido en la causa principal de hepatitis crónica, cirrosis hepática, hepatocarcinoma, y trasplante de hígado a nivel mundial. OBJETIVO: identificar los efectos adversos asociados a la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina durante la evolución del tratamiento y hasta 8 semanas después de finalizado, así como los principales efectos asociados a salidas temporales o definitivas de esta terapia. MÉTODOS: estudio de farmacovigilancia cuya serie estuvo conformada por 122 pacientes con hepatitis crónica C atendidos en el Instituto de Gastroenterología desde mayo de 2001 hasta mayo de 2006. Se utilizó interferón alfa 2b recombinante (3 millones de unidades 3 veces por semana más ribavirina (1 000 o 1 200 mg diarios en dependencia del peso corporal durante 48 semanas. RESULTADOS: el 88,5 % del total de casos presentó efectos adversos; de ellos el 79,5 % correspondió al síndrome seudogripal, seguido de manifestaciones hematológicas, neuropsiquiátricas, gastrointestinales, entre otras menos frecuentes. El 6,6 % de la serie presentó salidas temporales del tratamiento por efecto adverso distinto de la anemia y 4 pacientes, salidas definitivas del estudio, tres por anemia hemolítica severa y uno con hipertiroidismo no controlable. CONCLUSIONES: la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina resulta segura, donde el mayor número de casos presentó síndrome seudogripal como efecto adverso más frecuente. Las manifestaciones hematológicas asociadas a las salidas definitivas del estudio permitieron recomendar seguimiento estricto de la hemoglobina y profundizar en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de los principales efectos adversos presentes en otros sistemas y asociados a esta terapia.

  5. PURIFICACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE alfa-AMILASA DE PENICILLIUM COMMUNE PRODUCIDA MEDIANTE FERMENTACIÓN EN FASE SÓLIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Espinel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio reporta la purificación y caracterización parcial de una alfa-amilasa producida por Penicillium commune mediante fermentación en fase sólida, empleandoyuca blanca colombiana (Manihot esculenta Crantz como soporte. La enzima fue purificada por precipitación fraccionada con sulfato de amonio, cromatografía de intercambio aniónico (DEAE-Sephadex A-50, cromatografía de filtración por gel (Sephadex G-75 y cromatografía de intercambio catiónico (CM-Sephadex C-50 obteniendo una actividad específica final de 314,82 U/mg, un grado de purificación del orden de 62 y un rendimiento de 9%. La purificación hasta la homogeneidad fue confirmada por SDS-PAGE. El peso molecular estimado fue 35 kDa. La enzima mostró máxima actividad de hidrólisis de almidón soluble con pH 6,0, y estabilidad en un intervalo de pH de 5,0-7,0. La estabilidad térmica de la enzima se presentó en el intervalo de temperatura 0-50 °C y su temperatura óptima fue 70 °C. Los iones Ca2+,Ba2+ y Ag+ aumentaron significativamente la actividad de la enzima, siendo el ión Ca2+ el que tuvo el más alto poder activador. Cu2+ no alteró significativamente la actividad de la enzima, mientras que Li+ y Fe3+ la disminuyeron ligeramente (13%, y Co2+ y Hg2+ la disminuyeron 25% y 40% respectivamente. Los valores de Km y Vmáx fueron calculados usando la linealización de Lineweaver- Burk, con el resultado Km= 0,48 mg/mL y Vmáx = 5,85 micromol glucosa/min. Entre los principales productos de hidrólisis del almidón de yuca se encuentran la maltosa y la glucosa, este resultado proporciona evidencia de que la enzima es capaz de romper los enlaces glicosídicos alfa-1,4 del almidón, comportamiento característico de una alfa-amilasa.

  6. Espectroscopia Mössbauer e refinamento estrutural no sistema cerâmico isomórfico (alfa-Fe2O3-(alfa-Al2O 3 Mössbauer spectroscopy and structural refinement in the isomorphic (alpha-Fe2O3-( alpha-Al2O3 ceramic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Moreto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Os multiferróicos são materiais em que duas ou três propriedades tais como ferroeletricidade, ferromagnetismo e ferroelasticidade são observadas em uma mesma fase. Em particular, os multiferróicos magnetoelétricos representam os materiais que são simultaneamente (antiferromagnéticos e ferroelétricos, com ou sem ferroelasticidade. Especificamente, o sistema hematita (alfa-Fe2O3-alumina (alfa-Al2O3 tem sido estudado, principalmente devido às suas potencialidades para aplicações em metalurgia e como catalisador na síntese de amônia. Contudo, compostos deste sistema também podem apresentar efeitos magnetoelétricos. Neste trabalho um estudo estrutural do composto (alfa-Fe2O30,25(alfa-Al2O 30,75 submetido à moagem em altas energias e tratamento térmico pós-moagem é apresentado. As amostras foram caracterizadas por difração de raios X, refinamento estrutural Rietveld e espectroscopia Mössbauer. A determinação e identificação das fases cristalográficas, parâmetros de rede e volume de celas unitárias nas amostras moída e tratada termicamente permitiu verificar as mudanças dos parâmetros, a formação de espinélios e possíveis deformações relativas advindas do processo de moagem em altas energias.Multiferroics are materials in which two or all three of the properties, ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, and ferroelasticity occur in the same phase. In particular, multiferroic magnetoelectrics represent the materials that are simultaneously ferromagnetic and ferroelectric, with or without ferroelasticity. Specifically, the hematite (alpha-Fe2O3-alumina (alpha-Al2O3 system has been studied, mainly due to its potential applications in metallurgy and as catalyst of ammonia synthesis. However, compounds of this system also may present magnetoelectric effects. In this work, a structural study of the high-energy ball milled and annealed (alpha-Fe2O3 0.25(alpha-Al2O30.75 compound was carefully conducted. The samples were

  7. A Phase I, Single Ascending Dose Study of Cimaglermin Alfa (Neuregulin 1β3 in Patients With Systolic Dysfunction and Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Lenihan, MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A first-in-human, phase 1, double blind, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose study examined the safety, tolerability, and exploratory efficacy of intravenous infusion of a recombinant growth factor, cimaglermin alfa, in patients with heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD. In these patients on optimal guideline-directed medical therapy, cimaglermin treatment was generally tolerated except for transient nausea and headache and a dose-limiting toxicity was noted at the highest planned dose. There was a dose-dependent improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction lasting 90 days following infusion. Thus, cimaglermin is a potential therapy to enhance cardiac function in LVSD and warrants further investigation.

  8. Rare Form of Erdheim-Chester Disease Presenting with Isolated Central Skeletal Lesions Treated with a Combination of Alfa-Interferon and Zoledronic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Bulycheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD represents a clonal non-Langerhans histiocytosis, which manifests under an extensive variety of clinical symptoms. This creates a challenge for the physician, who is required to recognize and diagnose the disease in the early stages. Despite this considerable challenge, in the last decade there has been a dramatic increase in ECD diagnoses, in most part due to an increasing awareness of this rare disorder. Involvement of the axial skeleton is exclusively uncommon with no official recommendations for the treatment of the bone lesions. Here, we present a case report of a young male patient with isolated lesions of the spine, ribs, and pelvis, who was successfully treated with a combination therapy of alfa-interferon and zoledronic acid.

  9. Mucoproteína versus alfa-1-glicoproteína ácida: o que quantificar? Mucoprotein versus alpha-1-acid glycoprotein: what should be measured?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Picheth

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantificação sérica da alfa-1-glicoproteína (GPA ácida é útil no diagnóstico e no acompanhamento dos processos agudos resultantes de múltiplas causas. Esta proteína também pode ser estimada pela quantificação da mucoproteína (Muco, ensaio que reflete as glicoproteínas com elevado teor de açúcar, entre as quais a GPA é majoritária. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a correlação e a performance analítica das determinações de mucoproteína (Muco e alfa-1-glicoproteína ácida (GPA, propondo uma equação de regressão linear. Amostras de soros de 540 pacientes, com idades entre 10 e 79 anos (média de 34,6, predominando mulheres (71,3%, foram analisadas simultaneamente para Muco (Winzler, manual com reagentes próprios e GPA (imunoturbidimetria automatizada, Roche; Cobas mira. A análise de regressão, fixando a Muco como variável dependente, apresentou Muco (mg/dl em tirosina = 0,031 x GPA (mg/dl + 0,8 (r = 0,91; e, fixando o intercepto em zero, Muco = 0,039 x GPA (r = 0,98. A imprecisão interensaio foi de 23,4% e 5,2% (coeficiente de variação, respectivamente, para Muco e GPA. Conclusão: a elevada variabilidade analítica da quantificação da mucoproteína pelo método de Winzler recomenda que este ensaio seja substituído pela dosagem da alfa-1-glicoproteína ácida. Quando necessário, recomendamos estimar a mucoproteína, quantificando a alfa-1-glicoproteína ácida com ensaios de mesmo desempenho que o do utilizado neste trabalho, e usar a equação de regressão AGP (mg/dl x 0,039 = Muco (mg/dl em tirosina.The alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, orosomucoid serum measurement is useful in the diagnosis and management of acute processes of multiple causes. This protein can also be estimated by measuring the mucoprotein (Muco that reflects the serum glycoproteins with high levels of sugars, in which than AGP is the principal component. The analytical performance between Muco and AGP was analyzed and a linear

  10. Multicenter, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study to evaluate dosing of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women undergoing ovulation induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Frank; Tandler-Schneider, Andreas; Bilger, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    This prospective, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study evaluated doses of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women who were anovulatory or oligomenorrheic and undergoing ovulation induction (OI) alone or OI with intrauterine insemination. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved monofollicular or bifollicular development (defined as one or two follicles ≥15 mm). Secondary endpoints included characteristics of ovulation stimulation treatment, such as mean total and mean daily r-hFSH doses. Data were analyzed for 3,193 patients from 30 German fertility centers. The proportion of patients with monofollicular or bifollicular development was 71.1% (n=2,270 of a total of 3,193 patients; intent-to-treat population). The mean±standard deviation total and daily doses of r-hFSH were 696.9±542.5 IU and 61.7±29.4 IU, respectively. The three doses prescribed most frequently were: 37.5 IU (n=703 from N=3,189; 22.0%), 50.0 IU (n=1,056 from N=3,189; 33.1%), and 75.0 IU (n=738 from N=3,189; 23.1%) on the first day of stimulation; and 37.5 IU (n=465 from N=3,189; 14.6%), 50.0 IU (n=922 from N=3,189; 28.9%), and 75.0 IU (n=895 from N=3,189; 28.1%) on the last day of stimulation. This noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study found that monofollicular or bifollicular development was achieved in 71% of patients studied and the small dose increment (12.5 IU) of the redesigned follitropin alfa pen allowed individualized treatment of women undergoing OI. PMID:25926755

  11. Safety, Tolerability and Mechanisms of Antiretroviral Activity of Peginterferon alfa-2a in HIV-1-Mono-infected Subjects: A Phase II Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmuth, David M; Murphy, Robert L; Rosenkranz, Susan L; Lertora, Juan J L; Kottilil, Shyam; Cramer, Yoninah; Chan, Ellen S; Schooley, Robert T; Rinaldo, Charles R; Thielman, Nathan; Li, Xiao-Dong; Wahl, Sharon M; Shore, Jessica; Janik, Jennifer; Lempicki, Richard A; Simpson, Yaa; Pollard, Richard B

    2010-01-01

    Background The antiviral activity of pegylated interferon-alpha-2a has not been studied in untreated HIV-1-infected subjects without chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Methods Untreated HIV-1-infected volunteers without HCV received weekly pegylated interferon alfa-2a (180 μg) for twelve weeks. Changes in HIV-1 RNA (pVL), CD4+ T-cell counts, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamic measurements of 2’,5’ oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) activity, and induction of interferon inducible genes (IFIG) were measured. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed. Results Eleven subjects completed 12 weeks of therapy. Median pVL decline and change in CD4 T-cell counts at week 12 were 0.61 log10 cp/mL [90% CI:0.20,1.18] and −44 (− 95, 85) cells/mm3, respectively. There was no correlation between pVL declines and concurrent pegylated interferon plasma concentrations. However, subjects with larger increases in OAS exhibited greater decreases in pVL at weeks 1 and 2 (estimated Spearman correlations -0.75 [-0.93,-0.28]) and -0.61 [-0.87,-0.09], respectively). Subjects with higher baseline IFIG levels had smaller week 12 declines in pVL (0.66[0.06,0.91]), while those with larger IFIG induction exhibited larger declines in pVL (-0.74 [-0.93,-0.21]). Conclusion Pegylated interferon alfa-2a was well tolerated and had significant anti-HIV-1 activity in HIV-1-monoinfected patients. The anti-HIV-1 effect correlated with OAS protein (weeks 1 and 2) and IFIG induction (week 12), but not with pegylated interferon concentrations. PMID:20420510

  12. Use of an integrated modelling and simulation approach to develop a simplified peginterferon alfa-2a dosing regimen for children with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Barbara J; Lemenuel-Diot, Annabelle; Snoeck, Eric; McKenna, Michael; Solsky, Jonathan; Wat, Cynthia; Mallalieu, Navita L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to simplify the dosing regimen of peginterferon alfa-2a in paediatric patients with chronic hepatitis C. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed using PK data from 14 children aged 2-8 years and 402 adults. Simulations were produced to identify a simplified dosing regimen that would provide exposures similar to those observed in the paediatric clinical trials and in the range known to be safe/efficacious in adults. Model predictions were evaluated against observed adult and paediatric data to reinforce confidence of the proposed dosing regimen. The final model was a two compartment model with a zero order resorption process. Covariates included a linear influence of body surface area (BSA) on apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and a linear influence of body weight on apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment (V1 /F). A simplified dosing regimen was developed which is expected to provide exposures in children aged ≥5 years similar to the dosing formula used in the paediatric clinical trial and within the range that is safe/efficacious in adults. This simplified regimen is approved in the EU and in other countries for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in treatment-naive children/adolescents aged ≥5 years in combination with ribavirin. Pre-existing adult PK data were combined with relatively limited paediatric PK data to develop a PK model able to predict exposure in both populations adequately. This provided increased confidence in characterizing PK in children and helped in the development of a simplified dosing regimen of peginterferon alfa-2a in paediatric patients. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Níveis de interleucina-6 e fator de necrose tumoral-alfa no liquor de recém-nascidos a termo com encefalopatia hipóxico-isquêmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Rita de Cássia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os níveis liquóricos de IL-6 e TNF-alfa em recém-nascidos a termo com encefalopatia hipóxico-isquêmica (EHI, comparando-os com os de recém-nascidos controles. METODOLOGIA: estudo caso-controle realizado no período de julho de 1999 a outubro de 2001, incluindo dois grupos de recém-nascidos a termo: controle, com 20 recém-nascidos sem sepse e/ou meningite e com escore de Apgar > 9 no primeiro e quinto minutos de vida; e casos, com 15 recém-nascidos asfixiados, caracterizados pelo escore de Apgar 3,0 mmol/l e necessidade de ventilação com pressão positiva pelo menos durante 2 minutos após o nascimento. Foram coletadas amostras de liquor nas primeiras 48 horas de vida, para determinação dos níveis de IL-6 e TNF-alfa pelo método de enzimoimunoensaio. RESULTADOS: os grupos não diferiram quanto ao peso de nascimento, idade gestacional, classificação quanto ao peso e idade gestacional, tipo de parto e tempo médio de obtenção do liquor; seus exames foram obtidos em média com 17 horas de vida. Nos recém-nascidos asfixiados, as medianas dos níveis liquóricos foram: 157,5 pg/ml para IL-6 e 14,7 pg/ml para TNF-alfa, significativamente mais elevadas que nos controles (IL-6: 4,1 pg/ml e TNF-alfa: 0,16 pg/ml. CONCLUSÕES: recém-nascidos a termo com EHI apresentaram níveis liquóricos de IL-6 e TNF-alfa mais elevados que controles, possivelmente devido à produção local cerebral dessas citocinas, especialmente o TNF-alfa. Estes achados estimulam estudos futuros, utilizando bloqueadores cerebrais das ações dessas citocinas como estratégia de neuroproteção.

  14. Concentração de alfa-tocoferol no soro e colostro materno de adolescentes e adultas Levels of alpha-tocopherol in maternal serum and colostrum of adolescents and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Dimenstein; Jeane Franco Pires; Lígia Rejane Siqueira Garcia; Larissa Queiroz de Lira

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: avaliar a concentração de alfa-tocoferol no soro e colostro materno de puérperas adolescentes e adultas e verificar a adequação nutricional de vitamina E do colostro oferecido ao lactente. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 72 puérperas, sendo 25 adolescentes e 47 adultas. Foram coletados 5 mL de sangue e 2 mL de colostro em condição de jejum para análise dos níveis de alfa-tocoferol. As amostras foram analisadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. A adequação nutricional do...

  15. LOW-LATITUDE CORONAL HOLES AT THE MINIMUM OF THE 23rd SOLAR CYCLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Linker, Jon; Mikic, Zoran; Luhmann, Janet; Lee, Christina O.

    2010-01-01

    Low- and mid-latitude coronal holes (CHs) observed on the Sun during the current solar activity minimum (from 2006 September 21, Carrington rotation (CR) 2048, to 2009 June 26, CR 2084) were analyzed using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope and STEREO-A SECCHI EUVI data. From both the observations and Potential Field Source Surface modeling, we find that the area occupied by CHs inside a belt of ±40 0 around the solar equator is larger in the current 2007 solar minimum relative to the similar phase of the previous 1996 solar minimum. The enhanced CH area is related to a recurrent appearance of five persistent CHs, which survived during 7-27 solar rotations. Three of the CHs are of positive magnetic polarity and two are negative. The most long-lived CH was being formed during 2 days and existed for 27 rotations. This CH was associated with fast solar wind at 1 AU of approximately 620 ± 40 km s -1 . The three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic modeling for this time period shows an open field structure above this CH. We conclude that the global magnetic field of the Sun possessed a multi-pole structure during this time period. Calculation of the harmonic power spectrum of the solar magnetic field demonstrates a greater prevalence of multi-pole components over the dipole component in the 2007 solar minimum compared to the 1996 solar minimum. The unusual large separation between the dipole and multi-pole components is due to the very low magnitude of the dipole component, which is three times lower than that in the previous 1996 solar minimum.

  16. VLF/LF (Very Low Frequency/Low Frequency) Reflection Properties of the Low Latitude Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-04

    pleasure for the U.S. personnel. Although it is virtually impossible to mention all the individuals who contributed, we wish to especially ... Educacional da Regiao de Blumenau (FURB), who planned the day-to-day experimental efforts and who provided valuable technical Insight and guidance to all...or more grazing incidence angle, with the trend being especially pronounced in the daytime. Figure 23 shows 20 kHz reflectiont coefficients derived

  17. Further contribution to the low latitude leaf assemblage from the late ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It includes four new fossil leaves resembling Firmiana and Pterygota of the Malvaceae s.l. and Paranephelium and Sapindus of the Sapindaceae. The present study suggests that the floral migration between India and southeast Asia had occurred after the late Oligocene. Our study is in congruence with the earlier published ...

  18. Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roslin, T.; Hardwick, B.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Petry, W. K.; Andrew, N. R.; Asmus, A.; Barrio, I. C.; Basset, Yves; Boesing, A. L.; Bonebrake, T. C.; Cameron, E. K.; Dáttilo, W.; Donoso, D. A.; Drozd, P.; Gray, C. L.; Hik, S. D.; Hill, S. J.; Hopkins, T.; Huang, S.; Koane, B.; Laird-Hopkins, B.; Laukkanen, L.; Lewis, O. T.; Milne, S.; Mwesige, I.; Nakamura, A.; Nell, C. S.; Nichols, E.; Prokurat, A.; Sam, Kateřina; Schmidt, N. M.; Slade, A.; Slade, V.; Suchánková, A.; Teder, T.; van Nouhuys, S.; Vandvik, V.; Weissflog, A.; Zhukovich, V.; Slade, E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 356, č. 6339 (2017), s. 742-744 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-32024P; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04258S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 669609 - Diversity6continents Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : plasticine caterpillars * arthropod predation * bird predation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 37.205, year: 2016 http://science.sciencemag.org/content/356/6339/742/tab-pdf

  19. Low-Latitude Ionosphere and Thermosphere: Decadal Observations From the CHAMP Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolle, Claudia; Liu, Huixin

    2014-01-01

    Self-consistent physical models of an auroral flux tube are capable of calculating optical emissions and ionospheric state variables for a given set of magnetospheric drivers. The collocation of incoherent scatter radar (ISR) and photometric measurements provides a powerful framework for testing......-prompt emissions of atomic oxygen and molecular nitrogen provide maximum sensitivity to the incident energy spectrum over a limited and contiguous free spectral range. The chapter tests the internal consistency by comparing observed ISR state variables with predictions of the same variables derived by optical...

  20. Temporal and Spatial Characterization of GPS Fading From Ionospheric Irregularities Under Low latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paula, E. R.; Moraes, A. D. O.; Vani, B. C.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Galera Monico, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    The ionosphere over the peak of the anomaly represents a treat for navigation systems based on GNSS. Brazilian territory is mostly under this harsh layer for satellite communication in general and in particular for navigation, like GPS users, where their receivers tracking performance are damaged under scintillation conditions. Ionospheric scintillation is responsible for significant degradation in the accuracy of navigation and positioning. Phase shifts accompanied by amplitude fades significantly degrades the signal-to-noise ratio of the received signal disrupting the channel and loosing navigation performance. The stronger the scintillations are, more difficulty will be for the GNSS receiver tracking loops to recover the phase and code replicas. These phenomena under specific geophysical conditions may severely affect the system availability and positioning. In this work the temporal characteristics of amplitude scintillation will be analyzed at the three available GPS frequencies, L1, L2C and L5. Aspect like fading duration and depth will be evaluated and compared among the three available frequencies for the current solar cycle. This work will use GPS scintillation data recorded during six months of data during 2014 to 2015 at three stations under Brazilian territory located near the southern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly. The analysis will be performed focusing on the fading profile of the three frequencies comparing how the fading of those signals behave statistically between them. Aspects like loss of lock, spatial orientation between the signal across the ionospheric irregularity will also be discussed showing how much more susceptible the new frequencies might be in comparison to the widely used and studied L1 frequency.

  1. Low latitude ionospheric TEC responses to dynamical complexity quantifiers during transient events over Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsua, Babalola

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the values of chaoticity and dynamical complexity parameters for some selected storm periods in the year 2011 and 2012 have been computed. This was done using detrended TEC data sets measured from Birnin-Kebbi, Torro and Enugu global positioning system (GPS) receiver stations in Nigeria. It was observed that the significance of difference (SD) values were mostly greater than 1.96 but surprisingly lower than 1.96 in September 29, 2011. The values of the computed SD were also found to be reduced in most cases just after the geomagnetic storm with immediate recovery a day after the main phase of the storm while the values of Lyapunov exponent and Tsallis entropy remains reduced due to the influence of geomagnetic storms. It was also observed that the value of Lyapunov exponent and Tsallis entropy reveals similar variation pattern during storm period in most cases. Also recorded surprisingly were lower values of these dynamical quantifiers during the solar flare event of August 8th and 9th of the year 2011. The possible mechanisms responsible for these observations were further discussed in this work. However, our observations show that the ionospheric effects of some other possible transient events other than geomagnetic storms can also be revealed by the variation of chaoticity and dynamical complexity.

  2. Letter to the EditorTwo early observations of aurora at low latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Vaquero

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available It is the purpose of this paper to present evidence concerning the observation of aurorae in the years 880 AD and 942 AD recorded by Arabs from the Iberian Peninsula and the north of Africa.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (general or miscellaneous – Atmospheric composition and structure (airglow and aurora – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  3. Ionospheric Effects on GPS Signal in Low-Latitude Region: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the velocity of signals that propagate within the atmosphere deviates from vacuum line of sight (LOS), while the refractivity of ionosphere and troposphere influence the signal propagation delay causing atmospheric effects due to high electrons density. Both affect the signal in different ways due to their particular ...

  4. Why Do Model Tropical Cyclones Intensify More Rapidly at Low Latitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    strength of the boundary layer inflow to that of the diabatic forcing of the meridional overturning circulation. The specific role of the frictional boundary...stronger boundary layer inflow and the stronger ascent of air exiting the boundary layer, together with the much larger diabatic heating rate and its...classical and recent work together with a boundary layer feedback mechanism linking the strength of the boundary layer inflow to that of the diabatic

  5. Energetic particles and ionization in the nighttime middle and low latitude ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, H. D.; Smith, L. G.

    1977-01-01

    Seven Nike Apache rockets, each equipped with an energetic particle spectrometer (12 E 80 keV) and electron-density experiments, were launched from Wallops Island, Virginia and Chilca, Peru, under varying geomagnetic conditions near midnight. At Wallops Island the energetic particle flux (E 40 keV) is found to be strongly dependent on Kp. The pitch-angle distribution is asymmetrical about a peak at 90 D signifying a predominately quasi-trapped flux and explaining the linear increase of count rate with altitute in the altitude region 120 to 200 km. The height-averaged ionization rates derived from the electron-density profiles are consistent with the rates calculated from the observed total particle flux for magnetic index Kp 3. In the region 90 to 110 km it is found that the nighttime ionization is primarily a result of Ly-beta radiation from the geocorona and interplanetary hydrogen for even very disturbed conditions. Below 90 km during rather disturbed conditions energetic electrons can be a significant ionization source. Two energetic particle precipitation zones have been identified at midlatitudes.

  6. Understanding Late Triassic low latitude terrestrial ecosystems: new insights from the Colorado Plateau Coring Project (CPCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmis, R. B.; Olsen, P. E.; Parker, W.; Rasmussen, C.; Mundil, R.; Whiteside, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Chinle Formation of southwestern North America is a key paleontological archive of low paleolatitude non-marine ecosystems that existed during the Late Triassic hothouse world. These strata were deposited at 5-15°N latitude, and preserve extensive plant, invertebrate, and vertebrate fossil assemblages, including early dinosaurs; these organisms lived in an unpredictably fluctuating semi-arid to arid environment with very high atmospheric pCO2. Despite this well-studied fossil record, a full understanding of these ecosystems and their integration with other fossil assemblages globally has been hindered by a poor understanding of the Chinle Formation's age, duration, and sedimentation rates. Recently, the CPCP recovered a 520m continuous core through this formation from the northern portion of Petrified Forest National Park (PEFO) in northern Arizona, USA. This core has provided a plethora of new radioisotopic and magnetostratigraphic data from fresh, unweathered samples in unambiguous stratigraphic superposition. These constraints confirm that virtually all fossil-bearing horizons in Chinle outcrops in the vicinity of PEFO are Norian in age. Furthermore, they indicate that the palynomorph zone II and Adamanian vertebrate biozone are at least six million years long, whereas the overlying palynomorph zone III and Revueltian vertebrate biozone persisted for at least five million years, with the boundary between 216-214 Ma. This confirms that the rich late Adamanian-early Revueltian vertebrate fossil assemblages, where dinosaurs are exclusively rare, small-bodied carnivorous theropods, are contemporaneous with higher latitude assemblages in Europe, South America, and Africa where large-bodied herbivorous sauropodomorph dinosaurs are common. The age constraints also confirm that several palynomorph biostratigraphic ranges in the Chinle Formation differ from those of the same taxa in eastern North American (Newark Supergroup) and Europe. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that latitudinal differences in climate sorted the biota found across Pangaea during the Late Triassic Period.

  7. Low-latitude climate variability in the Heinrich frequency band of the Late Cretaceous greenhouse world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Niels; Zeeden, C.J.R.; Hilgen, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Deep marine successions of early Campanian age from DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) site 516F drilled at low paleolatitudes in the South Atlantic reveal distinct sub-Milankovitch variability in addition to precession, obliquity and eccentricity-related variations. Elemental abundance ratios point

  8. Low-latitude ionospheric research using the CIRCE Mission: instrumentation overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, K. F.; Nicholas, A. C.; Budzien, S. A.; Stephan, A. W.; Marquis, P.; Brown, C. M.; Finne, T.; Wolfram, K. D.

    2017-08-01

    The Coordinated Ionospheric Reconstruction Cubesat Experiment (CIRCE) is a dual-satellite mission consisting of two 6U CubeSats actively maintaining a lead-follow configuration in the same orbit with a launch planned for the 2018-2019 time-frame. These nanosatellites will each feature two 1U size ultraviolet photometers, observing the 135.6 nm emission of atomic oxygen at nighttime. The primary objective is to characterize the two-dimensional distribution of electrons in the orbital plane of the vehicles with special emphasis on studying the morphology of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA). The methodology used to reconstruct the nighttime ionosphere employs continuous UV photometry from four distinct viewing angles in combination with an additional data source, such as in situ plasma density measurements or a wide-band beacon data, with advanced image space reconstruction algorithm tomography techniques. The COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 (CF3) constellation featured six Tiny Ionospheric Photometers, compact UV sensors which served as the pathfinder for the CIRCE instruments. The TIP instruments on the CF3 satellites demonstrated detection of ionospheric bubbles before they had penetrated the peak of the F-region ionosphere, showed the temporal evolution of the EIA, and observed a Medium Scale Travelling Ionospheric Disturbance. We present our mission concept, some pertinent information regarding the instrument design, the results of simulations illustrating the imaging capability of the sensor suite, and a range of science questions addressable using such a system.

  9. Multipoint Observations of Low Latitude ULF Pc3 Waves in South ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of studying the spatial structure of hydromagnetic waves in the earth's magnetosphere. The solar ... evidence for the propagation of external Pc3-4 wave energy into the magneto- sphere had been presented .... and Space Phys., 14, 42. Ansari, I. A., Fraser, B. J., McNabb, P. W. 1985, Indian J. Radio and Space Phys., 14, 1.

  10. Low-latitude midnight brightness in 630.0 nm limb observations by FORMOSAT-2/ISUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, P. K.; Chen, C. H.; Lin, C. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Huba, J. D.; Chen, A. B.; Hsu, R. R.; Chen, Y. T.

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates the intense airglow brightness often observed in the 630.0 nm limb images taken using Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightnings (ISUAL), onboard FORMOSAT-2 satellite, where the tangent plane of the measurement falls in the local midnight sector. Most of the images show only single brightness, but in some cases there could be multiple peaks, which sometimes appears to be centered on geographic equator and in some cases falls on either sides of the magnetic equator. In order to understand such intense emission in the near-midnight hours, the observations are simulated using SAMI2 (SAMI2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere) model parameters based on the ISUAL viewing geometry. The simulations reproduced the measured airglow intensity pattern quite remarkably and suggested that the meridional neutral wind and the resulting plasma distribution are closely related with the observed brightness. The intensity and locations of the airglow brightness peaks could potentially be utilized to infer the strength of meridional neutral wind.

  11. Low-Latitude Solar Wind During the Fall 1998 SOHO-Ulysses Quadrature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, G.; Suess, S. T.; Biesecker, D. A.; Esser, R.; Gloeckler, G.; Ko, Y.-K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2002-01-01

    Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOH0)-Ulysses quadratures occur when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses-included angle is 90 deg. These offer the opportunity to directly compare properties of plasma parcels, observed by SOHO [Dorningo et al.] in the low corona, with properties of the same parcels measured, in due time, in situ, by Ulysses [ Wenzel et al]. We refer the reader to Suess et al. for an extended discussion of SOHO-Ulysses quadrature geometry. Here it suffices to recall that there are two quadratures per year, as SOHO makes its one-year revolution around the Sun. This, because SOHO is at the L1 Lagrangian point, in essentially the same place as the Earth, while Ulysses is in a near-polar -5-year solar orbit with a perihelion of 1.34 AU and aphelion of 5.4 AU.

  12. Latitudinal extension of low-latitude scintillations measured with a network of GPS receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Valladares

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A latitudinal-distributed network of GPS receivers has been operating within Colombia, Peru and Chile with sufficient latitudinal span to measure the absolute total electron content (TEC at both crests of the equatorial anomaly. The network also provides the latitudinal extension of GPS scintillations and TEC depletions. The GPS-based information has been supplemented with density profiles collected with the Jicamarca digisonde and JULIA power maps to investigate the background conditions of the nighttime ionosphere that prevail during the formation and the persistence of plasma depletions. This paper presents case-study events in which the latitudinal extension of GPS scintillations, the maximum latitude of TEC depletion detections, and the altitude extension of radar plumes are correlated with the location and extension of the equatorial anomaly. Then it shows the combined statistics of GPS scintillations, TEC depletions, TEC latitudinal profiles, and bottomside density profiles collected between September 2001 and June 2002. It is demonstrated that multiple sights of TEC depletions from different stations can be used to estimate the drift of the background plasma, the tilt of the plasma plumes, and in some cases even the approximate time and location of the depletion onset. This study corroborates the fact that TEC depletions and radar plumes coincide with intense levels of GPS scintillations. Bottomside radar traces do not seem to be associated with GPS scintillations. It is demonstrated that scintillations/depletions can occur when the TEC latitude profiles are symmetric, asymmetric or highly asymmetric; this is during the absence of one crest. Comparison of the location of the northern crest of the equatorial anomaly and the maximum latitude of scintillations reveals that for 90% of the days, scintillations are confined within the boundaries of the 50% decay limit of the anomaly crests. The crests of the anomaly are the regions where the most intense GPS scintillations and the deepest TEC depletions are encountered. In accord with early results, we observe that GPS scintillations/TEC depletions mainly occur when the altitude of the magnetic equator F-region is above 500km. Nevertheless, in many instances GPS scintillations and TEC depletions are observed to exist when the F-layer is well below 500km or to persist when the F-layer undergoes its typical nighttime descent. Close inspection of the TEC profiles during scintillations/depletions events that occur when the equatorial F-layer peak is below 500km altitude reveals that on these occasions the ratio of the crest-to-equator TEC is above 2, and the crests are displaced 10° or more from the magnetic equator. When the equatorial F-layer is above 500km, neither of the two requirements is needed, as the flux tube seems to be inherently unstable. We discuss these findings in terms of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI mechanism for flux-tube integrated quantities. We advance the idea that the seeming control that the reverse fountain effect exerts on inhibiting or suppressing GPS scintillations may be related to the redistribution of the density and plasma transport from the crests of the anomaly toward the equatorial region and then to much lower altitudes, and the simultaneous decrease of the F-region altitude. These two effects originate a decrease in the crest/trough ratio and a reduction of the crests separation, making the whole flux tube more stable to the RTI. The correspondence between crest separation, altitude of the equatorial F-region, the onset of depletions, and the altitude (latitude extension of plumes (GPS scintillations can be used to track the fate of the density structures.

  13. MLT winds and diurnal tides at southern low latitudes in the period 1999-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues de Araujo, Luciana; Takahashi, Hisao; Clemesha, Barclay; Batista, Paulo; Lima, Lourivaldo

    Meteor radar measurements obtained during the time intervals from March 1999 to July 2006 and from September 2007 to October 2008, at Cachoeira Paulista (22.7° S, 45.0° W), Brazil, have been analyzed to investigate long-term trends and solar activity-induced variations in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region (MLT) dynamics. Regression analyses with a dependence on solar activity and time have revealed a possible effect of the solar cycle upon monthly zonal and meridional wind behavior, in which solar activity may have contributed to weaken eastward winds, increase westward and meridional winds in some height ranges and time periods. Diurnal and semidiurnal tide amplitudes also have been analyzed and the results point out that the diurnal tides for solar minimum years are amplifies, whereas the amplitudes for semidiurnal tides showed an opposite behavior.

  14. Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations

    OpenAIRE

    Roslin, Tomas; Hardwick, Bess; Novotny, Vojtech; Petry, William K.; Andrew, Nigel R.; Asmus, Ashley; Barrio, Isabel C.; Basset, Yves; Boesing, Andrea Larissa; Bonebrake, Timothy C.; Cameron, Erin K.; Dáttilo, Wesley; Donoso, David A.; Drozd, Pavel; Gray, Claudia L.

    2017-01-01

    Biotic interactions underlie ecosystem structure and function, but predicting interaction outcomes is difficult. We tested the hypothesis that biotic interaction strength increases toward the equator, using a global experiment with model caterpillars to measure predation risk. Across an 11,660-kilometer latitudinal gradient spanning six continents, we found increasing predation toward the equator, with a parallel pattern of increasing predation toward lower elevations. Patterns across both la...

  15. Effect of pods' position on the protein content in soybean grains at low latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Victor Gomes Sales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean grains have a high protein content, which can vary depending on various factors, as the pods' position throughout the plant. In this sense, aiming to study the effect of pods' position on the main stem of the plant for grades of soybean proteins, It has been accomplished in the years 2010 and 2011, a trial with ten soybean cultivars in the experimental area of the Federal University of Tocantins in Palmas. The experimental area was randomized blocks with 30 treatments and three replications. Treatments were arranged in one a split plot, being allocated in Ten cultivars plots (BRS Valuable, P98Y51, P98Y70, P99R03, M8527RR, M8925RR, M9144RR, M8867RR, and TMG103RR, and the sub plots In the pods' position on the plant (upper third, intermediate, and basal third. According to the results, we can conclude that there is variability among the pods' position. The grains located in the median and apical plant showed a trend of higher protein content. Cultivar P98Y70 showed the highest protein value. In the sampling grain for protein quantitation, it is recommended to use grains of pods located at the same position of the plant.

  16. Local ionospheric electrodynamics associated with neutral wind fields at low latitudes: Kelvin-Helmholtz billows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. St.-Maurice

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Gadanki radar observation of plasma irregularities bearing the signature of Kelvin-Helmholtz billows above 100 km altitude raises the question of the electrodynamical mechanism that would allow the structures to drift with the neutral wind. We show that for locally varying neutral wind fields with the right geometry at night, multiple Hall effects in the electron gas lead to a situation where ions, electrons, and neutrals move together along the component of the wind that changes most rapidly in space. The species must not move together along all directions, however. If this were the case the plasma would be stable and a radar would be unable to observe the wind field. We discuss the stability of the plasma itself for Es layers affected by the Kelvin-Helmholtz wind field and show that a variety of factors have to be taken into account beyond the study of the zeroth order mechanism.

  17. Spectral features of lightning-induced ion cyclotron waves at low latitudes: DEMETER observations and simulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shklyar, D. R.; Storey, L. R. O.; Chum, Jaroslav; Jiříček, František; Němec, F.; Parrot, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Titova, E. E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 117, A12 (2012), A12206/1-A12206/16 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1253; GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk ME09107 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GPP209/12/P658 Program:GP Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Plasma waves analysis * ion cyclotron waves * satellite observation and numerical simulation * geometrical optics * multi-component measurements * simulation * spectrogram * wave propagation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.174, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2012JA018016/abstract

  18. Low-latitude high elevation of the leading edge of southern Eurasia throughout the Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, M.; Rowley, D. B.; Colman, A. S.; Olack, G.; Currie, B.; Li, S.

    2016-12-01

    The elevation history of the Tibetan Plateau promises insight into the mechanisms and dynamics that develop and sustain high topography over tens of millions of years. We present the first continuous Cenozoic elevation history from two proximal sedimentary basins on the southern Tibetan Plateau, as well as preliminary paleoaltimetry results from the south-central and central Plateau (Sangsang and Lunpola). The oxygen stable isotope and Δ47 clumped isotope compositions of non-marine carbonates allow us to constrain the carbonate formation temperatures and reconstruct the paleo-precipitation record of the Eocene to Pliocene Oiyug Basin and Paleocene to Eocene Penbo Basin. We exploit the systematic decrease of surface temperature and meteoric water δ18O with elevation. Minimally altered and unaltered pedogenic carbonates from the Oiyug Basin yield Δ47, CDES values of 0.625 to 0.755, that correspond with temperatures of 1-30 °C using a (Zaarur et al., 2013) Δ47 thermometer for low temperature carbonates. Similarly, the Penbo Basin yields Δ47, CDES values of 0.700-0.730, corresponding with temperatures of 6-12°C. Our paleoelevation estimates for the well-studied Oiyug basin ( 6100-4200 meters) support previous evidence (Spicer et al., 2003; Currie et al., 2005; Polissar et al., 2009; Currie et al., 2016) that high elevations were attained in southern Tibet by at least 30 Ma. Our paleoelevation estimates for the Penbo Basin (4100±550 meters) extends the altitude record of the southern Plateau to pre-India-Asia collision. Preliminary results from Sangsang, further west along the Indus-Yarlung Suture, and Lunpola, on the central Plateau, allow us to develop a spatially and temporally more complex paleo-altitude map and land surface evolution of the Tibetan Plateau since the onset of continent-continent collision.

  19. Direction finding of night-time whistlers at very low latitudes in China - Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J. S.; Tian, M.; Tang, C. C.; Hayakawa, M.; Ohta, K.; Shimakura, S.

    1989-09-01

    Simultaneous direction finding measurements of equatorial latitude whistlers have been performed in January 1988 at three stations in China, including Zhanjiang (geomagnetic latitude 10.0 deg N), Guilin (14.1 deg), and Wuchang (19.4 deg). The preliminary analyses for a particular day have shown experimentally that there is a single-valued dispersion value (D = 10.5 sq rt s) for nighttime whistlers at the three stations and that their ionospheric exit region is located just in the zenith of Zhanjiang, with an approximately right-handed circular polarization. This finding lends strong evidence to a previous implication, inferred from the simultaneous multistation network, that there is a preferred propagation channel at a geomagnetic latitude aroung 10 deg.

  20. Multipoint Observations of Low Latitude ULF Pc3 Waves in South ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... However, the application of ground-based magnetometer arrays has proven to be one of the most successful methods of studying the spatial structure of hydromagnetic waves in the earth's magnetosphere. The solar wind provides the energy for the earth's magnetospheric processes. Pc3-5 geomagnetic ...

  1. Low-latitude Model Electron Density Profiles using the IRI and CCIR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    empirical basis with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-90) and the CCIR models. Electron density profiles are computed using the median values of ionospheric data routinely scaled from ionograms at Ibadan (7.40N, 3.90E) and ...

  2. Investigation of weather anomalies in the low-latitude islands of the Indian Ocean in 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Réchou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration measurements at meteorological stations across the southern Indian Ocean have been analysed to try to differentiate the possible influence of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption in the Philippines in June 1991 and the normal weather forcings. During December 1991, precipitation on the tropical islands Glorieuses (11.6° S and Mayotte (12.8° S was 4 and 3 times greater, respectively, than the climatological mean (precipitation is greater by more than than twice the standard deviation (SD. Mean sunshine duration (expressed in sun hours per day was only 6 h on Mayotte, although the sunshine duration is usually more than 7.5 ± 0.75 h, and on the Glorieuses it was only 5 h, although it is usually 8.5 ± 1 h. Mean and SD of sunshine duration are based on December (1964–2001 for Mayotte, 1966–1999 for the Glorieuses. The Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO is shown to correlate best with precipitation in this area. Variability controlling the warm zone on these two islands can be increased by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD, El Niño, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO and/or solar activity (sunspot number, SSN. However, temperature records of these two islands show weak dependence on such forcings (temperatures are close to the climatological mean for December. This suggests that such weather forcings have an indirect effect on the precipitation. December 1991 was associated with unusually low values of the MJO index, which favours high rainfall, as well as with El Niño, eastern QBO and high SSN, which favour high variability. It is therefore not clear whether the Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption had an effect. Since the precipitation anomalies at the Glorieuses and Mayotte are more or less local (Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP data and the effect of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud should be more widespread, it seems unlikely that Pinatubo was the cause. Islands at higher southern latitudes (south of Tromelin at 15.5° S were not affected by the Pinatubo eruption in terms of sunshine duration, precipitation or temperature.

  3. Low Latitude Pelagic Foraminifera Found in the Hudson River: Are They Hurricane Deposits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, K. M.; Abbott, D. H.; Hoenisch, B.; Breger, D.

    2011-12-01

    River sediment cores provide a record of past environmental changes through stacked layers of sediments. In core CD02-29A, recovered from the southern Hudson River, a significant number of tropical planktic foraminifer tests were found. Foraminifera were concentrated in sediment layers of low impedance, suggesting high carbonate content. Because modern planktic foraminifera are exclusively marine, their presence in Hudson sediments in the core was remarkable. We can think of only two mechanisms that could explain this observation: either living specimens are carried upriver with the daily tides, or storm surges carry large amounts of seawater and re-suspended marine sediment upriver. To test for the presence of living specimens in Hudson River water, plankton tow samples were collected during high tide at the Hudson Battery south of the sample site, and at Piermont Pier north of the sample site and no living foraminifera were found. In addition, oxygen isotope (δ18O) analyses reveal a marine composition but the large difference in δ18O between the two surface dwelling species Globigerinoides ruber (pink) and Globigerinoides sacculifer, picked from the same sediment layer, suggests re-suspension and mixing of marine sediment deposits. Because only planktic, tropical to subtropical foraminiferal assemblages were found, the Hudson River deposits differ from previously recorded storm deposits found on Long Island and in New Jersey. In particular, the foraminiferal assemblages contain up to 40% G. ruber (pink), suggesting a highly tropical signal from a location where abundances of G. ruber are very low. This data, in addition to the pulsed occurrence of tests in the sediment suggests that the introduction of planktic foraminifera into the Hudson River must be driven by rare events. We suggest that storm surges from rare high-intensity hurricanes most likely explain the presence of these tests in Hudson River sediments, possibly assisted by the Gulf Stream entraining tropical foraminifera in the temperate waters off New York. In this way low acoustic impedance levels which correlate well with foraminifer occurrence in our core could also correlate with deposition during past storm activity. Therefore, such simple analyses may provide indication of past storm activity in other sediment cores.

  4. Bronquite plástica em criança com talassemia alfa Plastic bronchitis in a child with thalassemia alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago N. Veras

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A bronquite plástica é uma doença infreqüente na criança, sendo caracterizada por moldes ou cilindros mucofibrinosos na árvore traqueobrônquica. Faz parte do diagnóstico diferencial de crianças com insuficiência respiratória de início agudo, e o tratamento precoce é importante para a resolução do quadro. O objetivo deste relato é descrever um caso de bronquite plástica tratado com sucesso por endoscopia, em paciente portador de talassemia alfa. DESCRIÇÃO: Criança do sexo masculino, 3 anos de idade, sem antecedentes mórbidos significativos, apresentou quadro de insuficiência respiratória aguda, com achados radiológicos de atelectasia pulmonar sugestivos de aspiração de corpo estranho. Não havia sintomas respiratórios ou antecedentes de alergia ou infecções respiratórias de repetição. A realização de broncoscopia flexível, complementada por endoscopia rígida e exame anatomopatológico, evidenciou a presença de bronquite plástica. Após a realização da endoscopia, a criança evoluiu satisfatoriamente, com curva térmica afebril e extubação em 72 horas. Foram utilizadas medicações sintomáticas, sem necessidade de antimicrobianos. Dez dias após a alta, a radiografia de tórax encontrava-se normal. A talassemia alfa foi diagnosticada através da eletroforese de hemoglobina. COMENTÁRIOS: A importância clínica da bronquite plástica reside no fato de apresentar um quadro semelhante ao de outras doenças mais prevalentes, como a aspiração de corpo estranho e a asma brônquica. A suspeita do quadro recomenda a realização de endoscopia para diagnóstico e tratamento. É reconhecida a ocorrência de bronquite plástica em crianças com fibrose cística, pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca e anemia falciforme. No presente artigo, foi observada uma associação com talassemia alfa.OBJECTIVE: Plastic bronchitis is an unusual condition in children, associated with formation of mucofibrinous

  5. Estudio del mecanismo de reacciones modelo de procesos enzimáticos: Catálisis electrófila en la desprotonación de la glicina en el carbono alfa

    OpenAIRE

    Riveiros Santiago, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Los estudios realizados en esta tesis doctoral se encuadran dentro del objetivo general de caracterizar las barreras cinética y termodinámica para la desprotonación del carbono en posición alfa al grupo amino de aminoácidos en agua, con el fin de esclarecer el mecanismo empleado por los sistemas enzimáticos para disminuir dichas barreras.

  6. Reticulocyte dynamic and hemoglobin variability in hemodialysis patients treated with Darbepoetin alfa and C.E.R.A.: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Valentina; Bianchi, Giorgia; Ogna, Adam; Salvadé, Igor; Vuistiner, Philippe; Burnier, Michel; Gabutti, Luca

    2013-07-22

    In a simulation based on a pharmacokinetic model we demonstrated that increasing the erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) half-life or shortening their administration interval decreases hemoglobin variability. The benefit of reducing the administration interval was however lessened by the variability induced by more frequent dosage adjustments. The purpose of this study was to analyze the reticulocyte and hemoglobin kinetics and variability under different ESAs and administration intervals in a collective of chronic hemodialysis patients. The study was designed as an open-label, randomized, four-period cross-over investigation, including 30 patients under chronic hemodialysis at the regional hospital of Locarno (Switzerland) in February 2010 and lasting 2 years. Four subcutaneous treatment strategies (C.E.R.A. every 4 weeks Q4W and every 2 weeks Q2W, Darbepoetin alfa Q4W and Q2W) were compared with each other. The mean square successive difference of hemoglobin, reticulocyte count and ESAs dose was used to quantify variability. We distinguished a short- and a long-term variability based respectively on the weekly and monthly successive difference. No difference was found in the mean values of biological parameters (hemoglobin, reticulocytes, and ferritin) between the 4 strategies. ESAs type did not affect hemoglobin and reticulocyte variability, but C.E.R.A induced a more sustained reticulocytes response over time and increased the risk of hemoglobin overshooting (OR 2.7, p = 0.01). Shortening the administration interval lessened the amplitude of reticulocyte count fluctuations but resulted in more frequent ESAs dose adjustments and in amplified reticulocyte and hemoglobin variability. Q2W administration interval was however more favorable in terms of ESAs dose, allowing a 38% C.E.R.A. dose reduction, and no increase of Darbepoetin alfa. The reticulocyte dynamic was a more sensitive marker of time instability of the hemoglobin response under ESAs therapy

  7. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: alpha-dystroglycan immunoexpression in skeletal muscle and cognitive performance Distrofia muscular de Duchenne: imunoexpressão da alfa-distroglicana em musculatura esquelética e performance cognitiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Campanario da Silva Pereira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Duchenne muscular systrophy (DMD is a muscular dystrophy with cognitive impairment present in 20-30% of the cases. In the present study, in order to study the relationship between the alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG immunostaining in skeletal muscle and cognitive performance in DMD patients, 19 were assessed. Twelve patients performed the intelligence quotient (IQ below the average. Among the 19 patients, two were assessed by the Stanford-Binet test and 17 by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III. Nine patients performed a verbal IQ below the average, only three patients performed an average verbal IQ. The muscle biopsies immunostained with antibodies to alpha-DG showed that 17 patients presented a low expression, below 25% of the total fibers. Two patients presented alpha-DG immunostaining above 40% and an IQ within the average. No significant statistical relationship was demonstrated among total IQ, verbal IQ and execution IQ and alpha-DG immunostaining at these patients muscle samples.A distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD é uma distrofia muscular com comprometimento cognitivo presente em 20-30% dos casos. No presente estudo, com a finalidade de estudar a relação entre a imunoexpressão da alfa-distroglicana (alfa-DG em musculatura esquelética e a performance cognitiva em pacientes com DMD, foram avaliadas 19 crianças. Doze pacientes apresentaram o quociente de inteligência (QI abaixo da média. Entre os 19 pacientes, dois foram avaliados pelo teste de Stanford-Binet e 17 pelo Wechsler Intelligence Scale para crianças-III (WISC-III. Nove apresentaram QI verbal abaixo da média, e apenas três QI verbal na média. As biopsias musculares com os anticorpos para alfa-DG mostraram que 17 pacientes apresentaram baixa expressão, abaixo de 25% do total de fibras. Dois pacientes apresentaram a imunoexpressão da alfa-DG acima de 40% e QI dentro da média. Não foi demonstrada relação estatisticamente significante entre o QI

  8. The importance of iron in long-term survival of maintenance hemodialysis patients treated with epoetin-alfa and intravenous iron: analysis of 9.5 years of prospectively collected data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients treated by maintenance hemodialysis the relationship to survival of hemoglobin level and administered epoetin-alfa and intravenous iron is controversial. The study aim was to determine effects on patient survival of administered epoetin-alfa and intravenous iron, and of hemoglobin and variables related to iron status. Methods The patients were 1774 treated by maintenance hemodialysis in 3 dialysis units in New York, NY from January 1998 to June, 2007. A patient-centered, coded, electronic patient record used in patient care enabled retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively. For survival analysis, patients were censored when transplanted, transferred to hemodialysis at home or elsewhere, peritoneal dialysis. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis was followed by multivariate analysis with Cox's regression, using as variables age, race, gender, major co-morbid conditions, epoetin-alfa and intravenous iron administered, and 15 laboratory tests. Results Median age was 59 years, epoetin-alfa (interquartile range 18,162 (12,099, 27,741 units/week, intravenous iron 301 (202, 455 mg/month, survival 789 (354, 1489 days. Median hemoglobin was 116 (110, 120g/L, transferrin saturation 29.7 (24.9, 35.1%, serum ferritin 526 (247, 833 μg/L, serum albumin 39.0 (36.3, 41.5 g/L. Survival was better the higher the hemoglobin, best with > 120 g/L. Epoetin-alfa effect on survival was weak but had statistically significant interaction with intravenous iron. For intravenous iron, survival was best with 1–202 mg/month, slightly worse with 202–455 mg/month; it was worst with no intravenous iron, only slightly better with > 455 mg/month. Survival was worst with transferrin saturation ≤ 16%, serum ferritin ≤ 100 μg/L, best with transferrin saturation > 25%, serum ferritin > 600 μg/L The effects of each of hemoglobin, intravenous iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin on survival were independently significant and

  9. CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL EFFICACY OF THE RECOMBINANT INTERFERON alfa-2b OF ACUTE EPSTEIN-BARR VIRAL MONONUCLEOSIS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

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    V. N. Timchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducted clinical and immunological examination of 51 children with acute Epstein-Barr viral mononucleosis (EBV in age from 1 year to 7 years. All children diagnosed with a moderate degree of the disease. In the treatment of 25 people (comparison group used the standard treatment (pathogenetic, symptomatic, treatment 26 people (main group included the use as antiviral and immunotropic means of the preparation of human recombinant interferon Alfa-2b in the form of rectal suppositories — VIFERON®. The immunological survey was conducted in dynamics: at the height of the disease and in the convalescence period. The blood was determined indicators of cellular immunity (leukocytes, lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD56+, HLAII+, CD95+, CD1 6+, CD25+, the concentration of IFN-a, IFN-y, IL-4 levels in spontaneous and induced production, in the serum. At milestones children of the main group noted rapid regression of clinical symptoms, normalization of body temperature, reducing intoxication, positive dynamics lymphoproliferative syndrome, a significant reduction in bed-days, no layering respiratory viral infections. Interferon had also expressed a positive impact on the changed parameters of cellular immunity and cytokine links. At the same time, 80% of patients after basic treatment is established the predominance of Th2 type immune response, indicating a high risk of developing chronic course of EBV-mononucleosis.

  10. Importance of a 5- versus 7-day pill-free interval in a GnRH antagonist protocol using corifollitropin alfa: a prospective cohort study in oocyte donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Calvo, Alicia; Martínez, Francisca; Blockeel, Christophe; Clúa, Elisabeth; Rodríguez, Ignacio; Barri, Pere N; Coroleu, Buenaventura

    2017-10-01

    In this prospective cohort study, oocyte donors were recruited prospectively and assigned to receive corifollitropin alfa: 5 days after pill discontinuation (group D5; 42 donors), or 7 days after pill discontinuation (group D7; 50 donors) in a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol. Fixed additional daily doses of 200 IU recombinent FSH (rFSH) were started after 7 days of corifollitropinalfa, until triggering. No significant differences in basal characteristics were observed between both groups. In group D5, mean (SD) total additional rFSH dose was 659 (452) IU; in group D7, total rFSH dose was 459 (356) IU (P = 0.022). Duration of stimulation was significantly longer in group D5 compared with group D7 (P = 0.002). No differences were found in total number of oocytes obtained. Total number of injections was significantly lower in group D7 compared with group D5 (9.8 [3.2] versus 11.9 [3.9], respectively; P = 0.004). Total cost of medication used for donor treatment was significantly higher in group D5 than in group D7 (P = 0.015). After more than 22 days of pill-taking, extending the pill-free interval to 7 days significantly reduces the total dose of gonadotrophins, duration of stimulation, total cost of medication and total number of injections. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Treatment-naïve Gaucher disease patients achieve therapeutic goals and normalization with velaglucerase alfa by 4years in phase 3 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah; Gonzalez, Derlis E; Lukina, Elena A; Qin, Yulin; Dinh, Quinn; Turkia, Hadhami Ben

    2018-02-01

    Gaucher disease is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by β-glucocerebrosidase deficiency and commonly treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). The efficacy of ERT with velaglucerase alfa was assessed based on the achievement of published therapeutic goals and the normalization of disease parameters in 39 treatment-naïve patients with type 1 Gaucher disease, 6 to 62years of age, enrolled in phase 3 clinical trials. After 4years of ERT, therapeutic goals for thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly had been achieved in 100% of patients; goals for anemia and hepatomegaly had been achieved in 95% and 94% of patients, respectively. Consistent with the goal for bone mineral density, lumbar spine bone density improved in 87% of patients ≥18years of age. At year 4, compared with clinical ranges for healthy individuals, 86% of patients with a low baseline hemoglobin concentration had normalized, 60% with a low baseline platelet count had normalized, 67% with baseline splenomegaly had normalized, 58% with hepatomegaly had normalized, and lumbar spine bone density had normalized in 53% of adults. The decade-old therapeutic goals do not reflect the potential for normalization of clinical parameters in ERT-treated patients. Goals consistent with normalization or near-normalization should be considered. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00430625, NCT00553631, NCT00635427. Copyright © 2016 Shire Human Genetic Therapies, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of three dosing regimens of agalsidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy in adults with Fabry disease

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    Goláň L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lubor Goláň,1 Ozlem Goker-Alpan,2 Myrl Holida,3 Ikka Kantola,4 Mariusz Klopotowski,5 Johanna Kuusisto,6 Aleš Linhart,1 Jacek Musial,7 Kathleen Nicholls,8 Derlis Gonzalez-Rodriguez,9 Reena Sharma,10 Bojan Vujkovac,11 Peter Chang,12 Anna Wijatyk12 1First Faculty of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Lysosomal Research and Treatment Unit, Fairfax, VA, USA; 3Stead Family Department of Pediatrics, Division of Medical Genetics, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA; 4Division of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; 5Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, Poland; 6Department of Medicine, Center for Medicine and Clinical Research, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland; 7Department of Internal Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland; 8Department of Nephrology, Royal Melbourne Hospital and the University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 9Instituto Privado de Hematologia E Investigacion Clinica (IPHIC, Asuncion, Paraguay; 10Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Salford, UK; 11General Hospital Slovenj Gradec, Slovenj Gradec, Slovenia; 12Shire, Lexington, MA, USA Purpose: Efficacy and safety of agalsidase alfa at 0.2 mg/kg weekly were compared with 0.2 mg/kg every other week (EOW. Exploratory analyses were performed for 0.4 mg/kg weekly.Patients and methods: This was a 53-week, Phase III/IV, multicenter, open-label study (NCT01124643 in treatment-naïve adults (≥18 years with Fabry disease. Inclusion criteria were left ventricular hypertrophy at baseline, defined as left ventricular mass indexed to height >50 g/m2.7 for males and >47 g/m2.7 for females. Primary endpoint was reduction of left ventricular mass indexed to height as assessed by echocardiography. Secondary endpoints included cardiac (peak oxygen consumption, 6-minute walk test, Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire, New

  13. Thalidomide with peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin in the treatment of non-responders genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C patients: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Yules, Benjamin; Gallego-Durán, Rocío; Eslam, Mohammed; García-Collado, Carlos; Grande, Lourdes; Paradas, Carmen; Morillo, Ramón; Dorantes, Benito; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2011-12-01

    fewer than half of patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) achieve sustained viral clearance after peginterferon alfa/ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) therapy. thalidomide posses anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties through inhibition of tumor necrosis factor and costimulatory effect on human CD8+ T cells. we started a prospective, open label trial of retreatment of very-difficult-to-treat genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C patients (CHC) patients, who had failed to respond to the (Peg-IFN/RBV), with a triple therapy consisting in these same antivirals plus thalidomide 200 mg/day (the TRITAL study). none of the eleven patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria and included in the trial reached complete early virological response or sustained virological response. Viral load decline after 12 weeks of triple therapy thalidomide-based retreatment did not differ from viral dynamics during the first course. The triple therapy was well tolerated and only one patient developed mild bilateral neuropathy. thalidomide addition to standard therapy is tolerated and did not increase the SVR rate in very-difficult-to-treat genotype 1 CHC patients. Different schedules are warranted to improve attempting retreatment of non responder CHC patients.

  14. Effect of age and acetato DL-alfa-tocoferol supplementation on the vitamin E sera levels and on the proteinogram of calve Efeito da idade e da suplementação oral com o acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol sobre os níveis séricos de vitamina E e sobre o proteinograma de bezerros

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    Joselito Nunes Costa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report was the evaluation of age and oral DL-alfa- tocopherol acetate supplemental effects on the vitamin E sera levels, and on the proteinogram of Jersey calves from birth to 45 days of age. Fourteen calves were divided in two groups of seven animals each. One group received daily 2g of oral DL-alfa-tocopherol acetate, until 45 days of life and the control group did not receive any oral supplementation. Serum blood samples were collected at birth, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 45 days old. Serum vitamin E determination and serum protein detection were evaluated. The highest concentrations of globulins were observed after colostrum ingestion, with a small reduction at 30 days and increasing again afterwards. For the albumin fraction, a small increase was observed from birth to 45 days old. The occurrence of the immune passive transfer fail was observed in a single animal (7.3% which was diagnosed by the low serum protein concentration < 5.0 g/dL after colostrum ingestion. It was an animal from treatment group, and it was well recovery after 20 days old when it presented the serum protein concentration according to its age which suggested a vitamin E beneficial action. It was concluded that the oral 2g/d/VO supplementation with DL-alfa-tocopherol acetate, from birth to 45 days old increased the serum vitamin E levels significantly in calves.Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da idade e da suplementação oral com acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol sobre os níveis séricos de vitamina E e sobre o proteinograma de bezerros da raça Jersey do nascimento aos 45 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 14 bezerros divididos em dois grupos de sete animais cada. O grupo tratamento recebeu 2g de acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol, por via oral, diariamente, até os 45 dias de vida e o controle não recebeu nenhum tipo de suplementação para esta vitamina. Foram colhidas amostras de soro sanguíneo ao nascimento, aos cinco, 10, 20, 30 e 45 dias de idade

  15. Actividad biológica de la prostaglandina F2 alfa y del metil carboprost en el fundus gástrico aislado de rata

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    Roberto Rojas Martínez

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la potencia contráctil de una muestra del éster metílico de 15 metil prostaglandina F2 alfa (metil carboprost (I, producida por la Industria Farmacéutica Cubana, con una muestra comercial de prostaglandina F2 alfa (II, de la firma Chinoin, mediante el ensayo de los "tres puntos". También se comparó la duración de la contracción inducida por dichas muestras utilizando un análisis de regresión lineal de la relajación observada en función del tiempo, luego de suprimir el contacto entre la droga y el órgano efector. Se utilizó el fundus gástrico aislado de rata como órgano efector. La actividad contráctil se registró mediante transductores fuerza-desplazamiento. La muestra I presentó una potencia relativa de 164,0 % con respecto a la II, con límites de confianza de 111,2 y 247,8 % (p=0,95; N=7, y mostró un efecto más prolongado en relación con la II. En las tiras contraídas por la muestra I debió transcurrir 6 min y 46 s, luego del lavado, para que la contracción se redujera a la mitad de la respuesta máxima observada (N=7, en tanto que en las tiras contraídas por la II fue de 1 min y 48 s (N= 8.The contractil potency of a sample of methylic ester of 15 methyl prostaglandin F2 alpha (methyl carboprost (I produced by the Cuban Pharmaceutical Industry, was compared to a commercial sample of prostaglandin F2 alpha (II from a Chinoin firm through the "three point" assay. The duration of the contraction induced by such samples was also compared using the analysis of linear regression of the relaxation observed in function of time after the supression of contact between the drug and the effector organ. The gastric fundus isolated from a rat was used as the effector organ. The contractil activity was recorded by strength-displacement transducers. Sample I showed a relative potency of 164.0 % with respect to sample II, with confidence limits of 111.2 and 247.8 % (P = 0.95; N=7 and it also showed a more prolonged

  16. Influência da vitamina D associada ao interferon alfa-peguilado e ribavirina na resposta virológica sustentada na hepatite C crônica

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    Luiza Vitelo ANDRIGHETTO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da vitamina D no tratamento de hepatite C com interferon-alfa peguilado e ribavirina. Foram utilizados artigos científicos relevantes publicados entre os anos de 2000 e 2015. Em diversos estudos foi observado que níveis mais elevados de vitamina D estavam associados à rápida resposta ao tratamento e à maior taxa de RVS, sugerindo que a deficiência de vitamina D pode estar ligada a uma falta de resposta ao tratamento antiviral. A influência do polimorfismo do gene IL28B em associação com a vitamina D também foi avaliada. Os estudos levaram à conclusão que a vitamina D e o polimorfismo do gene IL28B são indicadores que agem de forma independente para o alcance da RVS. Quando avaliados, a suplementação de vitamina D levou à maior taxa de RVS em pacientes que receberam suplementação, comparados com os pacientes que só utilizaram a terapia convencional, demonstrando que a vitamina D pode ter um impacto positivo na eficácia do tratamento tanto em pacientes com genótipo de difícil resposta como nos genótipos de melhor prognóstico. Entretanto, os mecanismos de ação pelos quais a vitamina D e seus metabólitos aumentam a eficácia da terapia anti HCV e a RVS ainda não estão completamente claros. A alta prevalência de deficiência de vitamina D associada à baixa resposta ao tratamento e à alta RVS em pacientes que apresentam níveis séricos mais elevados de vitamina D mostram que a vitamina D é um indicador independente fortemente associado à RVS.

  17. Potential cost saving of Epoetin alfa in elective hip or knee surgery due to reduction in blood transfusions and their side effects: a discrete-event simulation model.

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    Jörg Tomeczkowski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Transfusion of allogeneic blood is still common in orthopedic surgery. This analysis evaluates from the perspective of a German hospital the potential cost savings of Epoetin alfa (EPO compared to predonated autologous blood transfusions or to a nobloodconservationstrategy (allogeneic blood transfusion strategyduring elective hip and knee replacement surgery. METHODS: Individual patients (N = 50,000 were simulated based on data from controlled trials, the German DRG institute (InEK and various publications and entered into a stochastic model (Monte-Carlo of three treatment arms: EPO, preoperative autologous donation and nobloodconservationstrategy. All three strategies lead to a different risk for an allogeneic blood transfusion. The model focused on the costs and events of the three different procedures. The costs were obtained from clinical trial databases, the German DRG system, patient records and medical publications: transfusion (allogeneic red blood cells: €320/unit and autologous red blood cells: €250/unit, pneumonia treatment (€5,000, and length of stay (€300/day. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to determine which factors had an influence on the model's clinical and cost outcomes. RESULTS: At acquisition costs of €200/40,000 IU EPO is cost saving compared to autologous blood donation, and cost-effective compared to a nobloodconservationstrategy. The results were most sensitive to the cost of EPO, blood units and hospital days. CONCLUSIONS: EPO might become an attractive blood conservation strategy for anemic patients at reasonable costs due to the reduction in allogeneic blood transfusions, in the modeled incidence of transfusion-associated pneumonia andthe prolongedlength of stay.

  18. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase I study of MEDI-545, an anti-interferon-alfa monoclonal antibody, in subjects with chronic psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, Robert; Papp, Kim; Maari, Catherine; Yao, Yihong; Robbie, Gabriel; White, Wendy I; Le, Chenxiong; White, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    Interferon-alfa (IFN-alpha) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. To evaluate the safety profile of MEDI-545, a fully human anti-IFN-alpha monoclonal antibody and to explore its effect on the involvement of type I IFN-alpha activity in the maintenance of established plaque psoriasis. We conducted an 18-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study in 36 subjects with chronic plaque psoriasis. Subjects received one intravenous dose of MEDI-545 (0.3-30.0 mg/kg) or placebo. Study outcomes were safety profile, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and clinical effects. There was no difference in adverse events between MEDI-545 and placebo. Two serious adverse events were reported; one drug-related hypotensive infusion reaction occurred in one subject in the 30.0 mg/kg MEDI-545 dose group, causing discontinuation of study drug in that subject and study dismissal of the other subjects in the same cohort; and a myocardial infarction occurred in one subject in the 10 mg/kg MEDI-545 dose group, which was considered to be unrelated to treatment. MEDI-545 was nonimmunogenic, had a half-life of 21 days, showed no significant inhibition of the type I IFN gene signature, and had no clinical activity. The study addressed only IFN-alpha and chronic psoriatic lesions. The safety profile of MEDI-545 supports further clinical development. IFN-alpha does not appear to be significantly involved in the maintenance of established plaque psoriasis. Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. THE ARECIBO LEGACY FAST ALFA SURVEY. IX. THE LEO REGION H I CATALOG, GROUP MEMBERSHIP, AND THE H I MASS FUNCTION FOR THE LEO I GROUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Martin, Ann M.; Kent, Brian R.; Saintonge, Amelie; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Karachentseva, Valentina E.

    2009-01-01

    We present the catalog of H I sources extracted from the ongoing Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) extragalactic H I line survey, found within the sky region bounded by 9 h 36 m h 36 m and +08 0 0 . The H I catalog presented here for this 118 deg 2 region is combined with the ones derived from surrounding regions also covered by the ALFALFA survey to examine the large-scale structure in the complex Leo region. Because of the combination of wide sky coverage and superior sensitivity, spatial and spectral resolution, the ALFALFA H I catalog of the Leo region improves significantly on the numbers of low H I mass sources as compared with those found in previous H I surveys. The H I mass function of the Leo I group presented here is dominated by low-mass objects: 45 of the 65 Leo I members have M H I 8 M-odot, yielding tight constraints on the low-mass slope of the Leo I H I mass function. The best-fit slope is α ≅ -1.41 + 0.2 - 0.1. A direct comparison between the ALFALFA H I line detections and an optical search of the Leo I region proves the advantage of the ALFALFA strategy in finding low-mass, gas-rich dwarfs. These results suggest the existence of a significant population of low surface brightness, gas-rich, yet still very low H I mass galaxies, and may reflect the same type of morphological segregation as is seen in the Local Group. While the low-mass end slope of the Leo I H I mass function is steeper than that determined for luminosity functions of the group, the slope still falls short of the values predicted by simulations of structure formation in the lambda cold dark matter paradigm.

  20. El receptor de estrógenos alfa como mediador del efecto proliferativo de progestágenos en cáncer de mama

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    Sebastián Giulianelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En carcinomas mamarios murinos (C4-HD y en células de cáncer de mama humano (T47D observamos que el progestágeno sintético, acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MPA, induce la activación del receptor de estrógenos alfa (REa y su asociación nuclear con el receptor de progesterona (RP. En este trabajo postulamos que dicha interacción a nivel genómico sería fundamental para desarrollar respuestas proliferativas mediadas por progestágenos. Demostramos que el antiestrógeno fulvestrant (FUL, ICI182.780 indujo la regresión completa de tumores C4-HD creciendo con MPA. El progestágeno indujo la expresión temprana de CCND1 y MYC en células T47D y este efecto fue revertido al bloquear el REa. En células tratadas con MPA utilizamos ensayos de inmunoprecipitación de la cromatina (ChIP y corroboramos la colocalización nuclear de RP/REa en los mismos sitios de los promotores de CCND1 y MYC. El ICI no afectó la unión de RP a ambas secuencias regulatorias, pero sí inhibió la unión del REa. Confirmamos la interacción nuclear entre REa y RP en muestras de cáncer de mama humano. Los resultados demuestran que la presencia del REa, interactuando con el RP, en promotores de CCND1 y MYC es fundamental para la transcripción génica y la proliferación celular inducida por el progestágeno.

  1. Efeitos do alfa-tocoferol nas lesões de isquemia-reperfusão induzidas em pata direita de ratos

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    Bitu-Moreno José

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recentes estudos demonstraram que os radicais livres de oxigênio parecem desempenhar papel importante nas lesões de isquemia-reperfusão. O alfa-tocoferol(AT age in vivo como um anti-oxidante. Nosso objetivo foi o de verificar se o AT atenuava as lesões de isquemia-reperfusão em pata direita de ratos. Os animais, randomizados, foram divididos nos seguintes grupos(G: G1-controle sem isquemia; G2 e G3 - quatro horas isquemia e duas reperfusão. Os animais do G2 foram tratados com salina e os do G3 com AT, 50mg/kg. Como parâmetros examinamos as alterações de volume e circunferência do pé direito ao longo do experimento, assim como a captação de 99mTc-pirofosfato e a microscopia eletrônica de transmissão do músculo soleus direito. Os aumentos de volume e circunferência do pé dos animais do G2 foram estatisticamente maiores quando comparados com o G1. As medidas do G3 não diferiram do G1. A captação de 99mTc-pirofosfato foi bem aumentada nos G2 e G3, quando comparados ao G1, porém sem diferenças entre os grupos isquêmicos. As lesões ao MET foram menos intensas em três animais do G3, quando comparados ao G2. Conclusão: O tratamento com AT diminuiu a formação do edema mas só protegeu parcialmente as células musculares contra as lesões de isquemia-reperfusão.

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and the cytokine network in psoriasis Fator de necrose tumoral-alfa e a rede de citocinas na psoriase

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    Arles Martins Brotas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available New molecular methods of research have greatly expanded the knowledge about the role of cytokines in several diseases, including psoriasis. The work orchestrated by these peptides is essential for the communication between resident inflammatory cells (keratinocytes and endothelial cells and infiltrating cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, Langerhans cells. This is a complex network due to redundancy, synergism and, sometimes, the antagonism of cytokines, which prevents full understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. Currently, it seems premature to try to establish a main actor, but TNFalpha participates in all stages of psoriatic plaque development, as we shall see.A introdução de novos métodos moleculares de investigação ampliou muito o conhecimento sobre o papel das citocinas em diversas doenças, entre elas a psoríase. O trabalho orquestrado desses polipeptídeos é fundamental na comunicação entre as células inflamatórias residentes (queratinócitos e células endoteliais e infiltrantes (neutrófilos, linfócitos, células de Langerhans. Trata-se de uma rede complexa devido à redundância, ao sinergismo e, por vezes, ao antagonismo das citocinas, o que dificulta a compreensão da fisiopatogenia da doença a partir de um mecanismo linear. No momento atual, parece precoce tentar estabelecer um regente, mas o TNF-alfa se destaca em todos os passos do desenvolvimento da placa psoriásica, como veremos a seguir.

  3. Effect of treatment with Omega-3 fatty acids on C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-alfa in hemodialysis patients

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    Hamid Tayyebi-Khosroshahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP, a strong independent risk marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD, and tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α, a known pro-inflammatory cytokine, are elevated and have damaging effects in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF. Omega-3 fatty acids play an important modulatory role in inflammatory responses. The aim of this study is to review the alterations in serum levels of TNF-α, CRP and other parameters caused by omega-3 supplementation in dialysis patients. The clinical trial was performed in 37 patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis in hemodialysis centers of three university hospitals in Tabriz. Blood samples were obtained from the study patients for hemoglobin, albumin, ferritin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, TNF-α and high specific-CRP (hs-CRP measurement. The patients received 3 g omega-3 per day for 2 months. The side-effects noticed were nausea, diarrhea and dyspepsia and undesired drug smell. The difference noted in hemoglobin, albumin, ferritin, CRP, triglyceride, total, LDL and HDL-cholesterol before and after supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. However, the use of omega-3 decreased the serum levels of TNF-α significantly. We conclude that the use of 3 g of omega-3 per day caused significant decrease in serum levels of TNF-α in the dialysis population, and its use is recommended in such patients.

  4. Avaliação do perfil hematológico de portadores de talassemia alfa provenientes das regiões Sudeste e Nordeste do Brasil Evaluation of alpha thalassemia carriers hematologic profile from Southeast and Northeast Brazilian regions

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    Gislane L. V. Oliveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A talassemia alfa é uma anemia hereditária resultante da síntese deficiente de cadeias alfa, provocando um excesso relativo de cadeias beta, que vão formar tetrâmeros identificados como hemoglobina H (Hb H no indivíduo adulto. Para direcionar o diagnóstico laboratorial desta anemia, a análise dos índices eritrocitários, a eletroforese em acetato de celulose em pH neutro e a pesquisa de corpos de inclusão de Hb H são essenciais. O objetivo deste estudo foi traçar o perfil hematológico, por meio dos índices eritrocitários, dos portadores de talassemia alfa das regiões Sudeste e Nordeste do Brasil. Foram analisadas 1.010 amostras de sangue periférico após consentimento informado. Os índices eritrocitários como contagem de glóbulos vermelhos (RBC, dosagem de hemoglobina (HGB, hematócrito (HCT, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM foram fornecidos por aparelhos automatizados com controle de qualidade interno e externo. Para o diagnóstico de talassemia alfa foram utilizados testes de triagem e complementares para talassemias, como eletroforese em pH neutro e pesquisa de corpos de inclusão de Hb H com coloração de azul cresil brilhante. Comparando-se os valores hematológicos observados nos dois grupos, notou-se que, em ambas as regiões, os índices com valores discrepantes foram os níveis de HGB e HCT, sendo a maior freqüência de variação observada entre as mulheres. Nos portadores do fenótipo alfa talassêmico da região Nordeste, todos os índices eritrocitários estavam abaixo dos valores de normalidade. Estes resultados evidenciam a necessidade de melhor avaliação do perfil hematológico de talassemia alfa em diferentes regiões, considerando-se os interferentes ambientais para um diagnóstico mais preciso.Alpha thalassemia is a hereditary anaemia resulting from deficient synthesis of the alpha chains, causing a relative

  5. Concentração de alfa-tocoferol no soro e colostro materno de adolescentes e adultas Levels of alpha-tocopherol in maternal serum and colostrum of adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dimenstein

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a concentração de alfa-tocoferol no soro e colostro materno de puérperas adolescentes e adultas e verificar a adequação nutricional de vitamina E do colostro oferecido ao lactente. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 72 puérperas, sendo 25 adolescentes e 47 adultas. Foram coletados 5 mL de sangue e 2 mL de colostro em condição de jejum para análise dos níveis de alfa-tocoferol. As amostras foram analisadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. A adequação nutricional do colostro para a vitamina E foi calculada pelo produto do volume estimado de ingestão de leite com a concentração de alfa-tocoferol no colostro e por comparação direta desse produto com o valor de referência para ingestão do nutriente (4 mg/dia. RESULTADOS: os níveis de alfa-tocoferol no soro de puérperas adolescentes e adultas foram, respectivamente, 30,8±9,8 e 34,1±9,5 µmol/L (média±DP. No colostro, as adolescentes apresentaram concentração de alfa-tocoferol de 32,9±15,8 µmol/L e as adultas de 30,4 ± 18,0 µmol/L, não sendo encontrada diferença significativa entre as concentrações séricas, assim como no colostro dos grupos estudados. CONCLUSÕES: Tanto as puérperas adolescentes quanto as adultas apresentaram um estado nutricional satisfatório de vitamina E refletido no colostro cujos valores foram capazes de suprir o requerimento nutricional do lactente, sugerindo que a idade materna não influencia os níveis de alfa-tocoferol do colostro humano.PURPOSE: to assess the alpha-tocopherol concentration in the serum and colostrum of adolescent and adult mothers and to determine the nutritional adequacy of vitamin E in the colostrum offered to infants. METHODS: in total, 72 pregnant women participated in the study, 25 adolescents and 47 adults. An amount of 5 mL of blood and 2 mL of colostrum were collected under fasting conditions for the analysis of alpha-tocopherol levels. The samples were analyzed by means of high

  6. Artvin, Rize ve Trabzon’daki Doğal Kaynak Sularında Toplam Alfa, Toplam Beta Aktivite Değerlerinin Belirlenmesi ve Jeoistatistiksel Olarak Modellenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Kobya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Trabzon, Rize ve Artvin yaklaşık 18000km2 alan üzerine kurulmuş ve yaklaşık 2 milyon insanın yaşadığı Türkiye’nin en kuzey doğusunda bulunan üç ildir. Bu üç ilde toplam 20 tane içme suyu kaynağından örnekler alındı ve bunların toplam alfa, toplam beta aktivite değerleri Berthold LB770 marka alfa, beta sayım cihazı kullanılarak belirlendi. Toplam alfa aktivite değerleri 1.7-114.2 Bq/L ve toplam beta aktivite değerleri ise 2.9-90.8 Bq/L aralıklarında ölçüldü. Bulunan bu değerler dünya sağlık örgütü (WHO’nün limit değerleri ve yapılmış diğer benzer çalışmalarla karşılaştırıldı. Elde edilen veriler için klasik istatistik hesaplamalar yapıldı. Ayrıca jeoistatistik analiz yöntemi kullanılarak eş-doz eğrileri oluşturuldu ve harita üzerinde gösterilerek bölge için bir risk haritası oluşturuldu.

  7. Análise de crédito por meio de modelos de previsão de insolvência: um estudo de caso na Empresa Cerâmica Alfa S.A. = Credit analysis through models for the forcasting of insolvency of the company Cerâmica Alfa S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bez Birolo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar os benefícios da utilização de modelos de previsão de insolvência para a análise de crédito em uma empresa do setor cerâmico. É descritivo, de caráter quantitativo, realizado por meio de um estudo de caso na empresa Cerâmica ALFA S.A. Para execução da pesquisa selecionou-se intencionalmente seis clientes, de acordo com os seguintes dados: a informações creditícias disponíveis no sistema gerencial de crédito/cobrança e b demonstrações contábeis divulgadas nos sites dos respectivos clientes. Os resultados apontam que os modelos de Elizabetsky e Kanitz demonstram fragilidades em identificar a situação financeira dos clientes. O modelo de previsão de insolvência desenvolvido por Matias apresenta melhor desempenho, em relação aos anteriores, para a análise de crédito. Conclui-se que é vantajoso utilizar o modelo de Matias para a análise de crédito, pois ele é adequado às necessidades da empresa e serve como um instrumento para auxílio na concessão de crédito e tomada de decisão. The objective of this article is to assess the benefits of using insolvency forecasting models for the credit analysis of a company in the ceramic sector. This study is descriptive of a quantitative nature through a case study in Cerâmica ALFA S.A. Six clients with the following data were intentionally selected for the execution of the research: a credit information available in the credit/collection management system and b account statements divulged in the sites of the respective clients. The results show that the Elizabetsky and Kanitz models demonstrated fragility in identifying the financial situation of the clients. The insolvency forecasting model developed by Matias showed better performance in relation to the previous ones for credit analysis. It was concludrd that it is advantageous to use the Matias model for credit analysis, because it is suitable for the company’s requirements and serves

  8. Thalidomide with peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin in the treatment of non-responders genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C patients: proof of concept Talidomida, peginterferón alfa-2b y ribavirina en el tratamiento de pacientes no respondedores con hepatitis crónica C genotipo 1: estudio piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Pardo-Yules

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: fewer than half of patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV achieve sustained viral clearance after peginterferon alfa/ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV therapy. Aims: thalidomide posses anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties through inhibition of tumor necrosis factor and costimulatory effect on human CD8+ T cells. Methods: we started a prospective, open label trial of retreatment of very-difficult-to-treat genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C patients (CHC patients, who had failed to respond to the (Peg-IFN/RBV, with a triple therapy consisting in these same antivirals plus thalidomide 200 mg/day (the TRITAL study. Results: none of the eleven patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria and included in the trial reached complete early virological response or sustained virological response. Viral load decline after 12 weeks of triple therapy thalidomide-based retreatment did not differ from viral dynamics during the first course. The triple therapy was well tolerated and only one patient developed mild bilateral neuropathy. Conclusions: thalidomide addition to standard therapy is tolerated and did not increase the SVR rate in very-difficult-to-treat genotype 1 CHC patients. Different schedules are warranted to improve attempting retreatment of non responder CHC patients.Antecedentes: menos de la mitad de los pacientes con hepatitis C logra eliminar el virus de manera sostenida después de la terapia con peginterferón alfa y ribavirina (Peg-IFN/RBV. Objetivos: la talidomida posee propiedades antiinflamatorias e inmunomoduladoras a través de la inhibición del TNF-α y al efecto estimulador sobre las células T CD8+. Métodos: se inició un estudio prospectivo y abierto de re-tratamiento de pacientes con hepatitis crónica C genotipo 1, no respondedores al tratamiento con Peg-IFN/RBV, mediante triple terapia añadiendo a los mismos antivirales 200 mg/día de talidomida. Resultados: ninguno de los once pacientes que fueron incluidos en

  9. Single-arm, observational study of the ease of use of a redesigned pen device to deliver recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (follitropin alfa) for assisted reproductive technology treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Peter J; Lahoud, Robert; Quinn, Frank; Chidwick, Kendal; Wilkinson, Claire; Sacks, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of patients' ease of use of the redesigned, disposable, ready-to-use follitropin alfa pen during controlled ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology. This single-center, observational, open-label, single-arm study recruited infertile normo-ovulatory women (aged 18-45 years). Nurses trained patients to self-administer recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone daily using the follitropin alfa pen (300 IU, 450 IU, and 900 IU). Before treatment, patients completed Questionnaire A. Following self-administered treatment, on stimulation days 5-6 and 7-8 (within a day of receiving recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin), patients completed Questionnaire B. Nurses completed an ease-of-learning/teaching questionnaire. The primary endpoint was proportion of patients rating the pen as "easy/very easy" to use (Questionnaire B) on the final visit before recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin. Secondary endpoints included: proportion of patients rating the follitropin alfa pen as easy to learn, use, prepare, deliver, and dispose of (Questionnaires A and B). Proportions (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were provided for primary and secondary endpoints. Adverse events were reported descriptively. Eighty-six patients received recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone. Of the 72 patients who had completed the overall assessment questions, 66 (91.7%; 95% CI =82.7%-96.9%) found the pen "easy" to use. Also, 70/86 (81.4%) patients "strongly agreed/agreed" that, overall, it was easy to learn how to use the pen; 72/86 (83.7%) "strongly agreed/agreed" that easily understandable, verbal information was provided; and 70/86 (81.4%) were confident about using the pen correctly. In total, 24/26 nurses (92.3%; 95% CI =74.9%-99.1%) rated the pen as easy to use. Clinical pregnancy rate/patient/cycle/embryo transfer was 37%. Twenty-six ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome events were reported (none severe; 16 patients [19%]); of these, 13 occurred at embryo

  10. Expressão local do fator de necrose tumoral alfa na ruptura prematura de membranas Local expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on premature rupture of membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Valquíria Roveran; Maria Antonieta Longo Galvão Silva; Lucia Yamano; Lilian Paiva Rodrigues; Mônica Lopez Vasquez; Sebastião Piato

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: comparar a expressão do fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α) em membranas ovulares com ruptura prematura (RPM) e com ruptura oportuna das mesmas; verificar a associação entre a expressão do TNF-α em membranas ovulares e o grau de corioamnionite das mesmas e correlacionar a expressão do TNF-α e o tempo de ruptura das membranas. MÉTODOS: foram analisadas as membranas ovulares de 31 parturientes com RPM, com idade gestacional acima de 34 semanas, e de 14 parturientes co...

  11. Alfa-amilase em frangos de corte: efeitos do balanço eletrolítico e do nível protéico da dieta

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro,Marcela Piedade; Moraes,George Henrique Kling de; Fanchiotti,Flavia Escapini; Oliveira,Maria Goreti de Almeida; Rodrigues,Ana Cláudia Peres; Albino,Luiz Fernando Teixeira; Guimarães,Valéria Monteze; Vieites,Flávio Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Um experimento foi conduzido com pintos de corte macho para o estudo dos efeitos dos níveis de 20 e 23% de PB combinados com 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mEq/kg de balanço dietético eletrolítico (BDE) sobre a atividade da alfa-amilase pancreática de frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado. Dietas e água foram fornecidas ad libitum. Aos 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias, três aves de cada tratamento foram sacrificadas por deslocamento cervical para remoç...

  12. Experiencia con las reacciones adversas asociadas con el interferón alfa 2b recombinante en hematología Experience with the adverse reactions associated with recombinant alpha 2b interferon in hematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalmis Brito Pascual

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El interferón alfa 2b es una citoquina con actividad antiviral, antiproliferativa e inmunomoduladora que ha demostrado ser eficaz para el tratamiento de enfermedades virales y neoplásicas. El presente trabajo se realizó con el propósito de describir la frecuencia de las reacciones adversas asociada con la administración de Heberon alfa R (interferón alfa 2b recombinante en enfermedades hematológicas. Se analizaron las características de base de los pacientes, así como la frecuencia, intensidad y relación de causalidad de los eventos reportados. Los eventos adversos más frecuentes fueron las manifestaciones del síndrome gripal que incluyó fiebre, escalofrío, astenia, mialgias, anorexia y cefalea. Estas manifestaciones son transitorias y responden al tratamiento con antiinflamatorios no esteroideos. La mayoría de los eventos fueron de intensidad leve a moderada y no requirieron la suspensión del tratamiento. En conclusión, el Heberon alfa R es un fármaco relativamente seguro para el tratamiento de trastornos hematológicosAlpha 2b interferon is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative and immunomodulator activity that has proved to be efficient for the treatment of viral and neoplastic diseases, This paper is aimed at describing the frequency of adverse reactions associated with the administration of alpha R Heberon (recombinant alpha 2b interferon in hematological diseases. The basic characteristics of the patients, as well as the frequency, intensity and causality relation of the reported events were analyzed. The most common adverse effects were the manifestations of the gripal syndrome that included fever, chills, astenia, myalgia, anorexia and headache. These manifestations are transitory and respond to the treatment with non-steroideal antiinflammatory drugs. Most of the events were from mild to moderate intensity and did not require the suspension of the treatment. To conclude, alpha R Heberon is a relatively safe drug

  13. Comparação entre a concentração sérica de alfa-tocoferol de puérperas assistidas em maternidades públicas e privadas no Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Gurgel,Cristiane Santos Sânzio; Lira,Larissa Queiroz de; Azevedo,Gabrielle Mahara; Costa,Priscila Nunes; Araújo,Janaina Oliveira; Dimenstein,Roberto

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Comparar a concentração de alfa-tocoferol no soro entre puérperas atendidas em maternidades das redes pública e privada da cidade de Natal (RN), Brasil.MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 209 puérperas, sendo 96 mulheres provenientes da rede privada e 113, da rede pública, entre 24 e 48 horas pós-parto. Foram incluídas no estudo parturientes com idade a partir de 12 anos, sem patologias associadas à gestação, que tiveram concepto único sem má-formação. Mulheres descompensadas clinicamen...

  14. Influência do desenvolvimento etário e da suplementação com vitamina E (acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol) no metabolismo oxidativo dos neutrófilos de bovinos da raça Holandesa (Bos taurus)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Joselito Nunes; Peixoto, Ana Paula Cardoso; Kohayagawa, Aguemi; Ferreira, Anna Fernanda Machado Sales da Cruz; Cassetari, Maria Luiza; Crocci, Adalberto José

    2004-01-01

    p.293-298 O presente trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a influência do desenvolvimento etário e da suplementação com acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol sobre o metabolismo oxidativo de neutrófilos, em bovinos da raça holandesa, no período do nascimento até os 150 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 20 bezerros divididos em dois grupos de dez animais. Os animais do grupo Tratamento receberam 2000UI de acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol, por via intramuscular, ao nascimento, aos 15, 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias ...

  15. Efeito da idade e da suplementação oral com o acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol sobre os níveis séricos de vitamina E e sobre o metabolismo oxidativo dos neutrófilos em bezerros

    OpenAIRE

    J. N. Costa; M. C. Reis; A. P. C. Peixoto; A. F. M. S. C. Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da idade e da suplementação oral com acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol sobre os níveis séricos de vitamina E e sobre o metabolismo oxidativo dos neutrófilos de bezerros da raça Jersey do nascimento aos 45 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 14 bezerros divididos em dois grupos de sete animais cada. O grupo tratamento recebeu 2g de acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol, por via oral, diariamente, até os 45 dias de vida e o controle não recebeu nenhum tipo de supl...

  16. The effectiveness of retreatment with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C genotype 2 and 3: a prospective cohort study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artico Simara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 50% of patients infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV do not respond to treatment with conventional interferon (IFN combined with ribavirin (RBV. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of retreatment with peginterferon alfa-2a or 2b (PEG-IFN 2a or 2b concomitantly with RBV in patients with HCV genotype 2 and 3, which were non-responders or relapsers to initial treatment with IFN / RBV and to identify possible predictors of sustained virological response (SVR. Methods From September 2003 to March 2009 a cohort of 216 patients who had previously failed therapy with a regimen of standard interferon and ribavirin, were followed in a specialized service implemented in the Brazilian Unified Health System, Rio Grande do Sul. All patients were retreated with PEG-IFN 2a or 2b per week, associated with RBV, through oral route, with doses determined according to weight (1,000 mg if weight ≤ 75 Kg and 1,250 mg if ≥ 75 Kg per day for 48 weeks. The HCV-RNA was tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Virological Response (VR within 48 weeks and SVR in the 72 weeks was considered for evaluation of treatment efficacy. Analyses were performed in patients who received at least one dose of PEG-IFN. Results The SVR rate for non-responders to previous treatment was 34.4% and for relapsers was 50% (p = 0.031. As predictive factors that contribute to improve SVR, were identified the age (p = 0.005, to be relapsers to previous treatment (p = 0.023 and present liver biopsy examination Metavir F0-F2 (p = 0.004. In assessing the safety profile, 51 patients (23.6% discontinued treatment prematurely. Conclusions This alternative retreatment for patients who have failed prior therapies for anti-HCV, has demonstrated promising SVR rate, provided that it includes a careful selection of patients with predictors of response and adverse events monitored.

  17. The effectiveness of retreatment with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C genotype 2 and 3: a prospective cohort study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Simara; Amaral, Karine Medeiros; Gonçalves, Candice Beatriz Treter; Picon, Paulo Dornelles

    2012-12-27

    More than 50% of patients infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) do not respond to treatment with conventional interferon (IFN) combined with ribavirin (RBV). The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of retreatment with peginterferon alfa-2a or 2b (PEG-IFN 2a or 2b) concomitantly with RBV in patients with HCV genotype 2 and 3, which were non-responders or relapsers to initial treatment with IFN / RBV and to identify possible predictors of sustained virological response (SVR). From September 2003 to March 2009 a cohort of 216 patients who had previously failed therapy with a regimen of standard interferon and ribavirin, were followed in a specialized service implemented in the Brazilian Unified Health System, Rio Grande do Sul. All patients were retreated with PEG-IFN 2a or 2b per week, associated with RBV, through oral route, with doses determined according to weight (1,000 mg if weight ≤ 75 Kg and 1,250 mg if ≥ 75 Kg) per day for 48 weeks. The HCV-RNA was tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Virological Response (VR) within 48 weeks and SVR in the 72 weeks was considered for evaluation of treatment efficacy. Analyses were performed in patients who received at least one dose of PEG-IFN. The SVR rate for non-responders to previous treatment was 34.4% and for relapsers was 50% (p = 0.031). As predictive factors that contribute to improve SVR, were identified the age (p = 0.005), to be relapsers to previous treatment (p = 0.023) and present liver biopsy examination Metavir F0-F2 (p = 0.004). In assessing the safety profile, 51 patients (23.6%) discontinued treatment prematurely. This alternative retreatment for patients who have failed prior therapies for anti-HCV, has demonstrated promising SVR rate, provided that it includes a careful selection of patients with predictors of response and adverse events monitored.

  18. Avaliação dos níveis séricos de 17-alfa-OH progesterona e androstenediona durante o ciclo estral em marrãs (Sus Scrofa Domestica - Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Hélio Toniollo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foram utilizadas 21 fêmeas suínas, virgens, sexualmente aptas, criadas e mantidas sob condições industriais, para observação dos perfis hormonais séricos de 17-alfa-OH progesterona e androstenediona, durante o ciclo estral. As colheitas de sangue foram efetuadas sempre no mesmo intervalo, entre 8 e 10 horas. Cada animal foi submetido a 14 punções venosas, distribuídas nos dias zero, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22 e 23 do ciclo estral. Considerou-se o dia zero como o primeiro dia da fase estral, e o 23º dia como o primeiro do estro subseqüente. Os ensaios para dosagens hormonais foram executados utilizando-se a técnica de radioimunoensaio (RIE em fase sólida e para isso foi empregado conjunto de reagentes comerciais (Coat-A-Count®. Para o hormônio 17-alfa-OH progesterona, foram encontrados valores médios que variaram entre 0,18 e 2,7 ng/ml e para o hormônio androstenediona esses valores oscilaram entre 0,08 e 0,24 ng/ml.

  19. DAHANCA 10 – Effect of darbepoetin alfa and radiotherapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. A multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase 3 trial by the Danish head and neck cancer group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Jens; Hoff, Camilla Molich; Hansen, Hanne Sand

    2018-01-01

    cumulative loco-regional failure rate of 47% vs. 34%, Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.53 [1.16–2.02], for the darbepoetin alfa vs. control arm, respectively. This was also seen for the endpoints of event-free survival (HR: 1.36 [1.09–1.69]), disease-specific death (HR: 1.43 [1.08–1.90]), and overall survival (HR: 1.......30 [1.02–1.64]). There was no enhanced risk of cardio-vascular events observed in the experimental arm or any significant differences in acute or late radiation related morbidity. All univariate analyses were confirmed in a multivariate setting. Conclusion: Correction of the Hb level with darbepoetin...... distributed according to the stratification parameters (gender, T and N staging, tumor site). Treatment with darbepoetin alfa increased the Hb level to the planned value in 81% of the patients. The compliance was good without excess serious adverse events. The results showed a poorer outcome with a 5-year...

  20. Determination of the total cross section in proton-proton collisions at the LHC at √(s) = 8 from elastic scattering using the ALFA sub-detector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, Christian; Stenzel, Hasko; Dueren, Michael [2. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The ALFA (Absolute Luminosity for ATLAS) Roman Pot detector system is part of the forward instrumentation of ATLAS located about 240 m away from the interaction point in the LHC tunnel in both directions. ALFA consists of a scintillating fibre tracker housed in vertical Roman Pots which enables the measurement of elastic proton-proton scattering at small scattering angles. In 2012 data were recorded at a centre-of-mass energy of √(s) = 8 TeV during a fill with special beam optics of the LHC with β* = 90 m and parallel-to-point focusing. The four-momentum transfer t is measured for elastically scattered protons and used to extract the differential elastic cross section. In this talk a preliminary determination of the total cross section and of the slope of the elastic cross section at small vertical stroke t vertical stroke obtained from a fit to the differential cross section using the optical theorem is reported. In addition a second run at √(s) = 8 TeV with a special beam optics of β* = 1 km, providing access to the Coulomb-nuclear interference region, is being analysed. Preliminary analysis results from this run are presented as well.

  1. Recombinant follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa in fertility treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gibreel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Gibreel1, Siladitya Bhattacharya21School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Aberdeen; 2Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, Aberdeen, UKAbstract: Recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as follitropin alpha and lutropin alpha, are manufactured by genetic engineering techniques which ensure high quality and batch to batch consistency. Follitropin alpha can be used for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in assisted reproduction, ovulation induction for WHO group I and II anovulatory infertility and in men with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HH or idiopathic oligo-asthenospermia. Current evidence suggests superiority of urinary human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG over follitropin alpha in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF in terms of live birth rate per couple. Addition of lutropin to follitropin alpha in an unselected IVF population does not appear to confer any benefit; however, it may have a role in ovulation induction in women with hypothalamic hypogonadism. Urinary HMG preparations (especially currently available highly purified preparations are more cost effective than rFSH in terms of cost per ongoing pregnancy. However, women using rFSH injection pen devices have higher levels of satisfaction as compared to those using urinary HMG by means of conventional syringes.Keywords: infertility, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, follitropin alpha, lutropin alpha, in-vitro fertilization, urinary gonadotrophins

  2. Deconstructing a famous Alfa Romeo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bootsma, H.; Bootsma, J.; Van Dijk, T.

    2008-01-01

    So is this the famous racing car Mussolini liked to show off, the one driven by Achille Varzi and used by Clemar Bucci to impress Evita Perón? Is just has to be, if materials research conducted by TU Delft is anything to go by. It¿s just that the chassis number doesn¿t match. ¿That Bucci guy has

  3. Methotrexate, Doxorubicin, and Cisplatin (MAP) Plus Maintenance Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2b Versus MAP Alone in Patients With Resectable High-Grade Osteosarcoma and Good Histologic Response to Preoperative MAP: First Results of the EURAMOS-1 Good Response Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielack, Stefan S.; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Whelan, Jeremy S.; Marina, Neyssa; Jovic, Gordana; Hook, Jane M.; Krailo, Mark D.; Gebhardt, Mark; Pápai, Zsuzsanna; Meyer, James; Nadel, Helen; Randall, R. Lor; Deffenbaugh, Claudia; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Brennan, Bernadette; Letson, G. Douglas; Teot, Lisa A.; Goorin, Allen; Baumhoer, Daniel; Kager, Leo; Werner, Mathias; Lau, Ching C.; Sundby Hall, Kirsten; Gelderblom, Hans; Meyers, Paul; Gorlick, Richard; Windhager, Reinhard; Helmke, Knut; Eriksson, Mikael; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Schomberg, Paula; Tunn, Per-Ulf; Kühne, Thomas; Jürgens, Heribert; van den Berg, Henk; Böhling, Tom; Picton, Susan; Renard, Marleen; Reichardt, Peter; Gerss, Joachim; Butterfass-Bahloul, Trude; Morris, Carol; Hogendoorn, Pancras C. W.; Seddon, Beatrice; Calaminus, Gabriele; Michelagnoli, Maria; Dhooge, Catharina; Sydes, Matthew R.; Bernstein, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose EURAMOS-1, an international randomized controlled trial, investigated maintenance therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b (IFN-alpha-2b) in patients whose osteosarcoma showed good histologic response (good response) to induction chemotherapy. Patients and Methods At diagnosis, patients age

  4. Frutificação e crescimento de frutos em abóbora híbrida 'Tetsukabuto' tratada com alfa-naftalenoacetato de sódio Fruit set and fruit growth of 'Tetsukabuto' squash treated with the sodium salt of alfa-naphthaleneacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro V.T. do Amarante

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available A abertura de flores femininas na abóbora híbrida 'Tetsukabuto' concentra-se num período de três a quatro semanas. Este curto período de florescimento indica que uma polinização deficiente pode ocasionar grande comprometimento da produção de frutos. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de concentrações do fitorregulador alfa-naftalenoacetato de sódio (ANA-Na, pulverizado em flores abertas femininas, na frutificação e crescimento de frutos da abóbora 'Tetsukabuto'. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, na safra 1992/1993, seguindo o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. A parcela foi constituída de cinco covas de 'Tetsukabuto' e uma da polinizadora Cucurbita maxima, em espaçamento de 3 x 1 m, com duas plantas/cova. Os tratamentos utilizados foram testemunha (polinização natural e 150, 300, 450, 600 e 750 mg·L-1 de ANA-Na. Nos tratamentos com ANA-Na, evitou-se a polinização natural isolando-se as flores com sacos de papel. Avaliou-se percentagem de frutificação, peso, comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos e peso, espessura, rendimento e sólidos totais da polpa. Apenas a dose de 750 mg·L-1 do hormônio reduziu a percentagem de frutificação. Os frutos obtidos por tratamento com ANA-Na apresentaram crescimento similar ao dos frutos obtidos por polinização.Anthesis of female flowers of 'Tetsukabuto' squash occurs within three to four weeks. A deficient pollination during this short flowering period may reduce the yield. The sodium salt of alfa-naphthaleneacetic acid (Na-NAA can be used to improve fruit set when pollination is deficient. This work was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations of Na-NAA, sprayed in open female flowers on fruit set and fruit growth of 'Tetsukabuto' squash. The experiment was carried out in 1992-93, in South Brazil, in a randomized block design with three replicates. The plots had a proportion of five plants of

  5. PERCEPCIÓN DEL IMPACTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE MECANISMOS DE ASEGURAMIENTO DE LA CALIDAD EN LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR EN COSTA RICA: PROYECTO ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA (PERCEIVED IMPACT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE MECHANISMS ON COSTA-RICAN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD-DE-COSTA-RICA PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Guido, Elsiana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo se presentan las acciones realizadas dentro del Proyecto Alfa Nro. DCl-ALA 2008/42: Aseguramiento de la calidad: políticas públicas y gestión universitaria financiado con fondos de la Unión Europea y coordinado, de manera general, por el Centro Interuniversitario de Desarrollo, CINDA. Participan 16 universidades latinoamericanas y 7 universidades europeas, y el objetivo general del proyecto es mejorar la gestión de la calidad de la Educación Superior, tanto a nivel de los sistemas nacionales como de las instituciones de Educación Superior, y contribuir con la generación de conocimiento y confianzas mutuas acerca de la calidad de la Educación Superior entre los países latinoamericanos y europeos. Como parte de las actividades desarrolladas se llevaron a cabo estudios en 7 países (5 de Latinoamérica y 2 de Europa para evaluar el impacto de los procesos de aseguramiento de la calidad implementados en las universidades. En Costa Rica, el proyecto ha sido coordinado y ejecutado por la Universidad de Costa Rica desde el año 2009 hasta la fecha. El estudio se realizó en dos universidades estatales y dos privadas, durante el período comprendido entre octubre de 2010 y mayo de 2011, se realizaron 26 entrevistas presenciales y 8 sesiones de grupo a las diferentes poblaciones definidas en el estudio, además, se realizaron un total de 652 encuestas a estudiantes activos y a personas egresadas. Los principales resultados obtenidos en Costa Rica se resumen en este artículo, de acuerdo con los niveles y dimensiones de calidad que fueron definidos en el marco referencial del proyecto.Abstract: The article presents actions carried out in Costa Rica, in the frame of the project Alfa Nro. DCl-ALA 2008/42: Quality assurance: public policies and management in universities. This project is funded by the European Commission and its general coordination is in charge of the Inter-university Center for Development (CINDA, in

  6. Efeito da suplementação com vitamina E sobre a concentração de alfa-tocoferol no colostro humano Effect of vitamin E supplementation on alpha-tocopherol levels in human colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dimenstein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a concentração de alfa-tocoferol no colostro humano em condições de suplementação com cápsulas de vitamina A acrescidas de vitamina E sintética. MÉTODOS: Foram recrutadas para o estudo 30 parturientes saudáveis atendidas em uma maternidade pública. Após jejum noturno, foram coletadas amostras de sangue e de colostro (2 mL das parturientes. Após a primeira coleta, as mesmas receberam suplemento na forma de uma cápsula de palmitato de retinila (200000 UI ou 60 mg acrescido de vitamina E sintética (49,4 mg de dl-alfa-tocoferol. Após 24 horas da suplementação, foi realizada nova coleta de 2 mL de colostro, também em jejum. RESULTADOS: A concentração sérica de alfa-tocoferol foi de 1 042,9 ± 319,0 μg/dL. Os teores de alfa-tocoferol no colostro antes da suplementação foram de 1155,4 ± 811,0 μg/dL, vs. 1396,3 ± 862,2 μg/dL 24 horas depois da suplementação (P > 0,05. Foi encontrada correlação entre o alfa-tocoferol do colostro na condição de jejum antes da suplementação e 24 horas após a suplementação (P = 0,001; r = 0,58, mas não entre soro e o colostro em nenhuma das condições acima citadas. CONCLUSÕES: Não houve aumento na concentração de alfa-tocoferol do colostro 24 horas após a suplementação. Isso indica que não é vantajoso suplementar a mãe com vitamina E sintética. Entretanto, os resultados também sugerem que, se o estado nutricional prévio à suplementação estiver adequado, mais tocoferol será encontrado no colostro após a suplementação. Novos estudos devem ser realizados para investigar o efeito da suplementação com a forma natural do alfa-tocoferol.OBJECTIVE: To assess the levels of alpha-tocopherol in human colostrum following supplementation with capsules containing vitamin A plus synthetic vitamin E. METHODS: Thirty healthy women about to give birth were recruited from a public maternity hospital. After overnight fasting, blood samples as well as colostrum

  7. Prediction of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome in Patients Treated with Corifollitropin alfa or rFSH in a GnRH Antagonist Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Griesinger

    Full Text Available What is the threshold for the prediction of moderate to severe or severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS based on the number of growing follicles ≥ 11 mm and/or estradiol (E2 levels?The optimal threshold of follicles ≥11 mm on the day of hCG to identify those at risk was 19 for both moderate to severe OHSS and for severe OHSS. Estradiol (E2 levels were less prognostic of OHSS than the number of follicles ≥ 11 mm.In comparison to long gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist protocols, the risk of severe OHSS is reduced by approximately 50% in a GnRH antagonist protocol for ovarian stimulation prior to in vitro fertilisation (IVF, while the two protocols provide equal chances of pregnancy per initiated cycle. Nevertheless, moderate to severe OHSS may still occur in GnRH antagonist protocols if human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is administered to trigger final oocyte maturation, especially in high responder patients. Severe OHSS following hCG trigger may occur with an incidence of 1-2% in a relatively young (aged 18 to 36 years IVF population treated in a GnRH-antagonist protocol.From the Engage, Ensure and Trust trials, in total, 2,433 women who received hCG for oocyte maturation and for whom the number of follicles ≥ 11 mm and the level of E2 on the day of hCG administration were known were included in the analyses.The threshold for OHSS prediction of moderate and severe OHSS was assessed in women treated with corifollitropin alfa or daily recombinant follicle stimulation hormone (rFSH in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH-antagonist protocol. Receiver operating characteristics curve analyses for moderate to severe OHSS and severe OHSS were performed on the combined dataset and the sensitivity and specificity for the optimal threshold of number of follicles ≥ 11 mm, E2 levels on the day of (hCG, and a combination of both, were determined.The optimal threshold of follicles ≥ 11 mm on the day of hCG to identify those at

  8. New digital ink for the obtention of innovating ceramics effects to obtain new possibilities and tendencies for the future; Este trabajo ha sido premiado con el Alfa de Oro en la Feria Internacional de Ceramica de Valencia CEVISAMA 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This technical note contains the most significant aspects of the work New digital inks for the production of innovative ceramic effects which generate new possibilities and future trends in which the Group Torrecid won the Alfa de Oro 2012 given by the Spanish Society of Ceramics and Glass. To achieve the stated objectives to work in different fields of activity for each specific ink has been necessary, comprising, among other, aspects such as the development of special frits, selecting the most suitable solvents or optimizing the compositions to ensure that the inks have appropriate behaviour in the printing process and met all the requirements of stability and quality that the ceramic industry demand. (Author)

  9. Modificación física del almidón de yuca y evaluación de la susceptibilidad a la hidrólisis enzimática por una alfa amilasa

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Jenny; López, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Almidón de yuca comercial (variedad MTAI 8) se sometió a modificación física por sinéresis, extrusión, gelatinización y secado por rodillos. Al almidón nativo y a los almidones modificados se les determinó su morfología, cristalinidad, distribución molecular y susceptibilidad a la hidrólisis enzimática con una alfa amilasa porcina pancreática. En los almidones modificados físicamente se incrementó el grado de hidrólisis, en comparación con el almidón nativo. Sin embargo no se observaron difer...

  10. Comportamiento de glicinina, beta-conglicinina y alfa-amilasa en semillas de soja deterioradas y no deterioradas Glycinin, beta-conglycinin and alpha-amylase behaviour in artificially deteriorated and not deteriorated soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rita Salinas

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el comportamiento de glicinina y beta-conglicinina y la actividad de alfa-amilasa en semillas deterioradas y no deterioradas de 10 cultivares de soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.]. Las semillas se sometieron a dos tratamientos: deterioradas por envejecimiento acelerado y no deterioradas. Se determinó la presencia de las proteínas de reserva a partir de semillas con 0, 3 y 8 días de germinadas por electroforesis en geles de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE. La actividad de la alfa-amilasa se determinó bioquímicamente en semillas con 0, 3, 8 y 12 días de germinadas. No hubo diferencias en la presencia de bandas de glicinina y beta-conglicinina en semillas no deterioradas hasta los 8 días de germinadas. Las semillas deterioradas se comportaron en forma similar a las no deterioradas. La actividad de la alfa-amilasa aumentó en semillas germinadas hasta 8 días y disminuyó a los 12 días. En semillas deterioradas la actividad enzimática disminuyó con respecto a las no deterioradas. El deterioro artificial no afectó la presencia de glicinina y beta-conglicinina pero alteró la actividad de la alfa-amilasa hasta los 12 días de germinación. Los cultivares estudiados mostraron comportamiento diferencial frente a la actividad de esta enzima.The objective of this research was to study the behaviour of the storage proteins glycinin and beta-conglycinin and the alpha-amylase activity in artificially deteriorated and not deteriorated soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] seeds of 10 cultivars. The seeds were submitted to two treatments: deteriorated by accelerated aging and not deteriorated seeds. The presence of glycinin and beta-conglycinin were determined in seeds with 0, 3 and 8 days of germination using polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The alpha-amylase activity was biochemically determined in seeds with 0, 3, 8 and 12 days of germination. There were no differences in the presence of glycinin and beta

  11. Reducción de la biohidrogenación del ácido linoleico y alfa linolénico por la adición de diferentes proporciones de ácido eicosapentaenoico y docosahexaenoico

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Julian; Olivera, Martha; Pabón, Martha; Carulla, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de la adición de ácidodocosahexaenoicoe (DHA) y eicosapentaenocio(EPA) a una mezcla de ácidolinoleico (ALi) y alfa-linolénico (ALn),sobre su biohidrogenación, en fluidoruminal in vitro. A 500 mg de kikuyo,se agregaron 18 μL de una mezcla deALi:ALn (75:25) (Control) o una mezclade 14,9 μL ALi:ALn (75:25) con 3,1μL de una mezcla que contenía cuatrorelaciones de DHA:EPA (100:0, 75:25,25:75, 0:100). El kikuyo sin adición deácidos grasos (AG) (Control negativo) ocon adición de ...

  12. Treatment Outcomes and Predictors of Response in Treatment-Naive HCV Patients Treated with Peginterferon Alfa/Ribavirin in Real-World Italian Clinics: Sub-Analysis from the PROPHESYS Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Antonio; Bruno, Savino; Coppola, Carmine; Mangia, Alessandra; Orlandini, Alessandra; Schmitz, Manuela; Deodato, Barbara; Puoti, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Within Europe, Italy has the highest incidence of HCV. PROPHESYS was a large, non-interventional, multinational cohort study of patients treated with peginterferon alfa-2a or -2b/ribavirin for CHC; 22.4% of patients were from Italian centers. This sub-analysis evaluates real-life practice and treatment outcomes in Italy. The PROPHESYS 2 cohort included 1604 HCV mono-infected, treatment-naive patients. All patients were prescribed peginterferon alfa/ribavirin at the discretion of the treating physician according to country-specific requirements. The majority of G1-3 patients were White/Caucasian and 48.4% had HCV G1 infection. Overall, SVR24 rates of 44.9%, 81.4% and 69.1% were achieved in G1-, 2- and 3-infected patients. In G1 patients, SVR24 rates declined with increasing FIB-4 score; this trend was not observed for G2/3-infected patients. Virologic response by Week 2 and 4 was highly predictive of SVR24 (G1: 91.7%, 84.8%; G2: 91.1%, 89.7%; G3: 92.9%, 86.7%, respectively). Absence of virologic response by Week 12 had the highest negative predictive value across genotypes. In Italian patients, a virologic response by Week 2 or 4 was highly predictive of SVR24 across genotypes. These data demonstrate the importance of monitoring on-treatment response to help guide treatment decisions. FIB-4 score correlated well with SVR24 in G1 patients.

  13. Czynnik martwicy nowotworów alfa (TNF-α jako potencjalny osoczowy marker przebiegu stwardnienia rozsianego – badania wstępne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Justyna Kacperska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stwardnienie rozsiane (łac. sclerosis multiplex, SM zaliczane jest do częstych przewlekłych chorób ośrodkowego układu nerwowego wiążących się z postępującą niepełnosprawnością. Dotyczy zwykle osób pomiędzy 20. a 40.rokiem życia, przy czym dwukrotnie częściej chorują kobiety. Mimo wieloletnich badań nadal bardzo mało wiemy na temat patogenezy tej choroby. Klinicznie można wyróżnić cztery jej postaci, do najczęściej występujących należą postać rzutowo-remisyjna, wtórnie postępująca oraz pierwotnie postępująca. Patogeneza SM jest procesem bardzo skomplikowanym, biorą w nim udział m.in.: uszkodzenie bariery krew–mózg oraz bariery krew – płyn mózgowo-rdzeniowy, wtórny przerost astrogleju, toczący się proces zapalny i szeroko pojęta neurodegeneracja. Szczególną rolę w rozwoju SM, głównie na jego wczesnym etapie, odgrywa proces zapalny, w którym biorą udział różne subpopulacje komórek zapalnych. Dotychczasowe badania wskazują na szczególny udział w tym procesie czynnika martwicy nowotworów alfa (TNF-α zaliczanego do cytokin prozapalnych. Cel badania: Celem niniejszej pracy była analiza stężenia TNF-α w osoczu pacjentów z SM w rzucie i remisji choroby oraz jego korelacja z parametrami klinicznymi przebiegu choroby w celu oceny roli TNF-α jako potencjalnego markera zaawansowania SM. Poszukując najważniejszych producentów TNF-α we krwi chorych z SM, analizowano również związek pomiędzy stężeniem TNF-α w osoczu i liczebnością leukocytów we krwi oraz ich subpopulacji. Materiał i metodyka: W badaniu wzięło udział 37 pacjentów z grup badanych (20 w grupie z rzutem i 17 w grupie z remisją choroby oraz 30 osób z grupy kontrolnej. Od pacjentów pobrano do odpowiednich probówek krew żylną w ilości 4 ml. Wirowano ją (5000 rpm, 20 min, 23ºC, a następnie ostrożnie usuwano górną warstwę z osoczem, zabezpieczano i przechowywano w temperaturze –80ºC do czasu

  14. Statistical characteristics of ionogram spread-F and satellite traces over a Chinese low-latitude station Sanya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengping; Lan, Jiaping; Luo, Weihua; Sun, Fenglou; Chen, Kun; Chang, Shanshan

    2015-11-01

    Ionosonde ionogram measurements over Sanya (18°N, 109°E; 13°N dip latitude), China during 2012-2013 are used to investigate the occurrence characteristics of spread-F (SF) and satellite traces (STs), and the possible correlation between them under the weak solar maximum of solar cycle 24. The SF and STs were manually identified from ionograms. The results show that the diurnal pattern of SF peaks at post-sunset during equinox, and at post-midnight during summer months, respectively. By classifying the SF into range spread-F (RSF) and frequency spread-F (FSF), it is found that the SF during equinox are mostly RSF associated with the equatorial F-region irregularities and can be explained by the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A statistics on the RSF and STs shows that not all RSF events were preceded by STs, and not all STs led to RSF development. The monthly mean value of the sunset ionospheric F2 layer peak height (hmF2) on RSF days is apparently higher than that on non RSF days. This result provides statistically consistent evidence that both the sunset rapid rising of the F-layer and the presence of F-region bottomside density perturbations (as indicated by STs) are important factors for the equinoctial RSF onset and development. However in summer months, the occurrences of RSF and FSF are comparable. Most FSF initiated at midnight. And there was no close relationship between the summer time FSF, F-layer height increase and STs. We suggest that the midnight FSF during summer months observed over Sanya might not be resulting from the decaying of post-sunset RSF initiated at equatorial latitude, but due to the quite localized generation of F-region irregularities.

  15. Effect of vertical plasma transport on ionospheric f2-region parameters at a low-latitude station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekola, O. S.; Akin Ojo, R.

    The variations of the F2-region even during magnetically quiet times are fairly complex owning to the effects of plasma transport. The effect of vertical electrodynamic (E x B) drifts on ionospheric F2-region parameters during the daytime sector under high solar activity and geomagnetically quiet ionosphere conditions has been investigated for Ibadan (7.4°N, 3.9°E, dip latitude 6°S). Strong correlations exist between the vertical plasma drifts and the F2-region characteristics. The results indicate that the vertical plasma motion, peak plasma concentration and the corresponding peak height; virtual height and the critical frequencies of the F2-region ionosphere are all interconnected.

  16. A comparative study on chaoticity of equatorial/low latitude ionosphere over Indian subcontinent during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Unnikrishnan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the latitudinal aspect of chaotic behaviour of ionosphere during quiet and storm periods are analyzed and compared by using GPS TEC time series measured at equatorial trough, crest and outside crest stations over Indian subcontinent, by employing the chaotic quantifiers like Lyapunov exponent (LE, correlation dimension (CD, entropy and nonlinear prediction error (NPE. It is observed that the values of LE are low for storm periods compared to those of quiet periods for all the stations considered here. The lowest value of LE is observed at the trough station, Agatti (2.38° N, Geomagnetically, and highest at crest station, Mumbai (10.09° N, Geomagnetically for both quiet and storm periods. The values of correlation dimension computed for TEC time series are in the range 2.23–2.74 for quiet period, which indicate that equatorial ionosphere may be described with three variables during quiet period. But the crest station Mumbai shows a higher value of CD (3.373 during storm time, which asserts that four variables are necessary to describe the system during storm period. The values of non linear prediction error (NPE are lower for Agatti (2.38° N, Geomagnetically and Jodhpur (18.3° N, Geomagnetically, during storm period, compared to those of quiet period, mainly because of the predominance of non linear aspects during storm periods The surrogate data test is carried out and on the basis of the significance of difference of the original data and surrogates for various aspects, the surrogate data test rejects the null hypothesis that the time series of TEC during storm and quiet times represent a linear stochastic process. It is also observed that using state space model, detrended TEC can be predicted, which reasonably reproduces the observed data. Based on the values of the above quantifiers, the features of chaotic behaviour of equatorial trough crest and outside the crest regions of ionosphere during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods are briefly discussed.

  17. Cascading effects of climate extremes on vertebrate fauna through changes to low-latitude tree flowering and fruiting phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Nathalie; Seabrook, Leonie; Maron, Martine; Law, Bradley S; Dawson, Terence P; Syktus, Jozef; McAlpine, Clive A

    2015-09-01

    Forest vertebrate fauna provide critical services, such as pollination and seed dispersal, which underpin functional and resilient ecosystems. In turn, many of these fauna are dependent on the flowering phenology of the plant species of such ecosystems. The impact of changes in climate, including climate extremes, on the interaction between these fauna and flora has not been identified or elucidated, yet influences on flowering phenology are already evident. These changes are well documented in the mid to high latitudes. However, there is emerging evidence that the flowering phenology, nectar/pollen production, and fruit production of long-lived trees in tropical and subtropical forests are also being impacted by changes in the frequency and severity of climate extremes. Here, we examine the implications of these changes for vertebrate fauna dependent on these resources. We review the literature to establish evidence for links between climate extremes and flowering phenology, elucidating the nature of relationships between different vertebrate taxa and flowering regimes. We combine this information with climate change projections to postulate about the likely impacts on nectar, pollen and fruit resource availability and the consequences for dependent vertebrate fauna. The most recent climate projections show that the frequency and intensity of climate extremes will increase during the 21st century. These changes are likely to significantly alter mass flowering and fruiting events in the tropics and subtropics, which are frequently cued by climate extremes, such as intensive rainfall events or rapid temperature shifts. We find that in these systems the abundance and duration of resource availability for vertebrate fauna is likely to fluctuate, and the time intervals between episodes of high resource availability to increase. The combined impact of these changes has the potential to result in cascading effects on ecosystems through changes in pollinator and seed dispersal ecology, and demands a focused research effort. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Non-parametric Data Analysis of Low-latitude Auroras and Naked-eye Sunspots in the Medieval Epoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekli, Mohamed Reda; Zougab, Nabil; Belabbas, Abdelmoumene; Chadou, Ilhem

    2017-04-01

    We have studied solar activity by analyzing naked-eye sunspot observations and aurorae borealis observed at latitudes below 45°. We focused on the medieval epoch by considering the non-telescopic observations of sunspots from AD 974 to 1278 and aurorae borealis from AD 965 to 1273 that are reported in several Far East historical sources, primarily in China and Korea. After setting selection rules, we analyzed the distribution of these individual events following the months of the Gregorian calendar. In December, an unusual peak is observed with data recorded in both China and Japan, but not within Korean data.

  19. Solar- Proton Event as Seen Through Singularities Detection in the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling at low Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes da Costa, Aracy; Oliveira Domingues, Margarete; Mendes, Odim; Marques Garnett Brum, Christiano

    Observations of the ionospheric cosmic noise absorption measured in Cachoeira Paulista (22.68S, 45.00W), in the region of influence of the South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly (SAMA), were compared to parameters of the Interplanetary Medium measured on board satellites (proton and electron fluxes of different energy ranges, Bz component of the IMF and the velocity of the solar wind) and geomagnetic data recorded on the ground at Vassouras (22.40° S; 46.35° W), Brasil, Kakioka (Japan) and the SYM H index, to inestigate how solar energetic particles can affect the spatio-temporal configuration of the ring current in the SAMA region. During the geomagnetically disturbed period, August 25 - September 1, 1998, the time series have been analyzed using wavelet techniques, with particular interest to the singularity detection, which emphasizes the transient behavior of each signal. The amplitude and number of coefficients were discussed in terms of time delays, and wavelet signatures characteristics of the signals. An attempt is made to interpret the likely processes that can be responsible for the variations measured in the ring current and the role of the energetic particles fluxes in the ionization processes of the lower ionosphere, particularly in the SAMA.

  20. Low-Latitude Western North Atlantic Climate Variability During the Past Millennium: Insights from Proxies and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    bounds plotted against El Junco Lake, Galapagos Islands , percent sand, an ENSO proxy (black dashed circles) [Conroy et al., 2009]. 72 24 25 26 27...Heerden, and I. P. Gill, 2005: Holocene reef development along the Northeastern St. Croix Shelf, Buck Island , US Virgin Islands . Journal of Sedimentary...predicted using a traditional, nongrowth-dependent Sr/Ca–SST calibration. 2. Study Site [5] St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (17! 450N, 64! 450W) lies in the

  1. The detection of annual hypoxia in a low latitude freshwater reservoir in Kerala, India, using the small AUV Maya

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Madhan, R.; Maurya, P.K.; Navelkar, G.S.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Prabhudesai, S.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Desa, E.; Pascoal, A.M.; Nambiar, M.

    The Idukki Reservoir at an altitude of 748 m covering an area of 53 km sup(2) is surrounded by tropical forests in the Western Ghats in the southwestern Indian state of Kerala. We used the small autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) Maya with onboard...

  2. Dawn-dusk asymmetries and sub-Alfvénic flow in the high and low latitude magnetosheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Longmore

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath using four years of Cluster orbital coverage. Moments of the plasma distribution obtained from the electron and ion instruments together with magnetic field data are used to characterise the flow and density in the magnetosheath. We note two important differences between our survey and the gasdynamic model predictions: a deceleration of the flow at higher latitudes close to the magnetopause, resulting in sub-Alfvénic flow near the cusp, and a dawn-dusk asymmetry with higher velocity magnitudes and lower densities measured on the dusk side of the magnetosheath in the Northern Hemisphere. The latter observation is in agreement with studies carried out by Paularena et al. (2001, Němeček et al. (2000, and Šafránková et al. (2004. In equations of hydrodynamics for a single-component additon to this we observe a reverse of this asymmetry for the Southern Hemisphere. High-latitude sub-Alfvénic flow is thought to be a necessary condition for steady state reconnection pole-ward of the cusp.

  3. Thunderstorm-/lightning-induced ionospheric perturbation: An observation from equatorial and low-latitude stations around Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Chen, Wu; Chen, Mingli; Liu, Zhizhao; Singh, R. P.

    2017-08-01

    Total electron content (TEC) computed from the network of Global Positioning System over Hong Kong area known as Hong Kong Sat-Ref-network has been used to study perturbation in the ionosphere from thunder storm activity. Data for geomagnetic quiet day (Kp lightning activity was measured from Total Lightning sensor LS8000 over/around the Hong Kong region. Deviation in vertical TEC (DTEC) and the rate of change of TEC index (ROTI) have been derived and compared for lightning day of 1 April 2014 and nonlightning day of 7 April 2014. An analysis showed reduction in TEC during evening hour (up to 1245 UT), whereas an enhancement during nighttime hour on the lightning day is observed. The variations in DTEC during nonlightning day are found to be insignificant in comparison to that during the lightning day. The ionospheric perturbation in TEC has been noticed up to a distance around 500 km and more from the lightning center. ROTI is found to vary from 3 to 60 total electron content unit (TECU)/min (1 TECU = 1016 el m-2) on the day of thunderstorm activity, whereas ROTI is insignificant on nonlightning days. Signature of density bubbles in slant TEC data and periodicities (10-100 min) in DTEC data are observed. For the same pseudorandom numbers (1, 10, 13, 23, and 28) strong amplitude scintillations are also observed at a close by station. Amplitude scintillations are proposed to be caused by plasma bubbles. The results are tentatively explained by thunderstorm-induced electric fields and gravity waves.

  4. Multifractal analysis of vertical total electron content (VTEC at equatorial region and low latitude, during low solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. A. Bolzan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the multifractal aspects of the GPS data (measured during a period of low solar activity obtained from two Brazilian stations: Belém (01.3° S, 48.3° W and São José dos Campos (SJC (23.2° S, 45.9° W. The results show that the respective geographic sites show important scaling differences as well as similarities when their multifractal signatures for vertical total electron content (VTEC are compared. The f(α spectra have a narrow shape for great scales, which indicates the predominance of deterministic phenomena, such as solar rotation (27 days over intermittent phenomena. Furthermore, the f(α spectra for both sites have a strong multifractality degree at small scales. This strong multifractality degree observed at small scales (1 to 12 h at both sites is because the ionosphere over Brazil is a non-equilibrium system. The differences found were that Belém presented a stronger multifractality at small scales (1 h to 12 h compared with SJC, particularly in 2006. The reason for this behaviour may be associated with the location of Belém, near the geomagnetic equator, where at this location the actions of X-rays, ultraviolet, and another wavelength from the Sun are more direct, strong, and constant throughout the whole year. Although the SJC site is near ionospheric equatorial anomaly (IEA peaks, this interpretation could explain the higher values found for the intermittent parameter μ for Belém compared with SJC. Belém also showed the presence of one or two flattening regions for f(α spectra at the same scales mentioned before. These differences and similarities also were interpreted in terms of the IEA content, where this phenomenon is an important source of intermittence due the presence of the VTEC peaks at ±20° geomagnetic latitudes.

  5. Periglacial evidence for a 1.91–1.89 Ga old glacial period at low latitude, Central Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.; Beunk, F.F.

    2013-01-01

    Cryoturbation and slump fold-like sedimentary structures in ca. 1.9 Ga old dacitic metavolcanic sediments in West Bergslagen, Central Sweden, are recognized as a lowland periglacial environment. This type of environment is comparable with present day tundra in Siberia. Ice-wedge casts and

  6. Equatorial counter electrojets and polar stratospheric sudden warmings – a classical example of high latitude-low latitude coupling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vineeth

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Favored occurrences of Equatorial Counter Electrojets (CEJs with a quasi 16-day periodicity over Trivandrum (8.5° N, 76.5° E, 0.5° N diplat. in association with the polar Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SSW events are presented. It is observed that, the stratospheric temperature at ~30 km over Trivandrum shows a sudden cooling prior to the SSWs and the CEJs of maximum intensity which occurs around this time. In general stronger CEJs are associated with more intense SSW events. The stratospheric zonal mean zonal wind over Trivandrum also exhibits a distinctly different pattern during the SSW period. These circulation changes are proposed to be conducive for the upward propagation of the lower atmospheric waves over the equatorial latitudes. The interaction of such waves with the tidal components at the upper mesosphere and its subsequent modification are suggested to be responsible for the occurrence of CEJs having planetary wave periods.

  7. Long-period fading in atmospherics during severe meteorological activity and associated solar geophysical phenomena at low latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Bhattacharya

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available The records of VLF atmospherics over Calcutta and then over Kalyani (West Bengal during the torrential rainfall, caused by violent monsoon and post-monsoon depressions, exhibit distinct long-period fadings both at day and night. Interesting results obtained from an analysis of round-the-clock atmospherics data and associated meteorological parameters are reported in this paper. A possible correlation between the severe meteorological activity with the solar geophysical phenomena was studied. The results are indicative of an interesting sequence of solar-terrestrial events. A tentative conclusion is reached, suggesting an origin of the fading from atmospheric gravity waves generated in the centre of activity of the depressions concerned.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics · Lightning · Precipitation

  8. Rapid bottom-water circulation changes during the last glacial cycle in the coastal low-latitude NE Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallego-Torres, D.; Romero, O.E.; Martínez-Ruiz, F.; Kim, J.-H.; Donner, B.; Ortega-Huertas, M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous paleoceanographic studies along the NW African margin focused on the dynamics of surface and intermediate waters, whereas little attention has been devoted to deep-water masses. Currently, these deep waters consist mainly of North Atlantic Deep Waters as part of the Atlantic Meridional

  9. Blue light differentially represses mesophyll conductance in high vs low latitude genotypes of Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momayyezi, Mina; Guy, Robert D

    2017-06-01

    To explore what role chloroplast positioning might have in relation to latitudinal variation in mesophyll conductance (g m ) of Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray (black cottonwood), we examined photosynthetic response to different blue light treatments in six representative genotypes (three northern and three southern). The proportion of blue (B) to red light was varied from 0:100, 10:90, 20:80, 40:60, and 60:40 while keeping the total photosynthetic photon flux density constant. Mesophyll conductance was estimated by monitoring chlorophyll fluorescence in combination with gas exchange. Compared to the control (10% B), g m was significantly lower with increasing blue light. Consistent with a change in chloroplast positioning, there was a simultaneous but reversible decrease in chlorophyll content index (CCI), as measured by foliar greenness, while the extracted, actual chlorophyll content (ACC) remained unchanged. Blue-light-induced decreases in g m and CCI were greater in northern genotypes than in southern genotypes, both absolutely and proportionally, consistent with their inherently higher photosynthetic rate. Treatment of leaves with cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin-based chloroplast motility, reduced both CCI and ACC but had no effect on the CCI/ACC ratio and fully blocked any effect of blue light on CCI. Cytochalasin D reduced g m by ∼56% under 10% B, but did not block the effect of 60% B on g m , which was reduced a further 20%. These results suggest that the effect of high blue light on g m is at least partially independent of chloroplast repositioning. High blue light reduced carbonic anhydrase activity by 20% (P<0.05), consistent with a possible reduction in protein-mediated facilitation of CO 2 diffusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Algorithms for the mitigation of space weather threats at low latitudes, contributing to the extension of EGNOS over Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forte, B.; Da Dalt, F.; Panicciari, T.

    GNSS is already a technology that pervades modern lifestyles and over the last decade has become integral to many of our transport systems. One of the major barriers to the development of GNSS for safety-critical services such as aviation comes from the unknown threats from Space Weather.In order...

  11. Radial evolution of nonthermal electron populations in the low-latitude solar wind: Helios, Cluster, and Ulysses Observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štverák, Štěpán; Maksimovic, M.; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Marsch, E.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Scime, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 114, - (2009), A05104/1-A05104/15 ISSN 0148-0227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : solar wind * radial evolution * non- thermal electron properties Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.082, year: 2009

  12. The day-to-day longitudinal variability of the global ionospheric density distribution at low latitudes during low solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, E. E.; Yizengaw, E.

    2013-04-01

    One important characteristic of longitudinal variability of the ionosphere is the global wavenumber-4 signature. Recent investigations have focused mainly on the climatological pattern during daytime and evening sectors. We investigate the day-to-day variability of the wavenumber-4 structure of the longitudinal ionospheric density distribution using the global total electron content (TEC) measurements from Global Positioning Systems receivers on the ground. The quiet time (Kp ≤ 3) day-to-day occurrence of the wavenumber-4 is obtained during periods of low solar flux conditions for the years 2008 and 2009. We find that the wavenumber-4 structure occurs at all local time sectors; however, the daytime TEC wavenumber-4 structures are clearer and can persist until the midnight hours. The most significant occurrence is observed during the 1000-2400 LT sector while the minimum number of wavenumber-4 structure is observed between the 0400 and 0600 LT sector. Around the nighttime sector, more wavenumber-4 occurrence is observed during the premidnight sector than the postmidnight hours. The seasonal occurrence probability of the wavenumber-4 pattern is at a maximum during the March-April equinox and June-July solstice. December-January is the period when the wavenumber-4 occurrence is less dominant than the rest of the year.

  13. Using solar wind data to predict daily GPS scintillation occurrence in the African and Asian low-latitude regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. A.; Retterer, J. M.; Yizengaw, E.; Wiens, K.; Wing, S.; Groves, K.; Caton, R.; Bridgwood, C.; Francis, M.; Terkildsen, M.; Norman, R.; Zhang, K.

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of predicting the daily occurrence of Global Positioning System scintillation events using forecasts of common geophysical indices to drive a physics-based model of the system is demonstrated over a 5 month period for the African and Asian longitude sectors. The output from the Wing Kp model, which uses solar wind data to predict the geomagnetic activity level up to 4 h in advance, was used to drive the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere/ionosphere model, from which the strength of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate was calculated to determine the likelihood of scintillation. It is found that the physics-based model demonstrates superior skill to an empirical scintillation model (Wideband Model (WBMOD)) in forecasting scintillation suppression events during seasons when scintillation is common. However, neither of the models driven in this way possess the ability to forecast isolated scintillation events during transitional and off-peak seasons.

  14. Study of TEC, slab-thickness and neutral temperature of the thermosphere in the Indian low latitude sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkatesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ionospheric equivalent slab-thickness is an important parameter which measures the skewness of the electron density profile of the ionosphere. In this paper, the diurnal, seasonal, day-to-day and latitudinal variations of ionospheric parameters namely total electron content (TEC, the peak ionization density of F-layer (NmF2, equivalent slab-thickness (τ and neutral temperature (Tn are presented. The simultaneous data of GPS-TEC and NmF2 from Trivandrum (8.47° N, 76.91° E, Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E and Delhi (28.58° N, 77.21° E are used to compute the slab-thickness (τ = TEC/NmF2 of the low sunspot period, 2004–2005. The day-time TEC values at Waltair are found to be greater than those at Trivandrum, while at Delhi the day-time TEC values are much lower compared to those at Trivandrum and Waltair. The trends of variation in the monthly mean diurnal variation of TEC and NmF2 are similar at Delhi, while they are different at Trivandrum and Waltair during the day-time. The slab-thickness (τ has shown a pre-sunrise peak around 05:00 LT at all the three stations, except during the summer months over Delhi. A consistent secondary peak in slab-thickness around noon hours has also been observed at Trivandrum and Waltair. During equinox and winter months a large night-time enhancement in the slab-thickness (comparable to the early morning peak in slab-thickness is observed at Delhi. The latitudinal variation of slab-thickness has shown a decrease from the equatorial station, Trivandrum to the low-mid latitude station, Delhi. The neutral temperatures (Tn computed from the slab-thickness (τ has shown a sharp increase around 05:00 LT over Trivandrum and Waltair. Whereas at Delhi, a double peaking around 05:00 and 23:00 LT is observed during winter and equinoctial months. The neutral temperatures computed are compare well with those of the MSIS-90 model derived temperatures.

  15. Wp index: A new substorm index derived from high-resolution geomagnetic field data at low latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nose, M.; Iyemori, T.; Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Geomagnetic field data with high time resolution (typically 1 s) have recently become more commonly acquired by ground stations. Such high time resolution data enable identifying Pi2 pulsations which have periods of 40-150 s and irregular (damped) waveforms. It is well-known that pulsations of th...

  16. Efeito da idade e da suplementação oral com o acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol sobre os níveis séricos de vitamina E e sobre o metabolismo oxidativo dos neutrófilos em bezerros

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, M. C.; Costa, J. N.; Peixoto, Ana Paula Cardoso; Ferreira, A. F. M. S. C.

    2005-01-01

    p. 8-17 Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da idade e da suplementação oral com acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol sobre os níveis séricos de vitamina E e sobre o metabolismo oxidativo dos neutrófilos de bezerros da raça Jersey do nascimento aos 45 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 14 bezerros divididos em dois grupos de sete animais cada. O grupo tratamento recebeu 2g de acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol, por via oral, diariamente, até os 45 dias de vida e o controle não recebeu nenhum t...

  17. Ocular changes due to systemic alpha-interferon therapy for hepatitis C Alterações oculares por uso sistêmico de alfa-interferon em pacientes com hepatite C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shih Jung

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe ocular (specially fundoscopic changes due to systemic alpha-interferon (IFN therapy in patients with hepatitis C. This is a prospective, descriptive and observational (non-interventional study, and its results are preliminary. METHODS: Patients were selected with indication of alpha-interferon therapy for hepatitis C. They underwent ocular examinations before therapy and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after starting the therapy. HIV patients and those who had a history of previous treatment with alpha-interferon were excluded from the study, but examined. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients were selected from November 1999 to June 2000. The male-to-female ratio was 1.55. The age average was 47 years. The best corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/15 to 20/40. Most of the symptomatic patients complained of foreign body sensation in the eyes, which became more tolerable with time. Complaints comprised flu-like symptoms, joint pain, depression, headache, and general weakness. Ocular findings related to alpha-interferon were: cotton wool spots (3 eyes and intraretinal hemorrhage (1 eye. One patient died during the study, due to another disease not related to hepatitis, and one patient refused to be examined. CONCLUSIONS: There are retinal vascular changes due to systemic alpha-interferon for hepatitis C. There are no studies in our country describing ocular changes in patients with hepatitis C on therapy with alpha-interferon. General physicians and specially gastroenterologists should pay special attention to this problem, and refer these patients to the ophthalmologist in order to determine and follow any lesion that may be related to the use of this drug.OBJETIVO: Avaliar alterações oculares (em especial lesões fundoscópicas em pacientes com hepatite C tratados com alfa-interferon (IFN. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, descritivo e observacional de pacientes com hepatite C do serviço de Gastroenterologia da UNIFESP com indicações de uso

  18. Seguridad de la terapia de interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C Safety of recombinant interferon alpha 2b plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoan Antonio Sánchez Rodríguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la hepatitis crónica C ha adquirido rango de pandemia. El virus de la hepatitis C se ha convertido en la causa principal de hepatitis crónica, cirrosis hepática, hepatocarcinoma, y trasplante de hígado a nivel mundial. OBJETIVO: identificar los efectos adversos asociados a la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina durante la evolución del tratamiento y hasta 8 semanas después de finalizado, así como los principales efectos asociados a salidas temporales o definitivas de esta terapia. MÉTODOS: estudio de farmacovigilancia cuya serie estuvo conformada por 122 pacientes con hepatitis crónica C atendidos en el Instituto de Gastroenterología desde mayo de 2001 hasta mayo de 2006. Se utilizó interferón alfa 2b recombinante (3 millones de unidades 3 veces por semana más ribavirina (1 000 o 1 200 mg diarios en dependencia del peso corporal durante 48 semanas. RESULTADOS: el 88,5 % del total de casos presentó efectos adversos; de ellos el 79,5 % correspondió al síndrome seudogripal, seguido de manifestaciones hematológicas, neuropsiquiátricas, gastrointestinales, entre otras menos frecuentes. El 6,6 % de la serie presentó salidas temporales del tratamiento por efecto adverso distinto de la anemia y 4 pacientes, salidas definitivas del estudio, tres por anemia hemolítica severa y uno con hipertiroidismo no controlable. CONCLUSIONES: la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina resulta segura, donde el mayor número de casos presentó síndrome seudogripal como efecto adverso más frecuente. Las manifestaciones hematológicas asociadas a las salidas definitivas del estudio permitieron recomendar seguimiento estricto de la hemoglobina y profundizar en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de los principales efectos adversos presentes en otros sistemas y asociados a esta terapia.INTRODUCTION: chronic hepatitis C has reached the category of pandemic. The hepatitis C virus is the

  19. Çevre faktörlerinin Spirulina platensis'in C (askorbik asit ve E (Alfa-tokoferol vitaminleri, β-karoten içeriği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Işık

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Çevre faktörlerinin Spirulina platensis’in C (askorbik asit ve E (Alfa-tokoferol vitaminleri, β-karoten içeriği ve yağ asidi kompozisyonuna etkisi. Bu çalışma, subtropik bir bölgede mevsime bağlı iklim değişikliğinin havuzlarda kültüre alınan Spirulina platensis’in C (askorbik asit ve E (alfa-tokoferol vitaminleri, β- karoten içeriği ve yağ asiti kompozisyonuna etkilerini incelemek amacıyla yürütülmüştür. Işık yoğunluğu, pH ve tuzluluk günlük olarak ölçülürken, sıcaklık ve çözünmüş Oksijen ölçümleri gece ve gündüz yapılmıştır. Yaz mevsiminde ortalama gündüz sıcaklığı 33.9±0.4 ºC olarak belirlenirken kış mevsimi için 18.6±0.5 ºC değeri belirlenmiştir. Yaz ve kış için gece ortalama sıcaklık değerleri ise sırasıyla 29.9±0.2 ºC ve 14.4±0.2 ºC olarak saptanmıştır. Ortalama ışık yoğunluğu yaz mevsiminde 848.3 µmol/m2/s iken kışın 506.26±48 µmol/m2/s olmuştur. Kış büyüme döneminde S. platensis’e ait C vitamini içeriği 39.31±3.63 mg/100 g ile yaz dönemine gore daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Alfa-tokoferol içeriği, 6.57±1.18 mg/100 g ile yazın daha yüksek saptanmıştır. Β-karoten miktarı ise yaz ve kış mevsimleri için benzer bulunmuştur. Yağ asitleri kompozisyonu çevre koşullarından önemli ölçüde etkilenmiştir. En yüksek γ-linolenik asit miktarı (22.221±0.388 % yaz koşullarında saptanmıştır

  20. Production and properties of alpha-amylase from thermophilic Bacillus sp. Produção e propriedades de alfa-amilase de Bacillus sp. termofílico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martins Cordeiro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available alpha-amylase (1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1 production by thermophilic Bacillus sp strain SMIA-2 cultivated in liquid media containing soluble starch reached a maximum at 48h, with levels of 57U/mL. Studies on the a-amylase characterization revealed that the optimum temperature for activity was 70ºC. The enzyme was stable for 2h at 50ºC, while at 60ºC, 70ºC and 90ºC, 4%, 13% and 38% of the original activities were lost, respectively. The optimum pH of the enzyme was 7.5. After incubation of crude enzyme solution for 24h at pH 7.5, a decrease of about 5% of its original activity was observed. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by Co2+, Cu2+ and Ba2+, but less affected by Ca2+, Mg2+, Ni2+, Sr2+ and Mn2+. The enzyme in 1M and 5M NaCl solutions the enzyme retained 70% and 47% of the original activity after 24h of incubation at 4ºC, respectively.A produção de alfa-amilase (1,4-alfa-D-glicano glicanohidrolase, EC 3.2.1.1 por um Bacillus sp cepa SMIA-2 cultivado em meios líquidos contendo amido solúvel, alcançou o máximo em 48h com níveis de 57U/mL. Estudos sobre a caracterização de alfa-amilase revelaram que a temperatura ótima de atividade desta enzima foi 70ºC. A enzima foi estável por 2h a 50ºC, enquanto que a 60ºC, 70ºC e 90ºC, 4%, 13% e 38% da atividade original foram perdidas, respectivamente. O pH ótimo da enzima foi 7,5. Após a incubação da enzima bruta por 24h a pH 7,5 observou-se um decréscimo em torno de 5% de sua atividade original. A enzima foi fortemente inibida por Co2+, Cu2+ e Ba2+, mas foi menos afetada por Ca2+, Mg2+, Ni2+, Sr2+ e Mn2+. Em solução de NaCl 1M e 5M, a enzima reteve 70% e 47% da sua atividade original após 24h a 4ºC, respectivamente.

  1. Methotrexate, Doxorubicin, and Cisplatin (MAP) Plus Maintenance Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2b Versus MAP Alone in Patients With Resectable High-Grade Osteosarcoma and Good Histologic Response to Preoperative MAP: First Results of the EURAMOS-1 Good Response Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bielack, Stefan S.; Smeland, Sigbj?rn; Whelan, Jeremy S.; Marina, Neyssa; Jovic, Gordana; Hook, Jane M.; Krailo, Mark D.; Gebhardt, Mark; P?pai, Zsuzsanna; Meyer, James; Nadel, Helen; Randall, R. Lor; Deffenbaugh, Claudia; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Brennan, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Purpose EURAMOS-1, an international randomized controlled trial, investigated maintenance therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b (IFN-α-2b) in patients whose osteosarcoma showed good histologic response (good response) to induction chemotherapy. Patients and Methods At diagnosis, patients age ≤ 40 years with resectable high-grade osteosarcoma were registered. Eligibility after surgery for good response random assignment included ≥ two cycles of preoperative MAP (methotrexate, doxorubicin, ...

  2. Influência do desenvolvimento etário e da suplementação com vitamina E (acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol no metabolismo oxidativo dos neutrófilos de bovinos da raça Holandesa (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito Nunes Costa

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a influência do desenvolvimento etário e da suplementação com acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol sobre o metabolismo oxidativo de neutrófilos, em bovinos da raça holandesa, no período do nascimento até os 150 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 20 bezerros divididos em dois grupos de dez animais. Os animais do grupo Tratamento receberam 2000UI de acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol, por via intramuscular, ao nascimento, aos 15, 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de idade, sendo o outro o grupo Controle, que não recebeu qualquer suplementação. Em ambos os grupos, o metabolismo oxidativo dos neutrófilos demonstrou pouca atividade durante os primeiros 60 dias de vida, sendo indicativo da ineficiência deste importante mecanismo bactericida. Não foi observado efeito significativo da administração do acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol sobre o metabolismo oxidativo de neutrófilos.

  3. Efeito da adição de ácidos graxos insaturados e de vitamina E à dieta de galinhas e seu reflexo na composição lipídica e incorporação de alfa-tocoferol na gema do ovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Gonçalves Pita

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas poedeiras, da linhagem Babcock, alimentadas com dietas contendo 20% de semente de linhaça, 6% óleo de canola ou combinação entre eles (10% de semente e 3% de óleo, suplementadas com 0, 100 e 200 UI de vitamina E por quilo de ração. Analisaram-se os teores de gorduras saturadas, insaturadas e poliinsaturadas da gema, a incorporação de alfa-tocoferol, assim como o desempenho produtivo e a qualidade da casca dos ovos. Poedeiras alimentadas com dieta contendo 20% de semente de linhaça mostraram significativa piora na conversão alimentar, redução no peso do ovo, na produção de ovos, na espessura e peso da casca do ovo. A inclusão de semente de linhaça na dieta aumentou a incorporação de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e diminuiu a de ácidos graxos monosaturados na gema do ovo. A concentração de alfa-tocoferol na gema foi diretamente proporcional aos seus teores na ração (R²=0,9613. Os grupos alimentados com 6% de óleo de canola obtiveram maiores concentrações de alfa-tocoferol na gema que os demais.

  4. METODOLOGIA CLÁSSICA E MÉTODO MULTI-ÍNDICE NA AVALIAÇÃO FINANCEIRA DE PROJETOS DE INVESTIMENTO: UM ESTUDO DE CASO NA EMPRESA ALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenilton Rüdiger Johann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Em muitas organizações, a intenção de se aventurar em novos ou inexplorados negócios pode ter efeitos positivos ou negativos. Para que empreendedores, proprietários e gestores de empresas tenham informações claras para minimizar os riscos envolvidos na decisão de investir, é fundamental que se compreendam as competências existentes e inexistentes, seus objetivos centrais e a viabilidade financeira. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar, através de verificações, se o uso da metodologia multi-índice suporta mais efetivamente os gestores em suas decisões, efetuando uma análise comparativa entre a metodologia clássica e a multi-índice em um projeto de investimento para o centro de distribuição da organização em estudo. Os dados foram levantados a partir de entrevista não estruturada com o diretor do negócio de peças de reposição, com o gerente de marketing e também com o controller do negócio, além da análise dos dados e das informações extraídas dos documentos do projeto de construção do novo centro de distribuição da empresa Alfa. Os resultados mostraram que o entendimento dos gestores está limitado ao que é apresentado pelos analistas de projetos e que a metodologia de análise atual não é a ideal para decisões que envolvem milhões de dólares. Ficou evidente que a aplicação da metodologia multi-índice traria mais transparência aos projetos de investimento na empresa Alfa. Palavras-chave: Avaliação financeira. Projetos de investimento. Metodologia clássica. Metodologia multiíndice.

  5. Alterações na banda alfa do eletrencefalograma durante imagética motora visual e cinestésica Changes in the electroencephalogram alpha band during visual and kinesthetic motor imagery

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    Marcus Vinicius Stecklow

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigada a contribuição em potência na vizinhança do pico da banda alfa (BPA do EEG durante imagética motora (IM. Sinais EEG (derivações occipitais e parietais foram adquiridos em sujeitos destros (18-40 anos, durante repouso (ESP e IM nas modalidades cinestésica (IMC e visual (IMV, sendo 15 atletas de voleibol e 15 não-atletas. O Revised Movement Imagery Questionnaire não indicou diferenças entre grupos ou modalidades de IM; todavia os atletas imaginaram-se melhor que os não-atletas. Para ambos os grupos, a potência em BPA resultou menor em IM do que em ESP, sendo mais reduzida em IMC. Ativação cortical similar ocorreu em ambos os hemisférios de não-atletas e mais pronunciada no hemisfério esquerdo de atletas, principalmente durante IMC. Tais resultados sugerem que IM reduz a atividade de alfa de acordo com o conhecimento real da tarefa e a modalidade de IM.This study aims at statistically assessing the differences in alpha band power, particularly in the vicinity of the alpha peak (BPA, during motor imagery (MI. Multi-channel EEG (occipital and parietal regions was acquired at rest condition (ESP and MI kinesthetic (MIC and visual (MIV modalities from right-handed male subjects (18-40 years, 15 ‘athletes’ (experienced volleyball players and 15 ‘non-athletes’. The Revised Movement Imagery Questionnaire indicated no differences between groups or MI modalities, but athletes imagine themselves more clearly than non-athletes during MI. The power within BPA reduces in both groups, but greater in MIC than in MIV. The cortical activation was similar in both hemispheres of non-athletes but more pronounced in left hemisphere of athletes, mainly in MIC. The findings suggest that MI reduces alpha activity according to individual knowledge of real execution of motor task and MI modalities.

  6. Cyclic changes in gene expression induced by Peg-interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC of hepatitis C patients during the first 10 weeks of treatment

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    Edenberg Howard J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims This study determined the kinetics of gene expression during the first 10 weeks of therapy with Pegylated-interferon-alfa2b (PegIntron™ and ribavirin (administered by weight in HCV patients and compared it with the recently completed Virahep C study 12 in which Peginterferon-alfa2a (Pegasys™ and ribavirin were administered. Methods RNA was isolated from peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC from twenty treatment-naïve patients just before treatment (day 1 and at days 3, 6, 10, 13, 27, 42 and 70 days after treatment. Gene expression at each time was measured using Affymetrix microarrays and compared to that of day 1. Results The expression of many genes differed significantly (p ≤ 0.001 and changed at least 1.5-fold at days 3 (290 probes and 10 (255 probes, but the number dropped at days 6 (165 and 13 (142. Most genes continued to be up regulated throughout the trial period. A second group of genes, including CXCL10, CMKLR1 (chemokine receptor 1, TRAIL, IL1Rα and genes associated with complement and lipid metabolism, was transiently induced early in treatment. CDKN1C (cyclin kinase inhibitor 1 was induced early but repressed at later times. Genes induced at later times were mostly related to blood chemistry and oxygen transport. By week 10, 11 of the patients demonstrated a positive response to therapy, and the final sustained viral response (SVR was 35%. The levels of gene induction or decrease was very similar to that previously reported with Pegasys/ribavirin treatment. Conclusion The response to Pegintron/ribavirin was similar to that reported for Pegasys/ribavirin despite some differences in the amount administered. We did not detect major differences at the genomic level between patients responding to treatment or non-responders, perhaps because of limited power. Gene induction occurred in a cyclic fashion, peaking right after administration of interferon and declining between administrations of the drug. Our

  7. Cyclic changes in gene expression induced by Peg-interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) of hepatitis C patients during the first 10 weeks of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Milton W; Tsukahara, Takuma; McClintick, Jeanette N; Edenberg, Howard J; Kwo, Paul

    2008-11-05

    This study determined the kinetics of gene expression during the first 10 weeks of therapy with Pegylated-interferon-alfa2b (PegIntron) and ribavirin (administered by weight) in HCV patients and compared it with the recently completed Virahep C study 12 in which Peginterferon-alfa2a (Pegasys) and ribavirin were administered. RNA was isolated from peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) from twenty treatment-naïve patients just before treatment (day 1) and at days 3, 6, 10, 13, 27, 42 and 70 days after treatment. Gene expression at each time was measured using Affymetrix microarrays and compared to that of day 1. The expression of many genes differed significantly (p changed at least 1.5-fold) at days 3 (290 probes) and 10 (255 probes), but the number dropped at days 6 (165) and 13 (142). Most genes continued to be up regulated throughout the trial period. A second group of genes, including CXCL10, CMKLR1 (chemokine receptor 1), TRAIL, IL1Ralpha and genes associated with complement and lipid metabolism, was transiently induced early in treatment. CDKN1C (cyclin kinase inhibitor 1) was induced early but repressed at later times. Genes induced at later times were mostly related to blood chemistry and oxygen transport. By week 10, 11 of the patients demonstrated a positive response to therapy, and the final sustained viral response (SVR) was 35%. The levels of gene induction or decrease was very similar to that previously reported with Pegasys/ribavirin treatment. The response to Pegintron/ribavirin was similar to that reported for Pegasys/ribavirin despite some differences in the amount administered. We did not detect major differences at the genomic level between patients responding to treatment or non-responders, perhaps because of limited power. Gene induction occurred in a cyclic fashion, peaking right after administration of interferon and declining between administrations of the drug. Our data suggest that more than once a week dosing might be desirable early during

  8. Milhos com diferentes texturas de endosperma e adição de alfa-amilase na dieta de leitões The effect of corn kernel texture and alpha-amylase addition in performance and digestibility of diets for weaned pigs

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    Vanessa Piovesan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para avaliar a influência de milhos com diferentes texturas de endosperma e adição de alfa amilase na digestibilidade de dietas e no desempenho de leitões na fase de creche. No ensaio de digestibilidade, foram usados 12 leitões castrados (7,96±0,31kg, alojados individualmente em gaiolas de metabolismo, enquanto no desempenho utilizaram-se 75 leitões (7,87±0,67kg distribuídos em 15 gaiolas de creche. Nos dois experimentos, os tratamentos consistiram de três dietas formuladas para serem isonutritivas, mas com milhos de diferentes texturas e adição ou não de alfa amilase, conforme descrito a seguir: 1. grãos de milho semi-dentado; 2. grãos de milho duro e; 3. grãos de milho duro + alfa-amilase. Os resultados de metabolismo mostraram que os valores de energia digestível (ED e metabolizável (EM das dietas foram influenciados pelos tipos de milho, sendo o semi-dentado superior (P0,05 entre os tratamentos no consumo de ração, ganho de peso e/ou conversão alimentar. Dietas com milho duro ou semi-dentado e adição de alfa-amilase não alteram o desempenho dos leitões. Por outro lado, dietas contendo milho semi-dentado apresentam maior energia digestível que dietas com milho duro e a adição de alfa-amilase aumenta a energia de dietas com milho duro.Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of diets with different corn grain textures and amylase supplementation on nutrients digestibility and nursery piglets' performance. Twelve castrated piglets (7.96±0.31kg were individually housed in metabolic crates and 75 piglets (7.87±0.67kg penned in 15 nursery pens. In both experiments the treatments consisted of three isonutritive diets: 1. semi dent corn grain; 2. flint corn grain, and 3. flint corn grain + amylase. There was effect of treatments (P0.05 the performance characteristics studied. In conclusion, diets with flint or semi dent corns and amylase supplementation did not improve

  9. A dual action of alpha-lipoic acid in the brain: an electrophysiological evaluation Dupla ação do ácido alfa-lipoico no encéfalo: uma avaliação eletrofisiológica

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    Otoni Cardoso do Vale

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress causes metabolic and structural abnormalities during reperfusion. In an animal model of electrophysiological evaluation of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, alpha-lipoic acid effect on the oxidative stress was studied by mean absolute amplitude of EEG spectra evaluation. The left carotideal infusion of 3.03 mM alpha-lipoic acid in Wistar rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion caused initial reduction and partial final recuperation of the various EEG spectral frequency mean absolute amplitudes (pEstresse oxidativo causa anormalidades metabólicas e estruturais durante reperfusão após isquemia. Em um modelo animal de avaliação eletrofisiológica de isquemia-reperfusão, o efeito da infusão do ácido alfa-lipóico sobre o estresse oxidativo foi estudado por meio da avaliação da média das amplitudes absolutas dos espectros eletrencefalográficos. A infusão intracarotídea esquerda de ácido alfa-lipoic 3,03 mM em ratos Wistar após isquemia-reperfusão cerebral causou significante redução inicial e recuperação parcial final da média das amplitudes absolutas dos vários espectros eletro - encefalográficos (p<0,05. A infusão intracarotídea esquerda de ácido alfa-lipoic 6,06 mM significantemente reverteu a depressão induzida da média das amplitudes absolutas médias dos espectros teta e delta. Houve, contudo, maior depressão da média das amplitudes absolutas de quase todos os espctros com infusão de ácido alfa-lipóico 60,6 mM. Estas observações sugerem que, dependendo da concentração administrada, o ácido alfa-lipoic tem duplo efeito, protegendo da isquemia em baixas concentrações e piorando este processo em doses altas.

  10. Análise da utilização na prática dos termos atribuídos aos fenômenos de enfermagem da CIPE-Versão Alfa

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    Maria Miriam Lima da Nóbrega

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como propósito a análise da utilização dos termos atribuídos aos fenômenos de enfermagem na prática das enfermeiras paraibanas. Os resultados evidenciam que todos os termos são utilizados pelas enfermeiras, com alguma freqüência. No que diz respeito à utilização dos termos, de acordo com o estrato amostral, os resultados evidenciam que as enfermeiras dos demais Municípios Paraibanos utilizam um maior número de termos, estatisticamente significativo, quando comparado com os dois outros estratos - João Pessoa e Campina Grande. A partir dos resultados do estudo, pode-se concluir, que os termos atribuídos aos fenômenos constantes na CIPE - Versão Alfa representam problemas ou situações da prática de enfermagem das enfermeiras paraibanas, corroborando a afirmação do Conselho Internacional de Enfermeiras de que estes termos são comuns às enfermeiras de todo o mundo.

  11. Influence of Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb 761) on expression of IL-1 Beta, IL-6, TNF-alfa, HSP-70, HSF-1 and COX-2 after noise exposure in the rat cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Remzi; Sjostrand, Alev Pektas; Yenıgun, Alper; Karatas, Ersin; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Ozturan, Orhan

    2017-10-14

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Ginkgo Biloba in early treatment of noise induced hearing loss on expression of IL-6, IL-1 Beta, TNF-alfa, HSP-70, HSF-1 and COX-2 in the rat cochlea. Thirty two female rats were randomly divided into four groups (Acoustic Trauma, Ginkgo Biloba, Acoustic Trauma+Ginkgo Biloba, Non Treatment). Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was applied in all the groups. At the end of the study, IL-1Beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, HSP-70, HSF-1 and COX-2 were studied in cochlear tissue with ELISA and Western blot analysis. There were significant increases in ABR values measured at days 1 and 7 compared to baseline values in Group 3. IL-1 Beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha values were significantly higher in Group 1 than in the other groups. Whereas HSP-70 and HSF-1 values were found to be significantly lower in Group 1 compared to those in Group 2 and Group 3. COX-2 of Group 1 was significantly higher than the other groups. Ginkgo Biloba is helpful in the treatment of noise induced hearing loss and exerts its effect by inhibiting expression of IL-1 Beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and COX-2 and increasing HSP-70 and HSF-1 values in rat cochlea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlação do nível de alfa-feto proteína, índice de sobrevida e recidiva tumoral em pacientes submetidosa transplante hepático Survival and tumor relapse rate according to alpha-fetoprotein level in patients submitted to liver transplantation

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    Elaine Cristina Ataide

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O transplante hepático para carcinoma hepatocelular pode resultar em potencial cura e melhora da sobrevida comparado com operações conservadoras. OBJETIVO: Analisar os índices de recorrência e sobrevida em pacientes transplantados hepáticos por carcinoma hepatocelular e com níveis séricos de alfa-fetoproteína maiores que 200 ng/ml. MÉTODO: Foram analisados retrospectivamente 90 pacientes cirróticos com carcinoma hepatocelular submetidos à transplante hepático ortotópico entre 1997 e 2009. As lesões hepáticas foram diagnosticadas no pré-operatório por ultrassonografia com Doppler, tomografia computadorizada e níveis séricos de alfa fetoproteína. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o nível de alfa-fetoproteína (menor ou maior que 200 ng/ml. O método de Kaplan-Meier foi usado para calcular a taxa de sobrevida. A análise de regressão Cox estudou os fatores preditivos de sobrevida. RESULTADOS: Pacientes com alfa-fetoproteína maior que 200 ng/ml (n=6 apresentaram menor taxa de sobrevida em um e cinco anos e na média de meses comparados com o grupo com alfa-fetoproteína menor que 200 ng/ml (n=84; respectivamente 35%, 18% e 11,8 meses contra 68%, 43% e 28,1 meses. Além disso, a taxa de recidiva foi 16,6% no primeiro grupo, e de 5,6% no outro. Observouse risco de óbito de 1% para cada 10 u de alfa-fetoproteína>200 ng/ml e para cada mm da maior medida de tumor acima de 28 mm. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes com valores séricos de alfa-fetoproteína maiores que 200 ng/ml demonstraram menores taxas de sobrevida, porém não foi preditivo de recidiva tumoral.BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC can result in a potential cure and greater survival than other less radical techniques. AIM: To analyze the survival and recurrence rate in liver transplant recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma and alpha-fetoprotein over 200 ng/ml. METHOD: Analysis, in this retrospective study

  13. PERCEPCIÓN DEL IMPACTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE MECANISMOS DE ASEGURAMIENTO DE LA CALIDAD EN LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR EN COSTA RICA: PROYECTO ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA

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    Elsiana Guido Guido

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan las acciones realizadas dentro del Proyecto Alfa Nro. DCl-ALA 2008/42: Aseguramiento de la calidad: políticas públicas y gestión universitaria financiado con fondos de la Unión Europea y coordinado, de manera general, por el Centro Interuniversitario de Desarrollo, CINDA. Participan 16 universidades latinoamericanas y 7 universidades europeas, y el objetivo general del proyecto es mejorar la gestión de la calidad de la Educación Superior, tanto a nivel de los sistemas nacionales como de las instituciones de Educación Superior, y contribuir con la generación de conocimiento y confianzas mutuas acerca de la calidad de la Educación Superior entre los países latinoamericanos y europeos. Como parte de las actividades desarrolladas se llevaron a cabo estudios en 7 países (5 de Latinoamérica y 2 de Europa para evaluar el impacto de los procesos de aseguramiento de la calidad implementados en las universidades. En Costa Rica, el proyecto ha sido coordinado y ejecutado por la Universidad de Costa Rica desde el año 2009 hasta la fecha. El estudio se realizó en dos universidades estatales y dos privadas, durante el período comprendido entre octubre de 2010 y mayo de 2011, se realizaron 26 entrevistas presenciales y 8 sesiones de grupo a las diferentes poblaciones definidas en el estudio, además, se realizaron un total de 652 encuestas a estudiantes activos y a personas egresadas. Los principales resultados obtenidos en Costa Rica se resumen en este artículo, de acuerdo con los niveles y dimensiones de calidad que fueron definidos en el marco referencial del proyecto.

  14. Correlación entre los interhusos del ritmo alfa, el EMG de los gemelos y la oscilación de vaivén del individuo de pie

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    Jose H. Peñaloza Rojas

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available En sujetos adultos normales se registraron simultáneamente: el electroencefalograma (EEG occipital, el electromiograma (EMG de los músculos gemelos y el movimiento oscilatorio de vaivén del individuo (EOsG en bipedestación, con ojos cerrados y abiertos. Mientras permanecen los sujetos experimentales con los ojos cerrados, el EEG muestra los husos de ritmo alfa bien integrados, unidos o separados por los interhusos los cuales son de duración y frecuencia variables. EI EMG es intermitente y las descargas de los potenciales musculares son de duración breve. EI EOsG esta formado por ondas de amplitud y duración variables. De la observación cuidadosa de estos registros simultáneos se puede inferir la existencia de una correlación temporal entre los tres eventos: primero los interhusos se registran previamente a la aparición del EMG, segundo el EMG precede al EOsG y tercero el EOsG aparece finalmente, como manifestación del vaivén del sujeto experimental. Es decir, la activación cerebral (interhusos influye sobre los músculos gastrocnemios (EM G para que estos se contraigan, enderezcan el cuerpo y corrijan la posición corporal. Como consecuencia de esto, se obtiene el EOsG. Por 10tanto.estos resultados sugieren que los interhusos son un fenómeno electrofisiológico normal resultante de la activación momentánea cerebral y que se registran después de que el individuo ha aprendido a mantenerse en bipedestación.

  15. Análisis de consistencia interna mediante Alfa de Cronbach: un programa basado en gráficos dinámicos Internal consistency analysis by means of Cronbach’s Alpha: a computer program based on dynamic graphics

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    Rubén Ledesma

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta una herramienta informática original que permite realizar análisis de consistencia interna (modelo Alfa de Cronbach utilizando métodos gráficos dinámicos. Se trata de un módulo basado en la filosofía del Análisis Exploratorio de Datos y en métodos de visualización estadística, diseñado para asistir al analista en el proceso de construcción de pruebas psicológicas. La herramienta permite analizar la consistencia interna de la prueba, las propiedades de los ítems que la componen, los patrones de respuesta de los sujetos a los ítems, y el efecto de la eliminación de los ítems y del incremento en la longitud de la prueba sobre su fiabilidad. En comparación con otros programas existentes, el beneficio del módulo es la incorporación de gráficos estadísticos dinámicos como complemento a la presentación de resultados convencionales en formato texto.This paper describes a computer software that provides dynamic graphics to perform internal consistence analysis by means of Cronbach’s Alpha. This software, based on Exploratory Data Analysis philosophy and statistical visualization methods, is designed to assist the process of psychological test and scale construction. It allows carry out internal consistency analysis, as well as exploring statistical properties of items, subject responses patterns, and the effect of item deletion and test length increase on reliability coefficient. Comparing with other statistical software, the benefit of this program is to use dynamic graphics complementing statistical output.

  16. MODIFICACIÓN FÍSICA DEL ALMIDÓN DE YUCA Y EVALUACIÓN DE LA SUSCEPTIBILIDAD A LA HIDRÓLISIS ENZIMÁTICA POR UNA ALFA AMILASA

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    Jenny Martín

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Almidón de yuca comercial (variedad MTAI 8 se sometió a modificación física por sinéresis, extrusión, gelatinización y secado por rodillos. Al almidón nativo y a los almidones modificados se les determinó su morfología, cristalinidad, distribución molecular y susceptibilidad a la hidrólisis enzimática con una alfa amilasa porcina pancreática. En los almidones modificados físicamente se incrementó el grado de hidrólisis, en comparación con el almidón nativo. Sin embargo no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el grado de hidrólisis entre los almidonesmodificados. El patrón de difracción de rayos X tipo A, presentado por el almidón de yuca nativo y su propiedad birrefringente se alteraron por los pretratamientos, presentándose difractogramas de estructuras amorfas y pérdida de la cruz de malta en los almidones modificados. La microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB demostró alteración en la apariencia y estructura del gránulo nativo, dando lugar a partículas de formas irregulares con superficies fragmentadas y rugosas como resultado del proceso de modificación. La cromatografía de exclusión sobre sepharosa 6B confirmó la desaparición de la fracción de alto peso molecular presente en el almidón nativo, con el consecuente incremento de las fracciones de bajo peso molecular en los almidones modificados.

  17. Efeito da idade e da suplementação oral com o acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol sobre os níveis séricos de vitamina E e sobre o metabolismo oxidativo dos neutrófilos em bezerros

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    J. N. Costa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da idade e da suplementação oral com acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol sobre os níveis séricos de vitamina E e sobre o metabolismo oxidativo dos neutrófilos de bezerros da raça Jersey do nascimento aos 45 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 14 bezerros divididos em dois grupos de sete animais cada. O grupo tratamento recebeu 2g de acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol, por via oral, diariamente, até os 45 dias de vida e o controle não recebeu nenhum tipo de suplementação para esta vitamina. Foram colhidas amostras de soro sanguíneo ao nascimento, aos cinco, 10, 20, 30 e 45 dias de idade, para: determinação sérica da vitamina E e para a avaliação da função dos neutrófilos. Concluímos que a suplementação oral com acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol, na dose de 2 g/dia/VO, do nascimento aos 45 dias de idade aumentou significativamente (p≤ 0,05 os níveis séricos de vitamina E em bezerros. Os menores percentuais de neutrófilos redutores foram detectados logo após o nascimento e os maiores aos 45 dias de idade. A suplementação com vitamina E não alterou significativamente a função oxidativa dos neutrófilos, mas os valores superiores obtidos para os animais do grupo tratado, para o teste estimulado, sugerem uma ação neutrófilica mais potente diante uma infecção natural nesses animais.

  18. Rat hepatocyte invasion by Listeria monocytogenes and analysis of TNF-alpha role in apoptosis Invasão de hepatócitos de rato por Listeria monocytogenes e análise do papel do TNF-alfa na apoptose

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    Sânia Alves dos Santos

    2005-04-01

    do hospedeiro e manipulação do citoesqueleto, resultando em morte celular. As interações entre células do hospedeiro e bactérias podem resultar em produção de citocinas como o Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa (TNF-alfa. Hepatócitos têm potencial de produzir citocinas pro-inflamatórias como TNF-alfa, quando invadidos por bactérias. No presente trabalho demonstramos o comportamento dos hepatócitos invadidos por L. monocytogenes pela análise microscópica, determinação da produção de TNF-alfa por bioensaio e análise da apoptose pela técnica TUNEL. A presença da bactéria, na razão que variou de 5 a 50.000 bactérias por célula, induziu ruptura das monocamadas celulares. Observamos presença de bactérias internalizadas na 1ª hora de incubação por microscopia eletrônica. Os níveis de TNF-alfa aumentaram da 1ª hora de incubação até a 6ª hora, variando de 0 a 3749 pg/mL. Nas 7ª e 8ª horas de incubação, ocorreram quedas não significativas dos níveis de TNF-alfa, indicando possível saturação dos receptores celulares. A quantidade de TNF-alfa produzido por hepatócitos foi dependente do tempo de incubação, assim como da proporção entre bactérias e células. A taxa de apoptose aumentou diretamente com o tempo de incubação (1 h a 8 + 24 h, variando de 0 a 43%, assim como com a razão bactérias : células. Estes resultados mostram a habilidade de L. monocytogenes não-hemolítica em invadir os hepatócitos, e as principais conseqüências deste fenômeno são: liberação de TNF-alfa e indução de apoptose. Assim, podemos especular que hepatócitos usam apoptose induzida por TNF-alfa para liberar bactérias de seu interior, facilitando a destruição destas pelo sistema imune.

  19. Serum levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gama in infants with and without dengue Níveis séricos de interleucina-6, fator de necrose tumoral-alfa e interferon-gama em crianças menores de um ano com e sem dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Nelly Restrepo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the serum levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, in children under 1 year of age with and without dengue. Sera were collected from a total of 41 children living in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia (27 patients with dengue and 14 controls. The results showed higher cytokine levels in children with dengue than without dengue, with statistically significant differences for IL-6 and IFN-gamma. No statistically significant differences were found between clinical forms, although IL-6 and IFN-gamma levels were higher in dengue fever cases than in dengue hemorrhagic fever cases. On the other hand, TNF-alpha levels were higher in dengue hemorrhagic fever than in dengue fever. The levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were higher in secondary infection than in primary infection, although IFN-gamma levels were higher in primary infection. These results suggest that IL-6, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma are involved in dengue infection independently of the clinical form.Este estudo comparou os níveis séricos de IL-6, TNF-alfa e IFN-gama, em crianças menores de um ano com e sem dengue. Os soros foram coletados de um total de 41 crianças residentes no Departamento de Antioquia, Colômbia (27 pacientes com dengue e 14 controles. Os resultados mostraram níveis de citoquinas mais elevadas em crianças com dengue do que naquelas sem dengue, com diferenças estatisticamente significativas para IL-6 and IFN-gama. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre formas clínicas, embora os níveis de IL-6 e IFN-gama estivessem mais elevados nos casos de febre do dengue que nos casos de febre hemorrágica do dengue. Por outro lado, os níveis de TNF-alfa estavam mais elevados na febre hemorrágica do dengue que na febre do dengue. Os níveis de IL-6 and TNF-alfa estavam mais elevados em infecções secundárias que em infecções primarias, embora os níveis de IFN-gama estivessem mais elevados em infecções primárias. Estes resultados

  20. Ca(OH2 action on TNF-alpha and NO release in macrophage culture stimulated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS = Ação do Ca(OH2 sobre a produção de TNF-alfa e NO de cultura de macrófagos estimulada por LPS de Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz, Celso Emanoel de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: A ação do hidróxido de cálcio [Ca(OH2] com o sistema imune e o mecanismo de neutralização das bactérias e seus subprodutos ainda não foi completamente esclarecida. Neste estudo foi avaliada a capacidade do Ca(OH2 em neutralizar o lipopolissacarídeo (LPS de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, utilizando-se duas metodologias: liberação de Óxido Nítrico (NO e Fator de Necrose Tumoral Alfa (TNF-alfa em cultura de macrófagos peritoneais de camundongos. Metodologia: No ensaio do NO, as células peritoneais foram expostas a uma solução de LPS (25mg/mL e 50mg/mL; e à suspensão de LPS/Ca(OH2 em duas concentrações (50mg/ 25mg e 25mg/25mg. Após 8 horas de incubação, foi utilizado reagente de Griess, e a liberação de NO foi quantificada. No ensaio do TNF-alfa, a solução de LPS foi usada na concentração de 25mg/mL e o LPS/Ca(OH2 a 25mg/25mg. Após 24 horas, as células foram fixadas e coradas com cristal violeta, e os valores de absorbância foram obtidos. Os resultados foram expressos em micromols. Todos os testes foram realizados em triplicata. Resultados: A presença de Ca(OH2 nas duas concentrações avaliadas reduziu significativamente a liberação de NO e TNF-alfa. Conclusão: Pode-se concluir que o LPS bacteriano representa um forte estímulo para liberação destas citocinas, mas o hidróxido de cálcio foi capaz de neutralizar este efeito

  1. Efeito da adição de ácidos graxos insaturados e de vitamina E à dieta de galinhas e seu reflexo na composição lipídica e incorporação de alfa-tocoferol na gema do ovo

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Carolina Gonçalves Pita; Eduardo Piber Neto; Luciane Massumi Nakaoka; Cassio Xavier de Mendonça Junior

    2004-01-01

    Foram utilizadas poedeiras, da linhagem Babcock, alimentadas com dietas contendo 20% de semente de linhaça, 6% óleo de canola ou combinação entre eles (10% de semente e 3% de óleo), suplementadas com 0, 100 e 200 UI de vitamina E por quilo de ração. Analisaram-se os teores de gorduras saturadas, insaturadas e poliinsaturadas da gema, a incorporação de alfa-tocoferol, assim como o desempenho produtivo e a qualidade da casca dos ovos. Poedeiras alimentadas com dieta contendo 20% de semente de l...

  2. Estudo de associação genética entre fator de necrose tumoral alfa e sepse e choque séptico em pacientes pediátricos tailandeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwannee Phumeetham

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a associação entre o polimorfismo genético do fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α e o desenvolvimento de sepse e choque séptico em pacientes pediátricos tailandeses e investigar o impacto clínico de polimorfismos do TNF-α nessa população. MÉTODOS: Para a realização deste estudo de associação genética, foram analisados prospectivamente pacientes pediátricos (idade < 18 anos com sepse clínica/choque séptico. Todos os dados foram coletados por especialistas em terapia intensiva pediátrica e as análises genéticas foram realizadas em um laboratório central. Um polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único [single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP], localizado na região promotora 5' na posição -308, foi genotipado e os resultados foram associados a fenótipos clínicos. RESULTADOS: Foram investigados 167 indivíduos tailandeses, dos quais 66 eram pacientes pediátricos com sepse/choque séptico e 101 eram controles saudáveis. Curiosamente, não foi possível identificar associação entre sepse e o polimorfismo -308 (G→A, um dos principais SNPs anteriormente associado à sepse em várias populações caucasianas, visto que não houve diferença de frequência entre casos e controles. CONCLUSÕES: Neste estudo, o principal polimorfismo do TNF-α -308 não esteve associado à sepse clínica/choque séptico na população tailandesa. Essa informação é importante para futuras análises que busquem identificar a função do TNF-α como risco genético para o desenvolvimento de imunopatologia subjacente a várias doenças no continente asiático.

  3. Tolerability of intensified intravenous interferon alfa-2b versus the ECOG 1684 schedule as adjuvant therapy for stage III melanoma: a randomized phase III Italian Melanoma Inter-group trial (IMI – Mel.A. [ISRCTN75125874

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridolfi Ruggero

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-dose interferon alfa-2b (IFNalfa-2b, according to the ECOG 1684 schedule, is the only approved adjuvant treatment for stage III melanoma patients by the FDA and EMEA. However, the risk/benefit profile has been questioned limiting its world-wide use. In the late nineties, the Italian Melanoma Inter-group started a spontaneous randomized clinical trial (RCT to verify if a more intense, but shorter than the ECOG 1684 regimen, could improve survival without increasing the toxicity profile. The safety analysis in the first 169 patients who completed the treatment is here described. Methods Stage III melanoma patients were randomized to receive IFNalfa-2b 20 MU/m2/d intravenously (IV 5 days/week × 4 weeks, repeated for three times on weeks 9 to 12, 17 to 20, 25 to 28 (Dose-Dense/Dose-Intense, DD/DI, arm, or IFNalfa-2b 20 MU/m2/d IV 5 days/week × 4 weeks followed by 10 MU/m2 subcutaneously (SC three times per week × 48 weeks (High Dose Interferon, HDI, arm. Toxicity was recorded and graded, according to the WHO criteria, as the worst grade that occurred during each cycle. Results The most common toxicities in both arms were flu-like and gastrointestinal symptoms, leukopenia, liver and neuro-psichiatric morbidities; with regard to severe toxicity, only leukopenia was statistically more frequent in DD/DI arm than in HDI arm (24% vs 9% (p = 0.0074, yet, this did not cause an increase in the infection risk. Discontinuation of treatment, due to toxicity, was observed in 13 and 17% of the patients in the DD/DI and HDI arm, respectively. The median actual dose intensity delivered in the DD/DI arm (36.4 MU/m2/week was statistically higher than that delivered in the HDI arm (30.7 MU/m2/week (p = 0.003. Conclusion Four cycles of intravenous high-dose IFNalfa-2b can be safely delivered with an increase in the median dose intensity. Efficacy results from this trial are eagerly awaited.

  4. Herbal compound 'Songyou Yin' reinforced the ability of interferon-alfa to inhibit the enhanced metastatic potential induced by palliative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiu-Yan; Huang, Zi-Li; Wang, Lu; Xu, Yong-Hua; Huang, Xin-Yu; Ai, Kai-Xing; Zheng, Qi; Tang, Zhao-You

    2010-01-01

    Liver resection is a widely accepted treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our previous clinical study showed that the rate of palliative resection was 34.0% (1958-2008, 2754 of 8107). However, the influence of palliative resection on tumor metastasis remains controversial. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of palliative resection on residual HCC and to explore interventional approaches. Palliative resection was done in an orthotopic nude mice model of HCC (MHCC97H) with high metastatic potential. Tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, lifespan, and some molecular alterations were examined in vivo and in vitro. Mice that underwent palliative resection were treated with the Chinese herbal compound 'Songyou Yin,' interferon-alfa-1b (IFN-α), or their combination to assess their effects. In the palliative resection group, the number of lung metastatic nodules increased markedly as compared to the sham operation group (14.3 ± 4.7 versus 8.7 ± 3.6, P < 0.05); tumor matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) activity was elevated by 1.4-fold, with up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2). The sera of mice undergoing palliative resection significantly enhanced cell invasiveness by 1.3-fold. After treatment, tumor volume was 1205.2 ± 581.3 mm 3 , 724.9 ± 337.6 mm 3 , 507.6 ± 367.0 mm 3 , and 245.3 ± 181.2 mm 3 in the control, 'Songyou Yin,' IFN-α, and combination groups, respectively. The combined therapy noticeably decreased the MMP2/TIMP2 ratio and prolonged the lifespan by 42.2%. Moreover, a significant (P < 0.001) reduction of microvessel density was found: 43.6 ± 8.5, 34.5 ± 5.9, 23.5 ± 5.6, and 18.2 ± 8.0 in the control and treatment groups, respectively. Palliative resection-stimulated HCC metastasis may occur, in part, by up-regulation of VEGF and MMP2/TIMP2. 'Songyou Yin' reinforced the ability of IFN-α to inhibit the

  5. Reducción de la biohidrogenación del ácido linoleico y alfa linolénico por la adición de diferentes proporciones de ácido eicosapentaenoico y docosahexaenoico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Castillo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la adición de ácidodocosahexaenoicoe (DHA y eicosapentaenocio(EPA a una mezcla de ácidolinoleico (ALi y alfa-linolénico (ALn,sobre su biohidrogenación, en fluidoruminal in vitro. A 500 mg de kikuyo,se agregaron 18 μL de una mezcla deALi:ALn (75:25 (Control o una mezclade 14,9 μL ALi:ALn (75:25 con 3,1μL de una mezcla que contenía cuatrorelaciones de DHA:EPA (100:0, 75:25,25:75, 0:100. El kikuyo sin adición deácidos grasos (AG (Control negativo ocon adición de estos, fue incubado confluido ruminal por triplicado, durante 0,5 o 16 horas, en tubos de 50 mL. Loslípidos del material incubado fueron extraídos,metilados y analizados para AGpor CG-FID. Las concentraciones relativas(g/100 g AG de los AG incubados ylos principales productos de la isomerizacióny biohidrogenación se compararonmediante un modelo completamenteal azar, usando el PROC GLM de SAS.La concentración relativa de ALi y ALndisminuyó con el tiempo de incubación,pero no fue diferente entre tratamientoscon EPA y DHA a las 16 horas. La adiciónde DHA y EPA puros o en mezclasdisminuyó la concentración relativade C18:0 (P < 0,01 e incrementó la deC18:1 trans-11 (ATV (P < 0,01 y C18:2trans-11, cis-15 (P < 0,01 (ALC,mientras que los cambios en la concentraciónrelativa del C18:2 cis-9, trans-11no fueron claros. Los resultados sugieren que la acción inhibitoria del EPA y DHA ocurre en los pasos finales de la biohidrogenación del ALi y del ALn.

  6. Dagslyset som arkitekturens alfa og omega

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Merete

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen pointerer vigtigheden af, at arkitekter, belysningsrådgivere og ingeniører arbejder sammen om planlægningen af god og hensigtsmæssig dagslysudnyttelse fra et meget tidligt tidspunkt i projektfasen, fordi de tidligste beslutninger om bebyggelsesplan, facadeudformning og rumlig disponering...

  7. Pengaruh Alfa Tokoferol pada Efek Ototoksik Sisplatin

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    Yanuar Iman Santosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ototoxicity is a known side effect of cisplatin chemotherapy due to formation of free radicals causing death to cochlear outer hair cells, resulting in hearing loss. Alpha tocopherol has otoprotective effects towards cisplatin in animal studies. Further human studies are needed. The objective of this study was to measure hearing function to know the otoprotective effects of alpha tocopherol against cisplatin. A randomized control trial was performed at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung in December 2011–February 2012 in 2 groups. The treatment group received standard cisplatin chemotherapy treatment and alpha tocopherol 400 International Unit (IU/day since day 1 before a 30-day-treatment. the control group received standard cisplatin chemotherapy treatment. Hearing evaluation was done using tympanometry, audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE before and after the first and second cycles of chemotherapy. Results showed that ototoxic incidence after the first cycle of chemotherapy was significantly lower in group 1 (33.3% than group 2 (66.7% (p=0.046, CI=95%. Ototoxic incidence after the second cycle of chemotherapy was significantly lower in group 1 (50% than group 2 (88.9% (p=0.027, CI=95%. In conclusion, oral alpha tocopherol 400 IU can prevent cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.

  8. The ALFA Roman Pot Detectors of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel Khalek, S.

    2016-11-23

    The ATLAS Roman Pot system is designed to determine the total proton-proton cross-section as well as the luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by measuring elastic proton scattering at very small angles. The system is made of four Roman Pot stations, located in the LHC tunnel in a distance of about 240~m at both sides of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station is equipped with tracking detectors, inserted in Roman Pots which approach the LHC beams vertically. The tracking detectors consist of multi-layer scintillating fibre structures readout by Multi-Anode-Photo-Multipliers.

  9. Peginterferon Alfa-2b (PEG-Intron)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2b injection pen, follow these steps: Take the carton containing the injection pen out of the refrigerator ... temperature. Check the expiration date printed on the carton, and do not use the carton if the ...

  10. Peginterferon Alfa-2b Injection (Sylatron)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Naprosyn), ondansetron (Zofran), paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva), phenytoin (Dilantin), piroxicam (Feldene), propafenone (Rhythmol), risperidone (Risperdal), rosiglitazone (Avandia), sulfamethoxazole ( ...

  11. CONFIRMAÇÃO DA IDENTIDADE DA alfa-CRIPTOXANTINA E INCIDÊNCIA DE CAROTENÓIDES MINORITÁRIOS PROVITAMÍNICOS A EM VERDURAS FOLHOSAS VERDES CONFIRMATION OF THE IDENTITY OF alpha-CRYPTOXANTHIN AND INCIDENCE OF MINOR PROVITAMIN A CAROTENOIDS IN GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Z. MERCADANTE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos trabalhos comprovaram que os carotenóides principais de folhas verdes são invariavelmente luteína, beta-caroteno, violaxantina e neoxantina. No entanto, há discordância em torno dos carotenóides minoritários. Portanto, a espectrometria de massas por impacto de elétrons e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de arranjo de diodos foram utilizados para confirmar a identidade de carotenóides minoritários com atividade provitamínica A em verduras folhosas brasileiras. Os carotenóides pró-vitamínicos A, incluindo os isômeros cis e trans de beta-caroteno, foram separados em coluna de C18 polimérica, Vydac 201TP54, com metanol/água (98:2 como fase móvel. Os espectros UV-visível e de massas confirmaram o carotenóide monoidroxilado como sendo alfa-criptoxantina e não beta-criptoxantina como aponta a literatura internacional. Todas as onze folhas analisadas (agrião, alface crespa, alface lisa, almeirão, caruru, chicória, couve, espinafre, rúcula, salsinha e taioba apresentaram alfa-criptoxantina, 13-cis-beta-caroteno e 9-cis-beta-caroteno, enquanto que alfa-caroteno foi encontrado em apenas quatro folhas (caruru, couve, salsinha e taioba.The main carotenoids from green leafy vegetables have been consistently found to be lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin and neoxanthin. However, there is a controversy about the identity of minor carotenoids. Therefore, electron impact mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector were used in order to confirm the identity of the minor provitamin A carotenoids in Brazilian green leaves. The provitamin A carotenoids, including the cis and trans isomers of beta-carotene, were separated on a polymeric C18 column, Vydac 201TP54, with MeOH/H2O (98:2 as mobile phase. The UV-visible and mass spectra confirmed that the monohydroxy carotenoid present in Brazilian green leafy vegetable to be alpha-cryptoxanthin, and not beta

  12. Expressão local do fator de necrose tumoral alfa na ruptura prematura de membranas Local expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on premature rupture of membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Roveran

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a expressão do fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α em membranas ovulares com ruptura prematura (RPM e com ruptura oportuna das mesmas; verificar a associação entre a expressão do TNF-α em membranas ovulares e o grau de corioamnionite das mesmas e correlacionar a expressão do TNF-α e o tempo de ruptura das membranas. MÉTODOS: foram analisadas as membranas ovulares de 31 parturientes com RPM, com idade gestacional acima de 34 semanas, e de 14 parturientes com ruptura oportuna das membranas, com idade gestacional igual ou maior de 37 semanas. A detecção da corioamnionite foi feita por meio de estudo histopatológico. A avaliação da expressão do TNF-α foi feita por meio de técnica imunoistoquímica, na qual foi empregado o método streptavidina-biotina-peroxidase (LSAB. RESULTADOS: o tempo médio de ruptura foi de 16,6 horas. A frequência da expressão de TNF-α, nos Grupos Controle e Estudo, não mostrou diferença significante (χ2=6,6; p=0,08. No Grupo Estudo, houve correlação entre o grau de corioamnionite e a intensidade da expressão de TNF-α (coeficiente de Spearman (Rs=0,4; p=0,02. CONCLUSÕES: não houve diferença significante entre as expressões do TNF-α em membranas ovulares com ruptura prematura e com ruptura oportuna das mesmas; no Grupo Estudo, constatou-se associação significante entre a expressão do TNF-α e o grau de corioamnionite e não houve associação entre o tempo de ruptura e a intensidade da expressão do TNF-α.PURPOSE: to compare the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in ovular membranes with premature rupture (MPR and with opportune rupture; to verify the association between the expression of the TNF-α in ovular membranes and the degree of chorioamnionitis, correlating the expression of the TNF-α and the membranes' time of rupture. METHODS: ovular membranes from 31 parturients with MPR, with gestational ages over 34 weeks, and from parturients with opportune

  13. Effect of short-term ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate pretreatment on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in rats Efeitos do pré-tratamento em curto prazo com ornitina alfa-cetoglutarato na isquemia-reperfusão intestinal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Silvio Gouveia Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of preventive enteral administration of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG in an ischemia-reperfusion rat model. METHODS: Sixty rats were randomized into five groups (G1-G5, n = 12. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 6 and treated with calcium carbonate (CaCa or OKG by gavage. Thirty minutes later, the animals were anesthetized with xylazine 15mg + ketamine 1mg ip and subjected to laparotomy. G1-G3 rats served as controls. Rats in groups G4 and G5 were subjected to ischemia for 30 minutes. Ischemia was achieved by clamping the small intestine and its mesentery, delimiting a segment of bowel 5 cm long and 5 cm apart from the ileocecal valve. In addition, G5 rats underwent reperfusion for 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected at the end of the laparotomy (G1, after 30 minutes (G2, G4 and 60 minutes (G3, G5 to determine concentrations of metabolites (pyruvate, lactate, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and glutathione (GSH. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in tissue pyruvate and lactate and plasma CPK levels in OKG-treated rats at the end of reperfusion period. GSH levels did not change significantly in ischemia and reperfusion groups. However, TBARS levels increased significantly (pOBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos da administração enteral preventiva de ornitina alfa-cetoglutarato (OKG em modelo de isquemia-reperfusão no rato. MÉTODOS: Sessenta ratos foram randomizados em cinco grupos (G1-G5, n=12. Cada grupo foi redistribuído em dois subgrupos (n=6 e tratado com carbonato de cálcio (CaCa ou OKG por gavagem. Trinta minutos mais tarde, os animais foram anestesiados com xilazina 1mg+cetamina 15mg i.p. e submetidos à laparotomia. Os ratos dos grupos G4-G5 foram submetidos à isquemia por 30 minutos. A isquemia foi obtida por pinçamento do intestino delgado, delimitando um segmento com 5 cm de comprimento e distando 5 cm da válvula ileocecal. O

  14. The mass spectrum of interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, J.M.; Garwood, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The abundances of diffuse clouds and molecular clouds in the inner Galaxy and at the solar circle are compared. Using results of recent low-latitude 21 cm absorption studies, the number of diffuse clouds per kiloparsec along the line of sight is derived as a function of the cloud column density, under two assumptions relating cloud densities and temperatures. The density of clouds is derived as a function of cloud mass. The results are consistent with a single, continuous mass spectrum for interstellar clouds from less than 1 solar mass to 1,000,000 solar masses, with perhaps a change of slope at masses where the atomic and molecular mass fractions are roughly equal. 36 refs

  15. Avaliação dos polimorfismos genéticos da interleucina-6, interleucina-10, fator de necrose tumoral-alfa e interferon-gama em pacientes com Síndrome de Sjögren secundária à artrite reumatóide

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Thayse Rodrigues de

    2012-01-01

    Introdução: As citocinas desempenham um papel vital na regulação do sistema imunológico participando da patogênese de várias doenças auto-imunes, incluindo a síndrome de Sjögren. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a influência dos polimorfismos genéticos da interleucina-6, interleucina-10, fator de necrose tumoral alfa e interferon-gama na artrite reumatóide (AR), síndrome de Sjögren secundária (SSs) à artrite reumatóide e controles saudáveis (C). Materiais e métodos: Uma amostra de 138 p...

  16. The pattern of immune cell infiltration in chromoblastomycosis: involvement of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha/CCL3 and fungi persistence Padrão de infiltração de células do sistema imune na cromomicose: envolvimento de MIP-1 alfa da persistência fúngica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanuza Cristina Sá

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromoblastomycosis (CR is a subcutaneous chronic mycosis characterized by a granulomatous inflammatory response. However, little is known regarding the pattern of leukocyte subsets in CR and the pathways involved in their recruitment. The objective of this study was to assess the cellular subsets, chemokine, chemokine receptors and enzymes in CR. The inflammatory infiltrate was characterized by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against macrophages (CD68, Langerhans'cells (S100, lymphocytes (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CD20 and CD56 and neutrophils (CD15. The expression of MIP-1alpha (Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, chemokine receptors (CXCR3 and CCR1 and enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD and nitric oxide synthase-iNOS was also evaluated by the same method. We observed an increase in all populations evaluated when compared with the controls. Numbers of CD15+ and CD56+ were significan