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Sample records for inner-core neutron-hole state

  1. Universal viscosity growth in metallic melts at megabar pressures: the vitreous state of the Earth's inner core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazhkin, Vadim V; Lyapin, A G

    2000-01-01

    Experimental data on and theoretical models for the viscosity of various types of liquids and melts under pressure are reviewed. Experimentally, the least studied melts are those of metals, whose viscosity is considered to be virtually constant along the melting curve. The authors' new approach to the viscosity of melts involves the measurement of the grain size in solidified samples. Measurements on liquid metals at pressures up to 10 GPa using this method show, contrary to the empirical approach, that the melt viscosity grows considerably along the melting curves. Based on the experimental data and on the critical analysis of current theories, a hypothesis of a universal viscosity behavior is introduced for liquids under pressure. Extrapolating the liquid iron results to the pressures and temperatures at the Earth's core reveals that the Earth's outer core is a very viscous melt with viscosity values ranging from 10 2 Pa s to 10 11 Pa s depending on the depth. The Earth's inner core is presumably an ultraviscous (>10 11 Pa s) glass-like liquid - in disagreement with the current idea of a crystalline inner core. The notion of the highly viscous interior of celestial bodies sheds light on many mysteries of planetary geophysics and astronomy. From the analysis of the pressure variation of the melting and glass-transition temperatures, an entirely new concept of a stable metallic vitreous state arises, calling for further experimental and theoretical study. (reviews of topical problems)

  2. Earth's inner core: Innermost inner core or hemispherical variations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lythgoe, K. H.; Deuss, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412396610; Rudge, J. F.; Neufeld, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of Earth's deep inner core has important implications for core evolution, since it is thought to be related to the early stages of core formation. Previous studies have suggested that there exists an innermost inner core with distinct anisotropy relative to the rest of the inner core.

  3. Rotational and neutron-hole states in 43S via the neutron knockout and fragmentation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, L. A.; Hosier, K. E.; Adrich, P.; Baugher, T. R.; Bazin, D.; Diget, C. A.; Weisshaar, D.; Brown, B. A.; Cook, J. M.; Gade, A.; Garland, D. A.; Glasmacher, T.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Siwek, K. P.; Cottle, P. D.; Kemper, K. W.; Tostevin, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    The recent assertion that shape coexistence occurs in the neutron-rich isotope 43 S implies that a state observed at 940 keV in a previous study is a rotational excitation of the deformed ground state. Here we use results from two intermediate-energy reactions to demonstrate that this state--assigned an energy of 971 keV in the present work--is indeed a rotational state. This result strengthens the case for shape coexistence in 43 S.

  4. Fragmentation of neutron hole states in /sup 111,115/Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, A.I.; Thao, N.D.; Solov'ev, V.G.; Stoyanov, C.

    1983-01-01

    The quasiparticle-phonon model of the nucleus with inclusion of the interaction of one-quasiparticle states with a large number of states of the quasiparticle + phonon and quasiparticle + two phonons type is used to calculate the fragmentation of the deep hole subshells 2p/sub 1/2/, 2p/sub 3/2/, 1f/sub 5/2/, and others in the isotopes /sup 111,115/Sn. Satisfactory agreement is obtained with the results of recent (d,t) experiments in the even isotopes of tin

  5. Fragmentation of neutron hole states in the sup(111,115)Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, A.I.; Nguen Din' Tkhao; Solov'ev, V.G.; Stoyanov, Ch.

    1983-01-01

    In the framework of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model, taking into account an interaction of one-quasiparticle states with large number states of the (quasiparticle + phonon) and (quasiparticle + two phonons) type, the fragmentation is calculated for deep hole subshells 2psub(1/2), 2psub(3/2), 1fsub(5/2) and others in the isotopes sup(111,115)Sn. A satisfactory agreement with the results of recent experiments on the (d, t) reactions on even tin isotopes is obtained

  6. When the Earth's Inner Core Shuffles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalcic, H.; Young, M. K.; Bodin, T.; Ngo, S.; Sambridge, M.

    2011-12-01

    Shuffling is a tribal dance recently adapted by teenagers as a street dance. In one of the most popular moves, the so-called "Running Man", a stomp forward on one foot, shifted without being lifted from the ground, is followed by a change of position backwards on the same foot. Here, we present strong observational evidence from a newly observed collection of earthquake doublets that the Earth's inner core "shuffles" exhibiting both prograde and retrograde rotation in the reference frame of the mantle. This discovery is significant on several levels. First, the observed pattern consists of intermittent intervals of quasi-locked and differentially rotating inner core with respect to the Earth's mantle. This means that the angular alignment of the inner core and mantle oscillates in time over the past five decades. Jolting temporal changes are revealed, indicating that during the excursions from the quasi-locked state, the Earth's inner core can rotate both faster and slower than the rest of the planet, thus exhibiting both eastward and westward rotation. According to our results, a short time interval (on the order of one to two years) is needed for the inner core to accelerate to a differential rotation rate of several degrees per year, and typically a slightly longer time is needed to decelerate down to a negligibly small differential rotation rate. These time scales are in agreement with experimental spin-up times obtained when the magnetic torque alone is used to accelerate the inner core. Second, when we integrate the rotation rate over different time intervals, it is possible to explain discrepancies between the body wave and normal modes results for the rate of the inner core differential rotation found by previous authors. We show that the integrated shift in angular alignment and average rotation rates (previously determined to be constant) in normal mode studies are much smaller that those for the body waves. The repeating earthquakes from the South

  7. Three Types of Earth's Inner Core Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, D.; Wen, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth's inner core boundary (ICB) is the site where the liquid outer core solidifies and the solid inner core grows. Thus, the fine-scale structure of the ICB is important for our understanding of the thermo-compositional state of the Earth's core. In this study, we collect a large set of seismic records with high-quality pre-critical PKiKP and PcP phase pairs, recorded by two dense seismic arrays, Hi-net in Japan and USArray in US. This dataset samples the ICB regions beneath East Asia, Mexico and the Bering Sea. We use differential travel times, amplitude ratios and waveform differences between PKiKP and PcP phases to constrain fine-scale structure of the ICB. The sampled ICB can be grouped into three types based on their seismic characteristics: (1) a simple ICB with a flat and sharp boundary, (2) a bumpy ICB with topographic height changes of 10 km, and (3) a localized mushy ICB with laterally varying thicknesses of 4-8 km. The laterally varying fine-scale structure of the ICB indicates existence of complex small-scale forces at the surface and a laterally varying solidification process of the inner core due to lateral variation of thermo-compositional condition near the ICB.

  8. Temporal Change of Seismic Earth's Inner Core Phases: Inner Core Differential Rotation Or Temporal Change of Inner Core Surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J.; Tian, D.; Sun, L.; Wen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Since Song and Richards [1996] first reported seismic evidence for temporal change of PKIKP wave (a compressional wave refracted in the inner core) and proposed inner core differential rotation as its explanation, it has generated enormous interests in the scientific community and the public, and has motivated many studies on the implications of the inner core differential rotation. However, since Wen [2006] reported seismic evidence for temporal change of PKiKP wave (a compressional wave reflected from the inner core boundary) that requires temporal change of inner core surface, both interpretations for the temporal change of inner core phases have existed, i.e., inner core rotation and temporal change of inner core surface. In this study, we discuss the issue of the interpretation of the observed temporal changes of those inner core phases and conclude that inner core differential rotation is not only not required but also in contradiction with three lines of seismic evidence from global repeating earthquakes. Firstly, inner core differential rotation provides an implausible explanation for a disappearing inner core scatterer between a doublet in South Sandwich Islands (SSI), which is located to be beneath northern Brazil based on PKIKP and PKiKP coda waves of the earlier event of the doublet. Secondly, temporal change of PKIKP and its coda waves among a cluster in SSI is inconsistent with the interpretation of inner core differential rotation, with one set of the data requiring inner core rotation and the other requiring non-rotation. Thirdly, it's not reasonable to invoke inner core differential rotation to explain travel time change of PKiKP waves in a very small time scale (several months), which is observed for repeating earthquakes in Middle America subduction zone. On the other hand, temporal change of inner core surface could provide a consistent explanation for all the observed temporal changes of PKIKP and PKiKP and their coda waves. We conclude that

  9. Investigating the translation of Earth's inner core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Elizabeth A; Cormier, Vernon F; Geballe, Zachary M

    2012-01-01

    The Earth’s inner core provides unique insights into processes that are occurring deep within our Earth today, as well as processes that occurred in the past. The seismic structure of the inner core is complex, and is dominated by anisotropic and isotropic differences between the Eastern...... for models of a translating inner core. Additionally, we investigate the structure at the base of the outer core and the inner core boundary by analyzing PKP-Cdiff waves. The search for observable PKP-Cdiff is particularly concentrated in regions that are predicted to be actively freezing and melting...... and Western ‘hemispheres’ of the inner core. Recent geodynamical models suggest that this hemispherical dichotomy can be explained by a fast translation of the inner core. In these models one side of the inner core is freezing, while the other side is melting, leading to the development of different seismic...

  10. Observations of exotic inner core waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waszek, Lauren; Deuss, A.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412396610

    2015-01-01

    The seismic structure of Earth’s inner core is highly complex, displaying strong anisotropy and further regional variations. However, few seismic waves are sensitive to the inner core and fundamental questions regarding the origin of the observed seismic features remain unanswered. Thus, new

  11. Inner core tilt and polar motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumberry, Mathieu; Bloxham, Jeremy

    2002-11-01

    A tilted inner core permits exchange of angular momentum between the core and the mantle through gravitational and pressure torques and, as a result, changes in the direction of Earth's axis of rotation with respect to the mantle. We have developed a model to calculate the amplitude of the polar motion that results from an equatorial torque at the inner core boundary which tilts the inner core out of alignment with the mantle. We specifically address the issue of the role of the inner core tilt in the decade polar motion known as the Markowitz wobble. We show that a decade polar motion of the same amplitude as the observed Markowitz wobble requires a torque of 1020 N m which tilts the inner core by 0.07 degrees. This result critically depends on the viscosity of the inner core; for a viscosity less than 5 × 1017 Pa s, larger torques are required. We investigate the possibility that a torque of 1020 N m with decadal periodicity can be produced by electromagnetic coupling between the inner core and torsional oscillations of the flow in the outer core. We demonstrate that a radial magnetic field at the inner core boundary of 3 to 4 mT is required to obtain a torque of such amplitude. The resulting polar motion is eccentric and polarized, in agreement with the observations. Our model suggests that equatorial torques at the inner core boundary might also excite the Chandler wobble, provided there exists a physical mechanism that can generate a large torque at a 14 month period.

  12. ABSTRACTS Preliminary Study of Strategic Inner Cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    When a strategic entity attempts to make a dicision, first the project must be m accoroance wlm its strategic framework as well as make the strategic inner cores prominent. The existing theories of development strategy indicate that the formation of the framework can be divided into the following parts: inside and outside environments, purpose, goal, key points, and countermeasures. The strategic inner cores that put forward by this paper is the intensification and advancement for the theory of strategic framework, strategic orientation, strategic vision and main line are inciuded. Appearance of these ideas have improved the theory and enhanced strategic practice.

  13. A Large Solid Inner Core at Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, A.; Goossens, S.; Mazarico, E.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Kuang, W.; Sabaka, T. J.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2018-05-01

    New measurements of the polar moments of inertia of the whole planet and of the outer layers (crust+mantle), and simulations of Mercury’s magnetic field dynamo suggest the presence of a solid inner core with a Ric 0.3-0.5 Roc.

  14. THE RIGIDITY OF THE EARTH'S INNER CORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. BULLEN

    1953-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine and assess, in the
    light of recent evidence, the theory lliat the Earth's inner core has
    a significant rigidity.
    The presenee of an inner core in the Earth is revealed from
    observations of the seismie pliase PKP in the « sliadow zone » for
    which the epicentral distance A lies in the range 105" < A < 143".
    Miss I. Lehmann (r in 1936, followed by Gutenberg and Richter (2
    in 1938, atlrihuted these observations to tlie presence of an inner
    core; and Jeffreys (3 in 1939 applied Airy's theory of diffraetion
    near a caustic to sliow that the alternative theory of diffraetion
    round the outer boundary of the centrai core was not capable of
    explaining tlie observations in the shadow zone. The existence of the
    inner core has been fairly generallv accepted sinee tliis ealculation
    of Jeffreys.

  15. Translation and convection of Earth's inner core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnereau, M.; Calvet, M.; Margerin, L.; Mizzon, H.; Souriau, A.

    2012-12-01

    The image of the inner core growing slowly at the center of the Earth by gradual cooling and solidification of the surrounding liquid outer core is being replaced by the more vigorous image of a ``deep foundry'', where melting and crystallization rates exceed by many times the net growth rate. Recently, a particular mode of convection, called translation, has been put forward as an important mode of inner core dynamics because this mechanism is able to explain the observed East-West asymmetry of P-wave velocity and attenuation (Monnereau et al. 2010). Translation is a pure solid displacement of the inner core material (solid iron) within its envelop, implying crystallization of entering iron on one side of the inner core and melting on the opposite side. Translation is consistent with multiple scattering models of wave propagation. If they do not experience deformation, iron crystals grow as they transit from one hemisphere to the other. Larger crystals constituting a faster and more attenuating medium, a translation velocity of some cm/yr (about ten times the growth rate) is enough to account for the superficial asymmetry observed for P-wave velocity and attenuation, with grains of a few hundred meters on the crystallizing side (West) growing up to a few kilometers before melting on the East side, and a drift direction located in the equatorial plane. Among all hypotheses that have been proposed to account for the seismic asymmetry, translation is the only one based on a demonstrated link between the seismic data and the proposed dynamics, notably through a model of seismic wave propagation. This mechanism was also proposed to be responsible for the formation of a dense layer at the bottom of the outer core, since the high rate of melting and crystallization would release a liquid depleted in light elements at the surface of the inner core (Alboussiere et al 2010). This would explain the anomalously low gradient of P wave velocity in the lowermost 200 km of the

  16. Study of neutron hole states in 207206205Pb with the (3He,α) reaction at 110MeV. First tests in (d,t) reaction of the Orsay synchrocyclotron spectrometric line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillot, J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron hole states in the 207 Pb, 206 Pb, 205 Pb isotopes were studied up to 25 MeV excitation energy using the ( 3 He,α) reaction at 100MeV incident energy, with 100 keV energy resolution. Angular distributions for the low-lying levels and inner hole states have been analyzed with DWBA and spectroscopic factors extracted for 1 > 3 levels. Missing strengths for the first levels from 1i13/2 and 1h9/2 orbits are found in the bump located around 5MeV excitation energy. The fragmented bump observed around 8MeV excitation energy is attributed to 1h11/2 pick-up with 45% of the sum-rule limit. Finally, the structure extending up to 21 MeV excitation energy is attributed to 1g7/2+1g9/2 pick-up with 80% of the total strength. In 207 Pb, the four first isobaric analog states Tsub(>) = 45/2 are identifierd around 20MeV excitation energy. The second part of this work presents the first tests in (d,t) reaction at 108 MeV on 90 Zr and 208 Pb using the achromatic line of the Orsay synchrocyclotron [fr

  17. Electromagnetically driven westward drift and inner-core superrotation in Earth's core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Philip W; Hollerbach, Rainer; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    A 3D numerical model of the earth's core with a viscosity two orders of magnitude lower than the state of the art suggests a link between the observed westward drift of the magnetic field and superrotation of the inner core. In our model, the axial electromagnetic torque has a dominant influence only at the surface and in the deepest reaches of the core, where it respectively drives a broad westward flow rising to an axisymmetric equatorial jet and imparts an eastward-directed torque on the solid inner core. Subtle changes in the structure of the internal magnetic field may alter not just the magnitude but the direction of these torques. This not only suggests that the quasi-oscillatory nature of inner-core superrotation [Tkalčić H, Young M, Bodin T, Ngo S, Sambridge M (2013) The shuffling rotation of the earth's inner core revealed by earthquake doublets. Nat Geosci 6:497-502.] may be driven by decadal changes in the magnetic field, but further that historical periods in which the field exhibited eastward drift were contemporaneous with a westward inner-core rotation. The model further indicates a strong internal shear layer on the tangent cylinder that may be a source of torsional waves inside the core.

  18. Electromagnetically driven westward drift and inner-core superrotation in Earth’s core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Philip W.; Hollerbach, Rainer; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A 3D numerical model of the earth’s core with a viscosity two orders of magnitude lower than the state of the art suggests a link between the observed westward drift of the magnetic field and superrotation of the inner core. In our model, the axial electromagnetic torque has a dominant influence only at the surface and in the deepest reaches of the core, where it respectively drives a broad westward flow rising to an axisymmetric equatorial jet and imparts an eastward-directed torque on the solid inner core. Subtle changes in the structure of the internal magnetic field may alter not just the magnitude but the direction of these torques. This not only suggests that the quasi-oscillatory nature of inner-core superrotation [Tkalčić H, Young M, Bodin T, Ngo S, Sambridge M (2013) The shuffling rotation of the earth’s inner core revealed by earthquake doublets. Nat Geosci 6:497–502.] may be driven by decadal changes in the magnetic field, but further that historical periods in which the field exhibited eastward drift were contemporaneous with a westward inner-core rotation. The model further indicates a strong internal shear layer on the tangent cylinder that may be a source of torsional waves inside the core. PMID:24043841

  19. Double-diffusive translation of Earth's inner core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguen, R.; Alboussiére, T.; Labrosse, S.

    2018-03-01

    The hemispherical asymmetry of the inner core has been interpreted as resulting form a high-viscosity mode of inner core convection, consisting in a translation of the inner core. A thermally driven translation, as originally proposed, is unlikely if the currently favoured high values of the thermal conductivity of iron at core conditions are correct. We consider here the possibility that inner core translation results from an unstable compositional gradient, which would develop either because the light elements present in the core become increasingly incompatible as the inner core grows, or because of a possibly positive feedback of the development of the F-layer on inner core convection. Though the magnitude of the destabilising effect of the compositional field is predicted to be similar to or smaller than the stabilising effect of the thermal field, the huge difference between thermal and chemical diffusivities implies that double-diffusive instabilities can still arise even if the net buoyancy increases upward. Using linear stability analysis and numerical simulations, we demonstrate that a translation mode can indeed exist if the compositional field is destabilising, even if the temperature profile is subadiabatic, and irrespectively of the relative magnitudes of the composition and potential temperature gradients. The existence of this double diffusive mode of translation requires that the following conditions are met: (i) the compositional profile within the inner core is destabilising, and remains so for a duration longer than the destabilisation timescale (on the order of 200 My, but strongly dependent on the magnitude of the initial perturbation); and (ii) the inner core viscosity is sufficiently large, the required value being a strongly increasing function of the inner core size (e.g. 1017 Pa.s when the inner core was 200 km in radius, and ≃ 3 × 1021 Pa.s at the current inner core size). If these conditions are met, the predicted inner core

  20. Hurricane Inner-Core Structure as Revealed by GPS Dropwindsondes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leejoice, Robert

    2000-01-01

    New high-resolution information of the vertical thermodynamic and kinematic structure of the hurricane inner-core is now available from aircraft released Global Positioning System (GPS) dropwindsondes...

  1. How Inge Lehmann Discovered the Inner Core of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    The mathematics behind Inge Lehmann's discovery that the inner core of the Earth is solid is explained using data collected around the Earth on seismic waves and their travel time through the Earth.

  2. First-order theory for Earth's inner-core anisotropy due to super ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    inner core) and lower (close to inner core) sections ...... in the radar, for example, the velocities are at least ..... Earth's inner core cross sections from the north .... Arunan E 1999 Hydrogen bonding: A fascination forever!; Curr. Sci. 77 1233.

  3. Gravitational torque on the inner core and decadal polar motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumberry, Mathieu

    2008-03-01

    A decadal polar motion with an amplitude of approximately 25 milliarcsecs (mas) is observed over the last century, a motion known as the Markowitz wobble. The origin of this motion remains unknown. In this paper, we investigate the possibility that a time-dependent axial misalignment between the density structures of the inner core and mantle can explain this signal. The longitudinal displacement of the inner core density structure leads to a change in the global moment of inertia of the Earth. In addition, as a result of the density misalignment, a gravitational equatorial torque leads to a tilt of the oblate geometric figure of the inner core, causing a further change in the global moment of inertia. To conserve angular momentum, an adjustment of the rotation vector must occur, leading to a polar motion. We develop theoretical expressions for the change in the moment of inertia and the gravitational torque in terms of the angle of longitudinal misalignment and the density structure of the mantle. A model to compute the polar motion in response to time-dependent axial inner core rotations is also presented. We show that the polar motion produced by this mechanism can be polarized about a longitudinal axis and is expected to have decadal periodicities, two general characteristics of the Markowitz wobble. The amplitude of the polar motion depends primarily on the Y12 spherical harmonic component of mantle density, on the longitudinal misalignment between the inner core and mantle, and on the bulk viscosity of the inner core. We establish constraints on the first two of these quantities from considerations of the axial component of this gravitational torque and from observed changes in length of day. These constraints suggest that the maximum polar motion from this mechanism is smaller than 1 mas, and too small to explain the Markowitz wobble.

  4. Temporal changes of the inner core from waveform doublets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Song, X.

    2017-12-01

    Temporal changes of the Earth's inner core have been detected from earthquake waveform doublets (repeating sources with similar waveforms at the same station). Using doublets from events up to the present in the South Sandwich Island (SSI) region recorded by the station COLA (Alaska), we confirmed systematic temporal variations in the travel time of the inner-core-refracted phase (PKIKP, the DF branch). The DF phase arrives increasingly earlier than outer core phases (BC and AB) by rate of approximately 0.07 s per decade since 1970s. If we assume that the temporal change is caused by a shift of the lateral gradient from the inner core rotation as in previous studies, we estimate the rotation rate of 0.2-0.4 degree per year. We also analyzed the topography of the inner core boundary (ICB) using SSI waveform doublets recorded by seismic stations in Eurasia and North America with reflected phase (PKiKP) and refracted phases. There are clear temporal changes in the waveforms of doublets for PKiKP under Africa and Central America. In addition, for doublets recorded by three nearby stations (AAK, AML, and UCH), we observed systematic change in the relative travel time of PKiKP and PKIKP. The temporal change of the (PKiKP - PKIKP) differential time is always negative for the event pairs if both events are before 2007, while it fluctuates to positive if the later event occurs after 2007. The rapid temporal changes in space and time may indicate localized processes (e.g., freezing and melting) of the ICB in the recent decades under Africa. We are exploring 4D models consistent with the temporal changes.

  5. High-lying neutron hole strengths observed in pick-up reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gales, S.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron-hole states in orbits well below the Fermi surface have been observed in a number of medium-heavy nuclei from A=90 to 209 using one nucleon pick-up reactions. The excitation energies, angular distributions of such broad and enhanced structures will be discussed. The fragmentation of the neutron-hole strengths as well as the spreading of such simple mode of excitations into more complex states are compared to recent calculations within the quasiparticle-phonon or the single particle-vibration coupling nuclear models. We report on recent measurements of J for inner-hole states in 89 Zr and 115 Sn 119 Sn using the analyzing power of the (p,d) and (d,t) reactions. Large enhancement of cross-sections are observed at high excitation energy in the study of the (p,t) reactions on Zr, Cd, Sn, Te and Sm isotopes. The systematic features of such high-lying excitation are related to the ones observed in one neutron pick-up experiments. The origin of such concentration of two neutron-hole strengths in Cd and Sn isotopes will be discussed. Preliminary results obtained in the study of the (α, 6 He) reaction at 218 MeV incident energy on 90 Zr, 118 Sn and 208 Pb targets are presented and compared to the (p,t) results. Finally the properties of hole-analog states populated in neutron pick-up reactions (from 90 Zr to 208 Pb) will be presented

  6. Two decades of temporal change of Earth's inner core boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiayuan; Sun, Li; Wen, Lianxing

    2015-09-01

    We report two decades of changing behavior of the Earth's inner core boundary (ICB), which provides the simplest explanation for the observed temporal change of the compressional seismic waves that are reflected from the ICB (PKiKP) and refracted in the inner core (PKIKP), from earthquake doublets occurring in South Sandwich Islands between 1993 and 2013. In the early period (before 2003), the ICB is enlarged beneath the western coast of Gabon, Republic of Congo, and southwest Tanzania in the reflected points of the PKiKP observed at seismic stations OBN, AAK, and ARU, while it experiences little change beneath Zimbabwe or/and Kenya, and beneath west Angola or/and north Central African Republic, in the PKIKP entry or/and exit points of AAK and ARU observations, respectively. In the later period (after 1998), the ICB regions beneath the western coast of Gabon, Republic of Congo, and southwest Tanzania either shrink or remain unchanged, and the temporal change migrates to beneath Zimbabwe or/and Kenya, and beneath west Angola or/and north Central African Republic, with a decrease of inner core surface by 5.59 km between 1998 and 2009 beneath Zimbabwe or Kenya and by 1.73 km beneath west Angola or north Central African Republic between 1998 and 2013. These results indicate that ICB temporal change occurs in localized regions and is episodic, rapidly migrating, and alternately enlarged and shrunk.

  7. Structure of a mushy layer at the inner core boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguen, R.; Huguet, L.; Bergman, M. I.; Labrosse, S.; Alboussiere, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present experimental results on the solidification of ammonium chloride from an aqueous solution, yielding a mushy zone, under hyper-gravity. A commercial centrifuge has been equipped with a slip-ring so that electric power, temperature and ultrasonic signals could be transmitted between the experimental setup and the laboratory. A Peltier element provides cooling at the bottom of the cell. Probes monitor the temperature along the height of the cell. Ultrasound measurements (2 to 6 MHz) is used to detect the position of the front of the mushy zone and to determine attenuation in the mush. A significant increase of solid fraction (or decrease of mushy layer thickness) and attenuation in the mush is observed as gravity is increased. Kinetic undercooling is significant in our experiments and has been included in a macroscopic mush model. The other ingredients of the model are conservation of energy and chemical species, along with heat/species transfer between the mush and the liquid phase: boundary-layer exchanges at the top of the mush and bulk convection within the mush (formation of chimneys). The outputs of the model compare well with our experiments. We have then run the model in a range of parameters suitable for the Earth's inner core, which has shown the role of bulk mush convection for the inner core and the reason why a solid fraction very close to unity should be expected. We have also run melting experiments: after crystallization of a mush, the liquid has been heated from above until the mush started to melt, while the bottom cold temperature was maintained. These melting experiments were motivated by the possible local melting at the inner core boundary that has been invoked to explain the formation of the anomalously slow F-layer at the bottom of the outer core or inner core hemispherical asymmetry. Oddly, the consequences of melting are an increase in solid fraction and a decrease in attenuation. It is hence possible that surface seismic velocity

  8. Evidence for Radial Anisotropy in Earth's Upper Inner Core from Normal Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lythgoe, K.; Deuss, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the uppermost inner core is related to solidification of outer core material at the inner core boundary. Previous seismic studies using body waves indicate an isotropic upper inner core, although radial anisotropy has not been considered since it cannot be uniquely determined by body waves. Normal modes, however, do constrain radial anisotropy in the inner core. Centre frequency measurements indicate 2-5 % radial anisotropy in the upper 100 km of the inner core, with a fast direction radially outwards and a slow direction along the inner core boundary. This seismic structure provides constraints on solidification processes at the inner core boundary and appears consistent with texture predicted due to anisotropic inner core growth.

  9. Planet Within a Planet: Rotation of the Inner Core of Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su; Dziewonski; Jeanloz

    1996-12-13

    The time dependence of the orientation of Earth's inner core relative to the mantle was determined using a recently discovered 10-degree tilt in the axis of symmetry of the inner core's seismic-velocity anisotropy. Two methods of analyzing travel-time variations for rays traversing the inner core, on the basis of 29 years of data from the International Seismological Centre (1964-1992), reveal that the inner core appears to rotate about 3 degrees per year faster than the mantle. An anomalous variation in inner-core orientation from 1969 to 1973 coincides in time with a sudden change ("jerk") in the geomagnetic field.

  10. Inner Core Rotation from Geomagnetic Westward Drift and a Stationary Spherical Vortex in Earth's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, C. V.

    1999-01-01

    The idea that geomagnetic westward drift indicates convective leveling of the planetary momentum gradient within Earth's core is pursued in search of a differentially rotating mean state, upon which various oscillations and secular effects might be superimposed. The desired state conforms to roughly spherical boundary conditions, minimizes dissipative interference with convective cooling in the bulk of the core, yet may aide core cooling by depositing heat in the uppermost core and lower mantle. The variational calculus of stationary dissipation applied to a spherical vortex within the core yields an interesting differential rotation profile akin to spherical Couette flow bounded by thin Hartmann layers. Four boundary conditions are required. To concentrate shear induced dissipation near the core-mantle boundary, these are taken to be: (i) no-slip at the core-mantle interface; (ii) geomagnetically estimated bulk westward flow at the base of the core-mantle boundary layer; (iii) no-slip at the inner-outer core interface; and, to describe magnetic locking of the inner core to the deep outer core, (iv) hydrodynamically stress-free at the inner-outer core boundary. By boldly assuming the axial core angular momentum anomaly to be zero, the super-rotation of the inner core is calculated to be at most 1.5 degrees per year.

  11. Secular changes of LOD associated with a growth of the inner core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, C.; Rybicki, K. R.; Varga, P.

    2006-05-01

    From recent estimates of the age of the inner core based on the theory of thermal evolution of the core, we estimate that nowadays the growth of the inner core may perhaps contribute to the observed overall secular increase of LOD caused mainly by tidal friction (i.e., 1.72 ms per century) by a relative decrease of 2 to 7 μs per century. Another, albeit much less plausible, hypothesis is that crystallization of the inner core does not produce any change of LOD, but makes the inner core rotate differentially with respect to the outer core and mantle.

  12. Hypothesis of Piezoelectricity of Inner Core As the Origin of Geomagnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Hayakawa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel hypothesis is proposed that assumes piezoelectricity of the inner core as the origin of geomagnetism. By high pressure, electric charge is created on the surface and at the center of the earth. Inner core rotation yields a magnetic field. From the intensity and direction of geomagnetism at the present time, the surface charge density of the inner core is assumed to be -2x10-5C/m2. The rotation axis of the inner core is inclined by 10.4 degrees from that of the mantle. The inner core rotates with the mantle rotation. The reason for this is thought to be the eddy currents induced in the outer core of electrically conductive fluid that rotates with the mantle.

  13. Seismological evidence for a localized mushy zone at the Earth?s inner core boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Dongdong; Wen, Lianxing

    2017-01-01

    Although existence of a mushy zone in the Earth?s inner core has been hypothesized several decades ago, no seismic evidence has ever been reported. Based on waveform modeling of seismic compressional waves that are reflected off the Earth?s inner core boundary, here we present seismic evidence for a localized 4?8?km thick zone across the inner core boundary beneath southwest Okhotsk Sea with seismic properties intermediate between those of the inner and outer core and of a mushy zone. Such a ...

  14. Atomic scale study of vacancies in Earth's inner core: effect of pressure and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterbex, S.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic observations of the Earth's inner core [1] remain ambiguously related to mineral physics studies of the inner core stable crystalline iron phase [2,3,4,5]. This makes it difficult to clarify the role of plastic deformation as one of the primary candidates responsible for the observed seismic anisotropy of Earth's inner core. Nonetheless, atomic self-diffusion mechanisms provide a direct link between plastic deformation and the mechanical properties of Earth's inner core stable iron phase(s). Using first-principles density functional based calculation techniques, we have studied the conjugate effect of pressure and chemistry on vacancy diffusion in HCP-, BCC- and FCC-iron by taking into account potential light alloying elements as hydrogen, silicon and sulfur. Our results show that inner core pressure highly inhibits the rate of intrinsic self-diffusion by suppressing defect concentration rather than by effecting the mobility of the defects. Moreover, we found light elements to be able to affect metallic bonding which allows for extrinsic diffusion mechanisms in iron under inner core conditions. The latter clearly enables to enhance defect concentration and hence to enhance the rate of plastic deformation. This suggests that inner core chemistry affects the rheological properties (e.g.viscosity) of iron alloys which finally should match with seismic observations. references: [1] Deuss, A., 2014. Heterogeneity and Anisotropy of Earth's inner core. An. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 42, 103-126. [2] Anzellini, S., Dewaele, A., Mezouar, M., Loubeyre, P., Morard, G., 2013. Melting of iron at Earth's inner core boundary based on fast X-ray diffraction. Science 340, 464-466. [3] Godwal, B.K., Gonzales-Cataldo, F., Verma, A.K., Stixrude, L., Jeanloz, R., 2015. Stability of iron crystal structures at 0.3-1.5 TPa. [4] Vocadlo, L., 2007. Ab initio calculations of the elasticity of iron and iron alloys at inner core conditions: evidence for a partially molten inner core

  15. Superrotation of Earth’s Inner Core, Extraterrestrial Impacts, and the Effective Viscosity of Outer Core

    OpenAIRE

    Pirooz Mohazzabi; John D. Skalbeck

    2015-01-01

    The recently verified superrotation of Earth’s inner core is examined and a new model is presented which is based on the tidal despinning of the mantle and the viscosity of the outer core. The model also takes into account other damping mechanisms arising from the inner core superrotation such as magnetic and gravitational coupling as well as contribution from eddy viscosity in the outer core. The effective viscosity obtained in this model confirms a previously well constrained value of about...

  16. Anisotropic structure of the Inner Core and its uncertainty from transdimensional body-wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, S.; Waszek, L.; Lekic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of body waves and normal modes have revealed strong quasi-hemispheric variations in seismic velocity, anisotropy and attenuation in the inner core. A rigorous mapping of the hemispheric boundaries and smaller scale heterogeneity within the hemispheres is crucial for distinguishing between hypotheses about inner core formation and evolution. However, the relatively sparse and heterogeneous distribution of paths piercing the inner core creates difficulties in constraining the boundaries and sub-hemispheric variations with body wave tomography. Damped tomographic inversions tend to smooth out strong structural gradients and risk carrying the imprint of sparse path coverage, while under-parametrized models can miss pertinent small-scale variations. For these reasons, we apply a probabilistic and transdimensional (THB) tomography method on core-sensitive differential P-wave traveltimes. The THB approach is well-suited to the problem of inner core tomography since 1) it remains parsimonious by allowing the parametrization to be determined the requirements of the data and 2) it preserves sharp boundaries in seismic properties, allowing it to capture both short-wavelength structure and the strong hemispheric dichotomy. Furthermore, the approach yields estimates of uncertainty in isotropic and anisotropic velocity, hemispheric boundary geometry, anisotropy axis and the tradeoffs between these properties. We quantify the effects of mantle heterogeneity with inner core structure and place constraints on inner core dynamics and minerology.

  17. Polymorphic Nature of Iron and Degree of Lattice Preferred Orientation Beneath the Earth's Inner Core Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattesini, Maurizio; Belonoshko, Anatoly B.; Tkalčić, Hrvoje

    2018-01-01

    Deciphering the polymorphic nature and the degree of iron lattice-preferred orientation in the Earth's inner core holds a key to understanding the present status and evolution of the inner core. A multiphase lattice-preferred orientation pattern is obtained for the top 350 km of the inner core by means of the ab initio based Candy Wrapper Velocity Model coupled to a Monte Carlo phase discrimination scheme. The achieved geographic distribution of lattice alignment is characterized by two regions of freezing, namely within South America and the Western Central Pacific, that exhibit an uncommon high degree of lattice orientation. In contrast, widespread regions of melting of relatively weak lattice ordering permeate the rest of the inner core. The obtained multiphase lattice-preferred orientation pattern is in line with mantle-constrained geodynamo simulations and allows to setup an ad hoc mineral physics scenario for the complex Earth's inner core. It is found that the cubic phase of iron is the dominating iron polymorph in the outermost part of the inner core.

  18. Inner Core Tilt and Polar Motion: Probing the Dynamics Deep Inside the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumberry, M.; Bloxham, J.

    2003-12-01

    A tilted inner core permits exchange of angular momentum between the core and the mantle through gravitational and pressure torques and, as a result, changes in the direction of Earth's axis of rotation with respect to the mantle. Some of the observed variations in the direction of Earth's rotation could then be caused by equatorial torques on the inner core which tilt the latter out of its alignment with the mantle. In this work, we investigate whether such a scenario could explain the decade polar motion known as the Markowitz wobble. We show that a decade polar motion of the same amplitude as the observed Markowitz wobble requires a torque of 1020 N m which tilts the inner core by 0.07 degrees. This result critically depends on the viscosity of the inner core; for a viscosity less than 5 x 1017 Pa s, larger torques are required. A torque of 1020 N m with decadal periodicity can perhaps be produced by electromagnetic coupling between the inner core and a component of the flow in the outer core known as torsional oscillations, provided that the radial magnetic field at the inner core boundary is on the order of 3 to 4 mT and satisfies certain geometrical constraints. The resulting polar motion thus produced is eccentric and polarized, in agreement with the observations. Our model suggests that equatorial torques at the inner core boundary might also excite the Chandler wobble, provided shorter wavelength torsional oscillations with higher natural frequencies have enough power or provided there exists another physical mechanism that can generate a large torque at a 14 month period.

  19. Anomalous top layer in the inner core beneath the eastern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W.; Wen, L.; Niu, F.

    2003-12-01

    Recent studies reported hemispheric variations in seismic velocity and attenuation in the top of the inner core. It, however, remains unclear how the inner core hemisphericity extends deep in the inner core. Here, we analyze PKPbc-PKIKP and PKiKP-PKIKP waveforms collected from the Global Seismographic Network (GSN), regional recordings from the German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN) and Graefenberg (GRF) sampling along the equatorial path (the ray path whose ray angle is larger than 35o from the Earth's rotation axis). The observed global and regional PKPbc-PKIKP differential traveltimes and PKIKP/PKPbc amplitude ratios suggest a simple W2 model (Wen/Niu:2002) in the western hemisphere with a constant velocity gradient of 0.049(km/sec)/100km and a Q value of 600 in the top 400 km of the inner core. In the eastern hemisphere, the data require a change of velocity gradient and Q value at about 235 km below the inner core boundary (ICB). Based on forward modeling, we construct radial velocity and attenuation models in the eastern hemisphere which can explain both the PKiKP-PKIKP and PKPbc-PKIKP observations. The inner core in the eastern hemisphere has a flat velocity gradient extending to about 235 km below the ICB. We test two solutions for the velocity models in the deeper portion of the inner core, with one having a first-order discontinuity at 235 km below the ICB with a velocity jump of 0.07(km/sec) followed by the PREM gradient, and the other having a gradual velocity transition with 0.1(km/sec)/100km gradient extended from 235 km to 375 km below the ICB followed by the PREM gradient. The observed traveltimes exclude the sharp discontinuity velocity model, as it predicts a kink in differential traveltimes at distance of 151o-152o which is not observed in the global and regional datasets. The observed PKIKP/PKPbc amplitude ratios can be best explained by a step function of attenuation with a Q value of 250 at the top 300 km and a Q value of 600 at 300-400 km

  20. High-resolution probing of inner core structure with seismic interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hsin-Hua

    2015-12-23

    © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Increasing complexity of Earth\\'s inner core has been revealed in recent decades as the global distribution of seismic stations has improved. The uneven distribution of earthquakes, however, still causes a biased geographical sampling of the inner core. Recent developments in seismic interferometry, which allow for the retrieval of core-sensitive body waves propagating between two receivers, can significantly improve ray path coverage of the inner core. In this study, we apply such earthquake coda interferometry to 1846 USArray stations deployed across the U.S. from 2004 through 2013. Clear inner core phases PKIKP2 and PKIIKP2 are observed across the entire array. Spatial analysis of the differential travel time residuals between the two phases reveals significant short-wavelength variation and implies the existence of strong structural variability in the deep Earth. A linear N-S trending anomaly across the middle of the U.S. may reflect an asymmetric quasi-hemispherical structure deep within the inner core with boundaries of 99°W and 88°E.

  1. Historical Variations in Inner Core Rotation and Polar Motion at Decade Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumberry, M.

    2005-12-01

    Exchanges of angular momentum between the mantle, the fluid core and the solid inner core result in changes in the Earth's rotation. Torques in the axial direction produce changes in amplitude, or changes in length of day, while torques in the equatorial direction lead to changes in orientation of the rotation vector with respect to the mantle, or polar motion. In this work, we explore the possibility that a combination of electromagnetic and gravitational torques on the inner core can reproduce the observed decadal variations in polar motion known as the Markowitz wobble. Torsional oscillations, which involve azimuthal motions in the fluid core with typical periods of decades, entrain the inner core by electromagnetic traction. When the inner core is axially rotated, its surfaces of constant density are no longer aligned with the gravitational potential from mantle density heterogeneities, and this results in a gravitational torque between the two. The axial component of this torque has been previously described and is believed to be partly responsible for decadal changes in length of day. In this work, we show that it has also an equatorial component, which produces a tilt of the inner core and results in polar motion. The polar motion produced by this mechanism depends on the density structure in the mantle, the rheology of the inner core, and the time-history of the angle of axial misalignment between the inner core and the mantle. We reconstruct the latter using a model of torsional oscillations derived from geomagnetic secular variation. From this time-history, and by using published models of mantle density structure, we show that we can reproduce the salient characteristics of the Markowitz wobble: an eccentric decadal polar motion of 30-50 milliarcsecs oriented along a specific longitude. We discuss the implications of this result, noting that a match in both amplitude and phase of the observed Markowitz wobble allows the recovery of the historical

  2. Support for equatorial anisotropy of Earth's inner-inner core from seismic interferometry at low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Song, Xiaodong

    2018-03-01

    Anisotropy of Earth's inner core provides a key role to understand its evolution and the Earth's magnetic field. Recently, using autocorrelations from earthquake's coda, we found an equatorial anisotropy of the inner-inner core (IIC), in apparent contrast to the polar anisotropy of the outer-inner core (OIC). To reduce the influence of the polar anisotropy and reduce possible contaminations from the large Fresnel zone of the PKIKP2 and PKIIKP2 phases at low frequencies, we processed coda noise of large earthquakes (10,000-40,000 s after magnitude ≥7.0) from stations at low latitudes (within ±35°) during 1990-2013. Using a number of improved procedures of both autocorrelation and cross-correlation, we extracted 52 array-stacked high-quality empirical Green's functions (EGFs), an increase of over 60% from our previous study. The high-quality data allow us to measure the relative arrival times by automatic waveform cross correlation. The results show large variation (∼10.9 s) in the differential times between the PKIKP2 and PKIIKP2 phases. The estimated influence of the Fresnel zone is insignificant (core history, change of geomagnetic field, and a proto-inner core.

  3. A dendritic solidification experiment under large gravity - implications for the Earth's inner core solidification regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguen, R.; Alboussière, T.; Brito, D.; La Rizza, P.; Masson, J.

    2009-05-01

    The Earth's inner core solidification regime is usually thought to be dendritic, which should results in the formation of a mushy layer at the inner core boundary, possibly extending deep in the inner core. The release of latent heat and solute associated with crystallization provides an important boyancy source to drive thermo- chemical convection in the core. In the laboratory, two modes of convection associated with the crystallization of mushy layers have been observed. One is a boundary layer mode originating from the destabilisation of the chemical boundary layer present at the mush-liquid interface; the second is the so-called 'mushy layer mode' which involves the whole mushy layer. In the mushy layer mode, convection usually takes the form of narrow plumes rising through crystal free conduits called chimneys. One particularity of inner core crystallization is its extremely small solidification rate compared to typical outer core convective timescales. We have designed and build an experiment devoted to the study of crystallization under a large gravity field, using a centrifuge, of an aqueous solution of ammonium chloride, which is a good analogue to metallic alloys. The large gravity field allows to reach Rayleigh numbers much larger than in typical solidification experiments. Under large gravity fields, we observe the disappearance of chimney convection and show that the large gravity field promotes the boundary layer convection mode at the expent of the mushy layer mode. As the gravitationnal forcing is increased, convective heat and solute transport are significantly enhanced, which results in larger solid fraction directly below the mush-liquid interface. The increase in solid fraction results in a dramatic decrease of the permeability in the mushy layer, which eventually becomes subcritical in respect to the mushy layer mode. Because of the very slow solidification rate of the inner core, convective transport of heat and solute from the ICB is

  4. Seismic velocity and attenuation structures at the top 400 km of the inner core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W.; Wen, L.; Niu, F.

    2002-12-01

    Recent seismic studies reveal an ``east-west" hemispherical difference in seismic velocity and attenuation in the top of the inner core [Niu and Wen, 2001, Wen and Niu, 2002]. The PKiKP-PKIKP observations they used only allowed them to constrain the seismic structure in the top 80 km of the inner core. The question now arises as such to what depth this hemispherical difference persists. To answer this question, we combine the PKiKP-PKIKP dataset and the PKPbc-PKIKP observations at the distance range of 147o-160o to study seismic velocity and attenuation structures in the top 400 km of the inner core along the ``equatorial paths" (the paths whose ray angles > 35o from the polar direction). We select PKPbc-PKIKP waveforms from recordings in the Global Seismic Network (GSN) and several dense regional seismic arrays. We choose recordings for events from 1990 to 2000 with simple source time functions, so only those of intermediate and deep earthquakes are used. The observed PKPbc-PKIKP differential travel times and PKIKP/PKPbc amplitude ratios exhibit an ``east-west" hemispherical difference. The PKPbc-PKIKP travel time residuals are about 0.7 second larger for those sampling the ``eastern" hemisphere than those sampling the ``western" hemisphere. The PKIKP/PKPbc amplitude ratios are generally smaller for those sampling the ``eastern" hemisphere. We construct two seismic velocity and attenuation models, with one for each ``hemisphere", by iteratively modeling the observed PKiKP-PKIKP waveforms, the PKPbc-PKIKP differential travel times and the PKIKP/PKPbc amplitude ratios. For the ``eastern" hemisphere, the observations indicate that the E1 velocity gradient and Q structure, inferred from the PKiKP-PKIKP observations sampling the top 80 km of the inner core, extend at least to 230 km inside the inner core. A change of velocity gradient and Q value is required in the deeper portion of the inner core. For the ``western" hemisphere, on the other hand, W2 velocity gradient

  5. Levels and transitions in /sup 204/Pb and the four valence neutron-hole configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanly, J.M.; Hicks, S.E.; McEllistrem, M.T.; Yates, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    Levels of the nucleus /sup 204/Pb have been investigated using the (n,n'γ) reaction, and γ rays from low-spin excited levels have been observed. Forty-three low-spin levels connected by 78 γ rays are found below 2.9 MeV, whereas only about 28 levels had previously been known. The levels below 2 MeV excitation energy are expected to be dominated by the p/sub 1/2/, f/sub 5/2/, and p/sub 3/2/ valence neutron hole excitations, and 0 + levels at 0, 1730, and 2433.1 keV are associated primarily with these configurations. These states are at almost the same excitation energies as parent 0 + excitations in /sup 206/Pb. Approximately six unnatural-parity levels are identified; this is close to the number predicted in six orbit valence-space shell model calculations. The number of natural-parity levels found, however, is almost twice that calculated with the shell model. Levels and transitions below 2 MeV excitation energy are consistent with expectations basing /sup 204/Pb states on correlated two-hole excitations dominant in /sup 206/Pb

  6. Inferences on the Physical Nature of Earth's Inner Core Boundary Region from Observations of Antipodal PKIKP and PKIIKP Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, V. F.; Attanayake, J.; Thomas, C.; Koper, K. D.; Miller, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth's Inner Core Boundary (ICB) is considered a uniform and sharp liquid-to-solid transition in standard Earth models such as PREM and AK135-F. By analysing seismic wave reflections emanating from the ICB, this hypothesis of a simple ICB can be tested. Observed absolute and relative amplitudes and coda of the PKiKP phase that is reflected on the topside of the ICB suggest that the ICB is neither uniform nor has a simple structure. Similarly, waves that are reflected from the underside of the ICB - PKIIKP phase - can be used to determine the physical nature of the region immediately below the ICB. Using high-frequency synthetic waveform experiments, we confirm that antipodal PKIIKP amplitudes can discriminate the state of the uppermost 10 km of the inner core: A standard liquid-to-solid ICB (high shear velocity/shear modulus discontinuity) produces a maximum PKIIKP amplitude equal to only a factor of 0.14 of the PKIKP amplitude, whereas a non-standard liquid-to-near liquid ICB (low shear velocity/shear modulus discontinuity) can produce PKIIKP amplitudes comparable to PKIKP. We searched for PKIIKP in individual and stacked array waveforms in the 170° - 180° distance range for the 2000 to 2016 time period globally to compare with our synthetic results. We attribute a lack of PKIIKP detection in the stacked array recordings due to (1) ranges closer to 170° and not 180°, where the PKIIKP signal-to-noise ratio is very poor; (2) scattered coda following PKIKP masking the PKIIKP phase; and (3) large azimuthal variations of array recordings closer to 180° preventing the formation of an accurate beam. Envelopes of individual recordings in the 178° - 180° distance range, however, clearly show energy peaks correlating with the travel time of PKIIKP phase. Our global set of PKIIKP/PKIKP energy ratio measurements vary between 0.1 and 1.1, indicating significant structural complexity immediately below the ICB. While a complex inner core anisotropy structure and ICB

  7. Bottom-up control of geomagnetic secular variation by the Earth's inner core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, Julien; Finlay, Chris; Fournier, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    of geomagnetic secular variation. Here we show that it can be reproduced provided that two mechanisms relying on the inner core are jointly considered. First, gravitational coupling5 aligns the inner core with the mantle, forcing the flow of liquid metal in the outer core into a giant, westward drifting, sheet...... release in the outer core which in turn distorts the gyre, forcing it to become eccentric, in agreement with recent core flow inversions6, 10, 11. This bottom-up heterogeneous driving of core convection dominates top-down driving from mantle thermal heterogeneities, and localizes magnetic variations......Temporal changes in the Earth’s magnetic field, known as geomagnetic secular variation, occur most prominently at low latitudes in the Atlantic hemisphere1, 2 (that is, from −90 degrees east to 90 degrees east), whereas in the Pacific hemisphere there is comparatively little activity...

  8. Electromagnetically driven westward drift and inner-core superrotation in Earth’s core

    OpenAIRE

    Livermore, Philip W.; Hollerbach, Rainer; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Seismic probing of the earth’s deep interior has shown that the inner core, the solid core of our planet, rotates slightly faster (i.e., eastward) than the rest of the earth. Quite independently, observations of the geomagnetic field provide evidence of westward-drifting features at the edge of the liquid outer core. This paper describes a computer model that suggests that the geomagnetic field itself may provide a link between them: The associated electromagnetic torque currently is westward...

  9. On the Existence of the Logarithmic Surface Layer in the Inner Core of Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    characteristics of eyewall boundary layer of Hurricane Hugo (1989). Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 1447-1462. Zhang, JA, Montgomery MT. 2012 Observational...the inner core of hurricanes Roger K. Smitha ∗and Michael T. Montgomeryb a Meteorological Institute, University of Munich, Munich, Germany b Dept. of...logarithmic surface layer”, or log layer, in the boundary layer of the rapidly-rotating core of a hurricane . One such study argues that boundary-layer

  10. Structure of a mushy layer under hypergravity with implications for Earth's inner core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Ludovic; Alboussière, Thierry; Bergman, Michael I.; Deguen, Renaud; Labrosse, Stéphane; Lesœur, Germain

    2016-03-01

    Crystallization experiments in the dendritic regime have been carried out in hypergravity conditions (from 1 to 1300 g) from an ammonium chloride solution (NH4Cl and H2O). A commercial centrifuge was equipped with a slip ring so that electric power (needed for a Peltier device and a heating element), temperature and ultrasonic signals could be transmitted between the experimental setup and the laboratory. Ultrasound measurements (2-6 MHz) were used to detect the position of the front of the mushy zone and to determine attenuation in the mush. Temperature measurements were used to control a Peltier element extracting heat from the bottom of the setup and to monitor the evolution of crystallization in the mush and in the liquid. A significant increase of solid fraction and attenuation in the mush is observed as gravity is increased. Kinetic undercooling is significant in our experiments and has been included in a macroscopic mush model. The other ingredients of the model are conservation of energy and chemical species, along with heat/species transfer between the mush and the liquid phase: boundary-layer exchanges at the top of the mush and bulk convection within the mush (formation of chimneys). The outputs of the model compare well with our experiments. We have then run the model in a range of parameters suitable for the Earth's inner core. This has shown the role of bulk mush convection for the inner core and the reason why a solid fraction very close to unity should be expected. We have also run melting experiments: after crystallization of a mush, the liquid has been heated from above until the mush started to melt, while the bottom cold temperature was maintained. These melting experiments were motivated by the possible local melting at the inner core boundary that has been invoked to explain the formation of the anomalously slow F-layer at the bottom of the outer core or inner core hemispherical asymmetry. Oddly, the consequences of melting are an increase in

  11. Is the nutation of the solid inner core responsible for the 24-year libration of the pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Chuichi; Okamoto, Isao; Sasao, Tetsuo

    1975-01-01

    BUSSE's (1970) theory of the dynamical coupling between the rigid inner core and mantle of the Earth through the pressure reactions in the fluid outer core is examined. It is confirmed that the rigid inner core has the eigenfrequency, (1-rhosub(t)/rhosub(r))esub(r)Ω 0 , of nutation (Ω 0 : the mean rotation rate of the Earth, esub(r): ellipticity of the rigid inner core, and rhosub(t), rhosub(r): the densities of the fluid outer and rigid inner cores, respectively), but it is concluded to be extremely difficult to interpret the 24-yr libration of the pole suggested by MARKOWITZ (1960, 1968) in terms of the nutation with this frequency. (auth.)

  12. Using PKiKP coda to study heterogeneity in the top layer of the inner core's western hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenbo; Irving, Jessica C. E.

    2017-05-01

    Significant lateral and depth variations of the inner core's properties, such as the large-scale hemispherical pattern, have been confirmed by a variety of seismological observations. However it is still unclear which dynamic processes in the core are responsible for these variations. Small-scale volumetric heterogeneity has been detected in the top layer of the inner core by PKiKP coda observations. Studies of these small-scale heterogeneities can provide critical information, such as the degree of alignment of iron crystals, the presence of possible partial melt and the grain size of iron crystals, all of which can be used to constrain the dynamic processes of the inner core. However, most previous observations sampled the inner core beneath the Pacific Ocean and Asia, often in the inner core's 'eastern hemisphere'. We use seismic stations in the North America, including the Earthscope Transportable Array, to look at PKiKP and its coda waves. We find 21 events with clear signals. In agreement with previous studies, inner core scattering (ICS), resulting in clear PKiKP coda, is found at epicentral distances of 60°-95°. However, the ICS we observe in these 21 western hemisphere events is weaker than previously reported for the eastern hemisphere. Comparing our observations with numerical simulations, we conclude that this relatively weak ICS indicates small-scale heterogeneity in at least the top layer of the inner core beneath Central America. Combining our clear observations with previous studies suggests either a hemispherical difference, or a regional variation, of small-scale heterogeneity in the inner core.

  13. Shape preferred orientation of iron grains compatible with Earth's uppermost inner core hemisphericity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic

    2018-01-01

    Constraining the possible patterns of iron fabrics in the Earth's Uppermost Inner Core (UIC) is key to unravel the mechanisms controlling its growth and dynamics. In the framework of crystalline micro-structures composed of ellipsoidal, aligned grains, we discuss possible textural models of UIC compatible with observations of P-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion. Using recent results from multiple scattering theory in textured heterogeneous materials, we compute the P-wave phase velocity and scattering attenuation as a function of grain volume, shape, and orientation wrt to the propagation direction of seismic P-waves. Assuming no variations of the grain volume between the Eastern and Western hemisphere, we show that two families of texture are compatible with the degree-one structure of the inner core as revealed by the positive correlation between seismic velocity and attenuation. (1) Strong flattening of grains parallel to the Inner Core Boundary in the Western hemisphere and weak anisometry in the Eastern hemisphere. (2) Strong radial elongation of grains in the Western hemisphere and again weak anisometry in the Eastern hemisphere. Both textures can quantitatively explain the seismic data in a limited range of grain volumes. Furthermore, the velocity and attenuation anisotropy locally observed under Africa demands that the grains be locally elongated in the direction of Earth's meridians. Our study demonstrates that the hemispherical seismic structure of UIC can be entirely explained by changes in the shape and orientation of grains, thereby offering an alternative to changes in grain volumes. In the future, our theoretical toolbox could be used to systematically test the compatibility of textures predicted by geodynamical models with seismic observations.

  14. GrowYourIC: A Step Toward a Coherent Model of the Earth's Inner Core Seismic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasbleis, Marine; Waszek, Lauren; Day, Elizabeth A.

    2017-11-01

    A complex inner core structure has been well established from seismic studies, showing radial and lateral heterogeneities at various length scales. Yet no geodynamic model is able to explain all the features observed. One of the main limits for this is the lack of tools to compare seismic observations and numerical models successfully. We use here a new Python tool called GrowYourIC to compare models of inner core structure. We calculate properties of geodynamic models of the inner core along seismic raypaths, for random or user-specified data sets. We test kinematic models which simulate fast lateral translation, superrotation, and differential growth. We explore first the influence on a real inner core data set, which has a sparse coverage of the inner core boundary. Such a data set is however able to successfully constrain the hemispherical boundaries due to a good sampling of latitudes. Combining translation and rotation could explain some of the features of the boundaries separating the inner core hemispheres. The depth shift of the boundaries, observed by some authors, seems unlikely to be modeled by a fast translation but could be produced by slow translation associated with superrotation.

  15. Inner core boundary topography explored with reflected and diffracted P waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    deSilva, Susini; Cormier, Vernon F.; Zheng, Yingcai

    2018-03-01

    The existence of topography of the inner core boundary (ICB) can affect the amplitude, phase, and coda of body waves incident on the inner core. By applying pseudospectral and boundary element methods to synthesize compressional waves interacting with the ICB, these effects are predicted and compared with waveform observations in pre-critical, critical, post-critical, and diffraction ranges of the PKiKP wave reflected from the ICB. These data sample overlapping regions of the inner core beneath the circum-Pacific belt and the Eurasian, North American, and Australian continents, but exclude large areas beneath the Pacific and Indian Oceans and the poles. In the pre-critical range, PKiKP waveforms require an upper bound of 2 km at 1-20 km wavelength for any ICB topography. Higher topography sharply reduces PKiKP amplitude and produces time-extended coda not observed in PKiKP waveforms. The existence of topography of this scale smooths over minima and zeros in the pre-critical ICB reflection coefficient predicted from standard earth models. In the range surrounding critical incidence (108-130 °), this upper bound of topography does not strongly affect the amplitude and waveform behavior of PKIKP + PKiKP at 1.5 Hz, which is relatively insensitive to 10-20 km wavelength topography height approaching 5 km. These data, however, have a strong overlap in the regions of the ICB sampled by pre-critical PKiKP that require a 2 km upper bound to topography height. In the diffracted range (>152°), topography as high as 5 km attenuates the peak amplitudes of PKIKP and PKPCdiff by similar amounts, leaving the PKPCdiff/PKIKP amplitude ratio unchanged from that predicted by a smooth ICB. The observed decay of PKPCdiff into the inner core shadow and the PKIKP-PKPCdiff differential travel time are consistent with a flattening of the outer core P velocity gradient near the ICB and iron enrichment at the bottom of the outer core.

  16. An in-fiber integrated optofluidic device based on an optical fiber with an inner core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghua; Yuan, Tingting; Teng, Pingping; Kong, Depeng; Liu, Chunlan; Li, Entao; Zhao, Enming; Tong, Chengguo; Yuan, Libo

    2014-06-21

    A new kind of optofluidic in-fiber integrated device based on a specially designed hollow optical fiber with an inner core is designed. The inlets and outlets are built by etching the surface of the optical fiber without damaging the inner core. A reaction region between the end of the fiber and a solid point obtained after melting is constructed. By injecting samples into the fiber, the liquids can form steady microflows and react in the region. Simultaneously, the emission from the chemiluminescence reaction can be detected from the remote end of the optical fiber through evanescent field coupling. The concentration of ascorbic acid (AA or vitamin C, Vc) is determined by the emission intensity of the reaction of Vc, H2O2, luminol, and K3Fe(CN)6 in the optical fiber. A linear sensing range of 0.1-3.0 mmol L(-1) for Vc is obtained. The emission intensity can be determined within 2 s at a total flow rate of 150 μL min(-1). Significantly, this work presents information for the in-fiber integrated optofluidic devices without spatial optical coupling.

  17. Fragmentation of neutron-hole strengths in 59Ni observed in the 60Ni(p, d) 59Ni reaction at 65 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoba, M.; Ohgaki, H.; Kugimiya, H.; Ijiri, H.; Maki, T.; Nakano, M.

    1995-01-01

    The 60 Ni(p, d) 59 Ni reaction has been studied with 65 MeV polarized protons. Angular distributions of the differential cross section and analyzing power have been measured for neutron hole states in 59 Ni up to the excitation energies of 7 MeV. The data analysis with a standard distorted-wave Born approximation theory provides transferred angular momenta l, j and spectroscopic factors for thirty-nine transitions. The nuclear damping mechanism of the single hole states is discussed. ((orig.))

  18. GrowYourIC: an open access Python code to facilitate comparison between kinematic models of inner core evolution and seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasbleis, M.; Day, E. A.; Waszek, L.

    2017-12-01

    The complex nature of inner core structure has been well-established from seismic studies, with heterogeneities at various length scales, both radially and laterally. Despite this, no geodynamic model has successfully explained all of the observed seismic features. To facilitate comparisons between seismic observations and geodynamic models of inner core growth we have developed a new, open access Python tool - GrowYourIC - that allows users to compare models of inner core structure. The code allows users to simulate different evolution models of the inner core, with user-defined rates of inner core growth, translation and rotation. Once the user has "grown" an inner core with their preferred parameters they can then explore the effect of "their" inner core's evolution on the relative age and growth rate in different regions of the inner core. The code will convert these parameters into seismic properties using either built-in mineral physics models, or user-supplied ones that calculate these seismic properties with users' own preferred mineralogical models. The 3D model of isotropic inner core properties can then be used to calculate the predicted seismic travel time anomalies for a random, or user-specified, set of seismic ray paths through the inner core. A real dataset of inner core body-wave differential travel times is included for the purpose of comparing user-generated models of inner core growth to actual observed travel time anomalies in the top 100km of the inner core. Here, we explore some of the possibilities of our code. We investigate the effect of the limited illumination of the inner core by seismic waves on the robustness of kinematic model interpretation. We test the impact on seismic differential travel time observations of several kinematic models of inner core growth: fast lateral translation; slow differential growth; and inner core super-rotation. We find that a model of inner core evolution incorporating both differential growth and slow

  19. Complex inner core of the Earth: The last frontier of global seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalčić, Hrvoje

    2015-03-01

    The days when the Earth's inner core (IC) was viewed as a homogeneous solid sphere surrounded by the liquid outer core (OC) are now behind us. Due to a limited number of data sampling the IC and a lack of experimentally controlled conditions in the deep Earth studies, it has been difficult to scrutinize competitive hypotheses in this active area of research. However, a number of new concepts linking IC structure and dynamics has been proposed lately to explain different types of seismological observations. A common denominator of recent observational work on the IC is increased complexity seen in IC physical properties such as its isotropic and anisotropic structure, attenuation, inner core boundary (ICB) topography, and its rotational dynamics. For example, small-scale features have been observed to exist as a widespread phenomenon in the uppermost inner core, probably superimposed on much longer-scale features. The characterization of small-scale features sheds light on the nature of the solidification process and helps in understanding seismologically observed hemispherical dichotomy of the IC. The existence of variations in the rate and level of solidification is a plausible physical outcome in an environment where vigorous compositional convection in the OC and variations in heat exchange across the ICB may control the process of crystal growth. However, further progress is hindered by the fact that the current traveltime data of PKIKP waves traversing the IC do not allow discriminating between variations in isotropic P wave velocity and velocity anisotropy. Future studies of attenuation in the IC might provide crucial information about IC structure, although another trade-off exists—that of the relative contribution of scattering versus viscoelastic attenuation and the connection with the material properties. Future installations of dense arrays, cross paths of waves that sample the IC, and corresponding array studies will be a powerful tool to image and

  20. Studies on the preparation of 103Pd inner core of seed sources for brachytherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Sujata; Manolkar, R.B.; Vimalnath, K.V.; Dash, A.; Venkatesh, Meera

    2007-01-01

    103 Pd seed sources are used widely world over for brachytherapy applications. 103 Pd available in-house was used to study its deposition on silver wire using electro-deposition and electroless deposition techniques with an aim to developing the inner core preparation of sealed radiation sources for treatment of prostate and ocular melanoma. Various parameters such as radioactive concentration of the feed solution, current density, time, temperature and pH of the solution were optimized to achieve maximum 103 Pd deposition on Ag wire. In electroless technique, the deposited amount of Pd was found to be nearly triple compared to electro-deposition in two hours time period. Both the methods gave nonleachable and well adherent sources. (author)

  1. A study of the required Rayleigh number to sustain dynamo with various inner core radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Y.; Katoh, Y.; Matsui, H.; Kumamoto, A.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the geomagnetic field is sustained by thermal and compositional driven convections of a liquid iron alloy in the outer core. The generation process of the geomagnetic field has been studied by a number of MHD dynamo simulations. Recent studies of the ratio of the Earth's core evolution suggest that the inner solid core radius ri to the outer liquid core radius ro changed from ri/ro = 0 to 0.35 during the last one billion years. There are some studies of dynamo in the early Earth with smaller inner core than the present. Heimpel et al. (2005) revealed the Rayleigh number Ra of the onset of dynamo process as a function of ri/ro from simulation, while paleomagnetic observation shows that the geomagnetic field has been sustained for 3.5 billion years. While Heimpel and Evans (2013) studied dynamo processes taking into account the thermal history of the Earth's interior, there were few cases corresponding to the early Earth. Driscoll (2016) performed a series of dynamo based on a thermal evolution model. Despite a number of dynamo simulations, dynamo process occurring in the interior of the early Earth has not been fully understood because the magnetic Prandtl numbers in these simulations are much larger than that for the actual outer core.In the present study, we performed thermally driven dynamo simulations with different aspect ratio ri/ro = 0.15, 0.25 and 0.35 to evaluate the critical Ra for the thermal convection and required Ra to maintain the dynamo. For this purpose, we performed simulations with various Ra and fixed the other control parameters such as the Ekman, Prandtl, and magnetic Prandtl numbers. For the initial condition and boundary conditions, we followed the dynamo benchmark case 1 by Christensen et al. (2001). The results show that the critical Ra increases with the smaller aspect ratio ri/ro. It is confirmed that larger amplitude of buoyancy is required in the smaller inner core to maintain dynamo.

  2. The Density Jump at the Inner Core Boundary in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoshchekov, D. N.; Ovtchinnikov, V. M.

    2018-02-01

    The results of analysis of more than 1300 new PKiKP/PcP amplitude ratios measured in Southeast Asia and South America at the epicentral distances of 3.2°-35.2° are presented. The density jump in the Eastern Hemisphere of the Earth's inner core (IC) is 0.3 g/cm3, and it is 0.9 g/cm3 in the Western one. Taking the large discrepancy in the obtained estimates into consideration, maintenance of such large lateral variations in the mosaic properties of the IC reflecting surface requires considerable variations in the thermodynamic parameters (mostly temperature) of the inner-outer core transition. However, if the observed asymmetry in the density jump distribution is of a global character, the data presented support the translation model of the IC dynamics. This model implies IC crystallization in the Western Hemisphere and melting in the Eastern one, not vice versa, as suggested by another geodynamic model based on thermochemical convection in the outer core and the thermal balance of the core-mantle system.

  3. Possible generation of heat from nuclear fusion in Earth's inner core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Mikio

    2016-11-23

    The cause and source of the heat released from Earth's interior have not yet been determined. Some research groups have proposed that the heat is supplied by radioactive decay or by a nuclear georeactor. Here we postulate that the generation of heat is the result of three-body nuclear fusion of deuterons confined in hexagonal FeDx core-centre crystals; the reaction rate is enhanced by the combined attraction effects of high-pressure (~364 GPa) and high-temperature (~5700 K) and by the physical catalysis of neutral pions: 2 D +  2 D +  2 D → 2 1 H +  4 He + 2  + 20.85 MeV. The possible heat generation rate can be calculated as 8.12 × 10 12  J/m 3 , based on the assumption that Earth's primitive heat supply has already been exhausted. The H and He atoms produced and the anti-neutrino are incorporated as Fe-H based alloys in the H-rich portion of inner core, are released from Earth's interior to the universe, and pass through Earth, respectively.

  4. Nature and Strength of the Inner-Core H⋅⋅⋅H Interactions in Porphyrinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankit; Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Sethi, Srikant Kumar; Jena, Subhrakant; Biswal, Himansu S

    2017-12-15

    Several recent publications have illustrated that electrostatic attraction is not solely responsible for strong hydrogen bonds. Even electropositive and less electronegative atoms such as Te and Se are capable of forming strong H-bonds. Herein, we provide evidence for intramolecular homopolar dihydrogen bonds [HOMO-DHBs; X-N(C)-H δ+ ⋅⋅⋅ δ+ H-N(C)-Y] in porphyrins and related compounds for the first time; these bonds are revealed by careful Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) exploration, quantum theory of atoms in molecules, compliance constant calculations, and natural bond orbital and noncovalent interaction (NCI) analysis. A search of the CSD showed that the inner-core hydrogen atom distances were less than 2.5 Å (sum of the van der Waals radii of two hydrogen atoms is 2.4 Å) in porphyrinoids, i.e. about 75 % of the cases. This suggested an attractive interaction between hydrogen atoms carrying a positive charge, which was further supported by quantum-chemical calculations. The HOMO-DHB energy in some cases was found to be as much as around 20 kJ mol -1 , which is comparable to that of any conventional H-bond energy such as for the NH 3 dimer. The interplay between hyperconjugative attraction and steric constraint favorably decided the strength of the HOMO-DHBs. We expect that HOMO-DHBs could be revealed in many more systems, such as corroles, phlorins, crown ethers, and constrained systems having hydrogen atoms in close contact, and could be an important noncovalent interaction to consider in supramolecular chemistry. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Inner Core Structure of Hurricane Alicia from Airborne Doppler Radar Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Frank D., Jr.; Houze, Robert A., Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Airborne Doppler radar measurements are used to determine the horizontal winds, vertical air motions, radar reflectivity and hydrometer fallspeeds over much of the inner-core region (within 40 km of the eye) of Hurricane Alicia (1983). The reconstructed flow field is more complete and detailed than any obtained previously. The data show both the primary (azimuthal) and secondary (radial-height) circulations. The primary circulation was characterized by an outward sloping maximum of tangential wind. The secondary circulation was characterized by a deep layer of radial inflow in the lower troposphere and a layer of intense outflow above 10 km altitude. The rising branch of the secondary circulation was located in the eyewall and sloped radially outward. Discrete convective-scale bubbles of more intense upward motion were superimposed on this mean rising current, and convective-scale downdrafts were located throughout and below the core of maximum precipitation in the eyewall.Precipitation particles in the eyewall rainshaft circulated 18-20 km downwind as they fell, consistent with the typical upwind slope with increasing altitude of eyewall precipitation cores Outside the eyewall, the precipitation was predominantly stratiform. A radar bright band was evident at the melting level. Above the melting level, ice particles were advected into the stratiform region from the upper levels of the eyewall and drifted downward through a mesoscale region of ascent. Hypothetical precipitation particle trajectories showed that as these particles fell slowly through the mesoscale updraft toward the melting level, they were carried azimuthally as many as 1 1/2 times around the storm. During this spiraling descent, the particles evidently grew vigorously. The amount of water condensed by the ambient mesoscale ascent exceeded that transported into the stratiform region by the eyewall outflow by a factor of 3. As the particles fell into the lower troposphere, they entered a mesoscale

  6. Crystal structure of Earth's inner core: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, S. G.; Schultz, A. J.; Zurek, E.; Kofke, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Since the detection of the Earth's solid inner core (IC) by Lehmann in 1936, its composition and crystal structure (which are essential to understand Earth's evolution) have been controversial. While seismological measurements (e.g. PREM) can give a robust estimation of the density, pressure, and elasticity of the IC, they cannot be directly used to determine its composition and/or crystal structure. Experimentally, reaching the extreme IC conditions ( 330 GPa and 6000 K) and getting reliable measurements is very challenging. First-principles calculations provide a viable alternative that can work as a powerful investigative tool. Although several attempts have been made to assess phase stability at IC conditions computationally, they often use a low level of theory for electronic structure (e.g., classical force-field), adopt approximate methods (e.g., quasiharmonic approximation, fixed hcp-c/a), or do not consider finite-size effects. The study of phase stability using accurate first-principles methods is hampered in part by the difficulty of computing the free energy (FE), the central thermodynamic quantity that determines stability, while including anharmonic and finite-size effects. Additional difficulty related to the IC in particular is introduced by the dynamical instability of one of the IC candidate structures (bcc) at low temperature. Recently [1-3], we introduced a novel method (denoted as "harmonically mapped averaging", or HMA) to efficiently measure anharmonic properties (e.g. FE, pressure, elastic modulus) by molecular simulation, yielding orders of magnitude CPU speedup compared to conventional methods. We have applied this method to the hcp candidate phase of iron at the IC conditions, obtaining first-principles anharmonic FE values with unprecedented accuracy and precision [4]. We have now completed and report HMA calculations to assess the phase stability of all IC candidate phases (fcc/hcp/bcc). This knowledge is the prerequisite for

  7. The effects of the solid inner core and nonhydrostatic structure on the earth's forced nutations and earth tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Dan; Wahr, John M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper computes the effects of the solid inner core (IC) on the forced nutations and earth tides, and on certain of the earth's rotational normal modes. The theoretical results are extended to include the effects of a solid IC and of nonhydrostatic structure. The presence of the IC is responsible for a new, almost diurnal, prograde normal mode which involves a relative rotation between the IC and fluid outer core about an equatorial axis. It is shown that the small size of the IC's effects on both nutations and tides is a consequence of the fact that the IC's moments of inertia are less than 1/1000 of the entire earth's.

  8. 186Os- 187Os systematics of Gorgona Island komatiites: implications for early growth of the inner core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Alan D.; Walker, Richard J.; Puchtel, Igor S.; Becker, Harry; Humayun, Munir; Revillon, Sidonie

    2003-02-01

    The presence of coupled enrichments in 186Os/ 188Os and 187Os/ 188Os in some mantle-derived materials reflects long-term elevation of Pt/Os and Re/Os relative to the primitive upper mantle. New Os data for the 89 Ma Gorgona Island, Colombia komatiites indicate that these lavas are also variably enriched in 186Os and 187Os, with 186Os/ 188Os ranging between 0.1198397±22 and 0.1198470±38, and with γOs correspondingly ranging from +0.15 to +4.4. These data define a linear trend that converges with the previously reported linear trend generated from data for modern Hawaiian picritic lavas and a sample from the ca. 251 Ma Siberian plume, to a common component with a 186Os/ 188Os of approximately 0.119870 and γOs of +17.5. The convergence of these data to this Os isotopic composition may imply a single ubiquitous source in the Earth's interior that mixes with a variety of different mantle compositions distinguished by variations in γOs. The 187Os- and 186Os-enriched component may have been generated via early crystallization of the solid inner core and consequent increases in Pt/Os and Re/Os in the liquid outer core, with time leading to suprachondritic 186Os/ 188Os and γOs in the outer core. The presence of Os from the outer core in certain portions of the mantle would require a mechanism that could transfer Os from the outer core to the lower mantle, and thence to the surface. If this is the process that generated the isotopic enrichments in the mantle sources of these plume-derived systems, then the current understanding of solid metal-liquid metal partitioning of Pt, Re and Os requires that crystallization of the inner core began prior to 3.5 Ga. Thus, the Os isotopic data reported here provide a new source of data to better constrain the timing of inner core formation, complementing magnetic field paleo-intensity measurements as data sources that constrain models based on secular cooling of the Earth.

  9. Role of Density Gradient Driven Trapped Electron Modes in the H-Mode Inner Core with Electron Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, D.

    2015-11-01

    We present new experiments and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations showing that density gradient driven TEM (DGTEM) turbulence dominates the inner core of H-Mode plasmas during strong electron heating. Thus α-heating may degrade inner core confinement in H-Mode plasmas with moderate density peaking. These DIII-D low torque quiescent H-mode experiments were designed to study DGTEM turbulence. Gyrokinetic simulations using GYRO (and GENE) closely match not only particle, energy, and momentum fluxes, but also density fluctuation spectra, with and without ECH. Adding 3.4 MW ECH doubles Te /Ti from 0.5 to 1.0, which halves the linear TEM critical density gradient, locally flattening the density profile. Density fluctuations from Doppler backscattering (DBS) intensify near ρ = 0.3 during ECH, displaying a band of coherent fluctuations with adjacent toroidal mode numbers. GYRO closely reproduces the DBS spectrum and its change in shape and intensity with ECH, identifying these as coherent TEMs. Prior to ECH, parallel flow shear lowers the effective nonlinear DGTEM critical density gradient 50%, but is negligible during ECH, when transport displays extreme stiffness in the density gradient. GS2 predictions show the DGTEM can be suppressed, to avoid degradation with electron heating, by broadening the current density profile to attain q0 >qmin > 1 . A related experiment in the same regime varied the electron temperature gradient in the outer half-radius (ρ ~ 0 . 65) using ECH, revealing spatially coherent 2D mode structures in the Te fluctuations measured by ECE imaging. Fourier analysis with modulated ECH finds a threshold in Te profile stiffness. Supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-08ER54966 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  10. SPIN DETERMINATION OF VALENCE AND INNER HOLE STATES VIA THE PB-208((D)OVER-RIGHT-ARROW,T)PB-207 REACTION AT ED=200 MEV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LANGEVINJOLIOT, H; VANDEWIELE, J; GUILLOT, J; GERLIC, E; ROSIER, LH; WILLIS, A; MORLET, M; DUHAMELCHRETIEN, G; TOMASIGUSTAFSSON, E; BLASI, N; MICHELETTI, S; VANDERWERF, SY

    Highly excited neutron hole states in Pb-207 have been studied via the (d, over arrow pointing right, t) reaction at E(d) = 200 MeV using for the first time a polarized beam, with both vector and tensor components. The determination of overlapping neutron hole response functions takes advantage of

  11. Seismic anisotropy; a window on how the Earth works: multiple mechanisms and sites, from shallow mantle to inner core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, Miles

    2013-04-01

    Since the seismic anisotropy (SA) in the uppermost oceanic mantle was discovered [1] and attributed to the shearing of olivine by an MOR-divergent flow velocity gradient, rheological mobility interpretations of this type have dominated studies of SA there and elsewhere in the Earth. Here I describe two other SA-generating mechanisms. I will reason that one of these, the anisotropic crystallization from melt, bids fair largely to replace the shearing one and be present in even larger volumes of the Earth, both within its outer 100km and in the Inner Core. The other, the layered deposition of disparate substances, offers to explain the ULVZs and SA in D''. We start with the Upper Mantle. New constraints on its rheological properties and dynamical behaviour have come from two directions. Firstly, contrary to the seismologists' rule-book, the oceanic LVZ is no longer to be thought of as mobile because the presence of interstitial melt strips out the water-weakening of the mineral structure [2, 3]. So we require a substitute for the divergent-flow model for MORs. In fact it also has three other, apparently unrecognized, dynamical inconsistencies. One of these [4] is that there are in the record many rapid changes of spreading rate and direction, and ridge jumps. This cannot happen with a process driven by slow-to-change body forces. Secondly, during the past decade, my work on the global dynamics for the past 150Ma (I will show examples) has shown [4 - 7] that the tectospheres of cratons must extend to very close to the bottom of the upper mantle. And that East Antarctica's 'keel' must actually reach it, because its CW rotation [7] suggests it has been picking up an electromagnetic torque from the CMB via the lower mantle. Xenoliths suggest that the reason for this downwards extent of 'keels' is the same as [3]. To meet these two sets of constraints I will demonstrate my now not-so-new MOR model, which has a narrow, wall-accreting subaxial crack. Among its many features

  12. Study of the three-proton three-neutron-hole nucleus 208At

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fant, B.; Weckstroem, T.

    1984-01-01

    Levels in 208 At were populated in the 209 Bi (α, 5n) reaction, and the subsequent radiation was studied using γ-spectroscopic methods including γ-ray excitation function and angular distribution, γγ(t) coincidence and γt measurements, as well as measurements of conversion electrons. The excited spectrum of 208 At is found to consist of two almost disconnected parts which are proposed to originate from seniority-three proton and neutron cascades. Two isometric states are observed. A Tsub(1/2)=45+-2ns state at 1090 keV is proposed to have the main configuration πhsub(9/2)j 0 2 +νsub(13/2) -1 jsub(0+) -2 and Jsup(π)=10 - . A high-spin isomer with Tsub(1/2)=1.5+-0.2 μs at 2276 keV is assigned to be the π(hsub(9/2) 2 isub(13/2))sub(29/2)+νfsub(5/2) -1 jsub(0+) -2 Jsup(π)=16 - state. Shell-model arguments are used to assign configurations to most of the observed levels. Transition rates are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Measurement of conversion electrons with the $^{208}Pb(p,n)^{208}Bi$ reaction and derivation of the shell model proton neutron hole interaction from the properties of $^{208}Bi$

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, K H; Dracoulis, G D; Boutachkov, P; Aprahamian, A; Byrne, A P; Davidson, P M; Lane, G L; Marie-Jeanne, Mélanie; Nieminen, P; Watanabe, H

    2007-01-01

    Conversion electrons from 208Bi have been measured using singles and coincidence techniques with the 208Pb(p,n)208Bi reaction at 9 MeV. The new information on multipolarities and spins complements that available from recent gamma-gamma-coincidence studies with the same reaction [Boutachkov et al., Nucl. Phys. A768, 22 (2006)]. The results on electromagnetic decays taken together with information on spectroscopic factors from earlier single-particle transfer reaction measurements represent an extensive data set on the properties of the one-proton one-neutron-hole states below 3 MeV, a spectrum which is virtually complete. Comparison of the experimental observables, namely, energies, spectroscopic factors, and gamma-branching ratios, with those calculated within the shell model allows extraction of the matrix elements of the shell model residual interaction. More than 100 diagonal and nondiagonal elements can be determined in this way, through a least squares fit to the experimental data. This adjustment of the...

  14. An investigation on how inner-core structures obtained through radar data assimilation affect track forecasting of typhoon Jangmi (2008) near Taiwan Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingjun; Xue, Ming; Zhao, Kun

    2016-09-01

    The impacts of radar data assimilation (DA) on the westward track deflection of Typhoon Jangmi (2008) near Taiwan Island and the deflection mechanism are investigated. Initial conditions from two data assimilation experiments with significant track forecast differences are analyzed and compared. The environmental, axisymmetric, wave number 1 to 3 asymmetric fields of the typhoon are decomposed by using vortex separation and Fourier decomposition methods. The components are selectively recomposed into new initial conditions that include different vortex-scale components to examine the impact of individual components on the track prediction. The wave number 1 asymmetric structure is found to play a dominant role in the westward deflection of Typhoon Jangmi, and the accurate analysis of this component with radar DA helps to improve the track forecast. The wave number 1 asymmetric circulation is manifested as a pair of cyclonic and anticyclonic gyres with well-defined ventilation flows through the inner-core region, which provides additional steering of the typhoon vortex. The layer-mean environmental steering flow and ventilation flow associated with the wave number 1 gyres are further calculated to quantitatively evaluate the impact of ventilation flow. The ventilation flow is shown to be responsible for most of the westward motion component, suggesting again its role in causing the westward track deflection of Typhoon Jangmi. The results also suggest the importance of analyzing vortex-scale asymmetric structures for accurate tropical cyclone track forecasting, especially when there is a significant track deflection.

  15. Constraints on The Coupled Thermal Evolution of the Earth's Core and Mantle, The Age of The Inner Core, And The Origin of the 186Os/188Os Core(?) Signal in Plume-Derived Lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    Thermal and chemical interaction between the core and mantle has played a critical role in the thermal and chemical evolution of the Earth's interior. Outer core convection is driven by core cooling and inner core crystallization. Core/mantle heat transfer also buffers mantle potential temperature, resulting in slower rates of mantle cooling (~50-100 K/Ga) than would be predicted from the discrepancy between current rates of surface heat loss (~44 TW) and internal radioactive heat production (~20 TW). Core/mantle heat transfer may also generate thermal mantle plumes responsible for ocean island volcanic chains such as the Hawaiian Islands. Several studies suggest that mantle plumes, in addition to transporting heat from the core/mantle boundary, also carry a chemical signature of core/mantle interaction. Elevated 186Os/188Os ratios in lavas from Hawaii, Gorgona, and in the 2.8 Ga Kostomuksha komatiites have been interpreted as reflecting incorporation of an outer core component with high time-integrated Pt/Os and Re/Os ( Brandon et al., 1999, 2003; Puchtel et al., 2005). Preferential partitioning of Os relative to Re and Pt into the inner core during inner core growth may generate elevated Re/Os and Pt/Os ratios in the residual outer core. Because of the long half-life of 190Pt (the parent of 186Os, t1/2 = 489 Ga), an elevated 186Os/188Os outer core signature in plume lavas requires that inner core crystallization began early in Earth history, most likely prior to 3.5 Ga. This in turn requires low time-averaged core/mantle heat flow (<~2.5 TW) or large quantities of heat-producing elements in the core. Core/mantle heat flow may be estimated using boundary-layer theory, by measuring the heat transported in mantle plumes, by estimating the heat transported along the outer core adiabat, or by comparing the rates of heat production, surface heat loss, and secular cooling of the mantle. All of these independent methods suggest time-averaged core/mantle heat flow of ~5

  16. Constraints on the coupled thermal evolution of the Earth's core and mantle, the age of the inner core, and the origin of the 186Os/188Os “core signal” in plume-derived lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, J. C.

    2006-10-01

    The possibility that some mantle plumes may carry a geochemical signature of core/mantle interaction has rightly generated considerable interest and attention in recent years. Correlated 186Os- 187Os enrichments in some plume-derived lavas (Hawaii, Gorgona, Kostomuksha) have been interpreted as deriving from an outer core with elevated Pt/Os and Re/Os ratios due to the solidification of the Earth's inner core (c.f., [A.D. Brandon, R.J. Walker, The debate over core-mantle interaction, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 232 (2005) 211-225.] and references therein). Conclusive identification of a "core signal" in plume-derived lavas would profoundly influence our understanding of mantle convection and evolution. This paper reevaluates the Os-isotope evidence for core/mantle interaction by examining other geochemical constraints on core/mantle interaction, geophysical constraints on the thermal evolution of the outer core, and geochemical and cosmochemical constraints on the abundance of heat-producing elements in the core. Additional study of metal/silicate and sulfide/silicate partitioning of K, Pb, and other trace elements is needed to more tightly constrain the likely starting composition of the Earth's core. However, available data suggest that the observed 186Os enrichments in Hawaiian and other plume-derived lavas are unlikely to derive from core/mantle interaction. 1) Core/mantle interaction sufficient to produce the observed 186Os enrichments would likely have significant effects on other tracers such as Pb- and W-isotopes that are not observed. 2) Significant partitioning of K or other heat-producing elements into the core would produce a "core depletion" pattern in the Silicate Earth very different from that observed. 3) In the absence of heat-producing elements in the core, core/mantle heat flow of ˜ 6-15 TW estimated from several independent geophysical constraints suggests an inner core age (< ˜ 2.5 Ga) too young for the outer core to have developed a significant

  17. High spin states and Yrast isomers in 211Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.R.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Fahlander, C.; Morrison, I.

    1981-01-01

    Excited states in 211 Rn with spins up to 53/2 have been identified using (HI,xn) reactions and γ-ray techniques. A shell model calculation can reproduce the ordering of the yrast sequence up to spin 41/2 - . Several yrast isomers have been identified. Enhanced E3 transitions are observed and their systematic occurrence in this region discussed. The influence of the neutron hole, and possible core excitations on the effective moment of inertia are also pointed out

  18. High spin states and yrast isomers in 211Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.R.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Fahlander, C.; Morrison, I.

    1980-12-01

    Excited states in 211 Rn with spins up to 53/2 have been identified using (HI,xn) reactions and γ-ray techniques. A shell model calculation can reproduce the ordering of the yrast sequence up to spin 41/2. Several yrast isomers have been identified. Enhanced E3 transitions are observed and their systematic occurrence in this region discussed. The influence of the neutron hole, and possible core excitations on the effective moment of inertia are also pointed out

  19. How neutron stars constrain the nuclear equation of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hell Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent neutron star observations set new constraints for the equation of state of baryonic matter. A chiral effective field theory approach is used for the description of neutron-dominated nuclear matter present in the outer core of neutron stars. Possible hybrid stars with quark matter in the inner core are discussed using a three-flavor Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model.

  20. Thoughts on future ESSR studies of inner core levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, M.O.

    1990-01-01

    Much of the research to be done at a tunable high-brightness, high-energy photon source can take as a starting point work done in the past, some in the distant past, some in the recent past, but almost always rudimentary or exploratory in nature. It began in the mid-twenties when Pierre Auger observed various tracks in a Wilson Cloud Chamber filled with a rare gas and irradiated by energetic x rays. Now-a-days this photographic plate is shown as evidence for the experimental discovery of the radiationless process of atomic de-excitation, the Auger Effect - no doubt true; but these plates also served the important purpose of determining the angular distributions of the photoelectrons, actually the primary goal at the outset of Auger's thesis. Today, the author shows this plate as an illustration of electron spectroscopy which at its very beginning used x rays of high energies lying in the regime to be covered by the APS, and sources such as PEP, ESRF and SPring 8

  1. Deep-lying hole states in the optical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevansky, S.P.; Lemmer, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The strength function for deep-lying hole states in an optical potential is studied by the method of Green's functions. The role of isospin is emphasized. It is shown that, while the main trends of the experimental data on hole states in isotopes of Sn and Pd can be described by an energy independent optical potential, intermediate structures in these data indicate the specific nuclear polarization effects have to be included. This is done by introducing doorway states of good isospin into the optical model potential. Such states consist of neutron hole plus proton core vibrations as well as more complicated excitations that are analog states of proton hole plus neutron core vibrations of the parent nuclear system. Specific calculations for 115 Sn and 103 Pd give satisfactory fits to the strength function data using optical model and doorway state parameters that are reasonable on physical grounds

  2. Construction of carrier state viruses with partial genomes of the segmented dsRNA bacteriophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yang; Qiao Xueying; Mindich, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    The cystoviridae are bacteriophages with genomes of three segments of dsRNA enclosed within a polyhedral capsid. Two members of this family, PHI6 and PHI8, have been shown to form carrier states in which the virus replicates as a stable episome in the host bacterium while expressing reporter genes such as kanamycin resistance or lacα. The carrier state does not require the activity of all the genes necessary for phage production. It is possible to generate carrier states by infecting cells with virus or by electroporating nonreplicating plasmids containing cDNA copies of the viral genomes into the host cells. We have found that carrier states in both PHI6 and PHI8 can be formed at high frequency with all three genomic segments or with only the large and small segments. The large genomic segment codes for the proteins that constitute the inner core of the virus, which is the structure responsible for the packaging and replication of the genome. In PHI6, a carrier state can be formed with the large and middle segment if mutations occur in the gene for the major structural protein of the inner core. In PHI8, carrier state formation requires the activity of genes 8 and 12 of segment S

  3. Neutron star matter equation of state: current status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Akira

    2014-09-01

    Neutron star matter has a variety of constituents and structures depending on the density; neutron-rich nuclei surounded by electrons and drip neutrons in the crust, pasta nuclei at the bottom of inner crust, and uniform isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter in a superfluid state in the outer core. In the inner core, the neutron Fermi energy becomes so large that exotic constituents such as hyperons, mesons and quarks may emerge. Radioactive beam and hypernuclear experiments provide information on the symmetry energy and superfluidity in the crust and outer core and on the hyperon potentials in the inner core, respectively. Cold atom experiments are also helpful to understand pure neutron matter, which may be simulated by the unitary gas. An equation of state (EOS) constructed based on these laboratory experiments has to be verified by the astronomical observations such as the mass, radius, and oscillations of neutron stars. One of the key but missing ingredients is the three-baryon interactions such as the hyperon-hyperon-nucleon (YYN) interaction. YYN interaction is important in order to explain the recently discovered massive neutron stars consistently with laboratory experiments. We have recently found that the ΛΛ interaction extracted from the ΛΛ correlation at RHIC is somewhat stronger than that from double Λ hypernuclei. Since these two interactions corresponds to the vacuum and in-medium ΛΛ interactions, respectively, the difference may tell us a possible way to access the YYN interaction based on experimental data. In the presentation, after a review on the current status of neutron star matter EOS studies, we discuss the necessary tasks to pin down the EOS. We also present our recent study of ΛΛ interaction from correlation data at RHIC.

  4. Population and particle decay of isobaric analog states in medium heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gales, S.

    1980-05-01

    The systematic features of proton stripping and neutron pick-up reactions to Isobaric Analog States in medium heavy nuclei are presented. The ( 3 He,d) reaction investigated at high incident energy is shown to selectively excite high-spin particle-analog states. Similarly the ( 3 He,α) reaction populates hole-analog states. The recent results related to such highly excited states in a wide range of nuclei ( 48 Ca to 208 Pb) are discussed in the framework of the DWBA theory of direct reactions with special emphasis on the treatment of unbound proton states or deeply-bound neutron hole states. The particle decay of Isobaric Analog States are investigated using the ( 3 He,d p) and ( 3 He, α p) sequential processes. The experimental method developed at Orsay (0 0 detection) for particle-particle angular correlations is presented. The advantage and the limits of such approach are illustrated by typical examples of particle decays: core-excited states, neutron particle-hole multiplets and the first observation of the proton emission of hole-analog levels. In conclusion new experimental approaches such as asymmetry measurements for analog states observed in transfer reactions or possible population of double analog states in heavy nuclei are discussed

  5. The density jump at the inner core boundary using underground nuclear explosion records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnoshchekov, D.N.; Ovchinnikov, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the estimation of the minimum jump value using experimental wave forms reflected from the boundary between the Earth core and mantle (PcP) and the one between the inner and outer core (PKiKP) at a distance of 6 deg. Digital seismic records of underground nuclear tests conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site in 70s by Zerenda-Vostochny-Chkalovo seismic array have been used. (author)

  6. How carbo-benzenes fit molecules in their inner core as do biologic ion carriers?

    KAUST Repository

    Turias, Francesc

    2015-09-25

    The present computational study complements experimental efforts to describe and characterize carbo-benzene derivatives as paradigms of aromatic carbo-mers. A long-lasting issue has been the possibility of the π-electron crown of the C18 carbo-benzene ring to fit metals or any chemical agents in its core. A systematic screening of candidate inclusion complexes was carried out by density functional theory calculations. Mayer bond order, aromaticity indices, and energy decomposition analyses complete the understanding of the strength of the host-guest interaction. The change in steric and electronic properties induced by the guest agent is investigated by means of steric maps. Substitution of H atoms at the carbo-benzene periphery by electron-withdrawing or electron-donating groups is shown to have a determining influence on the stability of the inclusion complex ions: while electronegative substituents enhance the recognition of cations, electropositive substituents do the same for anions. The results confirm the experimental failure hitherto to evidence a carbo-benzene complex. Nevertheless, the affinity of carbo-benzene for the potassium cation appears promising for the design of planar hydrocarbon analogues of biologic ion carriers. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  7. How carbo-benzenes fit molecules in their inner core as do biologic ion carriers?

    KAUST Repository

    Turias, Francesc; Poater, Jordi; Chauvin, Remi; Poater, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The present computational study complements experimental efforts to describe and characterize carbo-benzene derivatives as paradigms of aromatic carbo-mers. A long-lasting issue has been the possibility of the π-electron crown of the C18 carbo-benzene ring to fit metals or any chemical agents in its core. A systematic screening of candidate inclusion complexes was carried out by density functional theory calculations. Mayer bond order, aromaticity indices, and energy decomposition analyses complete the understanding of the strength of the host-guest interaction. The change in steric and electronic properties induced by the guest agent is investigated by means of steric maps. Substitution of H atoms at the carbo-benzene periphery by electron-withdrawing or electron-donating groups is shown to have a determining influence on the stability of the inclusion complex ions: while electronegative substituents enhance the recognition of cations, electropositive substituents do the same for anions. The results confirm the experimental failure hitherto to evidence a carbo-benzene complex. Nevertheless, the affinity of carbo-benzene for the potassium cation appears promising for the design of planar hydrocarbon analogues of biologic ion carriers. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  8. High-resolution probing of inner core structure with seismic interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hsin-Hua; Lin, Fan-Chi; Tsai, Victor C.; Koper, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    of the differential travel time residuals between the two phases reveals significant short-wavelength variation and implies the existence of strong structural variability in the deep Earth. A linear N-S trending anomaly across the middle of the U.S. may reflect

  9. Role of quasiparticle x phonon components in gamma-decay of hogh-lying states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Solov'ev, V.G.; Vdovin, A.I.; Stoyanov, Ch.

    1986-01-01

    In the framework of quasiparticle-phonon model of a nucleus the probabilities of gamma-transitions (E1, M1, E2) from a high-lying resonance-similar structure to the excitation of neutron hole state (lg 9/2 ) -1 of 111 Sn nucleus to the main and low-excited one-quasiparticle states have been calculated. Wave function of a highly excited state comprised the components ''quasiparticle x phonon'' and ''quasiparticle x two phonons''. For E1-transitions 9/2 + → 11/2 1 - the main contribution to the transition is made by one-quasiparticle components of wave functions of the initial and final states. E2-transition 9/2 + → 7/2 g,s + takes place at the expense of impurities in ''quasiparticle x phonon'' states. For M1-transition from the states 9/2 + to the main one a strong destructive interference of contributions of one-quasiparticle and ''quasiparticle x phonon'' components is observed. Thus it is shown that components ''quasiparticle x phonon'' may play the major role in correct description of gamma-transitions from high-lying one-particle or low-lying hole states

  10. Spectroscopy of high-spin states of 206Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, A.M.; Byrne, A.P.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Bark, R.A.; Riess, F.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Kruse, M.C.; Poletti, A.R.

    1990-05-01

    The yrast and near-yrast energy levels of 206 Po have been investigated to over 9 MeV excitation and up to spins with J=24. The measure-ments consisted of γ-γ coincidence data, internal-conversion-electron spectra, time spectra of γ-rays relative to a pulsed beam, excitation functions and γ-ray angular distributions. Two new isomers, with lifetime in the one-nonasecond range,were found. The observed structure is compared with the predictions of empirical shell-model calculations in which 206 Po is regarded as a 208 Pb core with two valence protons and four valence neutron holes. The agreement is generaly satisfactory for the observed odd-parity levels and for even parity levels with J > 12; those with J = 6 to 12 are better accounted for by weak coupling of two valence protons to a 204 Pb core in its 0 + 1, 2 + 1 and 4 + 1 states. 33 refs., 7 tabs., 12 figs

  11. Deep-hole and high-lying particle states in heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gales, S.

    1985-01-01

    Our present knowledge on single-particle strength functions from one nucleon transfer reactions is reviewed. Results on deeply-bound neutron hole states in the Sn and Pb region are discussed with emphasis on the investigation of a very large excitation energy range. The first measurements on the γ-decay of deeply-bound hole states in the Sn isotopes are reported. High energy neutron and proton stripping reactions are used to study the particle response function. These reactions are particularly well suited to the study of high-spin outer subshells. For the proton states, the behaviour of the 1h 11/2 and 1i 13/2 strength distributions, as a function of deformation in the Sm region, is discussed. Strong transitions to high-lying neutron states are observed in the 112, 116, 118, 120, 122, 124 Sn and 208 Pb nuclei. The empirical systematics for both proton and neutron particle strength distributions are compared to the predictions from the quasi particle-phonon and the single-particle vibration coupling nuclear models. (orig.)

  12. Reproducible and Verifiable Equations of State Using Microfabricated Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. F.; Pigott, J. S.; Panero, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate interpretation of observable geophysical data, relevant to the structure, composition, and evolution of planetary interiors, requires precise determination of appropriate equations of state. We present the synthesis of controlled-geometry nanofabricated samples and insulation layers for the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. We present electron-gun evaporation, sputter deposition, and photolithography methods to mass-produce Pt/SiO2/Fe/SiO2 stacks and MgO insulating disks to be used in LHDAC experiments to reduce uncertainties in equation of state measurements due to large temperature gradients. We present a reanalysis of published iron PVT data to establish a statistically-valid extrapolation of the equation of state to inner core conditions with quantified uncertainties, addressing the complication of covariance in equation of state parameters. We use this reanalysis, together with the synthesized samples, to propose a scheme for measurement and validation of high-precision equations of state relevant to the Earth and super-Earth exoplanets.

  13. The study of a new short-life isomeric state in 38K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordachescu, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 38 K nucleus having a protone and neutron hole coupled with a 40 Ca inert core has a structure analysed easily by the shell model. A new short life, high spin and highly excited isomeric state of the 38 K nucleus has been studied in detail using this model. Theoretical aspects connected with static and dynamic electromagnetic moments of the nucleus state, with the magnetic moment of the nucleus and the selection rules according to the isotopic spin are presented in the case of gamma transitions. Experimentallz/ presented in the case of gamma transitions. Experimentally, it has been used a combination between a natural pulsation of the cyclotron beam and an external pulsation by electrostatic deflexion, thus obtaining a pulsation beam of 12-26 MeV alpha particles. As targets, a series of chemical chlorine combinations have been utilized, the isomeric state being obtained by the reaction 35 Cl(α,n) 38 K, having the isomeric level (1fsub(7/2))sub(7+)sup(2). (author)

  14. Identification of the one-quadrupole phonon 21,ms+ state of 204Hg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Stegmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One-phonon states of vibrational nuclei with mixed proton–neutron symmetry have been observed throughout the nuclear chart besides the mass A≈200 region. Very recently, it has been proposed that the 22+ state of 212Po is of isovector nature. This nucleus has two valence protons and two valence neutrons outside the doubly-magic 208Pb nucleus. The stable isotope 204Hg, featuring two valence-proton and valence-neutron holes, with respect to 208Pb, is the particle-hole mirror of 212Po. In order to compare the properties of low-lying isovector excitations in these particle-hole mirror nuclei, we have studied 204Hg by using the projectile Coulomb-excitation technique. The measured absolute B(M1;22+→21+ strength of 0.20(2μN2 indicates that the 22+ level of 204Hg is at least the main fragment of the 21,ms+ state. For the first time in this mass region, both lowest-lying, one-quadrupole phonon excitations are established together with the complete set of their decay strengths. This allows for a microscopic description of their structures, achieved in the framework of the Quasi-particle Phonon Model.

  15. Interaction of VUV-photons with molecules. Spectroscopy and dynamics of molecular superexcited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A survey is given of recent progress in experimental studies of the interaction of VUV-photons with molecules, i.e., those of photoabsorption, photoionization, and photodissociation of molecules in the excitation photon energy range of 10-50 eV, with a particular emphasis placed on current understanding of the spectroscopy and dynamics of formed molecular superexcited states. These studies are of great importance in understanding the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter. Molecules studied are ranged from simple diatomic and triatomic molecules to polyatomic molecules such as hydrocarbons. Most of the observed molecular superexcited states are assigned to high Rydber states which are vibrationally, doubly, or inner-core excited and converge to each of ion states. Non-Rydberg superexcited states are also observed. Dissociation into neutral fragments in comparison with ionization is of unexpectedly great importance in the observed decay of each of these state-assigned superexcited molecules. Dissociation dynamics as well as its products of superexcited states are remarkably different from those of lower excited states below about ionization thresholds. Some remarks are also presented of molecules in the condensed phase

  16. High spin states in 143Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, R.; Ganguly, S.; Kshetri, R.; Mukherjee, G.; Mukherjee, A.; Banerjee, P.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Bhattacharya, S.; Goswami, A.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Basu, S.K.; Mukhopadhyaya, S.; Krishichayan; Chakraborty, A.; Gangopadhyay, G.

    2004-01-01

    Large amount of experimental data has been obtained in the recent past on several Nd (Z=60) and Pm (Z=61) isotopes near N=82 shell closure which exhibits an irregular yrast sequence, typical of a non-spherical shape at low spins. The nucleus 143 Sm (Z=62) with a single neutron hole in the N=82 closed shell was investigated as a part of this proposed study

  17. E0 and E2 decay of low-lying 0+ states in the even-even nuclei 206Pb, 208Po, 112-120 Sn and 112114Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julin, Rauno.

    1979-04-01

    Several new methods of in-beam conversion-electron and γ-ray spectrometry, applicable in the determination of E0 and E2 decay properties of low-lying 0 + states in even-mass nuclei, have been developed. The main attention has been paid to direct lifetime-measurement and coincidence methods based on the use of the natural pulsing of a cyclotron beam. With the aid of these methods, the similarity of the absolute decay rates of the two-neutron-hole 0 + 2 states in the N = 124 nuclei 206 Pb and 208 Po has been shown. A systematic investigation of the de-excitation of the 0 + 2 and 0 + 3 states in 112 , 11 4 , 116 , 118 , 120 Sn has been carried out. Twelve E0 transitions connecting the 0 + states have been observed, including very strong low-energy E0 transitions between the excited 0 + states, and several absolute transition probabilities have been determined. Furthermore, the new techniques have been applied successfully in determining the absolute E0 and E2 transition rates from the 0 + 2 and 0 + 3 states in 112 Cd and 114 Cd. The use of isotope-shift data in the calculation of the monopole strengths in 206 Pb and 208 Po is discussed. The results on even Sn and Cd nuclei are discussed within the framework of the coexistence of different shapes and of configuration mixing. (author)

  18. α cluster structures in unbound states in 19Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Reiji; Iwasaki, Masataka; Ito, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Cluster structures in 19Ne are studied by the microscopic and macroscopic cluster models. In the microscopic calculation, the coupled-channels problem of (3He+16O) + (α+15O) is solved, and the adiabatic energy surfaces, which are the series of the energy eigenvalues as a function of the He-O distance, are investigated. In the adiabatic energy curves, the several local minima are generated in the spatial region of the small core distance, where the neutron hole inside of the He or O nucleus is strongly coupled to the residual nuclei. The energy spectra, which are constructed from the strong coupling states, nicely reproduce the the low-lying energy levels in the 19Ne nucleus. In the macroscopic approach, the α + 15O potential is evaluated from the elastic scattering of the α + 15N system, and the resonant levels of the α + 15O system are calculated under the absorbing boundary condition. The potential model predicts the existence of the resonances above the α threshold, which has a weak-coupling scheme of the α particle and one hole inside of the 16O nucleus. The extended microscopic calculations of (3He+16O) + (α+15O) + (5He+14O) are performed in order to see the coupling effect of the 5p-2h configuration, which corresponds to the shell model limit of the 5He + 14O cluster configuration. The extended calculation suggests that the 5He + 14O configuration plays an important role on the formation of the 3/2+ resonance at 0.5 MeV with respect to the α threshold.

  19. Convective heating of the inner core of red giants prior to the peak of the core helium flash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, P.W.; Demarque, P.; Deupree, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of convective overshooting across the temperature inversion in the cores of red giants are investigated from the onset of the core convection zone to the peak of the core helium flash using a model for overshooting in stellar evolution, based on two-dimensional and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the core helium flash. A major effect of the overshooting is the substantial heating of the material interior to the temperature inversion, producing a smoother temperature profile. This interior heating is thus unimportant until approximately 1 week preceding the time of maximum temperature, but then produces temperature changes on a time scale short with respect to the evolution time scale. Interior heating (1) alters the standard relation of the maximum temperature and the density at the point of maximum temperature, (2) makes the maximum temperature occur at a smaller mass fraction, (3) causes the time of maximum temperature to occur hundreds of years earlier in the red giant evolution, and (4) redistributes the mass from the location of maximum temperature. Since the degree of degeneracy is known to affect the violence of the flash in the hydrodynamic phase, internal heating may play an important role in determining the subsequent evolution of the core

  20. Equation of state of laser-shocked compressed iron; Equation d'etat du fer comprime par choc laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huser, G

    2004-01-01

    This thesis enters the field of highly compressed materials equation of state studies. In particular, it focuses on the case of laser shock compressed iron. This work indeed aims at getting to the conditions of the earth's core, comprising a solid inner core and a liquid outer core. The understanding of phenomena governing the core's thermodynamics and the geodynamic process requires the knowledge of iron melting line locus around the solid-liquid interface at 3.3 Mbar. Several experiments were performed to that extent. First, an absolute measurement of iron Hugoniot was obtained. Following is a study of partially released states of iron into a window material: lithium fluoride (LiF). This configuration enables direct access to compressed iron optical properties such as reflectivity and self-emission. Interface velocity measurement is dominated by compressed LiF optical properties and is used as a pressure gauge. Using a dual wavelength reflectivity diagnostic, compressed iron electrical conductivity was estimated and found to be in good agreement with previous results found in geophysics literature. Self-emission diagnostic was used to measure temperature of partially released iron and revealed a solid-liquid phase transition at Mbar pressures. (author)

  1. State of the States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education Finance, 2017

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, a group of school finance scholars and public school practitioners gathered in Jacksonville, Florida, for the National Education Finance Academy's annual conference to discuss, among an array of topics, the state of P-20 finance in all 50 states. At the roundtable discussion, 36 states were represented, and scholars representing 30 states…

  2. Equation of State Dependent Dynamics and Multi-messenger Signals from Stellar-mass Black Hole Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Liebendörfer, Matthias; Couch, Sean M.; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    2018-04-01

    We investigate axisymmetric black hole (BH) formation and its gravitational wave (GW) and neutrino signals with self-consistent core-collapse supernova simulations of a non-rotating 40 M ⊙ progenitor star using the isotropic diffusion source approximation for the neutrino transport and a modified gravitational potential for general relativistic effects. We consider four different neutron star (NS) equations of state (EoS): LS220, SFHo, BHBΛϕ, and DD2, and study the impact of the EoS on BH formation dynamics and GW emission. We find that the BH formation time is sensitive to the EoS from 460 to >1300 ms and is delayed in multiple dimensions for ∼100–250 ms due to the finite entropy effects. Depending on the EoS, our simulations show the possibility that shock revival can occur along with the collapse of the proto-neutron star (PNS) to a BH. The gravitational waveforms contain four major features that are similar to previous studies but show extreme values: (1) a low-frequency signal (∼300–500 Hz) from core-bounce and prompt convection, (2) a strong signal from the PNS g-mode oscillation among other features, (3) a high-frequency signal from the PNS inner-core convection, and (4) signals from the standing accretion shock instability and convection. The peak frequency at the onset of BH formation reaches to ∼2.3 kHz. The characteristic amplitude of a 10 kpc object at peak frequency is detectable but close to the noise threshold of the Advanced LIGO and KAGRA, suggesting that the next-generation GW detector will need to improve the sensitivity at the kHz domain to better observe stellar-mass BH formation from core-collapse supernovae or failed supernovae.

  3. Excitation of high spin levels in 129Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.

    1976-01-01

    The level structure of 129 Ba has been studied by the 120 Sn( 12 C,3nγ) reaction. A set of negative-parity levels based upon a 9/2 - state is interpreted in terms of the rotation-alignment coupling of hsub(11/2) neutron holes to the triaxial core. A new band structure built upon a 7/2 + state is also observed. It could be due to the coupling of a gsub(7/2) neutron hole to the triaxial core [fr

  4. FAILED STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Miles R. Cone

    The state and society are mutual symbionts as far as their political, economic and social relationships .... consequences have played a role in the African state's deviation from the 'strong state' ideal. .... International Olympic Committee (IOC).

  5. Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – state data. This data set includes state-level data for the payment measures associated with an episode of care for heart attack, heart failure,...

  6. Supersqueezed states from squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    Using super-Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff relations on the elements of the supergroup OSP(2/2), we derive the supersqueeze operator and the supersqueezed states, which are the supersymmetric generalization of the squeezed states of the harmonic oscillator

  7. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] hole histories: Unsaturated zone-neutron holes: 76 boreholes drilled between May 1984 and February 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    This is a compilation of data from seventy-four shallow alluvial exploratory core holes and two shallow calibration core holes. The boreholes were drilled to obtain undisturbed alluvial cores, to determine vertical distribution of moisture content and water potential, and to run neutron moisture logs. Data presented in the hole histories include all locations, daily activities and review of hole conditions

  8. Excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    1974-01-01

    Excited States, Volume I reviews radiationless transitions, phosphorescence microwave double resonance through optical spectra in molecular solids, dipole moments in excited states, luminescence of polar molecules, and the problem of interstate interaction in aromatic carbonyl compounds. The book discusses the molecular electronic radiationless transitions; the double resonance techniques and the relaxation mechanisms involving the lowest triplet state of aromatic compounds; as well as the optical spectra and relaxation in molecular solids. The text also describes dipole moments and polarizab

  9. High-spin isomer in 211Rn, and the shape of the yrast line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Fahlander, C.; Poletti, A.R.

    1981-08-01

    High spin yrast states in 211 Rn have been identified. A 61/2 - , 380 ns isomer found at 8856 keV is characterised as a core-excited configuration. The average shape of the yrast line shows a smooth behaviour with spin, in contrast to its neighbour 212 Rn. This difference is attributed to the presence of the neutron hole

  10. Multiquark states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Ping, J.L.; Quing, D.; Goldman, T.

    2005-01-01

    The pentaquark state recently discovered has been discussed based on various quark model calculations. Odd parity for the state cannot be ruled out theoretically because the contributions related to nontrivial color structures have not been studied completely. Other multiquark states, especially dibaryons, have been discussed also. A strangeness -3 NΩ dibaryons, have been shown to have a width as small as 12-22 keV and should be detectable in Ω-high-productivity reactions such as at RHIC, COMPAS, and the planned JHF and FAIR projects [ru

  11. Altered States

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But as members of the international community, we can take advantage of .... The connections and their effects, between people and states, are not just more ...... children's IQs and are linked to attention disorders, aggression, and delinquency.

  12. State Climatologist

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quarterly newsletter published by the American Association of State Climatologists. Library includes volumes 1 through 21, for the years 1977-1997.

  13. State Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...

  14. HCAHPS - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the state averages for the HCAHPS survey responses. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  15. Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouillard, F.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter considers the formation of Rydberg atoms; their radiative decay; their behavior in electric and electromagnetic fields; and their collisions with atoms and ions. Discusses electron capture into high excited states; laser excitation of Rydberg states; Stark shift and Stark mixing; field ionization; ionization in oscillating fields; thermal collisions of Rydberg atoms; fast collisions of Rydberg atoms; n-changing collisions; and charge exchange. Points out that a large amount of experimental work has been done on collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral perturbers at thermal energies, and most of it concerns the destruction of Rydberg alkali atoms in collisions with rare gases

  16. State Treasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2013-01-01

    When a music teacher is named Teacher of the Year for an entire state, one just know a special story awaits. The narrative of Heidi Welch, director of music at Hillsboro-Deering High School in New Hampshire, does not disappoint. Welch, who grew up in abject poverty and was often homeless, developed her love of music through memorizing and singing…

  17. FAILED STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Miles R. Cone

    colonial history is the 'artificial nature' of Africa's state borders and the notion that statehood ..... Source: Central Intelligence Agency, 2003b. Scientia .... As a virtue of the lack of faith in the country's banking system, this move had the opposite ...

  18. RIVER STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    principals randomly selected from one hundred secondary schools in Cross River State. The data collected ... There was no siyriificant influerlce of gender on principals' leadership styles effectiveness. ... result of the cultural stereotyping of males and females by .... schools were single sex boys, another 10 were single sex ...

  19. State of the States 2016: Arts Education State Policy Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The "State of the States 2016" summarizes state policies for arts education identified in statute or administrative code for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Information is based on a comprehensive search of state education statute and codes on each state's relevant websites. Complete results from this review are available in…

  20. State perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Expectations by States in fulfilling their responsibilities in the disposal of radioactive wastes as defined in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act are discussed. Specific areas include informational needs, participation in the process of site selection and characterization, access to technical data in a timely manner, and development of consultation and cooperation agreements. Experiences in New Mexico over the past seven years in conducting an independent technical review of the WIPP Project are described. A discussion is included of avoidable factors that contribute to public concern of radioactive waste disposal on relative risk, voluntary versus involuntary risk, technological needs, changes in disposal practices, public health concerns and enforcement of regulations

  1. State of the States, 2012: Arts Education State Policy Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts Education Partnership (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "State of the States 2012" summarizes state policies for arts education identified in statute or code for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Information is based primarily on results from the AEP Arts Education State Policy Survey conducted in 2010-11, and updated in April 2012.

  2. pH-triggered block copolymer micelles based on a pH-responsive PDPA (poly[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate]) inner core and a PEO (poly(ethylene oxide)) outer shell as a potential tool for the cancer therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giacomelli, F. C.; Štěpánek, Petr; Giacomelli, C.; Schmidt, V.; Jäger, Eliezer; Jäger, Alessandro; Ulbrich, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 19 (2011), s. 9316-9325 ISSN 1744-683X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : copolymer micelles * light scattering * cancer therapy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.390, year: 2011

  3. A new equation of state for core-collapse supernovae based on realistic nuclear forces and including a full nuclear ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, S; Togashi, H; Nagakura, H; Sumiyoshi, K; Yamada, S; Suzuki, H; Takano, M

    2017-01-01

    We have constructed a nuclear equation of state (EOS) that includes a full nuclear ensemble for use in core-collapse supernova simulations. It is based on the EOS for uniform nuclear matter that two of the authors derived recently, applying a variational method to realistic two- and three-body nuclear forces. We have extended the liquid drop model of heavy nuclei, utilizing the mass formula that accounts for the dependences of bulk, surface, Coulomb and shell energies on density and/or temperature. As for light nuclei, we employ a quantum-theoretical mass evaluation, which incorporates the Pauli- and self-energy shifts. In addition to realistic nuclear forces, the inclusion of in-medium effects on the full ensemble of nuclei makes the new EOS one of the most realistic EOSs, which covers a wide range of density, temperature and proton fraction that supernova simulations normally encounter. We make comparisons with the FYSS EOS, which is based on the same formulation for the nuclear ensemble but adopts the relativistic mean field theory with the TM1 parameter set for uniform nuclear matter. The new EOS is softer than the FYSS EOS around and above nuclear saturation densities. We find that neutron-rich nuclei with small mass numbers are more abundant in the new EOS than in the FYSS EOS because of the larger saturation densities and smaller symmetry energy of nuclei in the former. We apply the two EOSs to 1D supernova simulations and find that the new EOS gives lower electron fractions and higher temperatures in the collapse phase owing to the smaller symmetry energy. As a result, the inner core has smaller masses for the new EOS. It is more compact, on the other hand, due to the softness of the new EOS and bounces at higher densities. It turns out that the shock wave generated by core bounce is a bit stronger initially in the simulation with the new EOS. The ensuing outward propagations of the shock wave in the outer core are very similar in the two simulations, which

  4. Quantum States Transfer by Analogous Bell States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Di; Li Chong; Yang Guohui; Song Heshan

    2008-01-01

    Transmitting quantum states by channels of analogous Bell states is studied in this paper. We analyze the transmitting process, constructed the probabilitic unitary operator, and gain the largest successful transfer quantum state probability.

  5. Employee, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Resources Division of Corporations, Business & Professional Licensing Dept. of Commerce Benefits Resources State Employee Directory State Calendar State Training: LearnAlaska State Travel Manager) Web Mail (Outlook) Login Who to Call Health Insurance Insurance Benefits Health and Optional

  6. Understanding cAMP-dependent allostery by NMR spectroscopy: comparative analysis of the EPAC1 cAMP-binding domain in its apo and cAMP-bound states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T; Das, Rahul; Fotheringham, Steven A; SilDas, Soumita; Chowdhury, Somenath; Melacini, Giuseppe

    2007-11-21

    cAMP (adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate) is a ubiquitous second messenger that activates a multitude of essential cellular responses. Two key receptors for cAMP in eukaryotes are protein kinase A (PKA) and the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC), which is a recently discovered guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPases Rap1 and Rap2. Previous attempts to investigate the mechanism of allosteric activation of eukaryotic cAMP-binding domains (CBDs) at atomic or residue resolution have been hampered by the instability of the apo form, which requires the use of mixed apo/holo systems, that have provided only a partial picture of the CBD apo state and of the allosteric networks controlled by cAMP. Here, we show that, unlike other eukaryotic CBDs, both apo and cAMP-bound states of the EPAC1 CBD are stable under our experimental conditions, providing a unique opportunity to define at an unprecedented level of detail the allosteric interactions linking two critical functional sites of this CBD. These are the phosphate binding cassette (PBC), where cAMP binds, and the N-terminal helical bundle (NTHB), which is the site of the inhibitory interactions between the regulatory and catalytic regions of EPAC. Specifically, the combined analysis of the cAMP-dependent changes in chemical shifts, 2 degrees structure probabilities, hydrogen/hydrogen exchange (H/H) and hydrogen/deuterium exchange (H/D) protection factors reveals that the long-range communication between the PBC and the NTHB is implemented by two distinct intramolecular cAMP-signaling pathways, respectively, mediated by the beta2-beta3 loop and the alpha6 helix. Docking of cAMP into the PBC perturbs the NTHB inner core packing and the helical probabilities of selected NTHB residues. The proposed model is consistent with the allosteric role previously hypothesized for L273 and F300 based on site-directed mutagenesis; however, our data show that such a contact is part of a

  7. Optimal resource states for local state discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Halder, Saronath; Nathanson, Michael

    2018-02-01

    We study the problem of locally distinguishing pure quantum states using shared entanglement as a resource. For a given set of locally indistinguishable states, we define a resource state to be useful if it can enhance local distinguishability and optimal if it can distinguish the states as well as global measurements and is also minimal with respect to a partial ordering defined by entanglement and dimension. We present examples of useful resources and show that an entangled state need not be useful for distinguishing a given set of states. We obtain optimal resources with explicit local protocols to distinguish multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and graph states and also show that a maximally entangled state is an optimal resource under one-way local operations and classical communication to distinguish any bipartite orthonormal basis which contains at least one entangled state of full Schmidt rank.

  8. Sweeping the State Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    The thesis describes the sweep-line method, a newly developed reduction method for alleviating the state explosion problem inherent in explicit-state state space exploration. The basic idea underlying the sweep-line method is, when calculating the state space, to recognise and delete states...... that are not reachable from the currently unprocessed states. Intuitively we drag a sweep-line through the state space with the invariant that all states behind the sweep-line have been processed and are unreachable from the states in front of the sweep-line. When calculating the state space of a system we iteratively...

  9. Alaska State Trails Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recreation Search DNR State of Alaska Home Menu Parks Home Alaska State Trails Boating Safety Design and Home / Alaska State Trails Alaska State Trails Program Trails in the Spotlight Glacier Lake and Saddle Trails in Kachemak State Park Glacier Lake A Popular route joins the Saddle and Glacier Lake Trails. The

  10. State Traffic Safety Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The State Traffic Safety Information (STSI) portal is part of the larger Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia. STSI provides state-by-state traffic...

  11. State Transportation Statistics 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) presents State Transportation Statistics 2014, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This is the 12th annual edition of State Transportation Statistics, a ...

  12. State Park Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a collection of ArcView shapefiles (by park) of trails within statutory boundaries of individual MN State Parks, State Recreation Areas and State...

  13. State Park Statutory Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

  14. Minimally conscious state or cortically mediated state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Lionel

    2018-04-01

    Durable impairments of consciousness are currently classified in three main neurological categories: comatose state, vegetative state (also recently coined unresponsive wakefulness syndrome) and minimally conscious state. While the introduction of minimally conscious state, in 2002, was a major progress to help clinicians recognize complex non-reflexive behaviours in the absence of functional communication, it raises several problems. The most important issue related to minimally conscious state lies in its criteria: while behavioural definition of minimally conscious state lacks any direct evidence of patient's conscious content or conscious state, it includes the adjective 'conscious'. I discuss this major problem in this review and propose a novel interpretation of minimally conscious state: its criteria do not inform us about the potential residual consciousness of patients, but they do inform us with certainty about the presence of a cortically mediated state. Based on this constructive criticism review, I suggest three proposals aiming at improving the way we describe the subjective and cognitive state of non-communicating patients. In particular, I present a tentative new classification of impairments of consciousness that combines behavioural evidence with functional brain imaging data, in order to probe directly and univocally residual conscious processes.

  15. State nuclear initiatives in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.; Stoiber, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with State nuclear initiatives regarding the role of nuclear power in the energy future of the United States. The question of whether and under what circumstances nuclear facilities should be used to generate electricity was put to the popular vote in several States in 1976. Some general principles of Federal-State relations are discussed with specific reference to nuclear regulations. The initiative mechanism itself is described as well as its legal form and background. The parallel developments in the State and Federal legislative consideration of nuclear issues is reviewed and the suggested reasons for the defeat of the proposals in the seven States concerned are discussed. Finally, the author draws some conclusions on the effects of the 1976 initiatives on future decision-making in the US on energy policy in general and nuclear power in particular. (NEA) [fr

  16. Open magnetic fields in active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svestka, Z.; Solodyna, C.V.; Levine, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Soft X-ray observations confirm that some of the dark gaps seen between interconnecting loops and inner cores of active regions may be loci of open fields, as it has been predicted by global potential extrapolation of photospheric magnetic fields. It seems that the field lines may open only in a later state of the active region development. (Auth.)

  17. Transcriptome States Reflect Imaging of Aging States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckley, D Mark; Coletta, Christopher E; Orlov, Nikita V; Wilson, Mark A; Iser, Wendy; Bastian, Paul; Lehrmann, Elin; Zhang, Yonqing; Becker, Kevin G; Goldberg, Ilya G

    2018-06-14

    In this study, we describe a morphological biomarker that detects multiple discrete subpopulations (or "age-states") at several chronological ages in a population of nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans). We determined the frequencies of three healthy adult states and the timing of the transitions between them across the lifespan. We used short-lived and long-lived strains to confirm the general applicability of the state classifier and to monitor state progression. This exploration revealed healthy and unhealthy states, the former being favored in long-lived strains and the latter showing delayed onset. Short-lived strains rapidly transitioned through the putative healthy state. We previously found that age-matched animals in different age-states have distinct transcriptome profiles. We isolated animals at the beginning and end of each identified state and performed microarray analysis (principal component analysis, relative sample to sample distance measurements, and gene set enrichment analysis). In some comparisons, chronologically identical individuals were farther apart than morphologically identical individuals isolated on different days. The age-state biomarker allowed assessment of aging in a novel manner, complementary to chronological age progression. We found hsp70 and some small heat shock protein genes are expressed later in adulthood, consistent with the proteostasis collapse model.

  18. Tomography of nonclassical states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    A review of the symplectic tomography method is presented. Superpositions of different types of photon states are considered within the framework of the tomography approach. Such nonclassical photon states as even and odd coherent states, crystallized Schrodinger cat states, and other superposition

  19. The State and Corporatism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Lars Bo; Schmidt-Hansen, Ulrich

    in corporatist theory. In particular, we draw upon a conceptualization of the state developed by Michael Mann and Eric Nordlinger's different forms of state autonomy. We propose a state-centered theoretical focus enabling us to grasp the role of the state in the dynamics of the corporatist system. In the second...... to the development of the `Danish model', but that these actors were often orchestrated by the state. At crucial moments the direction of these different actors was even determined by the state. In the first part of the article, it is argued that the state has been under-theorized and to some extent neglected...

  20. Photon virtual bound state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, J.; Ohtaka, K.

    2004-01-01

    We study virtual bound states in photonics, which are a vectorial extension of electron virtual bound states. The condition for these states is derived. It is found that the Mie resonant state which satisfies the condition that the size parameter is less than the angular momentum should be interpreted as a photon virtual bound state. In order to confirm the validity of the concept, we compare the photonic density of states, the width of which represents the lifetime of the photon virtual bound states, with numerical results

  1. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  2. Quantum-state discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, Luis; Retamal, Juan Carlos; Saavedra, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    A proposal for a physical implementation of a quantum-state discrimination protocol using an ion in a linear trap is studied, where two nonorthogonal quantum states are codified using two electronic states of the ion. In addition, a protocol is given for discriminating superpositions of nonorthogonal entangled states between ions inside widely separated optical cavities. The discrimination protocol is extended to the case of N linearly independent nonorthogonal quantum states lying in a space of 2N-1 dimensions

  3. Verification of hypergraph states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki; Takeuchi, Yuki; Hayashi, Masahito

    2017-12-01

    Hypergraph states are generalizations of graph states where controlled-Z gates on edges are replaced with generalized controlled-Z gates on hyperedges. Hypergraph states have several advantages over graph states. For example, certain hypergraph states, such as the Union Jack states, are universal resource states for measurement-based quantum computing with only Pauli measurements, while graph state measurement-based quantum computing needs non-Clifford basis measurements. Furthermore, it is impossible to classically efficiently sample measurement results on hypergraph states unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses to the third level. Although several protocols have been proposed to verify graph states with only sequential single-qubit Pauli measurements, there was no verification method for hypergraph states. In this paper, we propose a method for verifying a certain class of hypergraph states with only sequential single-qubit Pauli measurements. Importantly, no i.i.d. property of samples is assumed in our protocol: any artificial entanglement among samples cannot fool the verifier. As applications of our protocol, we consider verified blind quantum computing with hypergraph states, and quantum computational supremacy demonstrations with hypergraph states.

  4. Crystallized Schroedinger cat states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanos, O.; Lopez-Pena, R.; Man'ko, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Crystallized Schroedinger cat states (male and female) are introduced on the base of extension of group construction for the even and odd coherent states of the electromagnetic field oscillator. The Wigner and Q functions are calculated and some are plotted for C 2 , C 3 , C 4 , C 5 , C 3v Schroedinger cat states. Quadrature means and dispersions for these states are calculated and squeezing and correlation phenomena are studied. Photon distribution functions for these states are given explicitly and are plotted for several examples. A strong oscillatory behavior of the photon distribution function for some field amplitudes is found in the new type of states

  5. Most energetic passive states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, Martí; Hovhannisyan, Karen V; Huber, Marcus; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Tura, Jordi; Acín, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Passive states are defined as those states that do not allow for work extraction in a cyclic (unitary) process. Within the set of passive states, thermal states are the most stable ones: they maximize the entropy for a given energy, and similarly they minimize the energy for a given entropy. Here we find the passive states lying in the other extreme, i.e., those that maximize the energy for a given entropy, which we show also minimize the entropy when the energy is fixed. These extremal properties make these states useful to obtain fundamental bounds for the thermodynamics of finite-dimensional quantum systems, which we show in several scenarios.

  6. Excited states v.6

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    1982-01-01

    Excited States, Volume 6 is a collection of papers that discusses the excited states of molecules. The first paper discusses the linear polyene electronic structure and potential surfaces, considering both the theoretical and experimental approaches in such electronic states. This paper also reviews the theory of electronic structure and cites some experimental techniques on polyene excitations, polyene spectroscopic phenomenology, and those involving higher states of polyenes and their triplet states. Examples of these experimental studies of excited states involve the high-resolution one-pho

  7. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  8. The Welfare State vs. the Redistributive State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Marc F.

    1979-01-01

    While the principles of progressive taxation and the welfare state have come to be almost universally accepted, it would be a serious error to infer that American policy has ever embraced the idea of income redistribution. (Author)

  9. State diagrams of tokamaks and state transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, E.

    1992-01-01

    In a simple one-fluid cylindrical model of transport and of dissipative effects, the family of the magnetic states of the Tokamak which correspond to a vanishing entropy production in the confinement region is characterized by a define relation or ''state equation'' involving the relevant parameters of the discharge. An investigation is made as to how the entropy production changes when the current density profile is rearranged by a perturbation which conserves the poloidal magnetic flux. It is shown that for a sufficiently short time interval, that is to say t 2 E τ s where τ E is the energy confinement time and τ s is the resistive time, neighbouring bifurcating equilibria exist which can be reached with a flux-conserving transition and with increase of the magnetic entropy. The family of these new states can also be characterized by a state equation involving the relevant discharge parameters. When the state equations of the two families are simultaneously satisfied by the same set of parameter values, a flux-conserving, entropy-increasing transition may take place between states of the two families. The modifications of the current density and of the temperature profiles involved in the transition and the conditions that the discharge parameters should satisfy in order that the transition could occur are investigated. (author)

  10. STATE_SYSTEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a single centerline highway network representation of the 10,000 miles Kansas State Highway System (Interstate, U.S., and Kansas routes). The state...

  11. State Capitalism in Eurasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Spechler, Martin; Ahrens, Joachim; Hoen, Herman W.

    2017-01-01

    The book specifies the type of economic system that has arisen in Central Asian. It presents three types of state-capitalism established in the former Soviet Union states in Eurasia - crony, dual sector, and predatory capitalism.

  12. Stats of the States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and age-adjusted death rates from unintentional injuries/accidents. Stroke Mortality by State, 2013 - Number of deaths and age-adjusted death rates from cerebrovascular disease. Alzheimer's Disease Mortality by State, 2013 - Number ...

  13. Complications and Deaths - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - state data. This data set includes state-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality...

  14. Complications and Deaths - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - state data. This data set includes state-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, the CMS Patient Safety Indicators, and 30-day...

  15. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  16. State Program Integrity Reviews

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State program integrity reviews play a critical role in how CMS provides effective support and assistance to states in their efforts to combat provider fraud and...

  17. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  18. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  19. State Transportation Statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2010, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  20. State transportation statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and : Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation : Statistics 2009, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the : District ...

  1. State Transportation Statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2011, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of Columbia...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District...

  4. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States of...

  5. Changing State Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital…

  6. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  7. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.

    2010-01-01

    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that

  8. Matrix product state description of Halperin states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépel, V.; Estienne, B.; Bernevig, B. A.; Lecheminant, P.; Regnault, N.

    2018-04-01

    Many fractional quantum Hall states can be expressed as a correlator of a given conformal field theory used to describe their edge physics. As a consequence, these states admit an economical representation as an exact matrix product state (MPS) that was extensively studied for the systems without any spin or any other internal degrees of freedom. In that case, the correlators are built from a single electronic operator, which is primary with respect to the underlying conformal field theory. We generalize this construction to the archetype of Abelian multicomponent fractional quantum Hall wave functions, the Halperin states. These can be written as conformal blocks involving multiple electronic operators and we explicitly derive their exact MPS representation. In particular, we deal with the caveat of the full wave-function symmetry and show that any additional SU(2) symmetry is preserved by the natural MPS truncation scheme provided by the conformal dimension. We use our method to characterize the topological order of the Halperin states by extracting the topological entanglement entropy. We also evaluate their bulk correlation lengths, which are compared to plasma analogy arguments.

  9. Remote state preparation through hyperentangled atomic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Mehwish; ul-Islam, Rameez-; Ikram, Manzoor

    2018-04-01

    Hyperentangled states have enhanced channel capacity in quantum processing and have yielded` evident increased communication speed in quantum informatics as a consequence of excessively high information content coded over each quantum entity. In the present article, we intend to demonstrate this fact by utilizing atomic states simultaneously entangled both in internal as well as external degrees of freedom, i.e. the de Broglie motion for remote state preparation (RSP). The results clearly demonstrate that we can efficiently communicate two bit information while manipulating only a single quantum subsystem. The states are prepared and manipulated using atomic Bragg diffraction as well as Ramsey interferometry, both of which are now considered as standard, state of the art tools based on cavity quantum electrodynamics. Since atomic Bragg diffraction is a large interaction time regime and produces spatially well separated, decoherence resistant outputs, the schematics presented here for the RSP offer important perspectives on efficient detection as well as unambiguous information coding and readout. The article summarizes the experimental feasibility of the proposal, culminating with a brief discussion.

  10. Quantum states of light

    CERN Document Server

    Furusawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    This book explains what quantum states of light look like. Of special interest, a single photon state is explained by using a wave picture, showing that it corresponds to the complementarity of a quantum. Also explained is how light waves are created by photons, again corresponding to the complementarity of a quantum. The author shows how an optical wave is created by superposition of a "vacuum" and a single photon as a typical example. Moreover, squeezed states of light are explained as "longitudinal" waves of light and Schrödinger's cat states as macroscopic superposition states.

  11. Symmetries of Chimera States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeth, Felix P.; Haugland, Sindre W.; Krischer, Katharina

    2018-05-01

    Symmetry broken states arise naturally in oscillatory networks. In this Letter, we investigate chaotic attractors in an ensemble of four mean-coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with two oscillators being synchronized. We report that these states with partially broken symmetry, so-called chimera states, have different setwise symmetries in the incoherent oscillators, and in particular, some are and some are not invariant under a permutation symmetry on average. This allows for a classification of different chimera states in small networks. We conclude our report with a discussion of related states in spatially extended systems, which seem to inherit the symmetry properties of their counterparts in small networks.

  12. Generalized hypergeometric coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appl, Thomas; Schiller, Diethard H

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a large class of holomorphic quantum states by choosing their normalization functions to be given by generalized hypergeometric functions. We call them generalized hypergeometric states in general, and generalized hypergeometric coherent states in particular, if they allow a resolution of unity. Depending on the domain of convergence of the generalized hypergeometric functions, we distinguish generalized hypergeometric states on the plane, the open unit disc and the unit circle. All states are eigenstates of suitably defined lowering operators. We then study their photon number statistics and phase properties as revealed by the Husimi and Pegg-Barnett phase distributions. On the basis of the generalized hypergeometric coherent states we introduce new analytic representations of arbitrary quantum states in Bargmann and Hardy spaces as well as generalized hypergeometric Husimi distributions and corresponding phase distributions

  13. Superexcited states of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroki; Takagi, Hidekazu.

    1990-01-01

    The report addresses the nature and major features of molecule's superexcited states, focusing on their involvement in dynamic processes. It also outlines the quantum defect theory which allows various processes involving these states to be treated in a unified way. The Rydberg state has close relation with an ionized state with a positive energy. The quantum defect theory interprets such relation. Specifically, the report first describes the quantum defect theory focusing on its basic principle. The multi-channel quantum defect theory is then outlined centering on how to describe a Rydberg-type superexcited state. Description of a dissociative double-electron excited state is also discussed. The quantum defect theory is based on the fact that the physics of the motion of a Rydberg electron vary with the region in the electron's coordinate space. Finally, various molecular processes that involve a superexcited state are addressed focusing on autoionization, photoionization, dissociative recombination and bonding ionization of diatomic molecules. (N.K.)

  14. Qutrit magic state distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, Hussain; Browne, Dan E; Campbell, Earl T

    2012-01-01

    Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays an important role in fault-tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of an MSD protocol generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. MSD was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher-dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the five-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distils non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state-injected implementation of a non-Clifford phase gate, enabling non-Clifford unitary computation. (paper)

  15. State Technologies Advancement Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Terry

    2012-01-30

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), and Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI) signed an intergovernmental agreement on November 14, 2002, that allowed states and territories and the Federal Government to better collaborate on energy research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) projects. The agreement established the State Technologies Advancement Collaborative (STAC) which allowed the states and DOE to move RDD&D forward using an innovative competitive project selection and funding process. A cooperative agreement between DOE and NASEO served as the contracting instrument for this innovative federal-state partnership obligating funds from DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office of Fossil Energy to plan, fund, and implement RDD&D projects that were consistent with the common priorities of the states and DOE. DOE's Golden Field Office provided Federal oversight and guidance for the STAC cooperative agreement. The STAC program was built on the foundation of prior Federal-State efforts to collaborate on and engage in joint planning for RDD&D. Although STAC builds on existing, successful programs, it is important to note that it was not intended to replace other successful joint DOE/State initiatives such as the State Energy Program or EERE Special Projects. Overall the STAC process was used to fund, through three competitive solicitations, 35 successful multi-state research, development, deployment, and demonstration projects with an overall average non-federal cost share of 43%. Twenty-two states were awarded at least one prime contract, and organizations in all 50 states and some territories were involved as subcontractors in at least one STAC project. Projects were funded in seven program areas: (1) Building Technologies, (2) Industrial Technologies, (3) Transportation Technologies, (4) Distributed Energy

  16. Quantum State Engineering Via Coherent-State Superpositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janszky, Jozsef; Adam, P.; Szabo, S.; Domokos, P.

    1996-01-01

    The quantum interference between the two parts of the optical Schrodinger-cat state makes possible to construct a wide class of quantum states via discrete superpositions of coherent states. Even a small number of coherent states can approximate the given quantum states at a high accuracy when the distance between the coherent states is optimized, e. g. nearly perfect Fock state can be constructed by discrete superpositions of n + 1 coherent states lying in the vicinity of the vacuum state.

  17. Quantum chimera states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viennot, David, E-mail: david.viennot@utinam.cnrs.fr; Aubourg, Lucile

    2016-02-15

    We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems. - Highlights: • We propose a spin chain model with long range couplings having purely quantum states similar to the classical chimera states. • The quantum chimera states are characterized by the coexistence of strongly entangled and non-entangled spins in the same chain. • The quantum chimera states present some characteristics of quantum chaos.

  18. Quantum chimera states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viennot, David; Aubourg, Lucile

    2016-01-01

    We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems. - Highlights: • We propose a spin chain model with long range couplings having purely quantum states similar to the classical chimera states. • The quantum chimera states are characterized by the coexistence of strongly entangled and non-entangled spins in the same chain. • The quantum chimera states present some characteristics of quantum chaos.

  19. Muonium states in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    There is a brief summary of what is known about the muonium states isotropic, anisotropic and diamagnetic in diamond and zincblende semiconductors. The report deals with muonium spectroscopy, including the formation probabilities, hyperfine parameters and electronic g-factors of the states. The dynamics of the states is treated including a discussion of the transition from isotropic Mu to anisotropic Mu in diamond, temperature-dependent linewidthes in silicon and germanium and effects of daping and radiation damage

  20. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  1. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  2. Nuclear cluster states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, W.D.M.; Merchant, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    We review clustering in light nuclei including molecular resonances in heavy ion reactions. In particular we study the systematics, paying special attention to the relationships between cluster states and superdeformed configurations. We emphasise the selection rules which govern the formation and decay of cluster states. We review some recent experimental results from Daresbury and elsewhere. In particular we report on the evidence for a 7-α chain state in 28 Si in experiments recently performed at the NSF, Daresbury. Finally we begin to address theoretically the important question of the lifetimes of cluster states as deduced from the experimental energy widths of the resonances. (Author)

  3. Rotating quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambruş, Victor E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the definition of rotating thermal states for scalar and fermion fields in unbounded Minkowski space–time. For scalar fields such states are ill-defined everywhere, but for fermion fields an appropriate definition of the vacuum gives thermal states regular inside the speed-of-light surface. For a massless fermion field, we derive analytic expressions for the thermal expectation values of the fermion current and stress–energy tensor. These expressions may provide qualitative insights into the behaviour of thermal rotating states on more complex space–time geometries

  4. Excited states 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    Excited States, Volume 2 is a collection of papers that deals with molecules in the excited states. The book describes the geometries of molecules in the excited electronic states. One paper describes the geometries of a diatomic molecule and of polyatomic molecules; it also discusses the determination of the many excited state geometries of molecules with two, three, or four atoms by techniques similar to diatomic spectroscopy. Another paper introduces an ordered theory related to excitons in pure and mixed molecular crystals. This paper also presents some experimental data such as those invo

  5. Visitor, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    /Fishing License Get a Birth Certificate, Marriage License, etc. Alaska Permanent Fund Dividend Statewide Library Alaska Historical Society Alaska State Museum Sheldon Jackson Museum Industry Facts Agriculture

  6. Orthogonalization of correlated states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, S.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1988-01-01

    A scheme for orthogonalizing correlated states while preserving the diagonal matrix elements of the Hamiltonian is developed. Conventional perturbation theory can be used with the orthonormal correlated basis obtained from this scheme. Advantages of using orthonormal correlated states in calculations of the response function and correlation energy are discussed

  7. Business, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investment Advisors Business Law Charitable Gaming Division of Banking & Securities Laws Relating to Skip to content State of Alaska myAlaska My Government Resident Business in Alaska Visiting Alaska State Government Jobs Federal Jobs Starting a Small Business Living Get a Driver License Get a Hunting

  8. Gender and the State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Kantola, Johanna

    2005-01-01

    The article argues from a Nordic, feminist and post-structuralist position that feminism state theories need to be developed methodologically.......The article argues from a Nordic, feminist and post-structuralist position that feminism state theories need to be developed methodologically....

  9. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  10. States in Process Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wagner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Formal reasoning about distributed algorithms (like Consensus typically requires to analyze global states in a traditional state-based style. This is in contrast to the traditional action-based reasoning of process calculi. Nevertheless, we use domain-specific variants of the latter, as they are convenient modeling languages in which the local code of processes can be programmed explicitly, with the local state information usually managed via parameter lists of process constants. However, domain-specific process calculi are often equipped with (unlabeled reduction semantics, building upon a rich and convenient notion of structural congruence. Unfortunately, the price for this convenience is that the analysis is cumbersome: the set of reachable states is modulo structural congruence, and the processes' state information is very hard to identify. We extract from congruence classes of reachable states individual state-informative representatives that we supply with a proper formal semantics. As a result, we can now freely switch between the process calculus terms and their representatives, and we can use the stateful representatives to perform assertional reasoning on process calculus models.

  11. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  12. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  13. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  14. Kurds, states and tribes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2002-01-01

    At most times, Kurdish society has existed at the periphery of, and functioned as a buffer between, two or more neighbouring states. From c. 1500 until the First World War, the relevant states were the Ottoman Empire in the west and Safavid, later Qajar Iran in the east (with Russia and the

  15. Small States in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe.......This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe....

  16. Dissociative State and Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the results of forensic evaluation of the civil competence of a case of alleged dissociative identity disorder (DID and discusses whether such dissociative states substantially jeopardize civil competence. A 40-year-old woman claimed that she had had many personalities since her college days. From the age of 37 to 40, she shopped excessively, which left her with millions of dollars of debt. She ascribed her shopping to a certain identity state, over which she had no control. (In this article, we use the term identity state to replace personality as an objective description of a mental state. She thus raised the petition of civil incompetence. During the forensic evaluation, it was found that the identity states were relatively stable and mutually aware of each other. The switch into another identity state was sometimes under voluntary control. The subject showed consistency and continuity in behavioral patterns across the different identity states, and no matter which identity state she was in, there was no evidence of impairment in her factual knowledge of social situations and her capacity for managing personal affairs. We hence concluded that she was civilly competent despite the claimed DID. Considering that the existence and diagnosis of DID are still under dispute and a diagnosis of DID alone is not sufficient to interdict a person's civil right, important clinical and forensic issues remain to be answered.

  17. Welfare State Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes welfare state transformation in OECD countries since the 1970s against the background of the post-war settlement. Relying on quantitative macro-data and qualitative information from the literature, we show that welfare states have con-verged, especially regarding various...

  18. The Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  19. DUBNA: Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The political upheaval in what was the Soviet Union was reflected in an Extraordinary Plenipotentiaries Committee of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Member States, held in Dubna, near Moscow, on 10-13 December, with representatives of eleven sovereign republics of the former Soviet State taking part

  20. Thermalization of squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Allan I

    2005-01-01

    Starting with a thermal squeezed state defined as a conventional thermal state based on an appropriate Hamiltonian, we show how an important physical property, the signal-to-noise ratio, is degraded, and propose a simple model of thermalization (Kraus thermalization)

  1. Metrics of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhihao; Chen Jingling

    2011-01-01

    In this work we study metrics of quantum states, which are natural generalizations of the usual trace metric and Bures metric. Some useful properties of the metrics are proved, such as the joint convexity and contractivity under quantum operations. Our result has a potential application in studying the geometry of quantum states as well as the entanglement detection.

  2. State alternative route designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ''state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective

  3. Healthcare. State Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Gulish, Artem; Beach, Bennett H.

    2012-01-01

    This report projects education requirements linked to forecasted job growth in healthcare by state and the District of Columbia from 2010 through 2020. It complements a larger national report which projects educational demand for healthcare for the same time period. The national report shows that with or without Obamacare, the United States will…

  4. Categorical Tensor Network States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob D. Biamonte

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the use of string diagrams and the mathematics of category theory in the description of quantum states by tensor networks. This approach lead to a unification of several ideas, as well as several results and methods that have not previously appeared in either side of the literature. Our approach enabled the development of a tensor network framework allowing a solution to the quantum decomposition problem which has several appealing features. Specifically, given an n-body quantum state |ψ〉, we present a new and general method to factor |ψ〉 into a tensor network of clearly defined building blocks. We use the solution to expose a previously unknown and large class of quantum states which we prove can be sampled efficiently and exactly. This general framework of categorical tensor network states, where a combination of generic and algebraically defined tensors appear, enhances the theory of tensor network states.

  5. Failing Failed States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Hans-Henrik

    2002-01-01

    coverage. A Danish survey of newsrooms shows that the national world-view and prevalent news criteria prevent consistent coverage. It is argued that politicians are the ones who determine national agendas: it is from political initiatives, rather than media coverage, that failing states and humanitarian......When states are failing, when basic state functions are no longer carried out, and when people have no security, humanitarian crises erupt. In confronting this problem, the stronger states have followed an ad hoc policy of intervention and aid. In some cases, humanitarian disasters have resulted...... from inaction. Often, the media are blamed. Politicians complain about the media when they interfere (the CNN effect), and when they do not. This article looks at how the media do cover failing states. Sierra Leone and Congo are used as examples. The analysis shows that there is little independent...

  6. Permutationally invariant state reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moroder, Tobias; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza

    2012-01-01

    Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large-scale opti...... optimization, which has clear advantages regarding speed, control and accuracy in comparison to commonly employed numerical routines. First prototype implementations easily allow reconstruction of a state of 20 qubits in a few minutes on a standard computer.......-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum...

  7. State and market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ferenčak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The debate about the relationship between state and market, about their relative importance, does not cease to be topical, and there is no end of it in sight. The market (invisible hand does need, more or less, the help of the state (visible hand. Liberal sympathizers of the market prefer a “small” state whose ambitions include only providing an adaptable legal framework in which and by which the market functions, and (re allocation of resources, because of the inherent defects of the market. Proponents of welfare economics will wish for progressive taxation and redistribution of income. Keynes’s mission to save capitalism meant an increase in the importance of the state and appearance of a new, stabilizing role of the state. Excessive unemployment is to be prevented by fine-tuning. Unfortunately, Keynes’s critics from the public choice camp will say that the state (government is not perfect, and, as a rule, falls into the trap of asymmetry. Only and solely in theory will it apply that a perfect state means perfect functioning of an imperfect market.

  8. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  9. Autonomy of State Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Niklasson, Birgitta; Roness, Paul

    agencies in four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. By using survey data from more than 500 state agencies in the four countries, the article analyses whether there is indeed a Scandinavian style of autonomy and result control and assesses which structural, cultural, and environmental......NPM-doctrines states that ideal-type agencies should have a high level of managerial autonomy, while being controlled through result-based control instruments, like performance contracts. In this article, the authors present a first preliminary attempt to comparatively analyze the autonomy of state...... variables might explain similarities and differences in the autonomy of agencies....

  10. Variational Transition State Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, Donald G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational transition state theory. This project involved the development of variational transition state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.

  11. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  12. Correlations in Werner States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunlong; Li Nan

    2008-01-01

    Werner states are paradigmatic examples of quantum states and play an innovative role in quantum information theory. In investigating the correlating capability of Werner states, we find the curious phenomenon that quantum correlations, as quantified by the entanglement of formation, may exceed the total correlations, as measured by the quantum mutual information. Consequently, though the entanglement of formation is so widely used in quantifying entanglement, it cannot be interpreted as a consistent measure of quantum correlations per se if we accept the folklore that total correlations are measured (or rather upper bounded) by the quantum mutual information.

  13. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  14. Giant resonances on excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besold, W.; Reinhard, P.G.; Toepffer, C.

    1984-01-01

    We derive modified RPA equations for small vibrations about excited states. The temperature dependence of collective excitations is examined. The formalism is applied to the ground state and the first excited state of 90 Zr in order to confirm a hypothesis which states that not only the ground state but every excited state of a nucleus has a giant resonance built upon it. (orig.)

  15. US State Submerged Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. Section 1301 et seq.) grants coastal states title to natural resources located within their coastal submerged lands and navigable...

  16. State Geodatabase for Connecticut

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  17. State Geodatabase for Indiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  18. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  19. Teale State Assembly Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  20. State Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  1. Varieties in State Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming Hua; Cui, Lin; Lu, Jiangyong

    2014-01-01

    Institutional diversity characterizing state-owned enterprises (SOEs) from emerging economies holds critical but under-examined implications for their internationalization activities. Different types of SOEs can exhibit distinct motivations, strategic resources, and adaptive capabilities for pene...

  2. Negative-ion states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures

  3. Baryoniums and related states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Mo, C.

    1978-01-01

    A brief introduction is given to current theoretical ideas on baryonium states with particular emphasis on their interpretation as 'colour molecules'. It is argued that baryonium spectroscopy provides a valuable test for colour as a new degree of freedom. (author)

  4. Decay of Hoyle state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-02

    Nov 2, 2014 ... T K RANA, C BHATTACHARYA, S KUNDU, ... of various direct 3α decay mechanisms of the Hoyle state. ... Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. ... FMD predicts a compact triangle shape and LEFT predicts a bent arm chain structure,.

  5. Political State Boundary (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  6. Engaging Future Failing States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    military missions in the Middle East, the Balkans, Africa, Asia , and South America. There is an increasing proliferation of failed and failing states...disparity, overpopulation , food security, health services availability, migration pressures, environmental degradation, personal and 22 community

  7. State of Services Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A comprehensive monthly report portraying customer experience with our various service options. The State of Services is shared with the ACOSS and is presented to...

  8. Periodically modulated dark states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  9. State Transportation Statistics 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2012, a statistical profile of transportation ...

  10. State Transportation Statistics 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2013, a statistical profile of transportatio...

  11. Outpatient Imaging Efficiency - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Use of medical imaging - state data. These measures give you information about hospitals' use of medical imaging tests for outpatients. Examples of medical imaging...

  12. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  13. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattices, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. This book is divided into three parts. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. In the third part, the multi-electron system is discussed theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for the superconducting state in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and examined in-depth. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States is an introductory treatise and textbook on meso...

  14. State Agency Administrative Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database comprises 28 State agency boundaries and point of contact. The Kansas Geological Survey collected legal descriptions of the boundaries for various...

  15. State DOT mission evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This paper highlights the challenges faced by six state departments of transportation (California, Colorado, Florida, Massachusetts, Missouri, Oregon) and the views of their respective chief executive officers within the context of national trends. E...

  16. MSIS State Summary Datamarts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS State Summary Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  17. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  18. Asking for more State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a period of embedding, as Achille Mbembe puts it when discussing the novelty of the postcolony (Mbembe 2001: 242, 01/09/2008); in this paper the term applies to conceptualise particular social processes of state/citizen entanglement within the realm of western welfare bureauc...... the concept of welfare, moral order and legality is constantly negotiated and reconstituted. From this perspective, I explore everyday ghetto life as frontier practices within the community and with the state....

  19. State of the Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Industrial Profits In the first two months, the combined profits of all state-owned enterprises as well as non-state enterprises with annual sales revenue of more than 5 million yuan (enterprises above designated size) totaled 203.4 billion yuan, increasing 21.8 percent compared with the same period last year, according to the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (see graph 1).

  20. State of the Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Industrial Profits From January to June, the total volume of profits made by all state-owned enterprises as well as non-state enterprises with annual sales revenue of more than 5 million yuan (enterprises above designated size) stood at 810.7 billion yuan, expanding 28 percent compared with the same period last year, according to the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (see graph 1).

  1. Appealing to the State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Vejrup

    2014-01-01

    This essay analyzes identity formation of majority religion in the context of intentional, political processes of change in state-church relations from a perspective that combines discursive institutionalism with the insights from governance research.......This essay analyzes identity formation of majority religion in the context of intentional, political processes of change in state-church relations from a perspective that combines discursive institutionalism with the insights from governance research....

  2. State responses to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  3. Bound and rebound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzalesi, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    In relativistic quantum theory, bound states generate forces in the crossed channel; such forces can affect the binding and self-consistent solutions should be sought for the bound-state problem. The author investigates how self-consistency can be achieved by successive approximations, in a simple scalar model and with successive relativistic eikonal approximations (EAs). Within the generalized ladder approximation, some exact properties of the resulting ''first generation'' bound states are discussed. The binding energies in this approximation are rather small even for rather large values of the primary coupling constant. The coupling of the constituent particles to the first-generation reggeon is determined by a suitable EA and a new generalized ladder amplitude is constructed with rungs given either by the primary gluons or by the first-generation reggeons. The resulting new (second-generation) bound states are found in a reggeized EA. The size of the corrections to the binding energies due to the rebinding effects is surprisingly large. The procedure is then iterated, so as to find - again in an EA - the third-generation bound states. The procedure is found to be self-consistent already at this stage: the third-generation bound states coincide with those of second generation, and no further rebinding takes place in the higher iterations of the approximation method. Features - good and bad - of the model are discussed, as well as the possible relevance of rebinding mechanisms in hadron dynamics. (author)

  4. Machine learning topological states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong-Ling; Li, Xiaopeng; Das Sarma, S.

    2017-11-01

    Artificial neural networks and machine learning have now reached a new era after several decades of improvement where applications are to explode in many fields of science, industry, and technology. Here, we use artificial neural networks to study an intriguing phenomenon in quantum physics—the topological phases of matter. We find that certain topological states, either symmetry-protected or with intrinsic topological order, can be represented with classical artificial neural networks. This is demonstrated by using three concrete spin systems, the one-dimensional (1D) symmetry-protected topological cluster state and the 2D and 3D toric code states with intrinsic topological orders. For all three cases, we show rigorously that the topological ground states can be represented by short-range neural networks in an exact and efficient fashion—the required number of hidden neurons is as small as the number of physical spins and the number of parameters scales only linearly with the system size. For the 2D toric-code model, we find that the proposed short-range neural networks can describe the excited states with Abelian anyons and their nontrivial mutual statistics as well. In addition, by using reinforcement learning we show that neural networks are capable of finding the topological ground states of nonintegrable Hamiltonians with strong interactions and studying their topological phase transitions. Our results demonstrate explicitly the exceptional power of neural networks in describing topological quantum states, and at the same time provide valuable guidance to machine learning of topological phases in generic lattice models.

  5. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  6. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  7. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  8. Quantum Teleportation of Tripartite Arbitrary State via W State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zheng-Yuan; YI You-Min; CAO Zhuo-Liang

    2005-01-01

    A scheme of teleportation of a tripartite state via W state is suggested. The W state serves as quantum channels. Standard Bell-state measurements and Von Neumann measurements are performed. After the sender operates the measurements and informs the receiver her results, he can reconstruct the original state by the corresponding unitary transformation. The probability of the successful teleportation is also obtained.

  9. The mathematics behind chimera states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omel’chenko, O. E.

    2018-05-01

    Chimera states are self-organized spatiotemporal patterns of coexisting coherence and incoherence. We give an overview of the main mathematical methods used in studies of chimera states, focusing on chimera states in spatially extended coupled oscillator systems. We discuss the continuum limit approach to these states, Ott-Antonsen manifold reduction, finite size chimera states, control of chimera states and the influence of system design on the type of chimera state that is observed.

  10. Discrete density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug

    2016-01-01

    By considering the quantum-mechanically minimum allowable energy interval, we exactly count number of states (NOS) and introduce discrete density of states (DOS) concept for a particle in a box for various dimensions. Expressions for bounded and unbounded continua are analytically recovered from discrete ones. Even though substantial fluctuations prevail in discrete DOS, they're almost completely flattened out after summation or integration operation. It's seen that relative errors of analytical expressions of bounded/unbounded continua rapidly decrease for high NOS values (weak confinement or high energy conditions), while the proposed analytical expressions based on Weyl's conjecture always preserve their lower error characteristic. - Highlights: • Discrete density of states considering minimum energy difference is proposed. • Analytical DOS and NOS formulas based on Weyl conjecture are given. • Discrete DOS and NOS functions are examined for various dimensions. • Relative errors of analytical formulas are much better than the conventional ones.

  11. Discrete density of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug, E-mail: sismanal@itu.edu.tr

    2016-03-22

    By considering the quantum-mechanically minimum allowable energy interval, we exactly count number of states (NOS) and introduce discrete density of states (DOS) concept for a particle in a box for various dimensions. Expressions for bounded and unbounded continua are analytically recovered from discrete ones. Even though substantial fluctuations prevail in discrete DOS, they're almost completely flattened out after summation or integration operation. It's seen that relative errors of analytical expressions of bounded/unbounded continua rapidly decrease for high NOS values (weak confinement or high energy conditions), while the proposed analytical expressions based on Weyl's conjecture always preserve their lower error characteristic. - Highlights: • Discrete density of states considering minimum energy difference is proposed. • Analytical DOS and NOS formulas based on Weyl conjecture are given. • Discrete DOS and NOS functions are examined for various dimensions. • Relative errors of analytical formulas are much better than the conventional ones.

  12. Smallest chimera states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistrenko, Yuri; Brezetsky, Serhiy; Jaros, Patrycja; Levchenko, Roman; Kapitaniak, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that chimera behavior can be observed in small networks consisting of three identical oscillators, with mutual all-to-all coupling. Three different types of chimeras, characterized by the coexistence of two coherent oscillators and one incoherent oscillator (i.e., rotating with another frequency) have been identified, where the oscillators show periodic (two types) and chaotic (one type) behaviors. Typical bifurcations at the transitions from full synchronization to chimera states and between different types of chimeras have been described. Parameter regions for the chimera states are obtained in the form of Arnold tongues, issued from a singular parameter point. Our analysis suggests that chimera states can be observed in small networks relevant to various real-world systems.

  13. The state manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defendini, A.; Jones, R.; Matheys, J.P.; Vyvre, P.V.; Vascotto, A.

    1992-01-01

    The State Manager system (SM) is a set of tools, developed at CERN, for the control of large data-acquisition systems. A dedicated object-based language is used to describe the various components of the data-acquisition system. Each component is declared in terms of finite state machines and sequences of parametrized actions to be performed for operations such as the start and end of a run. The description, written by the user, is translated into Ada to produce a run-control program capable of controlling processes in a distributed environment. A Motif-based graphical interface to the control program displays the current state of all the components and can be used to control the overall data-acquisition system. The SM has been used by several experiments both at CERN and other organizations. We present here the architecture of the SM, some design choices, and the experience acquired from its use. (author)

  14. The association between state attachment security and state Mindfulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Pepping

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that attachment and mindfulness are related, though the nature of this association is unclear. Here we present two studies examining whether there is a causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness. Study 1 investigated the effects of experimentally increasing state mindfulness on state attachment security. State mindfulness was successfully enhanced, but this led to no change in state attachment security. Study 2 investigated the effects of experimentally enhancing state attachment security on state mindfulness. State attachment security was successfully enhanced, but this did not lead to any change in state mindfulness. These findings suggest that there is not a direct, immediate causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness as a result of brief experimental manipulations. Future research should examine these associations in longer term interventions.

  15. Rapanos v. United States & Carabell v. United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents associated with guidance for implementing the definition of waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act following the Rapanos v. United States, and Carabell v. United States Supreme Court decision.

  16. Resonant state expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, P.

    1993-02-01

    The completeness properties of the discrete set of bound state, virtual states and resonances characterizing the system of a single nonrelativistic particle moving in a central cutoff potential is investigated. From a completeness relation in terms of these discrete states and complex scattering states one can derive several Resonant State Expansions (RSE). It is interesting to obtain purely discrete expansion which, if valid, would significantly simplify the treatment of the continuum. Such expansions can be derived using Mittag-Leffler (ML) theory for a cutoff potential and it would be nice to see if one can obtain the same expansions starting from an eigenfunction theory that is not restricted to a finite sphere. The RSE of Greens functions is especially important, e.g. in the continuum RPA (CRPA) method of treating giant resonances in nuclear physics. The convergence of RSE is studied in simple cases using square well wavefunctions in order to achieve high numerical accuracy. Several expansions can be derived from each other by using the theory of analytic functions and one can the see how to obtain a natural discretization of the continuum. Since the resonance wavefunctions are oscillating with an exponentially increasing amplitude, and therefore have to be interpreted through some regularization procedure, every statement made about quantities involving such states is checked by numerical calculations.Realistic nuclear wavefunctions, generated by a Wood-Saxon potential, are used to test also the usefulness of RSE in a realistic nuclear calculation. There are some fundamental differences between different symmetries of the integral contour that defines the continuum in RSE. One kind of symmetry is necessary to have an expansion of the unity operator that is idempotent. Another symmetry must be used if we want purely discrete expansions. These are found to be of the same form as given by ML. (29 refs.)

  17. Graphene ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Manuel; Stefanelli, Ulisse

    2018-06-01

    Graphene is locally two-dimensional but not flat. Nanoscale ripples appear in suspended samples and rolling up often occurs when boundaries are not fixed. We address this variety of graphene geometries by classifying all ground-state deformations of the hexagonal lattice with respect to configurational energies including two- and three-body terms. As a consequence, we prove that all ground-state deformations are either periodic in one direction, as in the case of ripples, or rolled up, as in the case of nanotubes.

  18. Multiquark resonant states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbazian, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The invariant mass spectra of forty nine hadronic systems with hypercharge, strangeness and baryon number, varied in wide limits have been studied. Resonance peaks have been found in the invariant mass spectra of Y 2 and #betta#pπ 2495 MeV/c 2 resonant states. Three more candidates for anti qq 4 states were found #bettaπ# + π + : 1705, 2072, 2605 MeV/c 2 . The masses of all these candidates are in good agreement with Bag Model predictions. A hypercharge selection rule is suggested: ''The hypercharge of hadronic resonances in weak gravitational fields cannot exceed one Y <= 1

  19. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  20. Narrow Sigma -hypernuclear states

    CERN Document Server

    Gal, A

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the spin-isospin dependence of low-energy Sigma N to Lambda N conversion leads to substantial quenching of nuclear-matter estimates of the widths of some Sigma -hypernuclear states produced in (K/sup -/, pi ) reactions, to a level below 10 MeV. The estimated widths compare favorably with those of the Sigma -hypernuclear peaks recently observed at CERN for /sup 7/Li, /sup 9/Be, and /sup 12/C. Tentative quantum number assignments are suggested for these states. (10 refs).

  1. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  2. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  3. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  4. Mini mental state examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Ejnar Alex; Lauritzen, Lise; Wang, August

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...... the severity of dementia disorders. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb-25...

  5. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  6. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ molecular dynamics (MD) methods, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations using MD methods has been performed to obtain the equilibrium crystalline beam structure. The effect of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Schiffer et al. depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  7. Decay of Hoyle state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-02

    Nov 2, 2014 ... The prediction of Hoyle state was necessitated to explain the abundance of carbon, which is crucial for the existence of life on Earth and is the stepping stone for understanding the abundance of other heavier elements. After the experimental confirmation of its existence, soon it was realized that the Hoyle ...

  8. Nuclear ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear ground state is surveyed theoretically, and specific suggestions are given on how to critically test the theory experimentally. Detailed results on 208 Pb are discussed, isolating several features of the charge density distributions. Analyses of 208 Pb electron scattering and muonic data are also considered. 14 figures

  9. The Islamic State unfiltered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloerich, Inte; Rowson, Rose; Cachia, Rebecca; Clandillon, Susan; Kolopaking, Cristel

    Instagram has become an unsuspecting pulpit ­– seemingly caught off guard – for those determined to spread a militant message of Islamic State terror. Graphic, fanatical and oftentimes heavily photoshopped images weave through Instagram’s labyrinth of sunset snaps and gym selfies to advance a

  10. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    property of CocaCola Bottling Company, Fayetteville, North Carolina, of a value in excess of $100.00, in violation of Title 18 United States Code, Section...another, to-wit: a Cocacola soft drink machine, the amount of damage to said personal property being more than $200.00, in violation of North Carolina

  11. State Skill Standards: Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…

  12. State Skill Standards: Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  13. State Dependence in Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between the un...

  14. State Energy Resilience Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pillon, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Petit, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The energy sector infrastructure’s high degree of interconnectedness with other critical infrastructure systems can lead to cascading and escalating failures that can strongly affect both economic and social activities.The operational goal is to maintain energy availability for customers and consumers. For this body of work, a State Energy Resilience Framework in five steps is proposed.

  15. 75 FR 31465 - United States, State of Illinois, State of Colorado, and State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ..., and often offer full-service restaurants or in-service dining. Premiere theatres also differ from... selection is deemed not to be a suitable alternative, the United States shall in its sole discretion select... suitable alternative pursuant to Section VI(A). If AMC's selection is deemed not to be a suitable...

  16. Unequal Welfare States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Soede; J.C. Vrooman; P.M. Ferraresi; G. Segre

    2004-01-01

    The financial sustainability of the ageing welfare states in Europe has become a key policy issue recently. This study highlights a different aspect of the ageing process, namely its potential impact on income distributions. Since older people usually live on a lower income, their growing share

  17. Control of Squeezed States

    OpenAIRE

    Bloch, Anthony M.; Rojo, Alberto G.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we consider the classical and quantum control of squeezed states of harmonic oscillators. This provides a method for reducing noise below the quantum limit and provides an example of the control of under-actuated systems in the stochastic and quantum context. We consider also the interaction of a squeezed quantum oscillator with an external heat bath.

  18. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Li, X.P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ the Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, the authors have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. They include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  19. Present State Examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla; Bertelsen, Aksel

    Present State Examination (PSE) 5. udgave er en revideret version af speciallæge i psykiatri Aksel Bertelsens oprindelige materiale. Aksel Bertelsen er ophavsmand til PSE og til den danske udgave af ICD-10. Revisionen omfatter et forbedret layout, en modernisering af sproget, tilføjelse af...

  20. The Islamic State Unfiltered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloerich, I.; Kolopaking, C.; Cachia, R.; Rowson, R.; Clandillon, Susan

    Instagram has become an unsuspecting pulpit ­– seemingly caught off guard – for those determined to spread a militant message of Islamic State terror. Graphic, fanatical and oftentimes heavily photoshopped images weave through Instagram’s labyrinth of sunset snaps and gym selfies to advance a

  1. Phase squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chizhov, A.V.; Paris, M.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Phase squeezed states of a single mode radiation field have been introduced as eigenstates of a linear combination of lowering and raising operators. The explicit expression in the Fock basis has been obtained and some relevant properties have been illustrated. (author)

  2. State Virtual Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Virtual library? Electronic library? Digital library? Online information network? These all apply to the growing number of Web-based resource collections managed by consortiums of state library entities. Some, like "INFOhio" and "KYVL" ("Kentucky Virtual Library"), have been available for a few years, but others are just starting. Searching for…

  3. The Liquid State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. The Liquid State - The Arrangement of Atoms. K R Rao. General Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 54-59. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/06/0054-0059 ...

  4. State-set branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Møller; Veloso, Manuela M.; Bryant, Randal E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we present a framework called state-set branching that combines symbolic search based on reduced ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) with best-first search, such as A* and greedy best-first search. The framework relies on an extension of these algorithms from expanding a sing...

  5. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...

  6. Plutonium valence state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    A calculational method for ascertaining equilibrium valence state distributions of plutonium in acid solutions as a function of the plutonium oxidation number and the solution acidity is illustrated with an example. The method may be more practical for manual use than methods based upon polynomial equations. (T.G.)

  7. Create Your State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Kris; Melvin, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    Students are often encouraged to work together with their classmates, sometimes with other classes, occasionally with kids at other schools, but rarely with kids across the country. In this article the authors describe the Create Your State project, a collaborative nationwide project inspired by the Texas Chair Project wherein the artist, Damien…

  8. Highways: Interstate, US & State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains lines for all highways in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a USGS 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  9. States of Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak Dhar. States of Matter. Deepak Dhar. Keywords. Solid, liquid, gas, glasses, powders. D Dhar is a theoretical physicist at the Tata. Institute of Funamental. Research, Mumbai. His research interests are mainly in the area of non- equilibrium statistical physics. All of us have read about solid, liquid and gaseous.

  10. Alaska State Legislature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing Committees Finance Committees Special Committees Joint Committees Conference Committees Other , administrative support to the Legislature and all divisions, and has the responsibility for accounting, payroll Information Offices within the state. Accounting Santé Lesh, Administrative Operations Manager 465-3852

  11. Afghanistan, state and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kværnø, Ole

    In June 2007, the RAND Corporation and the Royal Danish Defence College hosted a conference titled “Afghanistan: State and Society, Great Power Politics, and the Way Ahead”. The two-day event, held in Copenhagen, was attended by more than 100 politicians, scholars, academics, and representative...

  12. Administering Our State Library Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFrane, Gerard

    1970-01-01

    A satire on the application of scientific management principles to a state library agency. Covers relationships of the state librarian to staff, the profession, and state and federal governments. (Author/JS)

  13. Understanding the pointer states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre Brasil, Carlos; Andreta de Castro, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, pointer states are eigenstates of the observable of the measurement apparatus that represent the possible positions of the display pointer of the equipment. The origin of this concept lies in attempts to fill the blanks in Everett’s relative-state interpretation, and to make it a fully valid description of physical reality. To achieve this, it was necessary to consider not only the main system interacting with the measurement apparatus (like von Neumann and Everett did) but also the role of the environment in eliminating correlations between different possible measurements when interacting with the measurement apparatus. The interaction of the environment with the main system (and the measurement apparatus) is the core of the decoherence theory, which followed Everett’s thesis. In this article, we review the measurement process according to von Neumann, Everett’s relative state interpretation, the purpose of decoherence and some of its follow-up until Wojciech Zurek’s primordial paper that consolidated the concept of pointer states, previously presented by Heinz Dieter Zeh. Employing a simple physical model consisting of a pair of two-level systems—one representing the main system, the other the measurement apparatus—and a thermal bath—representing the environment—we show how pointer states emerge, explaining its contributions to the question of measurement in quantum mechanics, as well as its limitations. Finally, we briefly show some of its consequences. This paper is accessible to readers with elementary knowledge about quantum mechanics, on the level of graduate courses. (paper)

  14. Paired Hall states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiter, M.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation contains a collection of individual articles on various topics. Their significance in the corresponding field as well as connections between them are emphasized in a general and comprehensive introduction. In the first article, the author explores the consequences for macroscopic effective Lagrangians of assuming that the momentum density is proportional to the flow of conserved current. The universal corrections obtained for the macroscopic Lagrangian of a superconductor describe the London Hall effect, and provide a fully consistent derivation of it. In the second article, a heuristic principle is proposed for quantized Hall states: the existence and incompressibility of fractionally quantized Hall states is explained by an argument based on an adiabatic localization of magnetic flux, the process of trading uniform flux for an equal amount of fictitious flux attached to the particles. This principle is exactly implemented in the third article. For a certain class of model Hamiltonians, the author obtains Laughlin's Jastrow type wave functions explicitly from a filled Landau level, by smooth extrapolation in quantum statistics. The generalization of this analysis to the torus geometry shows that theorems restricting the possibilities of quantum statistics on closed surfaces are circumvented in the presence of a magnetic field. In the last article, the existence is proposed of a novel incompressible quantum liquid, a paired Hall state, at a half filled Landau level. This state arises adiabatically from free fermions in zero magnetic field, and reduces to a state previously proposed by Halperin in the limit of tightly bound pairs. It supports unusual excitations, including neutral fermions and charge e/4 anyons with statistical parameter θ = π/8

  15. Coherent states and rational surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, Dorje C; Graefe, Eva-Maria

    2010-01-01

    The state spaces of generalized coherent states associated with special unitary groups are shown to form rational curves and surfaces in the space of pure states. These curves and surfaces are generated by the various Veronese embeddings of the underlying state space into higher dimensional state spaces. This construction is applied to the parameterization of generalized coherent states, which is useful for practical calculations, and provides an elementary combinatorial approach to the geometry of the coherent state space. The results are extended to Hilbert spaces with indefinite inner products, leading to the introduction of a new kind of generalized coherent states.

  16. The State of Preschool 2012: State Preschool Yearbook. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, W. Steven; Carolan, Megan E.; Fitzgerald, Jen; Squires, James H.

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 "State Preschool Yearbook" profiles state-funded prekindergarten programs in the United States. The "Yearbook" compares each state program's standards against a checklist of 10 research-based quality standards benchmarks. Although the benchmarks against which the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER)…

  17. Quantum information with Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiangbin; Hiroshima, Tohya; Tomita, Akihisa; Hayashi, Masahito

    2007-01-01

    Quantum optical Gaussian states are a type of important robust quantum states which are manipulatable by the existing technologies. So far, most of the important quantum information experiments are done with such states, including bright Gaussian light and weak Gaussian light. Extending the existing results of quantum information with discrete quantum states to the case of continuous variable quantum states is an interesting theoretical job. The quantum Gaussian states play a central role in such a case. We review the properties and applications of Gaussian states in quantum information with emphasis on the fundamental concepts, the calculation techniques and the effects of imperfections of the real-life experimental setups. Topics here include the elementary properties of Gaussian states and relevant quantum information device, entanglement-based quantum tasks such as quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography with weak and strong Gaussian states and the quantum channel capacity, mathematical theory of quantum entanglement and state estimation for Gaussian states

  18. Localized states in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, A.Q.

    1976-08-01

    The multi-valley effective mass formalism for the asymmetric energy surfaces developed in an earlier paper is extended for the calculations of the ground state energies of isocoric donors in Ge. The impurity potential is constructed from the k-dependent dielectric function of Ge and a variational trial wave function, belonging to an irreducible representation of the point group Tsub(d) of the Hamiltonian, is used. The calculated energy levels for the singlet A 1 and the triplet T 2 symmetries of the ls states for As in Ge is found to be of the same order (-9.6 to-12.8 meV) as observed experimentally; however, the predicted E(A 1 ) - E(T 2 ) splitting is rather too small (approximately -0.5 to -0.7 meV) compared with the observed value -4.23 meV

  19. Cutting state identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M.

    1997-01-01

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting

  20. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattice, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. New to this edition is the examination of magnetic crystals, where magnetic symmetry is essential for magnetic phase transitions. The multi-electron system is also discussed  theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for superconductivity in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and studied in-depth. Thermod...

  1. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  2. Bringing Different States in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Fersch, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Migration scholars have long been concerned with understanding what influences the incorporation of migrants into their host societies. The theoretical development in this field has been dominated for several years by North American migration scholars who have not been much interested...... of the article, it is exemplified how these insights can be applied when studying the Danish welfare state in a comparative perspective, drawing on examples on the influence of family policies on migrants’ attitudes towards women’s paid work....... in the influence of welfare state institutions. In recent years, European migration scholars have, however, contributed to important insights on the impact of the national integration context on the socioeconomic incorporation of migrants. The aim of this article is to contribute to this burgeoning research field...

  3. Models of multiquark states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The success of simple constituent quark models in single-hardon physics and their failure in multiquark physics is discussed, emphasizing the relation between meson and baryon spectra, hidden color and the color matrix, breakup decay modes, coupled channels, and hadron-hadron interactions via flipping and tunneling of flux tubes. Model-independent predictions for possible multiquark bound states are considered and the most promising candidates suggested. A quark approach to baryon-baryon interactions is discussed

  4. Weak states and security

    OpenAIRE

    Rakipi, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Although the weak 1 failing states have often been deseribed as the single most important problem for the international order s ince the en d of Cold W ar (F .Fukuyaına 2004:92) several dimensions of this phenomenon still remain unexplored. While this phenomenon has been present in the international politics even earlier, only the post Cold W ar period accentuated its relationship with security issues. Following the Cold W ar' s "peacef...

  5. Algebras of Information States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Vít

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2017), s. 1643-1675 ISSN 0955-792X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC16-07954J Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : information states * relational semantics * algebraic semantics * intuitionistic logic * inquisitive disjunction Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2016

  6. Commonwealth of (Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrućinić Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the stages from the establishment itself to the present day of the functioning of such a specific regional organization as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, the article seeks to further explain the meaning of its existence, efficiency and functioning. The CIS was created in order to make the dissolution of a major world super-power, which throughout the 20th century together with the USA defined the bipolar world, as painless as possible, especially for the new countries and its nationally and ethnically diverse population. During the early years after the dissolution of the USSR, the CIS played a major role in a more flexible and less severe dissolution of the Soviet empire, alleviating the consequences for its people. A more efficient functioning among the republics in all fields was also one of the tasks of the Commonwealth, to which it was devoted to the extent which was permitted by the then, not too favourable circumstances. Difficult years of economic crisis did not allow the CIS to mutually integrate its members as much as possible on the economy level. Thanks to the economic recovery of the post-Soviet states in the early 21st century, the Commonwealth has also been transformed, reformed, and renewed, and all this in order to achieve better and more fruitful cooperation between the members. The CIS may serve as a proper example of how the former Soviet Union states are inextricably linked by social, security-political, economic, cultural, communication-transport, and other ties, thanks to the centuries-long existence of the peoples of these states in this area, despite both internal and external factors which occasionally, but temporarily halt the post-Soviet integration. Mathematically expressed, the CIS members are naturally predisposed, to be reciprocally depended on each other, just as they also have the capacity for successful cooperation in the future times and epochs brought on by the modern world.

  7. Nevada state revenues analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report analyzes the major sources of revenue to the Nevada State General Fund for purposes of estimating impacts associated with the siting of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. Each major revenue source is analyzed to identify relationships among the economic or demographic base, the revenue base, and the revenues generated. Trends and changes in the rates and/or base are highlighted. A model is developed for each revenue source to allow impact estimation

  8. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  9. Investigating Quantum Modulation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Coherent state quantum data encryption is highly interoperable with current classical optical infrastructure in both fiber and free space optical networks...hub’s field of regard has a transmit/receive module that are endpoints of the Lyot filter stage tree within the hub’s backend electro-optics control... mobile airborne and space-borne networking. Just like any laser communication technology, QC links are affected by several sources of distortions

  10. State Controled Avantgarde?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    State controlled radio developed in the Nordic countries by the middle of the 1920es. Danish Radio was established for a trial period in April 1925, and was permanently founded in April 1926. Swedish radio was founded in 1925 and Norwegian radio in 1933. The new and unquestionably powerful medium...... to the program sheet from Danish Broadcasting Corporation (DBC) the program included transmission of music from the Radio Orchestra, sound film and transmissions from theatres and dance restaurants in Copenhage...

  11. Tracking intruder states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedinger, L L; Mueller, W F; Yu, C H [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    The deformation-driving effects of intruder states are studied by analysis of various types of data on rotational bands in rare-earth deformed nuclei. The sensitivity of four measurables (bandhead energy, B(E2) value, neutron i{sub 13/2} crossing frequency, and signature splitting) to increased deformation in an intruder band is shown. The analysis of signature splitting systematics is extended to known superdeformed bands. (author). 22 refs., 5 figs.

  12. On coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polubarinov, I.V.

    1975-01-01

    A definition of the coherent state representation is given in this paper. In the representation quantum theory equations take the form of classical field theory equations (with causality inherent to the latter) not only in simple cases (free field and interactions with an external current or field), but also in the general case of closed systems of interacting fields. And, conversely, a classical field theory can be transformed into a form of a quantum one

  13. The nuclear state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungk, R.

    1979-01-01

    A general picture is given of the technical and sociological problems which it is said arise in the 'nuclear state'. Separate chapters are entitled: radiation fodder; the gamblers; the atomic man; the intimidated; the proliferators; atomic terrorists; the supervised. The Foreword, entitled 'the hard path' (i.e. with nuclear power) is contrasted with a final chapter entitled 'Prospect: the soft path' (i.e. without nuclear power). (U.K.)

  14. United States rejoin ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    2003-01-01

    Upon pressure from the United States Congress, the US Department of Energy had to withdraw from further American participation in the ITER Engineering Design Activities after the end of its commitment to the EDA in July 1998. In the years since that time, changes have taken place in both the ITER activity and the US fusion community's position on burning plasma physics. Reflecting the interest in the United States in pursuing burning plasma physics, the DOE's Office of Science commissioned three studies as part of its examination of the option of entering the Negotiations on the Agreement on the Establishment of the International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. These were a National Academy Review Panel Report supporting the burning plasma mission; a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) report confirming the role of ITER in achieving fusion power production, and The Lehman Review of the ITER project costing and project management processes (for the latter one, see ITER CTA Newsletter, no. 15, December 2002). All three studies have endorsed the US return to the ITER activities. This historical decision was announced by DOE Secretary Abraham during his remarks to employees of the Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The United States will be working with the other Participants in the ITER Negotiations on the Agreement and is preparing to participate in the ITA

  15. Variational transition state theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truhlar, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    This project is concerned with the development and applications of generalized transition state theory and multidimensional tunneling approximations to chemical reaction rates. They have developed and implemented several practical versions of variational transition state theory (VTST), namely canonical variational theory (CVT), improved canonical variational theory (ICVT), and microcanonical variational theory (μVT). They have also developed and implemented several accurate multidimensional semiclassical tunneling approximations, the most accurate of which are the small-curvature semiclassical adiabatic (SCSA), large-curvature version-3 (LC3), and least-action (LA) approximations. They have applied the methods to thermal rate constants, using transmission coefficients based on ground-state tunneling, and they have also presented and applied adiabatic and diabatic extensions to calculated rate constants for vibrationally excited reactants. Their general goal is to develop accurate methods for calculating chemical reaction rate constants that remain practical even for reasonably complicated molecules. The approximations mentioned above yield rate constants for systems whose potential energy surface is known or assumed. Thus a second, equally important aspect of their work is the determination or modeling, semi-empirically and/or from electronic structure calculations, of potential energy surfaces

  16. JWL Equation of State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-12-15

    The JWL equation of state (EOS) is frequently used for the products (and sometimes reactants) of a high explosive (HE). Here we review and systematically derive important properties. The JWL EOS is of the Mie-Grueneisen form with a constant Grueneisen coefficient and a constants specific heat. It is thermodynamically consistent to specify the temperature at a reference state. However, increasing the reference state temperature restricts the EOS domain in the (V, e)-plane of phase space. The restrictions are due to the conditions that P ≥ 0, T ≥ 0, and the isothermal bulk modulus is positive. Typically, this limits the low temperature regime in expansion. The domain restrictions can result in the P-T equilibrium EOS of a partly burned HE failing to have a solution in some cases. For application to HE, the heat of detonation is discussed. Example JWL parameters for an HE, both products and reactions, are used to illustrate the restrictions on the domain of the EOS.

  17. Deep inelastic final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, G.

    1980-11-01

    In these lectures we attempt to describe the final states of deep inelastic scattering as given by QCD. In the first section we shall briefly comment on the parton model and give the main properties of decay functions which are of interest for the study of semi-inclusive leptoproduction. The second section is devoted to the QCD approach to single hadron leptoproduction. First we recall basic facts on QCD log's and derive after that the evolution equations for the fragmentation functions. For this purpose we make a short detour in e + e - annihilation. The rest of the section is a study of the factorization of long distance effects associated with the initial and final states. We then show how when one includes next to leading QCD corrections one induces factorization breaking and describe the double moments useful for testing such effects. The next section contains a review on the QCD jets in the hadronic final state. We begin by introducing the notion of infrared safe variable and defining a few useful examples. Distributions in these variables are studied to first order in QCD, with some comments on the resummation of logs encountered in higher orders. Finally the last section is a 'gaullimaufry' of jet studies

  18. Plant state display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Kazuo; Ito, Toshiichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention conducts information processing suitable for a man to solve a problem in a plant such as a nuclear power plant incorporating a great amount of information, where safety is required and provides information to an operator. Namely, theories and rules with respect to the flow and balanced state of materials and energy upon plant start-up, and a vapor cycle of operation fluids are symbolized and displayed on the display screen of the device. Then, the display of the plant information suitable to the information processing for a man to dissolve problems is provided. Accordingly, a mechanism for analyzing a purpose of the plant is made more definite, thereby enabling to prevent an erroneous judgement of an operator and occurrence of plant troubles. In addition, a simular effect can also be expected when the theories and rules with respect to the flow and the balanced state of materials and energy and thermohydrodynamic behavior of the operation fluids in a state of after-heat removing operation during shutdown of the plant are symbolized and displayed. (I.S.)

  19. Information Equation of State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paul Gough

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Landauer’s principle is applied to information in the universe. Once stars began forming there was a constant information energy density as the increasing proportion of matter at high stellar temperatures exactly compensated for the expanding universe. The information equation of state was close to the dark energy value, w = -1, for a wide range of redshifts, 10 > z > 0.8, over one half of cosmic time. A reasonable universe information bit content of only 1087 bits is sufficient for information energy to account for all dark energy. A time varying equation of state with a direct link between dark energy and matter, and linked to star formation in particular, is clearly relevant to the cosmic coincidence problem. In answering the ‘Why now?’ question we wonder ‘What next?’ as we expect the information equation of state to tend towards w = 0 in the future.c

  20. United States advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, the advanced technologies have been applied to uranium enrichment as a means by which it can be assured that nuclear fuel cost will remain competitive in the future. The United States is strongly committed to the development of advanced enrichment technology, and has brought both advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) programs to a point of significant technical refinement. The ability to deploy advanced technologies is the basis for the confidence in competitive future price. Unfortunately, the development of advanced technologies is capital intensive. The year 1985 is the key year for advanced technology development in the United States, since the decision on the primary enrichment technology for the future, AGC or AVLIS, will be made shortly. The background on the technology selection process, the highlights of AGC and AVLIS programs and the way to proceed after the process selection are described. The key objective is to maximize the sales volume and minimize the operating cost. This will help the utilities in other countries supply low cost energy on a reliable, long term basis. (Kako, I.)

  1. Overlaps of partial Néel states and Bethe states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O; Zarembo, K

    2016-01-01

    Partial Néel states are generalizations of the ordinary Néel (classical anti-ferromagnet) state that can have arbitrary integer spin. We study overlaps of these states with Bethe states. We first identify this overlap with a partial version of reflecting-boundary domain-wall partition function, and then derive various determinant representations for off-shell and on-shell Bethe states. (paper: quantum statistical physics, condensed matter, integrable systems)

  2. State estimation in networked systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijs, J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers state estimation strategies for networked systems. State estimation refers to a method for computing the unknown state of a dynamic process by combining sensor measurements with predictions from a process model. The most well known method for state estimation is the Kalman

  3. Functional State Modelling of Cultivation Processes: Dissolved Oxygen Limitation State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new functional state, namely dissolved oxygen limitation state for both bacteria Escherichia coli and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch cultivation processes is presented in this study. Functional state modelling approach is applied to cultivation processes in order to overcome the main disadvantages of using global process model, namely complex model structure and a big number of model parameters. Alongwith the newly introduced dissolved oxygen limitation state, second acetate production state and first acetate production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of E. coli, while mixed oxidative state and first ethanol production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of S. cerevisiae. For all mentioned above functional states both structural and parameter identification is here performed based on experimental data of E. coli and S. cerevisiae fed-batch cultivations.

  4. Teleportations of Mixed States and Multipartite Quantum States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chang-Shui; WANG Ya-Hong; SONG He-Shan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a protocol to deterministically teleport an unknown mixed state of qubit by utilizing a maximally bipartite entangled state of qubits as quantum channel. Ifa non-maximally entangled bipartite pure state is employed as quantum channel, the unknown mixed quantum state of qubit can be teleported with 1 - √1 - C2 probability, where C is the concurrence of the quantum channel. The protocol can also be generalized to teleport a mixed state of qudit or a multipartite mixed state. More important purpose is that, on the basis of the protocol, the teleportation of an arbitrary multipartite (pure or mixed) quantum state can be decomposed into the teleportation of each subsystem by employing separate entangled states as quantum channels. In the case of deterministic teleportation,Bob only needs to perform unitary transformations on his single particles in order to recover the initial teleported multipartite quantum state.

  5. Coherent states in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R. de Lima; Fernandes Junior, Damasio; Batista, Sheyla Marques

    2001-12-01

    We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out. (author)

  6. Coherent states in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, R D L; Fernandes, D

    2001-01-01

    We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out.

  7. State Energy Program Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs

    1999-03-17

    The State Energy Program Operations Manual is a reference tool for the states and the program officials at the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and Regional Support Offices as well as State Energy Offices. The Manual contains information needed to apply for and administer the State Energy Program, including program history, application rules and requirements, and program administration and monitoring requirements.

  8. Yrast excitations in 191Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotiades, N.; Andreyev, A.

    1997-01-01

    Prompt, in-beam γ rays in coincidence with evaporation residues were measured in the 164,166 Er + 164 MeV 32 S reactions. A level scheme built on the 13/2 + isomer has been deduced from four transitions assigned to 191 Pb. The states in 191 Pb are interpreted in terms of a weak coupling of the odd i 13/2 neutron-hole to the spherical states in the even-mass 192 Pb core. (orig.). With 4 figs

  9. The United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Art, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that at least in the national security arena, the outcomes of bureaucratic infighting and domestic political struggles are not determined wholly by what goes on with the state. Rather struggles among contending groups are greatly affected by what is perceived to be happening outside the nation. Because external conditions give greater potency to some domestic forces over other, the external environment is never neutral in its domestic impact. The decisions of the period 1950-53 discussed above illustrate the point. But so too do the decisions of 1947, 1960-61 and 1969-72. In the 1947 case, Soviet intransigence provoked US nuclear rearmament. In the 1960-61 case, extended deterrent considerations pushed the United States to preserve its again newly discovered nuclear superiority. In the 1969-72 case, a Soviet determination to remain equal forced US acceptance of nuclear equality. And perhaps the best evidence of all, the perpetuation of parity ended the US inclination to resort to nuclear brinkmanship. In each instance, concerns about relative position heavily affected nuclear choice. Finally, the events of the past three years testify to the effects of international events on domestic choice. Under the terms of the 1987 INF Treaty, the two superpowers decided to dismantle and destroy an entire class of missiles of intermediate range (500-3000 kilometers) that both had deployed in Europe in the 1970s and 1980s, and in their June 1990 joint statement on strategic nuclear weapons, President Gorbachev and Brush agreed to cut the number of Soviet and US long range nuclear forces by 30 per cent. This agreement marks a watershed in US-Soviet strategic arm negotiations because for the first time the United States and the Soviet Union agreed in principals to reduce the number of weapons aimed at one another. Between 1985 and 1990 the cold war was brought to a close

  10. Legislative update: United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The US Senate consented to the ratification of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) on 4 August 2006. The entry into force of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation will substantially change the face of the international nuclear liability regime. The CSC is a free-standing instrument, open to all states. This means that countries can become party to a new global regime providing for liability and compensation for victims of a nuclear incident, without also having to become a contracting party to the Paris Convention or the Vienna Convention. This is certainly a major step forward given that at the present time, over half of the world's reactors in operation or under construction are not covered by any of the international nuclear third party liability conventions. The CSC creates an instrument by which states can ensure that more money will be made available to compensate more victims for a broader range of damage than ever before. The CSC provides for two tiers of compensation. The first tier, fixed at 300 million Special Drawing Rights, is to be provided by the liable operator. This tier is to be distributed on a non-discriminatory basis to victims both inside and outside of the Installation State. If 300 million SDRs are insufficient to compensate all damage, then contracting parties will be required to contribute to the second tier (the international fund). The amount of this second tier is not fixed, but rather will depend on the number of operating nuclear power plants in contracting parties, and is designed to increase as the number of such plants increases

  11. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  12. Nuclear molecular states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of polarization on the stability of α-cluster structures in 8 Be and 12 C nuclei are studied in the intrinsic states. The extent of the polarization of α-clusters is investigated by employing a molecular-orbital model. Two α-cluster structure of 8 Be is shown to be extremely stable, and a triangular configuration of three α-clusters is also shown to be stable, but the polarizations of α-clusters are found rather large. Gruemmer--Faessler's method is discussed and their results are shown to be trivial

  13. Two electron Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper addresses the study of two-electron Rydberg atoms. With Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT), there is a technique for characterizing a spectra in terms of a small number of parameters. A survey of some important effects specific to two-electon Rydberg states, using primarily the alkaline earth atoms for examples, is made. The remainder of the paper deals with a discussion of the electron-electron interaction, including some of the basic points of MQDT. Energy exchange between two electrons is also addressed

  14. Advanced solid state batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, A; Delmas, C; Menetrier, M; Hagenmuller, P

    1984-01-01

    Direct electrochemical storage of electricity is attractive because of its adaptability to vehicle traction as well as to stationary applications. Important advancements are necessary to improve primary or secondary batteries so far used. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize materials for the next generation of advanced, rechargeable solid state batteries for vehicle transport and stationary storage applications. One of the best electricity storage systems was the lithium/intercalation compound secondary battery, though up to now the behavior of liquid organic electrolytes did not allow for good recycling in such systems. The research program for these batteries is described.

  15. Triggers of State Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    à 1990) à l’aide de données collatérales additionnelles. Les auteurs du document n’ont pas essayé de suivre les événements qui étaient en cours...défaillance étatique, et les auteurs du document ont reconnu qu’il ne serait pas très utile de reproduire toutes ces informations. Le document s’appuie le...30 Carment, David. Assessing state failure: implications for theory and policy. in Third World Quarterly. Vol 24, no 3. pp 407-427. 30 DRDC

  16. ECO INDUSTRIAL STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana López Pascual

    2015-06-01

    The facades will become aesthetically pleasing for the public space or such with the installation of a new technology of a photovoltaic-glass with transparency that can be used for windows or displays. A social program of artistic murals will accompany this with the aim for awareness on environmental protection. This is a project seeks to intervene in the public space, inviting the private sector for the economic investment and nurture to gives neighbours and all Barcelona's citizens a new and attractive image of this Industrial State

  17. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  18. Nuclear quasimolecular states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, Thorsten; Scheid, Werner; Schmidt, Juergen

    1996-01-01

    Two aspects are reported: (a) Resonances in the scattering of 12 C on 12 C are interpreted within a phenomenological model of two oblately deformed 12 C nuclei. The corresponding quasibound states describe the nuclei rotating around the internuclear axis and carrying out butterfly and radial oscillations; (b) Angle-integrated cross sections of the scattering of 58 Ni on 58 Ni are calculated with the coupled channel method by taking the low energy spectrum of 58 Ni into account and compared with recent experimental data of Cindro et al. in the energy range between E cm = 110 and 115 MeV. (authors)

  19. Solid state mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Solid State Mechanics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program domains are the following: investigations concerning the stability and bifurcation of the reversible or irreversible mechanical systems, the problems related to the theoretical and experimental determination of the materials rheological properties, the fatigue crack formation and propagation in multiple-axial stress conditions, the expert systems, and the software applied in the reinforced earth structures dimensioning. Moreover, the published papers, the books, the congress communications, the thesis, and the patents are listed [fr

  20. Transcending the nation state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2009-01-01

    competition. This article surveys vocational education and training models in Europe, applying a discursive institutionalist perspective in order to describe how vocational education and training as an institution is being reframed by means of the Copenhagen Process, and concludes that a European model......Throughout Europe, vocational education and training is undergoing reform and modernisation as part of a common EU policy process, the Copenhagen Process. The aim of this Process is initiate a pan-European modernisation of vocational education and training in order to meet the challenges of global...... is under construction which aims to transcend the nation state by introducing a new way of "thinking" vocational education and training....

  1. Polynomial intelligent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milks, Matthew M; Guise, Hubert de

    2005-01-01

    The construction of su(2) intelligent states is simplified using a polynomial representation of su(2). The cornerstone of the new construction is the diagonalization of a 2 x 2 matrix. The method is sufficiently simple to be easily extended to su(3), where one is required to diagonalize a single 3 x 3 matrix. For two perfectly general su(3) operators, this diagonalization is technically possible but the procedure loses much of its simplicity owing to the algebraic form of the roots of a cubic equation. Simplified expressions can be obtained by specializing the choice of su(3) operators. This simpler construction will be discussed in detail

  2. State laws on tobacco control--United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J A; Allison, H; Knowles, S B; Fishburn, B A; Woollery, T A; Marx, W T; Shelton, D M; Husten, C G; Eriksen, M P

    1999-06-25

    State laws addressing tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, are summarized. Laws address smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco products, advertising of tobacco products, and excise taxes on tobacco products. Legislation effective through December 31, 1998. CDC identified laws addressing tobacco control by using an on-line legal research database. CDC's findings were verified with the National Cancer Institute's State Cancer Legislative Database. Since a previous surveillance summary on state tobacco-control laws published in November 1995 (covering legislation effective through June 30, 1995), several states have enacted new restrictions or strengthened existing legislation that addresses smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco, tobacco advertising, and tobacco taxes. Five states strengthened their smoke-free indoor air legislation. All states and Washington, D.C., continued to prohibit the sale and distribution of tobacco products to minors; however, 21 states expanded minors' access laws by designating enforcement authorities, adding license suspension or revocation for sale to minors, or requiring signage. Since the 1995 report, eight additional states (a total of 19 states and Washington, D.C.) now ban vending machines from areas accessible to minors. Thirteen states restrict advertising of tobacco products, an increase of four states since the 1995 report. Although the number of states that tax cigarettes and smokeless tobacco did not change, 13 states increased excise taxes on cigarettes, and five states increased excise taxes on smokeless tobacco products. The average state excise tax on cigarettes is 38.9 cents per pack, an increase of 7.4 cents compared with the average tax in the 1995 report. State laws addressing tobacco control vary in relation to restrictiveness, enforcement and penalties, preemptions, and exceptions. The data summarizing state tobacco-control laws are available through CDC

  3. Parameter and State Estimator for State Space Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifeng Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a parameter and state estimator for canonical state space systems from measured input-output data. The key is to solve the system state from the state equation and to substitute it into the output equation, eliminating the state variables, and the resulting equation contains only the system inputs and outputs, and to derive a least squares parameter identification algorithm. Furthermore, the system states are computed from the estimated parameters and the input-output data. Convergence analysis using the martingale convergence theorem indicates that the parameter estimates converge to their true values. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to show that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  4. State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    There is a large body of experience in high luminosity data taking in fixed target research. We try to consider a wide variety of high rate experiments which were limited by the detector (not by available beam) to a preset number of collisions per second. We then attempt to translate these state-of-the-art experiments to effective collider experiments. To this end, we extend the chosen detector to a comparison 4π collider detector operating near 1 TeV. There are several issues: (1) effective solid angle must be translated to approx. = 4π, (2) environments may be quite different, e.g., beam dump near fixed target or beam halo muons vs. collider backgrounds, (3) the multiplicity varies over the experiments selected and (4) we have to treat open vs closed geometries. The large variety of experiments selected is designed to average over the causes for detector limitation. Finally we chose detectors which have produced physics in order to gauge the state of the art

  5. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  6. Metastable states in magnetic nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaño, F. J.; Ross, C. A.; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2003-01-01

    Magnetization states and hysteresis behavior of small ferromagnetic rings, of diameters 180-520 nm, have been investigated using magnetic force microscopy. In addition to the expected bi-domain ("onion") and flux-closed ("vortex") magnetization states, a metastable state has been found. This "twi......Magnetization states and hysteresis behavior of small ferromagnetic rings, of diameters 180-520 nm, have been investigated using magnetic force microscopy. In addition to the expected bi-domain ("onion") and flux-closed ("vortex") magnetization states, a metastable state has been found....... This "twisted" state contains a 360degrees domain wall which can exist over a wide range of applied fields. Four possible configurations of the twisted state are possible. Micromagnetic modeling shows that the twisted state is stabilised in small diameter, narrow rings. Additionally, more complex configurations...

  7. Local cloning of CAT states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Ramij

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.

  8. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra Curtin and Jennifer Gangi

    2015-12-17

    This December 2015 report, the sixth in a series, provides a comprehensive analysis of state activities supporting fuel cell and hydrogen technology, profiles of leading states, and a catalog of recent installations, policies, funding, and deployments around the country.

  9. Set discrimination of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shengyu; Ying Mingsheng

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a notion of set discrimination, which is an interesting extension of quantum state discrimination. A state is secretly chosen from a number of quantum states, which are partitioned into some disjoint sets. A set discrimination is required to identify which set the given state belongs to. Several essential problems are addressed in this paper, including the condition of perfect set discrimination, unambiguous set discrimination, and in the latter case, the efficiency of the discrimination. This generalizes some important results on quantum state discrimination in the literature. A combination of state and set discrimination and the efficiency are also studied

  10. Parent di-nuclear quasimolecular states as exotic resonant states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grama, N.

    2002-01-01

    It in shown that the parent di-nuclear quasimolecular state is an exotic resonant state that corresponds to a S-matrix pole in the neighbourhood of an attractor in the k-plane. The properties of the parent quasimolecular states i.e. energy, widths, deviation from the linear dependence of the energy on l(l + 1) doorway character and criteria for observability, result naturally from the general properties of the exotic resonant states. (author)

  11. SwingStates: adding state machines to the swing toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    Appert , Caroline; Beaudouin-Lafon , Michel

    2006-01-01

    International audience; This article describes SwingStates, a library that adds state machines to the Java Swing user interface toolkit. Unlike traditional approaches, which use callbacks or listeners to define interaction, state machines provide a powerful control structure and localize all of the interaction code in one place. SwingStates takes advantage of Java's inner classes, providing programmers with a natural syntax and making it easier to follow and debug the resulting code. SwingSta...

  12. A Novel Multiscale QM-MD-SPH Computational Method for Heterogeneous Multicomponent Reactive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    as well as EOS. Aluminum is a common metal used in everyday life . The advantage of using aluminum as an ingredient in aluminized explosives is...properties and equations of state of Iron under extreme conditions Iron is one of the most important metals in everyday life . It is the most common...element in the whole planet Earth, forming much of Earth’s outer and inner core. Iron is the mostly used metal case for explosives. To have better

  13. Teleportation of Two-Particle Entangled State via Cluster State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Da-Chuang; CAO Zhuo-Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,two schemes for teleporting an unknown two-particle entangled state from the sender (Alice)to the receiver (Bob) via a four-particle entangled cluster state are proposed.In these two schemes,the unknown twoparticle entangled state can be teleported perfectly.The successful probabilities and fidelities of the schemes can reach unity.

  14. steady – state performance of induction and transfer state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This paper presents paper presents paper presents the steady the steady the steady–state performance state performance state performance comparison comparison comparison between polyphase induction motor and polyphase between polyphase induction motor and polyphase. TF motor operating in. TF motor ...

  15. State distribution and reliability of some multi- state systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn : G series systems and second, the multi-state consecutive kn-out-of-mn : G parallel systems (see denitions 1 and 2).We begin by giving a non recursive formula which calculates the state distribution and the reliability of multi-state ...

  16. FIPRED state of art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, D.; Meleg, T.; Dumitrescu, I.; Benga, D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents the FIPRED (Fission Product Release from Debris Bed) Project state of art (UO 2 sintered pellets oxidation). The FIPRED Project is dedicated to the study of the fission products released from irradiated pellets present in debris bed. The fission product release is produced by oxidative self disintegration of sintered pellets at air ingress and it depends on temperature. The experimental program covered experiments of 300-1400 deg. C in air diluted with nitrogen at different concentrations of oxygen and different steam-air mixture. The experiments were performed using the SETARAM thermo-gravimetric equipment and the FIPRED EQ equipment designed and manufactured especially for this type of experiment. The powders (fragments), resulted from UO 2 pellets self disintegration, were characterized by sieving and SEM. The self disintegration mechanism was demonstrated using the experimental result obtained and thermodynamically data of uranium oxides. (authors)

  17. State, religion and toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Contribution to Religion and State - From separation to cooperation? Legal-philosophical reflections for a de-secularized world. (IVR Cracow Special Workshop). Eds. Bart. C. Labuschagne & Ari M. Solon. Abstract: Toleration is indeed a complex phenomenon. A discussion of the concept will have...... to underline not only the broadmindedness and liberty of individuals or of groups, but also the relevant distinctions and arguments in political philosophy, epistemology, philosophy of religion and philosophical anthropology and their connection with educational issues. Through a discussion of these relations......, the essay argues three theses: (1) Toleration is not reducible to an ethics of spiritual freedom. (2) Toleration is not neutral to fanatism. (3) Toleration involves esteem for the person....

  18. Geometry of Quantum States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, D W

    2008-01-01

    A geometric framework for quantum mechanics arose during the mid 1970s when authors such as Cantoni explored the notion of generalized transition probabilities, and Kibble promoted the idea that the space of pure quantum states provides a natural quantum mechanical analogue for classical phase space. This central idea can be seen easily since the projection of Schroedinger's equation from a Hilbert space into the space of pure spaces is a set of Hamilton's equations. Over the intervening years considerable work has been carried out by a variety of authors and a mature description of quantum mechanics in geometric terms has emerged with many applications. This current offering would seem ideally placed to review the last thirty years of progress and relate this to the most recent work in quantum entanglement. Bengtsson and Zyczkowski's beautifully illustrated volume, Geometry of Quantum States (referred to as GQS from now on) attempts to cover considerable ground in its 466 pages. Its topics range from colour theory in Chapter 1 to quantum entanglement in Chapter 15-to say that this is a whirlwind tour is, perhaps, no understatement. The use of the work 'introduction' in the subtitle of GQS, might suggest to the reader that this work be viewed as a textbook and I think that this interpretation would be incorrect. The authors have chosen to present a survey of different topics with the specific aim to introduce entanglement in geometric terms-the book is not intended as a pedagogical introduction to the geometric approach to quantum mechanics. Each of the fifteen chapters is a short, and mostly self-contained, essay on a particular aspect or application of geometry in the context of quantum mechanics with entanglement being addressed specifically in the final chapter. The chapters fall into three classifications: those concerned with the mathematical background, those which discuss quantum theory and the foundational aspects of the geometric framework, and

  19. Perfect and imperfect states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early Greek ethics embodied in Cretan and Spartan mores, served as a model for Plato`s political theory. Plato theorized the contents of early Greek ethics, aspiring to justify and revitalize the fundamental principles of a traditional view of the world. However, according to Plato`s new insight, deed is further from the truth than a thought i.e. theory. The dorian model had to renounce its position to the perfect prototype of a righteous state, which is a result of the inner logic of philosophical theorizing in early Greek ethics. Prototype and model of philosophical reflection, in comparison to philosophical theory, becomes minor and deficient. Philosophical theorizing of early Greek ethics philosophically formatted Greek heritage, initiating substantial changes to the content of traditional ethics. Replacement of the myth with ontology, as a new foundation of politics, transformed early Greek ethics in various relevant ways. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179049

  20. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    for children and the elderly, which in turn allows in particular women to (re-)enter the labour market, de-commodification of labour through easy accessible and relative generous cash benefits providing a more flexible labour market, and re-commodification of labour through conditioning of benefits and active......This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...... labour market policies giving long-term unemployed and people with low skills better opportunities to participate in the labour market, whether the ordinary or in special activities....

  1. Solid state detector module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    A solid state detector in which each scintillator is optimally configured and coupled with its associated sensing diode in a way which exploits light piping effects to enhance efficiency, and at the same time provide a detector which is modular in nature. To achieve light piping, the scintillator crystal is oriented such that its sides conform with the crystal cleavage plane, and the sides are highly polished. An array of tungsten collimator plates define the individual channels. Multi-channel scintillator/diode modules are mounted behind and in registry with the plurality of collimator plates. A plurality of scintillators are bonded together after coating the surfaces thereof to minimize optical crosstalk. After lapping the face of the scintillator module, it is then bonded to a diode module with individual scintillators in registration with individual diodes. The module is then positioned in the detector array with collimator plates at the junctions between the scintillators

  2. Steady-state spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    A major effort is being made in the national program to make the operation of axisymmetric, toroidal confinement systems steady state by the application of expensive rf current drive. Described here is a method by which such a confinement system, the spheromak, can be refluxed indefinitely through the application of dc power. As a step towards dc sustainment we have operated the present CTX source in the slow source mode with a longer power application time (approx. 0.1 ms) and successfully generated long-lived spheromaks. If the erosion of the electrodes can be controlled as well as it is with MPD arcs then dc operation should be very clean. If only a small fraction (approx. 10% for an experiment) of the poloidal flux of the spheromak connects to the source then the dc sustainment can be very efficient. The amount of connecting flux that is necessary for sustainment needs to be determined experimentally

  3. Surface states and spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksic, V.; Last, Y.; California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA

    2001-01-01

    Let Z + d+1 =Z d x Z + , let H 0 be the discrete Laplacian on the Hilbert space l 2 (Z + d+1 ) with a Dirichlet boundary condition, and let V be a potential supported on the boundary ∂Z + d+1 . We introduce the notions of surface states and surface spectrum of the operator H=H 0 +V and explore their properties. Our main result is that if the potential V is random and if the disorder is either large or small enough, then in dimension two H has no surface spectrum on σ(H 0 ) with probability one. To prove this result we combine Aizenman-Molchanov theory with techniques of scattering theory. (orig.)

  4. Holographic Quantum States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, Tobias J.; Eisert, Jens; Verstraete, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We show how continuous matrix product states of quantum fields can be described in terms of the dissipative nonequilibrium dynamics of a lower-dimensional auxiliary boundary field by demonstrating that the spatial correlation functions of the bulk field correspond to the temporal statistics of the boundary field. This equivalence (1) illustrates an intimate connection between the theory of continuous quantum measurement and quantum field theory, (2) gives an explicit construction of the boundary field allowing the extension of real-space renormalization group methods to arbitrary dimensional quantum field theories without the introduction of a lattice parameter, and (3) yields a novel interpretation of recent cavity QED experiments in terms of quantum field theory, and hence paves the way toward observing genuine quantum phase transitions in such zero-dimensional driven quantum systems.

  5. Relativistic bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, Burke

    2006-01-01

    The Hamiltonian for Dirac's second-order equation depends nonlinearly on the potential V and the energy E. For this reason the magnetic contribution to the Hamiltonian for s-waves, which has a short range, is attractive for a repulsive Coulomb potential (V>0) and repulsive for an attractive Coulomb potential (V 2 . Usually solutions are found in the regime E=mc 2 +ε , where except for high Z, ε 2 . Here it is shown that for V>0 the attractive magnetic term and the linear repulsive term combine to support a bound state near E=0.5mc 2 corresponding to a binding energy E b =-ε =0.5mc 2

  6. Multimuon final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, J.-M.

    1980-04-01

    Multimuon final states have been detected by 3 experiments in the interactions of the muon beams of CERN (280 GeV) and FNAL (210 GeV) with heavy targets. For the first time production of J/PSI (3100) by space-like photons has been observed and its dependence on ν, Q 2 and t compared to Vector Dominance and photon-gluon fusion models. Also a clear signal has been seen for 3μ above QED tridents (outside J/PSI mass range) and 2μ events which are well described by charm production. An upper limit for the production of the T by high energy muons has been set

  7. State Housing Revival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Government funded housing for people in need is a challenge many countries face around the world. This research investigates how to sustainably regenerate post-war suburban state housing in New Zealand, in particular, the suburb of Glen Innes in Auckland. Reviving the community and regenerating...... the buildings is essential for improving the overall quality of the neighbourhoods both socially and physically. Achieving this in a holistic sustainable manner illustrates that there are alternatives to demolition and new builds, as the answer to the current housing shortage problems. New Zealand is confronted...... with the dilemma of what to do with existing government-funded housing which are no longer socially or physically suitable for the current demographic. New Zealand has a large cultural diversity with many new immigrants from the Pacific Islands and Asia. There is a need for culturally flexible and inclusive...

  8. The police state myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter attempts to refute the assertion made by antinuclear groups that the use of nuclear energy will lead to a suppression of civil liberties in the US. The ''police state'' argument is based on the belief that the management of nuclear materials would necessitate the investigation of the stability and loyalties of their managers, and that in an instance of the theft of nuclear weapons material, police countermeasures might have to include violations of due process with regard to entry and search. It is pointed out that the screening of a person for a responsible position does not violate due process, and the fact that nuclear materials are radioactive and can be easility detected at some distance indicates that close police searches would not be necessary in the case of theft

  9. Beyond States and Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahl, Rune Møller

    The paper will analyse the ideological assumptions at the core of the form of neoclassical macroeconomic theory that emerged to eclipse Keynesianism the 1970s. By revisiting some of the central papers and model such as Kydland & Prescott’s 1977 “Time Inconsistency Model”, Sargent & Wallace’s 1976...... ”Policy - ineffectiveness proposition” and the microfoundations of the Lucas - critique from 1976, the paper offers a reinterpretation of the main tenets of the tradition of New Classical Macroeconomics (NCM). In policy and scholarly debates NCM has primarily been seen as a critique of government...... in economic governance. This r ereading offers new aspects to the understanding of the general relationship between neoclassical economics and neoliberal policy, and cast new light on the understanding of why neoliberal governance have generally not resulted in any substantial rollback of the state...

  10. Weather and emotional state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  11. Realizing Controllable Quantum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku

    1. Entanglement in solid states. Orbital entanglement and violation of bell inequalities in mesoscopic conductors / M. Büttiker, P. Samuelsson and E. V. Sukhoruk. Teleportation of electron spins with normal and superconducting dots / O. Sauret, D. Feinberg and T. Martin. Entangled state analysis for one-dimensional quantum spin system: singularity at critical point / A. Kawaguchi and K. Shimizu. Detecting crossed Andreev reflection by cross-current correlations / G. Bignon et al. Current correlations and transmission probabilities for a Y-shaped diffusive conductor / S. K. Yip -- 2. Mesoscopic electronics. Quantum bistability, structural transformation, and spontaneous persistent currents in mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm loops / I. O. Kulik. Many-body effects on tunneling of electrons in magnetic-field-induced quasi one-dimensional systems in quantum wells / T. Kubo and Y. Tokura. Electron transport in 2DEG narrow channel under gradient magnetic field / M. Hara et al. Transport properties of a quantum wire with a side-coupled quantum dot / M. Yamaguchi et al. Photoconductivity- and magneto-transport studies of single InAs quantum wires / A. Wirthmann et al. Thermoelectric transports in charge-density-wave systems / H. Yoshimoto and S. Kurihara -- 3. Mesoscopic superconductivity. Parity-restricted persistent currents in SNS nanorings / A. D. Zaikin and S. V. Sharov. Large energy dependence of current noise in superconductingh/normal metal junctions / F. Pistolesi and M. Houzet. Generation of photon number states and their superpositions using a superconducting qubit in a microcavity / Yu-Xi Liu, L. F. Wei and F. Nori. Andreev interferometry for pumped currents / F. Taddei, M. Governale and R. Fazio. Suppression of Cooper-pair breaking against high magnetic fields in carbon nanotubes / J. Haruyama et al. Impact of the transport supercurrent on the Josephson effect / S. N. Shevchenko. Josephson current through spin-polarized Luttinger liquid / N. Yokoshi and S. Kurihara

  12. Development of user interface and of the data base "Earth, Moon and Planets" in the VBA environment for teaching students in the Kazan state universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, N.; Tatarinov, P.; Akutina, M.

    2009-04-01

    In the frame of bachelor and master's degree diploma work the students accumulate and do structure distribution of necessary information about the spin-orbital, dynamical and geophysical characteristics of a planet. The information about the every planet is written into Excel WorkBook, the spreadsheets of which are the data base. The names of sheets reflect their content: "General Data", "Dynamics", "Geophysics", "Engineering", "References", Slides" etc. These data are taken from the last scientific articles dedicated to the modern problems of the planetary investigations. Especial interest is connected to the Lunar sciences - last data about surface mineral distribution, crust thickness and gravity field, slides with photographies received by Video Camera and various instruments situated on the board of Lunar SELENE mission (Japan, 2007-2009 yrs). The work with the data base is executed, using elements of the object-oriented programming. The students study to include into the UserForms standard means of Windows - Dialog Windows, TextBox, CommandButton, ComboBox, ScrollBar etc., and to support these elements by the macros written in programming language VBA. The main attention in the software support of the data base is done onto opportunity to investigate the two-three layer structure of a planet via modeling of its free nutation periods - Chandler-like Wobbles, Free Core Nutation, Inner Core Wobbles and Free Inner Core Nitation and their engineering estimation for space mission observations. The results are presented in the form of tables in Sheets and of diagrams constructed by special buttons of the UserForms on the basis of the calculated tables. The research was supported by the Russian-Japanese grant RFFI-JSPS N 07-02-91212, (2007 - 2009).

  13. Neural-Network Quantum States, String-Bond States, and Chiral Topological States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Ivan; Pancotti, Nicola; August, Moritz; Rodriguez, Ivan D.; Cirac, J. Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    Neural-network quantum states have recently been introduced as an Ansatz for describing the wave function of quantum many-body systems. We show that there are strong connections between neural-network quantum states in the form of restricted Boltzmann machines and some classes of tensor-network states in arbitrary dimensions. In particular, we demonstrate that short-range restricted Boltzmann machines are entangled plaquette states, while fully connected restricted Boltzmann machines are string-bond states with a nonlocal geometry and low bond dimension. These results shed light on the underlying architecture of restricted Boltzmann machines and their efficiency at representing many-body quantum states. String-bond states also provide a generic way of enhancing the power of neural-network quantum states and a natural generalization to systems with larger local Hilbert space. We compare the advantages and drawbacks of these different classes of states and present a method to combine them together. This allows us to benefit from both the entanglement structure of tensor networks and the efficiency of neural-network quantum states into a single Ansatz capable of targeting the wave function of strongly correlated systems. While it remains a challenge to describe states with chiral topological order using traditional tensor networks, we show that, because of their nonlocal geometry, neural-network quantum states and their string-bond-state extension can describe a lattice fractional quantum Hall state exactly. In addition, we provide numerical evidence that neural-network quantum states can approximate a chiral spin liquid with better accuracy than entangled plaquette states and local string-bond states. Our results demonstrate the efficiency of neural networks to describe complex quantum wave functions and pave the way towards the use of string-bond states as a tool in more traditional machine-learning applications.

  14. Korean War Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The spreadsheet of Korean War Veterans by State includes the total Korean War Veteran population for each state and broken out by age and gender. It also includes...

  15. The intermediate state in Patd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) Jesus had assumed. (concerning the 'intermediate state') as existing, anything which does not exist. Three basic things about the intermediate state emerge from the parable: (a) Jesus recognizes that at the moment of death, in ipso articulo.

  16. Probabilistic broadcasting of mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lvjun; Li Lvzhou; Wu Lihua; Zou Xiangfu; Qiu Daowen

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the non-broadcasting theorem proved by Barnum et al is a fundamental principle of quantum communication. As we are aware, optimal broadcasting (OB) is the only method to broadcast noncommuting mixed states approximately. In this paper, motivated by the probabilistic cloning of quantum states proposed by Duan and Guo, we propose a new way for broadcasting noncommuting mixed states-probabilistic broadcasting (PB), and we present a sufficient condition for PB of mixed states. To a certain extent, we generalize the probabilistic cloning theorem from pure states to mixed states, and in particular, we generalize the non-broadcasting theorem, since the case that commuting mixed states can be exactly broadcast can be thought of as a special instance of PB where the success ratio is 1. Moreover, we discuss probabilistic local broadcasting (PLB) of separable bipartite states

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. State Program Integrity Assessment (SPIA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The State Program Integrity Assessment (SPIA) is the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) first national data collection on state Medicaid program...

  20. Veteran Religious Affiliation by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset provide a count of Veteran by their religious affiliation and state of residence. The dataset set covers all 50 states, District of Columbia and other...

  1. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  2. State Drug Utilization Data 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  3. State Drug Utilization Data 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  4. State Online Query System (SOLQ)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Designed specifically for State Human Service agencies, SOLQ allows States real-time online access to SSA's SSN verification service and, if permitted, retrieval of...

  5. Timely and Effective Care - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Timely and Effective Care measures - state data. This data set includes state-level data for measures of heart attack care, heart failure care, pneumonia care,...

  6. State Drug Utilization Data 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  7. State Drug Utilization Data 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  8. State Drug Utilization Data 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. State Drug Utilization Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. State Drug Utilization Data 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  3. State Drug Utilization Data 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. State Drug Utilization Data 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  6. State Cancer Profiles Web site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The State Cancer Profiles (SCP) web site provides statistics to help guide and prioritize cancer control activities at the state and local levels. SCP is a...

  7. State Drug Utilization Data 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  8. State of the States. Fuel Cells in America 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Sandra [Fuel Cells 2000, Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Fuel Cells 2000, Washington, DC (United States); Skukowski, Ryan [Fuel Cells 2000, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, continues to build on the April 2010 State of the States report that provided a snapshot of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. This update report provides more details on the progress and activities that happened since the second report, issued in June 2011. Details reported for each state include new policies and funding, recent and planned fuel cell and hydrogen installations, and recent activity by state industry and universities.

  9. Supercoherent states and physical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatyga, B.W.; Kostelecky, V.A.; Truax, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed for obtaining coherent states of a system admitting a supersymmetry. These states are called supercoherent states. The approach presented in this talk is based on an extension to supergroups of the usual group-theoretic approach. The example of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator is discussed, thereby illustrating some of the attractive features of the method. Supercoherent states of an electron moving in a constant magnetic field are also described. 35 refs

  10. Unbound states in quantum heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe report in this review on the electronic continuum states of semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots and highlight the decisive part played by the virtual bound states in the optical properties of these structures. The two particles continuum states of Quantum Dots control the decoherence of the excited electron – hole states. The part played by Auger scattering in Quantum Dots is also discussed.

  11. Influence of Noises on Remote State Preparation Using GHZ State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Huaqiu; Liu Jinming

    2008-01-01

    Using a quantum channel consisting of a GHZ state exposed to noisy environment, we investigate how to remotely prepare an entangled state and a qubit state, respectively. By solving the master equation in the Lindblad form, the influence of the various types of noises on the GHZ state is first discussed. Then we use the fidelity to describe how close the remotely prepared state and the initial state are. Our results show that the fidelity is a function of the decoherence rates and the angles of the initial state. It is found that for each of the two RSP schemes, the influence of the noise acting simultaneously in x, y, and z directions on the average fidelity is the strongest while the influence of the noise acting in x or z direction on the average fidelity is relatively weaker

  12. Configurational entropy of glueball states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardini, Alex E., E-mail: alexeb@ufscar.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, PO Box 676, 13565-905, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Braga, Nelson R.F., E-mail: braga@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, UFABC, 09210-580, Santo André (Brazil)

    2017-02-10

    The configurational entropy of glueball states is calculated using a holographic description. Glueball states are represented by a supergravity dual picture, consisting of a 5-dimensional graviton–dilaton action of a dynamical holographic AdS/QCD model. The configurational entropy is studied as a function of the glueball spin and of the mass, providing information about the stability of the glueball states.

  13. Deceptive Business Practices: State Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Although much has been done at the federal level to control deceptive advertising practices, many states have no criminal laws designed to regulate advertising, and several states recently repealed such laws. This paper examines states' efforts to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with the consumer's need for information about products by…

  14. Bell inequalities for graph states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, G.; Hyllus, P.; Briegel, H.J.; Guehne, O.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the last years graph states have attracted an increasing interest in the field of quantum information theory. Graph states form a family of multi-qubit states which comprises many popular states such as the GHZ states and the cluster states. They also play an important role in applications. For instance, measurement based quantum computation uses graph states as resources. From a theoretical point of view, it is remarkable that graph states allow for a simple description in terms of stabilizing operators. In this contribution, we investigate the non-local properties of graph states. We derive a family of Bell inequalities which require three measurement settings for each party and are maximally violated by graph states. In turn, any graph state violates at least one of the inequalities. We show that for certain types of graph states the violation of these inequalities increases exponentially with the number of qubits. We also discuss connections to other entanglement properties such as the positively of the partial transpose or the geometric measure of entanglement. (author)

  15. State Energy Program Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s State Energy Program (SEP) provides funding and technical assistance to states, territories, and the District of Columbia to enhance energy security, advance state-led energy initiatives, and maximize the benefits of decreasing energy waste.

  16. Penn State DOE GATE Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anstrom, Joel

    2012-08-31

    The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) was established in October 1998 pursuant to an award from the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). The focus area of the Penn State GATE Program is advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  17. Competing States in the t-J Model: Uniform d-Wave State versus Stripe State versus Stripe State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corboz, P.R.; Rice, T.M.; Troyer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Variational studies of the t-J model on the square lattice based on infinite projected-entangled pair states confirm an extremely close competition between a uniform d-wave superconducting state and different stripe states. The site-centered stripe with an in-phase d-wave order has an equal or only

  18. Multipartite fully nonlocal quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Mafalda L.; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Scarani, Valerio; Acin, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We present a general method for characterizing the quantum correlations obtained after local measurements on multipartite systems. Sufficient conditions for a quantum system to be fully nonlocal according to a given partition, as well as being (genuinely) multipartite fully nonlocal, are derived. These conditions allow us to identify all completely connected graph states as multipartite fully nonlocal quantum states. Moreover, we show that this feature can also be observed in mixed states: the tensor product of five copies of the Smolin state, a biseparable and bound entangled state, is multipartite fully nonlocal.

  19. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  20. Circular states of atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutwak, R.; Holley, J.; Chang, P.P.; Paine, S.; Kleppner, D.; Ducas, T.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the creation of circular states of hydrogen by adiabatic transfer of a Rydberg state in crossed electric and magnetic fields, and also by adiabatic passage in a rotating microwave field. The latter method permits rapid switching between the two circular states of a given n manifold. The two methods are demonstrated experimentally, and results are presented of an analysis of the field ionization properties of the circular states. An application for the circular states is illustrated by millimeter-wave resonance in hydrogen of the n=29→n=30 transition. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Entanglement entropy of excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, Vincenzo; Fagotti, Maurizio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    We study the entanglement entropy of a block of contiguous spins in excited states of spin chains. We consider the XY model in a transverse field and the XXZ Heisenberg spin chain. For the latter, we developed a numerical application of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. We find two main classes of states with logarithmic and extensive behavior in the dimension of the block, characterized by the properties of excitations of the state. This behavior can be related to the locality properties of the Hamiltonian having a given state as the ground state. We also provide several details of the finite size scaling

  2. Vehicle electrical system state controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-10-17

    A motor vehicle electrical power distribution system includes a plurality of distribution sub-systems, an electrical power storage sub-system and a plurality of switching devices for selective connection of elements of and loads on the power distribution system to the electrical power storage sub-system. A state transition initiator provides inputs to control system operation of switching devices to change the states of the power distribution system. The state transition initiator has a plurality of positions selection of which can initiate a state transition. The state transition initiator can emulate a four position rotary ignition switch. Fail safe power cutoff switches provide high voltage switching device protection.

  3. Fiscal Liability of State Contractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Fajardo-Peña

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The State contract is one of the most important tools for public management. The formation, execution and liquidation of State contracts are also a potential cause of State patrimonial damages. Perhaps for this reason, many State contractors are prosecuted as if they were public spending managers. The question, however, is not as simple. The fiscal liability process has a qualified recipient: the fiscal manager. In this article, through a conceptual exposition and a case study, we identify the criterion for determining in which cases a State contractor acquires the function of controlling public funds and when he/she can be subjected to a fiscal liability.

  4. 4- states of 16O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, F.C.; Smith, R.; Morrison, I.; Amos, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    A three-state isospin-mixing model is fitted to available data on pion scattering and nucleon pickup relevant to the 4 - states of 16 O at 17.79, 18.98 and 19.80 MeV. An excellent fit to all data is obtained, and the state descriptions are shown to be consistent with inelastic proton scattering measurements. The 18.98 MeV state is predominantly 1p-1h T = 1, while the other two states have significant isospin mixing and 3p-3h admixtures

  5. Southern states' routing agency report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The Southern states' routing agency report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs relative to the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source ad scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed

  6. Southern States' Routing Agency Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed

  7. Tavria state agrotechnological university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Shcherbakova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It can be argued that life priorities of young people, including student ones, are not yet well established, therefore, have a certain ability to transformation. In turn, the family has a huge influence on the processes of changes in the value system of young people, in addition, the institution of the family has an impact on shaping the personality of almost every representative of the younger generation. It is necessary to consider the role of the state in the preparation of the family Institution to perform educational functions. The essence of this role is to prepare parents for the process of education, in other words, to increase the level of their pedagogical culture. This is because most parents do not have pedagogical education. Therefore there is a contradiction: the older generation is actively engaged in education without having any methods or tools for this process. In fact, some ways to resolve the conflict are the basic content of this article. In the future, the resolution of this contradiction, will transform social relations so that they were based on spiritual norms, which, in turn, will lead to the preservation and further development of Ukrainian culture, and society in general.

  8. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Anca Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black, is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03, indicates a good linearity.

  9. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  10. State of the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilly, P.; Ogden, S.O.; Sell, D.P.; Garges, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    This panel discussion on the state of the US coal industry presented three points of view. The issue is one of perspective, for the coal miner current conditions are not particularly encouraging given the economic climate, environmental issues, and the ambiguity of the proposed National Energy Strategy. To make matters worse, much of the public views the production and utilization of coal as an environmental risk. It is easy to overlook the fact that the US coal industry is poised for tremendous growth and opportunity. Demand for energy and electricity worldwide is projected to increase significantly and coal is expected to play a major role. New technologies such as clean coal combustion and coal gasification will be required to meet growing human and environmental requirements. The coal industry must educate the public on the capabilities of coal, advance new technologies for deployment and commercial development, demonstrate prudent mining and safety records and develop human talent and skills necessary to advance US coal in the 21st century

  11. Magnetism and thermal evolution of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, D.J.; Spohn, T.; Schubert, G.

    1983-01-01

    The absence in the cases of Venus and Mars of the substantial intrinsic magnetic fields of the earth and Mercury is considered, in light of thermal history calculations which suggest that, while the cores of Mercury and the earth are continuing to freeze, the cores of Venus and Mars may still be completely liquid. It is noted that completely fluid cores, lacking intrinsic heat sources, are not likely to sustain thermal convection for the age of the solar system, but cool to a subadiabatic, conductive state that cannot maintain a dynamo because of the gravitational energy release and the chemically driven convection that accompany inner core growth. The models presented include realistic pressure- and composition-dependent freezing curves for the core, and material parameters are chosen so that correct present-day values of heat outflow, upper mantle temperature and viscosity, and inner core radius, are obtained for the earth. 116 references

  12. Magnetism and thermal evolution of the terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D. J.; Spohn, T.; Schubert, G.

    1983-01-01

    The absence in the cases of Venus and Mars of the substantial intrinsic magnetic fields of the earth and Mercury is considered, in light of thermal history calculations which suggest that, while the cores of Mercury and the earth are continuing to freeze, the cores of Venus and Mars may still be completely liquid. It is noted that completely fluid cores, lacking intrinsic heat sources, are not likely to sustain thermal convection for the age of the solar system, but cool to a subadiabatic, conductive state that cannot maintain a dynamo because of the gravitational energy release and the chemically driven convection that accompany inner core growth. The models presented include realistic pressure- and composition-dependent freezing curves for the core, and material parameters are chosen so that correct present-day values of heat outflow, upper mantle temperature and viscosity, and inner core radius, are obtained for the earth.

  13. Topological orders in rigid states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, X.G.

    1990-01-01

    The authors study a new kind of ordering topological order in rigid states (the states with no local gapless excitations). This paper concentrates on characterization of the different topological orders. As an example the authors discuss in detail chiral spin states of 2+1 dimensional spin systems. Chiral spin states are described by the topological Chern-Simons theories in the continuum limit. The authors show that the topological orders can be characterized by a non-Abelian gauge structure over the moduli space which parametrizes a family of the model Hamiltonians supporting topologically ordered ground states. In 2 + 1 dimensions, the non-Abelian gauge structure determines possible fractional statistics of the quasi-particle excitations over the topologically ordered ground states. The dynamics of the low lying global excitations is shown to be independent of random spatial dependent perturbations. The ground state degeneracy and the non-Abelian gauge structures discussed in this paper are very robust, even against those perturbations that break translation symmetry. The authors also discuss the symmetry properties of the degenerate ground states of chiral spin states. The authors find that some degenerate ground states of chiral spin states on torus carry non-trivial quantum numbers of the 90 degrees rotation

  14. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United States...

  15. 22 CFR 1508.1005 - State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true State. 1508.1005 Section 1508.1005 Foreign...) Definitions § 1508.1005 State. (a) State means— (1) Any of the states of the United States; (2) The District... States; or (5) Any agency or instrumentality of a state. (b) For purposes of this part, State does not...

  16. State-to-state and state-to-all-states reactive scattering angular distributions: F+H 2→HF+H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmons, R.W.; Suck, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    How each state-to-state reactive transition determines nonundulatory ''state-to-all-states'' angular distribution has not yet been investigated. Here we present a complete exposure of state-to-state distorted-wave Born-approximation angular distributions in order to examine how the nonoscillatory and backward-peaked state-to-all-states reactive scattering angular distribution occurs

  17. 31 CFR 19.1005 - State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State. 19.1005 Section 19.1005 Money... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.1005 State. (a) State means— (1) Any of the states of the United States; (2) The... States; or (5) Any agency or instrumentality of a state. (b) For purposes of this part, State does not...

  18. Molecular Ωb states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-Hong; Dias, J. M.; Debastiani, V. R.; Oset, E.

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by the recent finding of five Ωc states by the LHCb collaboration, and the successful reproduction of three of them in a recent approach searching for molecular states of meson-baryon with the quantum numbers of Ωc, we extend these ideas and make predictions for the interaction of meson-baryon in the beauty sector, searching for poles in the scattering matrix that correspond to physical states. We find several Ωb states: two states with masses 6405 MeV and 6465 MeV for JP = 1/2-; two more states with masses 6427 MeV and 6665 MeV for 3/2-; and three states between 6500 and 6820 MeV, degenerate with JP = 1/2-, 3/2-, stemming from the interaction of vector-baryon in the beauty sector.

  19. Probabilistic cloning of equidistant states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Roa, Luis; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the probabilistic cloning of equidistant states. These states are such that the inner product between them is a complex constant or its conjugate. Thereby, it is possible to study their cloning in a simple way. In particular, we are interested in the behavior of the cloning probability as a function of the phase of the overlap among the involved states. We show that for certain families of equidistant states Duan and Guo's cloning machine leads to cloning probabilities lower than the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability of equidistant states. We propose an alternative cloning machine whose cloning probability is higher than or equal to the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability for any family of equidistant states. Both machines achieve the same probability for equidistant states whose inner product is a positive real number.

  20. Particle-hole calculation of the isobaric analog and isovector monopole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N.; Nguyen Van Giai

    1977-06-01

    The correlated proton particle-neutron hole spectrum is calculated for N>Z nuclei using a Skyrme type interaction and the response function method. The basis of the calculation is a complete one particle-one hole space with the continuum included. As a result the distribution of the isovector monopole strength in the analog nucleus is obtained. This distribution has a narrow peak which corresponds to the isobaric analog resonance and at higher energies a broad peak which is the isovector monopole resonance. The coupling between these two states is inherent in the calculation

  1. Coulomb displacement energies in nuclei: a new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N.; Tel Aviv Univ.; Bernard, V.; Nguyen, V.G.

    1978-04-01

    The neutron core polarization gives rise to an important correction to the direct Coulomb contribution when one calculates the Coulomb displacement energies. In the Hartree-Fock model it is shown that this correction is about 2% to 4.5% in medium and heavy nuclei. The core polarization as well as other higher order effects can be included by using a selfconsistent description of the analog state in a complete proton particle-neutron hole space. The Coulomb displacement energies in 48 Ca, 88 Sr and 208 Pb have been calculated using Skyrme interactions SIII and SIV. A good agreement with experiment is obtained

  2. Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing of Quantum States Using Entanglement States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Guo; Da-Zu, Huang; Gui-Hua, Zeng; Ho, Lee Moon

    2008-01-01

    A multi-partite-controlled quantum secret sharing scheme using several non-orthogonal entanglement states is presented with unconditional security. In this scheme, the participants share the secret quantum state by exchanging the secret polarization angles of the disordered travel particles. The security of the secret quantum state is also guaranteed by the non-orthogonal multi-partite-controlled entanglement states, the participants' secret polarizations, and the disorder of the travelling particles. Moreover, the present scheme is secure against the particle-number splitting attack and the intercept-and-resend attack. It may be still secure even if the distributed quantum state is embedded in a not-so-weak coherent-state pulse

  3. States and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Patrick; Faraco, Benoit; Grandjean, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The climate challenge appeals to an unprecedented mutation of our societies. From north to south, all our life styles will have to be changed from dwelling, to transport and feeding. These changes will have sense only at a worldwide scale and will impact our way of development. How can we reduce our energy consumption and greenhouse impact with answering everyone's essential needs at the same time? How can we invent a carbon-free economy in the North and preserve the big socio-economical equilibria at the same time? How can we get rid of poverty in the South without compromising the well-being of the future generations with an increase of CO 2 emissions? Such difficulties cannot be overcome without innovations in terms of public policies. This book takes stock of the new possible instruments and policies at the global scale and involving fiscality, standards, investments and social justice. Content: 1 - the carbon threat: a changing climate and energies becoming scarce (the climate threat, an increasing energy insecurity); carbon and modern economy (human greenhouse gas emissions, a carbon-free well-being); governments and carbon control (a global challenge requiring an international control, the experiments era from Rio to the present day, the challenge of the state in front of the carbon threat); 2 - the political instruments of environment: standards as first instruments of climate public policies (standards efficiency in some sectors, standards limitations, standards and innovation); emissions quotas and market instruments (Kyoto protocol and CO 2 market, the future of 'cap and trade' and of individual and regional quotas); carbon tax, fiscal instruments and new regulations (carbon tax as an alternative or a complement, other fiscal and para-fiscal instruments, new regulation instruments); investing in climate (managing the transition, governments as transition administrators). (J.S)

  4. United States mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.

    1973-01-01

    The work on this volume began in January 1972, but in a broader sense its production began many years ago. The chapters were written by geologists most of whom have had many years of experience studying the geology of mineral deposits, and more particularly the commodities about which they have written here. A total of nearly 2,300 man-years of professional experience in the geology of mineral resources is represented by the authors of the volume, and about 30 man-years went directly into its preparation. Each chapter contains not only a synthesis of the state of knowledge of the geology of the commodity, but also an appraisal of the known resources, and an examination of the geologic possibilities for finding additional deposits. In January 1972, responsibility for the preparation of the volume was assigned to us as co-editors, and we were given a tentative list of commodities and authors. We provided each author with a suggested outline of general topics to be covered, and some guidelines as to scope and philosophy of approach, but beyond that we avoided any attempt to fit each chapter into a stereotype. Moreover, the types of commodities range from the major metals and industrial minerals such as copper, silver, and fluorspar, which have been the subject of geologic research for years, to other commodities that are of such varied geologic nature (such as pigments or gemstones) or of such minor present importance (such as scandium or thallium) that they cannot be treated from the same viewpoint as the major minerals. The chapters range, therefore, from comprehensive summary reports to general essays that reflect the individuality of the authors as well as the variation among commodities. Throughout the book the emphasis is on geology, but each chapter contains some summary information on uses, technology, and economics. These summaries are not meant to be exhaustive, however, and additional details are in the 1970 edition of "Mineral Facts and Problems" (Bulletin

  5. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Sandra; Gangi, Jennifer

    2013-10-31

    This October 2013 report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office, continues to build on the April 2010 State of the States report that provided a snapshot of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. This update report provides more details on the progress and activities that happened since the third report, issued in August 2012.

  6. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Sandra; Delmont, Elizabeth; Gangi, Jennifer

    2010-04-01

    This report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, provides a snapshot of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. It features the top five fuel cell states (in alphabetical order): California, Connecticut, New York, Ohio, and South Carolina. State activities reported include supportive fuel cell and hydrogen policies, installations and demonstrations, road maps, and level of activism.

  7. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-15

    This 2011 report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, provides an update of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. State activities reported include new policies and funding, recent and planned fuel cell and hydrogen installations, and recent activities by state industries and universities.

  8. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution

  9. Generalized Choi states and 2-distillability of quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Tang, Wai-Shing; Yang, Yu

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the distillability of bipartite quantum states in terms of positive and completely positive maps. We construct the so-called generalized Choi states and show that it is distillable when it has negative partial transpose. We convert the distillability problem of 2-copy n× n Werner states into the determination of the positivity of an Hermitian matrix. We obtain several sufficient conditions by which the positivity holds. Further, we investigate the case n=3 by the classification of 2× 3× 3 pure states.

  10. A state comparison amplifier with feed forward state correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Luca; Donaldson, Ross; Collins, Robert; Zanforlin, Ugo; Buller, Gerald; Jeffers, John

    2017-04-01

    The Quantum State Comparison AMPlifier (SCAMP) is a probabilistic amplifier that works for known sets of coherent states. The input state is mixed with a guess state at a beam splitter and one of the output ports is coupled to a detector. The other output contains the amplified state, which is accepted on the condition that no counts are recorded. The system uses only classical resources and has been shown to achieve high gain and repetition rate. However the output fidelity is not high enough for most quantum communication purposes. Here we show how the success probability and fidelity are enhanced by repeated comparison stages, conditioning later state choices on the outcomes of earlier detections. A detector firing at an early stage means that a guess is wrong. This knowledge allows us to correct the state perfectly. The system requires fast-switching between different input states, but still requires only classical resources. Figures of merit compare favourably with other schemes, most notably the probability-fidelity product is higher than for unambiguous state discrimination. Due to its simplicity, the system is a candidate to counteract quantum signal degradation in a lossy fibre or as a quantum receiver to improve the key rate of continuous variable quantum communication. The work was supported by the QComm Project of the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/M013472/1).

  11. Developing State Level Approaches under the State Level Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budlong Sylvester, K.; Murphy, C.L.; Boyer, B.; Pilat, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    With the pursuit of the State-Level Concept (SLC), the IAEA has sought to further evolve the international safeguards system in a manner which maintains (or improves) the effectiveness of the system in an environment of expanding demands and limited resources. The IAEA must not remain static and should continuously examine its practices to ensure it can capture opportunities for cost reductions while adapting to, and staying ahead of, emerging proliferation challenges. Contemporary safeguards have been focused on assessing the nuclear programme of the State as a whole, rather than on the basis of individual facilities. Since the IAEA's integrated safeguards program, State-level Approaches (SLAs) have been developed that seek to optimally combine the measures provided for by the Additional Protocol with those of traditional safeguards. This process resulted in facility specific approaches that, while making use of a State's broader conclusion, were nonetheless prescriptive. Designing SLAs on a State-by-State basis would avoid the shortcomings of a one-size-fits-all system. It would also enable the effective use of the Agency's information analysis and State evaluation efforts by linking this analysis to safeguards planning efforts. Acquisition Path Analysis (APA), along with the State Evaluation process, can be used to prioritize paths in a State in terms of their attractiveness for proliferation. While taking advantage of all safeguards relevant information, and tailoring safeguards to individual characteristics of the State, paths of the highest priority in all States will necessarily meet the same standard of coverage. Similarly, lower priority paths will have lower performance targets, thereby promoting nondiscrimination. Such an approach would improve understanding of safeguards implementation under the SLC and the rational for safeguards resource allocation. The potential roles for APA and performance targets in SLA development will be reviewed

  12. State Phobia and Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Mitchell; Villadsen, Kaspar

    State Phobia draws extensively upon the work of Michel Foucault to argue for the necessity of the concept of the state in political and social analysis. In so doing, it takes on not only the dominant view in the human sciences that the concept of the state is outmoded, but also the large...... interpretative literature on Foucault, which claims that he displaces the state for a de-centered analytics of power. Understanding Foucault means understanding all his interlocutors—whether Marxists, Maoists, neoliberals, or social democrats. It requires turning to Foucault's colleagues, including Deleuze...... with the exercise of political sovereignty, yet his work cannot make visible the concept of the state. Moving beyond Foucault, the authors outline new ways of conceiving the state's role in establishing social order and in mediating between an inequality-producing capitalist economy and the juridical equality...

  13. Autocoding State Machine in Erlang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yu; Hoffman, Torben; Gunder, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an autocoding tool suit, which supports development of state machine in a model-driven fashion, where models are central to all phases of the development process. The tool suit, which is built on the Eclipse platform, provides facilities for the graphical specification...... of a state machine model. Once the state machine is specified, it is used as input to a code generation engine that generates source code in Erlang....

  14. Relaxed states of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucinski, M.Y.; Okano, V.

    1993-01-01

    The relaxed states of tokamak plasmas are studied. It is assumed that the plasma relaxes to a quasi-steady state which is characterized by a minimum entropy production rate, compatible with a number of prescribed conditions and pressure balance. A poloidal current arises naturally due to the anisotropic resistivity. The minimum entropy production theory is applied, assuming the pressure equilibrium as fundamental constraint on the final state. (L.C.J.A.)

  15. Chimera states in bursting neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Bera, Bidesh K.; Ghosh, Dibakar; Lakshmanan, M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the existence of chimera states in pulse-coupled networks of bursting Hindmarsh-Rose neurons with nonlocal, global and local (nearest neighbor) couplings. Through a linear stability analysis, we discuss the behavior of stability function in the incoherent (i.e. disorder), coherent, chimera and multi-chimera states. Surprisingly, we find that chimera and multi-chimera states occur even using local nearest neighbor interaction in a network of identical bursting neurons alone. This is i...

  16. The state in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Centeno

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available How capable is the Latin American state? This article analyses tax, civil service, and electoral data as well as performance measurements in the areas of public safety, rule of law, economic regulation and social services, to compare the region with other parts of the world and to define intra-regional differentiation. Generally speaking, the Latin American state is not very strong or effective, but the states of Chile and Brazil are perhaps the best in the region.

  17. The state in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Centeno

    2009-01-01

    How capable is the Latin American state? This article analyses tax, civil service, and electoral data as well as performance measurements in the areas of public safety, rule of law, economic regulation and social services, to compare the region with other parts of the world and to define intra-regional differentiation. Generally speaking, the Latin American state is not very strong or effective, but the states of Chile and Brazil are perhaps the best in the region.

  18. Local cloning of entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.

  19. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Lesley E

    2012-01-01

    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  20. Generation of photon number states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waks, Edo; Diamanti, Eleni; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2006-01-01

    The visible light photon counter (VLPC) has the capability to discriminate photon number states, in contrast to conventional photon counters which can only detect the presence or absence of photons. We use this capability, along with the process of parametric down-conversion, to generate photon number states. We experimentally demonstrate generation of states containing 1, 2, 3 and 4 photons with high fidelity. We then explore the effect the detection efficiency of the VLPC has on the generation rate and fidelity of the created states

  1. Relaxed states with plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash, K.; Taylor, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    In the theory of relaxation, a turbulent plasma reaches a state of minimum energy subject to constant magnetic helicity. In this state the plasma velocity is zero. Attempts have been made by introducing a number of different constraints, to obtain relaxed states with plasma flow. It is shown that these alternative constraints depend on two self-helicities, one for ions, and one for electrons. However, whereas there are strong arguments for the effective invariance of the original magnetic-helicity, these arguments do not apply to the self-helicities. Consequently the existence of relaxed states with flow remains in doubt. (author)

  2. Crafting the English Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    administrators in England during the constitutive years of English welfare state formation. Using Birmingham local education administration as an empirical and historical case, the influential Children Acts of 1948 and 1963 serve to demarcate the period treated. The theoretical framework is drawn from Bourdieu...... and Wacquant’s concept of state, with the key concept being ‘state-crafting’. The article contributes knowledge about the imaginaries, and the manufacturing and managing of ‘the public good’ – understood as a referent for modern governing – of the English welfare state. The article concludes...

  3. Teleportation of Squeezed Entangled State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Li-Yun; ZHOU Nan-Run

    2007-01-01

    Based on the coherent entangled state |α, x> we introduce the squeezed entangled state (SES). Then we propose a teleportation protocol for the SES by using Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state |η>as a quantum channel.The calculation is greatly simplified by virtue of the Schmidt decompositions of both |α, x>and |η>. Any bipartite states that can be expanded in terms of |α, x>may be teleported in this way due to the completeness of |α, x>.

  4. Excited states in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cilento, G.; Zinner, K.; Bechara, E.J.H.; Duran, N.; Baptista, R.C. de; Shimizu, Y.; Augusto, O.; Faljoni-Alario, A.; Vidigal, C.C.C.; Oliveira, O.M.M.F.; Haun, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some aspects of bioluminescence related to bioenergetics are discussed: 1. chemical generation of excited species, by means of two general processes: electron transference and cyclic - and linear peroxide cleavage; 2. biological systems capable of generating excited states and 3. biological functions of these states, specially the non-emissive ones (tripletes). The production and the role of non-emissive excited states in biological systems are analysed, the main purpose of the study being the search for non-emissive states. Experiences carried out in biological systems are described; results and conclusions are given. (M.A.) [pt

  5. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.

    2017-10-01

    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.

  6. Quantum tomography via equidistant states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva-Sanchez, C.; Burgos-Inostroza, E.; Jimenez, O.; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the possibility of performing quantum state tomography via equidistant states. This class of states allows us to propose a nonsymmetric informationally complete Positive Operator Valued Measure (POVM) based tomographic scheme. The scheme is defined for odd dimensions N and involves the measurement of N 2 transition probabilities and an inversion, which can be analytically carried out by Fourier transform. The scheme can be modified to allow the reconstruction of states in the case of even dimensions at the expense of increasing the number of measurements to 3N 2 /2.

  7. Low-charge-state linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  8. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  9. The State, War, and the State of War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts to offer an understanding of the relationship between war making and state creation in the world have been undertaken by many international relations and strategic studies scholars. In most of these attempts attention has been focused on how state making in Europe differed from that in other parts of the world.

  10. Accountability. State Implementation of Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mira, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    All of the 15 states in this study have recently been involved in school accountability system reform. Since 2011, the states have taken advantage of a federal program to give them flexibility around certain accountability requirements of the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001 (NCLB), the most recent reauthorization of the Elementary and…

  11. State cigarette minimum price laws - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Cigarette price increases reduce the demand for cigarettes and thereby reduce smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and youth initiation of smoking. Excise tax increases are the most effective government intervention to increase the price of cigarettes, but cigarette manufacturers use trade discounts, coupons, and other promotions to counteract the effects of these tax increases and appeal to price-sensitive smokers. State cigarette minimum price laws, initiated by states in the 1940s and 1950s to protect tobacco retailers from predatory business practices, typically require a minimum percentage markup to be added to the wholesale and/or retail price. If a statute prohibits trade discounts from the minimum price calculation, these laws have the potential to counteract discounting by cigarette manufacturers. To assess the status of cigarette minimum price laws in the United States, CDC surveyed state statutes and identified those states with minimum price laws in effect as of December 31, 2009. This report summarizes the results of that survey, which determined that 25 states had minimum price laws for cigarettes (median wholesale markup: 4.00%; median retail markup: 8.00%), and seven of those states also expressly prohibited the use of trade discounts in the minimum retail price calculation. Minimum price laws can help prevent trade discounting from eroding the positive effects of state excise tax increases and higher cigarette prices on public health.

  12. Noisy teleportation of qubit states via the Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state or the W state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan-Ling, Li; Mao-Fa, Fang; Xing, Xiao; Chao, Wu; Li-Zhen, Hou

    2010-01-01

    The effects of distributing entanglement through the amplitude damping channel or the phase damping channel on the teleportation of a single-qubit state via the Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state and the W state are discussed. It is found that the average fidelity of teleportation depends on the type and rate of the damping in the channel. For the one-qubit affected case, the Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state is as robust as the W state, i.e., the same quantum information is preserved through teleportation. For the two-qubit affected case, the W state is more robust when the entanglement is distributed via the amplitude damping channel; if the entanglement is distributed via the phase damping channel, the W state is more robust when the noisy parameter is small while the Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state becomes more robust when it is large. For the three-qubit affected case, the Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state is more robust than the W state. (general)

  13. Solid State Studies Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-12-31

    Research is summarized on fuel, fertile, and cladding materials. Results of studies in the field of solid state sciences are also reported. It was found during the studies on the thermal diffusion release of /sup 133/Xe from irradiated thoria--urania powders that during prolonged annealing at high temperatures, there were several sudden burst releases of /sup 133/Xe as a function of time. These sudden bursts appear to be related to the particle size of the powders. Studies on the phase composition of U/sub 3/O/sub 8//su established that the phase obtained at room temperature after heating at 850 deg K is always oxygen deficient. Results of studies on the different modifications of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ indicated that the so-called delta-phase has a crystal structure almost identical with the beta-phase, yet there were differences in the heats of transition of each of these phases to the alpha-U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ phase at 130 deg C. Studies on fast neutron damage in stainless steel were initiated and results related to damage by void formation were obtained even when the fluencies were only moderately high. Studies on the phase transformations in solids brought out the unusual phase transition behavior of KNO/sub 3/. It was established that the phase transformation attributed to the orthorhombic (II) to the trigonal (I) transition at 129 deg C is essentially a 2-step transition. Results of differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) studies also revealed a peculiar feature which is as yet not understood, namely that on cooling, differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed a III to II phase transition; this is not seen in the DSC. The capabilities of the DSC technique to delineate temperatures of magnetic transitions were demonstrated by studying the transitions in a number of standard substances (metals, alloys, and compounds). In studies on KMnF/sub 3/, it was further demonstrated that the DSC technique is superior in measuring and detecting the heats of crystallographic and

  14. United States panel presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyea, J.

    1990-01-01

    Before I begin I have to make a disclaimer. That is that I am going to be talking about public perception because I think that is very important. But I do not want to give the impression that I think the public is wrong. I happen to agree with the public's perception of nuclear power, and I want to make that clear. I do not like the current generation of nuclear plants as I have made clear in many statements that I have made. On the other hand, in the long term, I feel that we have only two choices on the supply side, and that is nuclear power and solar electricity. And although I think solar electricity has the best chance, I am realistic enough to know that technologies do not always work the way I want. And so I think it is necessary to have at least some kind of nuclear option available. On the other hand, I do not think just any kind of nuclear technology will do. I want to talk to you about the conditions that I think you have to take into account when you try to design reactors that are publicly acceptable. I look at this as an insurance policy. Again, I do not want to be misquoted: I think nuclear power should be considered as an insurance policy, not as our first line of defense. Having made those disclaimers, what we need to do is set out a problem statement. The problem statement I set out is, 'How could one design and demonstrate a nuclear reactor that would regain public confidence in the United States, if one chose to do that?' By regaining confidence, I mean regaining sufficient confidence to site reactors at a number of locations. It is a pretty heavy task because the public cannot judge the technical issues. They have to judge the players by their characters and their histories, just as the way we calibrate anyone that knows things that we do not. I have three theses that I think are crucial. The first is that people do not believe in the claims of advocates, of any point of view, not just nuclear power, once the advocates have been proved wrong on

  15. Probabilistic interpretation of resonant states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper reviews the basic definition of the resonant state in quantum ... We show that particles leak from the central region in the resonant state. The ..... The basic idea is as follows (figure 4): Consider a resonant eigenstate. Φn(x ...

  16. Latino College Completion: United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  17. X, Y and Z States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many new states in the charmonium mass region were recently discovered by BaBar, Belle, CLEO-c, CDF, DØ, BESIII, LHCb and CMS Collaborations. We use the QCD Sum Rule approach to study the possible structure of some of these states.

  18. Model Checking Multivariate State Rewards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2010-01-01

    We consider continuous stochastic logics with state rewards that are interpreted over continuous time Markov chains. We show how results from multivariate phase type distributions can be used to obtain higher-order moments for multivariate state rewards (including covariance). We also generalise...

  19. Geometry of spin coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chryssomalakos, C.; Guzmán-González, E.; Serrano-Ensástiga, E.

    2018-04-01

    Spin states of maximal projection along some direction in space are called (spin) coherent, and are, in many respects, the ‘most classical’ available. For any spin s, the spin coherent states form a 2-sphere in the projective Hilbert space \

  20. Triplet states in lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, Tabassum; Ahmad, Shakeb; Abusara, H.

    2017-01-01

    Axial and triaxial calculations within RHB have been done to study the shape coexistence phenomena in the lead isotopes. Triplet states have been found in the 184-190 Pb which are in accordance with the experimental and other theoretical observations. The energy difference (in MeV) between the first two excited states also gives the evidence for the same

  1. State of the Air 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select Your State Health Risks Ozone Particle Pollution Children’s Health Disparities & Near Highways Protect Yourself Our Fight What We Do Our Story Personal Stories Clean Air Timeline Take Action Press Materials Press Releases Web Banners Social Media What's the State of Your Air ? Home > 2015 > ...

  2. in the Post Colonial State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After nearly 50 years of independence as a nation-state, fierce inter-ethnic competitions for political and ... failure of the post-independence state has failed to permeate the socioeconomic and political lives ...... Northern Ghana", Thesis for the Master of Arts Degree Presented to the McAnulty College and. Graduate School of ...

  3. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Rates by State for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) ...

  4. Electrophysiological difference between mental state decoding and mental state reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bihua; Li, Yiyuan; Li, Fuhong; Li, Hong

    2012-06-29

    Previous studies have explored the neural mechanism of Theory of Mind (ToM), but the neural correlates of its two components, mental state decoding and mental state reasoning, remain unclear. In the present study, participants were presented with various photographs, showing an actor looking at 1 of 2 objects, either with a happy or an unhappy expression. They were asked to either decode the emotion of the actor (mental state decoding task), predict which object would be chosen by the actor (mental state reasoning task), or judge at which object the actor was gazing (physical task), while scalp potentials were recorded. Results showed that (1) the reasoning task elicited an earlier N2 peak than the decoding task did over the prefrontal scalp sites; and (2) during the late positive component (240-440 ms), the reasoning task elicited a more positive deflection than the other two tasks did at the prefrontal scalp sites. In addition, neither the decoding task nor the reasoning task has no left/right hemisphere difference. These findings imply that mental state reasoning differs from mental state decoding early (210 ms) after stimulus onset, and that the prefrontal lobe is the neural basis of mental state reasoning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. State Space Modeling Using SAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Selukar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief introduction to the state space modeling capabilities in SAS, a well-known statistical software system. SAS provides state space modeling in a few different settings. SAS/ETS, the econometric and time series analysis module of the SAS system, contains many procedures that use state space models to analyze univariate and multivariate time series data. In addition, SAS/IML, an interactive matrix language in the SAS system, provides Kalman filtering and smoothing routines for stationary and nonstationary state space models. SAS/IML also provides support for linear algebra and nonlinear function optimization, which makes it a convenient environment for general-purpose state space modeling.

  6. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  7. Geometry of Gaussian quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, Valentin; Strunz, Walter T

    2015-01-01

    We study the Hilbert–Schmidt measure on the manifold of mixed Gaussian states in multi-mode continuous variable quantum systems. An analytical expression for the Hilbert–Schmidt volume element is derived. Its corresponding probability measure can be used to study typical properties of Gaussian states. It turns out that although the manifold of Gaussian states is unbounded, an ensemble of Gaussian states distributed according to this measure still has a normalizable distribution of symplectic eigenvalues, from which unitarily invariant properties can be obtained. By contrast, we find that for an ensemble of one-mode Gaussian states based on the Bures measure the corresponding distribution cannot be normalized. As important applications, we determine the distribution and the mean value of von Neumann entropy and purity for the Hilbert–Schmidt measure. (paper)

  8. The Conservation Ideological State Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared D Margulies

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Louis Althusser's theory of the ideological state apparatuses (ISAs for advancing political ecology scholarship on the functioning of the state in violent environments. I reflect on a series of events in which a state forest department in South India attempted to recast violent conflicts between themselves and local communities over access to natural resources and a protected area as a debate over human-wildlife conflicts. Through the example of conservation as ideology in Wayanad, Kerala, I show how the ISAs articulate the functioning of ideology within the state apparatuses in order for us to understand the larger mechanics of the state apparatus and the reproduction of the relations of production necessary for the reproduction of capitalism. Revisiting the ISAs as a theoretical framework for studies in political ecology and conservation is timely given the resurgence of militarised conservation tactics, the emancipatory aims of Althusser's theory, and political ecology's turn towards praxis.

  9. State and local safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlyle Thompson, G D [Utah State Division of Health, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1969-07-01

    This paper will give emphasis to the need for an increasing role of the states, along with the Federal agencies, in the Plowshare Program in order to assure state and local confidence with respect to the safety of their residents as the Federal government seeks new methods to benefit society. First will be stressed the age-old principle of control at the source. Other factors to be discussed are monitoring; standards and their use; control action; public relations; predictions and the need to have certain advance knowledge of tests - even if security clearance is necessary for appropriate state representatives; the state and local government responsibility to their citizens; the isolation of national decision making from state and local concern and responsibility; cost assessments and their responsibility; and research as it relates to the ecological system as well a the direct short- or long-term effects of radioactivity on man. (author)

  10. State and local safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlyle Thompson, G.D.

    1969-01-01

    This paper will give emphasis to the need for an increasing role of the states, along with the Federal agencies, in the Plowshare Program in order to assure state and local confidence with respect to the safety of their residents as the Federal government seeks new methods to benefit society. First will be stressed the age-old principle of control at the source. Other factors to be discussed are monitoring; standards and their use; control action; public relations; predictions and the need to have certain advance knowledge of tests - even if security clearance is necessary for appropriate state representatives; the state and local government responsibility to their citizens; the isolation of national decision making from state and local concern and responsibility; cost assessments and their responsibility; and research as it relates to the ecological system as well a the direct short- or long-term effects of radioactivity on man. (author)

  11. Bottomonium, charmonium and exotic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, M.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy quarkonia states have been extensively studied in the past decade by B-factories and other experiments, and have provided many surprises that suggest that our understanding of the meson is still incomplete. The recent BaBar and Belle data filled many of the missing seats in the bottomonium table such as η b or h b , while LHC experiments are also contributing, for example in the observation of χ b (3P) state by ATLAS. There are clear signs of exotic states, such as the charged Z b + and Z c + found by Belle, yet puzzling X(3872), and overpopulated Y state series. Recent progress on the bottomonium, charmonium and exotic states is discussed in this review. (author)

  12. Particle states of lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoyannis, A.S.; Panagiotou, A.D. [University of Athens, Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Faculty of Physics, Athens (Greece)

    2017-11-15

    We determine the degeneracy factor and the average particle mass of particles that produce the lattice QCD pressure and specific entropy at zero baryon chemical potential. The number of states of the gluons and the quarks are found to converge above T = 230 MeV to almost constant values, close to the number of states of an ideal quark-gluon phase, while their assigned masses retain high values. The number of states and the average mass of a system containing quarks in interaction with gluons are found to decrease steeply with increase of temperature between T ∝ 150 and 160 MeV, a region contained within the region of the chiral transition. The minimum value of the number of states within this temperature interval indicates that the states are of hadronic nature. (orig.)

  13. Variational transition-state theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truhlar, D.G.; Garrett, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    A general introduction to and some results from studies of a procedure called variational transition-state theory are presented. A fundamental assumption of this theory is that the net rate of forward reaction at equilibrium equals the equilibrium flux in the product direction through the transition state where the transition state is a surface in phase space dividing reactants from products. Classical generalized-transition-state-theory calculations for nine collinear systems are compared to classical trajectory calculations. This new technique should provide useful insight into the successes and failures of the conventional theory and useful quantitative estimates of possible errors on the predictions of conventional transition-state theory. This should also contribute to a more accurate theory now available for the practical calculations of chemical reaction rates and thermochemical and structural interpretations of rate processes

  14. State-to-state dynamics of molecular energy transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, W.R.; Giese, C.F. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this research program is to elucidate the elementary dynamical mechanisms of vibrational and rotational energy transfer between molecules, at a quantum-state resolved level of detail. Molecular beam techniques are used to isolate individual molecular collisions, and to control the kinetic energy of collision. Lasers are used both to prepare specific quantum states prior to collision by stimulated-emission pumping (SEP), and to measure the distribution of quantum states in the collision products by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The results are interpreted in terms of dynamical models, which may be cast in a classical, semiclassical or quantum mechanical framework, as appropriate.

  15. Multi-state Quantum Teleportation via One Entanglement State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ying; Zeng Guihua; Lee, Moon Ho

    2008-01-01

    A multi-sender-controlled quantum teleportation scheme is proposed to teleport several secret quantum states from different senders to a distance receiver based on only one Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair with controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates. In the present scheme, several secret single-qubit quantum states are encoded into a multi-qubit entangled quantum state. Two communication modes, i.e., the detecting mode and the message mode, are employed so that the eavesdropping can be detected easily and the teleported message may be recovered efficiently. It has an advantage over teleporting several different quantum states for one scheme run with more efficiency than the previous quantum teleportation schemes

  16. NCHS - Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  17. The nature of confined states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    We show that in spite of charge confinement in the Schwinger model and its nonconfinement in (QED) 4 , the charged states in the two theories have many features in common. A convenient infrared regularization procedure is introduced to facilitate the study of large-distance behaviors in the Schwinger model, particularly those properties that are relevant ot the question of when a charged state is physical. One difference that emerges between the two theories is that when a charged state in the Schwinger model is made physical while its energy is kept bounded, the charge goes off to infinity. Thr end-product could be considered neutral if the charge is defined as the limit of local measurements. On the other hadn, if one attempts to change a local charged state in the Schwinger model into a physical state by transportin the localization region to asymptotic distances, the state may end up in either a THETA-sector or the corresponding (THETA + π)-sector, depending on the direction of transport. A possible generalization of this THETA-mixing property to quark-like states in QCD is commented upon. (orig.)

  18. State cost sharing of training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.M.; Flater, D.A.; Hughes, D.R. Sr.; Lubenau, J.O.; Merges, P.J.; Mobley, M.H.; Raglin, K.A.

    1989-08-01

    In March 1988, The Office of Governmental and Public Affairs (GPA) completed a report (NUREG-1311) entitled, ''Funding the NRC Training Program for States.'' This report responded to a Commission's request for study of NRC's long-standing practice of paying the travel and per diem of state personnel who attend NRC sponsored training. In May 1988, the Chairman endorsed the report in most respects but asked for further study of a cost sharing of travel and per diem costs. As a result, the Director of GPA's State, Local and Indian Tribe Programs (SLITP) established a Task Force comprised of representatives from the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc., the Agreement States and the NRC to look at ways that the states can share the costs of NRC training, particularly travel and per diem. At the request of the Director, GPA, the Task Force also looked at related cost and quantity issues associated with the NRC training program for state personnel. This report includes a discussion of NRC and state perspectives on the issue of sharing travel and per diem costs, a discussion of options, and recommendations for likely cost savings and quality of training improvement. 1 ref., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. States and state-preparing procedures in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benioff, P.A.; Ekstein, Hans

    D'Espagnat and others have shown that different preparation procedures that mix systems prepared in unequivalent states and objectively different, are nevertheless assigned the same state. This unpalatable result follows from the usual interpretative rules of quantum mechanics. It is shown here that this result is incompatible with the strengthened interpretative rules (requiring randomness of the measurement outcome sequence) recently proposed. Thus, the randomness requirement restores reasonableness

  20. Coherent-state representation for the QCD ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celenza, L.S.; Ji, C.; Shakin, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    We make use of the temporal gauge to construct a coherent state which is meant to describe the gluon condensate in the QCD vacuum under the assumption that the condensate is in a zero-momentum mode. The state so constructed is a color singlet and will yield finite, nonperturbative vacuum expectation values such as . (This matrix element is found to have a value of about 0.012 GeV 4 in QCD sum-rule studies.)