Critchley, G. R.; Mannion, S.; Meredith, C.
OBJECTIVE: To document the injury rate in three British Shotokan karate championships in consecutive years. In these tournaments strict rules governed contact, with only "light" or "touch" contact allowed. Protective padding for the head, hands, or feet was prohibited. METHODS: Prospective recording of injuries resulting from 1770 bouts in three national competitions of 1996, 1997, and 1998. Details of ages and years of karate experience were also obtained. RESULTS: 160 injuries were su...
Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Foy, Millennia; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary
Evaluation of the astronaut shoulder injury rates began with an operational concern at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) training. An astronaut suffered a shoulder injury during an NBL training run and commented that it was possibly due to a hardware issue. During the subsequent investigation, questions arose regarding the rate of shoulder injuries in recent years and over the entire history of the astronaut corps.
Gartland, S; Malik, M H; Lovell, M E
To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo. One to one interviews using a standard questionnaire on injuries incurred during training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing were conducted at various gyms and competitions in the United Kingdom and a Muay Thai gala in Holland. A total of 152 people were questioned, 132 men and 20 women. There were 19 beginners, 82 amateurs, and 51 professionals. Injuries to the lower extremities were the most common in all groups. Head injuries were the second most common in professionals and amateurs. Trunk injuries were the next most common in beginners. The difference in injury distribution among the three groups was significant (pinjury in the three groups. Fractures were the second most common in professionals, and in amateurs and beginners it was sprains and strains (pinjury rates were: beginners, 13.5/1000 participants; amateurs, 2.43/1000 participants; professionals, 2.79/1000 participants. For beginners, 7% of injuries resulted in seven or more days off training; for amateurs and professionals, these values were 4% and 5.8% respectively. The results are similar to those found for karate and taekwondo with regard to injury distribution, type, and rate. The percentage of injuries resulting in time off training is less.
Møller, M.; Nielsen, R.O.; Attermann, J.
Background Knowledge of injury patterns, an essential step towards injury prevention, is lacking in youth handball. Aim To investigate if an increase in handball load is associated with increased shoulder injury rates compared with a minor increase or decrease, and if an association is influenced...... by scapular control, isometric shoulder strength or glenohumeral range of motion (ROM). Methods 679 players (14-18 years) provided weekly reports on shoulder injury and handball load (training and competition hours) over 31 weeks using the SMS, phone and medical examination system. Handball load in a given...... week was categorised into (1) 60% relative to the weekly average amount of handball load the preceding 4 weeks. Assessment of shoulder isometric rotational and abduction strength, ROM and scapular control...
Calhoon, G; Fry, A C
To determine injury types, natures, anatomical locations, recommended amount of time missed, and injury rates during weightlifting training. We collected and analyzed medical injury records of resident athletes and during numerous training camps to generate an injury profile. Elite US male weightlifters who were injured during training at the United States Olympic Training Centers. United States Olympic Training Center weightlifting injury reports from a 6-year period were analyzed. Data were expressed as percentages and were analyzed via x(2) tests. The back (primarily low back), knees, and shoulders accounted for the most significant number of injuries (64.8%). The types of injuries most prevalent in this study were strains and tendinitis (68.9%). Injuries of acute (59.6%) or chronic (30.4%) nature were significantly more common than recurrent injuries and complications. The recommended number of training days missed for most injuries was 1 day or fewer (90.5%). Injuries to the back primarily consisted of strains (74.6%). Most knee injuries were tendinitis (85.0%). The majority of shoulder injuries were classified as strains (54.6%). Rates of acute and recurring injuries were calculated to be 3.3 injuries/1000 hours of weightlifting exposure. The injuries typical of elite weightlifters are primarily overuse injuries, not traumatic injuries compromising joint integrity. These injury pattems and rates are similar to those reported for other sports and activities.
Chae, Hyeseon; Min, Kyungdoo; Youn, kanwoo; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Kyungran; Kim, Hyocher; Lee, Kyungsuk
Objectives This study estimated the rate of agricultural injury using a nationwide survey and identified factors associated with these injuries. Methods The first Korean Farmers’ Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (KFODIS) was conducted by the Rural Development Administration in 2009. Data from 9,630 adults were collected through a household survey about agricultural injuries suffered in 2008. We estimated the injury rates among those whose injury required an absence of more than 4 days. ...
Weisenthal, Benjamin M.; Beck, Christopher A.; Maloney, Michael D.; DeHaven, Kenneth E.; Giordano, Brian D.
Background: CrossFit is a type of competitive exercise program that has gained widespread recognition. To date, there have been no studies that have formally examined injury rates among CrossFit participants or factors that may contribute to injury rates. Purpose: To establish an injury rate among CrossFit participants and to identify trends and associations between injury rates and demographic categories, gym characteristics, and athletic abilities among CrossFit participants. Study Design: ...
Bukva, Bojan; Vrgoč, Goran; Madić, Dejan; Sporiš, Goran; Trajković, Nebojša
Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is suggested as a contributing factor for injuries in young athletes and adults. It is presumed that GJH causes decreased joint stability, thereby increasing the risk of joint and soft tissue injuries during sports activities. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the hypermobility rate (using the Beighton`s modification of the Carter-Wilkinson criteria of hypermobility) in gymnasts and injury rate, during the period of one year. This study observed 24 artistic gymnasts (11-26 years old), members of Qatar National Team in artistic gymnastics. We examined the Beighton joint hypermobility screen and a seasonal injury survey. The gymnasts characteristics (age, gender) and gymnastics characteristics (training per day and number of years in training artistic gymnastics) and its' relations to injury rate were also included. The most common injury was the lower back pain injury, followed by knee, shoulder, hip and ankle injuries. We found strong correlation of number of years gymnastics training and injury rate (p0.05). According to this study there is no correlation between GJH rate and injury rate in artistic gymnasts in Qatar. Total training period in gymnastics have greater contribution in injury rate.
Gartland, S; Malik, M; Lovell, M
Objective—To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo.
Objectives This study estimated the rate of agricultural injury using a nationwide survey and identified factors associated with these injuries. Methods The first Korean Farmers’ Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (KFODIS) was conducted by the Rural Development Administration in 2009. Data from 9,630 adults were collected through a household survey about agricultural injuries suffered in 2008. We estimated the injury rates among those whose injury required an absence of more than 4 days. Logistic regression was performed to identify the relationship between the prevalence of agricultural injuries and the general characteristics of the study population. Results We estimated that 3.2% (±0.00) of Korean farmers suffered agricultural injuries that required an absence of more than 4 days. The injury rates among orchard farmers (5.4 ± 0.00) were higher those of all non-orchard farmers. The odds ratio (OR) for agricultural injuries was significantly lower in females (OR: 0.45, 95% CI = 0.45–0.45) compared to males. However, the odds of injury among farmers aged 50–59 (OR: 1.53, 95% CI = 1.46–1.60), 60–69 (OR: 1.45, 95% CI = 1.39–1.51), and ≥70 (OR: 1.94, 95% CI = 1.86–2.02) were significantly higher compared to those younger than 50. In addition, the total number of years farmed, average number of months per year of farming, and average hours per day of farming were significantly associated with agricultural injuries. Conclusions Agricultural injury rates in this study were higher than rates reported by the existing compensation insurance data. Males and older farmers were at a greater risk of agriculture injuries; therefore, the prevention and management of agricultural injuries in this population is required. PMID:24808945
Chae, Hyeseon; Min, Kyungdoo; Youn, Kanwoo; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Kyungran; Kim, Hyocher; Lee, Kyungsuk
This study estimated the rate of agricultural injury using a nationwide survey and identified factors associated with these injuries. The first Korean Farmers' Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (KFODIS) was conducted by the Rural Development Administration in 2009. Data from 9,630 adults were collected through a household survey about agricultural injuries suffered in 2008. We estimated the injury rates among those whose injury required an absence of more than 4 days. Logistic regression was performed to identify the relationship between the prevalence of agricultural injuries and the general characteristics of the study population. We estimated that 3.2% (±0.00) of Korean farmers suffered agricultural injuries that required an absence of more than 4 days. The injury rates among orchard farmers (5.4 ± 0.00) were higher those of all non-orchard farmers. The odds ratio (OR) for agricultural injuries was significantly lower in females (OR: 0.45, 95% CI = 0.45-0.45) compared to males. However, the odds of injury among farmers aged 50-59 (OR: 1.53, 95% CI = 1.46-1.60), 60-69 (OR: 1.45, 95% CI = 1.39-1.51), and ≥70 (OR: 1.94, 95% CI = 1.86-2.02) were significantly higher compared to those younger than 50. In addition, the total number of years farmed, average number of months per year of farming, and average hours per day of farming were significantly associated with agricultural injuries. Agricultural injury rates in this study were higher than rates reported by the existing compensation insurance data. Males and older farmers were at a greater risk of agriculture injuries; therefore, the prevention and management of agricultural injuries in this population is required.
Weisenthal, Benjamin M; Beck, Christopher A; Maloney, Michael D; DeHaven, Kenneth E; Giordano, Brian D
CrossFit is a type of competitive exercise program that has gained widespread recognition. To date, there have been no studies that have formally examined injury rates among CrossFit participants or factors that may contribute to injury rates. To establish an injury rate among CrossFit participants and to identify trends and associations between injury rates and demographic categories, gym characteristics, and athletic abilities among CrossFit participants. Descriptive epidemiology study. A survey was conducted, based on validated epidemiologic injury surveillance methods, to identify patterns of injury among CrossFit participants. It was sent to CrossFit gyms in Rochester, New York; New York City, New York; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and made available via a posting on the main CrossFit website. Participants were encouraged to distribute it further, and as such, there were responses from a wide geographical location. Inclusion criteria included participating in CrossFit training at a CrossFit gym in the United States. Data were collected from October 2012 to February 2013. Data analysis was performed using Fisher exact tests and chi-square tests. A total of 486 CrossFit participants completed the survey, and 386 met the inclusion criteria. The overall injury rate was determined to be 19.4% (75/386). Males (53/231) were injured more frequently than females (21/150; P = .03). Across all exercises, injury rates were significantly different (P CrossFit was approximately 20%. Males were more likely to sustain an injury than females. The involvement of trainers in coaching participants on their form and guiding them through the workout correlates with a decreased injury rate. The shoulder and lower back were the most commonly injured in gymnastic and power lifting movements, respectively. Participants reported primarily acute and fairly mild injuries.
Zazryn, Tsharni R; McCrory, Paul R; Cameron, Peter A
To determine injury rates and risk factors for injury in a cohort of professional boxers. Retrospective cohort design reporting on data collected for a fight statistics database maintained by the Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board of Victoria, Australia. Data were extracted for the years January 1997 through June 2005. Victoria, Australia. 545 professional boxers (age, 18 to 43 years) who participated in a total of 907 fights over the study period. Independent variables under investigation included age, gender, weight, bout exposure, and location of the bout (within or outside of the State of Victoria). Physician-reported acute boxing injuries occurring during bouts of any region or nature. 214 injuries were sustained over the 8.5 years, corresponding to an injury rate of 23.6 per 100 professional fights. The majority of these injuries were lacerations to the head and face. An increasing age and an increasing number of fights were both significant predictors of injury. Injury reduction strategies for professional boxing might include restrictions of eligibility to fight based on age and boxing bout exposure. Future research using prospective cohort designs and standardized injury definitions are needed to confirm these results. Greater mechanistic detail and more complete data entry are necessary to ensure that optimal injury prevention strategies can be developed and implemented. Upon confirmation of the results of this study, the Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board of Victoria may consider different criteria upon which to sanction a fight.
Williams, Brendan A; McFadden, James P; Teurlings, Tyler L; Blakemore, Laurel C
Pediatric motocross injuries occur frequently and with significant associated morbidity; however, data are limited regarding injury occurring during competition. North Central Florida hosts an annual motocross competition with numerous pediatric competitors. We sought to evaluate the rate and severity of injuries sustained at this event over a multiyear period. Our primary hypothesis was that motocross injury rates and severity in competition exceed that of other competitive sports in this age group. A retrospective review was performed to identify pediatric patients (17 and younger) presenting to a single Level 1 Trauma Center as a result of injury sustained at an annual motocross competition from 2009 to 2012. Demographic, diagnostic, and treatment data were collected including injuries, procedural interventions, and length of hospital stay. Rate, type, and severity of injury were evaluated and compared with established norms of other competitive sports in a similar age group. Over a 4-year period, 51 pediatric motocross competitors sustained 75 injuries. Injured riders were 14.2±2.51 years (range, 8 to 17 y) old and 92% (47/51) male. Forty (78%) patients sustained at least 1 orthopaedic injury and 17 (33%) patients suffered polytrauma. The majority of injuries occurred in the upper extremity (36%). Twenty-four (47%) patients required procedural intervention, 15 of which were operative. Thirty-nine (76%) patients necessitated surgical specialty care. Average injury severity score was 6.5 (1 to 75) and 1 death occurred. The injury rate for pediatric motocross riders in this study was 19.9 injuries per 1000 competitors. High rates of injury occur among pediatric patients in competitive motocross, exceeding those seen in other competitive sports in a comparable age group. Significant morbidity and at least 1 fatality were demonstrated in the group studied. The majority of patients suffer at least 1 orthopaedic injury and nearly all patients require pediatric
Background A one-year prospective examination of injury rates and injury risk factors was conducted in Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) new agent training. Methods Injury incidents were obtained from medical records and injury compensation forms. Potential injury risk factors were acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire and existing data at the FBI Academy. Results A total of 426 men and 105 women participated in the project. Thirty-five percent of men and 42% of women experienced one or more injuries during training. The injury incidence rate was 2.5 and 3.2 injuries/1,000 person-days for men and women, respectively (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.7). The activities most commonly associated with injuries (% of total) were defensive tactics training (58%), physical fitness training (20%), physical fitness testing (5%), and firearms training (3%). Among the men, higher injury risk was associated with older age, slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the physical fitness test (PFT), lower self-rated physical activity, lower frequency of aerobic exercise, a prior upper or lower limb injury, and prior foot or knee pain that limited activity. Among the women higher injury risk was associated with slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the PFT, and prior back pain that limited activity. Conclusion The results of this investigation supported those of a previous retrospective investigation emphasizing that lower fitness and self-reported pain limiting activity were associated with higher injury risk among FBI new agents. PMID:22166096
Mendeloff, John; Burns, Rachel
State-level injury rates or fatality rates are sometimes used in studies of the impact of various safety programs or other state policies. How much does the metric used affect the view of relative occupational risks among U.S. states? This paper uses a measure of severe injuries (fatalities) and of less severe injuries (non-fatal injuries with days away from work, restricted work, or job transfer-DART) to examine that issue. We looked at the correlation between the average DART injury rate (from the BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses) and an adjusted average fatality rate (from the BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries) in the construction sector for states for 2003-2005 and for 2006-2008. The RAND Human Subjects Protection Committee determined that this study was exempt from review. The correlations between the fatal and non-fatal injury rates were between -0.30 and -0.70 for all construction and for the subsector of special trade contractors. The negative correlation was much smaller between the rate of fatal falls from heights and the rate of non-fatal falls from heights. Adjusting for differences in the industry composition of the construction sector across states had minor effects on these results. Although some have suggested that fatal and non-fatal injury rates should not necessarily be positively correlated, no one has suggested that the correlation is negative, which is what we find. We know that reported non-fatal rates are influenced by workers' compensation benefits and other factors. Fatality rates appear to be a more valid measure of risk. Efforts to explain the variations that we find should be undertaken. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Powell, K E; Heath, G W; Kresnow, M J; Sacks, J J; Branche, C M
The objective of this survey was to estimate the frequency of injuries associated with five commonly performed moderately intense activities: walking for exercise, gardening and yard work, weightlifting, aerobic dance, and outdoor bicycling. National estimates were derived from weighted responses of over 5,000 individuals contacted between April 28 and September 18, 1994, via random-digit dialing of U.S. residential telephone numbers. Self-reported participation in these five activities in the late spring and summer of 1994 was common, ranging from an estimated 14.5 +/- 1.2% of the population for aerobics (nearly 30 million people) to 73.0 +/- 1.5% for walking (about 138 million people). Among participants, the activity-specific 30-d prevalence of injury ranged from 0.9 +- 0.5% for outdoor bicycle riding to 2.4 +- 1.3% for weightlifting. The estimated number in the 30 d of people injured in the 30 d before their interview ranged from 330,000 for outdoor bicycle riding to 2.1 million for gardening or yard work. Incidence rates for injury causing reduced participation in activity were 1.1 +/- 0.5x100 participantsx30 d for walking, 1.1 +/- 0.4 for gardening, and 3.3 +/- 1.9 for weightlifting. During walking and gardening, men and women were equally likely to be injured, but younger people (18-44 yr) were more likely to be injured than older people (45 + yr). Injury rates were low, yet large numbers of people were injured because participation rates were high. Most injuries were minor, but injuries may reduce participation in these otherwise beneficial activities. Additional studies to confirm the magnitude of the problem, to identify modifiable risk factors, and to recommend methods to reduce the frequency of such injuries are needed.
Cook, Jacqueline M; Slade, Martin D; Cantley, Linda F; Sakr, Carine J
Safety climates that support safety-related behaviour are associated with fewer work-related injuries, and prior research in industry suggests that safety knowledge and motivation are strongly related to safety performance behaviours; this relationship is not well studied in healthcare settings. We performed analyses of survey results from a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Safety Barometer employee perception survey, conducted among VHA employees in 2012. The employee perception survey assessed 6 safety programme categories, including management participation, supervisor participation, employee participation, safety support activities, safety support climate and organisational climate. We examined the relationship between safety climate from the survey results on VHA employee injury and illness rates. Among VHA facilities in the VA New England Healthcare System, work-related injury rate was significantly and inversely related to overall employee perception of safety climate, and all 6 safety programme categories, including employee perception of employee participation, management participation, organisational climate, supervisor participation, safety support activities and safety support climate. Positive employee perceptions of safety climate in VHA facilities are associated with lower work-related injury and illness rates. Employee perception of employee participation, management participation, organisational climate, supervisor participation, safety support activities and safety support climate were all associated with lower work-related injury rates. Future implications include fostering a robust safety climate for patients and healthcare workers to reduce healthcare worker injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available [i][/i][b]Introduction and objectives. [/b]The system of emergency medical services (EMS in Poland was established in 2006. The risk of occupational injuries to EMS personnel is very high, irrespective of the country where they operate, as they face many hazards in their everyday work. The aim of this study is to describe the type, incidence and consequences of occupational accidents among the personnel of the National Emergency Medical Services in Poland (NEMS – land and air ambulance crews in 2008–2012. [b]Material and methods:[/b] The study reviewed all occupational accidents among the EMS personnel reported to the National Labour Inspectorate in 2008–2012. [b]Results[/b]: In the period reported, the number of accidents decreased from 32 in 2008 to just 6 in 2012. Traffic accidents predominated and most of the victims were male paramedics under 30 years of age. The most common injuries included multiple organ injuries and injuries of the cervical spine, chest and trunk. [b]Conclusions:[/b] The growing professional experience of the EMS personnel has a beneficial effect on occupational injury rates as they tend to decrease with longer employment. Occupational accidents are definitely more common among ambulance crews than in the personnel of other organizational units of the National Emergency Medical Services.
Shrier, Ian; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Matheson, Gordon O; Wingfield, Kristin; Steele, Russell J; Prince, François; Hanley, James; Montanaro, Michael
Human circus arts are gaining increasing popularity as a physical activity with more than 500 companies and 200 schools. The only injury data that currently exist are a few case reports and 1 survey. To describe injury patterns and injury rates among Cirque du Soleil artists between 2002 and 2006. Descriptive epidemiology study. The authors defined an injury as any work-related condition recorded in an electronic injury database that required a visit to the show therapist. Analyses for treatments, missed performances, and injury rates (per 1000 artist performances) were based on a subset of data that contained appropriate denominator (exposure) information (began in 2004). There were 1376 artists who sustained a total of the 18 336 show- or training-related injuries. The pattern of injuries was generally similar across sex and performance versus training. Most injuries were minor. Of the 6701 injuries with exposure data, 80% required < or =7 treatments and resulted in < or =1 completely missed performance. The overall show injury rate was 9.7 (95% confidence interval, 9.4-10.0; for context, published National Collegiate Athletic Association women's gymnastics rate was 15.2 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures). The rate for injuries resulting in more than 15 missed performances for acrobats (highest risk group) was 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.83), which is much lower than the corresponding estimated National Collegiate Athletic Association women's gymnastics rate. Most injuries in circus performers are minor, and rates of more serious injuries are lower than for many National Collegiate Athletic Association sports.
Cumps, E.D.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Annemans, L.; Meeusen, R.
Objective: This study determines the injury rate (%) and the associated direct medical and indirect costs of sports injuries in Flanders. Setting: Epidemiological cohort designs and a human capital method were set up to measure respectively the medical direct and indirect cost of sports injuries.
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wellness gym found that by lifting large weights over short arcs 30 minutes per week, participants significantly increased their strength, reduced their musculoskeletal pain, improve their subjective well-being, and reported a low rate of injury. Keywords: gravitational wellness system, rate of injuries, weight training, descriptive study
Burke, David T; Bell, Regina; Al-Adawi, Samir; Alexandroni, Ariel; Dorvlo, Atsu; Burke, Daniel P
A preliminary study using the "gravitational wellness" weightlifting technique demonstrated this to be a unique technique for loading the musculoskeletal system with extremely high loads over short arcs. This leads to rapid weekly strength gains using 30-minute weekly training sessions. This study was designed to further assess the benefit-risk ratio of the gravitational wellness weightlifting technique. This descriptive/retrospective study examined musculoskeletal and well-being outcomes as well as injuries reported by consecutive participants at one gravitational wellness gym. All adults presenting for training at the Atlanta, Georgia, gravitational wellness system facility over a 6-month period were invited to participate. Data were obtained by telephone interview concerning the presenting complaint/objective of training, subjective outcome, weights lifted, and injuries incurred during training. Of the 77 participants contacted via telephone, 92% agreed to participate (male, n=40; female, n=31). The participants ranged in age from 18 years to 69 years, with a mean age of 48.6 years. Of these, 42 (59%) presented to the gym with the objective of improving a defined musculoskeletal issue. The modal of these was chronic low-back pain. The subjects realized improvement on a 5-point Likert scale of 4.2/5 for their presenting complaint, and improved by 4.27/5 in their overall subjective health. There were no injuries. This study of consecutive participants at a gravitational wellness gym found that by lifting large weights over short arcs 3 0 minutes per week, participants significantly increased their strength, reduced their musculoskeletal pain, improve their subjective well-being, and reported a low rate of injury.
Full Text Available American football is one of the leading causes of athletic-related injuries. Injury rates in female elite players are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the injury rates of female was comparable to those in men’s football during practice, as well as games. From 2009 to 2011, injury data were collected from the German female national team during training camps, World Championship 2010 and International friendly matches. The injury was categorized by location on the body and recorded as fracture/dislocation, strain, concussion, contusion or other injury. Injury rates were determined based on the exposure of an athlete to a game or practice event. The injury rate was calculated as the ratio of injuries per 1000 athlete exposures (AE. The rate of injury was significantly higher during games (58.8/1000 AE than practices [16.3/1000 AE, (P<0.01]. Furthermore, the injury rate in the tryouts was significantly higher (24.05/1000 AE compared to other training sessions with the national team (11.24/1000 AE. Our findings show that the injury rates in female elite American football players can be compared to those described for male players. Higher injury rates during matches than in training should also be underlined.
Elder, Alexander; Paterson, Caron
To review the literature on sharps injuries and occupational bloodborne virus transmission in health care in the UK and the worldwide evidence for injury prevention of sharps safety devices. Literature review by online database and Internet resource search. Twenty-four relevant publications were identified regarding UK reported sharps injury rates. UK studies showed as much as a 10-fold difference between injuries reported through standard reporting systems (0.78-5.15 per 100 person-years) and rates estimated from retrospective questionnaires of clinical populations (30-284 per 100 person-years). National surveillance data from England, Wales and Northern Ireland gives a rate of 1.43 known hepatitis C virus or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmissions to health care workers per annum. When extrapolated, this suggests an approximate rate of 0.009 such viral transmissions per 1000 hospital beds per annum. Risk of infection from sources with no risk factors is extremely small (less than one in one million for HIV transmission based on Scottish data). Thirty-one studies on the efficacy of sharps safety devices showed evidence of a reduction in injuries, with the greatest reductions achieved by blunt suture needles and safety cannulae. Although injuries remain common, confirmed viral transmission in the UK has been relatively rare. The degree of under-reporting of sharps injuries may be as much as 10-fold. Safety-engineered devices are likely to be effective at injury reduction.
Badenhorst, Marelise; Verhagen, Evert A L M; van Mechelen, Willem; Lambert, Michael I; Viljoen, Wayne; Readhead, Clint; Baerecke, Gail; Brown, James C
To compare catastrophic injury rates between the 14 South African Provincial Rugby Unions. A prospective, population-based study conducted among all South African Unions between 2008-2014. Player numbers in each Union were obtained from South African Rugby's 2013 Census. Catastrophic injuries were analysed from BokSmart's serious injury database. Incidence rates with 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated. Catastrophic injuries (Acute Spinal Cord Injuries and catastrophic Traumatic Brain Injuries) within Unions were compared statistically, using a Poisson regression with Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) and a 95% confidence level (pUnion ranged from 1.8 per 100000 players (95% CI: 0.0-6.5) to 7.9 (95% CI: 0.0-28.5) per 100000 players per year. The highest incidence rate of permanent outcome Acute Spinal Cord Injuries was reported at 7.1 per 100000 players (95% CI: 0.0-17.6). Compared to this Union, five (n=5/14, 36%) of the Unions had significantly lower incidence rates of Acute Spinal Cord Injuries. Proportionately, three Unions had more Acute Spinal Cord Injuries and three other Unions had more catastrophic Traumatic Brain Injuries. There were significant differences in the catastrophic injury incidence rates amongst the Provincial Unions in South Africa. Future studies should investigate the underlying reasons contributing to these provincial differences. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Probst, Tahira M; Brubaker, Ty L; Barsotti, Anthony
The goals of this study were (a) to assess the extent to which construction industry workplace injuries and illness are underreported, and (b) to determine whether safety climate predicts the extent of such underreporting. Data from 1,390 employees of 38 companies contracted to work at a large construction site in the northwestern United States were collected to assess the safety climate of the companies. Data from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) logs kept by the contractors allowed for calculation of each company's OSHA recordable injury rate (i.e., the reported injury rate), whereas medical claims data from an Owner-Controlled Insurance Program provided the actual experienced rate of injuries for those same companies. While the annual injury rate reported to OSHA was 3.11 injuries per 100 workers, the rate of eligible injuries that were not reported to OSHA was 10.90 injuries per 100 employees. Further, organizations with a poor safety climate had significantly higher rates of underreporting (81% of eligible injuries unreported) compared with organizations with a positive safety climate (47% of eligible injuries unreported). Implications for organizations and the accuracy of the Bureau of Labor Statistics's national occupational injury and illness surveillance system are discussed.
Cumps, E; Verhagen, E; Annemans, L; Meeusen, R
This study determines the injury rate (%) and the associated direct medical and indirect costs of sports injuries in Flanders. Epidemiological cohort designs and a human capital method were set up to measure respectively the medical direct and indirect cost of sports injuries. 72 out of 82 Flemish sports federations participated. Insurance statistics from 2003 were used to determine the overall rate of injury and injury localisations. Using these data, the medical direct cost and the impact sports injuries have on indirect costs were estimated. The indirect costs were determined by multiplying the days of absence from work with the daily cost resulting from a loss of production, being 200 euros. The total direct medical cost extrapolated for the Flemish sports participants was 15,027,423 euros, which amounted to 0.07% to 0.08% of the total budget spent on healthcare. The indirect cost extrapolated for the Flemish sports participants was 111,420,813 euros, which is about 3.4% of the costs arising from absenteeism from work. Of the 14 in-depth analysed sports, the rate of injury was highest in European team handball (8.96%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.95-8.96) and lowest in swimming (0.62%; 95% CI 0.62-0.62). The highest direct medical cost was found for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries (1358 euros per injury) and the lowest for foot injuries (52 euros per injury). The costs calculated in this study could become critical statistics in medical care debates. Data obtained here will enable a cost-benefit analysis of the impact of preventive measures to be made.
Daoud, Adam I; Geissler, Gary J; Wang, Frank; Saretsky, Jason; Daoud, Yahya A; Lieberman, Daniel E
This retrospective study tests if runners who habitually forefoot strike have different rates of injury than runners who habitually rearfoot strike. We measured the strike characteristics of middle- and long-distance runners from a collegiate cross-country team and quantified their history of injury, including the incidence and rate of specific injuries, the severity of each injury, and the rate of mild, moderate, and severe injuries per mile run. Of the 52 runners studied, 36 (69%) primarily used a rearfoot strike and 16 (31%) primarily used a forefoot strike. Approximately 74% of runners experienced a moderate or severe injury each year, but those who habitually rearfoot strike had approximately twice the rate of repetitive stress injuries than individuals who habitually forefoot strike. Traumatic injury rates were not significantly different between the two groups. A generalized linear model showed that strike type, sex, race distance, and average miles per week each correlate significantly (P strike have significantly higher rates of repetitive stress injury than those who mostly forefoot strike. This study does not test the causal bases for this general difference. One hypothesis, which requires further research, is that the absence of a marked impact peak in the ground reaction force during a forefoot strike compared with a rearfoot strike may contribute to lower rates of injuries in habitual forefoot strikers.
Background: Motorcycles are an emerging means of public transportation in many developing countries and has a poor safety record when compared to other road users. Subsequently, motorcycle injuries have been on the rise and head injuries are the leading cause of death, severe injury and disability globally.
Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Scimone, Mark T.; Estrada, Jonathan B.; Franck, Christian
In the United States over 1.7 million cases of traumatic brain injury are reported yearly, but predictive correlation of cellular injury to impact tissue strain is still lacking, particularly for neuronal injury resulting from compression. Given the prevalence of compressive deformations in most blunt head trauma, this information is critically important for the development of future mitigation and diagnosis strategies. Using a 3D in vitro neuronal compression model, we investigated the role of impact strain and strain rate on neuronal lifetime, viability, and pathomorphology. We find that strain magnitude and rate have profound, yet distinctively different effects on the injury pathology. While strain magnitude affects the time of neuronal death, strain rate influences the pathomorphology and extent of population injury. Cellular injury is not initiated through localized deformation of the cytoskeleton but rather driven by excess strain on the entire cell. Furthermore we find that, mechanoporation, one of the key pathological trigger mechanisms in stretch and shear neuronal injuries, was not observed under compression. PMID:27480807
All football injuries requiring medical attention (including stiffness, strains, contusions and sprains) and/or the removal from a session, leading to training restriction, were .... This was a descriptive pilot study based on the results of the high-.
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2013 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2013 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2014 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2013 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2012 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2012 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2012 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2012 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2013 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2011 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...
Full Text Available People across the world are running on a daily basis to improvetheir health status. However, running can predispose an individual to injuryto the back and lower limb. Baseline data on prevalence, incidence rate ofinjury and aetiological factors associated with running injuries are neededby physiotherapists to develop and implement effective prevention programmesto allow optimal performance in runners. Thus, the purpose of this study wasto determine the prevalence and incidence of injuries in runners at a localathletic club.Methods: A prospective, non-experimental cohort study was conductedover a 16 week period. A sample of 50 runners completed a self-administeredquestionnaire and an injury report form recording injuries sustained during the 16 week study period. Injury prevalence andcumulative incidence was calculated as a proportion rate along with 95% confidence interval.Results: The prevalence rate of injuries was 32%. The incidence rate of injuries was 0.67 per 1000km run (95% CI: 0.41- 1.08.The most common anatomical sites for new injuries were the calf (20% and the knee (18%.Conclusions: The study found a moderate prevalence and incidence rate of injury in runners, thus the need for physiotherapyledinjury surveillance and prevention programmes have been highlighted.
Luig, Patrick; Krutsch, Werner; Nerlich, Michael; Henke, Thomas; Klein, Christian; Bloch, Hendrik; Platen, Petra; Achenbach, Leonard
Scientific injury data in men's professional team handball injuries are rare and even less scientific information exists on injury prevention. In 2011, Germany's national second team handball league was restructured by merging the existing two regional leagues into one league. This study evaluates the injury patterns in professional team handball and compares the injury rates between the first and second league before and after the restructure. All players of Germany's national first and second men's team handball leagues have mandatory trauma insurance with the same insurance company. This retrospective cohort study analysed the injury data of three consecutive seasons 2010-2013 using standardized injury definitions. 1194 professional team handball players were included in this study. The majority of severe injuries affected the lower extremities, shoulders, and hands. The average injury incidence significantly differed between the first (4.9 injuries per 1000 h) and the second league (3.9 per 1000 h, p handball league and presents details on prevalence, incidence, and patterns of injury in professional men's team handball. This study is an important basis for developing injury prevention strategies that should focus on the shoulders, hands, and lower extremities and on reducing the number of matches and travel burden. III.
Metzler, Marina; Govindan, Rathinaswamy; Al-Shargabi, Tareq; Vezina, Gilbert; Andescavage, Nickie; Wang, Yunfei; du Plessis, Adre; Massaro, An N
BackgroundDecreased heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of autonomic dysfunction and brain injury in newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). This study aimed to characterize the relationship between HRV and brain injury pattern using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in newborns with HIE undergoing therapeutic hypothermia.MethodsHRV metrics were quantified in the time domain (α S , α L , and root mean square at short (RMS S ) and long (RMS L ) timescales) and frequency domain (relative low-(LF) and high-frequency (HF) power) over 24-27 h of life. The brain injury pattern shown by MRI was classified as no injury, pure cortical/white matter injury, mixed watershed/mild basal ganglia injury, predominant basal ganglia or global injury, and death. HRV metrics were compared across brain injury pattern groups using a random-effects mixed model.ResultsData from 74 infants were analyzed. Brain injury pattern was significantly associated with the degree of HRV suppression. Specifically, negative associations were observed between the pattern of brain injury and RMS S (estimate -0.224, SE 0.082, P=0.006), RMS L (estimate -0.189, SE 0.082, P=0.021), and LF power (estimate -0.044, SE 0.016, P=0.006).ConclusionDegree of HRV depression is related to the pattern of brain injury. HRV monitoring may provide insights into the pattern of brain injury at the bedside.
Please specify the sport causing the injury #1: Football Basketball Soccer Volleyball Softball ...0032423.3-15 C-10 Please specify the sport causing the injury #2: Football Basketball Soccer Volleyball Softball ...Swimming Facility Basketball Court Tennis Court Racquetball/Squash Court Baseball/ Softball Field Soccer
Dupont, Gregory; Nedelec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; McCormack, Derek; Berthoin, Serge; Wisløff, Ulrik
Recovery duration may be too short during the congested fixtures of professional soccer players with regard to maintaining physical performance and a low injury rate. To analyze the effects of 2 matches per week on physical performance and injury rate in male elite soccer players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Match results, match-related physical performance, and injuries were monitored during 2 seasons (2007-2008 and 2008-2009) for 32 professional soccer players in a top-level team participating in the UEFA (Union of European Football Associations) Champions League. Total distance, high-intensity distance, sprint distance, and number of sprints were collected for 52 home matches. Injuries and player participation in matches and training were recorded throughout the full season. Physical performance, as characterized by total distance covered, high-intensity distance, sprint distance, and number of sprints, was not significantly affected by the number of matches per week (1 versus 2), whereas the injury rate was significantly higher when players played 2 matches per week versus 1 match per week (25.6 versus 4.1 injuries per 1000 hours of exposure; P physical performance tested but is not long enough to maintain a low injury rate. The present data highlight the need for player rotation and for improved recovery strategies to maintain a low injury rate among athletes during periods with congested match fixtures.
Sherry, E; Fenelon, L
To show the trends in the rate and type of skiing injuries in Australia. A retrospective analysis of skiing injuries in the Snowy Mountains from 1962 to 1988. All injuries were seen and treated at the Ski Injury Clinic in Perisher Valley. A total of 22,261 injuries were seen over this 27 year period (data for 1963, 1964, 1966, 1977, 1978, 1981 and 1982 were missing). Injured skiers were treated at the Clinic with a small number sent to main centres for tertiary care. The overall injury rate (1962-1988) and the specific injury rate for six subgroups of injuries (1974-1988) were calculated. The overall injury rate declined dramatically over this period. The incidence of tibial fractures, ankle injuries and lacerations also declined. Upper body injuries continue to rise although this trend was not statistically significant. There was a statistically significant increase in knee injuries. The trends reported here are similar to those overseas except that the incidence of thumb injuries has not changed in Australia. The changes in the rates of lacerations, and tibial and ankle injuries can be related to improvements in ski bindings and boots.
The authors present the case of a 20-year old primigravida who was subjected to this ritual in the third trimester, sustained focal injuries to the urethra which initially healed, but during delivery 4 weeks later, and resulted in significant primary ...
Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis Ch; Shankar, Venky N; Haddock, John E; Mannering, Fred L
Relatively recent research has illustrated the potential that tobit regression has in studying factors that affect vehicle accident rates (accidents per distance traveled) on specific roadway segments. Tobit regression has been used because accident rates on specific roadway segments are continuous data that are left-censored at zero (they are censored because accidents may not be observed on all roadway segments during the period over which data are collected). This censoring may arise from a number of sources, one of which being the possibility that less severe crashes may be under-reported and thus may be less likely to appear in crash databases. Traditional tobit-regression analyses have dealt with the overall accident rate (all crashes regardless of injury severity), so the issue of censoring by the severity of crashes has not been addressed. However, a tobit-regression approach that considers accident rates by injury-severity level, such as the rate of no-injury, possible injury and injury accidents per distance traveled (as opposed to all accidents regardless of injury-severity), can potentially provide new insights, and address the possibility that censoring may vary by crash-injury severity. Using five-year data from highways in Washington State, this paper estimates a multivariate tobit model of accident-injury-severity rates that addresses the possibility of differential censoring across injury-severity levels, while also accounting for the possible contemporaneous error correlation resulting from commonly shared unobserved characteristics across roadway segments. The empirical results show that the multivariate tobit model outperforms its univariate counterpart, is practically equivalent to the multivariate negative binomial model, and has the potential to provide a fuller understanding of the factors determining accident-injury-severity rates on specific roadway segments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Pelletier, Andrew R.; Tongren, J. Eric; Gilchrist, Julie
Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children in the United States. The use of recommended safety practices can reduce injuries. Children often learn behaviors from media exposure. Children’s movies released in 1995–2007 infrequently depicted appropriate injury prevention practices. The aim of this study was to determine if injury prevention practices in children’s movies have improved. The top grossing 25 G-and PG-rated movies in the United States per year for 2008–201...
Agbo, Chioma; Lee, Lois; Chiang, Vincent; Landscahft, Assaf; Kimia, Tomer; Monuteaux, Michael C; Kimia, Amir A
The ingestion of multiple magnets simultaneously or the placement of magnets in both nares can lead to serious injury resulting from the attraction of the magnets across the tissues. The impact of mandatory standards for toys containing magnets has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of the present study was to describe the emergency department (ED) visit rate for magnet-related injuries. We performed a retrospective study of children evaluated for magnet-related injuries from 1995 to 2012 in an urban tertiary care pediatric ED. We identified cases using a computerized text-search methodology followed by manual chart review. We included children evaluated for magnet ingestion or impaction in the ears, nose, vagina, or rectum. We assessed the type and number of magnets as well as management and required interventions. A Poisson regression model was used to analyze rates of injury over time. We identified 112 cases of magnet injuries. The median patient age was 6 years (IQR 3.5, 10), and 54% were male. Compared to before 2006, the rate for all magnet-related injuries in 2007-2012 (incidence rate ratio 3.44; 95% confidence interval 2.3-5.11) as well as multiple magnet-related injuries (incidence rate ratio 7.54; 95% confidence interval 3.51-16.19) increased. Swallowed magnets accounted for 86% of the injuries. Thirteen patients had endoscopy performed for magnet removal (12%), and 4 (4%) had a surgical intervention. Magnets from toys account for the majority of the injuries. The number of ED visits for magnet-related injuries in children may be rising and are underreported, with an increase in the proportion of multiple magnets involvement. In our case series, mandatory standard for toys had no mitigating effect.
Liu, Hangsheng; Burns, Rachel M; Schaefer, Agnes G; Ruder, Teague; Nelson, Christopher; Haviland, Amelia M; Gray, Wayne B; Mendeloff, John
Since 1994, Pennsylvania, like several other states, has provided a 5% discount on workers' compensation insurance premiums for firms with a certified joint labor management safety committee. This study explored the factors affecting program participation and evaluated the effect of this program on work injuries. Using Pennsylvania unemployment insurance data (1996-2006), workers' compensation data (1998-2005), and the safety committee audit data (1999-2007), we conducted propensity score matching and regression analysis on the program's impact on injury rates. Larger firms, firms with higher injury rates, firms in high risk industries, and firms without labor unions were more likely to join the safety committee program and less likely to drop out of the program. The injury rates of participants did not decline more than the rates for non-participants; however, rates at participant firms with good compliance dropped more than the rates at participant firms with poor compliance. Firm size and prior injury rates are key predictors of program participation. Firms that complied with the requirement to train their safety committee members did experience reductions in injuries, but non-compliance with that and other requirements was so widespread that no overall impact of the program could be detected. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Brooks, Christopher J; MacDonald, Conor V; Gibbs, Peter N A
Helicopter underwater escape training (HUET) carries a potential for injury and this paper identifies the injury rate. A marine survival training school registry of all students trained between 2005-2012 in HUET and the coinciding accident records were examined. There were 8902 students trained in a helicopter underwater escape simulator for a total of 59,245 underwater escapes. There were 40 cases where only first-aid was required and 3 serious injuries (a laceration requiring 5 sutures, 1 dislocated shoulder, and 1 water aspiration requiring hospitalization). There were no deaths and no problems reported with using the Emergency Breathing System (EBS) or Air Pocket. Of the injuries, 11 were due to the student using a poor escape technique. The overall probability of injury was 0.74 per 1000 ascents. In HUET training, there is a very low injury rate with almost no significant severity. Although not scientifically proven, this would suggest that the low incident rate is due to good medical screening and the attention given by instructors to anxious students. Compared to other training such as diving, parachute jumping, and submarine escape training, the rate of injury was considerably lower.
Empirical evidence on occupational injury and/or fatality rates among Canada's immigrants has been largely mixed and has almost exclusively focused on the first generation. Over time, as immigrants assimilate into the economy, future generations may be expected to work in less hazardous occupations compared with prior generations. There has been no prior analysis of the differences in occupational injury and fatality rates among later generations. To analyse whether there are intergenerational differences in occupational injury and fatality rates among the first, second and third (or more) immigrant generations in Canada. Data drawn from the 2011 National Household Survey and the Association of Workers' Compensation Boards of Canada were used to determine the difference in occupational injury and fatality rates between the first or the third generation and the second generation, using a Poisson regression framework. Second-generation immigrants worked in jobs with lower occupational injury rates compared with the first generation and the third generation (or more). Similar results were observed for occupational fatality rates. Second-generation immigrants worked in less hazardous jobs compared with the first generation and compared with the third (or more) generations. These results suggest that the second generation may not face the same economic hurdles and challenges, in terms of workplace injuries or fatalities, as those faced by the first or third (or more) generations of immigrants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Moran, Sebastian; Booker, Harry; Staines, Jacob; Williams, Sean
CrossFitTM is a strength and conditioning program that has gained widespread popularity since its inception approximately 15 years ago. However, at present little is known about the level of injury risk associated with this form of training. Movement competency, assessed using the Functional Movement ScreenTM (FMS), has been identified as a risk factor for injury in numerous athletic populations, but its role in CrossFit participants is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of injury risk associated with CrossFit training, and examine the influence of a number of potential risk factors (including movement competency). A cohort of 117 CrossFit participants were followed prospectively for 12 weeks. Participants' characteristics, previous injury history and training experience were recorded at baseline, and an FMS assessment was conducted. The overall injury incidence rate was 2.10 per 1000 training hours (90% confidence limits: 1.32-3.33). A multivariate Poisson regression model identified males (rate ratio [RR]: 4.44 ×/÷ 3.30, very likely harmful) and those with previous injuries (RR: 2.35 ×/÷ 2.37, likely harmful) as having a higher injury risk. Inferences relating to FMS variables were unclear in the multivariate model, although number of asymmetries was a clear risk factor in a univariate model (RR per two additional asymmetries: 2.62 ×/÷ 1.53, likely harmful). The injury incidence rate associated with CrossFit training was low, and comparable to other forms of recreational fitness activities. Previous injury and gender were identified as risk factors for injury, whilst the role of movement competency in this setting warrants further investigation.
Spangenberg, S.; Baarts, C.; Dyreborg, J.
of injury risk factors at group and individual level for Danish and Swedish workers. LTI-rates and injury risk factors were compared for Danish and Swedish workers during the construction of the combined rail and road link across the 16-km wide sound, Oresund, between Denmark and Sweden. The comparison...... showed that the LTI-rate of the Danish construction workers was approximately fourfold the LTI-rate of the Swedish construction workers. Factors at the micro-level (group and individual level) e.g. differences in education and experience, training and learning, and attitude were important...
Achenbach, Leonard; Loose, Oliver; Laver, Lior; Zeman, Florian; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter; Krutsch, Werner
Beach handball is a relatively new type of sports, which was derived from team handball. Medical issues such as frequency and severity of injury are yet unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the injury pattern and injury rates of this new type of sports. This study investigated the injury incidence of 30 national teams (10 senior and 20 u-17 teams, 16 men's and 14 women's teams) participating in the 2017 European Beach Handball Championships. Reports on injuries sustained during the senior and u-17 youth tournaments were provided by the medical staff of each team. Injury incidence was differentiated between age and sex, and between the five field positions (goalkeeper, wing, central defender, pivot, and specialist). During the tournaments, 87 injuries were recorded yielding an overall injury incidence of 286.1 per 1000 match hours. Time-loss due to injury was 49.3 per 1000 match hours. Senior players had a higher overall injury incidence with 395.3 injuries than u-17 players with 205.7 injuries per 1000 h match hours (p handball exposure for male players and 234.9 injuries for female players (n.s.). The most frequent injury type was sprains (21 injuries, 24.1%) followed by contusions (19 injuries, 21.8%) and skin abrasions with (15 injuries, 17.2%). Central defenders and specialists had the highest injury incidence. Thighs, ankles, as well as foot and toes (altogether 12 injuries, all 13.8%) were the three most frequently injured anatomic sites. Beach handball seems to have a lower incidence of time-loss injuries than that reported for indoor team handball. This study is an important basis for developing injury prevention strategies in this sports that should focus on thighs, ankles, feet and toes. Further research into this new type of sports is essential to identify risk factors and to develop adequate injury prevention measures. II.
Vitale, Jacopo A; Bassani, Tito; Galbusera, Fabio; Bianchi, Alberto; Martinelli, Nicolò
Previous studies attempted to identify possible risk factors for acute and overuse injuries in several sports disciplines such as running, gymnastics or team sports. Given the lack of scientific works focused on risk factors for lower limb injuries in martial arts, the present study was aimed to investigate foot anatomy, anthropometric measures, and other background information as possible risk factors of injury in barefoot athletes practicing judo, karate, kung fu, thai boxe, or aikido. In addition, the injury rates were evaluated in relation with the different martial art styles. One group of 130 martial artists was retrospectively evaluated. Data of three foot morphological variables were collected: navicular height (NH), navicular drop (ND) and the rear foot (RF). In addition, each participant filled an interview questionnaire providing the following information: age, sex, body weight, height, BMI, hours of training per week, the kind of injury occurred to the lower limbs in the preceding year. Of 130 subjects, 70 (53.8%) did not sustain injuries, 35 (27.0%) suffered an acute injury and the remaining 25 (19.2%) reported an overuse injury. No significant differences were observed in the injury rates in relation to style and kind of martial art. Age, training volume and BMI were found as significant predictors of injury, while NH, ND and RF were not able to predict acute or overuse injury at lower limbs. The injury rates were similar in karate, judo, kung fu, aikido, and thai boxe. The foot morphology variables were not related with the presence or absence of acute and overuse injuries. Conversely, older and heavier martial artists, performing more hours of barefoot training, are at higher risk of acute and overuse injury. Athletic trainers should strongly take into account the present information in order to develop more accurate and specific injury prevention programs for martial artists.
Burger, N.; Lambert, M.I.; Viljoen, W.; Brown, J.; Readhead, C.; Hendricks, S.
Objectives: The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of
Metzger, Kristina B; Gruschow, Siobhan; Durbin, Dennis R; Curry, Allison E
Several studies have evaluated the correlation between U.S. or Euro New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) ratings and injury risk to front seat occupants, in particular driver injuries. Conversely, little is known about whether NCAP 5-star ratings predict real-world risk of injury to restrained rear seat occupants. The NHTSA has identified rear seat occupant protection as a specific area under consideration for improvements to its NCAP. In order to inform NHTSA's efforts, we examined how NCAP's current 5-star rating system predicts risk of moderate or greater injury among restrained rear seat occupants in real-world crashes. We identified crash-involved vehicles, model year 2004-2013, in NASS-CDS (2003-2012) with known make and model and nonmissing occupant information. We manually matched these vehicles to their NCAP star ratings using data on make, model, model year, body type, and other identifying information. The resultant linked NASS-CDS and NCAP database was analyzed to examine associations between vehicle ratings and rear seat occupant injury risk; risk to front seat occupants was also estimated for comparison. Data were limited to restrained occupants and occupant injuries were defined as any injury with a maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2 or greater. We linked 95% of vehicles in NASS-CDS to a specific vehicle in NCAP. The 18,218 vehicles represented an estimated 6 million vehicles with over 9 million occupants. Rear seat passengers accounted for 12.4% of restrained occupants. The risk of injury in all crashes for restrained rear seat occupants was lower in vehicles with a 5-star driver rating in frontal impact tests (1.4%) than with 4 or fewer stars (2.6%, P =.015); results were similar for the frontal impact passenger rating (1.3% vs. 2.4%, P =.024). Conversely, side impact driver and passenger crash tests were not associated with rear seat occupant injury risk (driver test: 1.7% for 5-star vs. 1.8% for 1-4 stars; passenger test: 1.6% for 5
Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief
The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of tackle-related injuries in South African youth rugby union players representing their provinces at national tournaments. Observational cohort study. Four South African Youth Week tournaments (under-13 Craven Week, under-16 Grant Khomo Week, under-18 Academy Week, under-18 Craven Week). Injury data were collected from 3652 youth rugby union players (population at risk) in 2011 and 2012. Tackle-related injury severity ('time-loss' and 'medical attention'), type and location, injury rate per 1000 h (including 95% CIs). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were calculated and modelled using a Poisson regression. A χ(2) analysis was used to detect linear trends between injuries and increasing match quarters. The 2012 under-13 Craven Week had a significantly greater 'time-loss' injury rate when compared with the 2012 under-18 Academy Week (IRR=4.43; 95% CI 2.13 to 9.21, p<0.05) and under-18 Craven Week (IRR=3.52; 95% CI 1.54 to 8.00, p<0.05). The Poisson regression also revealed a higher probability of 'overall' ('time-loss' and 'medical attention' combined) and 'time-loss' tackle-related injuries occurring at the under-13 Craven Week. The proportion of 'overall' and 'time-loss' injuries increased significantly with each quarter of the match when all four tournaments were combined (p<0.05). There was a difference in the tackle-related injury rate between the under-13 tournament and the two under-18 tournaments, and the tackle-related injury rate was higher in the final quarter of matches. Ongoing injury surveillance is required to better interpret these findings. Injury prevention strategies targeting the tackle may only be effective once the rate and nature of injuries have been accurately determined
Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief
Objectives The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of tackle-related injuries in South African youth rugby union players representing their provinces at national tournaments. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Four South African Youth Week tournaments (under-13 Craven Week, under-16 Grant Khomo Week, under-18 Academy Week, under-18 Craven Week). Participants Injury data were collected from 3652 youth rugby union players (population at risk) in 2011 and 2012. Outcome measures Tackle-related injury severity (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’), type and location, injury rate per 1000 h (including 95% CIs). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were calculated and modelled using a Poisson regression. A χ2 analysis was used to detect linear trends between injuries and increasing match quarters. Results The 2012 under-13 Craven Week had a significantly greater ‘time-loss’ injury rate when compared with the 2012 under-18 Academy Week (IRR=4.43; 95% CI 2.13 to 9.21, p<0.05) and under-18 Craven Week (IRR=3.52; 95% CI 1.54 to 8.00, p<0.05). The Poisson regression also revealed a higher probability of ‘overall’ (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’ combined) and ‘time-loss’ tackle-related injuries occurring at the under-13 Craven Week. The proportion of ‘overall’ and ‘time-loss’ injuries increased significantly with each quarter of the match when all four tournaments were combined (p<0.05). Conclusions There was a difference in the tackle-related injury rate between the under-13 tournament and the two under-18 tournaments, and the tackle-related injury rate was higher in the final quarter of matches. Ongoing injury surveillance is required to better interpret these findings. Injury prevention strategies
Autenrieth, Daniel A; Brazile, William J; Douphrate, David I; Román-Muñiz, Ivette N; Reynolds, Stephen J
Effective methods to reduce work-related injuries and illnesses in animal production agriculture are sorely needed. One approach that may be helpful for agriculture producers is the adoption of occupational health and safety management systems. In this replication study, the authors compared the injury rates on 32 poultry growing operations with the level of occupational health and safety management system programming at each farm. Overall correlations between injury rates and programming level were determined, as were correlations between individual management system subcomponents to ascertain which parts might be the most useful for poultry producers. It was found that, in general, higher levels of occupational health and safety management system programming were associated with lower rates of workplace injuries and illnesses, and that Management Leadership was the system subcomponent with the strongest correlation. The strength and significance of the observed associations were greater on poultry farms with more complete management system assessments. These findings are similar to those from a previous study of the dairy production industry, suggesting that occupational health and safety management systems may hold promise as a comprehensive way for producers to improve occupational health and safety performance. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of such systems to reduce farm work injuries and illnesses. These results are timely given the increasing focus on occupational safety and health management systems.
Haviland, Amelia M; Burns, Rachel M; Gray, Wayne B; Ruder, Teague; Mendeloff, John
A prior study indicated that the effect of OSHA inspections on lost workday injuries had declined from 1979 through 1998. This study provides an updated estimate for 1998-2005. Injury data from the Pennsylvania workers' compensation program were linked with employment data from unemployment compensation records to calculate lost-time rates for single-establishment manufacturing firms with more than 10 employees. These rates were linked to OSHA inspection findings. The RAND Human Subjects Protection Committee determined that this study was exempt from review. Inspections with penalties reduced injuries by an average of 19-24% annually in the 2 years following the inspection. These effects were not found for workplaces with fewer than 20 or more than 250 employees or for inspections without penalties. These findings should be generalizable to the 29 states where federal OSHA directly enforces standards. They suggest that the impact of inspections has increased from the 1990s. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Kamath, Trishna; Pfeifer, Megan; Banerjee-Guenette, Priyanka; Hunter, Theresa; Ito, Julia; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, Virginia; Levac, Danielle
Purpose: To evaluate reliability and feasibility of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument (MLSRI) in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). The MLSRI quantifies the extent to which motor learning strategies (MLS) are used within physiotherapy (PT) interventions. Methods: PT sessions conducted by ABI team physiotherapists with a…
Wang, Yu-Tsai; Kent, Ray D.; Duffy, Joseph R.; Thomas, Jack E.; Weismer, Gary
The task of syllable alternating motion rate (AMR) (also called diadochokinesis) is suitable for examining speech disorders of varying degrees of severity and in individuals with varying levels of linguistic and cognitive ability. However, very limited information on this task has been published for subjects with traumatic brain injury (TBI). This…
Lima-Borges, Dayanne S; Martinez, Paula F; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Barbosa, Fernando S S; Oliveira-Junior, Silvio A
Young athletes' participation in competitive sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of overtraining and sports injuries. Since these issues are poorly understood, this study analyzed heart rate variability, stress/recovery relationship, and sports injury incidence during a training macrocycle of young sprint and endurance swimmers. Thirty teenage swimmers (aged 12 to 17 years) were divided into two groups as follows: Sprint (n = 17) and Endurance (n = 13). Subjects were evaluated over 20 weeks, based on the following three schedules: general, specific, and competitive. In addition to heart rate variability and sports injury incidence, the Recovery-Stress-Questionnaire of Athletes was used to analyse stress/recovery states in athletes. All procedures were developed at the initial moment and at the end of each periodization step. The Sprint group presented a reduced standard deviation of normal-normal beats (73.0 ± 6.6 vs. 54.1 ± 3.5 ms; p sports injury than the Endurance group (0.0214 ± 0.0068 vs. 0.0136 ± 0.0050 cases/1000 hours). Sprint training was associated with progressive activation of the sympathetic nervous system as well as a higher incidence of sports injury in comparison to endurance swimming during a training macrocycle.
Kamarulzaman Ibrahim; Heng Khai Theng
Many safety studies are based on the analysis carried out on injury surveillance data. The injury surveillance data gathered for the analysis include information on number of employees at risk of injury in each of several strata where the strata are defined in terms of a series of important predictor variables. Further insight into the relationship between fatal injury rates and predictor variables may be obtained by the poisson regression approach. Poisson regression is widely used in analyzing count data. In this study, poisson regression is used to model the relationship between fatal injury rates and predictor variables which are year (1995-2002), gender, recording system and industry type. Data for the analysis were obtained from PERKESO and Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. It is found that the assumption that the data follow poisson distribution has been violated. After correction for the problem of over dispersion, the predictor variables that are found to be significant in the model are gender, system of recording, industry type, two interaction effects (interaction between recording system and industry type and between year and industry type). Introduction Regression analysis is one of the most popular
Bronner, Shaw; Wood, Lily
There is ongoing debate about how to define injury in dance: the most encompassing one or a time-loss definition. We examined the relationship between touring, performance schedule and injury definition on injury rates in a professional modern dance company over one-year. In-house healthcare management tracked 35 dancers for work-related musculoskeletal injuries (WMSI), time-loss injuries (TLinj), complaints, and exposure. The year was divided into 6 segments to allow comparison of effects of performance, rehearsal, and touring. Injuries/segment were converted into injuries/1000-h dance exposure. We conducted negative binomial regression analysis to determine differences between segments, P ≤ 0.05. Twenty WMSI, 0.44 injuries/1000-h, were sustained over one-year. WMSI were 6 times more likely to occur in Segment-6, compared with other segments (incident rate ratio = 6.055, P = 0.031). The highest rate of TLinj and traumatic injuries also occurred in Segment-6, reflecting concentrated rehearsal, New York season and performances abroad. More overuse injuries occurred in Segment-2, an international tour, attributed to raked stages. Lack of methods to quantify performance other than injury may mask effects of touring on dancer's well-being. Tracking complaints permits understanding of stressors to specific body regions and healthcare utilisation; however, TLinj remain the most important injuries to track because they impact other dancers and organisational costs.
Tongren, J. Eric; Gilchrist, Julie
Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children in the United States. The use of recommended safety practices can reduce injuries. Children often learn behaviors from media exposure. Children’s movies released in 1995–2007 infrequently depicted appropriate injury prevention practices. The aim of this study was to determine if injury prevention practices in children’s movies have improved. The top grossing 25 G-and PG-rated movies in the United States per year for 2008–2012 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Movies or scenes were excluded if they were animated, not set in the present day, fantasy, documentary, or not in English. Injury prevention practices involving riding in a motor vehicle, walking, boating, bicycling, and four other activities were recorded for characters with speaking roles. Fifty-six (45 %) of the 125 movies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 603 person-scenes were examined involving 175 (29 %) children and 428 (71 %) adults. Thirty-eight person-scenes involved crashes or falls, resulting in four injuries and no deaths. Overall, 59 % (353/603) of person-scenes showed appropriate injury prevention practices. This included 313 (70 %) of 445 motor-vehicle passengers who were belted; 15 (30 %) of 50 pedestrians who used a crosswalk, 2 (7 %) of 30 boaters who wore personal flotation devices, and 8 (29 %) of 28 bicyclists who wore helmets. In comparison with previous studies, there were significant increases in usage of seat belts, crosswalks, personal flotation devices, and bicycle helmets. However, 41 % of person-scenes still showed unsafe practices and the consequences of those behaviors were infrequently depicted. PMID:25476034
Pelletier, Andrew R; Tongren, J Eric; Gilchrist, Julie
Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children in the United States. The use of recommended safety practices can reduce injuries. Children often learn behaviors from media exposure. Children's movies released in 1995-2007 infrequently depicted appropriate injury prevention practices. The aim of this study was to determine if injury prevention practices in children's movies have improved. The top grossing 25 G- and PG-rated movies in the United States per year for 2008-2012 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Movies or scenes were excluded if they were animated, not set in the present day, fantasy, documentary, or not in English. Injury prevention practices involving riding in a motor vehicle, walking, boating, bicycling, and four other activities were recorded for characters with speaking roles. Fifty-six (45%) of the 125 movies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 603 person-scenes were examined involving 175 (29%) children and 428 (71%) adults. Thirty-eight person-scenes involved crashes or falls, resulting in four injuries and no deaths. Overall, 59% (353/603) of person-scenes showed appropriate injury prevention practices. This included 313 (70%) of 445 motor-vehicle passengers who were belted; 15 (30%) of 50 pedestrians who used a crosswalk, 2 (7%) of 30 boaters who wore personal flotation devices, and 8 (29%) of 28 bicyclists who wore helmets. In comparison with previous studies, there were significant increases in usage of seat belts, crosswalks, personal flotation devices, and bicycle helmets. However, 41% of person-scenes still showed unsafe practices and the consequences of those behaviors were infrequently depicted.
Chung, Yun Kyung
Objectives The present study aims to determine the causal relationship between self-rated depression and experiences of injury and accidents in municipal firefighters. Methods A panel survey of 186 municipal firefighters measured with depressive symptoms according to the Beck's depression index (BDI) was conducted. The effects of job-related injuries and accidents were evaluated using self-administered questionnaires that were taken once in a 12-month period from 2005 to 2006. Firefighters were classified into the Depression Group or Control Group based on follow-up BDI results with a cutoff level that was set to having "over mild depression." Results The depression Group was comprised of 17 (9.1%) workers, including 9 firefighters who met had sufficient BDI scores twice in the 2-year test period and newly sufficient BDI scores in the follow-up test. A significantly higher number of subjects in the Depression Group experienced injuries and accidents in the 2-year test period as compared to the Control Group (15.4% vs. 1.5%, p=0.04). Firefighters who experienced injuries and accidents in the 2-year test period had a 7.4 times higher risk of being in the Depression Group than those who had not. As compared to accidents, near-miss accidents revealed stronger risks related to being classified as in the Depression group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 4.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-18.18 vs. Adjusted OR = 4.22, 95% CI = 1.08-16.58). Conclusion The above results suggest that we should establish an effective program to promote mental health for groups at high risk for self-rated depression, including persons who have experienced consecutive injuries and accidents as well as near-miss injuries. PMID:22953198
Preventing Australian football injuries with a targeted neuromuscular control exercise programme: comparative injury rates from a training intervention delivered in a clustered randomised controlled trial.
Finch, Caroline F; Twomey, Dara M; Fortington, Lauren V; Doyle, Tim L A; Elliott, Bruce C; Akram, Muhammad; Lloyd, David G
Exercise-based training programmes are commonly used to prevent sports injuries but programme effectiveness within community men's team sport is largely unknown. To present the intention-to-treat analysis of injury outcomes from a clustered randomised controlled trial in community Australian football. Players from 18 male, non-elite, community Australian football clubs across two states were randomly allocated to either a neuromuscular control (NMC) (intervention n=679 players) or standard-practice (control n=885 players) exercise training programme delivered as part of regular team training sessions (2× weekly for 8-week preseason and 18-week regular-season). All game-related injuries and hours of game participation were recorded. Generalised estimating equations, adjusted for clustering (club unit), were used to compute injury incidence rates (IIRs) for all injuries, lower limb injuries (LLIs) and knee injuries sustained during games. The IIRs were compared across groups with cluster-adjusted Injury Rate Ratios (IRRs). Overall, 773 game injuries were recorded. The lower limb was the most frequent body region injured, accounting for 50% of injuries overall, 96 (12%) of which were knee injuries. The NMC players had a reduced LLI rate compared with control players (IRR: 0.78 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.08), p=0.14.) The knee IIR was also reduced for NMC compared with control players (IRR: 0.50 (95% CI 0.24 to 1.05), p=0.07). These intention-to-treat results indicate that positive outcomes can be achieved from targeted training programmes for reducing knee and LLI injury rates in men's community sport. While not statistically significant, reducing the knee injury rate by 50% and the LLI rate by 22% is still a clinically important outcome. Further injury reductions could be achieved with improved training attendance and participation in the programme. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
Gatterer, H; Ruedl, G; Faulhaber, M; Regele, M; Burtscher, M
Soccer is characterized by high injury rates that necessitate interventions for its reduction. The "11" is a multi-modal preventive program that was developed to reduce injury rate. However, outcomes on the effectiveness of the program are not unambiguous and data for the largest group at risk (i.e., male adult amateur players) are missing. The study aims to assess the injury rate in male adult amateur soccer players of different levels and to evaluate the effectiveness of the prevention program the "11". Three amateur soccer teams participated in the study during the first round of a competition season. Two teams played at a regional level (6th Italian league) and one team at a provincial level (7th Italian league). The regional league is of a higher skill level compared to the provincial league. Duration and frequency of training and match sessions and the occurrence of time-loss injuries were recorded. One team of the 6th league performed an injury prevention program. The total injury rate for the intervention and the control team in the 6th league was 3.3 (CI 0.7-5.9) and 4.3 (CI 1.3-7.3) injuries/1000 h, respectively (P=0.841). The 6th league control team tended to have a lesser injury rate compared to the 7th league team (P=0.081). The relative risk was 2 fold higher in the 7th compared to the 6th league team (P=0.0285 one tailed). Present results show that injury rate in amateur soccer depended rather on the skill level than the prevention program. In this study the prevention program the "11" was not shown to be highly effective in soccer player of intermediate level (i.e., 6th Italian league).
O'Neill, Patricia A; Kirton, Orlando C; Dresner, Lisa S; Tortella, Bartholomew; Kestner, Mark M
Fecal contamination from colon injury has been thought to be the most significant factor for the development of surgical site infection (SSI) after trauma. However, there are increasing data to suggest that other factors may play a role in the development of postinjury infection in patients after colon injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of gastric wounding on the development of SSI and nonsurgical site infection (NSSI) in patients with colon injury. Post hoc analysis was performed on data prospectively collected for 317 patients presenting with penetrating hollow viscus injury. One hundred sixty-two patients with colon injury were subdivided into one of three groups: patients with isolated colon wounds (C), patients with colon and stomach wounds with or without other organ injury (C+S), and patients with colon and other organ injury but no stomach injury (C-S) and assessed for the development of SSI and NSSI. Infection rates were also determined for patients who sustained isolated gastric injury (S) and gastric injury in combination with other injuries other than colon (S-C). Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index, operative times, and transfusion were assessed. Discrete variables were analyzed by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi2 test and Fisher's exact test. Risk factor analysis was performed by multivariate logistic regression. C+S patients had a higher rate of SSI infection (31%) than C patients (3.6%) (p=0.008) and C-S patients (13%) (p=0.021). Similarly, the incidence of NSSI was also significantly greater in the C+S group (37%) compared with the C patients (7.5%) (p=0.07) and the C-S patients (17%) (p=0.019). There was no difference in the rate of SSI or NSSI between the C and C-S groups (p=0.3 and p=0.24, respectively). The rate of SSI was significantly greater in the C+S patients when compared with the S-C patients (31% vs. 10%, p=0.008), but there was no statistical difference in the rate of NSSI in the C+S group and the S-C group (37
Sohn, Young Hoon; Bae Min Ji; Lee, Chang Geun; Yang, Kwang Mo; Jur, Kyu; Kim, Jong Sun [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
The systemic effect of radiation increases in proportionally with the dose and dose rate. Little is known concerning the relationships between harmful effects and accumulated dose, which is derived from continuous low-dose rate radiation exposure. Recent our studies show that low-dose-rate chronic radiation exposure (3.49 mGy/h) causes adverse effects in the testis at a dose of 2 Gy (6 mGy/h). However, the mechanism of the low-dose-rate 2 Gy irradiation induced testicular injury remains unclear. The present results indicate that low-dose rate chronic radiation might affect the BTB permeability, possibly by decreasing levels of ZO-1, Occludin-1, and NPC-2. Furthermore, our results suggest that there is a risk of male infertility through BTB impairment even with low-dose-rate radiation if exposure is continuous.
Michaelidis, Michael; Koumantakis, George A
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is frequently encountered in sports. To analyze the effects of ACL injury prevention programs on injury rates in female athletes between different sports. A comprehensive literature search was performed in September 2012 using Pubmed Central, Science Direct, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscus. The key words used were: 'anterior cruciate ligament', 'ACL', 'knee joint', 'knee injuries', 'female', 'athletes', 'neuromuscular', 'training', 'prevention'. The inclusion criteria applied were: (1) ACL injury prevention training programs for female athletes; (2) Athlete-exposure data reporting; (3) Effect of training on ACL incidence rates for female athletes. 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three training programs in soccer and one in handball led to reduced ACL injury incidence. In basketball no effective training intervention was found. In season training was more effective than preseason in ACL injury prevention. A combination of strength training, plyometrics, balance training, technique monitoring with feedback, produced the most favorable results. Comparing the main components of ACL injury prevention programs for female athletes, some sports-dependent training specificity issues may need addressing in future studies, related primarily to the individual biomechanics of each sport but also their most effective method of delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hsia, Renee Y; Nath, Julia B; Baker, Laurence C
The emergency department (ED) is the source of most hospital admissions; provides care for patients with no other point of access to the health care system; receives advanced care referrals from primary care physicians; and provides surveillance data on injuries, infectious diseases, violence, and adverse drug events. Understanding the changes in the profile of disease in the ED can inform emergency services administration and planning and can provide insight into the public's health. We analyzed the trends in the diagnoses seen in California EDs from 2005 to 2011, finding that while the ED visit rate for injuries decreased by 0.7 percent, the rate of ED visits for noninjury diagnoses rose 13.4 percent. We also found a rise in symptom-related diagnoses, such as abdominal pain, along with nervous system disorders, gastrointestinal disease, and mental illness. These trends point out the increasing importance of EDs in providing care for complex medical cases, as well as the changing nature of illness in the population needing immediate medical attention. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Derman, Wayne; Runciman, Phoebe; Schwellnus, Martin; Jordaan, Esme; Blauwet, Cheri; Webborn, Nick; Lexell, Jan; van de Vliet, Peter; Tuakli-Wosornu, Yetsa; Kissick, James; Stomphorst, Jaap
To describe the incidence of injury in the precompetition and competition periods of the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games. A total of 3657 athletes from 78 countries, representing 83.4% of all athletes at the Games, were monitored on the web-based injury and illness surveillance system over 51 198 athlete days during the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games. Injury data were obtained daily from teams with their own medical support. A total of 510 injuries were reported during the 14-day Games period, with an injury incidence rate (IR) of 10.0 injuries per 1000 athlete days (12.1% of all athletes surveyed). The highest IRs were reported for football 5-a-side (22.5), judo (15.5) and football 7-a-side (15.3) compared with other sports (pGames (IR of 5.5). The shoulder was the most common anatomical area affected by injury (IR of 1.8). The data from this study indicate that (1) IRs were lower than those reported for the London 2012 Summer Paralympic Games, (2) the sports of football 5-a-side, judo and football 7-a-side were independent risk factors for injury, (3) precompetition injuries had a higher IR than competition period injuries, (4) injuries to the shoulder were the most common. These results would allow for comparative data to be collected at future editions of the Games and can be used to inform injury prevention programmes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Bose, Anuradha; Konradsen, Flemming; John, Jacob
We calculated mortality rates and years of life lost because of unintentional injuries and suicides using community based information obtained prospectively over a 7-year period, from 1998 to 2004, among a rural and peri-urban population of 108,000 in South India. Per 100,000 population the total...... in this study is significantly higher than the figures reflected in available reports for India and is likely due to the under reporting in routine mortality statistics, particularly of suicides....
Blackley, David J.; Retzer, Kyla D.; Hubler, Warren G.; Hill, Ryan D.; Laney, A. Scott
Background Occupational fatality rates among oil and gas extraction industry and specifically among drilling contractor workers are high compared to the U.S. all-industry average. There is scant literature focused on non-fatal injuries among drilling contractors, some of which have introduced engineering controls to improve rig efficiency and reduce injury risk. Methods We compared injury rates on new and old technology rigs operated by the largest U.S. drilling contractor during 2003–2012, stratifying by job type and grouping outcomes by injury severity and body part affected. Results Six hundred seventy-one injuries were recorded over 77.4 million person-hours. The rate on new rigs was 66% of that on old rigs. Roughnecks had lower injury rates on new rigs, largely through reduced limb injury rates. New rigs had lower rates in each non-fatal injury severity category. Conclusions For this company, new technology rigs appear to provide a safer environment for roughnecks. Future studies could include data from additional companies. PMID:25164118
Blackley, David J; Retzer, Kyla D; Hubler, Warren G; Hill, Ryan D; Laney, A Scott
Occupational fatality rates among oil and gas extraction industry and specifically among drilling contractor workers are high compared to the U.S. all-industry average. There is scant literature focused on non-fatal injuries among drilling contractors, some of which have introduced engineering controls to improve rig efficiency and reduce injury risk. We compared injury rates on new and old technology rigs operated by the largest U.S. drilling contractor during 2003-2012, stratifying by job type and grouping outcomes by injury severity and body part affected. Six hundred seventy-one injuries were recorded over 77.4 million person-hours. The rate on new rigs was 66% of that on old rigs. Roughnecks had lower injury rates on new rigs, largely through reduced limb injury rates. New rigs had lower rates in each non-fatal injury severity category. For this company, new technology rigs appear to provide a safer environment for roughnecks. Future studies could include data from additional companies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rike, Per-Ola; Ulleberg, Pål; Schultheis, Maria T; Lundqvist, Anna; Schanke, Anne-Kristine
To explore whether measurements of self-regulatory mechanisms and cognition predict driving behaviour after an acquired brain injury (ABI). Consecutive follow-up study. At baseline participants included 77 persons with stroke and 32 persons with a traumatic brain injury (TBI), all of whom completed a multidisciplinary driving assessment (MDA). A follow-up cohort of 34 persons that succeeded the MDA was included. Baseline measurements: Neuropsychological tests and measurements of self-regulatory mechanisms (BRIEF-A and UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale), driving behaviour (DBQ) and pre-injury driving characteristics (mileage, compensatory driving strategies and accident rates). Follow-up measurements: Post-injury driving characteristics were collected by mailed questionnaires from the participants who succeeded the MDA. A MDA, which included a medical examination, neuropsychological testing and an on-road driving test, was considered in the decision for or against granting a driver's license. Self-regulatory mechanisms and driving behaviour were examined for research purposes only. At baseline, self-regulatory mechanisms were significantly associated to aberrant driving behaviour, but not with neuropsychological data or with the outcome of the on-road driving test. Aspects of self-regulation were associated to driving behaviour at follow-up. It is recommended that self-regulatory measurements should regularly be considered in the driving assessments after ABI.
Thubert, Thibault; Canel, Virginie; Vinchant, Marie; Wigniolle, Ingrid; Fernandez, Hervé; Deffieux, Xavier
Although placement of a retropubic mid-urethral slings (MUS) is one of the gold standard surgical treatments for stress urinary incontinence, new devices are poorly evaluated before marketing. We compared TVT-EXACT™ (TVT-E), a new device expected to reduce bladder injuries, with the historically described bottom-to-top TVT™ (TVT). This retrospective study compared TVT-E (n=49) and TVT (n=49). The main outcomes were the prevalence of complications (bladder injuries, immediate postoperative pain, perioperative complications, etc.) and the short-term success rate (no reported urinary leakage and negative cough test) of both MUSs. Minimum follow-up was 12 months. The characteristics of the two groups were comparable. The prevalence of bladder injury for TVT-E and TVT was 8% and 6%, respectively (p=1). The intensity of immediate postoperative pain (VAS/100) was lower following TVT-E than after TVT (8.0 vs. 15.9, p=0.01). The first post-void residual was increased in the TVT-E group (153.9 vs. 78.9mL, p=0.045), and there were more postoperative bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) symptoms in the TVT-E group (24% vs. 6%, p=0.02). However, there was no difference when considering only de novo BOO (14% vs. 4%, p=0.16). The prevalence of peri- and post-operative complications was equal in the two groups. The success rate was similar at 12 months of follow-up (80 vs. 82%, p=1). The prevalence of bladder injury was unchanged with TVT-EXACT™ compared with TVT™, but post-operative pain was decreased. The success rate of both retropubic MUSs was similar at 12 months of follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Toni Caparrós, Eduard Alentorn-Geli, Gregory D. Myer, Lluís Capdevila, Kristian Samuelsson, Bruce Hamilton, Gil Rodas
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship among game performance, injury rate, and practice exposure in a professional male basketball team. A retroospective analysis of prospective collected data was conducted over seven consecutive seasons (2007/2008 to 2013/2014. Data collection included sports performance during competition (statistical evaluation, injury rate, and total exposure (games and practices. Over the surveillance period, 162 injuries (91 practice; 71 matches occurred over 32,668 hours of exposure (556 games and 2005 practices. There was a strong positive correlation between: 1 exposure (total number of practices and hours of exposure and the total number of injuries (r = 0.77; p = 0.04; 2 exposure (total hours of exposure and total hours of practice exposure and performance (total team ranking (r = 0.77 and p = 0.04, and r = 0.8 and p = 0.03, respectively; and 3 total number of injuries and performance (total team ranking (r = 0.84; p = 0.02. While increasing practice and competition time is related to greater team performance, it also increases the number of injuries. However, higher injury rates were not associated with worse overall team performance. Efforts to reduce high-risk activity during practice, optimally replaced with injury prevention training, might help to reduce injury risk.
Le, Elizabeth; Aarabi, Bizhan; Hersh, David S; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanthan; Diaz, Cara; Massetti, Jennifer; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori
OBJECT Studies of preclinical spinal cord injury (SCI) in rodents indicate that expansion of intramedullary lesions (IMLs) seen on MR images may be amenable to neuroprotection. In patients with subaxial SCI and motor-complete American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) Grade A or B, IML expansion has been shown to be approximately 900 μm/hour. In this study, the authors investigated IML expansion in a cohort of patients with subaxial SCI and AIS Grade A, B, C, or D. METHODS Seventy-eight patients who had at least 2 MRI scans within 6 days of SCI were enrolled. Data were analyzed by regression analysis. RESULTS In this cohort, the mean age was 45.3 years (SD 18.3 years), 73 patients were injured in a motor vehicle crash, from a fall, or in sport activities, and 77% of them were men. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 26.7 (SD 16.7), and the AIS grade was A in 23 patients, B in 7, C in 7, and D in 41. The mechanism of injury was distraction in 26 patients, compression in 22, disc/osteophyte complex in 29, and Chance fracture in 1. The mean time between injury onset and the first MRI scan (Interval 1) was 10 hours (SD 8.7 hours), and the mean time to the second MRI scan (Interval 2) was 60 hours (SD 29.6 hours). The mean IML lengths of the first and second MR images were 38.8 mm (SD 20.4 mm) and 51 mm (SD 36.5 mm), respectively. The mean time from the first to the second MRI scan (Interval 3) was 49.9 hours (SD 28.4 hours), and the difference in IML lengths was 12.6 mm (SD 20.7 mm), reflecting an expansion rate of 366 μm/ hour (SD 710 μm/hour). IML expansion in patients with AIS Grades A and B was 918 μm/hour (SD 828 μm/hour), and for those with AIS Grades C and D, it was 21 μm/hour (SD 304 μm/hour). Univariate analysis indicated that AIS Grade A or B versus Grades C or D (p < 0.0001), traction (p= 0.0005), injury morphology (p < 0.005), the surgical approach (p= 0.009), vertebral artery injury (p= 0.02), age (p < 0.05), ISS (p < 0
Welch, Laura S; Dong, Xiuwen; Carre, Francoise; Ringen, Knut
Injury rates in all industries and in construction in particular have been declining. Inconsistencies in the information suggest some of the apparent decrease may be due to changes in the ways injuries are treated, misclassification of employees, or underreporting. Lost-time injury rates for the largest construction employers declined by as much as 92% between 1988 and 1999. Yet the rate for cases with restricted work activity actually increased from 0.7 to 1.2 per 100 full-time workers between 1990 and 2000, and fatalities among construction workers remain high. In Massachusetts, at least 14% of construction employers misclassified workers as independent contractors, with the effect that injuries to these workers are not recordable. Studies that compare OSHA logs with other data sources find that the OSHA logs do not include a significant proportion of injuries and illnesses identified elsewhere.
Thorborg, Kristian; Krommes, Kasper Kühn; Esteve, Ernest
Objective To investigate the effect of FIFA injury prevention programmes in football (FIFA 11 and FIFA 11+). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials comparing the FIFA injury prevention programmes with a control (no or sham...... intervention) among football players. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL via Ebsco, Web of Science, SportDiscus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 2004 to 14 March 2016. Results 6 cluster-randomised controlled trials had assessed the effect of FIFA injury prevention...... programmes compared with controls on the overall football injury incidence in recreational/subelite football. These studies included 2 specific exercise-based injury prevention programmes: FIFA 11 (2 studies) and FIFA 11+ (4 studies). The primary analysis showed a reduction in the overall injury risk ratio...
Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injuries (TBI are among the main causes of cognitive dysfunction in humans. At a neuronal network level, they both extensively exhibit focal axonal swellings (FAS, which in turn, compromise the information encoded in spike trains and lead to potentially severe functional deficits. There are currently no satisfactory quantitative predictors of decline in memory-encoding neuronal networks based on the impact and statistics of FAS. Some of the challenges of this translational approach include our inability to access small scale injuries with non-invasive methods, the overall complexity of neuronal pathologies, and our limited knowledge of how networks process biological signals. The purpose of this computational study is three-fold: (i to extend Hopfield's model for associative memory to account for the effects of FAS, (ii to calibrate FAS parameters from biophysical observations of their statistical distribution and size, and (iii to systematically evaluate deterioration rates for different memory-recall tasks as a function of FAS injury. We calculate deterioration rates for a face-recognition task to account for highly correlated memories and also for a discrimination task of random, uncorrelated memories with a size at the capacity limit of the Hopfield network. While it is expected that the performance of any injured network should decrease with injury, our results link, for the first time, the memory recall ability to observed FAS statistics. This allows for plausible estimates of cognitive decline for different stages of brain disorders within neuronal networks, bridging experimental observations following neurodegeneration and TBI with compromised memory recall. The work lends new insights to help close the gap between theory and experiment on how biological signals are processed in damaged, high-dimensional functional networks, and towards positing new diagnostic tools to measure cognitive
Weber, Melanie; Maia, Pedro D.; Kutz, J. Nathan
Neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are among the main causes of cognitive dysfunction in humans. At a neuronal network level, they both extensively exhibit focal axonal swellings (FAS), which in turn, compromise the information encoded in spike trains and lead to potentially severe functional deficits. There are currently no satisfactory quantitative predictors of decline in memory-encoding neuronal networks based on the impact and statistics of FAS. Some of the challenges of this translational approach include our inability to access small scale injuries with non-invasive methods, the overall complexity of neuronal pathologies, and our limited knowledge of how networks process biological signals. The purpose of this computational study is three-fold: (i) to extend Hopfield's model for associative memory to account for the effects of FAS, (ii) to calibrate FAS parameters from biophysical observations of their statistical distribution and size, and (iii) to systematically evaluate deterioration rates for different memory-recall tasks as a function of FAS injury. We calculate deterioration rates for a face-recognition task to account for highly correlated memories and also for a discrimination task of random, uncorrelated memories with a size at the capacity limit of the Hopfield network. While it is expected that the performance of any injured network should decrease with injury, our results link, for the first time, the memory recall ability to observed FAS statistics. This allows for plausible estimates of cognitive decline for different stages of brain disorders within neuronal networks, bridging experimental observations following neurodegeneration and TBI with compromised memory recall. The work lends new insights to help close the gap between theory and experiment on how biological signals are processed in damaged, high-dimensional functional networks, and towards positing new diagnostic tools to measure cognitive deficits. PMID
Full Text Available Background: To investigate false negative rate in the diagnosis of diastasis on initial static anteroposterior radiograph and reliability of intraoperative external rotational stress test for detection of concealed disruption of syndesmosis in pronation external rotation (PER stage IV (Lauge-Hansen ankle fractures. Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 34 PER stage IV ankle fractures between September 2001 and September 2008. Twenty (59% patients show syndesmotic injury on initial anteroposterior radiographs. We performed an intraoperative external rotation stress test in other 14 patients with suspicious PER stage IV ankle fractures, which showed no defined syndesmotic injury on anteroposterior radiographs inspite of a medial malleolar fracture, an oblique fibular fracture above the syndesmosis and fracture of the posterior tubercle of the tibia. Results: All 14 fractures showed different degrees of tibiofibular clear space (TFCS and tibiofibular overlapping (TFO on the external rotation stress test radiograph compared to the initial plain anteroposterior radiograph. It is important to understand the fracture pattern characterstic of PER stage IV ankle fractures even though it appears normal on anteroposterior radiographs, it is to be confirmed for the concealed syndesmotic injury through a routine intraoperative external rotational stress radiograph.
Ghahramani, Abolfazl; Summala, Heikki
The occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) has been a widely used approach for managing occupational health and safety more effectively worldwide. Despite the interest of organizations in implementing OHSMS in recent decades, few studies have examined the effectiveness of these interventions. This study presents an empirical investigation of the effect of occupational health and safety assessment series (OHSAS) 18001 as a worldwide-accepted OHSMS on the occupational injury rate (OIR) in Iran. This study was carried out in six companies: three OHSAS 18001-certified, and three non-certified, including 998 occupational injuries for 15,842 person-months. A before-after analysis showed a positive safety performance change in one out of the three certified companies. For all 66 study years in the six companies, a negative binomial regression did not indicate a lower occupational injury during the certified years and a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not confirm the effect of certification. The results of this study indicated that the implementation of OHSAS 18001 is not a guarantee of improved safety.
Candela-Toha, Ángel; Pardo, María Carmen; Pérez, Teresa; Muriel, Alfonso; Zamora, Javier
and objective Acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis is still based on serum creatinine and diuresis. However, increases in creatinine are typically delayed 48h or longer after injury. Our aim was to determine the utility of routine postoperative renal function blood tests, to predict AKI one or 2days in advance in a cohort of cardiac surgery patients. Using a prospective database, we selected a sample of patients who had undergone major cardiac surgery between January 2002 and December 2013. The ability of the parameters to predict AKI was based on Acute Kidney Injury Network serum creatinine criteria. A cohort of 3,962 cases was divided into 2groups of similar size, one being exploratory and the other a validation sample. The exploratory group was used to show primary objectives and the validation group to confirm results. The ability to predict AKI of several kidney function parameters measured in routine postoperative blood tests, was measured with time-dependent ROC curves. The primary endpoint was time from measurement to AKI diagnosis. AKI developed in 610 (30.8%) and 623 (31.4%) patients in the exploratory and validation samples, respectively. Estimated glomerular filtration rate using the MDRD-4 equation showed the best AKI prediction capacity, with values for the AUC ROC curves between 0.700 and 0.946. We obtained different cut-off values for estimated glomerular filtration rate depending on the degree of AKI severity and on the time elapsed between surgery and parameter measurement. Results were confirmed in the validation sample. Postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate using the MDRD-4 equation showed good ability to predict AKI following cardiac surgery one or 2days in advance. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Coxen, Christopher L.; Collins, Daniel P.; Carleton, Scott A.
Catching ground feeding birds has typically been accomplished through small, walk-in funnel-style traps. This approach is limited because it requires a bird to find its way into the trap, is biased toward less wary birds, and does not allow targeted trapping of individual birds. As part of a large study on Band-tailed Pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata) in New Mexico, we needed a trapping method that would allow more control over the number of birds we could trap at one time, when a trap was deployed, and target trapping of specific individuals. We adopted a relatively novel trapping technique used primarily for shorebirds, whoosh nets, to trap Band-tailed Pigeons at 3 different sites where birds were being fed by local landowners. During 2013–2015, whoosh nets were used to trap 702 Band-tailed Pigeons at 3 different locations in New Mexico. We captured 12.54 ± 8.19 pigeons per shot over 56 capture events across 3 locations (range: 2–39). Some superficial injuries occurred using this technique and typically involved damage to the primary and secondary wing coverts. In 2013, 24% of captured birds had an injury of this nature, but after modifying the net speed, injury rates in 2014 and 2015 dropped to 8% and 7%, respectively. Recaptured previously injured birds showed new feather growth within 2 weeks and showed no signs of injury after 4 weeks. Whoosh nets proved to be a highly effective solution for trapping large numbers of pigeons at baited sites. These systems are easily transported, quickly deployed, and easily adapted to a variety of site conditions.
Ran Xinze; Yan Yongtang; Cheng Tianmin; Li Yuan; Wei Shuqing
The effects of combined radiation-burn injury on survival rate of allogeneic skin grafts and immune reaction were studied in rats with combined injury of 3-8 Gy 60 Co γ-ray irradiation plus 15% total body surface area full thickness burn induced by exposure to a 5 kw bromotungsten lamp. The allogeneic skin was transplanted 24 hours after injury. It was found that all the skin grafts failed to survive in 10 days and the immune reaction significantly increased in the early stage of burn injury. But the immune reaction was obviously suppressed by the combined radiation-burn injury. The survival rates of skin grafts were 20% and 30% in the combined injury of burn plus 3 and 4 Gy irradiation respectively. When the radiation doses increased to 5,6 and 8 Gy, the survival rates elevated to 69%, 88% and 100% respectively (in the group of 8 Gy, bone marrow transplantation was conducted before receiving skin graft). At day 30 post-transplantation the survival rates were still 36%, 42% and 100% respectively. Compared with burn group, there was a significant difference in survival rate when the radiation doses were higher than 5 Gy. These results indicate that the survival rate of the allogeneic skin graft increases concurrently with the increase in radiation dose and decreases with the elapse of the post-transplantation time
Vlies, C. H. van der; Hoekstra, J.; Ponsen, K. J.; Reekers, J. A.; Delden, O. M. van; Goslings, J. C.
Introduction: Nonoperative management (NOM) has become the treatment of choice for hemodynamically stable patients with blunt splenic injury. Results of outcome after NOM are predominantly based on large-volume studies from level 1 trauma centers in the United States. This study was designed to assess the results of NOM in a relatively low-volume Dutch level 1 trauma center. Methods: An analysis of a prospective trauma registry was performed for a 6-year period before (period 1) and after the introduction and implementation of splenic artery embolization (SAE) (period 2). Primary outcome was the failure rate of initial treatment. Results: A total of 151 patients were reviewed. An increased use of SAE and a reduction of splenic operations during the second period was observed. Compared with period 1, the failure rate after observation in period 2 decreased from 25% to 10%. The failure rate after SAE in period 2 was 18%. The splenic salvage rate (SSR) after observation increased from 79% in the first period to 100% in the second period. During the second period, all patients with failure after observation were successfully treated with SAE. The SSR after SAE in periods 1 and 2 was respectively 100% and 86%. Conclusions: SAE of patients with blunt splenic injuries is associated with a reduction in splenic operations. The failure and splenic salvage rates in this current study were comparable with the results from large-volume studies of level 1 trauma centers. Nonoperative management also is feasible in a relatively low-volume level 1 trauma center outside the United States.
Alberta Employment, Immigration and Industry (EII) prepares an annual report of the occupational injuries and diseases in the upstream oil and gas industries operating in the province. The purpose is to determine if the industries meet the demand from industry and safety association, labour organizations, employers and workers to improve workplace health and safety. This report described programs and initiatives undertaken by EII in pursuit of these goals. It analyzed provincial occupational injury and disease information against national statistics and estimated the risk of injury or disease at the provincial, industry sector and sub-sector level. The report also presented an analysis of aggregate injury claim data to allow for the tracking of workplace health and safety performance over time. For comparative purposes, 2006 data was presented beside 2005 data. Additional historical data was presented in some cases. It was noted that approximately 80 per cent of employed persons in Alberta are covered by the Workman's Compensation Board (WCB). Therefore, this report focused on all industry activity in Alberta covered by the WCB and by the provincial legislation of occupational health and safety. General descriptions about the incidents and injured workers were presented along with fatality rates for the major industry sectors as well as the occupational fatalities that the Workers Compensation Board (WCB) accepted for compensation. The number of employers that earned a certificate of recognition was also identified. Injury and disease analysis was discussed in terms of injured worker characteristics; nature of injury or disease; source of injury or disease; type of event or exposure; and, duration of disability. It was shown that the lost-time claim rate for the upstream oil and gas industries in Alberta decreased by 10 per cent in 2006, due to fewer injury claims. The disabling injury rate decreased by 4.9 per cent. The tar sand subsector had the lowest lost
The injuries sustained included 32 flexor tendon injuries, 14 extensor tendon injuries, 9 fractures and 21 peripheral nerve injuries. Results. Of the patients, 17 underwent early primary repair (within 24 h), 19 delayed primary repair, and 13 delayed repair following primary washout. Wounds were assessed postoperatively ...
Feyer, A M; Langley, J; Howard, M; Horsburgh, S; Wright, C; Alsop, J; Cryer, C
To determine the number and rates of work-related fatal injuries by employment status, occupation, industry, age and gender in New Zealand 1985-1994. Potential cases of work-related injury deaths of persons aged 15-84 years were identified from the national electronic mortality data files. Main exclusions were deaths due to suicide and deaths due to motor vehicle crashes. The circumstances of the deaths of each fatal incident meeting inclusion criteria were then reviewed directly from coronial files to determine work-relatedness. The rate of work-related fatal injury in New Zealand was 5.03/100000 workers per year for the study period. There was a significant decline in crude rate over the study period. However, this was in substantial part accounted for by changes in occupation and industry mix. Older workers, male workers, self-employed workers, and particular occupational groups, all had substantially elevated rates. Agricultural and helicopter pilots, forestry workers and fishery workers had the highest rates. Farmers, forestry workers, and fishery workers also had high numbers of deaths, together accounting for nearly 40% of all deaths. This study has demonstrated that work-related fatal injury remains a pressing problem for New Zealand. Several areas in urgent need of prevention efforts were highlighted.
Mueller, Becky; Farmer, Charles; Jermakian, Jessica; Zuby, David
Pedestrian protection evaluations have been developed to encourage vehicle front-end designs that mitigate the consequences of vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes. The European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) evaluates pedestrian head protection with impacts against vehicle hood, windshield, and A-pillars. The Global Technical Regulation No. 9 (GTR 9), being evaluated for U.S. regulation, limits head protection evaluations to impacts against vehicle hoods. The objective of this study was to compare results from pedestrian head impact testing to the real-world rates of fatal and incapacitating injuries in U.S. pedestrian crashes. Data from police reported pedestrian crashes in 14 states were used to calculate real-world fatal and in- capacitating injury rates for seven 2002-07 small cars. Rates were 2.17-4.04 per 100 pedestrians struck for fatal injuries and 10.45-15.35 for incapacitating injuries. Euro NCAP style pedestrian headform tests were conducted against windshield, A-pillar, and hoods of the study vehicles. When compared with pedestrian injury rates, the vehicles' Euro NCAP scores, ranging 5-10 points, showed strong negative correlations (-0.6) to injury rates, though none were statistically significant. Data from the headform impacts for each of the study vehicles were used to calculate that vehicle's predicted serious injury risk. The predicted risks from both the Euro NCAP and GTR 9 test zones showed high positive correlations with the pedestrian fatal and incapacitating injury rates, though few were statistically significant. Whether vehicle stiffness is evaluated on all components of vehicle front ends (Euro NCAP) or is limited to hoods (GTR 9), softer vehicle components correspond to a lower risk of fatality.
Krebs, J; Katrin Brust, A; Tesini, S; Guler, M; Mueller, G; Velstra, I M; Frotzler, A
Retrospective observational study. To investigate the study participation rate of patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI) early during rehabilitation after conveying preliminary study information. Single SCI rehabilitation center in Switzerland. Newly admitted acute SCI patients receive a flyer to inform them concerning the purpose of clinical research, patient rights and active studies. Upon patient request, detailed study information is given. The rate of patients asking for detailed information (study interest) and the rate of study participation was evaluated from May 2013 to October 2014. Furthermore, the number of patients not withdrawing consent to the utilization of coded health-related data was determined. The flyer was given to 144 of the 183 patients admitted during the observation period. A total of 96 patients (67%) were interested in receiving detailed information, and 71 patients (49%) finally participated in at least one study. The vast majority of patients (that is, 91%) did not withdraw consent for retrospective data analysis. An age over 60 years had a significantly (P⩽0.023) negative effect on study interest and participation, and the consent rate to retrospective data analysis was significantly (Pinterest and participation were reduced more than 5 and 14-fold, respectively, in patients older than 60 years. The relatively low (approximately 50%) study participation rates of acute SCI patients should be considered when planning clinical trials. The recruitment of patients older than 60 years may be reduced substantially.
Frank R. Noyes
Full Text Available While many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL prevention programs have been published, few have achieved significant reductions in injury rates and improvements in athletic performance indices; both of which may increase compliance and motivation of athletes to participate. A supervised neuromuscular retraining program (18 sessions was developed, aimed at achieving both of these objectives. The changes in neuromuscular indices were measured after training in 1000 female athletes aged 13–18 years, and the noncontact ACL injury rate in 700 of these trained athletes was compared with that of 1120 control athletes. There were significant improvements in the drop-jump test, (p < 0.0001, effect size [ES] 0.97, the single-leg triple crossover hop (p < 0.0001, ES 0.47, the t-test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.64, the multi-stage fitness test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.57, hamstring strength (p < 0.0001, and quadriceps strength (p < 0.01. The trained athletes had a significant reduction in the noncontact ACL injury incidence rate compared with the controls (1 ACL injury in 36,724 athlete-exposures [0.03] and 13 ACL injuries in 61,244 exposures [0.21], respectively, p = 0.03. The neuromuscular retraining program was effective in reducing noncontact ACL injury rate and improving athletic performance indicators.
Hosking, Jamie; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Exeter, Daniel; Stewart, Joanna; Bell, Andrew
To describe ethnic, socioeconomic and geographical differences in road traffic injury (RTI) within Auckland, New Zealand's largest city. We analysed rates of RTI deaths and non-fatal hospital admissions using the New Zealand Mortality Collection and the National Minimum Data Set 2000-08. Poisson regression examined the association of age, gender, prioritised ethnicity and small area deprivation (New Zealand Index of Deprivation) with RTI rates, and RTI rates were mapped for 21 local board areas within the Auckland region. While RTI rates increased with levels of deprivation in all age groups, the gradient was steepest among children (9% increase/decile) and adults aged 25-64 years (11% increase/decile). In all age groups, RTI risk was highest among Māori. Pacific children had an elevated risk of RTI compared with the NZ European/Other group, but Pacific youth (15-24 years) and adults (25-64 years) had a lower risk. While RTI rates were generally higher for those living in rural local board areas, all but one local board in the southern Auckland urban area had among the highest rates. There are substantial ethnic, socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in RTI risk in the Auckland region, with high rates among Māori (all ages), Pacific children, people living in socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods, the urban south and rural regions. To meet the vision of regional plans, road safety efforts must prioritise vulnerable communities at greatest risk of RTI, and implement and monitor the effectiveness of strategies that specifically include a focus on reducing inequalities in RTI rates. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.
Kaymak, Şahin; Ünlü, Aytekin; Harlak, Ali; Ersöz, Nail; Şenocak, Rahman; Coşkun, Ali Kağan; Zeybek, Nazif; Lapsekili, Emin; Kozak, Orhan
Treatment of colorectal injuries (CRIs) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to analyze treatment trends of Turkish surgeons and effects of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST), Injury Severity (ISS), and Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index (PATI) scoring systems on decision-making processes and clinical outcomes. Data regarding high velocity missile (HVM)-related CRIs were retrospectively gathered. Four patient groups were included: Group 1 (stoma), Group 2 (no stoma in primary surgery), Group 2a (conversion to stoma in secondary surgery), and Group 2b (remaining Group 2 patients). Groups 1, 2, 2a, and 2b included 39 (66%), 20 (34%), 6 (30%), and 14 (70%) casualties, respectively. Ostomies were performed in casualties with significantly higher AAST scores (pcolon/rectum injury scores.
Ampt, Amanda J; Patterson, Jillian A; Roberts, Christine L; Ford, Jane B
To determine whether rates of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) are continuing to increase and whether risk of OASIS according to mode of delivery is constant over time. In a retrospective population-based study, data were obtained for vaginal singleton vertex deliveries at 37-41 weeks of pregnancy among primiparous women in New South Wales, Australia, between January 2001 and December 2011. Annual OASIS rates were determined among non-instrumental, forceps, and vacuum deliveries with and without episiotomy. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine adjusted odds ratios for each delivery mode category by year. Trends in adjusted odds ratios over time for each delivery category were compared. OASIS occurred in 955 (4.1%) of 23 081 deliveries in 2001 and 1487 (5.9%) of 25 081 deliveries in 2011. After adjustment for known risk factors, the only delivery categories to show statistically significant increases in OASIS over the study period were non-instrumental deliveries without episiotomy (linear trend Pdeliveries with episiotomy (linear trend P=0.004). Overall, OASIS rates have continued to increase. Known risk factors do not fully explain the increase in OASIS rates in non-instrumental deliveries without an episiotomy and in forceps deliveries with an episiotomy. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The objective in this study, using data from crashed cars fitted with on-board crash pulse recorders, was to present differences in average crash severity, distribution of crash severity, and injury outcomes, based on an independent safety rating of roads, also taking road type and speed limit into consideration. Furthermore, the objective was to evaluate differences in injury risk, based on the distribution of crash severity. The investigation included both frontal two-vehicle crashes and single-vehicle crashes with known injury outcome. In total, 209 real-world crashes involving cars fitted with crash pulse recorders were included. For all crashes, average mean acceleration and change of velocity of the vehicle acceleration pulse were measured and calculated. All crash spots were classified according to an independent road safety rating program (European Road Assessment Programme Road Protection Score), where the safety quality of roads is rated in relation to posted speed limits. The crash severity and injury outcome in crashes that occurred on roads with good safety ratings were compared with crashes on roads with poor safety ratings. The data were also divided into subcategories according to posted speed limit and road type, to evaluate whether there was a difference in crash severity and injury outcome within the categories. In total, crash severity was statistically significantly lower in crashes occurring on roads with good safety ratings than in crashes occurring on roads with poor safety ratings. It was found that crash severity and injury risk were lower on roads with good safety ratings with a speed limit of above 90 km/h compared with roads with poor safety ratings, irrespective of speed limit. On the other hand, crash severity was higher on roads with good safety ratings with speed limit of 70 km/h than on roads with poor safety ratings with the same speed limit. Though it was found that a higher speed limit resulted in higher crash severity on roads
Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Lipscomb, Hester; Sinyai, Clayton; Adams, Darrin
Despite the size and breadth of OSHA's Outreach Training program for construction, information on its impact on work-related injury rates is limited. In a 9-year dynamic cohort of 17,106 union carpenters in Washington State, the effectiveness of OSHA Outreach Training on workers' compensation claims rate was explored. Injury rates were calculated by training status overall and by carpenters' demographic and work characteristics using Poisson regression. OSHA Outreach Training resulted in a 13% non-significant reduction in injury claims rates overall. The protective effect was more pronounced for carpenters in their apprenticeship years, drywall installers, and with increasing time since training. In line with these observed effects and prior research, it is unrealistic to expect OSHA Outreach Training alone to have large effects on union construction workers' injury rates. Standard construction industry practice should include hazard awareness and protection training, coupled with more efficient approaches to injury control. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:45-57, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, Ki Sook; Kim, Soon Duck; Lee, Sang Hee
Recently injury has become a major world-wide health problem. But studies in Korea about injuries were very few. Thus, this study was conducted to analyze the trend of major injuries from 1991 to 2006 and to provide basic data for preventing injuries. This study was based on the National Statistical Office data from 1991 to 2006 and calculated to estimate the burden of major injuries by using the standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL) and total lost earnings equation. For transport accidents, mortality, SEYLL and total lost earnings were increased from 1991 to 1996 and decreased from 2000 to 2006. On the other hand, for suicides, these were increased gradually. Since 2003, falls were included in ten leading causes of death. This study showed that injury causes major social and economical losses. We could reduce injury related premature death through active interest in injury prevention program.
Blair, Steven N.; And Others
Reports on the results of three epidemiologic studies of orthopedic running and exercise injuries in exercisers present information regarding relationships between type of injury and participant age, gender, exercise level, exercise surface, and physical fitness. (Author/CB)
Gray, Benjamin J; Barton, Emma R; Davies, Alisha R; Long, Sara J; Roderick, Janine; Bellis, Mark A
To investigate whether sharing and linking routinely collected violence data across health and criminal justice systems can provide a more comprehensive understanding of violence, establish patterns of under-reporting and better inform the development, implementation and evaluation of violence prevention initiatives. Police violence with injury (VWI) crimed data and emergency department (ED) assault attendee data for South Wales were collected between 1 April 2014 and 31 March 2016 to examine the rates and patterns of VWI. Person identifiable data (PID) were cross-referenced to establish if certain victims or events were less likely to be reported to criminal justice services. A total of 18 316 police crimed VWI victims and 10 260 individual ED attendances with an assault-related injury were considered. The majority of ED assault attendances (59.0%) were unknown to police. The key demographic identified as under-reporting to police were young males aged 18-34 years, while a significant amount of non-reported assaults involved a stranger. The combined monthly age-standardised rates were recalculated and on average were 74.7 (95% CI 72.1 to 77.2) and 66.1 (95% CI 64.0 to 68.2) per 100 000 population for males and females, respectively. Consideration of the additional ED cases resulted in a 35.3% and 18.1% increase on the original police totals for male and female VWI victims. This study identified that violence is currently undermeasured, demonstrated the importance of continued sharing of routinely collected ED data and highlighted the benefits of using PID from a number of services in a linked way to provide a more comprehensive picture of violence. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Bhullar, Indermeet S; Frykberg, Eric R; Siragusa, Daniel; Chesire, David; Paul, Julia; Tepas, Joseph J; Kerwin, Andrew J
To determine whether angioembolization (AE) in hemodynamically stable adult patients with blunt splenic trauma (BST) at high risk for failure of nonoperative management (NOM) (contrast blush [CB] on computed tomography, high-grade IV-V injuries, or decreasing hemoglobin) results in lower failure rates than reported. The records of patients with BST from July 2000 to December 2010 at a Level I trauma center were retrospectively reviewed using National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons. Failure of NOM (FNOM) occurred if splenic surgery was required after attempted NOM. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with FNOM. A total of 1,039 patients with BST were found. Pediatric patients (age <17 years), those who died in the emergency department, and those requiring immediate surgery for hemodynamic instability were excluded. Of the 539 (64% of all BST) hemodynamically stable patients who underwent NOM, 104 (19%) underwent AE and 435 (81%) were observed without AE (NO-AE). FNOM for the various groups were as follows: overall NOM (4%), NO-AE (4%), and AE (4%). There was no significant difference in FNOM for NO-AE versus AE for grades I to III: grade I (1% vs. 0%, p = 1), grade II (2% vs. 0%, p = 0.318), and grade III (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.562); however, a significant decrease in FNOM was noted with the addition of AE for grades IV to V: grade IV (23% vs. 3%, p = 0.04) and grade V (63% vs. 9%, p = 0.03). Statistically significant independent risk factors for FNOM were grade IV to V injuries and CB. Application of strictly defined selection criteria for NOM and AE in patients with BST resulted in one of the lowest overall FNOM rates (4%). Hemodynamically stable BST patients are candidates for NOM with selective AE for high-risk patients with grade IV to V injuries, CB on initial computed tomography, and/or decreasing hemoglobin levels. III, therapeutic study.
Cantley, Linda F; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Slade, Martin D; Galusha, Deron; Cullen, Mark R
To examine associations between workplace injury and musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk and expert ratings of job-level psychosocial demand and job control, adjusting for job-level physical demand. Among a cohort of 9260 aluminium manufacturing workers in jobs for which expert ratings of job-level physical and psychological demand and control were obtained during the 2 years following rating obtainment, multivariate mixed effects models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) of minor injury and minor MSD, serious injury and MSD, minor MSD only and serious MSD only by tertile of demand and control, adjusting for physical demand as well as other recognised risk factors. Compared with workers in jobs rated as having low psychological demand, workers in jobs with high psychological demand had 49% greater risk of serious injury and serious MSD requiring medical treatment, work restrictions or lost work time (RR=1.49; 95% CI 1.10 to 2.01). Workers in jobs rated as having low control displayed increased risk for minor injury and minor MSD (RR=1.45; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.87) compared with those in jobs rated as having high control. Using expert ratings of job-level exposures, this study provides evidence that psychological job demand and job control contribute independently to injury and MSD risk in a blue-collar manufacturing cohort, and emphasises the importance of monitoring psychosocial workplace exposures in addition to physical workplace exposures to promote worker health and safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Sienas, Laura E; Hedriana, Herman L; Wiesner, Suzanne; Pelletreau, Barbara; Wilson, Machelle D; Shields, Laurence E
To evaluate whether a standardized approach to identify pregnant women at risk for shoulder dystocia (SD) is associated with reduced incidence of SD and brachial plexus injury (BPI). Between 2011 and 2015, prospective data were collected from 29 community-based hospitals in the USA during implementation of an evidence-based practice bundle, including an admission risk assessment, required "timeout" before operative vaginal delivery (OVD), and low-fidelity SD drills. All women with singleton vertex pregnancies admitted for vaginal delivery were included. Rates of SD, BPI, OVD, and cesarean delivery were compared between a baseline period (January 2011-September 2013) and an intervention period (October 2013-June 2015), during which there was a system-wide average bundle compliance of 90%. There was a significant reduction in the incidence of SD (17.6%; P=0.028), BPI (28.6%; P=0.018), and OVD (18.0%; P<0.001) after implementation of the evidence-based practice bundle. There was a nonsignificant reduction in primary (P=0.823) and total (P=0.396) cesarean rates, but no association between SD drills and incidence of BPI. Implementation of a standard evidence-based practice bundle was found to be associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of SD and BPI. Utilization of low-fidelity drills was not associated with a reduction in BPI. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Dalton, Sara L; Roos, Karen G; Djoko, Aristarque; Phelps, Jennifer; Dompier, Thomas P
In Indiana, high school football coaches are required to complete a coaching education course with material related to concussion awareness, equipment fitting, heat emergency preparedness, and proper technique. Some high schools have also opted to implement a player safety coach (PSC). The PSC, an integral component of USA Football's Heads Up Football (HUF) program, is a coach whose primary responsibility is to ensure that other coaches are implementing proper tackling and blocking techniques alongside other components of the HUF program. To compare injury rates in Indiana high school football teams by their usage of a PSC or online coaching education only. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Athletic trainers (ATs) evaluated and tracked injuries at each practice and game during the 2015 high school football season. Players were drawn from 6 teams in Indiana. The PSC group, which used the PSC component, was comprised of 204 players from 3 teams. The "education only" group (EDU), which utilized coaching education only, was composed of 186 players from 3 teams. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 25,938 athlete-exposures (AEs), a total of 149 injuries were reported, of which 54 (36.2%) and 95 (63.8%) originated from the PSC and EDU groups, respectively. The practice injury rate was lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (2.99 vs 4.83/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.95). The game injury rate was also lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (11.37 vs 26.37/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.74). When restricted to concussions only, the rate was lower in the PSC group (0.09 vs 0.73/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.01-0.94), although only 1 concussion was reported in the PSC group. No differences were found in game concussion rates (0.60 vs 4.39/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-1.11). Findings support the PSC as an effective method of injury mitigation in high school football. Future research
Yan, Jing; Zhu, Cui-zhen; Situ, Ming-jing; DU, Na; Huang, Yi
To understand the prevalence and risk factors of non-suicidal self-injury in middle school students. 1312 middle school students of Pengzhou and Santai were selected to fill in a Risky Behavior Questionnaire for Adolescence (RBQ-A), Family Environment Scale (FES), Center for Epidemiological Survey, Depression Scale (CES-D), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), Social Support Scale for Adolescents (SSSA) and self-administered questionnaire. In all the research subjects, 1288 were qualified for the study in April 2011 before the risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury were identified by logistic regression. In 1288 middle school students, 22.67% had a history of non-suicidal self-injury, with 22.70% in boys and 22.64% in girls. 63.36% of students had injured themselves through variously ways, more seen in boys (26.88%) than in girls (11.36%) who cut or burnt themselves. The scores of ASLEC and CES-D in non-suicidal self-injury group appeared higher than that in the control group and the score of SSSA was found higher in the control group. The main risk factors for non-suicidal self-injuries were family conflict, depressive emotion, negative life events and receiving less social support. The prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury among middle school students in Pengzhou was high, which called for more attention.
Ali, Huda Juma'a; Zangana, Jwan M. Sabir
Background and Objectives: Episiotomy is a surgical incision done during the last stages of labor and delivery to expand the opening of the vagina to prevent tearing of the perineum during the delivery of the baby. The objectives of this study are to estimate episiotomy and perineal injury rate, indication for episiotomy and their association with…
Objective. To determine the frequency and nature of injuries sustained by the 416 players from 16 countries participating in the 1995 Rugby World Cup played in South Africa in May/June 1995. Methods. The study was a prospective analysis of all injuries requiring medical attention during that competition. Data were ...
Objective. To determine the frequency and nature of injuries sustained by the 416 players from 16 countries participating in the 1995 Rugby World Cup played in South. Africa in May/June 1995. Methods. The study was a prospective analysis of all injuries requiring medical attention during that competition. Data were ...
Møller, M; Nielsen, R O; Attermann, J; Wedderkopp, N; Lind, M; Sørensen, H; Myklebust, G
Knowledge of injury patterns, an essential step towards injury prevention, is lacking in youth handball. To investigate if an increase in handball load is associated with increased shoulder injury rates compared with a minor increase or decrease, and if an association is influenced by scapular control, isometric shoulder strength or glenohumeral range of motion (ROM). 679 players (14-18 years) provided weekly reports on shoulder injury and handball load (training and competition hours) over 31 weeks using the SMS, phone and medical examination system. Handball load in a given week was categorised into (1) 60% relative to the weekly average amount of handball load the preceding 4 weeks. Assessment of shoulder isometric rotational and abduction strength, ROM and scapular control was performed at baseline and midseason. An increase in handball load by >60% was associated with greater shoulder injury rate (HR 1.91; 95% CI 1.00 to 3.70, p=0.05) compared with the reference group. The effect of an increase in handball load between 20% and 60% was exacerbated among players with reduced external rotational strength (HR 4.0; 95% CI 1.1 to 15.2, p=0.04) or scapular dyskinesis (HR 4.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 18.3, p=0.02). Reduced external rotational strength exacerbated the effect of an increase above 60% (HR 4.2; 95% CI 1.4 to 12.8, p=0.01). A large increase in weekly handball load increases the shoulder injury rate in elite youth handball players; particularly, in the presence of reduced external rotational strength or scapular dyskinesis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
12 h without increasing the likelihood of wound infection, and that antibiotics should be ... 2 Martin Singer Hand Unit, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa ... fractures and 21 peripheral nerve injuries. Results. .... open fractures.
Moran, Sebastian; Booker, Harry; Staines, Jacob; Williams, Sean
BACKGROUNDː CrossFit is a strength and conditioning programme that has gained widespread popularity since its inception approximately 15 years ago. However, at present little is known about the level of injury risk associated with this form of training. Movement competency, assessed using the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), has been identified as a risk factor for injury in numerous athletic populations, but its role in CrossFit participants is currently unclear. The aim of this study was t...
Simovic, M.; Stanimirovic, D.; Ivanovic, L.; Markovic, M.; Letic-Gavrilovic, A.; Jovic, P.; Savic, J.; Spasic, M.; Saicic, Z.S.
Until the Chernobyl nuclear plant catastrophe, exposure to radiation combined with other forms of injuries was usually considered as a hazard of nuclear war. The effect of combined irradiation injuries are often defined as the simultaneous effect of irradiation and another noxious stimulus. In the authors' opinion (1) one may talk about combined irradiation injuries (CII) only in the case when the general response of an organism to traumatization is the combination of biological reactions to at least two different etiologic noxious stimuli of which one is irradiation. One of the basic problems of combined injuries in general and CII in particular, is the syndrome of mutual aggravation (SMA) expressed through a very high (potentiated) lethality. The real mechanism(s) of this syndrome is still unknown. In our model of combined irradiation injury, potentiation of irradiation effect was smaller if animals were irradiated in the hypometabolic (open-quotes ebbclose quotes) compared to the hypermetabolic (open-quotes flowclose quotes) phase after thermal injury. Since the oxygen uptake is greater in the hypermetabolic phase the free radical production is also greater. On the other hand, the transition of hypometabolic to hypermetabolic phase could be analogous to a hypoxia/reoxygenation state. According to Granger et al. this state induces an increase in free radical production. When irradiation injury follows scalding it induces a new flux of free radicals. As a result the antioxidative defense of an organism could be overwhelmed and a disturbance of oxidative-antioxidative processes might occur. Thus, the authors suppose that overwhelmed antioxidative defense could be the reason for potentiated lethality in combined irradiation injury. 12 refs., 2 tabs
Nightingale, Tom E; Gorgey, Ashraf S
To assess the accuracy of existing basal metabolic rate (BMR) prediction equations in men with chronic (>1 year) spinal cord injury (SCI). The primary aim is to develop new SCI population-specific BMR prediction models, based on anthropometric, body composition and/or demographic variables that are strongly associated with BMR. Thirty men with chronic SCI (Paraplegic; n = 21, Tetraplegic; n = 9), aged 35 ± 11 years (mean ± SD) participated in this cross-sectional study. Criterion BMR values were measured by indirect calorimetry. Body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; DXA) and anthropometric measurements (circumferences and diameters) were also taken. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop new SCI-specific BMR prediction models. Criterion BMR values were compared to values estimated from six existing and four developed prediction equations RESULTS: Existing equations that use information on stature, weight and/or age, significantly (P BMR by a mean of 14-17% (187-234 kcal/day). Equations that utilised fat-free mass (FFM) accurately predicted BMR. The development of new SCI-specific prediction models demonstrated that the addition of anthropometric variables (weight, height and calf circumference) to FFM (Model 3; r = 0.77), explained 8% more of the variance in BMR than FFM alone (Model 1; r = 0.69). Using anthropometric variables, without FFM, explained less of the variance in BMR (Model 4; r = 0.57). However, all the developed prediction models demonstrated acceptable mean absolute error ≤ 6%. BMR can be more accurately estimated when DXA derived FFM is incorporated into prediction equations. Utilising anthropometric measurements provides a promising alternative to improve the prediction of BMR, beyond that achieved by existing equations in persons with SCI.
Rezaei, Satar; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Zandian, Hamed; Fathi, Afshin; Nouri, Bijan
The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide a precise estimate of the period prevalence of needlestick injuries (NSI) among nurses working in hospitals in Iran and the reporting rate of NSI to nurse managers. We searched both international (PubMed, Scopus and the Institute for Scientific Information) and Iranian (Scientific Information Database, Iranmedex and Magiran) scientific databases to find studies published from 2000 to 2016 of NSI among Iranian nurses. The following keywords in Persian and English were used: "needle-stick" or "needle stick" or "needlestick," with and without "injury" or "injuries," "prevalence" or "frequency," "nurses" or "nursing staff," and "Iran." In a sample of 21 articles with 6,480 participants, we estimated that the overall 1-year period prevalence of NSI was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35-53%) among Iranian nurses. The overall 1-year period prevalence of reporting NSI to nurse managers was 42% (95% CI, 33-52%). In meta-regression analysis, sample size, mean age, years of experience, and gender ratio were not associated with prevalence of NSI or reporting rate. The year of data collection was positively associated with period prevalence of NSI (p managers. Results indicated a high NSI period prevalence and low NSI reporting rate among nurses in Iran. Thus, effective interventions are required in hospitals in Iran to reduce the prevalence and increase the reporting rate of NSI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Miller, Preston R; Chang, Michael C; Hoth, J Jason; Mowery, Nathan T; Hildreth, Amy N; Martin, R Shayn; Holmes, James H; Meredith, J Wayne; Requarth, Jay A
Nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt splenic injury is well accepted. Substantial failure rates in higher injury grades remain common, with one large study reporting rates of 19.6%, 33.3%, and 75% for grades III, IV, and V, respectively. Retrospective data show angiography and embolization can increase salvage rates in these severe injuries. We developed a protocol requiring referral of all blunt splenic injuries, grades III to V, without indication for immediate operation for angiography and embolization. We hypothesized that angiography and embolization of high-grade blunt splenic injury would reduce NOM failure rates in this population. This was a prospective study at our Level I trauma center as part of a performance-improvement project. Demographics, injury characteristics, and outcomes were compared with historic controls. The protocol required all stable patients with grade III to V splenic injuries be referred for angiography and embolization. In historic controls, referral was based on surgeon preference. From January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2012, there were 168 patients with grades III to V spleen injuries admitted; NOM was undertaken in 113 (67%) patients. The protocol was followed in 97 patients, with a failure rate of 5%. Failure rate in the 16 protocol deviations was 25% (p = 0.02). Historic controls from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 were compared with the protocol group. One hundred and fifty-three patients with grade III to V injuries were admitted during this period, 80 (52%) patients underwent attempted NOM. Failure rate was significantly higher than for the protocol group (15%, p = 0.04). Use of a protocol requiring angiography and embolization for all high-grade spleen injuries slated for NOM leads to a significantly decreased failure rate. We recommend angiography and embolization as an adjunct to NOM for all grade III to V splenic injuries. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tremoleda, Jordi L.; Alvarez, Karl; Aden, Abdirahman; Donnan, Robert; Michael-Titus, Adina T.; Tomlins, Peter H.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in direct vascular disruption, triggering edema, and reduction in cerebral blood flow. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of brain microcirculation following TBI is important for the development of effective therapies. Optical coherence angiography (OCA) is a promising tool for evaluating TBI in rodent models. We develop an approach to OCA that uses the heart-rate frequency to discriminate between static tissue and vasculature. This method operates on intensity data and is therefore not phase sensitive. Furthermore, it does not require spatial overlap of voxels and thus can be applied to pre-existing datasets for which oversampling may not have been explicitly considered. Heart-rate sensitive OCA was developed for dynamic assessment of mouse microvasculature post-TBI. Results show changes occurring at 5-min intervals within the first 50 min of injury.
Williams, Sean; Booton, Thomas; Watson, Matthew; Rowland, Daniel; Altini, Marco
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a popular tool for monitoring training adaptation and readiness in athletes, but it also has the potential to indicate early signs of somatic tissue overload prior to the onset of pain or fully developed injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between HRV, workloads, and risk of overuse problems in competitive CrossFit™ athletes. Daily resting HRV and workloads (duration × session-RPE) were recorded in six competitive CrossFi...
Wesam Saleh A Al Attar
Trial registration: ACTRN12615001206516. [Al Attar WSA, Soomro N, Pappas E, Sinclair PJ, Sanders RH (2017 Adding a post-training FIFA 11+ exercise program to the pre-training FIFA 11+ injury prevention program reduces injury rates among male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 235–242
Sioutis, D; Thakar, R; Sultan, A H
To determine the accuracy of clinical diagnosis of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) using three-dimensional (3D) endoanal ultrasound (EA-US) and to compare symptoms and anal manometry measurements between women with anal sphincters adequately repaired and those with persistent anal sphincter defects. The EA-US images of women with clinically diagnosed and repaired OASIS, defined as third- or fourth-degree perineal tear, who attended the perineal clinic at Croydon University Hospital over a 10-year period (2003-2013) were reanalyzed by a single expert blind to symptoms and the results of clinical examination. St Mark's Incontinence Scores (SMIS) and anal manometry measurements were obtained and compared between women with an intact anal sphincter and those with an anal sphincter scar and between those with an intact anal sphincter and those with a defect. Anal manometry measurements were compared between women with an external anal sphincter (EAS) defect and those with an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect. The images of 908 women were reanalyzed. No evidence of OASIS was found in 64 (7.0%) women, an EAS scar alone was detected in 520 (57.3%) and an anal sphincter defect in 324 (35.7%). Of the 324 women with a defect, 112 had an EAS defect, 90 had an IAS defect and 122 had a combined IAS and EAS defect. SMIS results were significantly higher in women with an anal sphincter defect compared with those with no evidence of OASIS (P = 0.018), but there was no significant difference in scores between women with an intact sphincter and those with an EAS scar only. Women with a defect had a significantly lower maximum resting pressure (median (range), 44 (8-106) vs 55 (29-86) mmHg; P 40) vs 25 (10-40) mm; P = 0.003). Seven percent of women with a clinical diagnosis of OASIS were wrongly diagnosed. We believe that this rate may differ from that of other units but training methods and competency assessment tools for the diagnosis and repair of OASIS need
Sveen, Unni; Andelic, Nada; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Røe, Cecilie
To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Patient Competency Rating Scale (PCRS) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 12 months post-injury. Demographic and injury-related data were registered upon admission to the hospital in 148 TBI patients with mild, moderate, or severe TBI. At 12 months post-injury, competency in activities and global functioning were measured using the PCRS patient version and the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE). Descriptive reliability statistics, factor analysis and Rasch modeling were applied to explore the psychometric properties of the PCRS. External validity was evaluated using the GOSE. The PCRS can be divided into three subscales that reflect interpersonal/emotional, cognitive, and activities of daily living competency. The three-factor solution explained 56.6% of the variance in functioning. The internal consistency was very good, with a Cronbach's α of 0.95. Item 30, "controlling my laughter", did not load above 0.40 on any factors and did not fit the Rasch model. The external validity of the subscales was acceptable, with correlations between 0.50 and 0.52 with the GOSE. The Norwegian version of the PCRS is reliable, has an acceptable construct and external validity, and can be recommended for use during the later phases of TBI.
Fowler, Peter; Duffield, Rob; Waterson, Adam; Vaile, Joanna
The current study examined the acute and longitudinal effects of regular away travel on training load (TL), player wellness, and injury surrounding competitive football (soccer) matches. Eighteen male professional football players, representing a team competing in the highest national competition in Australia, volunteered to participate in the study. Training loads, player wellness and injury incidence, rate, severity, and type, together with the activity at the time of injury, were recorded on the day before, the day of, and for 4 d after each of the 27 matches of the 2012-13 season. This included 14 home and 13 away matches, further subdivided based on the midpoint of the season into early (1-13) and late competition (14-27) phases. While TLs were significantly greater on day 3 at home compared with away during the early competition phase (P=.03), no other significant effects of match location were identified (P>.05). Total TL and mean wellness over the 6 d surrounding matches and TL on day 3 were significantly reduced during the late compared with the early competition phase at home and away (P.05), training missed due to injury was 60% and 50% greater during the late than during the early competition phase at home and away, respectively. In conclusion, no significant interactions between match location and competition phase were evident during the late competition phase, which suggests that away travel had negligible cumulative effects on the reduction in player wellness in the latter half of the season.
Full Text Available The effect of large vehicle involvement on motor vehicle crash (MVC rates and severity has long been a concern in MVC analysis literature. Injuries in drivers and occupants are related to several key factors: the mass of the case vehicle and mass of its collision partner and speed of case vehicle and collision partner at the time of the crash. Objective: To evaluate the relative risk of injury occurrence in collisions between picks up trucks (PU and passenger sedan cars (PS. Methods: Data from the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC crash data base was used to determine MVC rates and injury occurrence. Descriptive characteristics of the injury location and injury type were analyzed comparing the Odds Ratios and chi-squares. Results: PS occupants received more injuries; Odds Ratio was 2.49 (95% confidence interval: 2.15–2.88. Conclusion: Occupants in PS which collide with PU were at twice the risk of injuries. Concussion, whiplash, lacerations and abrasion were more frequent in PS drivers and occupants than in PU drivers and occupants. Overall, PS drivers/occupants experienced greater injuries than PU drivers/occupants in PU-PS collisions. In this paper, results are shown as odds ratios comparing occupants injuries in PS (case group with occupant injuries in PU (control group.
Yamaguchi, Kyohei; Lear, Christopher A; Beacom, Michael J; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Gunn, Alistair J; Bennet, Laura
Fetal heart rate variability is a critical index of fetal wellbeing. Suppression of heart rate variability may provide prognostic information on the risk of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury after birth. In the present study, we report the evolution of fetal heart rate variability after both mild and severe hypoxia-ischaemia. Both mild and severe hypoxia-ischaemia were associated with an initial, brief suppression of multiple measures of heart rate variability. This was followed by normal or increased levels of heart rate variability during the latent phase of injury. Severe hypoxia-ischaemia was subsequently associated with the prolonged suppression of measures of heart rate variability during the secondary phase of injury, which is the period of time when brain injury is no longer treatable. These findings suggest that a biphasic pattern of heart rate variability may be an early marker of brain injury when treatment or intervention is probably most effective. Hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) is a major contributor to preterm brain injury, although there are currently no reliable biomarkers for identifying infants who are at risk. We tested the hypothesis that fetal heart rate (FHR) and FHR variability (FHRV) would identify evolving brain injury after HI. Fetal sheep at 0.7 of gestation were subjected to either 15 (n = 10) or 25 min (n = 17) of complete umbilical cord occlusion or sham occlusion (n = 12). FHR and four measures of FHRV [short-term variation, long-term variation, standard deviation of normal to normal R-R intervals (SDNN), root mean square of successive differences) were assessed until 72 h after HI. All measures of FHRV were suppressed for the first 3-4 h in the 15 min group and 1-2 h in the 25 min group. Measures of FHRV recovered to control levels by 4 h in the 15 min group, whereas the 25 min group showed tachycardia and an increase in short-term variation and SDNN from 4 to 6 h after occlusion. The measures of FHRV then progressively
van der Vlies, C. H.; Hoekstra, J.; Ponsen, K. J.; Reekers, J. A.; van Delden, O. M.; Goslings, J. C.
Introduction Nonoperative management (NOM) has become the treatment of choice for hemodynamically stable patients with blunt splenic injury. Results of outcome after NOM are predominantly based on large-volume studies from level 1 trauma centers in the United States. This study was designed to
Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.
Background. Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective. This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary
Butts, C Caleb; Rostas, Jack W; Lee, Y L; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Frotan, M Amin; Ahmed, Naveed; Simmons, Jon D
Since the introduction of all-terrain vehicles (ATV) to the United States in 1971, injuries and mortalities related to their use have increased significantly. Furthermore, these vehicles have become larger and more powerful. As there are no helmet requirements or limitations on engine-size in the State of Alabama, we hypothesised that larger engine size would correlate with an increased incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in patients following an ATV crash. Patient and ATV data were prospectively collected on all ATV crashes presenting to a level one trauma centre from September 2010 to May 2013. Collected data included: demographics, age of driver, ATV engine size, presence of helmet, injuries, and outcomes. The data were grouped according to the ATV engine size in cubic centimetres (cc). For the purposes of this study, TBI was defined as any type of intracranial haemorrhage on the initial computed tomography scan. There were 61 patients identified during the study period. Two patients (3%) were wearing a helmet at the time of injury. Patients on an ATV with an engine size of 350 cc or greater had higher Injury Severity Scores (13.9 vs. 7.5, p ≤ 0.05) and an increased incidence of TBI (26% vs. 0%, p ≤ 0.05) when compared to patients on ATV's with an engine size less than 350 cc. Patients on an ATV with an engine size of 350 cc or greater were more likely to have a TBI. The use of a helmet was rarely present in this cohort. Legislative efforts to implement rider protection laws for ATVs are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bahaa Eldin, Ahmed M; Abdelmaabud, Karim H; Laban, Mohamed; Hassanin, Alaa S; Tharwat, Ahmed A; Aly, Tarek R; Elbohoty, Ahmed E; Elsayed, Helmy M; Ibrahim, Ahmed M; Ibrahim, Mohammed E; Sabaa, Haitham M; Abdelrazik, Azza A; Abdelhady, Ibrahim
This study aimed to investigate the effect of endometrial injury using Pipelle catheter in the follicular phase (cycle day 5, 6, or 7) of the stimulation cycle on pregnancy rates in patients undergoing intrauterine insemination. This prospective randomized controlled study was carried out in the Assisted Reproductive Technology Unit of Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, from July 1, 2013 to August 31, 2015. Three hundred sixty women, 20 to 35 years of age, with patent fallopian tubes, mild male factor infertility, or unexplained infertility were recruited. Participants were allocated randomly into 2 groups: experimental arm and control arm. Women in the experimental arm underwent endometrial biopsy using a Pipelle catheter on day 5, 6, or 7 of the stimulation cycle combined with intrauterine insemination. Women in the control group underwent intrauterine insemination with no endometrial biopsy done. The primary outcomes were the clinical and chemical pregnancy rates. Data of 344 participants were statistically analyzed. The chemical pregnancy rate was 23.66% in the experimental arm and 10.85% in the control arm (P = .002). The clinical pregnancy rate was 18.93% in the experimental arm and 7.42% in the control arm (P = .003). Endometrial injury using a Pipelle catheter in the stimulation cycle may improve pregnancy rates in women undergoing intrauterine insemination. © The Author(s) 2016.
McGuine, Timothy A.; Bell, David; Brooks, Margaret Alison; Hetzel, Scott; Pfaller, Adam; Post, Eric
Objectives: Sport specialization has been shown to be associated with increased risk of musculoskeletal lower extremity injuries (LEI) in adolescent athletes presenting in clinical settings. However, the association of sport specialization and incidence of LEI has not been studied prospectively in a large population of adolescent athletes. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of LEI in high school athletes identified as having low (LOW), moderate (MOD) or high (HIGH) level...
Maged, Ahmed M; Rashwan, Hamsa; AbdelAziz, Suzy; Ramadan, Wafaa; Mostafa, Walaa A I; Metwally, Ahmed A; Katta, Maha
To assess whether endometrial injury in the cycle preceding controlled ovarian hyperstimulation during intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) improves the implantation and pregnancy rates. Between January 1, 2016, and March 31, 2017, a randomized controlled trial was conducted at a center in Egypt among 300 women who met inclusion criteria (first ICSI cycle, aged endometrial scratch in the cycle preceding controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (n=150) or to a control group (n=150). Only data analysts were masked to group assignment. The primary outcomes were the implantation and clinical pregnancy rates at 14 days and 4 weeks after embryo transfer, respectively. Analyses were by intention to treat. The implantation rate was significantly higher in the endometrial scratch group (41.3% [90/218]) than in the control group (30.0% [63/210]; Pendometrial scratch group (44.2% [61/138]) than in the control group (30.4% [41/135]; PEndometrial injury in the cycle preceding the stimulation cycle improved implantation and pregnancy rates during ICSI. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT02660125. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Goss, Donald Lee; Moore, Josef H; Slivka, Erin M; Hatler, Brian S
To compare lower-limb overuse injury and low back pain incidence among cadets with and without limb length inequality (LLI) over 1 year of military training and athletic participation. A total of 1,100 cadets were screened for LLIs; 126 of 1,100 were identified to have a LLI of > 0.5 cm and were assigned a matched control cadet. Injury rates, numbers of visits to sick call, and numbers of days spent on medical excusal during a 1-year period were then compared for the 252 cadets. There was no difference in prevalence of injury between the groups and no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the groups in injury rates, visits to sick call, or number of days spent on medical excusal. These findings do not support any increased incidence of injuries in a young, healthy, athletic, military population with mild LLIs, compared with matched control subjects without LLIs, over 1 year.
Capecci, Louis M; Jeremitsky, Elan; Smith, R Stephen; Philp, Frances
Nonoperative management (NOM) for blunt splenic injury (BSI) is well-established. Angiography (ANGIO) has been shown to improve success rates with NOM. Protocols for NOM are not standardized and vary widely between centers. We hypothesized that trauma centers that performed ANGIO at a greater rate would demonstrate decreased rates of splenectomy compared with trauma centers that used ANGIO less frequently. A large, multicenter, statewide database (Pennsylvania Trauma Systems Foundation) from 2007 to 2011 was used to generate the study cohort of patients with BSI (age ≥ 13). The cohort was divided into 2 populations based on admission to centers with high (≥13%) or low (Splenectomy rates were then compared between the 2 groups, and multivariable logistic regression for predictors of splenectomy (failed NOM) were also performed. The overall rate of splenectomy in the entire cohort was 21.0% (1,120 of 5,333 BSI patients). The high ANGIO group had a lesser rate of splenectoy compared with the low ANGIO group (19% vs 24%; P splenectomy compared with low ANGIO centers (odds ratio, 0.68; 95% CI 0.58-0.80; P splenectomy rates compared with centers with lesser rate of ANGIO. Inclusion of angiographic protocols for NOM of BSI should be considered strongly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pykhtin, Kirill; Simankina, Tatiana; Sharmanov, Vladimir; Kopytova, Anna
The danger of injuries and accidents in various industries such as transportation and construction urges the government to control the occupational health and safety more strictly. However, in order to do so with the minimal costs modern risk management tools, have to be implemented. Risk-based approach is an essential tool for competent risk- assessment and used in a great variety of other countries, demonstrating great results in providing of safe working environment. The article describes the problems that the implementation of the method faces in Russia and suggests certain ways to resolve them.
Sean Williams, Thomas Booton, Matthew Watson, Daniel Rowland, Marco Altini
Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV is a popular tool for monitoring training adaptation and readiness in athletes, but it also has the potential to indicate early signs of somatic tissue overload prior to the onset of pain or fully developed injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between HRV, workloads, and risk of overuse problems in competitive CrossFit™ athletes. Daily resting HRV and workloads (duration × session-RPE were recorded in six competitive CrossFit™ athletes across a 16 week period. The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire was distributed weekly by e-mail. Acute-to-chronic workload ratios (ACWR and the rolling 7-day average of the natural logarithm of the square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R–R intervals (Ln rMSSDweek were parsed into tertiles (low, moderate/normal, and high based on within-individual z-scores. The interaction between Ln rMSSDweek and ACWR on overuse injury risk in the subsequent week was assessed using a generalized linear mixed-effects model and magnitude-based inferences. The risk of overuse problems was substantially increased when a ‘low’ Ln rMSSDweek was seen in combination with a ‘high’ ACWR (relative risk [RR]: 2.61, 90% CI: 1.38 – 4.93. In contrast, high ACWRs were well-tolerated when Ln rMSSDweek remained ‘normal’ or was ‘high’. Monitoring HRV trends alongside workloads may provide useful information on an athlete’s emerging global pattern to loading. HRV monitoring may therefore be used by practitioners to adjust and individualise training load prescriptions, in order to minimise overuse injury risk.
Figler, Bradley D; Mack, Christopher D; Kaufman, Robert; Wessells, Hunter; Bulger, Eileen; Smith, Thomas G; Voelzke, Bryan
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) implemented side-impact crash testing on all new vehicles since 1998 to assess the likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injuries during a side-impact crash. Higher crash test rating is intended to indicate a safer car, but the real-world applicability of these ratings is unknown. Our objective was to determine the relationship between a vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating and the risk of major thoracoabdominal injury among the vehicle's occupants in real-world side-impact motor vehicle crashes. The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System contains detailed crash and injury data in a sample of major crashes in the United States. For model years 1998 to 2010 and crash years 1999 to 2010, 68,124 occupants were identified in the Crashworthiness Data System database. Because 47% of cases were missing crash severity (ΔV), multiple imputation was used to estimate the missing values. The primary predictor of interest was the occupant vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating, and the outcome of interest was the presence of major (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score ≥ 3) thoracoabdominal injury. In multivariate analysis, increasing NCAP crash test rating was associated with lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury at high (odds ratio [OR], 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-0.9; p NCAP side-impact crash test rating is associated with a lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal trauma. Epidemiologic study, level III.
Chao, Linda L
Although not a "signature injury" of Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm (i.e., Gulf War, GW), some GW veterans have a history traumatic brain injury (TBI). For example, a previous study found that 12.2% of the GW veterans from the Fort Devens Cohort Study had self-reported TBIs. The present study sought to build upon this finding by examining the relationship between TBI and chronic symptomatic illness in a different sample of GW veterans. Participants were 202 GW veterans recruited from 2014 to 2018 at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center as part of a VA-funded study on the effects of predicted exposure to low levels of sarin and cyclosarin on brain structure and function. The Ohio State University TBI identification method was used to determine lifetime history of TBI. The Kansas Gulf War Military History and Health Questionnaire was used to assess symptoms and to determine cases of Kansas Gulf War Illness (GWI) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Chronic Multisymptom Illness (CMI). Nearly half (47%) the sample had a history of TBI, but only 7% of the TBIs were sustained in injuries that occurred during the GW. Most of the TBIs were sustained in injuries that occurred prior to (73%) or after (34%) the GW. History of TBI was not associated with higher rates of symptomatic illness when it was narrowly defined (i.e., Kansas GWI cases or cases of severe CMI). History of TBI was only associated with higher rates of symptomatic illness when it is broadly defined (i.e., CDC CMI or mild-moderate CMI). There was suggestive evidence that veterans who sustained TBIs during the GW (only seven in the present sample) have poorer functional outcomes compared with GW veterans with non-GW related TBIs. While TBIs were uncommon during the GW, many GW veterans sustained TBIs prior or after the GW. Because TBI and GWI/CMI share some overlapping symptoms, history of TBI may appear to be associated with increased rates of chronic symptomatic illness in
Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Jajtner, Adam R; Scanlon, Tyler; Rogowski, Joseph P; Wells, Adam J; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R
Professional basketball players have demanding schedules that, in combination with certain underlying physical characteristics and side-to-side strength and power imbalances, may make them vulnerable to lower extremity injuries. To examine the relationship among skeletal muscle architecture, lower body power, and games missed because of lower extremity injury (%MISS) in professional basketball players. Cross-sectional study. Setting : Human Performance Laboratory. Nine players under contract for Orlando Magic were assessed. We compared athletes who were injured (n = 4, height = 203.2 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 105 ± 7.5 kg, age = 25.0 ± 2.8 years) and those who remained healthy (n = 5, height = 200.2 ± 12.2 cm, mass = 100.1 ± 16.6 kg, age = 22.4 ± 1.9 years) during the season. Bilateral ultrasonographic measurements of muscle thickness, pennation angle, echo intensity, and cross-sectional area of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis were collected before regular-season play. Subsequently, muscle thickness and pennation angle were used to compute fascicle length. Along with unilateral jumping power, inferences were made upon the magnitude of the relationship between the percentage bilateral difference in these measures and %MISS, as well as between injured and healthy athletes. The data indicated likely relationships between %MISS and age (r = 0.772), and between %MISS and bilateral differences in rectus femoris cross-sectional area (7.8% ± 6.4%; r = 0.657) and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (6.2% ± 4.8%; r = 0.521), as well as a possible relationship with vastus lateralis muscle thickness (7.9% ± 8.9%; r = 0.444). Echo-intensity differences in the vastus lateralis were greater in injured (8.0% ± 2.4%) versus healthy athletes (3.2% ± 2.0%). Although a 2-fold difference in mean jumping power was observed between injured (26.3 ± 14.9 W) and healthy athletes (13.6 ± 8.7 W), these differences were not statistically significant (P = .20). In the present
Mangine, Gerald T.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Scanlon, Tyler; Rogowski, Joseph P.; Wells, Adam J.; Fragala, Maren S.; Stout, Jeffrey R.
Context Professional basketball players have demanding schedules that, in combination with certain underlying physical characteristics and side-to-side strength and power imbalances, may make them vulnerable to lower extremity injuries. Objective To examine the relationship among skeletal muscle architecture, lower body power, and games missed because of lower extremity injury (%MISS) in professional basketball players. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Human Performance Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Nine players under contract for Orlando Magic were assessed. We compared athletes who were injured (n = 4, height = 203.2 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 105 ± 7.5 kg, age = 25.0 ± 2.8 years) and those who remained healthy (n = 5, height = 200.2 ± 12.2 cm, mass = 100.1 ± 16.6 kg, age = 22.4 ± 1.9 years) during the season. Main Outcome Measure(s) Bilateral ultrasonographic measurements of muscle thickness, pennation angle, echo intensity, and cross-sectional area of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis were collected before regular-season play. Subsequently, muscle thickness and pennation angle were used to compute fascicle length. Along with unilateral jumping power, inferences were made upon the magnitude of the relationship between the percentage bilateral difference in these measures and %MISS, as well as between injured and healthy athletes. Results The data indicated likely relationships between %MISS and age (r = 0.772), and between %MISS and bilateral differences in rectus femoris cross-sectional area (7.8% ± 6.4%; r = 0.657) and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (6.2% ± 4.8%; r = 0.521), as well as a possible relationship with vastus lateralis muscle thickness (7.9% ± 8.9%; r = 0.444). Echo-intensity differences in the vastus lateralis were greater in injured (8.0% ± 2.4%) versus healthy athletes (3.2% ± 2.0%). Although a 2-fold difference in mean jumping power was observed between injured (26.3 ± 14.9 W) and healthy athletes (13.6 ± 8.7 W
Folan, Jean M.
At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.
Sima, Carmen A; Lau, Benny C; Taylor, Carolyn M; van Eeden, Stephan F; Reid, W Darlene; Sheel, Andrew W; Kirkham, Ashley R; Camp, Pat G
Myocardial infarction (MI) remains under-recognized in chronic lung disease (CLD) patients. Rehabilitation health professionals need accessible clinical measurements to identify the presence of prior MI in order to determine appropriate training prescription. To estimate prior MI in CLD patients entering a pulmonary rehabilitation program, as well as its association with heart rate parameters such as resting heart rate and chronotropic response index. Retrospective cohort design. Pulmonary rehabilitation outpatient clinic in a tertiary care university-affiliated hospital. Eighty-five CLD patients were studied. Electrocardiograms at rest and peak cardiopulmonary exercise testing, performed before pulmonary rehabilitation, were analyzed. Electrocardiographic evidence of prior MI, quantified by the Cardiac Infarction Injury Score (CIIS), was contrasted with reported myocardial events and then correlated with resting heart rate and chronotropic response index parameters. CIIS, resting heart rate, and chronotropic response index. Sixteen CLD patients (19%) demonstrated electrocardiographic evidence of prior MI, but less than half (8%) had a reported MI history (P CLD patients with a resting heart rate higher than 80 beats/min had approximately 5 times higher odds of having prior MI, as evidenced by a CIIS ≥20. CLD patients entering pulmonary rehabilitation are at risk of unreported prior MI. Elevated resting heart rate seems to be an indicator of prior MI in CLD patients; therefore, careful adjustment of training intensity such as intermittent training is recommended under these circumstances. III. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rubio-Romero, J C; Suárez-Cebador, M; Abad, Jesús
It is often predicted that the industrialization of building activities will lead to a reduction of accident rates in the construction sector, particularly as a result of switching activities from building sites to factories. However, to date no scientific research has provided objective quantitative results to back up this claim. The aim of this paper is to evaluate how industrialization affects the accident rate in different industrialized building systems in Spain. Our results revealed that the industrialized steel modular system presents the lowest accident rate, while the highest accident rate was recorded in the construction method with cast-in-place concrete. The lightweight construction system also presents a high accident rate. Accordingly, industrialized building systems cannot claim to be safer than traditional ones. The different types of "on-site work" seem to be the main variable which would explain the accident rates recorded in industrialized construction systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, Sean; Booton, Thomas; Watson, Matthew; Rowland, Daniel; Altini, Marco
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a popular tool for monitoring training adaptation and readiness in athletes, but it also has the potential to indicate early signs of somatic tissue overload prior to the onset of pain or fully developed injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between HRV, workloads, and risk of overuse problems in competitive CrossFit™ athletes. Daily resting HRV and workloads (duration × session-RPE) were recorded in six competitive CrossFit™ athletes across a 16 week period. The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire was distributed weekly by e-mail. Acute-to-chronic workload ratios (ACWR) and the rolling 7-day average of the natural logarithm of the square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R–R intervals (Ln rMSSDweek) were parsed into tertiles (low, moderate/normal, and high) based on within-individual z-scores. The interaction between Ln rMSSDweek and ACWR on overuse injury risk in the subsequent week was assessed using a generalized linear mixed-effects model and magnitude-based inferences. The risk of overuse problems was substantially increased when a ‘low’ Ln rMSSDweek was seen in combination with a ‘high’ ACWR (relative risk [RR]: 2.61, 90% CI: 1.38 – 4.93). In contrast, high ACWRs were well-tolerated when Ln rMSSDweek remained ‘normal’ or was ‘high’. Monitoring HRV trends alongside workloads may provide useful information on an athlete’s emerging global pattern to loading. HRV monitoring may therefore be used by practitioners to adjust and individualise training load prescriptions, in order to minimise overuse injury risk. Key points Reductions in HRV concurrent with workload spikes were associated with an increased risk of developing overuse problems. High workloads were well-tolerated when HRV trends remained ‘normal’ or ‘high’. HRV monitoring may therefore be used by practitioners to adjust and individualise training
Gluck, J V; Oleinick, A
A retrospective cohort study of Michigan workers' compensation cases involving back injuries in 1986 and 1987 with incidence and outcome data. To determine claim rates by age, gender, and industry or occupation for compensable back injuries and to investigate the relation between occupation and return to work. The cohort of 24,094 Michigan workers' compensation cases from 1986 and 1987 in which claimants were compensated for back injuries was reviewed. Compensation eligibility requires more than 7 days' disability after injury. Claim rates for back injuries by age, gender, and industry or occupation using employment data interpolated from 1980 and 1990 Census 1% Public Use Microdata Samples. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed for return to work in the first 8 weeks after injury, with occupation coded at the three-digit level. All-age claim rates for Michigan compensable back injuries by occupation ranged between 0.03% and 1.7% annually (0.39% for all cases) and were generally higher in women in white collar occupations and in men in blue collar occupations. The claim rate peaked in men in the 25-34 year range, with the highest rates in manual labor occupations. The peak claim rates by age were less marked in women, tending to occur broadly throughout the 25-44-year range. Similar all-age values were recorded by industry. The male-to-female risk ratio over all occupations does not vary by age and is approximately 1.4:1. As the classification of occupation became more detailed, large differences in risk were documented within major occupation groups. The highest risk in this study was approximately 6% annually for 25-44 year old men in driver-sales (beverage truck drivers and delivery workers). Only 7 of 40 occupation categories showed a significant relative hazard for return to work in the first 8 weeks after injury, and these were blue collar occupations with earlier return than the reference sales category. For Michigan compensable back injuries, a
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fall prevention programs for hospitalized patients have had limited success, and the effect of programs on decreasing total falls and fall-related injuries is still inconclusive. This exploratory multi-hospital study examined the unique contribution of call light response time to predicting total fall rates and injurious fall rates in inpatient acute care settings. The conceptual model was based on Donabedian's framework of structure, process, and health-care outcomes. The covariates included the hospital, unit type, total nursing hours per patient-day (HPPDs, percentage of the total nursing HPPDs supplied by registered nurses, percentage of patients aged 65 years or older, average case mix index, percentage of patients with altered mental status, percentage of patients with hearing problems, and call light use rate per patient-day. Methods We analyzed data from 28 units from 4 Michigan hospitals, using archived data and chart reviews from January 2004 to May 2009. The patient care unit-month, defined as data aggregated by month for each patient care unit, was the unit of analysis (N = 1063. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used. Results Faster call light response time was associated with lower total fall and injurious fall rates. Units with a higher call light use rate had lower total fall and injurious fall rates. A higher percentage of productive nursing hours provided by registered nurses was associated with lower total fall and injurious fall rates. A higher percentage of patients with altered mental status was associated with a higher total fall rate but not a higher injurious fall rate. Units with a higher percentage of patients aged 65 years or older had lower injurious fall rates. Conclusions Faster call light response time appeared to contribute to lower total fall and injurious fall rates, after controlling for the covariates. For practical relevance, hospital and nursing executives should consider
Data for correlation between the reciprocal translocations (RT) yield in rat germ cells and the doses of 0.5 - 3.0 Gy are presented. A 60 Co source has been used with dose rates of 0.25, 8 x 10 -2 and 7 x 10 -3 Gy/min. The results from the cytogenetic analysis made 6 months after irradiation have shown an increase of the yield with the increase of the dose, which can be described as a linear unthreshold dependence. The dose rate effect is expressed in decrease of mutation frequency. The comparison with earlier author's data from similar experiments for acute irradiation allows to determine the RBE of gamma irradiation at the three dose rates investigated as 0.6, 0.2 and 0.1 respectively. The reported results are connected with the problem of variety specificity of the dose rate effect. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 15 refs
Rubio Romero, Juan Carlos; Suárez Cebador, Manuel; Abad Puente, Jesús
It is often predicted that the industrialization of building activities will lead to a reduction of accident rates in the construction sector, particularly as a result of switching activities from building sites to factories. However, to date no scientific research has provided objective quantitative results to back up this claim. The aim of this paper is to evaluate how industrialization affects the accident rate in different industrialized building systems in Spain. Our results revealed tha...
Calys-Tagoe, Benedict N L; Clarke, Edith; Robins, Thomas; Basu, Niladri
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) represents one of the most hazardous work environments. While formalization of this sector has been suggested (e.g., Minamata Convention) as a means to improve working conditions, we are unaware of empirical evidence that supports this notion. This study aimed to compare sociodemographic profiles, work profiles, and injury rates among miners working in licensed versus un-licensed ASGM sites. In the Tarkwa mining region of Ghana, 404 small-scale miners were recruited in 2014 and interviewed regarding their occupational injury experiences over the preceding 10 years. Workers were drawn from 9 mining sites, of which 5 were licensed and 4 were not licensed. Sociodemographic characteristics of miners from the two groups were relatively similar. Those currently working in an un-licensed mine have spent more time in the ASGM sector than those currently working in a licensed mine (94 vs. 70 months). Miners working in an un-licensed site tended to experience more injury episodes (e.g., 26% vs. 8% had 3 or more injury events) and not use personal protective equipment during the time of an injury (92% indicated to not using vs. 73%) when compared to miners working in a licensed site. A total of 121 injury episodes were recorded for 2245 person years of ASGM work. The injury rate for those working in un-licensed mines was 5.9 per 100 person years (59 injuries in 995 person years) versus 5.0 (62 injuries in 1250 person-years) in the licensed mines. When focusing on the male miners, there was a significant difference in injury rates between those working in a licensed mine (4.2 per 100 person years) versus an un-licensed mine (6.1 per 100 person years). These findings advance our understanding of injuries amongst ASGM workers, and help identify important differences in socio-demographics, work profiles, and injury rates between miners working in a licensed versus and un-licensed site. The findings suggest that certain working
Benedict N. L. Calys-Tagoe
Full Text Available Abstract Background Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM represents one of the most hazardous work environments. While formalization of this sector has been suggested (e.g., Minamata Convention as a means to improve working conditions, we are unaware of empirical evidence that supports this notion. This study aimed to compare sociodemographic profiles, work profiles, and injury rates among miners working in licensed versus un-licensed ASGM sites. Methods In the Tarkwa mining region of Ghana, 404 small-scale miners were recruited in 2014 and interviewed regarding their occupational injury experiences over the preceding 10 years. Workers were drawn from 9 mining sites, of which 5 were licensed and 4 were not licensed. Results Sociodemographic characteristics of miners from the two groups were relatively similar. Those currently working in an un-licensed mine have spent more time in the ASGM sector than those currently working in a licensed mine (94 vs. 70 months. Miners working in an un-licensed site tended to experience more injury episodes (e.g., 26% vs. 8% had 3 or more injury events and not use personal protective equipment during the time of an injury (92% indicated to not using vs. 73% when compared to miners working in a licensed site. A total of 121 injury episodes were recorded for 2245 person years of ASGM work. The injury rate for those working in un-licensed mines was 5.9 per 100 person years (59 injuries in 995 person years versus 5.0 (62 injuries in 1250 person-years in the licensed mines. When focusing on the male miners, there was a significant difference in injury rates between those working in a licensed mine (4.2 per 100 person years versus an un-licensed mine (6.1 per 100 person years. Conclusions These findings advance our understanding of injuries amongst ASGM workers, and help identify important differences in socio-demographics, work profiles, and injury rates between miners working in a licensed versus and un
Armstrong, J Scott; Brewer, Michael J; Parker, Roy D; Adamczyk, J J
The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Distant), has been present in south Texas for several years but has more recently been documented as an economic threat to cultivated cotton, (Gossypium hirsutum L. Our studies over 2 yr (2009 and 2010) and two locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated feeding-injury of the verde plant bug to a range of cotton boll age classes defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis to the time of infesting) for first-position cotton bolls infested with the plant bugs. The most detrimental damage to younger cotton holls from verde plant bug feeding was boll abscission. Cotton bolls verde plant bug injured bolls compared with the controls up to 162 ACDD or a mean boll diameter 2.0 cm. Cotton seed weights were significantly reduced up to 179 ACDD or a boll diameter of 2.0 cm at Weslaco in 2009, and up to 317 ACDD or boll diameter 2.6 cm for Weslaco in 2010 when compared with the noninfested controls. Lint weight per cotton boll for infested and noninfested bolls was significantly reduced up to 262 ACDD or boll diameter 2.5 for Corpus Christi in 2010 and up to 288 ACCD or boll diameter 2.6 cm for Weslaco, TX, in 2010. Damage ratings (dependant variable) regressed against infested and noninfested seed-cotton weights showed that in every instance, the infested cotton bolls had a strong and significant relationship with damage ratings for all age classes of bolls. Damage ratings for the infested cotton bolls that did not abscise by harvest showed visual signs of verde plant bug feeding injury and the subsequent development ofboll rot; however, these two forms of injury causing lint and seed mass loss are hard to differentiate from open or boll-locked cotton bolls. Based on the results of both lint and seed loss over 2 yr and four studies cotton bolls should be protected up to approximately 300 ACDD or a boll diameter of 2.5 cm. This equilibrates to bolls that are 12-14 d of age dependent upon daily maximum
Rodríguez Martín, A; Novalbos Ruiz, J P; Costa Alonso, M J; Zafra Mezcua, J A
A study of the incidence and characteristics of biological accidents among infirmary students during their practicals at the hospital. A retrospective study carried out at five centres by means of two questionnaires, one on the duration of the training and the rate of accidents and the other on the characteristics, precautions and ports exposure behaviour. Out of 397 students, 70,5% had accidents at a rate of 64% (CI 95%, 59-68). Of these, 15% were accidents with biological risk, the majority being jabs (39%) and splashes (32,5%). It is worth note that 49,2% occurred while putting away the material and 58% in the absence of any individual protective measures. One out of 8 accidents implied a biological risk. A very high rate of accidents was observed with important deficiencies in security.
Kingma, J; ten Duis, HJ
This study is about the incidence rate of sports injuries in five different types of sports, gymnastics, soccer, volleyball, hockey, and basketball, for which 5,154 patients were admitted to the Emergency Unit of the Groningen University Hospital during the period 1990 through 1994. Incidence rate
Guilcher, Sara J T; Newman, Alice; Jaglal, Susan B
Previous qualitative and survey studies have suggested women with spinal cord injury (SCI) are screened less often for cervical cancer compared with the general population. We investigated whether cervical cancer screening rates differ between population-based women with and without traumatic SCI, matched for age and geography. A double cohort design was used, comparing women with SCI to the general population (1:4) using administrative data for Ontario, Canada. Women with SCI, identified using the Discharge Abstract Database for the fiscal years 1995-1996 to 2001-2002, were female residents of Ontario between the ages of 25 and 66, admitted to an acute care facility with a traumatic SCI (ICD-9 CM code 806 or 952). Women in the general Ontario population were randomly matched by age and geography. Screening rates were calculated from fee codes related to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear tests for a 3-year period preinjury and postinjury. There were 339 women with SCI matched to 1506 women in the general Ontario population. Screening rates pre-SCI were 55% for women with SCI and 57% during this same time period for matched women in the general population; post-SCI rates were 58% for both the two groups. Factors predicting the likelihood of receiving a Pap test for SCI cases included younger age and higher socioeconomic status. Utilization data suggest that there are no significant differences in screening rates for women with SCI compared with the general population. However, screening rates for women with SCI were significantly influenced by age as well as income.
Malec, James F
To determine the internal consistency, reliability and comparability of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) and sub-scales completed by people with acquired brain injury (ABI), family and significant others (SO) and rehabilitation staff. 134 people with ABI consecutively seen for outpatient rehabilitation evaluation. MPAI-4 protocols based on independent ratings by the people with ABI undergoing evaluation, SO and rehabilitation staff were submitted to Rasch Facets analysis to determine the internal consistency of the overall measure and sub-scales (Ability, Adjustment and Participation indices) for each rater group and for a composite measure based on all rater groups. Rater agreement for individual items was also examined. Rasch indicators of internal consistency were entirely within acceptable limits for 3-rater composite full scale and sub-scale measures; these indicators were generally within acceptable limits for measures based on a single rater group. Item agreement was generally acceptable; disagreements suggested various sources of bias for specific rater groups. The MPAI-4 possesses satisfactory internal consistency regardless of rating source. A composite measure based on ratings made independently by people with ABI, SO and staff may serve as a 'gold standard' for research purposes. In the clinical setting, assessment of varying perspectives and biases may not only best represent outcome as evaluated by all parties involved but be essential to developing effective rehabilitation plans.
Malec, J F; Moessner, A M; Kragness, M; Lezak, M D
Evaluate the psychometric properties of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI). Rating scale (Rasch) analysis of MPAI and principal component analysis of residuals; the predictive validity of the MPAI measures and raw scores was assessed in a sample from a day rehabilitation program. Outpatient brain injury rehabilitation. 305 persons with brain injury. A 22-item scale reflecting severity of sequelae of brain injury that contained a mix of indicators of impairment, activity, and participation was identified. Scores and measures for MPAI scales were strongly correlated and their predictive validities were comparable. Impairment, activity, and participation define a single dimension of brain injury sequelae. The MPAI shows promise as a measure of this construct.
Hashemzadeh, S H; Hashemzadeh, K H; Dehdilani, M; Rezaei, S
Over the past several years, non-operative management (NOM) has increasingly been recommended for the care of selected blunt abdominal solid organ injuries. No prospective study has evaluated the rate of NOM of blunt abdominal trauma in the northwest of Iran. The objective of our study was to evaluate the success rate of this kind of management in patients who do not require emergency surgery. This prospective study was carried out in Imam Khomeini Hospital (as a referral center of trauma) at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, between 20 March 2004 and 20 March 2007. All trauma patients who had suffered an injury to a solid abdominal organ (kidney, liver, or spleen) were selected for initial analysis, using the Student's t test or the c2 test. During the three years of the study, 98 patients (83 males and 15 females) with blunt trauma were selected to NOM for renal, hepatic and splenic injuries. Mean age was 26.1+/-17.7 years (range, 2 to 89) and mean injury severity score (ISS) was 14.5+/-7.4. The success rate of NOM was 93.8%. Fifty-one patients (43 males, 8 females; mean ISS, 14.2+/-5.8) underwent NOM of splenic trauma; 38 patients (33 males, 5 females; mean ISS, 12.9+/-8.2) hepatic trauma, and nine patients (7 males, 2 females; mean ISS, 22.2+/-7.6) renal trauma. Six patients underwent laparotomy due to the failure of NOM. The success rates of this treatment were 94.1%, 94.7% and 88.8% for the spleen, liver and kidney injuries, respectively. Age, female gender and ISS were significant predictors of the failure of NOM (Ptrauma. The study indicates that the rates of NOM vary in relation to the severity of the organ injury. This suggests trauma centers should use this approach.
Kerr, Zachary Y.; Dalton, Sara L.; Roos, Karen G.; Djoko, Aristarque; Phelps, Jennifer; Dompier, Thomas P.
Background: In Indiana, high school football coaches are required to complete a coaching education course with material related to concussion awareness, equipment fitting, heat emergency preparedness, and proper technique. Some high schools have also opted to implement a player safety coach (PSC). The PSC, an integral component of USA Football’s Heads Up Football (HUF) program, is a coach whose primary responsibility is to ensure that other coaches are implementing proper tackling and blocking techniques alongside other components of the HUF program. Purpose: To compare injury rates in Indiana high school football teams by their usage of a PSC or online coaching education only. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Athletic trainers (ATs) evaluated and tracked injuries at each practice and game during the 2015 high school football season. Players were drawn from 6 teams in Indiana. The PSC group, which used the PSC component, was comprised of 204 players from 3 teams. The “education only” group (EDU), which utilized coaching education only, was composed of 186 players from 3 teams. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: During 25,938 athlete-exposures (AEs), a total of 149 injuries were reported, of which 54 (36.2%) and 95 (63.8%) originated from the PSC and EDU groups, respectively. The practice injury rate was lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (2.99 vs 4.83/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.95). The game injury rate was also lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (11.37 vs 26.37/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.74). When restricted to concussions only, the rate was lower in the PSC group (0.09 vs 0.73/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.01-0.94), although only 1 concussion was reported in the PSC group. No differences were found in game concussion rates (0.60 vs 4.39/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-1.11). Conclusion: Findings support the PSC as an effective
Guidotti, Tee L; Deb, Pooja; Bertera, Robert; Ford, Lynda
The Fort McMurray Demonstration Project in Social Marketing attempted to achieve mutually reinforcing effects from thematically coordinated educational and awareness efforts in the community as a whole and in the workplace and the inclusion of occupational safety within the framework of a community health promotion project. The study community was Fort McMurray, a small, industrial city in northern Alberta. The Mistahiai Health Region, several hundred kilometers to the west and also dominated by one city, Grande Prairie, served as the reference community. The intervention was based on media and events staged at public events, with supporting educational activities in schools and the community. It relied heavily on community-based partners and volunteers. Data on healthcare utilization of selected preventable injuries were obtained from Alberta Health for the time period 1990-1996 for the Regional Health Authorities of Northern Lights, where the only large population centre is Fort McMurray, and Mistahia. Age-adjusted aggregate injury rates were analyzed for evidence of an effect of the intervention. Severity was measured by proxy, using the number of diagnostic claims submitted for reimbursement for medical services in a given year. The communities differed in age-specific injury rates, with Fort McMurray showing higher rates for residents aged less than 55. Young adults and older adolescents showed higher levels of severity. Injury rates fell substantially and at similar rates in both communities over the five-year period. However, in both communities injury rates were already falling before the intervention in Fort McMurray began and continued to fall at about the same rate, slowing toward the end of the period. No evidence was found for an effect of the Project or for acceleration of the reduction in injury frequency in the intervention area. Over the period, fewer medical services were delivered in office settings and more in emergency rooms, in both
BACKGROUND: The contribution of gastric acid to the toxicity of alkaline duodenal refluxate on the esophageal mucosa is unclear. This study compared the effect of duodenal refluxate when acid was present, decreased by proton pump inhibitors (PPI), or absent. METHODS: We randomized 136 Sprague-Dawley rats into 4 groups: group 1 (n = 33) were controls; group 2 (n = 34) underwent esophagoduodenostomy promoting "combined reflux"; group 3 (n = 34) underwent esophagoduodenostomy and PPI treatment to decrease acid reflux; and group 4, the \\'gastrectomy\\' group (n = 35) underwent esophagoduodenostomy and total gastrectomy to eliminate acid in the refluxate. Esophaguses were examined for inflammatory, Barrett\\'s, and other histologic changes, and expression of proliferative markers Ki-67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). RESULTS: In all reflux groups, the incidence of Barrett\\'s mucosa was greater when acid was suppressed (group C, 62%; group D, 71%) than when not suppressed (group B, 27%; P = 0.004 and P < .001). Erosions were more frequent in the PPI and gastrectomy groups than in the combined reflux group. Edema (wet weight) and ulceration was more frequent in the gastrectomy than in the combined reflux group. Acute inflammatory changes were infrequent in the PPI group (8%) compared with the combined reflux (94%) or gastrectomy (100%) groups, but chronic inflammation persisted in 100% of the PPI group. EGFR levels were greater in the PPI compared with the combined reflux group (P = .04). Ki-67, PCNA, and combined marker scores were greater in the gastrectomy compared with the combined reflux group (P = .006, P = .14, and P < .001). CONCLUSION: Gastric acid suppression in the presence of duodenal refluxate caused increased rates of inflammatory changes, intestinal metaplasia, and molecular proliferative activity. PPIs suppressed acute inflammatory changes only, whereas chronic inflammatory changes persisted.
Cameron, Kenneth L; Peck, Karen Y; Thompson, Brandon S; Svoboda, Steven J; Owens, Brett D; Marshall, Stephen W
Activity-related patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of assessment after knee ligament injury in young and physically active patients; however, normative data for most activity scales are limited. To present reference values by sex for the Marx Activity Rating Scale (MARS) within a young and physically active population while accounting for knee ligament injury history and sex. Cross-sectional study. Level 2. All incoming freshman entering a US Service Academy in June of 2011 were recruited to participate in this study. MARS was administered to 1169 incoming freshmen (203 women) who consented to participate within the first week of matriculation. All subjects were deemed healthy and medically fit for military service on admission. Subjects also completed a baseline questionnaire that asked for basic demographic information and injury history. We calculated means with standard deviations, medians with interquartile ranges, and percentiles for ordinal and continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions for dichotomous variables. We also compared median scores by sex and history of knee ligament injury using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MARS was the primary outcome of interest. The median MARS score was significantly higher for men when compared with women (χ(2) = 13.22, df = 1, P MARS scores between men and women (χ(2) = 0.47, df = 1, P = 0.493) who reported a history of injury. Overall, median MARS scores were significantly higher among those who reported a history of knee ligament injury when compared with those who did not (χ(2) = 9.06, df = 1, P = 0.003). Assessing activity as a patient-reported outcome after knee ligament injury is important, and reference values for these instruments need to account for the influence of prior injury and sex. © 2015 The Author(s).
Dongelmans, Dave A.; Paulus, Frederique; Veelo, Denise P.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Vroom, Margreeth B.; Schultz, Marcus J.
Background: With adaptive support ventilation, respiratory rate and tidal volume (V(T)) are a function of the Otis least work of breathing formula. We hypothesized that adaptive support ventilation in an open lung ventilator strategy would deliver higher V(T)s to patients with acute lung injury.
van der Vlies, Cornelis H.; Saltzherr, Teun P.; Wilde, Jim C. H.; van Delden, Otto M.; de Haan, Rob J.; Goslings, J. Carel
Purpose: Nonoperative management (NOM) is the treatment of choice for hemodymically stable pediatric patients with spleen or liver trauma. The aim of this study was to assess the failure rate of NOM in children with blunt liver and/or splenic injury when a contrast blush is present on a computed
In order to provide a detailed review of workplace health and safety, the Alberta Ministry of Human Resources and Employment prepares an annual report on the occupational injuries and diseases in the upstream oil and gas industries. The purpose of the report is to provide government, employers, workers, and health and safety professionals with information about key health and safety issues. This report presented estimations of the risk of injury or disease at the provincial, industry sector and subsector level as well as general descriptions about the incidents and injured workers. It also revealed the fatality rates for the major industry sectors as well as the occupational fatalities that the Workers Compensation Board (WCB) accepted for compensation. The number of employers that earned a certificate of recognition was also identified. The injury and disease analysis was discussed in terms of injured worker characteristics; nature of injury or disease; part of body injured; source of injury or disease; type of event or exposure; and duration of disability. The report also provided terms, definitions and formulas and upstream oil and gas WCB industry codes. It was found that in 2005, the WCB accepted 1,481 lost-time claims from upstream oil and gas workers, representing 4.2 per cent of all lost-time claims in the province. In addition, employers with 20 to 39 person-years had the highest lost-time claim rate of 2.4 per 100 person-years. tabs., figs., 2 appendices.
S. Tobler, N. Clemmons , and B.H. Jones. Injury reduction effectiveness of prescribing running shoes based on foot shape in basic combat training...race. JAMA. 261:49-55, 1989. 105. Maurice , E., A. Trosclair, R. Merritt, R. Caraballo, A. Malarcher, C. Husten, and T. Pechacek. Cigarette smoking
Deepika, Akhil; Devi, B Indira; Shukla, Dhaval
Most patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are discharged when they have still not recovered completely. Many such patients are not available for follow up. We conducted this study to determine whether the condition at discharge from acute care setting, as assessed with disability rating scale (DRS), correlates with functional outcome at follow up. This study was conducted at a Neurosurgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care referral center. This was a prospective observational study. Patients admitted to ICU with a diagnosis of severe TBI were enrolled for the study. On the day of discharge, all patients underwent DRS assessment. A final assessment was performed using Glasgow outcome scale extended (GOSE) at 6 months after discharge from the hospital. The correlation between the DRS scores at the time of discharge with DRS scores and GOSE categories at 6 months after discharge was determined using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient. A total of 88 patients were recruited for the study. The correlation coefficient of DRS at discharge for DRS at 6 months was 0.536 and for GOSE was -0.553. The area under the curve of DRS score at discharge for predicting unfavorable outcome and mortality at 6 months was 0.770 and 0.820, respectively. The predictive validity of DRS is fair to good in determining GOSE at follow-up. Pending availability of a more accurate outcome assessment tool, DRS at discharge can be used as a surrogate outcome for GOSE at follow up.
Full Text Available Background: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is commonly present in individuals with eating disorders (EDs and is often employed as a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy to avoid or abate negative emotions. One of the most prevalent negative emotions experienced by self-injurers is anxiety; however, this emotion has not been extensively studied in this population. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of anxiety on NSSI in patients with ED from two different dimensions: state anxiety and trait anxiety.Methods: The study comprised a total of 66 females: 12 ED patients with NSSI, 32 ED patients without a history of NSSI, and 22 healthy controls. State and trait anxiety were assessed by means of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S-T and physiological data [i.e., heart rate variability (HRV] were collected.Results: STAI-trait scores were significantly higher in ED patients with NSSI than ED patients without NSSI. Furthermore, when conducting logistic regression analyses higher STAI-trait scores were associated with NSSI in ED patients. However, no differences in STAI-state scores and HRV were found between ED patients with and without NSSI.Discussion: The present findings suggest that anxiety as a trait is associated with the use of maladaptive strategies (i.e., NSSI in ED patients. These results uphold the need to target trait anxiety in ED treatment in order to prevent possible NSSI behaviors.
Semler, Joerg; Wellmann, Katharina; Wirth, Felicitas; Stein, Gregor; Angelova, Srebrina; Ashrafi, Mahak; Schempf, Greta; Ankerne, Janina; Ozsoy, Ozlem; Ozsoy, Umut; Schönau, Eckhard; Angelov, Doychin N; Irintchev, Andrey
Precise assessment of motor deficits after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in rodents is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of functional recovery and testing therapeutic approaches. Here we analyzed the applicability to a rat SCI model of an objective approach, the single-frame motion analysis, created and used for functional analysis in mice. Adult female Wistar rats were subjected to graded compression of the spinal cord. Recovery of locomotion was analyzed using video recordings of beam walking and inclined ladder climbing. Three out of four parameters used in mice appeared suitable: the foot-stepping angle (FSA) and the rump-height index (RHI), measured during beam walking, and for estimating paw placement and body weight support, respectively, and the number of correct ladder steps (CLS), assessing skilled limb movements. These parameters, similar to the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scores, correlated with lesion volume and showed significant differences between moderately and severely injured rats at 1-9 weeks after SCI. The beam parameters, but not CLS, correlated well with the BBB scores within ranges of poor and good locomotor abilities. FSA co-varied with RHI only in the severely impaired rats, while RHI and CLS were barely correlated. Our findings suggest that the numerical parameters estimate, as intended by design, predominantly different aspects of locomotion. The use of these objective measures combined with BBB rating provides a time- and cost-efficient opportunity for versatile and reliable functional evaluations in both severely and moderately impaired rats, combining clinical assessment with precise numerical measures.
Ball, Chad G; Dente, Christopher J; Shaz, Beth; Wyrzykowski, Amy D; Nicholas, Jeffrey M; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Feliciano, David V
Massive transfusion protocols (MTPs) using high plasma and platelet ratios for exsanguinating trauma patients are increasingly popular. Major liver injuries often require massive resuscitations and immediate hemorrhage control. Current published literature describes outcomes among patients with mixed patterns of injury. We sought to identify the effects of an MTP on patients with major liver trauma. Patients with grade 3, 4 or 5 liver injuries who required a massive blood component transfusion were analyzed. We compared patients with high plasma:red blood cell:platelet ratio (1:1:1) transfusions (2007-2009) with patients injured before the creation of an institutional MTP (2005-2007). Among 60 patients with major hepatic injuries, 35 (58%) underwent resuscitation after the implementation of an MTP. Patient and injury characteristics were similar between cohorts. Implementation of the MTP significantly improved plasma: red blood cell:platelet ratios and decreased crystalloid fluid resuscitation (p = 0.026). Rapid improvement in early acidosis and coagulopathy was superior with an MTP (p = 0.009). More patients in the MTP group also underwent primary abdominal fascial closure during their hospital stay (p = 0.021). This was most evident with grade 4 injuries (89% vs. 14%). The mean time to fascial closure was 4.2 days. The overall survival rate for all major liver injuries was not affected by an MTP (p = 0.61). The implementation of a formal MTP using high plasma and platelet ratios resulted in a substantial increase in abdominal wall approximation. This occurred concurrently to a decrease in the delivered volume of crystalloid fluid.
Christopher J. Kirwan
Full Text Available Introduction. RIFLE and AKIN provide a standardised classification of acute kidney injury (AKI, but their categorical rather than continuous nature restricts their use to a research tool. A more accurate real-time description of renal function in AKI is needed, and some published data suggest that equations based on serum creatinine that estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR can provide this. In addition, incorporating serum cystatin C concentration into estimates of GFR may improve their accuracy, but no eGFR equations are validated in critically ill patients with AKI. Aim. This study tests whether creatinine or cystatin-C-based eGFR equations, used in patients with CKD, offer an accurate representation of 4-hour creatinine clearance (4CrCl in critically ill patients with AKI. Methods. Fifty-one critically ill patients with AKI were recruited. Thirty-seven met inclusion criteria, and the performance of eGFR equations was compared to 4CrCl. Results. eGFR equations were better than creatinine alone at predicting 4CrCl. Adding cystatin C to estimates did not improve the bias or add accuracy. The MDRD 7 eGFR had the best combination of correlation, bias, percentage error and accuracy. None were near acceptable standards quoted in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Conclusions. eGFR equations are not sufficiently accurate for use in critically ill patients with AKI. Incorporating serum cystatin C does not improve estimates. eGFR should not be used to describe renal function in patients with AKI. Standards of accuracy for validating eGFR need to be set.
Full Text Available Objective: Repeated implantation failure (RIF is a condition in which the embryos implantation decreases in the endometrium. So, our aim was to evaluate the effect of local endometrial injury on embryo transfer results.Materials and methods: In this simple randomized clinical trial (RCT, a total of 120 patients were selected. The participants were less than 40 years old, and they are in their minimum two cycles of vitro fertilization (IVF. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of LEI (Local endometrial injury and a control group (n = 60 in each group. The first group had four small endometrial injuries from anterior, posterior, and lateral uterus walls which were obtained from people who were in 21th day of their previous IVF cycle. The second group was the patients who have not received any intervention.Results: The experimental and control patients were matched in the following factors. Regarding the clinical pregnancy rate, there was no significant difference noted between the experimental and the control group.Conclusion: Local endometrial injury in a preceding cycle does not increase the clinical pregnancy rate in the subsequent FET cycle of patients with repeated implantation failure.
See, Isaac; Soe, Minn M; Epstein, Lauren; Edwards, Jonathan R; Magill, Shelley S; Thompson, Nicola D
Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) event data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network from 2014, the first year of required use of the mucosal barrier injury laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (MBI-LCBI) definition, were analyzed to assess the impact of removing MBI-LCBI events from CLABSI rates. CLABSI rates decreased significantly in some location types after removing MBI-LCBI events, and MBI-LCBI events will be removed from publicly reported CLABSI rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Hayden, Ross; Dompier, Thomas P; Cohen, Randy
The epidemiology of football-related concussions has been extensively examined. However, although football players experience more at-risk exposure time during practices than competitions, there is a dearth of literature examining the nature of the activities or equipment worn during practice. In particular, varying levels of equipment worn during practices may place players at varying levels of risk for concussion. To describe the epidemiology of NCAA men's football concussions that occurred during practices from the 2004-2005 to 2008-2009 academic years by amount of equipment worn. Descriptive epidemiology study. Men's collegiate football data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) during the 5-year study period were analyzed. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (RRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals. During the study period, 795 concussions were reported during practices, resulting in an injury rate of 0.39 per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) (95% CI, 0.36-0.42). Among NCAA divisions, Division III had the highest concussion rate (0.54/1000 AEs), followed by Division I (0.34/1000 AEs) and Division II (0.24/1000 AEs) (all P values for RRs comparing divisionsconcussions in practice occurred when players were fully padded (69.9%), followed by wearing shells (23.5%) and helmets only (1.9%). The practice concussion rate was higher in fully padded practices (0.66/1000 AEs) compared with practices when shells were worn (0.33/1000 AEs; RR=1.99 [95% CI, 1.69-2.35]; Pconcussion rate of the preseason (0.76/1000 AEs) was higher than that of the regular season (0.18/1000 AEs; RR=4.14 [95% CI, 3.55-4.83]; Pconcussion rate were scrimmages (1.55/1000 AEs). Although only 3 concussions were sustained during scrimmage practices in which players wore shells, the concussion rate (2.84/1000 AEs) was higher than all other reported rates. Practice concussion rates are highest during fully padded practices, preseason practices, and
Laubacher, Marco; Perret, Claudio; Hunt, Kenneth J
Robotics-assisted tilt-table (RTT) technology allows neurological rehabilitation therapy to be started early thus alleviating some secondary complications of prolonged bed rest. This study assessed the feasibility of a novel work-rate-guided RTT approach for cardiopulmonary training and assessment in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Three representative subjects with iSCI at three distinct stages of primary rehabilitation completed an incremental exercise test (IET) and a constant load test (CLT) on a RTT augmented with integrated leg-force and position measurement and visual work rate feedback. Feasibility assessment focused on: (i) implementation, (ii) limited efficacy testing, (iii) acceptability. (i) All subjects were able follow the work rate target profile by adapting their volitional leg effort. (ii) During the IETs, peak oxygen uptake above rest was 304, 467 and 1378 ml/min and peak heart rate (HR) was 46, 32 and 65 beats/min above rest (subjects A, B and C, respectively). During the CLTs, steady-state oxygen uptake increased by 42%, 38% and 162% and HR by 12%, 20% and 29%. (iii) All exercise tests were tolerated well. The novel work-rate guided RTT intervention is deemed feasible for cardiopulmonary training and assessment in patients with iSCI: substantial cardiopulmonary responses were observed and the approach was found to be tolerable and implementable. Implications for Rehabilitation Work-rate guided robotics-assisted tilt-table technology is deemed feasible for cardiopulmonary assessment and training in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury. Robotics-assisted tilt-tables might be a good way to start with an active rehabilitation as early as possible after a spinal cord injury. During training with robotics-assisted devices the active participation of the patients is crucial to strain the cardiopulmonary system and hence gain from the training.
Harburg, Leah; McCormack, Erin; Kenney, Kimbra; Moore, Carol; Yang, Kelly; Vos, Pieter; Jacobs, Bram; Madden, Christopher J; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon R; Bogoslovsky, Tanya
Background: Non-contrast head computer tomography (CT) is widely used to evaluate eligibility of patients after acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) for clinical trials. The NINDS Common Data Elements (CDEs) TBI were developed to standardize collection of CT variables. The objectives of this study
Our studies over 2 years (2009 and 2010) and 2 locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated the relationship of feeding-injury of the verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant, to a range of cotton boll age classes further defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis...
Mc Closkey, Michael S.; Look, Amy E.; Chen, Eunice Y.; Pajoumand, Golnaz; Berman, Mitchell E.
Previous research using self-report measures has shown an association between nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and impulsive tendencies. However, self-injurers have not been shown to be different from comparison groups on laboratory tasks putatively assessing impulsive behavior. One explanation for these contradictory findings is that…
Kurihara, Chieko; Kusuoka, Hideo; Ono, Shunsuke; Kakee, Naoko; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takehara, Kenji; Tsujide, Kiyokazu; Nabeoka, Yuzo; Sakuhiro, Takuya; Aoki, Hiroshi; Morishita, Noriko; Suzuki, Chieko; Kachi, Shigeo; Kondo, Emiko; Komori, Yukiko; Isobe, Tetsu; Kageyama, Shigeru; Watanabe, Hiroshi
International norms and ethical standards have suggested that compensation for research-related injury should be provided to injured research volunteers. However, statistical data of incidence of compensation claims and the rate of awarding them have been rarely reported. Questionnaire surveys were sent to pharmaceutical companies and medical institutions, focusing on industry-initiated clinical trials aiming at new drug applications (NDAs) on patient volunteers in Japan. With the answers from pharmaceutical companies, the incidence of compensation was 0.8%, including 0.06% of monetary compensation. Of the cases of compensation claims, 99% were awarded. In turn, with the answers from medical institutions, the incidence of compensation was 0.6%, including 0.4% of serious but not death cases, and 0.04% of death cases. Furthermore, most claims for compensation were initiated by medical institutions, rather than by the patients. On the other hand, with the answers from clinical trial volunteers, 3% of respondents received compensations. These compensated cases were 25% of the injuries which cannot be ruled out from the scope of compensation. Our study results demonstrated that Japanese pharmaceutical companies have provided a high rate of compensation for clinical trial-related injuries despite the possibility of overestimation. In the era of global clinical development, our study indicates the importance of further surveys to find each country's compensation policy by determining how it is being implemented based on a survey of the actual status of compensation coming from statistical data.
Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew
Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...
Kurowski, Brad G; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Walz, Nicolay C; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L
To evaluate the relationship of family and parenting factors to long-term executive dysfunction and attention problems after early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that the magnitude of executive dysfunction and attention problems would be moderated by family and parenting factors. A multicenter, prospective cohort study that included an orthopedic injury (OI) reference group. Three tertiary academic children's hospital medical centers and one general medical center. Children, ages 3-7 years, hospitalized for OI, moderate TBI, or severe TBI. METHODS AND OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Parental ratings of family functioning and parenting styles were obtained 18 months after the injury occurred. The main outcome measurements, which were parental ratings of children's executive function and attention, were performed at least 24 months after the injury occurred (mean, 39 months; range, 25-63 months). Group comparisons were conducted with use of t-tests, χ(2) analysis, analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman correlations. Regression analysis was used to examine associations of the outcomes with family functioning and parenting styles and to test moderating effects of these factors on group differences. Participants with severe TBI demonstrated increased executive dysfunction and attention problems compared with those who sustained moderate TBI or OI. Lower levels of family dysfunction were associated with better executive function and attention across groups but did not moderate group differences. However, attention deficits after severe TBI were exacerbated under conditions of more permissive parenting relative to attention deficits after OIs. Executive function and attention problems persisted on a long-term basis (>24 months) after early childhood TBI, and positive global family functioning and nonpermissive parenting were associated with better outcomes. Better characterization of the optimal family environment for recovery from early childhood
swimming and basketball.1 In 2001 it was reported to have injury rates of 1 000 times ... knee injury in football are the age of the player, a previous injury and the ligamentous .... football is possible, although the success rates may vary from ...
Full Text Available tibia peak force averaged 5154 N and ranged from 5013 N to 5161 N. The MiL-Lx leg’s biomechanical response demonstrated high repeatability with a standard deviation of 137 N for the tibia peak load. Discussion Figure 6 shows the comparison... towards understanding the mechanism of injury. Conclusions The experimental apparatus presented here allows for biomechanical lower limbs surrogates to be tested at various postures, and offers an independent test-bed for assessing the bio...
Vakil, Eli; Lev-Ran Galon, Carmit
Existing literature presents a complex and inconsistent picture of the specific deficiencies involved in skill learning following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In an attempt to address this difficulty, individuals with moderate to severe TBI (n = 29) and a control group (n = 29) were tested with two different skill-learning tasks: conceptual (i.e., Tower of Hanoi Puzzle, TOHP) and perceptual (i.e., mirror reading, MR). Based on previous studies of the effect of divided attention on these tasks and findings regarding the effect of TBI on conceptual and perceptual priming tasks, it was predicted that the group with TBI would show impaired baseline performance compared to controls in the TOHP task though their learning rate would be maintained, while both baseline performance and learning rate on the MR task would be maintained. Consistent with our predictions, overall baseline performance of the group with TBI was impaired in the TOHP test, while the learning rate was not. The learning rate on the MR task was preserved but, contrary to our prediction, response time of the group with TBI was slower than that of controls. The pattern of results observed in the present study was interpreted to possibly reflect an impairment of both the frontal lobes as well as that of diffuse axonal injury, which is well documented as being affected by TBI. The former impairment affects baseline performance of the conceptual learning skill, while the latter affects the overall slower performance of the perceptual learning skill.
Full Text Available There are many clinical and objectively defined parameters that are used to evaluate a person's disability. Since the World Health Organisation has presented the WHODAS II as a means of objectively measuring subjectively defined functions, greater attention has been focused on self-rated health. Only a few studies, however, have been conducted about differences between self-rated health and objectively defined parameters. The survey for this study was conducted on the basis of WHODAS II and the population in Latvia with spinal cord injury. Respondents were between 18 and 65, and 98 questionnaires were analysed. The results show that people with spinal cord injury on average rate their functioning as limited (33–40 points of 100. Most respondents have been declared to be disabled, which is defined as very serious or severe functional disorders. More than 40% have paid jobs, while one-third do not work for reasons of health. The research shows that there is a close coherence (p< 0.05 between individual, objectively and clinically defined indicators on the one hand and the aspects of the questionnaire in which physical functioning was an important factor on the other hand. In order to understand the real functional abilities of patients and the individual factors that influence those abilities, it is necessary to define functional self-rated health in addition to objectively defined indicators.
this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of... Article history: Accepted 25 July 2011 Keywords: Mild traumatic brain injury Self-rated health Military Combat casualty A B S T R A C T Introduction: Mild...throat 9 (3.2) 14 (3.9) .662 Eye 5 (1.8) 13 (3.6) .170 Family problems 2 (0.7) 1 (0.3) Fatigue 13 (4.7) 24 (6.7) .286 Audiology 40 (14.4) 41 (11.4
Increasing Lower Extremity Injury Rates Across the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 Seasons of National Collegiate Athletic Association Football: An Unintended Consequence of the "Targeting" Rule Used to Prevent Concussions?
Westermann, Robert W; Kerr, Zachary Y; Wehr, Peter; Amendola, Annuziato
Sports-related concussions (SRCs) have gained increased societal interest in the past decade. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has implemented legislation and rule changes to decrease the incidence and risk of head injury impacts. The "targeting" rule forbids initiating contact with the crown of a helmet and targeting defenseless players in the head and neck area; however, there are concerns that this rule change has unintentionally led to an increased incidence of lower extremity injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in lower extremity injury rates in NCAA football during the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 seasons. We hypothesized that the lower extremity injury rate has increased across the time period. Descriptive epidemiology study. Sixty-eight NCAA football programs provided 153 team-seasons of data to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program. Lower extremity injuries (ie, hip/groin, upper leg/thigh, knee, lower leg/Achilles, foot/toes) and SRCs sustained during NCAA football games were examined. We calculated injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) for lower extremity injuries and SRCs. Rate ratios (RRs) compared injury rates between the 2009-2010 to 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 seasons. Overall, 2400 lower extremity injuries were reported during the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 seasons; most were to the knee (33.6%) and ankle (28.5%) and caused by player contact (59.2%). The lower extremity injury rate increased in 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 compared with 2009-2010 to 2011-2012 (23.55 vs 20.45/1000 AEs, respectively; RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.25). This finding was retained when restricted to injuries due to player contact (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.32) but not for injuries due to noncontact/overuse (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.80-1.14). When examining player contact injury rates by anatomic site, only ankle injuries had an increase (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.64). The SRC rate also increased in 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 compared with
Jodoin, Marianne; Rouleau, Dominique M; Charlebois-Plante, Camille; Benoit, Benoit; Leduc, Stéphane; Laflamme, G-Yves; Gosselin, Nadia; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; De Beaumont, Louis
This study compares the incidence rate of mild traumatic brain injury (mild TBI) detected at follow-up visits (retrospective diagnosis) in patients suffering from an isolated limb trauma, with the incidence rate held by the hospital records (prospective diagnosis) of the sampled cohort. This study also seeks to determine which types of fractures present with the highest incidence of mild TBI. Retrospective assessment of mild TBI among orthopaedic monotrauma patients, randomly selected for participation in an Orthopaedic clinic of a Level I Trauma Hospital. Patients in the remission phase of a limb fracture were recruited between August 2014 and May 2015. No intervention was done (observational study). Standardized semi-structured interviews were conducted with all patients to retrospectively assess for mild TBI at the time of the fracture. Emergency room related medical records of all patients were carefully analyzed to determine whether a prospective mild TBI diagnosis was made following the accident. A total of 251 patients were recruited (54% females, Mean age=49). Study interview revealed a 23.5% incidence rate of mild TBI compared to an incidence rate of 8.8% for prospective diagnosis (χ(2)=78.47; plimb monotrauma (29.6%; n=42/142) are significantly more at risk of sustaining a mild TBI compared to lower limb fractures (15.6%; n=17/109) (χ(2)=6.70; p=0.010). More specifically, patients with a proximal upper limb injury were significantly more at risk of sustaining concomitant mild TBI (40.6%; 26/64) compared to distal upper limb fractures (20.25%; 16/79) (χ(2)=7.07; p=0.008). Results suggest an important concomitance of mild TBI among orthopaedic trauma patients, the majority of which go undetected during acute care. Patients treated for an upper limb fracture are particularly at risk of sustaining concomitant mild TBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Larsen, Lars Henrik; Kjeldsen, Nikolaj Hørby; Stoklund Pedersen, Daniel
% velocity with self-selected and 105% step rate and 100% velocity with 105% step rate) and 2 sides (left and right) were analyzed by RM- ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction and significance level 0.05 in IBM SPSS version 22.0 Results A 2-way RM-ANOVA including sides (left and right) and conditions (5...
Dongelmans, Dave A; Paulus, Frederique; Veelo, Denise P; Binnekade, Jan M; Vroom, Margreeth B; Schultz, Marcus J
With adaptive support ventilation, respiratory rate and tidal volume (V(T)) are a function of the Otis least work of breathing formula. We hypothesized that adaptive support ventilation in an open lung ventilator strategy would deliver higher V(T)s to patients with acute lung injury. Patients with acute lung injury were ventilated according to a local guideline advising the use of lower V(T) (6-8 ml/kg predicted body weight), high concentrations of positive end-expiratory pressure, and recruitment maneuvers. Ventilation parameters were recorded when the ventilator was switched to adaptive support ventilation, and after recruitment maneuvers. If V(T) increased more than 8 ml/kg predicted body weight, airway pressure was limited to correct for the rise of V(T). Ten patients with a mean (±SD) Pao(2)/Fio(2) of 171 ± 86 mmHg were included. After a switch from pressure-controlled ventilation to adaptive support ventilation, respiratory rate declined (from 31 ± 5 to 21 ± 6 breaths/min; difference = 10 breaths/min, 95% CI 3-17 breaths/min, P = 0.008) and V(T) increased (from 6.5 ± 0.8 to 9.0 ± 1.6 ml/kg predicted body weight; difference = 2.5 ml, 95% CI 0.4-4.6 ml/kg predicted body weight, P = 0.02). Pressure limitation corrected for the rise of V(T), but minute ventilation declined, forcing the user to switch back to pressure-controlled ventilation. Adaptive support ventilation, compared with pressure-controlled ventilation in an open lung strategy setting, delivers a lower respiratory rate-higher V(T) combination. Pressure limitation does correct for the rise of V(T), but leads to a decline in minute ventilation.
Francis, Heather M; Fisher, Alana; Rushby, Jacqueline A; McDonald, Skye
Heart rate variability (HRV) may provide an index of capacity for social functioning and may be remediated by HRV biofeedback. Given reductions in HRV are found following traumatic brain injury (TBI), the present study aimed to determine whether lower HRV in TBI is associated with social function, and whether HRV biofeedback might be a useful remediation technique in this population. Resting state HRV and measures of social and emotional processing were collected in 30 individuals with severe TBI (3-34 years post-injury) and 30 controls. This was followed by a single session of HRV biofeedback. HRV was positively associated with social cognition and empathy, and negatively associated with alexithymia for the TBI group. Both TBI and control groups showed significantly increased HRV on both time-domain (i.e., SDNN, rMSSD) and frequency-domain measures (LF, HF, LF:HF ratio) during biofeedback compared to baseline. These results suggest that decreased HRV is linked to social and emotional function following severe TBI, and may be a novel target for therapy using HRV biofeedback techniques.
35 were related to pregnancy . Amputations A number of studies have estimated the frequency with which soldiers lost a limb either directly on the...vehicle accidents—as well as training and occupational accidents at the workplace . The average mortality rate (including all causes of death) for military
Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W; Lees, Peter S J
To evaluate the impact of the United States' federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery-related fatal occupational injury. The standard, which took effect in 1990, requires employers in certain industries to establish an energy control program and sets minimum criteria for energy control procedures, training, inspections, and hardware. An interrupted time-series design was used to determine the standard's effect on fatality rates. Machinery-related fatalities, obtained from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system for 1980 through 2001, were used as a proxy for lockout/tagout-related fatalities. Linear regression was used to control for changes in demographic and economic factors. The average annual crude rate of machinery-related fatalities in manufacturing changed little from 1980 to 1989, but declined by 4.59% per year from 1990 to 2001. However, when controlling for demographic and economic factors, the regression model estimate of the standard's effect is a small, non-significant increase of 0.05 deaths per 100 000 production worker full-time equivalents (95% CI -0.14 to 0.25). When fatality rates in comparison groups that should not have been affected by the standard are incorporated into the analysis, there is still no significant change in the rate of machinery-related fatalities in manufacturing. There is no evidence that the lockout/tagout standard decreased fatality rates relative to other trends in occupational safety over the study period. A possible explanation is voluntary use of lockout/tagout by some employers before introduction of the standard and low compliance by other employers after.
Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W; Lees, Peter S J
Objective To evaluate the impact of the United States' federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery‐related fatal occupational injury. The standard, which took effect in 1990, requires employers in certain industries to establish an energy control program and sets minimum criteria for energy control procedures, training, inspections, and hardware. Design An interrupted time‐series design was used to determine the standard's effect on fatality rates. Machinery‐related fatalities, obtained from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system for 1980 through 2001, were used as a proxy for lockout/tagout‐related fatalities. Linear regression was used to control for changes in demographic and economic factors. Results The average annual crude rate of machinery‐related fatalities in manufacturing changed little from 1980 to 1989, but declined by 4.59% per year from 1990 to 2001. However, when controlling for demographic and economic factors, the regression model estimate of the standard's effect is a small, non‐significant increase of 0.05 deaths per 100 000 production worker full‐time equivalents (95% CI −0.14 to 0.25). When fatality rates in comparison groups that should not have been affected by the standard are incorporated into the analysis, there is still no significant change in the rate of machinery‐related fatalities in manufacturing. Conclusions There is no evidence that the lockout/tagout standard decreased fatality rates relative to other trends in occupational safety over the study period. A possible explanation is voluntary use of lockout/tagout by some employers before introduction of the standard and low compliance by other employers after. PMID:17916891
Megan K. Yee
Full Text Available Recent research demonstrated a relation between traumatic brain injury (TBI, health symptoms and diagnosis of Gulf War Illness (GWI in Gulf War Veterans, but no study has examined the impact of multiple mild TBIs (mTBIs. A total of 229 male Gulf War Veterans from the Ft Devens Cohort were categorized by a number of mTBIs reported. One-way ANOVA and chi-square test of independence were used to test for differences in total reported health symptoms and diagnosis of chronic multisymptom illness (CMI or Kansas GWI criteria, two of the most common case definitions of GWI. A total of 72 veterans reported no mTBIs (31.4%, 26 reported one mTBI (11.4%, 25 reported two mTBIs (10.9%, and 106 veterans reported sustaining three or more mTBIs (46.3%. Veterans reporting two or more mTBIs (p < 0.01 or three or more mTBIs (p < 0.001 endorsed significantly higher rates of health symptoms than Veterans reporting no mTBIs. Significantly higher rates of CMI (p = 0.035 and Kansas GWI criteria (p < 0.001 were seen in the three or more mTBI group. Results suggest two mTBIs increase risk of health symptoms, but three mTBIs may be the threshold needed to sustain chronic symptom reporting needed for a formal diagnosis. These findings highlight the importance of implementing policies and procedures monitoring head injuries in military personnel.
Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M
Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect.
Andersen, Romney C; Fleming, Mark; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Gordon, Wade T; Nanos, George P; Charlton, Michael T; Ficke, James R
The severe Dismounted Complex Blast Injury (DCBI) is characterized by high-energy injuries to the bilateral lower extremities (usually proximal transfemoral amputations) and/or upper extremity (usually involving the non-dominant side), in addition to open pelvic injuries, genitourinary, and abdominal trauma. Initial resuscitation and multidisciplinary surgical management appear to be the keys to survival. Definitive treatment follows general principals of open wound management and includes decontamination through aggressive and frequent debridement, hemorrhage control, viable tissue preservation, and appropriate timing of wound closure. These devastating injuries are associated with paradoxically favorable survival rates, but associated injuries and higher amputation levels lead to more difficult reconstructive challenges.
Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Ghaffaripour, Sina; Bahreini, Amin; Shafiee, Mohammad; Rashidi, Mohammad; Rajabnejad, Yaser
One of the main concerns in liver transplant is the prolonged ischemia time, which may lead to primary graft nonfunction or delayed function. N-acetylcysteine is known as a hepato-protective agent in different studies, which may improve human hepatocyte viability in steatotic donor livers. This study investigated whether N-acetylcysteine can decrease the rate of ischemia-reperfusion syndrome and improve short-term outcome in liver transplant recipients. This was a double-blind, randomized, control clinical trial of 115 patients. Between April 2012 and January 2013, patients with orthotopic liver transplant were randomly divided into 2 groups; in 49 cases N-acetylcysteine was added to University of Wisconsin solution as the preservative liquid (experimental group), and in 66 cases standard University of Wisconsin solution was used (control group). We compared postreperfusion hypotension, inotrope requirement before and after portal reperfusion, intermittent arterial blood gas analysis and potassium measurement, pathological review of transplanted liver, in-hospital complications, morbidity, and mortality. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding time to hepatic artery reperfusion, hospital stay, vascular complications, inotrope requirement before and after portal declamping, and blood gas analysis. Hypotension after portal reperfusion was significantly more common in experimental group compared with control group (P = .005). Retransplant and in-hospital mortality were comparable between the groups. Preservation of the liver inside Univer-sity of Wisconsin solution plus N-acetylcysteine did not change the rate of ischemia reperfusion injury and short-term outcome in liver transplant recipients.
Maged, Ahmed M; Al-Inany, Hesham; Salama, Khaled M; Souidan, Ibrahim I; Abo Ragab, Hesham M; Elnassery, Noura
To explore the impact of endometrial scratch injury (ESI) on intrauterine insemination (IUI) success. One hundred and fifty four infertile women received 100 mg of oral clomiphene citrate for 5 days starting on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. Patients were randomized to 2 equal groups: Group C received IUI without ESI and group S had ESI. Successful pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound. 13, 21, and 10 women got pregnant after the first, second, and third IUI trials, respectively, with 28.6% cumulative pregnancy rate (PR). The cumulative PR was significantly higher in group S (39%) compared to group C (18.2%). The PR in group S was significantly higher compared to that in group C at the second and third trials. The PR was significantly higher in group S at the second trial compared to that reported in the same group at the first trial but nonsignificantly higher compared to that reported during the third trial, while in group C, the difference was nonsignificant. Eight pregnant women had first trimester abortion with 18.2% total abortion rate with nonsignificant difference between studied groups. The ESI significantly improves the outcome of IUI in women with unexplained infertility especially when conducted 1 month prior to IUI. © The Author(s) 2015.
Chun, S M; Kim, H-R; Shin, H I
Cross-sectional study. This study aimed to validate the existing basal metabolic rate (BMR) predictive equations that include fat free mass (FFM) as an independent variable and, based on the FFM assessment, to develop a new SCI population-specific equation. Outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Our study group was formed of 50 individuals with chronic motor complete SCI: 27 patients with tetraplegia and 23 with paraplegia. Both BMR and FFM values were measured by indirect calorimetry (IC) and the whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. The BMR values measured by IC were compared with the values estimated from the Cunningham equation. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop a new FFM-based, BMR predictive equation. The mean value of BMR measured by IC was 1274.8 (s.d.=235.2) kcal day -1 . The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) between values measured by IC and estimated from the Cunningham equation was 0.845 and the limits of agreement ranged from -30.6 to 241.3 kcal. SCI population specific BMR predictive equation was developed; BMR (kcal day -1 )=24.5 × FFM (kg)+244.4. The newly developed equation showed ICC of 0.866 with the limits of agreement from -229.0 to 233.1 kcal day -1 . A considerable bias from the BMR values measured by IC was still observed, which warrants clinical consideration when applying FFM-based BMR prediction equations to individuals with SCI.
The author of the first letter has detected several errors and inconsistencies in the treatment of the data in a recent paper (Lee, K.H., Kagan, A.R., Nussbaum, H., Wollin, M., Winkley, J.H., and Norman, A., 1976, Br. J. Radiol., vol. 49, 430). Valid conclusions about the relative importance of time or dose-rate could not be based on this data. The reply, from one of the authors of the original paper, accepts many of the errata, and enumerates the changes which should be made. Replotting dose-treatment time and dose-dose rate does not however invalidate the conclusion that dose-rate is more important than time in analysing the risk of normal tissue injury. It is not claimed that the Strandqvist separation line in the dose-dose rate plane is better than in the dose-time plane. An improved definition of a region of low injury risk is given by a horizontal line at 4500 rad maximum dose and a vertical line at 60 rad/h maximum dose-rate on the dose-dose rate plot. Dose-rate is expected to be more important than time as a modifying factor of dose, both on the basis of radiobiological data and of clinical experience. Radiotherapists must balance the risks of radiotherapy-tumour recurrence with those of normal tissue injury, and increased attention should therefore be paid to regions of high and low dose-rate. (U.K.)
Hassett, Leanne; Simpson, Grahame; Cotter, Rachel; Whiting, Diane; Hodgkinson, Adeline; Martin, Diane
To investigate whether the introduction of an electronic goals system followed by staff training improved the quality, rating, framing and structure of goals written by a community-based brain injury rehabilitation team. Interrupted time series design. Two interventions were introduced six months apart. The first intervention comprised the introduction of an electronic goals system. The second intervention comprised a staff goal training workshop. An audit protocol was devised to evaluate the goals. A random selection of goal statements from the 12 months prior to the interventions (Time 1 baseline) were compared with all goal statements written after the introduction of the electronic goals system (Time 2) and staff training (Time 3). All goals were de-identified for client and time-period, and randomly ordered. A total of 745 goals (Time 1 n = 242; Time 2 n = 283; Time 3 n = 220) were evaluated. Compared with baseline, the introduction of the electronic goals system alone significantly increased goal rating, framing and structure (χ(2) tests 144.7, 18.9, 48.1, respectively, p goal quality, which was only a trend at Time 2, was statistically significant at Time 3 (χ(2) 15.0, p ≤ 001). The training also led to a further significant increase in the framing and structuring of goals over the electronic goals system (χ(2) 11.5, 12.5, respectively, p ≤ 0.001). An electronic goals system combined with staff training improved the quality, rating, framing and structure of goal statements. © The Author(s) 2014.
Targett, S G
To document injury rates in professional rugby players in the Rugby Super 12 competition and to act as a pilot study for future studies of rugby injuries. Prospective longitudinal study encompassing the 1997 Super 12 rugby season. A New Zealand Super 12 rugby squad. 25 professional rugby players (replacement players were used for unavailable players, so although 30 different players were used during the season, there were only 25 in the squad at any one time). An "injury" was defined as something that prevented a player from taking part in two training sessions, from playing the next week, or something requiring special medical treatment (suturing or special investigations). An injury was "significant" if it prevented the player from being able to play one week after sustaining it (that is, if it made the player miss the next match). The overall injury rate was 120/1000 player hours. The rate of significant injuries was 45/1000 player hours. Those playing the position of "forward" had a higher overall injury rate than other players, but there was no difference in significant injury rate between the forwards and the backs. Injuries that caused players to miss game time occurred almost exclusively during the pre-season program or in the final third of the season. The majority of injuries were musculo-tendinous sprains or strains. The phase of play responsible for the majority of injuries was the tackle. The most frequently injured body part was the head and face. No catastrophic injuries occurred during the study period. Injury rates increase with increasing grade of rugby, injury rates in the Super 12 competition being higher than in first grade rugby. There is very little quality data on rugby injuries, and the few studies available use different methods of data collection and injury definition. There is a pressing need for the collection of accurate ongoing epidemiological data on injuries in rugby.
Trojian, Thomas H; Ragle, Rosemary B
Women's basketball has changed over time. It is a faster paced game than it was 30 years ago. Greatplayers, like Anne Meyers,who was the first, and only, woman to be signed to an NBA contract, would agree today's game is different. The game is played mostly "below the rim" but with players like Candice Parker, Sylvia Fowles and Maya Moore able to dunk the ball, the game is still changing. The one thing that remains constant in basketball, especially women's basketball, is injury. The majority of injuries in women's basketball are similar to those in men's basketball. Studies at the high school and college level show similar injury rates between women and men. ACL injuries are one exception, with female athletes having atwo to four times higher rate ofACL injuries. In this article, we review the common injuries in women's basketball. We discuss treatment issues and possible preventive measures.
Celik, Omer; Ozturk, Derya; Akin, Fatih; Ayca, Burak; Yalcın, Ahmet Arif; Erturk, Mehmet; Bıyık, Ismail; Ayaz, Ahmet; Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Enhos, Asım; Aslan, Serkan
We hypothesized that contrast media volume-estimated glomerular filtration rate (CV-e-GFR) ratio may be a predictor of contrast media-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). We investigated the associations between CV-e-GFR ratio and CI-AKI in 597 patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). An absolute ≥0.3 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine compared with baseline levels within 48 hours after the procedure was considered as CI-AKI; 78 (13.1%) of the 597 patients experienced CI-AKI. The amount of contrast during procedure was higher in the CI-AKI group than in those without CI-AKI (153 vs 135 mL, P = .003). The CV-e-GFR ratio was significantly higher in patients with CI-AKI than without (2.3 vs 1.5, P 2 (P < .001, OR = 5.917). In conclusion, CV-e-GFR ratio is significantly associated with CI-AKI after pPCI. © The Author(s) 2014.
Jacobsson, Lars; Lexell, Jan
An optimal life satisfaction (LS) is considered an important long-term outcome after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is, however, not clear to what extent a single instrument captures all aspects of LS, and different instruments may be needed to comprehensively describe LS. The aim of this study was to compare self-ratings of life satisfaction after a TBI with two commonly used instruments. Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-11), comprising eleven items and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), comprising five items, were administered to 67 individuals (51 men and 16 women). Secondary analysis of data collected as part of a survey of individuals with TBI 6 to 15 years post TBI. Item 1 in LiSat-11 ('Life as a whole') and the total SWLS score was strongly correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.66; p life' and 'Partner relationship', were moderately to strongly correlated with items in SWLS. The item 'Partner relationship' in LiSat-11 did not correlate with any of the items in SWLS or the total score. The item 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing' in SWLS had the weakest correlations with items in LiSat-11. Items 'Vocation' and 'Leisure' in LISat-11 were most strongly correlated with items in SWLS, whereas the item 'ADL' in LiSat-11 was more weakly correlated with items in SWLS. The strength of the relationships implies that the two instruments assess similar but not identical aspects of LS and therefore complement each other when it is rated.
Cho, Hm Hak; Kim, Jiyun
Objectives To find out from an analysis of empirical data the levels of influence, which a labor union (LU) and Occupational Safety and Health Committee (OSHC) have in reducing the occupational injury and illness rate (OIIR) through their accident prevention activities in manufacturing industries with five or more employees. Methods The empirical data used in this study are the Occupational Safety and Health Tendency survey data, Occupational Accident Compensation data and labor productivity and sales data for the years 2003 to 2007. By matching these three sources of data, a final data set (n = 280) was developed and analyzed using SPSS version 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results It was found that a workplace with a LU has a lower OIIR than one without a LU. In manufacturing industries with five or more employees in 2007, the OIIR of the workplaces without a LU was 0.87%, while that of workplaces with a LU was much lower at 0.45%. In addition, workplaces with an established OSHC had a lower OIIR than those without an OSHC. Conclusion It was found that the OIIR of workplaces with a LU is lower than those without a LU. Moreover, those with the OSHC usually had a lower OIIR than those without. The workplace OIIR may have an impact on management performance because the rate is negatively correlated with labor productivity and sales. In the long run, the OIIR of workplaces will be reduced when workers and employers join forces and recognize that the safety and health activities of the workplace are necessary, not only for securing the health rights of the workers, but also for raising labor productivity. PMID:22953216
Boden, Barry P
Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes.
To review the current evidence for the epidemiology of pediatric injuries in martial arts. The relevant literature was searched using SPORT DISCUS (keywords: martial arts injuries, judo injuries, karate injuries, and taekwondo injuries and ProQuest (keywords: martial arts, taekwondo, karate, and judo), as well as hand searches of the reference lists. In general, the absolute number of injuries in girls is lower than in boys. However, when expressed relative to exposure, the injury rates of girls are higher. Injuries by body region reflect the specific techniques and rules of the martial art. The upper extremities tend to get injured more often in judo, the head and face in karate and the lower extremities in taekwondo. Activities engaged in at the time of injury included performing a kick or being thrown in judo, while punching in karate, and performing a roundhouse kick in taekwondo. Injury type tends to be martial art specific with sprains reported in judo and taekwondo and epistaxis in karate. Injury risk factors in martial arts include age, body weight and exposure. Preventive measures should focus on education of coaches, referees, athletes, and tournament directors. Although descriptive research should continue, analytical studies are urgently needed.
with reversed vein grafting in 68 patients, primary anastomosis in 33, prosthetic graft insertion in 11, ... patients underwent delayed amputation, giving an overall amputation rate of 37.5%. .... injury, level of arterial injury and type of repair had no significant ... patients, graft occlusion, and diseased crural vessels with poor run-.
Tuggy, M L
Telemark skiing has become increasingly popular over the past 5 years. Telemark skiing poses unique risks when compared to alpine skiing, because of different equipment, technique, and varied skiing environments. A retrospective survey of telemark skiers was conducted in Western Washington in 1994 to obtain skier information on ski habits, demographics, frequency and types of injury, and equipment used at time of injury. During the 5 month survey period, 118 (63%) of 187 surveys distributed at 7 sites were returned. The overall injury rate was comparable to alpine skiing injury rates at 10.7/1000 skier days. Less experienced skiers and women had higher injury rates, 20/1000 and 13.1/1000 skier days, respectively. The predominant injury sites were knee (41%), hip (13%), and thumb (8%). The knee injuries sustained by telemark skiers appear to be less severe than alpine skiers, with less duration of disability and lower surgical rates. An association was found between the use of plastic reinforced boots and significant ligamentous knee injuries when compared to skiers with leather boots (p < 0.01, chi 2 = 5.43).
Bladin, C; McCrory, P
Over the last 10 years, snowboarding has become established as a popular and legitimate alpine sport. However, at present, there are few epidemiological studies examining the spectrum of injuries associated with this new sport. Snowboarders are typically male (male: female ratio of 3:1) and in their early twenties. They have an injury rate of 4 to 6 per 1000 visits, which is comparable to that which occurs with skiing. However, in contrast to skiing, in which only 34% of those injured are beginners, the majority (60%) of snowboarders injured are beginners. This is a reflection of the participant profile of this developing sport. 57% of injuries occur in the lower limbs, and 30% in the upper limbs. The most common injuries are simple sprains (31 to 53%), particularly of the ankles (23 to 26%) and knees (12 to 23%), followed by fractures (24 to 27%) and contusions (12%). Compared with skiing injuries, snowboarders have 2.4 times as many fractures, particularly of the upper limbs (constituting 21 vs 35% of upper limb injuries), fewer knee injuries (23 vs 44% of lower limb injuries), but more ankle injuries (23 vs 6% of lower limb injuries). Snowboarding knee injuries are less severe than those associated with skiing. Fracture of the lateral process of the talus is an unusual and uncommon snowboarding injury that can be misdiagnosed as a severe ankle sprain. Ankle injuries are more common with soft shell boots, whereas knee injuries and distal tibia fractures are more common with hard shell boots.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...
... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Golf Injuries Golf looks like an easy game to ... WHAT TYPES OF INJURIES ARE MOST COMMON IN GOLF? Acute injuries are usually the result of a ...
States, J.D., and Mango , N.K. (1999). Abbreviated injury scale unification: the case for a unified injury system for global use . J. Trauma 47, 309...Andrew Reisner,1,2 Xiaoxiao Chen,1 Kamal Kumar,1 and Jaques Reifman1 Abstract We hypothesized that vital signs could be used to improve the...logistic regression models and, using DeLong’s test, compared their area under receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC AUCs) for three outcomes
Leaf, T M; Ostlie, K R
Nitrogen (N) application rates have been recommended historically for maximum economic yield of corn (Zea mays L.), but not for optimal expression or impacts of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner) Cry protein(s) on target insects. This study explored the need to adjust N rates to optimize expression of corn rootworm-active Bt (Bt-RW) protein(s) in a single and a pyramided trait hybrid and resulting impacts on beetle emergence and root injury, under field conditions. The experiment featured a factorial treatment arrangement in a split-plot randomized complete block design with six N rates as the main plots and three hybrids (MON88017 expressing Cry3Bb1, MON88017 x DAS-59122 expressing Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1, and a non-Bt-RW hybrid) as the subplots. Corn roots were sampled at the beginning of, and after, peak larval feeding to determine Bt-expression levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Beetles were collected every 2-3 d during emergence using cut-plant emergence cages. Cry3Bb1 expression was significantly reduced when little or no N was applied. Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 expression was highly variable and unaffected by N rate. Beetle emergence increased with N rate in the non-Bt-RW hybrid while root injury declined. Provided Bt-RW hybrids had sufficient applied N, root injury was relatively low. Results indicate that N management could affect Bt-RW expression and success of insect resistance management plans provided N is applied at rates that enhance production of susceptible beetles emerging from the non-Bt-RW (refuge) hybrid, and achieve optimal expression and efficacy of Bt traits. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Introduction Estimation of kidney function in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), is important for appropriate dosing of drugs and adjustment of therapeutic strategies, but challenging due to fluctuations in kidney function, creatinine metabolism and fluid balance. Data on the agreement between estimating and gold standard methods to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in early AKI are lacking. We evaluated the agreement of urinary creatinine clearance (CrCl) and three commonly used estimating equations, the Cockcroft Gault (CG), the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations, in comparison to GFR measured by the infusion clearance of chromium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA), in critically ill patients with early AKI after complicated cardiac surgery. Methods Thirty patients with early AKI were studied in the intensive care unit, 2 to 12 days after complicated cardiac surgery. The infusion clearance for 51Cr-EDTA obtained as a measure of GFR (GFR51Cr-EDTA) was calculated from the formula: GFR (mL/min/1.73m2) = (51Cr-EDTA infusion rate × 1.73)/(arterial 51Cr-EDTA × body surface area) and compared with the urinary CrCl and the estimated GFR (eGFR) from the three estimating equations. Urine was collected in two 30-minute periods to measure urine flow and urine creatinine. Urinary CrCl was calculated from the formula: CrCl (mL/min/1.73m2) = (urine volume × urine creatinine × 1.73)/(serum creatinine × 30 min × body surface area). Results The within-group error was lower for GFR51Cr-EDTA than the urinary CrCl method, 7.2% versus 55.0%. The between-method bias was 2.6, 11.6, 11.1 and 7.39 ml/min for eGFRCrCl, eGFRMDRD, eGFRCKD-EPI and eGFRCG, respectively, when compared to GFR51Cr-EDTA. The error was 103%, 68.7%, 67.7% and 68.0% for eGFRCrCl, eGFRMDRD, eGFRCKD-EPI and eGFRCG, respectively, when compared to GFR51Cr-EDTA. Conclusions The study
Thomas, Roger E; Ornstein, Jodie
to identify all studies of Karate injuries and assess injury rates, types, location, and causes. Six electronic and four grey literature databases were searched. Two reviewers independently assessed titles/abstracts, abstracted data and assessed risk-of-bias with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Average injury rates/1000AE (AE = athletic-encounter) and/1000minutesAE, injury location and type weighted by study size were calculated. In competitions rates of injury/1000AE and/1000 minutesAE were similar for males (111.4/1000AE, 75.4/1000 minAE) and females (105.8/1000AE, 72.8/1000 minAE). Location of injury rates/1000AE for males were 44.0 for head/neck, 11.9 lower extremities, 8.1 torso and 5.4 upper extremities and were similar for females: 41.2 head/neck, 12.4 lower extremities, 9.1 torso and 6.3 upper extremities. Injury rates varied widely by study. Rates/1000AE for type of injury were contusions/abrasions/lacerations/bruises/tooth avulsion for males (68.1) and females (30.4); hematomas/bleeding/epistaxis males (11.4) and females (12.1); strains/sprains males (3.5) and females (0.1); dislocations males (2.9) and females (0.9); concussions males (2.5) and females (3.9); and fractures males (2.9) and females (1.4). Punches were a more common mechanism of injury for males (59.8) than females (40.8) and kicks similar (males 19.7, females 21.7). Weighted averages were not calculated for weight class or belt colour because there were too few studies. Nineteen injury surveys reported annual injury rates from 30% to rates ten times higher but used different reporting methods. Studies provided no data to explain wide rate ranges. Studies need to adopt one injury definition, one data-collection form, and collect comprehensive data for each study for both training and competitions. More data are needed to measure the effect of weight, age and experience on injuries, rates and types of injury during training, and for competitors with high injury rates. RCTs are needed of
Mazur, L J; Yetman, R J; Risser, W L
The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.
Braithwaite, I; Dunbar, L; Eathorne, A; Weatherall, M; Beasley, R
ESSENTIALS: We audited venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Achilles injuries after the use of prophylactic aspirin. We audited 218 patients with Achilles injury requiring lower limb immobilization for ≥ 1 week. Fourteen patients (6.4%, 95% CI 3.6% to 10.5%) developed symptomatic and confirmed VTE. The incidence was similar to the 6.3% identified in the same patient group prior to the use of aspirin. We report a follow-up audit of the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients requiring lower limb immobilization because of Achilles tendon injury, since the introduction of a policy to routinely prescribe 100 mg of aspirin daily. We studied 218 patients aged 18-65 years who attended the Orthopaedic Assessment Unit at Wellington Hospital between January 2013 and December 2014 with Achilles tendon injury requiring lower limb immobilization for ≥ 1 week. Information on assessment of VTE risk, prescription of aspirin and symptomatic VTE occurring within 70 days of immobilization was obtained and compared with the same information collected with the same method in the same patient group between January 2006 and December 2007, before the policy to routinely prescribe aspirin was introduced. A total of 189 of 218 (93%) patients were prescribed aspirin, as compared with 0.5% previously. Fourteen patients (6.4%, 95% confidence interval 3.6-10.5%) developed symptomatic radiologically confirmed VTE (10 distal deep vein thromboses [DVTs], two proximal DVTs, one pulmonary embolism [PE], and one PE with distal DVT). Aspirin was prescribed to all patients who subsequently developed a VTE; in one of 14, a recognized risk factor was documented. The VTE incidence was similar to the 6.3% identified in the previous audit. Lower limb immobilization following Achilles tendon injury confers a high risk of VTE even with aspirin prophylaxis. Consideration should be given to prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin during lower limb immobilization following Achilles tendon
Ball, Chad G; Ball, Jill E; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Mulloy, Robert H
Horseback riding is more dangerous than motorcycle riding, skiing, football, and rugby. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and injury patterns, as well as risk factors associated with severe equestrian trauma. All patients with major equestrian injuries (injury severity score > or = 12) admitted between 1995 and 2005 were reviewed. A 46-question survey outlining potential rider, animal, and environmental risk factors was administered. Among 7941 trauma patients, 151 (2%) were injured on horseback (mean injury severity score, 20; mortality rate, 7%). Injuries included the chest (54%), head (48%), abdomen (22%), and extremities (17%). Forty-five percent required surgery. Survey results (55%) indicated that riders and horses were well trained, with a 47% recidivism rate. Only 9% of patients wore helmets, however, 64% believed the accident was preventable. Chest trauma previously has been underappreciated. This injury pattern may be a result of significant rider experience. Helmet and vest use will be targeted in future injury prevention strategies.
Gaulrapp, H; Weber, A; Rosemeyer, B
Despite still growing attraction mountain biking as a matter of sports traumatology still lacks relevant data based on large cross-sectional surveys. To obtain an overview of risk factors, types, and main body sites of injuries occurring in mountain biking we assessed the results of a questionnaire answered by 3873 athletes. A total of 8133 single lesions were reported by 3474 athletes, 36% of whom regularly participated in competitions. The incidence of injuries in mountain biking is comparable to that in other outdoor sports, the majority of injuries being minor. Mountain biking athletes were found to have an overall injury risk rate of 0.6% per year and 1 injury per 1000 h of biking. The main risk factors included slippery road surface, cyclist's poor judgement of the situation, and excessive speed, representing personal factors that could be altered by preventive measures. Of all injuries 14% were due to collision with some part of the bike, especially the pedals and the handlebar. While 75% of the injuries were minor, such as skin wounds and simple contusions, 10% were so severe that hospitalization was required. A breakdown of the injuries according to body site and frequency of occurrence is presented.
... that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work in certain jobs, you may need protection. The most common type of injury happens when something irritates the ...
Apr 2, 2015 ... KEYWORDS: Bangers, eye injuries, holidays, Nigeria ... antibiotic and cycloplegic eye drops, antibiotic ointment at night and .... Adeoti C. O, Bello T. O., Ashaye A. O. Blinding ... Can fireworks-related injuries to children during ...
... while doing things like skiing, playing soccer or football, and jumping on a trampoline. When you injure ... severity of the injury, age, physical condition, medical history, and other injuries or illnesses. People who are ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Knee Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Knee Injuries What's in ... can do to protect them. What's in a Knee? The knee is a joint , actually the largest ...
Möller, Holger; Falster, Kathleen; Ivers, Rebecca; Falster, Michael O; Clapham, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa
To describe the leading mechanisms of hospitalised unintentional injury in Australian Aboriginal children and identify the injury mechanisms with the largest inequalities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. We used linked hospital and mortality data to construct a whole of population birth cohort including 1,124,717 children (1,088,645 non-Aboriginal and 35,749 Aboriginal) born in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2012. Injury hospitalisation rates were calculated per person years at risk for injury mechanisms coded according to the ICD10-AM classification. The leading injury mechanisms in both groups of children were falls from playground equipment. For 66 of the 69 injury mechanisms studied, Aboriginal children had a higher rate of hospitalisation compared with non-Aboriginal children. The largest relative inequalities were observed for injuries due to exposure to fire and flame, and the largest absolute inequalities for injuries due to falls from playground equipment. Aboriginal children in NSW experience a significant higher burden of unintentional injury compared with their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Implications for Public Health: We suggest the implementation of targeted injury prevention measures aimed at injury mechanism and age groups identified in this study. © 2016 The Authors.
Wannop, John W; Luo, Geng; Stefanyshyn, Darren J
Football is the most popular high school sport; however, it has the highest rate of injury. Speculation has been prevalent that foot fixation due to high footwear traction contributes to injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the athlete's specific footwear traction (measured with their own shoes on the field of play) and lower extremity noncontact injury in high school football. For 3 yr, 555 high school football athletes had their footwear traction measured on the actual field of play at the start of the season, and any injury the athletes suffered during a game was recorded. Lower extremity noncontact injury rates, grouped based on the athlete's specific footwear traction (both translational and rotational), were compared. For translational traction, injury rate reached a peak of 23.3 injuries/1000 game exposures within the midrange of translational traction, before decreasing to 5.0 injuries/1000 game exposures in the high range of traction. For rotational traction, there was a steady increase in injury rate as footwear traction increased, starting at 4.2 injuries/1000 game exposures at low traction and reaching 19.2 injuries/1000 game exposures at high traction. A relationship exists between footwear traction and noncontact lower extremity injury, with increases in rotational traction leading to a greater injury rate and increases in translational traction leading to a decrease in injury. It is recommended that athletes consider selecting footwear with the lowest rotational traction values for which no detriment in performance results.
Hamstring injury Overview A hamstring injury occurs when you strain or pull one of your hamstring muscles — the group of three muscles that run along ... You may be more likely to get a hamstring injury if you play soccer, basketball, football, tennis ...
Kronisch, Robert L; Pfeiffer, Ronald P
This article reviews the available literature regarding injuries in off-road bicyclists. Recent progress in injury research has allowed the description of several patterns of injury in this sport. Mountain biking remains popular, particularly among young males, although sales and participation figures have decreased in the last several years. Competition in downhill racing has increased, while cross-country racing has decreased somewhat in popularity. Recreational riders comprise the largest segment of participants, but little is known about the demographics and injury epidemiology of noncompetitive mountain cyclists. Most mountain bikers participating in surveys reported a history of previous injuries, but prospective studies conducted at mountain bike races have found injury rates of bike racing the risk of injury may be higher for women than men. Minor injuries such as abrasions and contusions occur frequently, but are usually of little consequence. Fractures usually involve the torso or upper extremities, and shoulder injuries are common. Head and face injuries are not always prevented by current helmet designs. Fatal injuries are rare but have been reported. Improvements in safety equipment, rider training and racecourse design are suggested injury prevention measures. The authors encourage continued research in this sport.
Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C
Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.
Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Zarghooni, K; Sobottke, R; Eysel, P; Herren, C; Knöll, P; Illgner, U; Michael, J
Boxing remains a subject of controversy and is often classified as dangerous. But the discussion is based mostly on retrospective studies. This survey was conducted as a prospective study. From October 2012 to September 2013, 44 competitive boxers were asked to report their injuries once a month. The questionnaire collected general information (training, competition) and recorded the number of bouts fought, injuries and resulting lost days. A total of 192 injuries were recorded, 133 of which resulted in interruption of training or competition. Each boxer sustained 3 injuries per year on average. The injury rate was 12.8 injuries per 1 000 h of training. Boxers fighting more than 3 bouts per year sustain more injuries (p=0.0075). The injury rate does is not a function of age (age≤19 vs. > 19a, p=0.53). Injuries to the head and the upper limbs occur most frequently. The most common injuries are soft tissue lacerations and contusions. Head injuries with neurological symptoms rarely occur (4.2%). Boxing has a high injury rate that is comparable with other contact sports, but most injuries are minor. Injury frequency is not a function of whether the boxer competes in the junior or adult category. Athletes fighting many bouts per year have a greater risk of injury. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Ooigawa, Hidetoshi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Fukui, Shinji; Otani, Naoki; Osumi, Atsushi; Toyooka, Terushige; Shima, Katsuji
We studied the fate of Nissl-stained dark neurons (N-DNs) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). N-DNs were investigated in the cerebral neocortex and the hippocampus using a rat lateral fluid percussion injury model. Nissl stain, acid fuchsin stain and immunohistochemistry with phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (pERK) antibody were used in order to assess posttraumatic neurons. In the neocortex, the number of dead neurons at 24 h postinjury was significantly less than that of the observed N-DNs in the earlier phase. Only a few N-DNs increased their pERK immunoreactivity. On the other hand, in the hippocampus the number of dead neurons was approximately the same number as that of the N-DNs, and most N-DNs showed an increased pERK immunoreactivity. These data suggest that not all N-DNs inevitably die especially in the neocortex after TBI. The fate of N-DNs is thus considered to differ depending on brain subfields.
Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...
Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...
Fuller, Colin W
Injuries in team sports are normally characterised by the incidence, severity, and location and type of injuries sustained: these measures, however, do not provide an insight into the variable injury-burden experienced during a season. Injury burden varies according to the team's match and training loads, the rate at which injuries are sustained and the time taken for these injuries to resolve. At the present time, this time-based variation of injury burden has not been modelled. To develop a kinetic model describing the time-based injury burden experienced by teams in elite team sports and to demonstrate the model's utility. Rates of injury were quantified using a large eight-season database of rugby injuries (5253) and exposure (60,085 player-match-hours) in English professional rugby. Rates of recovery from injury were quantified using time-to-recovery analysis of the injuries. The kinetic model proposed for predicting a team's time-based injury burden is based on a composite rate equation developed from the incidence of injury, a first-order rate of recovery from injury and the team's playing load. The utility of the model was demonstrated by examining common scenarios encountered in elite rugby. The kinetic model developed describes and predicts the variable injury-burden arising from match play during a season of rugby union based on the incidence of match injuries, the rate of recovery from injury and the playing load. The model is equally applicable to other team sports and other scenarios.
van der Horst, N
The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over the last three decades. Therefore, research on hamstring injury prevention is necessary to reduce hamstring injury rates. Exercise programs to reduce soccer injuries are easy to implement during r...
Mukherjee, Swarup; Leong, Hin Fong; Chen, Simin; Foo, Yong Xiang Wayne; Pek, Hong Kiat
Dragon boating is a fast-growing team water sport and involves forceful repetitive motions that predispose athletes to overuse injuries. Despite the rising popularity of the sport, there is a lack of studies on injury epidemiology in dragon boating. To investigate the injury epidemiology in competitive dragon boating athletes. Descriptive epidemiological study. A total of 95 dragon boaters (49 males, 46 females) representing their respective universities took part in this study. Data were collected retrospectively using a reliable and valid self-report questionnaire. The study period was from August 2012 to July 2013. A total of 104 musculoskeletal injuries were reported (3.82 injuries/1000 athlete-exposures), 99% of which occurred during training. The most commonly injured regions were the lower back (22.1%), shoulder (21.1%), and wrist (17.3%). The majority of injuries were due to overuse (56.3%), and incomplete muscle-tendon strain was the most prevalent type of injury (50.5%). The time loss from injuries varied. In addition, a significant majority of the dragon boating athletes incurred nonmusculoskeletal injuries, with abrasions (90.5%), blisters (78.9%), and sunburns (72.6%) being the most common. Competitive dragon boating has a moderately high injury incidence, and there seems to be a direct relationship between exposure time and injury rate. A majority of the injuries are overuse in nature, and the body parts most actively involved in paddling movement are at higher risk of injuries. The high incidence of nonmusculoskeletal injuries in dragon boaters suggested that these injuries are likely outcomes of participation in the sport.
Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W
Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during st...
Renninger, Christopher H; Cochran, Grant; Tompane, Trevor; Bellamy, Joseph; Kuhn, Kevin
Lisfranc injuries result from high- and low-energy mechanisms though the literature has been more focused on high-energy mechanisms. A comparison of high-energy (HE) and low-energy (LE) injury patterns is lacking. The objective of this study was to report injury patterns in LE Lisfranc joint injuries and compare them to HE injury patterns. Operative Lisfranc injuries were identified over a 5-year period. Patient demographics, mechanism of injury, injury pattern, associated injuries, missed diagnoses, clinical course, and imaging studies were reviewed and compared. HE mechanism was defined as motor vehicle crash, motorcycle crash, direct crush, and fall from greater than 4 feet and LE mechanism as athletic activity, ground level twisting, or fall from less than 4 feet. Thirty-two HE and 48 LE cases were identified with 19.3 months of average follow-up. There were no differences in demographics or missed diagnosis frequency (21% HE vs 18% LE). Time to seek care was not significantly different. HE injuries were more likely to have concomitant nonfoot fractures (37% vs 6%), concomitant foot fractures (78% vs 4%), cuboid fractures (31% vs 6%), metatarsal base fractures (84% vs 29%), displaced intra-articular fractures (59% vs 4%), and involvement of all 5 rays (23% vs 6%). LE injuries were more commonly ligamentous (68% vs 16%), with fewer rays involved (2.7 vs 4.1). LE mechanisms were a more common cause of Lisfranc joint injury in this cohort. These mechanisms generally resulted in an isolated, primarily ligamentous injury sparing the lateral column. Both types had high rates of missed injury that could result in delayed treatment. Differences in injury patterns could help direct future research to optimize treatment algorithms. Level III, comparative series.
Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W
Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries.
Goh, S L; Mokhtar, A H; Mohamad Ali, M R
The aim of the study was to examine sports injury pattern and establish cost of injuries in relation to training of 58 competitive badminton players in a Malaysian National Sports School. This one-year prospective observational study recruited all the 13-16 year old students after obtaining informed consent from their appointed guardian. All participants were requested to report any injuries, which were pain or disabilities that occur within the study period (September 1, 2008 to August 31, 2009) either during training or competition. Injured students were to seek treatment from the researcher(s) who made weekly visits and they were then followed up accordingly until they return to full training. Details and progress of the injuries were documented during each visit. Sixty-three injuries were recorded. Soft tissue sprains/strains were the commonest injury (64%). About one third of the injuries occurred in the lower limb especially the knees and was followed by back injuries; 38% of the injuries did not require training modification, half of these injuries resumed training within one week. Upon full training, half of them were still symptomatic. Injury risk was 57%; injury rate was 0.9 injuries/ player/1000 training hours. Badminton injuries mostly involved the lower limb and almost all overuse injuries occurred in the lower limb. However, badminton injuries as a whole were predominantly sprains and strains, and not overuse in nature as widely believed.
Leung, Felix T; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Hides, Julie A
There is a high incidence of injuries in rugby union due to the physical nature of the game. In youth rugby union, there are large variations in injury rates reported. Our study investigated the rates of injuries in school-level rugby union players in Australia using the consensus statement for rugby union injuries. Injury surveillance was conducted on 480 rugby players from 1 school in Queensland, Australia. Injury data were collected using paper-based injury recording forms during the 8-week rugby season using a "medical-attention" injury definition. In total, 76 players sustained one or more injuries, with a total of 80 injuries recorded. The overall injury rate was 31.8 injuries/1000 match player hours (95% CI, 25.4-39.4). Concussion had an incidence rate of 6.0/1000 match player hours (95% CI, 3.5-9.6). The incidence of upper limb and lower limb injuries were 9.1 and 9.9/1000 match player hours, respectively (95% CI, 5.9-13.5 and 6.6-14.5). The older age divisions had higher injury rates and most injuries occurred while tackling or being tackled. The injury rates observed in this sample of Australian school rugby union players provides direction for future studies to enable informed decisions relating to development of injury prevention programmes at this level of rugby.
Bledsoe, Gregory H; Li, Guohu; Levy, Fred
Although a popular endeavor, boxing has fallen under increased scrutiny because of its association with traumatic brain injury. However, few studies have investigated the overall epidemiology of boxing injuries from representative samples, and no study has ever documented the incidence of injuries in female boxers. This study is a review of professional boxing data from the state of Nevada from September 2001 through March 2003. Medical and outcome data for all professional boxing matches occurring in Nevada between September 2001 and March 2003 (n = 524 matches) were analyzed on the basis of a pair-matched, case-control design. Cases were boxers who received an injury during the boxing matches. Boxers who were not injured served as control subjects. Both conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for injury. The overall incidence rate of injury was 17.1 per 100 boxer-matches, or 3.4 per 100 boxer-rounds. Facial laceration accounted for 51% of all injuries, followed by hand injury (17%), eye injury (14%), and nose injury (5%). Male boxers were significantly more likely than female boxers to receive injuries (3.6 versus 1.2 per 100 boxer-rounds, P = 0.01). Male boxing matches also ended in knockouts and technical knockouts more often than did female matches (P boxing matches is high, particularly among male boxers. Superficial facial lacerations are the most common injury reported. Male boxers have a higher rate of knockout and technical knockouts than female boxers. Further research is necessary to determine the outcomes of injury, particularly the long-term neurologic outcome differences between sexes.
Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A
The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision
Malanga, Gerard; Peter, Jason
Whiplash injuries are very common and usually are associated with rear-end collisions. However, a whiplash injury can be caused by any event that results in hyperextension and flexion of the cervical spine. These injuries are of serious concern to all consumers due to escalating cost of diagnosis, treatment, insurance, and litigation. Most acute whiplash injury cases respond well to conservative treatments, which result in resolution of symptoms usually within weeks to a few months after the injury occurred. Chronic whiplash injuries often are harder to diagnose and treat and often result in poor outcomes. Current research shows that various structures in the cervical spine receive nociceptive innervation and potentially may be the cause of chronic pain symptoms. One potential pain generator showing promise is the facet or zygapophyseal joints. Various researchers have proven that these joints are injured during whiplash injuries and that diagnosis and temporary pain relief can be obtained with facet joint injections. The initial evaluation of any patient should follow an organized and stepwise approach, and more serious causes of neck pain must first be ruled out through the history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. Treatment regimens should be evidence-based, focusing on treatments that have proven to be effective in treating acute and chronic whiplash injuries.
... trauma can happen at home, school, play or sports. Most common injuries are scratches to the cornea or blunt trauma. Approved and tested eye and face protection is essential to prevent injuries. Sports such as hockey, baseball, racquet ball, squash, and ...
Thornton, Jane S; Vinther, Anders; Wilson, Fiona
understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport. Through a better understanding of the nature of the sport and mechanisms of injury, physicians and other healthcare providers will be better equipped to treat...
Nysted, M; Drogset, J O
To describe the mechanism, location and types of injury for all patients treated for trampoline-associated injuries at St Olav's University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, from March 2001to October 2004. Patients were identified from a National Injury Surveillance System. All patients were asked to complete a standard questionnaire at their first visit at the hospital. Most data were recorded prospectively, but data on the mechanism of injury, the number of participants on the trampoline at the time of injury, adult supervision and whether the activity occurred at school or in another organised setting were collected retrospectively. A total of 556 patients, 56% male and 44% female, were included. The mean age of patients was 11 (range 1-62) years. 77% of the injuries occurred on the body of the trampoline, including falls on to the mat, collisions with another jumper, falls on to the frame or the springs, and performing a somersault, whereas 22% of the people fell off the trampoline. In 74% of the cases, more than two people were on the trampoline, with as many as nine trampolinists noted at the time of injury. For children Trampolining can cause serious injuries, especially in the neck and elbow areas of young children. The use of a trampoline is a high-risk activity. However, a ban is not supported. The importance of having safety guidelines for the use of trampolines is emphasised.
Song, Rachel B; Basso, D Michele; da Costa, Ronaldo C; Fisher, Lesley C; Mo, Xiaokui; Moore, Sarah A
Naturally occurring acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in pet dogs provides an important clinical animal model through which to confirm and extend findings from rodent studies; however, validated quantitative outcome measures for dogs are limited. We adapted the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) scale for use in a clinical dog model of acute thoracolumbar SCI. Based on observation of normal dogs, modifications were made to account for species differences in locomotion. Assessments of paw and tail position, and trunk stability were modified to produce a 19 point scale suitable for use in dogs, termed the canine BBB scale (cBBB). Pet dogs with naturally occurring acute SCI were assigned cBBB scores at 3, 10 and 30days after laminectomy. Scores assigned via the cBBB were stable across testing sessions in normal dogs but increased significantly between days 3 and 30 in SCI-affected dogs (p=0.0003). The scale was highly responsive to changes in locomotor recovery over a 30day period, with a standardized response mean of 1.34. Concurrent validity was good, with strong correlations observed between the cBBB and two other locomotor scales, the OSCIS (r=0.94; pin canine clinical translational models of SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Leanderson, Charlotte; Leanderson, Johan; Wykman, Anders; Strender, Lars-Erik; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Kristina
The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries, site and type of injury, and the most common injury diagnoses in young ballet dancers at the Royal Swedish Ballet School, a public school in Stockholm. This retrospective study of 476 students (297 girls and 179 boys) aged 10-21 years was based on medical records for the period August 1988 to June 1995. Data on diagnosis, site of injury and type of injury were collected, and the injuries were classified as traumatic or due to overuse. In total, 438 injuries were recorded. The injury incidence rate was 0.8 per 1,000 dance hours in both female and male dancers and tended to increase with increasing age. Most injuries occurred as the result of overuse. Seventy-six per cent of all injuries occurred in the lower extremities. Ankle sprain was the most common traumatic diagnosis, while the most common overuse-related diagnosis was tendinosis pedis. A few gender differences were noted. The findings of this study suggest that there is a need to apply primary injury prevention in young ballet dancers. Future studies could aim to identify (1) injury risk factors and (2) injury prevention programmes that are effective at reducing injury rates in young dancers.
Full Text Available History of present illness: A 48-year-old male with unknown past medical history presents as a trauma after being hit by a car traveling approximately 25 miles per hour. On initial presentation, the patient is confused, combative, and not answering questions appropriately. The patient is hypotensive with a blood pressure of 68/40 and a heart rate of 50 beats per minute, with oxygen saturation at 96% on room air. FAST scan is positive for fluid in Morrison’s pouch, splenorenal space, and pericardial space. Significant findings: The initial chest x-ray showed an abnormal superior mediastinal contour (blue line, suggestive of a possible aortic injury. The CT angiogram showed extensive circumferential irregularity and outpouching of the distal aortic arch (red arrows compatible with aortic transection. In addition, there was a circumferential intramural hematoma, which extended through the descending aorta to the proximal infrarenal abdominal aorta (green arrow. There was also an extensive surrounding mediastinal hematoma extending around the descending aorta and supraaortic branches (purple arrows. Discussion: Traumatic aortic injury is a life-threatening event. The incidence of blunt thoracic aortic injury is low, between 1 to 2 percent of those patients with blunt thoracic trauma.1 However, approximately 80% of patients with traumatic aortic injury die at the scene.2 Therefore it is imperative to diagnose traumatic aortic injury in a timely fashion. The diagnosis can be difficult due to the non-specific signs and symptoms and other distracting injuries. Clinical suspicion should be based on the mechanism of the injury and the hemodynamic status of the patient. In any patient with blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest that is hemodynamically unstable, traumatic aortic injury should be on the differential. Chest x-ray can be used as a screening tool. A normal chest x-ray has a negative predictive value of approximately 97%. CTA chest is the
Eltahir, E M; Hamilton, D
Colonic seat belt injuries are rare but carry higher mortality rates than small bowel injuries. The case of a 44 year old man is described who had severe sigmoid colon compression injury from his seat belt a few days after a road traffic accident.
... kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, Post-renal failure - injury; Kidney obstruction - injury Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman ...
Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...
Krøner, K; Schmidt, S A; Nielsen, A B; Yde, J; Jakobsen, B W; Møller-Madsen, B; Jensen, J
In a one year period, from 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1986, 4303 patients with sports injuries were treated at Aarhus Amtssygehus and Aarhus Kommunehospital. The mean age was 21.6 years (range 7-72 years) and 2830 were men. Two hundred and seventeen badminton injuries occurred in 208 patients (136 men) with a mean age of 29.6 years (range 7-57 years), constituting 4.1 percent of all sport injuries in Aarhus. Joints and ligaments were injured in 58.5 percent of the patients, most frequently located in the lower limb and significantly more often among patients younger than 30 years of age. Muscle injury occurred in 19.8 percent of the patients. This type of injury was significantly more frequent among patients older than 30 years of age. Most injuries were minor. However, 6.8 percent of the patients were hospitalized and 30.9 percent received additional treatment by a physician. As the risk of injury varies with age, attempts to plan training individually and to institute prophylactic measures should be made. PMID:2078802
Destombe, Claire; Lejeune, Laurent; Guillodo, Yannick; Roudaut, Anne; Jousse, Sandrine; Devauchelle, Valérie; Saraux, Alain
To determine the incidence and nature of karate injuries sustained in karate clubs and to identify risk factors for injuries. One hundred eighty-six individuals from three karate clubs in Brest, France, were entered in a retrospective study extending from September 2002 to June 2003. Each athlete was asked to complete a questionnaire on karate injuries sustained during the previous year (type, location, mechanism, exercise during which the injury occurred, number of days off training and work, and medical care). Injury types were described by number of injuries and risk factors per number of injured athletes. Forty-eight (28.8%) of the 186 athletes sustained 83 injuries (63 while training and 20 while competing). The annual injury rate was 44.6 per 100 athletes. Incidence rates were similar in males and females and across the three clubs but increased with age, time spent training (3.6+/-1.7 vs. 2.9+/-1.5 h/week; P=0.001), rank (lower ranks vs. brown and black belts, P=0.015), and years of practice (7.3+/-5.5 years in athletes with injuries vs. 5.1+/-4.8 in those without injuries; P=0.03). Injuries consisted of 43 (53%) hematomas, 16 (19%) sprains, seven (7%) muscle lesions, six (7%) fractures, four (5%) malaise episodes, and seven (7%) miscellaneous lesions. Time off training occurred for 26 (31.3%) injuries and ranged from 8 to >30 days. The body region involved was the head in 22 (26.5%) injuries, the torso in eight injuries (9.6%), the upper limb in 24 (28.9%) injuries, and the lower limb in 29 (35%) injuries. Karate injuries are fairly common but usually minor. They are more likely to occur during competitions than while training. The head and limbs are the main regions involved. Longer training times per week and higher rank are associated with an increased risk of injury. Prevention seems crucial.
Does the surgical approach for treating mandibular condylar fractures affect the rate of seventh cranial nerve injuries? A systematic review and meta-analysis based on a new classification for surgical approaches.
Al-Moraissi, Essam Ahmed; Louvrier, Aurélien; Colletti, Giacomo; Wolford, Larry M; Biglioli, Federico; Ragaey, Marwa; Meyer, Christophe; Ellis, Edward
The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of facial nerve injury (FNI) when performing (ORIF) of mandibular condylar fractures by different surgical approaches. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed that included several databases with specific keywords, a reference search, and a manual search for suitable articles. The inclusion criteria were all clinical trials, with the aim of assessing the rate of facial nerve injuries when (ORIF) of mandibular condylar fractures was performed using different surgical approaches. The main outcome variable was transient facial nerve injury (TFNI) and permanent facial nerve injury (PFNI) according to the fracture levels, namely: condylar head fractures (CHFs), condylar neck fractures (CNFs), and condylar base fractures (CBFs). For studies where there was no delineation between CNFs and CBFs, the fractures were defined as CNFs/CBFs. The dependent variables were the surgical approaches. A total of 3873 patients enrolled in 96 studies were included in this analysis. TFNI rates reported in the literature were as follows: A) For the transoral approach: a) for strictly intraoral 0.72% (1.3 in CNFs and 0% for CBFs); b) for the transbuccal trocar instrumentation 2.7% (4.2% in CNFs and 0% for CBFs); and c) for endoscopically assisted ORIF 4.2% (5% in CNFs, and 4% in CBFs). B) For low submandibular approach 15.3% (26.1% for CNFs, 11.8% for CBFs, and 13.7% for CNFs/CBFs). C) For the high submandibular/angular subparotid approach with masseter transection 0% in CBFs. D) For the high submandibular/angular transmassetric anteroparotid approach 0% (CNFs and CBFs). E) For the transparotid retromandibular approach a) with nerve facial preparation 14.4% (23.9% in CNFs, 11.8% in CBFs and 13.7% for CNFs/CBFs); b) without facial nerve preparation 19% (24.3% for CNFs and 10.5% for CBFs). F) For retromandibular transmassetric anteroparotid approach 3.4% in CNFs/CBFs. G) For retromandibular transmassetric anteroparotid
Bunker, T. D.
A series of 100 roller skating injuries is presented. Roller skating injuries have been occurring at a higher rate than the previously reported skateboarding epidemic of 1977. The severity of injury has been lower, 32% fractures and dislocations occurring whilst roller skating, compared to 60% whilst skateboarding. In particular a striking reduction is seen in ankle fractures. Fifty questionnaires detailing method of injury were analysed. Images p205-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6652406
Moreland, M S
Skiing injuries in children continue to represent a significant health problem. The incidence of injuries in young teenagers remains significantly above the rate for all ages, and tibial fractures are particularly common. Continued efforts are needed to design adequate binding systems for the child that will account for the demands of a broad range of varying sizes and skill levels. As organized competition becomes more popular, there must be an increasing awareness and supervision of the unique musculoskeletal requirements of young competitors in both Alpine and Nordic events.
Laparoscopy in penetrating abdominal injuries is now accepted and practiced in many modern trauma centres. However its role in evaluating and managing retroperitoneal injuries is not yet well established. The aim of this study was to document our experience in using laparoscopy in a setting of penetrating abdominal injuries with suspected retroperitoneal injury in haemodynamically stable patients. A retrospective descriptive study of prospectively collected data from a trauma unit at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH) was done. All haemodynamically stable patients with penetrating abdominal injury who were offered laparoscopy from January 2012 to December 2015 were reviewed and those who met the inclusion criteria were analysed. A total of 284 patients with penetrating abdominal injuries were reviewed and 56 met the inclusion criteria and were analysed. The median age was 30.8 years (15-60 years) and males constituted 87.5% of the study population. The most common mechanism of injury was penetrating stab wounds (62.5%). Forty-five patients (80.3%) were managed laparoscopically, of these n=16 (28.5%) had retroperitoneal injuries that required surgical intervention. The most commonly injured organ was the colon (19.6%). The conversion rate was 19.6% with most common indication for conversion been active bleeding (14%). The complication rate was 7.14% (N=4) and were all Clavien-Dindo grade 3. There were no recorded missed injuries and no mortality. The positive outcomes documented in this study with no missed injuries and absence of mortality suggests that laparoscopy is a feasible option in managing stable patients with suspected retroperitoneal injuries.
Cross, Matthew; Williams, Sean; Kemp, Simon P.T.; Fuller, Colin; Taylor, Aileen; Brooks, John; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith
Background: Choosing an appropriate definition for injury in injury surveillance studies is essential to ensure a balance among reporting reliability, providing an accurate representation of injury risk, and describing the nature of the clinical demand. Purpose: To provide guidance on the choice of injury definition for injury surveillance studies by comparing within- and between-team variability in injury incidence with >24-hour and >7-day time-loss injury definitions in a large multiteam injury surveillance study. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Injury data were reported for 2248 professional rugby union players from 15 Premiership Rugby clubs over 12 seasons. Within-team percentage coefficient of variation and mean between-team standard deviation (expressed as a percentage coefficient of variation) in injury incidence rates (injuries per 1000 player match hours) were calculated. For both variables, a comparison was made between >24-hour and >7-day injury incidence rates in terms of the magnitude of the observed effects. Results: The overall mean incidence across the population with a >24-hour time-loss injury definition was approximately double the reported incidence with the >7-day definition. There was a 10% higher between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with the >24-hour time-loss definition versus the >7-day definition. Conclusion: There was a likely higher degree of between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with a >24-hour time-loss definition than with a >7-day definition of injury. However, in professional sports settings, it is likely that the benefits of using a more inclusive definition of injury (improved understanding of clinical demand and the appropriate and accurate reporting of injury risk) outweigh the small increase in variation in reporting consistency. PMID:29581994
Cross, Matthew; Williams, Sean; Kemp, Simon P T; Fuller, Colin; Taylor, Aileen; Brooks, John; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith
Choosing an appropriate definition for injury in injury surveillance studies is essential to ensure a balance among reporting reliability, providing an accurate representation of injury risk, and describing the nature of the clinical demand. To provide guidance on the choice of injury definition for injury surveillance studies by comparing within- and between-team variability in injury incidence with >24-hour and >7-day time-loss injury definitions in a large multiteam injury surveillance study. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Injury data were reported for 2248 professional rugby union players from 15 Premiership Rugby clubs over 12 seasons. Within-team percentage coefficient of variation and mean between-team standard deviation (expressed as a percentage coefficient of variation) in injury incidence rates (injuries per 1000 player match hours) were calculated. For both variables, a comparison was made between >24-hour and >7-day injury incidence rates in terms of the magnitude of the observed effects. The overall mean incidence across the population with a >24-hour time-loss injury definition was approximately double the reported incidence with the >7-day definition. There was a 10% higher between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with the >24-hour time-loss definition versus the >7-day definition. There was a likely higher degree of between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with a >24-hour time-loss definition than with a >7-day definition of injury. However, in professional sports settings, it is likely that the benefits of using a more inclusive definition of injury (improved understanding of clinical demand and the appropriate and accurate reporting of injury risk) outweigh the small increase in variation in reporting consistency.
Loosemore, Michael; Lightfoot, Joseph; Palmer-Green, Deborah; Gatt, Ian; Bilzon, James; Beardsley, Chris
There has been no comprehensive injury report of elite-level amateur boxers in competition and training. We reviewed injuries in training and competition in the Great Britain (GB) amateur boxing squad between 2005 and 2009. Longitudinal, prospective injury surveillance over 5 years of the GB boxing squad from 2005 to 2009. 66 boxers passed through the squad. The location, region affected, description, and the duration of each injury were recorded by the team doctor and team physiotherapist. We recorded whether the injury occurred during competition or training, and also whether it was a new or a recurrent injury. The injury rate during competition was calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 h. More injuries affected the hand than any other body location. This was the case overall, in training and competition individually, and for both new and recurrent injuries. More injuries occurred during training than during competition, and most injuries were new rather than recurrent. Total injury rate during competition was 828 per 1000 h and hand injury rate in competition was 302 injuries per 1000 h. Hand injury rate in competition was significantly higher than at the other locations. The incidence of concussion is comparatively low. Injury prevention should aim to protect the hands and wrists of elite amateur boxers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
... Dallas, TX: American Red Cross; 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...
Dec 18, 2013 ... ROS avoidance genes play pivotal role in defense mechanism against chilling injury derived oxidative stress. ... Low temperature storage is a postharvest technology ..... crops is highly dependent on ethylene production and.
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... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...
... of different injuries can affect the outer ear. Cauliflower ear (subperichondrial hematoma) A blunt blow to the ... to a deformed ear. This deformity, called a cauliflower ear, is common among wrestlers, boxers, and rugby ...
Sran, R; Djerboua, M; Romanow, N; Mitra, T; Russell, K; White, K; Goulet, C; Emery, C; Hagel, B
The objective of our study was to evaluate incidence rates and profile of school program ski and snowboard-related injuries by school grade group using a historical cohort design. Injuries were identified via Accident Report Forms completed by ski patrollers. Severe injury was defined as those with ambulance evacuation or recommending patient transport to hospital. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the school grade group-specific injury rates adjusting for risk factors (sex, activity, ability, and socioeconomic status) and accounting for the effect of clustering by school. Forty of 107 (37%) injuries reported were severe. Adolescents (grades 7-12) had higher crude injury rates (91 of 10 000 student-days) than children (grades 1-3: 25 of 10 000 student-days; grades 4-6: 65 of 10 000 student-days). Those in grades 1-3 had no severe injuries. Although the rate of injury was lower in grades 1-3, there were no statistically significant grade group differences in adjusted analyses. Snowboarders had a higher rate of injury compared with skiers, while higher ability level was protective. Participants in grades 1-3 had the lowest crude and adjusted injury rates. Students in grades 7-12 had the highest rate of overall and severe injuries. These results will inform evidence-based guidelines for school ski/snowboard program participation by school-aged children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L
The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons.
Kruse, R J
There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.
Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J
A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Clay, W. Kampen, L.T.B. van & Hogerzeil, H.H.W.
The results of a field experiment into the relations between injuries and disability are presented. In this study the effects of the variables age, sex, injury severity, and injury location on the disability rate was investigated. Injury location appears to have the greatest effect on the chance of
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Although there have been significant advances in management, associated severe injuries, in particular chest injuries, remain a major challenge. Extracranial injuries, especially chest injuries increase mortality in patients with TBI in both short.
Christian Wisdom Magtajas Valleser
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the common injuries of Filipino collegiate tennis players; 110 varsity tennis players with a mean of 20 years old (SD ± 1.7 with an average playing experience of 12 years participated in the study. There was a 100% occurrence of at least one injury with an average rate of 5.98 injuries per person. The authors observed that the most commonly injured anatomical region is the lower extremity; ankles were recorded as the most commonly injured part. Other commonly injured areas included the shoulders and lower back. Furthermore, the most common injury type is tendinitis, sprains, and strains. The recorded injuries were mostly associated with overuse injuries, and the findings were similar to those of most other studies on tennis injuries. A larger sample size may provide more conclusive findings on tennis injuries, particularly in different levels of competition, such as recreational or professional athletes.
Ivers, Rebecca; Clapham, Kathleen; Senserrick, Teresa; Lyford, Marilyn; Stevenson, Mark
Injury prevention in Indigenous communities in Australia is a continuing national challenge, with Indigenous fatality rates due to injury three times higher than the general population. Suicide and transport are the leading causes of injury mortality, and assault, transport and falls the primary causes of injury morbidity. Addressing the complex range of injury problems in disadvantaged Indigenous communities requires considerable work in building or enhancing existing capacity of communities to address local safety issues. Poor data, lack of funding and absence of targeted programs are some of the issues that impede injury prevention activities. Traditional approaches to injury prevention can be used to highlight key areas of need, however adaptations are needed in keeping with Indigenous peoples' holistic approach to health, linked to land and linked to community in order to address the complex spiritual, emotional and social determinants of Indigenous injury.
Valle, Xavier; L Tol, Johannes; Hamilton, Bruce; Rodas, Gil; Malliaras, Peter; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Rizo, Vicenc; Moreno, Marcel; Jardi, Jaume
Hamstring acute muscle injuries are prevalent in several sports including AFL football (Australian Football League), sprinting and soccer, and are often associated with prolonged time away from sport. In response to this, research into prevention and management of hamstring injury has increased, but epidemiological data shows no decline in injury and re-injury rates, suggesting that rehabilitation programs and return to play (RTP) criteria have to be improved. There continues to be a lack of consensus regarding how to assess performance, recovery and readiness to RTP, following hamstring strain injury. The aim of this paper was to propose rehabilitation protocol for hamstring muscle injuries based on current basic science and research knowledge regarding injury demographics and management options. Criteria-based (subjective and objective) progression through the rehabilitation program will be outlined along with exercises for each phase, from initial injury to RTP.
Weichel, Eric D; Colyer, Marcus H
To review the recent literature regarding combat ocular trauma during hostilities in Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom, describe the classification of combat ocular trauma, and offer strategies that may assist in the management of eye injuries. Several recent publications have highlighted features of combat ocular trauma from Operation Iraqi Freedom. The most common cause of today's combat ocular injuries is unconventional fragmentary munitions causing significant blast injuries. These explosive munitions cause high rates of concomitant nonocular injuries such as traumatic brain injury, amputation, and other organ injuries. The most frequent ocular injuries include open-globe and adnexal lacerations. The extreme severity of combat-related open-globe injuries leads to high rates of primary enucleation and retained intraocular foreign bodies. Visual outcomes of intraocular foreign body injuries are similar to other series despite delayed removal, and no cases of endophthalmitis have occurred. Despite these advances, however, significant vision loss persists in cases of perforating globe injuries as well as open and closed-globe trauma involving the posterior segment. This review summarizes the recent literature describing ocular and systemic injuries sustained during Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. An emphasis on classification of ocular injuries as well as a discussion of main outcome measures and complications is discussed.
Aune, Kyle T.; Powers, Joseph M.
Background: Extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) are fitness training regimens relying on aerobic, plyometric, and resistance training exercises, often with high levels of intensity for a short duration of time. These programs have grown rapidly in popularity in recent years, but science describing the safety profile of these programs is lacking. Hypothesis: The rate of injury in the extreme conditioning program is greater than the injury rate of weightlifting and the majority of injuries occ...
Ni Choileain, N
Immediate and early trauma death rates are determined by "first hits" such as hypoxia, hypotension and organ injury, while late mortality correlates closely with "second hits" such as infection. An imbalance between the early systemic inflammatory response (SIRS), and the later compensatory counter-inflammatory response (CARS), is considered to be responsible for much post-traumatic morbidity and mortality. From a clinical perspective, this remains a significant healthcare problem, which has stimulated decades of experimental and clinical research aimed at understanding the functional effects of injury on the immune system. This review describes the impact of injury on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Though it is worth noting that the features of the immune response to injury overlap in many areas with immune dysregulation in sepsis, we attempt here to elucidate the mechanism by which injury predisposes to infection rather than to describe the alterations in host immunity consequent to established sepsis.
McClain, Rance; Wassermen, Jason; Mayfield, Carlene; Berry, Andrew C; Grenier, Greg; Suminski, Richard R
To provide an updated comprehensive profile of mixed martial arts (MMAs) injuries. Correlational and multivariate analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data to examine injuries sustained during 711 MMA bouts. One physician diagnosed any injuries occurring during the bouts. Various sports venues in Kansas and Missouri holding MMA competitions. Male and female and amateur and professional MMA competitors contributing to 1422 fight participations (fight participations = 711 bouts × 2 fighters/bout). State, level (amateur or professional), gender, number of rounds, and bout outcome (knockout/technical knockout [KO/TKO] vs other outcomes [eg, decision]). Injuries/fight participations, injury sustained (yes vs no), and fighter referred to emergency room (ER; yes vs no). The overall injury rate was 8.5% of fight participations (121 injuries/1422 fight participations) or 5.6% of rounds (121/2178 rounds). Injury rates were similar between men and women, but a greater percentage of the injuries caused an altered mental state in men. The risk of being injured was significantly greater for bouts held in Kansas, at the professional level, lasting more rounds, and ending in a KO/TKO. Fighters also were more likely to be referred to the ER if they participated in longer bouts ending in a KO/TKO. The observed injury rate was lower than previously reported suggesting recent regulatory changes have made MMA a safer sport. Increased clinical awareness and additional research should be extended to head-related injuries in MMAs especially those associated with KOs/TKOs.
Willick, Stuart E; Webborn, Nick; Emery, Carolyn; Blauwet, Cheri A; Pit-Grosheide, Pia; Stomphorst, Jaap; Van de Vliet, Peter; Patino Marques, Norma Angelica; Martinez-Ferrer, J Oriol; Jordaan, Esmè; Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin
The characteristics and incidence of injuries at the Summer Paralympic Games have not previously been reported. A better understanding of injuries improves the medical care of athletes and informs future injury prevention strategies. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to characterise the incidence and nature of injuries during the London 2012 Summer Paralympic Games. Injury information was obtained from two databases. One database was populated from medical encounter forms completed by providers at the time of assessment in one of the medical stations operated by the Organising Committee. The second database was populated daily with information provided by team medical personnel who completed a comprehensive, web-based injury survey. The overall injury incidence rate was 12.7 injuries/1000 athlete-days. Injury rates were similar in male and female athletes. The precompetition injury rates in women were higher than those in the competition period. Higher injury rates were found in older athletes and certain sports such as football 5-a-side (22.4 injuries/1000 athlete-days). Overall, 51.5% of injuries were new onset acute traumatic injuries. The most commonly injured region (percentage of all injuries) was the shoulder (17.7%), followed by the wrist/hand (11.4%), elbow (8.8%) and knee (7.9%). This is the largest and most comprehensive epidemiological report examining injuries in Paralympic athletes. Injury rates differ according to age and sport. Upper limb injuries are common. The knowledge gained from this study will inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies in Paralympic sport. The Epidemiology of Injuries at the London 2012 Paralympic Games.
78 viii ACRONYMS FFS Forefoot Strike MFS Midfoot Strike RFS Rearfoot...differences between forefoot and rearfoot striking runners. Daoud collected the history of the 52 runners and quantified their injury rates and severity...conclusion was that the rearfoot striking runners have a significantly higher rate of repetitive stress injuries compared to forefoot runners
Federiuk, C S; Mann, N C
To determine the types of injuries associated with telemark skiing and the effects of ability level, equipment, and terrain. A survey was mailed to a sample of North American telemark skiers. Completed surveys were returned by 548 telemarkers (response rate = 74.5%). The mean age was 42.7 (+/- 9.3) years, and 69% were male. A total of 439 injury events resulted in 494 body injuries, reported by 285 skiers (52%). Lower-extremity injuries (n = 231) were more frequent than upper-extremity injuries (n = 187). Knee injuries were most common with 128 cases, followed by 80 thumb, 66 shoulder, and 44 ankle injuries. Surgery was required in 39 cases. Skiers suffering thumb injuries with sequela lasting greater than 3 months were 10.1 times less likely to have sought medical attention than skiers with other long-term injuries (p boot type and overall knee or ankle injury, but risk of severe ankle injury was increased in leather boots compared to plastic (OR = 8.0, CI = 1.05, 60.59). Release bindings were used by 27.9% of all skiers but were in use in only 18.7% of injury events, suggesting that release plates have a protective effect against injury (OR = 0.59, p knee, thumb, shoulder, and ankle are most frequently injured telemark skiing. Injuries are more likely to occur at lift-served areas than in the backcountry. Thumb injuries are often ignored and may result in long-term sequela. Ankle injuries appear more severe in leather boots. Release bindings appear protective against injury, but they often do not release.
A need to evaluate psychological antecedents to injury in strength-based sports is evident. Powerlifting especially has seen a rise in participation rates (International Paralympic Committee; Powerlifting Australia Ltd.; British Weight Lifting), also resulting in an increase in weightlifting-related injuries (Metzger et al., 2012). While much literature exists on mental stressors and coping mechanisms athletes encounter in the sport context, minimal research has attempted to understand how at...
Caine, Dennis; Bergeron, Glen; Goodwin, Brett J; Thomas, Jessica; Caine, Caroline G; Steinfeld, Sam; Dyck, Kevin; André, Suzanne
A cross-sectional design was employed retrospectively to evaluate injuries self-reported by 71 pre-professional ballet dancers over one season. Some of the descriptive findings of this survey were consistent with those of previous research and suggest particular demographic and injury trends in pre-professional ballet. These results include gender distribution, mean age and age range of participants, training hours, injury location, acute versus overuse injuries, as well as average number of physiotherapy treatments per dancer. Other results provide information that was heretofore unreported or inconsistent with previous investigations. These findings involved proportion of dancers injured, average number of injuries per dancer, overall injury incidence during an 8.5 month period, incidence rate by technique level, mean time loss per injury, proportion of recurrent injury, and activity practiced at time of injury. The results of univariate analyses revealed several significant findings, including a decrease in incidence rate of injury with increased months of experience in the pre-professional program, dancers having lower injury risk in rehearsal and performance than in class, and a reduced risk of injury for dancers at certain technique levels. However, only this latter finding remained significant in multivariate analysis. The results of this study underscore the importance of determining injury rates by gender, technique level, and activity setting in addition to overall injury rates. They also point to the necessity of looking at both overall and individual dancer-based injury risks.
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... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...
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This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.
Bruce Cater; Sohee Kang; Byron Lew; Marco Pollanen
Using data from Ontario, we study the extent to which education mitigates the realized work-disabling effects of permanent occupational injury. Focusing first on the rates of post-injury employment, our results suggest that education has a strong disability-mitigating effect in cases of knee and shoulder injuries, but a smaller effect where workers have experienced permanent back or wrist/finger injuries. A comparison of pre- and post-injury occupations then reveals that education mitigates d...
Schuh, Anna; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Jones, Bruce H
An essential aspect of an injury prevention process is surveillance, which quantifies and documents injury rates in populations of interest and enables monitoring of injury frequencies, rates and trends. To drive progress towards injury reduction goals, additional tools are needed. Statistical process control charts, a methodology that has not been previously applied to Army injury monitoring, capitalise on existing medical surveillance data to provide information to leadership about injury trends necessary for prevention planning and evaluation. Statistical process control Shewhart u-charts were created for 49 US Army installations using quarterly injury medical encounter rates, 2007-2015, for active duty soldiers obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Injuries were defined according to established military injury surveillance recommendations. Charts display control limits three standard deviations (SDs) above and below an installation-specific historical average rate determined using 28 data points, 2007-2013. Charts are available in Army strategic management dashboards. From 2007 to 2015, Army injury rates ranged from 1254 to 1494 unique injuries per 1000 person-years. Installation injury rates ranged from 610 to 2312 injuries per 1000 person-years. Control charts identified four installations with injury rates exceeding the upper control limits at least once during 2014-2015, rates at three installations exceeded the lower control limit at least once and 42 installations had rates that fluctuated around the historical mean. Control charts can be used to drive progress towards injury reduction goals by indicating statistically significant increases and decreases in injury rates. Future applications to military subpopulations, other health outcome metrics and chart enhancements are suggested. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
O'Connor, Siobhán; Hitchens, Peta L; Fortington, Lauren V
The most recent report on hospital-treated horse-riding injuries in Victoria was published 20 years ago. Since then, injury countermeasures and new technology have aimed to make horse riding safer for participants. This study provides an update of horse-riding injuries that required hospital treatment in Victoria and examines changes in injury patterns compared with the earlier study. Horse-riding injuries that required hospital treatment (hospital admission (HA) or emergency department (ED) presentations) were extracted from routinely collected data from public and private hospitals in Victoria from 2002-2003 to 2015-2016. Injury incidence rates per 100 000 Victorian population per financial year and age-stratified and sex-stratified injury incidence rates are presented. Poisson regression was used to examine trends in injury rates over the study period. ED presentation and HA rates were 31.1 and 6.6 per 100 000 person-years, increasing by 28.8% and 47.6% from 2002 to 2016, respectively. Female riders (47.3 ED and 10.1 HA per 100 000 person-years) and those aged between 10 and 14 years (87.8 ED and 15.7 HA per 100 000 person-years) had the highest incidence rates. Fractures (ED 29.4%; HA 56.5%) and head injuries (ED 15.4%; HA 18.9%) were the most common injuries. HA had a mean stay of 2.6±4.1 days, and the mean cost per HA was $A5096±8345. Horse-riding injuries have remained similar in their pattern (eg, types of injuries) since last reported in Victoria. HA and ED incidence rates have increased over the last 14 years. Refocusing on injury prevention countermeasures is recommended along with a clear plan for implementation and evaluation of their effectiveness in reducing injury.
Tuggy, M L; Ong, R
We performed a population survey of telemark skiers over two ski seasons to determine specific risk factors for injury. The survey inquired about the skier's sex, experience, equipment used, injuries, and number of days skied in each season. The respondents completed the surveys whether or not they were injured while skiing. We received 677 responses from telemark skiing clubs, with 19,962 skier-days of data. The number of self-reported injuries was 178, for an overall self-reported injury rate of 8.9 per 1000 skier-days. Knee injuries (N = 48) were the most common injury (27%), followed by thumb (N = 32, 18%) and shoulder (N = 21, 12%) injuries. Specific risk factors for injury were identified with multivariate regression and survival analysis. The skill level of the skier had a significant injury-sparing effect, as did the use of plastic telemark boots. The protective effect of the plastic boots was likely due to the increased stability they provided compared with traditional leather boots. There were fewer knee injuries with the recently available releasable bindings for telemark skis. Sex and age had no significant impact on injury rates in this study population. As all reported deaths associated with telemark sking were due to environmental hazards, skiers must continue to pay close attention to these hazards in the backcountry.
Shanley, Ellen; Rauh, Mitchell J; Michener, Lori A; Ellenbecker, Todd S
Participation in high school sports has grown 16.1% over the last decade, but few studies have compared the overall injury risks in girls' softball and boys' baseball. To examine the incidence of injury in high school softball and baseball players. Cohort study. Greenville, South Carolina, high schools. Softball and baseball players (n = 247) from 11 high schools. Injury rates, locations, types; initial or subsequent injury; practice or game setting; positions played; seasonal trends. The overall incidence injury rate was 4.5/1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), with more injuries overall in softball players (5.6/1000 AEs) than in baseball players (4.0/1000 AEs). Baseball players had a higher initial injury rate (75.9/1000 AEs) than softball players (66.4/1000 AEs): rate ratio (RR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.4, 1.7. The initial injury rate was higher than the subsequent injury rate for the overall sample (P softball (P Softball players were more likely to be injured in a game than were baseball players (RR = 1.92, 95% CI = 0.8, 4.3). Most injuries (77%) were mild (3.5/1000 AEs). The upper extremity accounted for the highest proportion of injuries (63.3%). The incidence of injury for pitchers was 37.3% and for position players was 15.3%. The rate of injury was highest during the first month of the season (7.96/1000 AEs). The incidence of injury was low for both softball and baseball. Most injuries were minor and affected the upper extremity. The injury rates were highest in the first month of the season, so prevention strategies should be focused on minimizing injuries and monitoring players early in the season.
Ojofeitimi, S; Bronner, S; Woo, H
Hip hop dance has rapidly become a popular international art form. There is limited information on injury patterns in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine injury incidence and patterns among three groups of hip hop dancers. Three hundred and twelve intermediate, advanced, and expert hip hop dancers were recruited at battles, dance conferences, clubs, and on dance related web sites within the United States and internationally. A Web-based survey was conducted over a 6-month period. Inclusion criteria included intermediate and advanced level dancers over the age of 13. Dancers were divided into three main categories: Breakers, Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Separate analysis of variances were used to compare injury pattern differences between groups. Two hundred and thirty-two dancers reported a total of 738 injuries. Five hundred and six of these (sustained by 205 dancers) were time-loss (TL) injuries. Annual injury incidence was 237% (162% involving TL). Lower extremity injuries were 52% and upper extremity injuries 32% of total injuries. Breakers had a higher injury incidence compared with Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Hip hop dancers report injury rates that are higher than other dance forms but similar to gymnastics. These dancers should be educated concerning injury prevention, biomechanics, and use of protective equipment. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
van der Horst, N
The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of mucosal barrier injury-associated bloodstream infection improves accurate detection of preventable bacteremia rates at a pediatric cancer center in a low- to middle-income country.
Torres, Dara; González, Miriam L; Loera, Adriana; Aguilera, Marco; Relyea, George; Aristizabal, Paula; Caniza, Miguela A
The US National Healthcare Safety Network has provided a definition of mucosal barrier injury-associated, laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (MBI-LCBI) to improve infection surveillance. To date there is little information about its influence in pediatric oncology centers in low- to middle-income countries. To determine the influence of the definition on the rate of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and compare the clinical characteristics of MBI versus non-MBI LCBI cases. We retrospectively applied the National Healthcare Safety Network definition to all CLABSIs recorded at a pediatric oncology center in Tijuana, Mexico, from January 2011 through December 2014. CLABSI events were reclassified according to the MBI-LCBI definition. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of MBI and non-MBI CLABSIs were compared. Of 55 CLABSI events, 44% (24 out of 55) qualified as MBI-LCBIs; all were MBI-LCBI subcategory 1 (intestinal flora pathogens). After the number of MBI-LCBI cases was removed from the numerator, the CLABSI rate during the study period decreased from 5.72-3.22 infections per 1,000 central line days. Patients with MBI-LCBI were significantly younger than non-MBI-LCBI patients (P = .029) and had a significantly greater frequency of neutropenia (100% vs 39%; P = .001) and chemotherapy exposure (87% vs 58%; P = .020) and significantly longer median hospitalization (34 vs 23 days; P = .008). A substantial proportion of CLABSI events at our pediatric cancer center met the MBI-LCBI criteria. Our results support separate monitoring and reporting of MBI and non-MBI-LCBIs in low- to middle-income countries to allow accurate detection and tracking of preventable (non-MBI) bloodstream infections. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rafnsson, Elis Thor; Valdimarsson, Örnólfur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Árnason, Árni
To examine the incidence, type, location, and severity of injuries in Icelandic elite male handball players and compare across factors like physical characteristics and playing position. Prospective cohort study. The latter part of the preseason and the competitive season of Icelandic male handball. Eleven handball teams (185 players) from the 2 highest divisions in Iceland participated in the study. Six teams (109 players) completed the study. Injuries were recorded by the players under supervision from their team physiotherapists or coaches. Coaches recorded training exposure, and match exposure was obtained from the Icelandic and European Handball Federations. The players directly recorded potential risk factors, such as age, height, weight, previous injuries, and player position. Injury incidence and injury location and number of injury days. Recorded time-loss injuries were 86, of which 53 (62%) were acute and 33 (38%) were due to overuse. The incidence of acute injuries was 15.0 injuries/1000 hours during games and 1.1 injuries/1000 hours during training sessions. No significant difference was found in injury incidence between teams, but number of injury days did differ between teams (P = 0.0006). Acute injuries were most common in knees (26%), ankles (19%), and feet/toes (17%), but overuse injuries occurred in low back/pelvic region (39%), shoulders (21%), and knees (21%). Previous knee injuries were the only potential risk factor found for knee injury. The results indicate a higher rate of overuse injuries in low back/pelvic region and shoulders than in comparable studies.
Maffulli, N; Longo, U G; Gougoulias, N; Loppini, M; Denaro, V
Injuries can counter the beneficial effects of sports participation at a young age if a child or adolescent is unable to continue to participate because of residual effects of injury. This paper reviews current knowledge in the field of long-term health outcomes of youth sports injuries to evaluate the evidence regarding children dropping out of sport due to injury, physeal injuries and growth disturbance, studies of injuries affecting the spine and knee of young and former athletes and surgical outcome of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in children. Studies of dropping out of sport due to injury are limited primarily to gymnasts and implicate such injuries as ACL rupture and osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow joint in the early retirement of young athletes. Although most physeal injuries resolve with treatment and rest, there is evidence of disturbed physeal growth as a result of injury. Radiological findings implicate the effects of intense physical loading and injury in the development of spinal pathology and back pain during the growth of youth athletes; however, long-term effects are unclear. Follow-up studies of young athletes and adults indicate a high risk of osteoarthritis after meniscus or ACL injury. Prospective cohort studies with a follow-up into adulthood are needed to clarify the long-term health outcomes of youth sports injuries. Important to this research is meticulous documentation of injuries on injury report forms that include age-appropriate designations of the type of injury and accurate determination of exposure-based injury rates.
Ting, D K; Brison, R J
Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston, Ontario, sites for emergency department (ED) care and participate in CHIRPP. Each retrieved entry underwent a chart review. A secondary survey was mailed to select individuals who had experienced curling injuries to solicit details on their injury and attitudes towards equipment to prevent injury. We used descriptive statistics for rates and proportions. Over 90% of acute curling injuries resulted from a fall, and 31.7% were head impacts. We found that acute injuries requiring ED presentation occur at a rate of approximately 0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI: 0.12-0.22). The secondary survey was completed by 54% of potential respondents. Of survey respondents, 41.3% attributed their fall to a lack of proper footwear and 73.5% of respondents agreed with mandatory sport-specific footwear as a prevention strategy, but only 8% agreed with mandatory helmet wear. Although curling injuries requiring medical care are not common, head injuries make up a large proportion. Mandated use of appropriate footwear appears to be the most effective prevention strategy, as well as the measure deemed most acceptable by players.
Rajasekaran, S; Sabapathy, S R; Dheenadhayalan, J; Sundararajan, S R; Venkatramani, H; Devendra, A; Ramesh, P; Srikanth, K P
Open injuries of the limbs offer challenges in management as there are still many grey zones in decision making regarding salvage, timing and type of reconstruction. As a result, there is still an unacceptable rate of secondary amputations which lead to tremendous waste of resources and psychological devastation of the patient and his family. Gustilo Anderson's classification was a major milestone in grading the severity of injury but however suffers from the disadvantages of imprecise definition, a poor interobserver correlation, inability to address the issue of salvage and inclusion of a wide spectrum of injuries in Type IIIb category. Numerous scores such as Mangled Extremity Severity Score, the Predictive Salvage Index, the Limb Salvage Index, Hannover Fracture Scale-97 etc have been proposed but all have the disadvantage of retrospective evaluation, inadequate sample sizes and poor sensitivity and specificity to amputation, especially in IIIb injuries. The Ganga Hospital Open Injury Score (GHOIS) was proposed in 2004 and is designed to specifically address the outcome in IIIb injuries of the tibia without vascular deficit. It evaluates the severity of injury to the three components of the limb--the skin, the bone and the musculotendinous structures separately on a grade from 0 to 5. Seven comorbid factors which influence the treatment and the outcome are included in the score with two marks each. The application of the total score and the individual tissue scores in management of IIIB injuries is discussed. The total score was shown to predict salvage when the value was 14 or less; amputation when the score was 17 and more. A grey zone of 15 and 16 is provided where the decision making had to be made on a case to case basis. The additional value of GHOIS was its ability to guide the timing and type of reconstruction. A skin score of more than 3 always required a flap and hence it indicated the need for an orthoplastic approach from the index procedure. Bone
Full Text Available Background: The 2010 iteration of the Global Burden of Disease statistics (Murray et al., 2012 points to the growing impact of injury and highlights the mounting burden of psychiatric disorder. It is essential to examine the intersection between these two contributors to disease burden. Methods: The Australian Injury Vulnerability Study collected data of over 1,000 injury patients from their initial hospitalization to 6 years post-injury. Structured clinical interviews were used to diagnose psychiatric disorder and self-report measures for disability and symptom severity. Results: A wide range of psychiatric disorders developed following injury, which included posttraumatic stress disorder, agoraphobia, depression, and substance use disorders (Bryant, O'Donnell, Creamer, Silove, & McFarlane, 2010. Although prevalence rates for these disorders were generally consistent over time, examination of trajectory data showed that different people had the disorders at different times. Importantly, the data showed that early anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms played a significant role in the development of long term disability after injury (Carty, O'Donnell, Evans, Kazantzis, & Creamer, 2011; O'Donnell et al., 2013. Conclusions: These data support the view that transdiagnostic models for early intervention may be required to address the complex psychiatric disorder trajectories that develop after injury.
Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Terry, Lauren N.; Hegedus, Eric J.
Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials were searched in January 2015. Study Selection: Studies were included if they were randomized controlled or prospective cohort trials, contained a population of competitive basketball athletes, and reported lower extremity injury incidence rates specific to basketball players. In total, 426 individual studies were identified. Of these, 9 met the inclusion criteria. One other study was found during a hand search of the literature, resulting in 10 total studies included in this meta-analysis. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Data Extraction: Details of the intervention (eg, neuromuscular vs external support), size of control and intervention groups, and number of injuries in each group were extracted from each study. Injury data were classified into 3 groups based on the anatomic diagnosis reported (general lower extremity injury, ankle sprain, ACL rupture). Results: Meta-analyses were performed independently for each injury classification. Results indicate that prophylactic programs significantly reduced the incidence of general lower extremity injuries (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85; P basketball athletes. Conclusion: In basketball players, prophylactic programs may be effective in reducing the risk of general lower extremity injuries and ankle sprains, yet not ACL injuries. PMID:26502412
Tarazi, F; Dvorak, M F; Wing, P C
Spinal injuries are among the most devastating injuries associated with recreational sports. Snowboarding spinal injury patterns have not been described. During two seasons (1994 to 1995 and 1995 to 1996), 34 skiers and 22 snowboarders suffered serious spinal injuries (fracture or neurologic deficit or both) at two ski areas in British Columbia, Canada. Ski patrol records, the Provincial Trauma Database, and hospital records were reviewed. Injury rates were based on computerized lift-ticket data and a population estimate of 15% snowboarders (ski patrol observation). The incidence of spinal injury among skiers was 0.01 per 1000 skier-days, and among snowboarders was 0.04 per 1000 snowboarder-days. Mean age was 34.5 years for skiers and 22.4 years for snowboarders. Seventy percent of the skiers were men, whereas all of the snowboarders were men. Jumping (intentional jump > 2 meters) was the cause of injury in 20% of skiers and 77% of snowboarders. Neither age nor sex accounted for any significant portion of this difference. The rate of spinal injuries among snowboarders is fourfold that among skiers. Although jumping is the primary cause of injury, it is an intrinsic element of snowboarding. Until research defines effective injury-prevention strategies, knowledge of the risk of snowboarding should be disseminated and techniques for safe jumping should be taught.
Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Röllinghoff, M; Schlegel, U J; Eysel, P; Michael, J W-P
Powerlifting is a discipline of competitive weightlifting. To date, no investigations have focused on pain encountered during routine training. The aim of the study was to identify such pain, assign it to particular exercises and assess the data regarding injuries as well as the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Data of 245 competitive and elite powerlifters was collected by questionnaire. Information regarding current workout routines and retrospective injury data was collected. Study subjects were selected from 97 incorporated powerlifting clubs. A percentage of 43.3% of powerlifters complained of problems during routine workouts. Injury rate was calculated as 0.3 injuries per lifter per year (1 000 h of training=1 injury). There was no evidence that intrinsic or extrinsic factors affected this rate. Most commonly injured body regions were the shoulder, lower back and the knee. The use of weight belts increased the injury rate of the lumbar spine. Rate of injury to the upper extremities was significantly increased based on age >40 years (shoulder/p=0.003, elbow/p=0.003, hand+wrist/p=0.024) and female gender (hand+wrist/p=0.045). The daily workout of a large proportion of powerlifters is affected by disorders which do not require an interruption of training. The injury rate is low compared to other sports. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available John Orchard1, Trefor James2, Alex Kountouris2, Marc Portus21School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 2Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: This study analyzes injuries occurring prospectively in Australian men’s cricket at the state and national levels over 11 seasons (concluding in season 2008–09. In the last four of these seasons, there was more cricket played, with most of the growth being a new form of the game – Twenty20 cricket. Since the introduction of a regular Twenty20 program, injury incidence rates in each form of cricket have been fairly steady. Because of the short match duration, Twenty20 cricket exhibits a high match injury incidence, expressed as injuries per 10,000 hours of play. Expressed as injuries per days of play, Twenty20 cricket injury rates compare more favorably to other forms of cricket. Domestic level Twenty20 cricket resulted in 145 injuries per 1000 days of play (compared to 219 injuries per 1000 days of domestic one day cricket, and 112 injuries per 1000 days of play in first class domestic cricket. It is therefore recommended that match injury incidence measures be expressed in units of injuries per 1000 days of play. Given the high numbers of injuries which are of gradual onset, seasonal injury incidence rates (which typically range from 15–20 injuries per team per defined ‘season’ are probably a superior incidence measure. Thigh and hamstring strains have become clearly the most common injury in the past two years (greater than four injuries per team per season, perhaps associated with the increased amount of Twenty20 cricket. Injury prevalence rates have risen in conjunction with an increase in the density of the cricket calendar. Annual injury prevalence rates (average proportion of players missing through injury have exceeded 10% in the last three years, with the injury prevalence rates for fast bowlers exceeding 18%. As the amount of scheduled cricket is
Havkins, Sabina B.
Injuries to 150 players in the Southern California Rugby Football Union were studied in order to compare head, neck, face, and shoulder injury rates for female and male players. While overall rates did not differ significantly, women received fewer disabling injuries. Ways to decrease injuries are recommended. (Author/MT)
Smith, Preston J.; Gerrie, Brayden J.; Varner, Kevin E.; McCulloch, Patrick C.; Lintner, David M.; Harris, Joshua D.
Background Most published studies on injuries in the ballet dancer focus on the lower extremity. The rigors of this activity require special training and care. By understanding prevalence and injury pattern to the musculoskeletal system, targeted prevention and treatment for this population can be developed. Purpose To determine the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in ballet. Study Design Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A systematic review registered with PROSPERO was performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Level 1 through 4 evidence studies reporting incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in male and female ballet dancers were included, with the numbers and types of injuries extracted from each. Injury rates were recorded and calculated based on professional status, sex, and nature of injury. Incidence was defined as number of injuries sustained over a specific time. Prevalence was defined as proportion of subjects with an injury at a given point in time. Results The studies analyzed reported injury incidence or prevalence in more than 1365 amateur and 900 professional dancers. The mean age was 16.2 years among amateur and 27.0 years among professional dancers. The incidence of injury among amateur dancers was 0.99 and 1.09 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively; 75% of injuries were overuse, with similar rates among males and females. In professional dancers, the incidence of injury was 1.06 and 1.46 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively, and 64% of female injuries were overuse, compared with 50% in males (P ballet dancers is 0.97 and 1.24 injuries per 1000 dance hours, respectively. The majority are overuse in both amateur and professional dancers, with amateur ballet dancers showing a higher proportion of overuse injuries than professionals (P < .001). Male professional dancers show a higher proportion of
Fluctuations of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Outside Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Diagnostic Criteria for Acute Kidney Injury in End-Stage Liver Disease Outpatients and Outcome Postliver Transplantation
Federica Fiacco, MD
Full Text Available Background. Renal dysfunction in end-stage liver disease (ESLD results from systemic conditions that affect both liver and kidney with activation of vasoconstrictor systems. In this setting, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR may undergo variations often outside Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria for acute kidney injury (AKI diagnosis, whose meaning is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate eGFR variations in ESLD outpatients listed for liver transplant (liver Tx and the association with post-Tx outcome. Methods. Fifty-one patients with ESLD were retrospectively evaluated from listing to transplant (L-Tx time, intraoperatively (Tx time, and up to 5 years post-Tx time. Variations between the highest and the lowest eGFR occurring in more than 48 hours, not satisfying Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guideline, were considered as fluctuations (eGFR-F. Fluctuations of eGFR greater than 50% were defined as eGFR drops (DeGFR. Early graft dysfunction, AKI within 7 days, chronic kidney disease, and short- and long-term patient survivals were considered as outcomes. Results. All patients presented eGFR-F, whereas DeGFR were observed in 18 (35.3% of 51 (DeGFR+ group. These patients presented higher levels of Model for End-stage Liver Disease score, pre-Tx bilirubin and significantly greater incidence of post-Tx AKI stages 2 to 3 compared with patients without drops (DeGFR−. DeGFR was the only independent predictive factor of the occurrence of post-Tx AKI. The occurrence of AKI post-Tx was associated with the development of chronic kidney disease at 3 months and 5 years post-Tx. Conclusions. Drops of eGFR are more frequently observed in patients with a worse degree of ESLD and are associated with a worse post-Tx kidney outcome.
Previous studies have shown that young men have the highest frequency of occupational hand injuries. This study investigated their incidence and severity in relation to age and sex. For occupational hand injuries in general the estimated incidence rate was 17.1 per 1,000 person years. The incidence...... was found to be higher among men than women in all age groups below 60 years. The incidence for minor injuries declines with increasing age, but the rates for significant injuries are independent of age. The higher incidence rate for minor injuries among young patients could be real, but it could also...
Full Text Available Background. Orbit is involved in 40% of all facial fractures. There is considerable variety in severity, ranging from simple nondisplaced to complex comminuted fractures. Complex comminuted fractures (up to 20% are responsible for the majority of complications and unfavorable results. Orbital fractures are classified as internal orbital fractures, zygomatico-orbital fractures, naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures and combined fractures. The ophtalmic sequelae of midfacial fractures are usually edema and ecchymosis of the soft tissues, subconjuctival hemorrhage, diplopia, iritis, retinal edema, ptosis, enophthalmos, ocular muscle paresis, mechanical restriction of ocular movement and nasolacrimal disturbances. More severe injuries such as optic nerve trauma and retinal detachments have also been reported. Within the wide range of orbital fractures small group of complex fractures causes most of the sequelae. Therefore identification of severe injuries and adequate treatment is of major importance. The introduction of craniofacial techniques made possible a wide exposure even of large orbital wall defects and their reconstruction by bone grafts. In spite of significant progress, repair of complex orbital wall defects remains a problem even for the experienced surgeons.Results. In 1999 121 facial injuries were treated at our department (Clinical Centre Ljubljana Dept. Of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Orbit was involved in 65% of cases. Isolated inner orbital fractures presented 4% of all fractures. 17 (14% complex cases were treated, 5 of them being NOE, 5 orbital (frame and inner walls, 3 zygomatico-orbital, 2 FNO and 2 maxillo-orbital fractures.Conclusions. Final result of the surgical treatment depends on severity of maxillofacial trauma. Complex comminuted fractures are responsable for most of the unfavorable results and ocular function is often permanently damaged (up to 75% in these fractures.
Williams, Jacob Z; Singichetti, Bhavna; Li, Hongmei; Xiang, Henry; Klingele, Kevin E; Yang, Jingzhen
A body of epidemiological studies has examined football injuries and associated risk factors among collegiate athletes. However, few existing studies specifically analyzed injury risk in terms of initial or subsequent injuries. To determine athlete-exposures (AEs) and rates of initial and subsequent injury among collegiate football athletes. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injury and exposure data collected from collegiate football players from two Division I universities (2007-2011) were analyzed. Rate of initial injury was calculated as the number of initial injuries divided by the total number of AEs for initial injuries, while the rate for subsequent injury was calculated as the number of subsequent injuries divided by the total number of AEs for subsequent injury. Poisson regression was used to determine injury rate ratio (subsequent vs initial injury), with adjustment for other covariates. The total AEs during the study period were 67,564, resulting in an overall injury rate of 35.2 per 10,000 AEs. Rates for initial and subsequent injuries were 31.7 and 45.3 per 10,000 AEs, respectively, with a rate ratio (RR) of 1.4 for rate of subsequent injury vs rate of initial injury (95% CI, 1.1-1.9). Rate of injury appeared to increase with each successive injury. RR during games was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1-3.0). The rate of subsequent injuries to the head, neck, and face was 10.9 per 10,000 AEs, nearly double the rate of initial injuries to the same sites (RR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5). For wide receivers, the rate of subsequent injuries was 2.2 times the rate of initial injuries (95% CI, 1.3-3.8), and for defensive linemen, the rate of subsequent injuries was 2.1 times the rate of initial injuries (95% CI, 1.1-3.9). The method used in this study allows for a more accurate determination of injury risk among football players who have already been injured at least once. Further research is warranted to better identify which specific factors contribute to this increased risk
Cho, Chul Hyun; Song, Kwang Soon; Min, Byung Woo; Lee, Sung Moon; Chang, Hyuk Won; Eum, Dae Seup
Since no epidemiologic studies have been reported about musculoskeletal injuries in break-dancers, there are no data on the rates and patterns of musculoskeletal injuries in this population that clinicians can use to find ways to decrease injury rate. We believe that the incidence of injuries in break-dancers is higher than assumed and that injury rates and patterns differ between professional and amateur dancers. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Of a total of 42 study subjects, 23 were professional dancers and 19 were amateur dancers. Injury frequency, site and type, along with the presence of supervised training, the use of protective devices and warm-up exercises done were recorded. Of the 42 study subjects, excluding two amateur dancers, 40 (95.2%) had had musculoskeletal injuries at more than one site. The mean number of sites per dancer was 4.60. The frequency of injury depended on the site and was as follows: wrist (69.0%), finger (61.9%), knee (61.9%), shoulder (52.4%), lumbar spine (50.0%), elbow (42.9%), cervical spine (38.1%), ankle (38.1%), foot (28.6%) and hip (16.7%). Sprain, strain and tendinitis were the most common injuries, accounting for the most cases. Of the 42 dancers, 13 (31%) had had fractures or dislocations. Eight (19.1%) learned break-dancing under supervised instruction, 17 (40.5%) used protective devices and 28 (66.7%) performed warm-up exercises before dancing. There were significant differences in age, dance career length, amount of dance training, mean number of injury sites and the presence of supervised training between professionals and amateurs (Pnature of the activities that result in both unusual and common injuries in break-dancers and educate them about safety. Careful screening, instruction and supervised training of break-dancers will help to prevent injuries.
Luria, Shai; Rivkin, Gurion; Avitzour, Malka; Liebergall, Meir; Mintz, Yoav; Mosheiff, Ram
Explosion injuries to the upper extremity have specific clinical characteristics that differ from injuries due to other mechanisms. To evaluate the upper extremity injury pattern of attacks on civilian targets, comparing bomb explosion injuries to gunshot injuries and their functional recovery using standard outcome measures. Of 157 patients admitted to the hospital between 2000 and 2004, 72 (46%) sustained explosion injuries and 85 (54%) gunshot injuries. The trauma registry files were reviewed and the patients completed the DASH Questionnaire (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand) and SF-12 (Short Form-12) after a minimum period of 1 year. Of the 157 patients, 72 (46%) had blast injuries and 85 (54%) had shooting injuries. The blast casualties had higher Injury Severity Scores (47% vs. 22% with a score of > 16, P = 0.02) and higher percent of patients treated in intensive care units (47% vs. 28%, P = 0.02). Although the Abbreviated Injury Scale score of the upper extremity injury was similar in the two groups, the blast casualties were found to have more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries and were treated surgically more often. No difference was found in the SF-12 or DASH scores between the groups at follow up. The casualties with upper extremity blast injuries were more severely injured and sustained more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries to the upper extremity. However, the rating of the local injury to the isolated limb is similar, as was the subjective functional recovery.
>Conclusions: High-voltage injury leads to greater morbidity and mortality than low-voltage one. Lightening has mortality of about 32%, higher rates of complications and specialty long-term complications. Strict multi-specialty treatment and rehabilitations are required for proper treatment of electrical injuries.
The review is given of factors which cause the beginning of radiation injuries of oral cavity in oncologic patients following radiotherapy: dose rate absorbed with tumor and surrounding healthy tissues; irradiation procedures; size of irradiated volume. Pathogenesis and clinical picture are considered as well as prophylaxis and tactics of treatments of patients with radiation injuries of oral cavity
Jan 1, 2006 ... a significant cause of abdominal injuries in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). The rate-of ... of selective management of abdominal injuries in. 1960 by ..... that pays great attention to the condition of the patient. (11). To aid in ...
Welch, Michael J.; And Others
This paper describes the safeguards as well as the injury pattern of the boxing program at the US Military Academy at West Point from 1983 to 1985. About 2,100 cadets received boxing instruction during this period with an injury rate of less than four percent. (Author/MT)
Cardiorespiratory demand and rate of perceived exertion during overground walking with a robotic exoskeleton in long-term manual wheelchair users with chronic spinal cord injury: A cross-sectional study.
Escalona, Manuel J; Brosseau, Rachel; Vermette, Martin; Comtois, Alain Steve; Duclos, Cyril; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Gagnon, Dany H
Many wheelchair users adopt a sedentary lifestyle, which results in progressive physical deconditioning with increased risk of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and endocrine/metabolic morbidity and mortality. Engaging in a walking program with an overground robotic exoskeleton may be an effective strategy for mitigating these potential negative health consequences and optimizing fitness in this population. However, additional research is warranted to inform the development of adapted physical activity programs incorporating this technology. To determine cardiorespiratory demands during sitting, standing and overground walking with a robotic exoskeleton and to verify whether such overground walking results in at least moderate-intensity physical exercise. We enrolled 13 long-term wheelchair users with complete motor spinal cord injury in a walking program with an overground robotic exoskeleton. Cardiorespiratory measures and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded by using a portable gas analyzer system during sitting, standing and four 10m walking tasks with the robotic exoskeleton. Each participant also performed an arm crank ergometer test to determine maximal cardiorespiratory ability (i.e., peak heart rate and O 2 uptake [HR peak , VO 2peak ]). Cardiorespiratory measures increased by a range of 9%-35% from sitting to standing and further increased by 22%-52% from standing to walking with the robotic exoskeleton. During walking, median oxygen cost (O 2Walking ), relative HR (%HR peak ), relative O 2 consumption (%VO 2peak ) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) reached 0.29mL/kg/m, 82.9%, 41.8% and 0.9, respectively, whereas median RPE reached 3.2/10. O 2Walking was moderately influenced by total number of sessions and steps taken with the robotic exoskeleton since the start of the walking program. Overground walking with the robotic exoskeleton over a short distance allowed wheelchair users to achieve a moderate-intensity level of exercise. Hence, an
Richard, J-B; Thélot, B; Beck, F
Whatever the type of injury considered, prevention requires an improvement in health services' awareness of risk factors. The Health Barometer is a general population survey conducted in France since 1992 to contribute to surveillance in this field. The survey's statistical power and the numerous health topics included in the questionnaire provide accurate information for healthcare professionals and decision-makers. The Health Barometer 2010 was a nationwide telephone survey of 9110 persons representative of the 15-85-year-old population. One part of the questionnaire detailed injuries which had occurred during the past year. The numerous variables recorded enabled application of logistic regression models to explore risk factors related to different types of injury by age group. The findings were compared with the Health Barometer 2005 data to search for temporal trends of injury prevalence. The data analysis showed that 10.3% of the 15-85-year-olds reported an injury during the past year. This rate was higher than recorded in 2005; the increase was mainly due to domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities. Both type of injury and risk factors exhibited age-related variability. Domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities predominated in the older population and were associated with physical or mental health problems (chronic disease, diability, sleep disorders). For younger people, injuries were related to cannabis use, drunkedness, and insufficient sleep. Risk factors were also depended on type of injury: occupational accident-related injuries were linked with social disadvantage (manual worker population) whereas sports injuries were more common in the socially advantaged population. This survey confirms established knowledge and highlights, at different stages of life, new risk factors that contribute to injuries in France. These findings should be helpful for the development of adapted injury
Gavelli, G.; Canini, R.; Bertaccini, P.; Battista, G.; Bna, C.; Fattori, R.
Chest trauma is one of the most important causes of death, in particular in individuals under the age of 40 years. The mortality rate for chest trauma, often related to motor vehicle accidents, is approximately 15.5%; it increases dramatically to 77% with associated shock and head injury (Glasgow scores of 3-4). The accurate diagnosis of pathologies consequent to blunt chest trauma depends on a complete knowledge of the different clinical and radiological manifestations. The first diagnostic approach is classically based on chest X-ray often carried out on supine position at the hospital admission. A CT study must then be performed in all chest trauma patients in whom there is even the smallest diagnostic doubt on plain film. In particular, spiral CT (SCT) assumes a fundamental role in the demonstration of mediastinal hemorrhage and direct signs of aortic lesions. At present, SCT is routinely part of a diagnostic evaluation which also includes scans of the brain and the abdomen in polytraumatized patients. Magnetic resonance is the ideal method for visualizing diaphragmatic lesions. Furthermore, recent reports have demonstrated the high diagnostic value of MR in evaluating aortic injuries. The purpose of this article is to review the most common radiological patterns related to chest trauma. (orig.)
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Kalifa, G.; Bennet, J.; Couanet, D.; Masselot, J.
Side effects of radiotherapy in pediatrics are reviewed including bone injuries and radio-induced bone tumors; nervous system injuries with emphasis on hypothalamus, pituitary gland, brain and spinal cord; lung, digestive system and urinary tract injuries [fr
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Arriaza, Rafael; Leyes, Manuel; Zaeimkohan, Hamid; Arriaza, Alvaro
The aim of this paper is to document the injury rate in high-level modern competitive karate after a change of competition rules was implemented in the year 2000, and to compare it with the injury rate found before the rules were changed. A prospective recording of the injuries resulting from 2,762 matches in three consecutive World Karate Championships (representing 7,425 min of active fighting) was performed, and compared with the results from 2,837 matches from the three last World Karate Championships (representing 7,631 min of active fighting) held before the change of competition rules. In total, 497 injuries were recorded, with an incidence of 0.180 injuries per match or 6.7 per 100 min of active fighting. There were 1,901 male category fights (in which 383 injuries were recorded), and 861 female category fights (in which 114 injuries were recorded). The global injury incidence was almost double with the old rules compared to the one with the new rules [OR 1.99, 95% CI (1.76-2.26); p injuries was not different before and after the change of rules. The implementation of the new competition rules in competitive karate has been associated with a significant reduction in injury rate, making competition safer for athletes.
Tiesman, Hope M; Gwilliam, Melody; Konda, Srinivas; Rojek, Jeff; Marsh, Suzanne
Limited studies exist that describe nonfatal work-related injuries to law enforcement officers. The aim of this study is to provide national estimates and trends of nonfatal injuries to law enforcement officers from 2003 through 2014. Nonfatal injuries were obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Occupational Supplement. Data were obtained for injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments from 2003 to 2014. Nonfatal injury rates were calculated using denominators from the Current Population Survey. Negative binomial regression was used to analyze temporal trends. Data were analyzed in 2016-2017. Between 2003 and 2014, an estimated 669,100 law enforcement officers were treated in U.S. emergency departments for nonfatal injuries. The overall rate of 635 per 10,000 full-time equivalents was three times higher than all other U.S. workers rate (213 per 10,000 full-time equivalents). The three leading injury events were assaults and violent acts (35%), bodily reactions and exertion (15%), and transportation incidents (14%). Injury rates were highest for the youngest officers, aged 21-24 years. Male and female law enforcement officers had similar nonfatal injury rates. Rates for most injuries remained stable; however, rates for assault-related injuries grew among law enforcement officers between 2003 and 2011. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Occupational Supplement data demonstrate a significant upward trend in assault injuries among U.S. law enforcement officers and this warrants further investigation. Police-citizen interactions are dynamic social encounters and evidence-based policing is vital to the health and safety of both police and civilians. The law enforcement community should energize efforts toward the study of how policing tactics impact both officer and citizen injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sakamoto, Yuko; Sakuraba, Keishoku
The purpose of this study was to compare the injury patterns and incidence of snowboarding and ski boarding injuries with that of alpine skiing in 2000 to 2005, as there are few previous studies comparing these 3 sports, especially in Asia. The injury patterns are different among the 3 snow sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. The subjects were alpine skiers (1240 cases), snowboarders (2220 cases), and ski boarders (132 cases) who were injured in 2 ski resorts located in Niigata prefecture in Japan and visited the authors' clinics in these ski resorts between 2000 and 2005. On visiting the clinics, patients completed a questionnaire reviewing the circumstances surrounding the injury event, and physicians documented the diagnosis. The injury rate, which was based on all purchased lift tickets, in snowboarding decreased gradually, although it was still 2 times higher than that of alpine skiing. Snowboarding and ski boarding had a higher fracture and dislocation rate. Both sports also had a 4 times higher rate of injuries because of jumping. The characteristics of ski boarding were a lower head and neck injury rate and collision injury rate than those of the other 2 snow sports, as well as a 2 times higher rate of fractures compared with alpine skiing injuries and a 1.4 times higher incidence than that of snowboarding injuries. Of the fractures caused by ski boarding accidents, 39.6% affected the lower leg bones. Injury prevention strategies should focus on jumps for snowboarders and ski boarders.
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Baseball and softball injuries can be a result of both acute and overuse injuries. Soft tissue injuries include contusions, abrasions, and lacerations. Return to play is allowed when risk of further injury is minimized. Common shoulder injuries include those to the rotator cuff, biceps tendon, and glenoid labrum. Elbow injuries are common in baseball and softball and include medial epicondylitis, ulnar collateral ligament injury, and osteochondritis dissecans. Typically conservative treatment with relative rest, medication, and a rehabilitation program will allow return to play. Surgical intervention may be needed for certain injuries or conservative treatment failure.
Murphy, Kelly; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G
Endurance running has evolved over the course of millions of years and it is now one of the most popular sports today. However, the risk of stress injury in distance runners is high because of the repetitive ground impact forces exerted. These injuries are not only detrimental to the runner, but also place a burden on the medical community. Preventative measures are essential to decrease the risk of injury within the sport. Common running injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendonitis. Barefoot running, as opposed to shod running (with shoes), has recently received significant attention in both the media and the market place for the potential to promote the healing process, increase performance, and decrease injury rates. However, there is controversy over the use of barefoot running to decrease the overall risk of injury secondary to individual differences in lower extremity alignment, gait patterns, and running biomechanics. While barefoot running may benefit certain types of individuals, differences in running stance and individual biomechanics may actually increase injury risk when transitioning to barefoot running. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available clinical evidence on barefoot running and its effectiveness for preventing injury in the runner. Based on a review of current literature, barefoot running is not a substantiated preventative running measure to reduce injury rates in runners. However, barefoot running utility should be assessed on an athlete-specific basis to determine whether barefoot running will be beneficial.
Shankar, Amitabh; Williams, Kim; Ryan, Mary
To quantify and describe trampoline-related injuries in children attending an urban pediatric emergency department. Retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients attending a children's emergency department with trampoline-related injuries over a 3-month period (May-July 2005). One hundred and sixty-eight children were treated for trampoline-related injuries during the period reviewed. Sixty-three percent were girls. Their age ranged between 4 months and 16 years (mean, 10.4 years [SD, 3 years and 10 months]). Lower limb injuries (51%) were more common overall. The most common injuries were to the ankle (31%), followed by foot (9.2%), and neck (8.4%). Sprain or soft tissue injuries (68%) were the most common type of injury, followed by fracture (12.2%). The most common mechanism of injury was inversion of the ankle on a trampoline (18.4%). Trampoline-related injuries represented 2.5% of morbidity from accidental trauma in children presenting to emergency department in our study. The rate and severity of injury has become a significant public health concern. It appears that current preventative strategies are inadequate in making children's carers aware of the potential risks of trampoline use, particularly when used recreationally.
Eberl, Robert; Schalamon, Johannes; Singer, Georg; Huber, Sarah S; Spitzer, Peter; Höllwarth, Michael E
Recommendations to prevent trampoline injuries were given since the 1970s. However, despite these educational efforts, safety recommendations seem to be ignored and the number of trampoline injuries is increasing. All children referred to our department for injuries related to trampolines over a period of 3 years were included. The patients' records were reviewed and a questionnaire was sent out in order to gain additional information. Injuries were classified as severe and mild. A total of 265 children (46% m, 54% f) with a median age of 8.2 years (range 1 to 14) were included. The injury rate was continuously growing from the year 2005 (10.6%) to 2007 (58.1%). Most of the injuries were recorded between April and September with a peak of injuries in August. Seventy-five percent of all accidents happened in the afternoon; 40% of the injuries were classified as severe, 60% as mild. Nets or equal security devices were used in 56.6%. Trampolining is associated with a significant risk for bodily harm at any age and results in severe injuries in 40% of cases. Though there may be still room for improvement in safety recommendations, all attempts over a period of more than 30 years to reduce the number of trampoline-related backyard injuries failed and the incidence is still increasing. At present, trampolines cannot be made safe for recreational activities and are of an unacceptable risk even under supervision.
Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M
Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.
... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.41 History of injury. In considering the residuals of injury, it is essential to trace the medical-industrial history of the disabled person from the... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false History of injury. 4.41...
Background: The rate of unintentional child injuries in sub-Saharan Africa is at 53.1 per 100,000, The highest for low income regions, data on these injuries and associated factors among children in Uganda is very scanty. Most child injuries are related to the way of life in rural communities typically burns from charcoal ...
Trends in major causes of injury mortality and the proportion of total deaths attributable to injuries trom 1968·to 1985 tor white, coloured and Asian children < 15 years in the RSA were examined. There were 937 injury deaths in 1968 and 853 in 1985 but no clear trends in overall mortality rates were observed. There were ...
Road Traffic Accident was the most common cause of injury (55%). Fifty five percent of the patients had a cervical spine injury with C5 being the most commonly injured vertebrae. The overall 3 month mortality rate was 40.8% with average time between injury and death being 129 hours. Forty eight point three percent of ...
Introduction: A precise operational definition of acute kidney injury remains elusive. Conceptually, acute kidney injury is defined as the loss of renal function, measured by decline in glomerular filtration rate, developing over a period of hours to days. Clinical manifestations of acute kidney injury (AKI) are highly variable; ...
Sobrino, Francisco Jos?; Guill?n, Pedro
Background: In spite of the high rate of overuse injuries in ballet dancers, no studies have investigated the prevalence of overuse injuries in professional dancers by providing specific diagnoses and details on the differences in the injuries sustained as a function of age and/or years of professional practice. Hypothesis: Overuse injuries are the most prevalent injuries in ballet dancers. Professional ballet dancers suffer different types of injuries depending on their age and years of prof...
Sharpe, John P; Magnotti, Louis J; Weinberg, Jordan A; Zarzaur, Ben L; Shahan, Charles P; Parks, Nancy A; Fabian, Timothy C; Croce, Martin A
repaired. For destructive injuries, operative decisions based on a defined algorithm rather than injury location achieves an acceptably low morbidity and mortality rate and simplifies management. Prognostic study, level III.
Gissane, Conor; Hodgson, Lisa; Jennings, De
To describe the injury rates in first team rugby league in terms of those injuries that require missed playing time and those that do not. A pooled data analysis from 2 independent databases. Rugby league match and training environment over several seasons from 1990 to 2003. Injuries were reported as rates per 1000 hours of participation and as percentages with their associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 1707 match injuries were recorded. Of these injuries, 257 required players to miss the subsequent match. The remaining 1450 injuries did not require players to miss the next game. They represented 85% (95% CI, 83-87) of all injuries received and recorded. The ratio of non-time-loss (NTL) to time-loss (TL) injuries was 5.64 (95% CI, 4.96-6.42). There were 450 training injuries, of which 81 were TL injuries and 369 NTL injuries. The NTL training injury rate was 4.56 (95% CI, 3.58-5.79) times higher than TL injury rate. Non-time-loss injuries represent the largest proportion of injuries in rugby league. If NTL injuries are not recorded, the workload of practitioners is likely to be severely underestimated.
Radiation accidents and incidents continue to be of great interest and concern to the public. Issues such as the threat of nuclear war, the Chernobyl reactor accident, or reports of sporadic incidences of accidental radiation exposure keep this interest up and maintain a high level of fear among the public. In this climate of real concern and radiation phobia, physicians should not only be prepared to answer questions about acute or late effects of ionizing radiation, but also be able to participate in the initial assessment and management of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation or contaminated with radioactive material. Some of the key facts about radiation injury and its medical treatment are discussed by the author
Ashby, Karen; Pointer, Sophie; Eager, David; Day, Lesley
To examine national trampoline injury patterns and trends in the context of improved product safety standards and trampoline design modifications. Review of National Hospital Morbidity data. There were an average 1,737 trampoline injuries reported nationally each year from 2002 to 2011. Both injury frequency and rate grew. Statistically significant rate increases were observed among all age groups, although both are highest among children aged 5-9 years. From 2008/09 there is a possible decreasing trend among the 5-9 age group. Falls predominate and 81% of falls result in fracture. Non-fall injuries increased annually as a proportion of all hospitalised injury although they did not comprise more than 2.4% in any one year. History provides no evidence of an observable effect of voluntary Australian Standards for trampoline safety on population rates for trampoline injury. The major design modification--netted enclosures--could contribute to the risk of injury by leading parents to falsely believe that a netted enclosure eradicates the risk of injury. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Bert, Boadi-Kusi Samuel; Rekha, Hansraj; Percy, Mashige Khathutshelo
The work environment of cocoa farmers exposes them to several ocular hazards that predispose them to eye diseases and injuries. However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in Ghana. To determine the prevalence of ocular injuries and health seeking behaviour following injury among cocoa farmers in Ghana. Five hundred and fifty six participants were recruited through simple random sampling using a multistage approach from four cocoa growing districts in Ghana. A structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information such as demography, ocular hazards and injuries experienced. An ocular examination was also conducted to assess the eye health of the participants. Descriptive and regression statistics were used to analyze the data. The rate of ocular injuries was calculated by using the number of injuries reported that resulted in lost work time/days divided by the number of worker years at risk of injury (sum of years worked in cocoa farms for all the participants). The rate of ocular injuries was 11.3/1000 worker years (95% CI: 9.4 - 31) which led to lost work time of 37.3/1000 worker years (95% CI: 34.1 - 40.8). The major causes of ocular injury were plants/branches (n=73, 51.1%), chemicals (n=27, 18.9%), cocoa pod/husk (n=14, 9.8%) and occurred mostly during weeding, harvesting and chemical spraying. Few (n=34, 6.1%) participants reported the use of ocular protection. Fifty-five (38.5%) participants visited the local chemical shops, while 37 (25.9%) visited hospitals/clinics for ocular treatment of their injuries. There is a high rate of ocular injuries among cocoa farmers who make insufficient use of appropriate eye care services. There is the need for eye health education among cocoa farmers in Ghana.
Morrongiello, B A; Howard, A W; Rothman, L; Sandomierski, M
To compare risk perceptions of parents whose child sustained a medically attended playground injury (cases) with those of parents whose child had not (controls) to address two questions. Does having a child experience a medically attended injury: (1) sensitise parents to children's injury vulnerability and severity; (2) influence parents' appraisal of the injury mechanism (child's behaviour), attributions for injuries or beliefs about strategies for prevention? Each case-control parent dyad was assigned to one of two conditions: (1) being presented with 10 common injury-risk playground behaviours specific to the equipment on which their child had been hurt, and asked to appraise injury vulnerability and severity; or (2) being presented with scenarios about playground injuries that varied in severity but were all based on the same child behaviour, and asked questions about this behaviour, attributions for injury and strategies for prevention. The results support the occurrence of a sensitisation process. Compared with control parents, case parents showed higher ratings of injury severity and children's vulnerability to injury, made fewer attributions for injuries to bad luck, and endorsed a greater diversity of prevention strategies, including parent (closer supervision), child (teaching rules about safe play on playgrounds) and environmental (modifications to playgrounds). A child's medically attended injury can create a "teachable moment" for the parent. Linking injury-prevention programming to this teachable moment may increase the likelihood of evoking changes in parental supervisory behaviour and their setting of rules limiting their child's risk behaviours to reduce the occurrence of childhood injury.
Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete
BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff......, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer...... exposure, playing level, and injury risk. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 2 and 3. METHODS: During a full adolescent female soccer season in Denmark (February-June 2012), a population-based sample of 498 girls aged 15 to 18 years was included...
Ho, Hao Chih; Speck, Cora S R; Kumasaki, Jennifer
Over seven million tourists visit the Hawaiian Islands each year. Popular visitor activities such as surfing, scuba diving, ocean kayaking, parasailing, bicycle tours and hiking each have risks of serious injury. This study reviews visitors' activities that led to serious injuries requiring treatment at the state's only trauma center while vacationing in Hawai'i. A retrospective electronic medical record review was conducted of all visitor and resident trauma patients admitted to The Queen's Medical Center (QMC) from January 2002-December 2006. Patient demographics, injury type and severity, mechanism of injury, and discharge status were collected and analyzed. A total of 8244 patients were admitted to QMC for major traumatic injuries over the five year study period. Of these, 466 (5.7%) were visitors. The most common mechanisms of visitor injuries were falls (23.6%), water-related injuries (22.8%), motor vehicle crashes (18.7%), motorcycle, moped, and recreational vehicle crashes (12.2%), assaults (7.3%), and bicycle crashes (4.0%). A disproportionate number of visitors sustained serious injuries while engaging in water-related activities: Visitors account for only 12.6% of the population on any given day, yet comprise 44.2% of the total admissions for Hawai'i's water-related injuries. Head and spine injuries make up over two-thirds (68.2%) of these water-related visitor injuries. As a general category, falls were responsible for the highest number of visitor trauma admissions. Of the recreational activities leading to high numbers of trauma admissions, water-related activities are the leading causes of serious injuries among visitors to Hawai'i. Water-related injury rates are significantly higher for Hawai'i's visitors than residents. Water safety education for visitors should be developed in multiple languages to educate and protect Hawai'i's visitors and visitor industry.
We sought to prospectively study all injuries in children and adolescents up to 16 years of age presenting to a regional Emergency Department (ED), to ascertain detailed injury patterns and to use this data to recommend injury prevention priorities. Electronic injury surveillance was prospectively collected over a 10 year period (1997-2007) in a hospital with a paediatric catchment population of 75,000 in a region with pockets of high social deprivation. All fatalities were obtained from data provided by the Central Statistics Office (CSO). Over a 10 year period, there were 31 fatalities, 5,408 admissions and 40,817 new attendances due to injury. Males outnumbered females in a 3:2 ratio. Of all injuries 24,317 (60%) occurred at home. Peak injury presentation time was in the evening between 18:00 and 20:00. Minor injuries (bruises, minor head injuries, lacerations and sprains) accounted for 32,456 (80%) of total. Fractures resulting from high falls (n=1,194) tended to result from bunk beds, staircases, horses, walls and playground equipment. Burns (n=630) involved hot liquids (tea, coffee), hot bath water, hot cooking oil and hot cooking plates. Pedestrian injuries (n=251) were predominantly \\'dart outs\\' in urban areas. Car passenger injuries (n=869) showed low rates of documented car restraint use. Poisonings (n= 1,153) were predominantly medicinal products. Cyclist injuries (n=477) indicated low documented use of appropriate helmet wear. Prevention priorities should focus on home injuries, hot liquid burn and scald injuries and high falls from walls, beds and playground equipment. To prevent road-related injuries and deaths, further legislation, urban planning and greater police enforcement is required.
Pennington, Rachel; Cooper, Ashley; Edmond, Evan; Faulkner, Alastair; Reidy, Michael J; Davies, Peter S E
Quidditch is a fast growing, physically intense, mixed-gender full-contact sport. Originally adapted from Harry Potter novels, quidditch was first played in 2005 in the USA but is now played worldwide. It is essential to elucidate patterns of injury for the safety and growth of the sport of quidditch. It also provides a unique opportunity to study injury patterns in mixed-gender full-contact sport, an area of increasing importance with the developing culture of transition from single-gender to mixed-gender sports. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the types of injuries sustained while playing quidditch in terms of their incidence, anatomical distribution and severity, and gender distribution. An anonymous self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to all active quidditch players in the UK. Data collection included player demographics, type of injury, mechanism of injury, player position, experience and treatment required, relating to the previous 12 months. A total of 348 participants of 684 eligible athletes responded to the questionnaire representing a 50.87% response rate. There were 315 injuries reported by 180 athletes in total, with an overall incidence of 4.06 injuries per 1,000 hours. A statistically significantly different rate of concussion was observed with female athletes sustaining more concussion than males (p=0.006). The overall rate of concussion was 0.651/1000hrs in males and 1.163/1000hrs in females (0.877/1000 hours overall). This study provides the first quantitative description of injury rates in quidditch. The overall injury rates are no higher than those reported in other recreational contact sports. Female athletes were found to have a higher rate of concussion, which needs further investigation. These findings are relevant to players concerned about safety in quidditch and to governing bodies regarding governance of the sport. 3b.
Dennis J. Caine
Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to
Stillhard, Angela; Buschor, Cornel; Krastl, Gabriel; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas
This study investigates the frequency of injuries, in particular dental injuries, among ski jumpers and Nordic combined athletes. It also examines the level of knowledge regarding tooth protection and tooth rescue boxes in this population. Of the 465 sportswomen and sportsmen who took part in the study, 230 (62.5%) of the 368 ski jumpers and 56 (56.5%) of the 97 Nordic combined athletes had sustained an injury. In both disciplines injury was most likely among professionals. The survey participants reported injuries to the limbs (n = 216), head and lips (n = 273 and n = 253, respectively), torso or spine (n = 249), teeth (n = 246), nose (n = 229) and jaw (n = 26). Dental injuries were more common among professionals than either amateur or junior ski jumpers, whereas, among the Nordic combined athletes, juniors were most likely to sustain a dental injury. Overall, the frequency of dental injury was significantly (p = 0.019) higher among adults 12.7% (n = 234) than junior athletes 6.1% (n = 212). The level of awareness of mouthguards and tooth rescue boxes varied between countries. The high injury rate recorded in this study demonstrates that ski jumping contains a considerable risk of injury, including tooth damage. Consequently, it seems reasonable to inform skiing organisations, trainers and athletes about the potential benefits of mouthguards and tooth rescue boxes in order to reduce the risk of dental injury.
Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Gorman, Erin; Ngan, Karen; Guzman, Jaime
An essential assumption of injury prevention programs is the common cause hypothesis that the causal pathways of near misses and minor injuries are similar to those of major injuries. The rates of near miss, minor injury and major injury of all reported incidents and musculoskeletal incidents (MSIs) were calculated for three health regions using information from a surveillance database and productive hours from payroll data. The relative distribution of individual causes and activities involved in near miss, minor injury and major injury were then compared. For all reported incidents, there were significant differences in the relative distribution of causes for near miss, minor, and major injury. However, the relative distribution of causes and activities involved in minor and major MSIs were similar. The top causes and activities involved were the same across near miss, minor, and major injury. Finding from this study support the use of near miss and minor injury data as potential outcome measures for injury prevention programs. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Khodaee, Morteza; Currie, Dustin W; Asif, Irfan M; Comstock, R Dawn
Research on high school soccer injury epidemiology is sparse. To describe high school soccer injury rates, trends and patterns by type of athlete exposure (AE), position and sex. This descriptive epidemiological study used data from a large national high school sports injury surveillance programme to describe rates and patterns of soccer-related injuries including concussion sustained from 2005/2006 to 2013/2014. Injury rates are calculated per 1000 AEs. Overall, 6154 soccer injuries occurred during 2 985 991 AEs; injury rate=2.06 per 1000 AEs. Injury rates were higher during competition (4.42) than practice (1.05; rate ratio (RR)=4.19; 95% CI 3.98 to 4.41), and in girls (2.33) than boys (1.83; RR=1.27, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.34). Boys' non-concussion injury rates decreased significantly (p=0.001) during the study period while reported concussion rates increased significantly (p=0.002). Girls' non-concussion rates were relatively stable and reported concussion rates increased significantly (p=0.004). Player-player contact was the injury mechanism that led to the most competition injuries (injury proportion ratio (IPR)=2.87; 95% CI 2.57 to 3.21), while non-contact injuries were the most common mechanisms among practice injuries (IPR=2.10; 95% CI 1.86 to 2.38). Recovery from concussion was >7 days in a third of the cases. Injury patterns were similar between sexes with respect to position played and location on the field at the time of injury. High school soccer injury rates vary by sex and type of exposure, while injury patterns are more similar across sexes. Reported concussion rates increased significantly over the study period in male and female athletes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Kenny, Sarah J; Palacios-Derflingher, Luz; Whittaker, Jackie L; Emery, Carolyn A
Study Design Cohort study. Background Multiple operational definitions of injury exist in dance research. The influence that these different injury definitions have on epidemiological estimations of injury burden among dancers warrants investigation. Objective To describe the influence of injury definition on injury prevalence, incidence, and severity in preprofessional ballet and contemporary dancers. Methods Dancers registered in full-time preprofessional ballet (n = 85; 77 female; median age, 15 years; range, 11-19 years) and contemporary (n = 60; 58 female; median age, 19 years; range, 17-30 years) training completed weekly online questionnaires (modified Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre questionnaire on health problems) using 3 injury definitions: (1) time loss (unable to complete 1 or more classes/rehearsals/performances for 1 or more days beyond onset), (2) medical attention, and (3) any complaint. Physical therapists completed injury report forms to capture dance-related medical attention and time-loss injuries. Percent agreement between injury registration methods was estimated. Injury prevalence (seasonal proportion of dancers injured), incidence rates (count of new injuries per 1000 dance-exposure hours), and severity (total days lost) were examined across each definition, registration method, and dance style. Results Questionnaire response rate was 99%. Agreement between registration methods ranged between 59% (time loss) and 74% (injury location). Depending on definition, registration, and dance style, injury prevalence ranged between 9.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.1%, 17.7%; time loss) and 82.4% (95% CI: 72.5%, 89.8%; any complaint), incidence rates between 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.2; time loss) and 4.9 (95% CI: 4.1, 5.8; any complaint) injuries per 1000 dance-hours, and days lost between 111 and 588 days. Conclusion Time-loss and medical-attention injury definitions underestimate the injury burden in preprofessional dancers. Accordingly, injury
Tenforde, Adam S; Kraus, Emily; Fredericson, Michael
Bone stress injuries (BSIs) are common running injuries and may occur at a rate of 20% annually. Both biological and biomechanical risk factors contribute to BSI. Evaluation of a runner with suspected BSI includes completing an appropriate history and physical examination. MRI grading classification for BSI has been proposed and may guide return to play. Management includes activity modification, optimizing nutrition, and addressing risk factors, including the female athlete triad. BSI prevention strategies include screening for risk factors during preparticipation evaluations, optimizing nutrition (including adequate caloric intake, calcium, and vitamin D), and promoting ball sports during childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Through the use of comprehensive linkage of five years of state-wide administrative health data, combined with individual survey data methods, this study overcame the most significant threat to longitudinal research – loss to follow-up. Our results demonstrated that children in socio-economically deprived families have higher rates of injury, despite living in a physical environment that contains substantially fewer injury risks than their less deprived counterparts. These findings support continued efforts to implement societal-wide, long term policy and practice changes to address the socioeconomic differentials in child health outcomes.
Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt
To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....
Plancher, K D; Minnich, J M
Injuries to the upper extremities can happen in any sport. Injury patterns are common to specific sports. Understanding which injuries occur with these sports allows the examiner to diagnose and treat the athlete easily. This article reviews some of the injuries common in sports such as bicycling, golf, gymnastics, martial arts, racquet sports, and weightlifting.
Full Text Available ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...
Dement, John M; Lipscomb, Hester; Li, Leiming; Epling, Carol; Desai, Tejas
Pneumatic nail guns greatly increase worker productivity and are extensively used in wood frame building construction, with especially high use in residential construction. One surveillance report of nail gun injuries in Washington State has been published; however, other literature consists largely of case reports and case series in trauma journals. The major objective of the current study was to investigate the occurrence of nail gun-associated injuries among construction workers and to identify preventable work-related factors associated with these injuries. Nail gun-related injuries occurring among a cohort of 13,347 carpenters in Ohio who worked union hours during the time period January 1, 1994, until September 30, 1997, were identified by matching the cohort with workers' compensation claims made to the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation. We also analyzed workers' compensation claims for North Carolina Home Builders Association members for the period July 1996-November 1999 to identify nail gun-related injuries. Analyses included stratified analyses of claims by nature and body part injured, calculation of nail gun injury rates, and analyses of free text descriptions of injuries. Overall, nail gun injuries were responsible for 3.9 percent of workers' compensation claims with 8.3 percent to 25.5 percent of claims involving paid lost work time. The overall rate of nail gun injuries (cases per 200,000 work hours) was 0.33 in North Carolina and 0.26 in Ohio, reflecting the greater concentration of wood frame construction workers in the North Carolina population studied. Higher rates of injury were observed for carpenters in North Carolina and among residential carpenters in Ohio. The predominant body part injured was the hands/fingers, with 80 to 89 percent of injuries being nail punctures. Analyses of free text information for puncture injuries found approximately 70 percent of injuries to occur during the framing/sheathing stage of construction. Our data
Full Text Available Based on what you found during the eye examination, classify the injury as a non-mechanical injury (chemical or thermal injury, a non-globe injury (orbital or adnexal injury or as a mechanical globe injury. In the case of mechanical globe injuries, it is important to classify the injury according to the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS and write it down in the patient’s notes; this will help to ensure that everyone involved in caring for the patient will have a consistent understanding of the type of injury. The resulting uniformity of terminology also helps with research, making it possible to compare data and do audits of injuries – which is essential for prevention.
Siewe, J; Marx, G; Knöll, P; Eysel, P; Zarghooni, K; Graf, M; Herren, C; Sobottke, R; Michael, J
Competitive bodybuilding is a weightlifting sport similar to powerlifting, strongman competition and Olympic weightlifting, which aims to increase muscle mass, symmetry, and body definition. Although data regarding rates of injury, overuse syndromes and pain during routine training is available for these other disciplines, it is rare for competitive bodybuilding. The aim of this study was to investigate rates of injury, pain during workouts and/or overuse syndromes, as well as the influence of particular intrinsic and external factors. Data was collected using questionnaires from 71 competitive and elite bodybuilders. The information included training routines and prior injuries. Participants were recruited from bodybuilding clubs in Germany. 45.1% of athletes reported symptoms while training. The overall injury rate was computed to be 0.12 injuries per bodybuilder per year (0.24 injuries per 1 000 h of bodybuilding). Athletes over 40 exhibited higher rates of injury (p=0.029). Other investigated parameters showed no effects. Most injuries occurred in the shoulder, elbow, lumbar spine and knee regions. A large proportion of bodybuilders complained of pain not resulting in interruptions of training/competition. The injury rate is low compared to other weightlifting disciplines such as powerlifting, Olympic weightlifting or strongman competition. In comparison to team or contact sports the injury rate is minimal. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Goossens, L; Verrelst, R; Cardon, G; De Clercq, D
Sports injuries could be highly detrimental to the career of a physical education teacher education (PETE) student. To enable the development of future sports injury prevention programs, sports injuries in 128 first-year academic bachelor PETE students were registered prospectively during one academic year. Common risk factors for sports injuries, taken from the literature, were also evaluated by means of logistic regression analysis. We found an incidence rate of 1.91 and an injury risk of 0.85, which is higher than generally found in a sports-active population. Most injuries involved the lower extremities, were acute, newly occurring injuries, and took place in non-contact situations. More than half of all injuries lead to an inactivity period of 1 week or more and over 80% of all injuries required medical attention. A major part of these injuries happened during the intracurricular sports classes. Few differences were seen between women and men. A history of injury was a significant risk factor (P = 0.018) for the occurrence of injuries, and performance of cooling-down exercises was significantly related to a lower occurrence of ankle injuries (P = 0.031). These data can inform future programs for the prevention of sports injuries in PETE students. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Leslie A. Fabian
Full Text Available As the popularity of longboarding increases, trauma centers are treating an increased number of high severity injuries. Current literature lacks descriptions of the types of injuries experienced by longboarders, a distinct subset of the skateboarding culture. A retrospective review of longboarding and skateboarding injury cases was conducted at a level II trauma center from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2011. Specific injuries in addition to high injury severity factors (hospital and intensive care unit (ICU length of stay (LOS, Injury Severity Score (ISS, patient treatment options, disposition, and outcome were calculated to compare longboarder to skateboarder injuries. A total of 824 patients met the inclusion criteria. Skull fractures, traumatic brain injuries (TBI, and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH were significantly more common among longboard patients than skateboarders (P<0.0001. All patients with an ISS above 15 were longboarders. Hospital and ICU LOS in days was also significantly greater for longboarders compared with skateboarders (P<0.0001. Of the three patients that died, each was a longboarder and each experienced a head injury. Longboard injuries account for a higher incidence rate of severe head injuries compared to skateboard injuries. Our data show that further, prospective investigation into the longboarding population demographics and injury patterns is necessary to contribute to effective injury prevention in this population.
Based on the data of pulmonary radiation injury in 16 cases, the relationship among the radiation dosage and field, the development and onset time of the pulmonary radiation injury were discussed, and the dynamic changes of pulmonary radiation injury in X-ray films were analysed. The author found that: (1) there was a close relationship between the development of radiation injury and radiation dosages and the size of radiation fields, i.e. for the large radiation field, a relatively small dosage was needed for developing radiation injury ; (2) most off acute radiation injury of the lungs appeared within one month of postirradiation therapy, and the chronic pulmonary fibrosis appeared at 4.23 months after radiation therapy, with a fibrosis rate of about 85.7% within a half year; (3) the clinical manifestations of pulmonary radiation injury were not parallel to the X-ray signs, namely the X-ray changes were more severe than clinical manifestations. On the basis of X-ray signs and the dynamic changes of pulmonary radiation injury, the differentiation of radiation injury from interstitial pulmonary metastasis, primary tumor, common pneumonia, and tumor recurrence after radiation therapy were discussed
Magno e Silva, M P; Morato, M P; Bilzon, J L J; Duarte, E
The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes, 11 succumbed to some form of injury during the 5 competitions, which incorporated 23 matches, representing a prevalence of 84.6%. A total of 35 sports injuries were recorded, giving a clinical incidence of 2.7 injuries per athlete and an injury risk of 0.85 and an incidence rate of 0.12 injuries per match. Traumatic injuries (80%) were more common than overuse injuries (20%) (psports-related injuries in 5-a-side football in blind athletes. The results are important in guiding strategies to inform the implementation of preventive pathways and provide a strong rationale for the compulsory use of additional protective equipment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Gaudio, Flavio G; Greenwald, Peter W; Holton, Mark
Many colleges offer outdoor education courses such as rock climbing, kayaking, and mountain biking. Since these sports may be perceived as dangerous, we describe the prevalence of injuries and illnesses in a large, university-based outdoor education program. We also compare composite incident rates from this outdoor program to those of traditional college sports. Cohort of college students participating in either Cornell Outdoor Education (COE) or National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports and comparison of incident rates. COE data were prospectively collected in the field; and NCAA data were prospectively collected through the Association's Injury Surveillance System. By definition, a COE injury or illness required follow-up care, prescription medication, or limited course participation. Similarly, a NCAA injury limited further practice or play. Incident rates were calculated as injuries and illnesses per 1000 participant-days (COE) or injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (NCAA). Included COE courses during 2002-2007 totaled 74 005 participant-days. There were 111 injuries and illnesses, rate = 1.50/1000 participant-days (95% CI 1.24-1.81). The NCAA reported 32 646 899 athlete-exposures during 1988-2004 and 181 476 injuries, rate = 5.56/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI 5.53-5.58). Compared to COE, the relative risk of injury in NCAA sports was 3.7 (95% CI 3.1-4.5) overall and 3.3 (95% CI 2.8-4.0) after excluding the high-contact sports of football, ice hockey, and wrestling. For COE, mountain biking had the highest incident rate (7.5/1000), which was significantly lower than game injury rates in NCAA football and soccer. The most common injuries for both NCAA and COE were soft-tissue injuries such as sprains and strains. Outdoor education at this university-sponsored program was at least as safe as traditional college sports. Overall, college students were less likely to be injured while participating in COE courses than while participating in NCAA sports
Ma, Richard; Lopez, Victor; Weinstein, Meryle G; Chen, James L; Black, Christopher M; Gupta, Arun T; Harbst, Justin D; Victoria, Christian; Allen, Answorth A
The objective of this study is to determine incidence (injuries/1000 playing hours (ph)), severity (days of absence), and cause of match injuries in US women's Rugby-7s. We performed a prospective epidemiological study (2010-2013) of injury of 3876 under-19 to elite/national female Rugby-7s players (nonelite = 3324, elite = 552) on 323 teams (nonelite = 277, elite = 46), applying methodology and injury definitions compliant with the international consensus statement on rugby research. Injuries occurred in USA Rugby-sanctioned tournament series: USA Rugby Local Area (2010), Territorial Union (2011-2013), National and All-Star Sevens Series, and USA Sevens Invitational (2011-2012) and Collegiate Rugby Championships (2012). One hundred and twenty time-loss injuries were encountered (elite, n = 15; 13%) with an injury rate of 46.3 injuries/1000 ph. Injury rates in nonelite were 49.3/1000 ph, and in national level (elite) candidates, 32.6/1000 ph (RR = 1.5, P = 0.130). Mean days missed found elite level players at 74.9 d per injury, whereas nonelite at 41.8 d (P = 0.090). Acute injuries were significant (95%, RR = 1.9, P Rugby-7s tournaments. Overall injury rates in US women are lower than those in international elite men and women's Rugby-7s. The head and neck area in our female players was injured at greater rates (16%) than in international male Rugby-7s (5%). Injury prevention in US women's Rugby-7s must focus on injuries of the knee, head, and neck. Understanding risk factors will allow safe return-to-play decisions and formulate injury prevention protocols.
Altman, Allison R; Davis, Irene S
Advocates of barefoot running suggest that it is more natural and may be a way to minimise injury risk. In contrast, opponents believe shoes are needed to adequately cushion and support the foot. However, to date, there have been no prospective studies of injury patterns in barefoot and shod runners. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence and rate of injuries between shod and barefoot runners. A prospective survey was conducted over the course of a year among 201 (107 barefoot and 94 shod) adult runners. Information regarding injuries and mileage was logged monthly using a custom, web-based database program. The number of injured runners, number of injuries per runner and injury rates were compared between habitual barefoot and habitual shod runners. Both musculoskeletal and plantar surface injuries were assessed. Statistically fewer overall, diagnosed, musculoskeletal injuries/runner were noted in the barefoot group. However, injury rates were not statistically different between groups due to significantly less mileage run in the barefoot group. As expected, barefoot runners sustained a statistically greater number of injuries to the plantar surface of the foot. The descriptive analysis suggests a greater number of calf injuries, but lower number of knee and hip injuries in the barefoot group. Additionally barefoot runners reported less plantar fasciitis than the shod group. Barefoot running is associated with fewer overall musculoskeletal injuries/runner, but similar injury rates. A larger scale cohort is needed to more accurately assess differences in individual injuries between these two groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Aune, Kyle T.; Powers, Joseph M.
Background: Extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) are fitness training regimens relying on aerobic, plyometric, and resistance training exercises, often with high levels of intensity for a short duration of time. These programs have grown rapidly in popularity in recent years, but science describing the safety profile of these programs is lacking. Hypothesis: The rate of injury in the extreme conditioning program is greater than the injury rate of weightlifting and the majority of injuries occur to the shoulder and back. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: This is a retrospective survey of injuries reported by athletes participating in an ECP. An injury survey was sent to 1100 members of Iron Tribe Fitness, a gym franchise with 5 locations across Birmingham, Alabama, that employs exercises consistent with an ECP in this study. An injury was defined as a physical condition resulting from ECP participation that caused the athlete to either seek medical treatment, take time off from exercising, or make modifications to his or her technique to continue. Results: A total of 247 athletes (22%) completed the survey. The majority (57%) of athletes were male (n = 139), and 94% of athletes were white (n = 227). The mean age of athletes was 38.9 years (±8.9 years). Athletes reported participation in the ECP for, on average, 3.6 hours per week (± 1.2 hours). Eighty-five athletes (34%) reported that they had sustained an injury while participating in the ECP. A total of 132 injuries were recorded, yielding an estimated incidence of 2.71 per 1000 hours. The shoulder or upper arm was the most commonly injured body site, accounting for 38 injuries (15% of athletes). Athletes with a previous shoulder injury were 8.1 times as likely to injure their shoulder in the ECP compared with athletes with healthy shoulders. The trunk, back, head, or neck (n = 29, 12%) and the leg or knee (n = 29, 12%) were the second most commonly injured sites. The
Harbrecht, Brian G; Zenati, Mazen S; Ochoa, Juan B; Puyana, Juan C; Alarcon, Louis H; Peitzman, Andrew B
The management of splenic injuries has evolved with a greater emphasis on nonoperative management. Although several institutions have demonstrated that nonoperative management of splenic injuries can be performed with an increasing degree of success, the impact of this treatment shift on outcome for all patients with splenic injuries remains unknown. We hypothesized that outcomes for patients with splenic injuries have improved as the paradigm for splenic injury treatment has shifted. Consecutive patients from 1987 to 2001 with splenic injuries who were entered into a state trauma registry were reviewed. Demographic variables, injury characteristics, and outcome data were collected. The number of patients who were diagnosed with splenic injuries increased from 1987 through 2001, despite a stable number of institutions submitting data to the registry. The number of minor injuries and severe splenic injuries remained stable, and the number of moderately severe injuries significantly increased over time. Overall mortality rate improved but primarily reflected the decreased mortality rates of moderately severe injuries; the mortality rate for severe splenic injuries was unchanged. Trauma centers are seeing increasing numbers of splenic injuries that are less severe in magnitude, although the number of the most severe splenic injuries is stable. The increased proportion of patients with less severe splenic injuries who are being admitted to trauma centers is a significant factor in the increased use and success rate of nonoperative management.
Emery, C.A.; Roy, T.O.; Whittaker, J.L.; Nettel-Aguirre, A.; van Mechelen, W.
Youth have very high participation and injury rates in sport. Sport is the leading cause of injury in youth. Sport injury reduces future participation in physical activity which adversely affects future health. Sport injury may lead to overweight/obesity and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The
Since 2009, Amtrak has been engaged in unprecedented efforts to advance its safety processes and improve the safety culture of the entire corporation, including establishing a peer-to-peer feedback process, known as the Safe-2-Safer program. FRA is c...
Boden, Barry P; Pierpoint, Lauren A; Boden, Rebecca G; Comstock, R Dawn; Kerr, Zachary Y
Although eye injuries constitute a small percentage of high school and college sports injuries, they have the potential to be permanently debilitating. Eye injury rates will vary by sport, sex, and between the high school and college age groups. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Data from eye injury reports in high school and college athletes were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO) database over a 10-year span (2005-2006 through 2014-2015 school years) and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) over an 11-year span (2004-2005 through 2014-2015 school years). Injury rates per 100,000 athlete-exposures (AEs), injury rate ratios (RRs), and 95% CIs were calculated. Distributions of eye injuries by diagnosis, mechanism, time loss, and surgery needs were also examined. A total of 237 and 273 eye injuries were reported in the HS RIO and the NCAA ISP databases, respectively. The sports with the highest eye injury rates (per 100,000 AEs) for combined high school and college athletes were women's basketball (2.36), women's field hockey (2.35), men's basketball (2.31), and men's wrestling (2.07). Overall eye injury rates at the high school and college levels were 0.68 and 1.84 per 100,000 AEs, respectively. Eye injury rates were higher in competition than practice in high school (RR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.69-4.48) and college (RR, 3.13; 95% CI, 2.45-3.99). Most injuries were contusions (high school, 35.9%; college, 33.3%) and due to contact (high school, 89.9%; college, 86.4%). Only a small percentage of injuries resulted in time loss over 21 days (high school, 4.2%; college, 3.0%). Eye injury rates and patterns vary by sport, sex, and between the high school and college age groups. Although severe injuries do occur, most eye injuries sustained by high school and college athletes are minor, with limited time loss and full recovery
Oncel, Didem; Malinoski, Darren; Brown, Carlos; Demetriades, Demetrios; Salim, Ali
Gastric rupture after blunt abdominal trauma is a rare injury with few reports in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with blunt gastric injuries and compare outcomes with small bowel or colon injuries. All patients with hollow viscus perforations after blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2005 at our level I trauma center were reviewed. Of 35,033 blunt trauma admissions, there were 268 (0.7%) patients with a total of 319 perforating hollow viscus injuries, 25 (0.07%) of which were blunt gastric injuries. When compared with the small bowel or colon injuries, the blunt gastric injury group had a higher Injury Severity Score (22 versus 17, P = 0.04), more patients with a chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2 (36% versus 12%, P < 0.01), and a shorter interval from injury to laparotomy (221 versus 366 minutes, P = 0.017). Multivariate analysis identified five independent risk factors for mortality: age older than 55 years, head Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, the presence of hypotension on admission, and Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or less. The results of this study suggest that mortality in patients with blunt hollow viscus injuries can be attributed to concurrent head and chest injuries, but not the specific hollow viscus organ that is injured.
Mannan, M. Sam [Mary Kay O' Connor Process Safety Center, Chemical Engineering Department, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com; O' Connor, T. Michael [Mary Kay O' Connor Process Safety Center, Chemical Engineering Department, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Keren, Nir [Department of Agriculture and Biosystems Engineering, 102 Industrial Education Building II, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3130 (United States)
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) provide the Survey of Occupational Illness and Injury (SOII) statistics from 1992 to 2006, which is often used to measure the rate of injuries and illness in industry. The present system of gathering and classifying this data was implemented in 1992 with minor changes in 2002. It is hoped that using these statistics to measure safety progress and determine patterns of injury will guide further improvements in chemical safety. Recognizing such factors as what chemicals most frequently cause injury can help to focus safety efforts regarding that chemical. Factors such as what part of the body is most commonly affected by particular chemicals can lead to improved personnel protection practices. This paper provides a detailed analysis of injuries due to chemicals using OSHA's SOII data, which offers valuable insight into measures that should be taken to reduce injuries due to chemicals.
Mannan, M. Sam; O'Connor, T. Michael; Keren, Nir
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) provide the Survey of Occupational Illness and Injury (SOII) statistics from 1992 to 2006, which is often used to measure the rate of injuries and illness in industry. The present system of gathering and classifying this data was implemented in 1992 with minor changes in 2002. It is hoped that using these statistics to measure safety progress and determine patterns of injury will guide further improvements in chemical safety. Recognizing such factors as what chemicals most frequently cause injury can help to focus safety efforts regarding that chemical. Factors such as what part of the body is most commonly affected by particular chemicals can lead to improved personnel protection practices. This paper provides a detailed analysis of injuries due to chemicals using OSHA's SOII data, which offers valuable insight into measures that should be taken to reduce injuries due to chemicals
Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S
Regulations now state that professional academies in the United Kingdom are required to substantially increase the volume of soccer training. This study assessed the current injury occurrence, providing an update to reports published prior to the introduction of the Elite Player Performance Plan (EPPP). 608 soccer players aged 11-18 years from six professional soccer clubs were prospectively monitored, recording injuries during the 2014-2015 season. An injury rate of 1.32 injuries per player/season was indicated with a mean time loss of 21.9 days per injury. The greatest time loss per injury was in the U14s-U15s, and the highest rate of severe injuries in the U15s. Strains and sprains were the most common injury type, with the knee and ankle the most frequently injured anatomical sites. Seasonal variation indicated two peaks in injury incidence, occurring in September and January. In comparison to a published audit prior to the inception of the EPPP, this study indicates that academy soccer players are three-times more likely to experience an injury. Given that time loss and injury severity also increased during periods that typically follow rapid growth, these players should be considered an important group for training load monitoring and injury prevention strategies.
Mekkodathil, Ahammed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan
Occupational injuries remain an important unresolved issue in many of the developing and developed countries. We aimed to outline the causes, characteristics, measures and impact of occupational injuries among different ethnicities. We reviewed the literatures using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and EMBASE search engine using words: "Occupational injuries" and "workplace" between 1984 and 2014. Incidence of fatal occupational injuries decreased over time in many countries. However, it increased in the migrant, foreign born and ethnic minority workers in certain high risk industries. Disproportionate representations of those groups in different industries resulted in wide range of fatality rates. Overrepresentation of migrant workers, foreign born and ethnic minorities in high risk and unskilled occupations warrants effective safety training programs and enforcement of laws to assure safe workplaces. The burden of occupational injuries at the individual and community levels urges the development and implementation of effective preventive programs.
Bent, C.; Iyngkaran, T.; Power, N.; Matson, M.; Hajdinjak, T.; Buchholz, N.; Fotheringham, T.
Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated
Bent, C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Iyngkaran, T.; Power, N.; Matson, M. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hajdinjak, T.; Buchholz, N. [Department of Urology, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fotheringham, T. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)
Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.
Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.
Eckert, Matthew J; Martin, Matthew J
Injuries to the spinal column and spinal cord frequently occur after high-energy mechanisms of injury, or with lower-energy mechanisms, in select patient populations like the elderly. A focused yet complete neurologic examination during the initial evaluation will guide subsequent diagnostic procedures and early supportive measures to help prevent further injury. For patients with injury to bone and/or ligaments, the initial focus should be spinal immobilization and prevention of inducing injury to the spinal cord. Spinal cord injury is associated with numerous life-threatening complications during the acute and long-term phases of care that all acute care surgeons must recognize. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J
Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.
Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding
Bent, C; Iyngkaran, T; Power, N; Matson, M; Hajdinjak, T; Buchholz, N; Fotheringham, T
Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.
D. K. Ting
Full Text Available Introduction: Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. Methods: In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston, Ontario, sites for emergency department (ED care and participate in CHIRPP. Each retrieved entry underwent a chart review. A secondary survey was mailed to select individuals who had experienced curling injuries to solicit details on their injury and attitudes towards equipment to prevent injury. We used descriptive statistics for rates and proportions. Results: Over 90% of acute curling injuries resulted from a fall, and 31.7% were head impacts. We found that acute injuries requiring ED presentation occur at a rate of approximately 0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI: 0.12–0.22. The secondary survey was completed by 54% of potential respondents. Of survey respondents, 41.3% attributed their fall to a lack of proper footwear and 73.5% of respondents agreed with mandatory sport-specific footwear as a prevention strategy, but only 8% agreed with mandatory helmet wear. Conclusions: Although curling injuries requiring medical care are not common, head injuries make up a large proportion. Mandated use of appropriate footwear appears to be the most effective prevention strategy, as well as the measure deemed most acceptable by players.
Ali, A.M.; Gibbons, C.E.R. [Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, London (United Kingdom); Pillai, J.K.; Roberton, B.J. [Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Gulati, V. [Homerton University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, London (United Kingdom)
To establish whether patterns of soft tissue injury following knee hyperextension are associated with post-traumatic 'bone bruise' distribution. Patients with a knee MRI within one year of hyperextension injury were identified at our institution over a 7 year period. MRIs, plain radiographs and clinical details of these patients were reviewed. Twenty-five patients were identified (median time from injury to MRI = 24 days). The most common sites of bone bruising were the anteromedial tibial plateau (48%) and anterolateral tibial plateau (44%). There were high rates of injury to the posterior capsule (52%), ACL (40%) and PCL (40%) but lower rates of injury to the menisci (20%), medial and lateral collateral ligaments (16%) and posterolateral corner (16%). Anterior tibial plateau oedema and rupture of the posterior capsule predicted cruciate ligament injury [OR = 10.5 (p = 0.02) and 24.0 (p = 0.001) respectively]. Whilst anterolateral tibial plateau oedema strongly predicted PCL injury [OR = 26.0, p = 0.003], ACL injury was associated with a variable pattern of bone bruising. Meniscal injury was unrelated to the extent or pattern of bone bruising. 5 out of 8 patients with a 'double sulcus' on the lateral radiograph had ACL injury. The presence of a double sulcus showed significant association with anteromedial kissing contusions (OR = 7.8, p = 0.03). Following knee hyperextension, bone bruising patterns may be associated with cruciate ligament injury. Other structures are injured less frequently and have weaker associations with bone bruise distribution. The double sulcus sign is a radiographic marker that confers a high probability of ACL injury. (orig.)
A synthetic study was performed on some of those to whom Thorotrast had been injected, in Japan. In the epidemiological study of 147 war woundeds to whom Thorotrast had been injected, it was noted that the Thorotrast injection increased the mortality rate and the incidences of malignant hepatic tumor, liver cirrhosis, and hematological diseases. Clinical study of 44 of them showed that the Thorotrast injection resulted in liver and hematopoietic hypofunctions. Analysis of the dissection of the injected area in 118 cases showed malignant hepatic tumor in 63.5%, liver cirrhosis in 14.4% and hematological diseases in 10.2%. The total of the three types of disease was 88.1%. Histological classification showed that of the malignant hepatic tumors due to Thorotrast, hepatobiliary cancer and hemangioendothelioma of the liver were frequent. By the comparison of the absorbed dose in the liver of the malignant hepatic tumors due to Thorotrast with that of the cancers developed in animal experiments, it was noted that the carcinogenic dose was a mean of 2,000 - 3,000 rad by accumulated dose. It was elucidated that carcinogenesis and fibrination were primary in injury due to Thorotrast, i.e., late injury due to Thorotrast, and that the increase in the accumulated dose in rogans and the increase of the local dose due to the gigantic growth of Thorotrast granules in organs greatly influenced carninogenesis and fibrination. (Chiba, N.)
Kimia, Amir; Lee, Lois; Shannon, Michael; Capraro, Andrew; Mays, Donald; Johnston, Patrick; Hummel, David; Shuman, Margot
Holiday ornament injuries in children have not been well documented in the medical literature. Our aim was to investigate the patterns of injuries sustained from these ornaments as a first measure toward prevention. This was a retrospective cohort analysis of all patients examined in an urban pediatric emergency department over a 13-year period ending in March 2008 for holiday ornament-related injuries. Cases were identified using a computer-assisted text query followed by a manual chart review. Data collected from each chart included the child's age, sex, injury characteristics, physical examination findings, radiographic imaging, interventions, and disposition. To analyze injury rates over the years, we used a multiplicative Poisson model allowing varying exposures. Over the study period, we identified 76 eligible patients. The median age was 2 years (interquartile range, 1.17-3.3 years); 44.7% were female. Forty-three of the 76 cases (53.9%) involved ingestions: 35 were of holiday ornaments, and 8 were of light bulbs. All but one of these ornaments were made of glass. In 28%, there was an associated bleed either from the mouth or as a delayed gastrointestinal bleed. Other patients experienced lacerations (27.6%), eye injuries (5.1%), and minor electrocution injury (2.5%). Imaging was performed in 85%. A subspecialty consult was obtained in 23%, primarily addressing a foreign body ingestion or removal after skin exploration. The incidence rate has not changed over the years. Holiday ornament-related injuries primarily involve foreign body ingestions and glass-related injuries. Over half of the injuries involved small light bulbs and ornaments made of glass placed at the level a toddler can reach. Pediatricians are advised to discuss these points with families during holiday season.
Quarrie, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Will G
The tackle is the most dangerous facet of play in rugby union, but little is known about risk factors for tackle injuries. To estimate the injury risk associated with various characteristics of tackles in professional rugby union matches. Descriptive epidemiology study. All 140 249 tackles in 434 professional matches were coded from video recordings for height and direction of tackle on the ball carrier, speed of tackler, and speed of ball carrier; injuries were coded for various characteristics, including whether the tackler or ball carrier required replacement or only on-field assessment. There were 1348 injury assessments requiring only on-field treatment and 211 requiring player replacement. The inciting event and medical outcomes were matched to video records for 281 injuries. Injuries were most frequently the result of high or middle tackles from the front or side, but rate of injury per tackle was higher for tackles from behind than from the front or side. Ball carriers were at highest risk from tackles to the head-neck region, whereas tacklers were most at risk when making low tackles. The impact of the tackle was the most common cause of injury, and the head was the most common site, but an important mechanism of lower limb injuries was loading with the weight of another player. Rates of replacement increased with increasing player speed. Strategies for reducing tackle injuries without radically changing the contact nature of the sport include further education of players about safe tackling and minor changes to laws for the height of the tackle.
Reeser, Jonathan C; Gregory, Andrew; Berg, Richard L; Comstock, R Dawn
There is a relative paucity of research examining the sport-specific injury epidemiology of high school and collegiate volleyball athletes. Moreover, differences in study methodology frequently limit our ability to compare and contrast injury data collected from selected populations. There are differences between the injury patterns characteristic of high school and collegiate female volleyball athletes. Retrospective clinical review. Level 3. We statistically analyzed injury incidence and outcome data collected over a 4-year interval (2005-2006 to 2008-2009) by 2 similar injury surveillance systems, the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) and the High School Reporting Injuries Online (HS RIO). We compared diagnoses, anatomic distribution of injuries, mechanisms of injury, and time lost from training or competition between high school and collegiate volleyball athletes. The overall volleyball-related injury rate was significantly greater among collegiate athletes than among high school athletes during both competition (injury rate ratio, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.5-3.4) and practice (injury rate ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 3.1-3.9). Collegiate athletes had a higher rate of ankle sprain, knee injury, and shoulder injury. Concussions represented a relatively high percentage of injuries in both populations (5.0% of total NCAA ISS injuries vs 4.8% of total HS RIO injuries, respectively). The data suggest that although similar, there were distinct differences between the injury patterns of the 2 populations. Compared with high school volleyball players, collegiate athletes have a higher rate of acute time loss injury as well as overuse time loss injury (particularly patellar tendinosis). Concussions represented a significant and worrisome component of the injury pattern for both study populations. The injury data suggest that important differences exist in the injury patterns of female high school compared with collegiate volleyball athletes
Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study was to find the rate of musculoskeletal injuries in ultra-trail runners, investigate the most sensitive anatomical areas, and discover associated predicting factors to aid in the effective prevention and rapid rehabilitation of trail running injuries. Methods. Forty ultra trail runners responded to an epidemiological questionnaire. Results. At least one running injury was reported by 90% of the sample, with a total of 135 injuries were reported (111 overuse injuries, 24 appeared during competing. Lower back pain was the most common source of injury (42.5%. Running in the mountains (p = 0.0004 and following a personalized training schedule (p = 0.0995 were found to be protective factors. Runners involved in physical labor are associated with more injuries (p = 0.058. Higher-level runners are associated with more injuries than lower-level cohorts (p = 0.067, with symptoms most commonly arising in the lower back (p = 0.091, hip joint (p = 0.083, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0.054. Experienced runners (> 6 years are at greater risk of developing injuries (p = 0.001, especially in the lower back (p = 0.012, tibia (p = 0.049, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0 .028. Double training sessions could cause hip joint injury (p = 0.060. Conclusions. In order to avoid injury, it is recommended to train mostly on mountain trails and have a training program designed by professionals.
Drakos, Mark C; Domb, Benjamin; Starkey, Chad; Callahan, Lisa; Allen, Answorth A
Injury patterns in elite athletes over long periods continue to evolve. The goal of this study was to review of the injuries and medical conditions afflicting athletes competing in the National Basketball Association (NBA) over a 17-year period. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injuries and player demographic information were reported by each team's athletic trainer. Criteria for reportable injuries were those that resulted in (1) physician referral, (2) a practice or game being missed, or (3) emergency care. The demographics, frequency of injury, time lost, and game exposures were tabulated, and game-related injury rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total of 1094 players appeared in the database 3843 times (3.3 ± 2.6 seasons). Lateral ankle sprains were the most frequent orthopaedic injury (n, 1658; 13.2%), followed by patellofemoral inflammation (n, 1493; 11.9%), lumbar strains (n, 999; 7.9%), and hamstring strains (n, 413; 3.3%). The most games missed were related to patellofemoral inflammation (n, 10 370; 17.5%), lateral ankle sprains (n, 5223; 8.8%), knee sprains (n, 4369; 7.4%), and lumbar strains (n, 3933; 6.6%). No correlations were found between injury rate and player demographics, including age, height, weight, and NBA experience. Professional athletes in the NBA experience a high rate of game-related injuries. Patellofemoral inflammation is the most significant problem in terms of days lost in competition, whereas ankle sprains are the most common injury. True ligamentous injuries of the knee were surprisingly rare. Importantly, player demographics were not correlated with injury rates. Further investigation is necessary regarding the consequences and sport-specific treatment of various injuries in NBA players. Knowledge of these injury patterns can help to guide treatments and provide more accurate guidelines for an athlete to return to play.
Makhni, Eric C; Lee, Randall W; Nwosu, Ekene O; Steinhaus, Michael E; Ahmad, Christopher S
Major league baseball (MLB) pitchers are vulnerable to overuse injury of the upper extremity, especially in the shoulder. Injuries sustained in the preseason may have negative impact on performance following return. The goal of this study was to document the frequency of preseason shoulder injury in these athletes, as well as risk for re-injury and impact on performance following return from injury. A comprehensive search of MLB injury information from 2001 to 2010 of public databases yielded a cohort of MLB pitchers who sustained preseason shoulder injuries. These databases were utilized to obtain information regarding return to MLB competition, re-injury, and performance following return from injury. All performance metrics were compared to those of an age-matched control cohort. A total of 74 pitchers were identified who sustained a preseason shoulder injury. Only 39 (53%) returned that same season to pitch in the MLB competition. Of those that returned, nearly 50% of players were re-designated on the Disabled List during the return season. There was a decline in performance in earned run average and batting average against in the year of return. Compared to age-matched control pitchers, those with preseason shoulder injury had lower performance metrics across a number of outcomes. Preseason shoulder injury in MLB pitchers has the potential to result in high re-injury rates and decreased subsequent performance.
Leung, Felix T; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Brown, Mark; Rahmann, Ann; Mendis, M Dilani; Hides, Julie A
There is a high incidence of injuries in rugby union due to the physical nature of the game. There is a lack of large-scale injury surveillance data reported for school level rugby players of different ages. Our study aimed to investigate the frequency and nature of injuries being sustained during an Australian school level rugby union season. Prospective observational study. Injury surveillance was conducted on 3585 rugby players from all 8 schools participating in an interschool rugby competition in Queensland, Australia. Match injury data were collected using paper-based injury recording forms during the season using a 'medical-attention' injury definition for each age group from opens (17 and 18year olds) through to year 5 teams (9-10year olds). There were 332 injuries recorded over 14,029 player hours during the season. The overall rate of injury was 23.7/1000 player hours (95% CI, 21.2-26.3). The incidence of upper and lower limb injuries were 6.3 and 5.6 injuries/1000 player hours respectively (95% CI, 5.1-7.8 and 4.5-7.0). The incidence of suspected concussion injuries was 4.3/1000 player hours (95% CI, 3.6-5.5). Injuries differed across age groups and tackling was the most common mechanism of injury. The injury patterns observed in this large sample of players could be used to guide injury prevention programs in school level rugby union. Injury prevention programs should include age appropriate interventions and focus on improving the techniques used during the contact phase of rugby. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huang, Kuo-Chin; Hsu, Wei-Hsiu; Wang, Ting-Chung
A 38-year-old black-belt karate practitioner presented with acute disabling injury of his knee after swift-withdrawal of a reverse-roundhouse-kick. Examination confirmed the diagnosis of grade III ACL tear. Although there are reports documenting injury rate in modern karate, no previous cases of karate-related ACL injuries have been reported. The trauma mechanism is different than ACL injuries during other non-contact and contact sports. The current case report indicates that ACL injury can occur without any contact of the lower limb as a result of dynamic muscular forces during karate training.
Biasca, N; Battaglia, H; Simmen, H P; Disler, P; Trentz, O
Snowboarding is increasing dramatically in popularity in Switzerland as well as other countries. Work aimed at improving the design of the boards and of the boots and bindings has also increased rapidly during recent years. Most injured snowboarders are fit young men and boys who describe themselves as beginners and have had a minimal amount of instruction at an officially approved training centre. Appropriate snowboard training has mostly been quite inadequate, and protective devices (e.g. waterproofed support gloves). The anatomical distribution and the types of injuries sustained in snowboarding differ from those in alpine skiing. The wrist (and forearm) and the ankle are the most frequent locations of injuries (23%) as against the knee and thumb in alpine skiing. Sprains and strains were the most frequent types of injuries (46%), followed by fractures (28%) and contusions (13.5%). The snowboard injury rate was higher than in alpine skiing (1.7-8/1000 snowboard days versus 2-4/1000 ski days). Falling forward on the slope was the major mechanism of injury (80%), and torsion the next most frequent (20%). Snowboarding injuries were sustained most often on ice and hardpacked snow, compared with soft powder snow for alpine skiing injuries. Appropriate preseason conditioning, snowboarding lessons from a certified instructor, appropriate selection of rigorously tested equipment and use of protective devices are the main steps that must be taken to prevent injuries.
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate closed glob injuries related to occupational accidents of patients who had official occupational accident records. Material and Method: The medical records of patients with ocular injuries who referred to Department of Ophthalmology or emergency of Uludag University, School of Medicine between January 2010 and December 2013 with official occupational accident report were retrospectively reviewed. The patients with closed globe injuries following trauma were included. Age, sex, the injured eye, the cause of the trauma, whether the precautions were taken or not by the patient, the damage due to trauma were recorded. Results: According to the official records, 108 patients referred to our clinic with closed globe injury related to occupational accident. One hundred twenty eyes of 108 patients ( 2 females, 106 males were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 33±8.6 years. The most frequent cause of injury was foreign bodies on the ocular surface followed by blunt trauma. The mean age of the patients injured with foreign bodies was found to be significantly lower than the patients injured with blunt objects (p=0.039. Thirteen patients reported that they had used preventive equipment. Discussion: It is of utmost importance that the awareness of the workers should be raised and they should be educated about the use of preventive equipment to prevent the occupational eye injuries. The education of particularly the younger patients about the occupational injuries when they begin to work may decrease the rate of occupational accident related eye injuries.
... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...
Full Text Available ... of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS Occupational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Katie Powell, OT ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...
Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...
... Many things can make your elbow hurt. A common cause is tendinitis, an inflammation or injury to the tendons that attach muscle to bone. Tendinitis of the elbow is a sports injury, often from playing tennis or golf. You ...
... your knee is bent also can cause this injury. Risk factors Being in a motor vehicle accident and participating in sports such as football and soccer are the most common risk factors for a PCL injury. Complications In ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...
Full Text Available ... of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect stem-cell treatments to become available for spinal cord injuries? ...
Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin
Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.
Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect stem-cell treatments to become available for spinal cord injuries? ...
Full Text Available ... Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite ... arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...
Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ...
Ansari, Majid; Nourian, Ruhollah; Khodaee, Morteza
With the increasing popularity of mountain biking, also known as off-road cycling, and the riders pushing the sport into extremes, there has been a corresponding increase in injury. Almost two thirds of acute injuries involve the upper extremities, and a similar proportion of overuse injuries affect the lower extremities. Mountain biking appears to be a high-risk sport for severe spine injuries. New trends of injury patterns are observed with popularity of mountain bike trail parks and freeride cycling. Using protective gear, improving technical proficiency, and physical fitness may somewhat decrease the risk of injuries. Simple modifications in bicycle-rider interface areas and with the bicycle (bike fit) also may decrease some overuse injuries. Bike fit provides the clinician with postural correction during the sport. In this review, we also discuss the importance of race-day management strategies and monitoring the injury trends.
... National Standards Institute (ANSI) to meet their eye protection standards. If an eye injury occurs, see an ophthalmologist or go to the emergency room immediately, even if the eye injury appears minor. Delaying medical attention can result in permanent vision ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Injury & Safety Report is a mandatory post trip legal document observers fill out to report any injuries they have incurred, illnesses they have had, or...
Full Text Available ... Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical ...
Full Text Available ... Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...
Forsman, L; Eriksson, A
Background—Skateboarding injuries have increased with the rise in popularity of the sport, and the injury pattern can be expected to have changed with the development of both skateboard tricks and the materials used for skateboard construction.
... brain injury Some traumatic brain injuries have lasting effects, and some do not. You may be left with disabilities. These can be physical, behavioral, communicative, and/or mental. Customized treatment helps you to have as full ...
Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...
Walsh, Brittany A; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Friedenberg, Laura; Smith, Gary A
This study investigates unintentional non-fatal golf-related injuries in the US using a nationally representative database. This study analyzed golf-related injuries treated in US hospital emergency departments from 1990 through 2011 using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Injury rates were calculated using golf participation data. During 1990 through 2011, an estimated 663,471 (95% CI: 496,370-830,573) individuals ≥7years old were treated in US emergency departments for golf-related injuries, averaging 30,158 annually or 12.3 individuals per 10,000 golf participants. Patients 18-54years old accounted for 42.2% of injuries, but injury rates per 10,000 golf participants were highest among individuals 7-17years old (22.1) and ≥55years old (21.8) compared with 18-54years old (7.6). Patients ≥55years old had a hospital admission rate that was 5.01 (95% CI: 4.12-6.09) times higher than that of younger patients. Injured by a golf club (23.4%) or struck by a golf ball (16.0%) were the most common specified mechanisms of injury. The head/neck was the most frequently injured body region (36.2%), and sprain/strain (30.6%) was the most common type of injury. Most patients were treated and released (93.7%) and 5.9% required hospitalization. Although golf is a source of injury among all age groups, the frequency and rate of injury were higher at the two ends of the age spectrum. Given the higher injury and hospital admission rates of patients ≥55years, this age group merits the special attention of additional research and injury prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Kool, Bridget; Herman, Josephine; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi
Over 90% of injury deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. However, the epidemiological profile of injuries in Pacific Islands has received little attention. We used a population-based-trauma registry to investigate the characteristics of all injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji. The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH) database prospectively collected data on all injury-related deaths and primary admissions to hospital (≥ 12 hours stay) in Viti Levu during 12 months commencing October 2005. The 2167 injury-related deaths and hospitalisations corresponded to an annual incidence rate of 333 per 100,000, with males accounting for twice as many cases as females. Almost 80% of injuries involved people aged less than 45 years, and 74% were deemed unintentional. There were 244 fatalities (71% died before admission) and 1994 hospitalisations corresponding to crude annual rates of 37.5 per 100,000 and 306 per 100,000 respectively. The leading cause of fatal injury was road traffic injury (29%) and the equivalent for injury admissions was falls (30%). The commonest type of injury resulting in death and admission to hospital was asphyxia and fractures respectively. Alcohol use was documented as a contributing factor in 13% of deaths and 12% of admissions. In general, indigenous Fijians had higher rates of injury admission, especially for interpersonal violence, while those of Indian ethnicity had higher rates of fatality, especially from suicide. Injury is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects young males in Fiji, with a high proportion of deaths prior to hospital presentation. This study highlights key areas requiring priority attention to reduce the burden of potentially life-threatening injuries in Fiji.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 90% of injury deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. However, the epidemiological profile of injuries in Pacific Islands has received little attention. We used a population-based-trauma registry to investigate the characteristics of all injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji. Method The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH database prospectively collected data on all injury-related deaths and primary admissions to hospital (≥12 hours stay in Viti Levu during 12 months commencing October 2005. Results The 2167 injury-related deaths and hospitalisations corresponded to an annual incidence rate of 333 per 100,000, with males accounting for twice as many cases as females. Almost 80% of injuries involved people aged less than 45 years, and 74% were deemed unintentional. There were 244 fatalities (71% died before admission and 1994 hospitalisations corresponding to crude annual rates of 37.5 per 100,000 and 306 per 100,000 respectively. The leading cause of fatal injury was road traffic injury (29% and the equivalent for injury admissions was falls (30%. The commonest type of injury resulting in death and admission to hospital was asphyxia and fractures respectively. Alcohol use was documented as a contributing factor in 13% of deaths and 12% of admissions. In general, indigenous Fijians had higher rates of injury admission, especially for interpersonal violence, while those of Indian ethnicity had higher rates of fatality, especially from suicide. Conclusions Injury is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects young males in Fiji, with a high proportion of deaths prior to hospital presentation. This study highlights key areas requiring priority attention to reduce the burden of potentially life-threatening injuries in Fiji.
Schober, S E; Handke, J L; Halperin, W E; Moll, M B; Thun, M J
Since 1938, federal child labor laws have restricted employment of persons under 18 years old, in part to protect them from hazardous occupations. Workers' compensation claims reported to the Supplementary Data System of the Bureau of Labor Statistics were examined to define the current status of occupational injuries among minors. Data tapes from 1980 to 1983 were searched to identify all current claims for injuries and illnesses occurring in 1980 in persons under age 18. Injury rates were calculated using information about employment in 1979 available from the 1980 census. In the 24 states included in this study, 23,823 claims were reported for persons less than 18 years old. Of these claims, approximately 10% were from persons under age 16. Rates of injuries in 16- and 17 year olds were 12.6 per 100 full-time male workers and 6.6 per 100 full-time female workers. Serious injuries included fractures, dislocations, and amputations, accounting for 5.8%, 0.7%, and 0.6% of cases, respectively. California, the only state that coded whether injuries resulted in fatalities, reported 12 deaths in this age group. Machines and vehicles, many of which are restricted under child labor laws, accounted for 8.3% and 5.8% of claims. These data suggest that persons under age 18 years are not adequately protected from occupational injury. Further attention and, possibly, new preventive strategies are needed.
Bohnsack, M; Schröter, E
Paragliding is known as a high risk sport with a substantial rate of severe and fatal injuries. Analysis of typical injury mechanisms and statistics showed that the total rate of paragliding injuries has decreased in recent years for an increasing number of pilots. In 2003, the rate of severe and fatal injuries in paragliding was less than that of other air sports and motorcycling. Through the introduction of a spine protector system in Germany and Austria, the number of vertebral fractures decreased significantly between 2000 and 2003. Most other injuries, especially of the lower extremities, could be avoided by adequate and farsighted flight behavior. Qualified instruction with regular training, standardized development of safety equipment and consequent analysis of paragliding injuries will help to improve the safety status in paragliding.
Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching
Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100
Lear, Aaron; Patel, Niraj
The windmill softball pitch generates considerable forces about the athlete's shoulder and elbow. The injury pattern of softball pitchers seems to be primarily overuse injury, and they seem not to suffer the same volume of injury that baseball pitchers do. This article will explore softball pitching techniques, kinetics and kinematics of the windmill pitch, epidemiology of softball pitchers, and discuss possible etiologies of softball pitching injuries.
Parvez, M S; Shahriar, M M
Injuries during cultivation of land are the significant causes of recession for an agricultural country like Bangladesh. Thousands of tools are used in agricultural farm having much probability of getting injury at their workplaces. For the injury prevention, proper hand tool designs need to be recommended with ergonomic evaluations. This paper represents the main causes of agricultural injuries among the Bangladeshi farmers. Effective interventions had been discussed in this paper to reduce the rate of injury. This study was carried out in the Panchagarh district of Bangladesh. Data on 434 agricultural injuries were collected and recorded. About 67% injuries of all incidents were due to hand tools, and the remaining 33% were due to machinery or other sources. Though most of the injuries were not serious, about 22% injuries were greater than or equal to AIS 2 (Abbreviated Injury Scale). The practical implication of this study is to design ergonomically fit agricultural hand tools for Bangladeshi farmers in order to avoid their injuries.
Smith, Patrick J; Hollins, Anthony M; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Spence, David D; Outlaw, Shane; Kelly, Derek M
As a collision sport, football carries a significant risk of injury, as indicated by the large number of pediatric football-related injuries seen in emergency departments. There is little information in the medical literature focusing on the age-related injury patterns of this sport. Our purpose was to evaluate the types of football-related injuries that occur in children and adolescents and assess which patient characteristics, if any, affect injury pattern. Retrospective chart review was performed of football-related injuries treated at a level 1 pediatric referral hospital emergency department and surrounding urgent care clinics between January 2010 and January 2014. Patients with e-codes for tackle football selected from the electronic medical record were divided into 4 age groups: younger than 8 years old, 8 to 11, 12 to 14, and 15 to 18 years. Data collected included diagnosis codes, procedure codes, and hospital admission status. Review identified 1494 patients with 1664 football-related injuries, including 596 appendicular skeleton fractures, 310 sprains, 335 contusions, 170 closed head injuries, 62 dislocations, 9 spinal cord injuries, and 14 solid organ injuries. There were 646 (43.2%) athletes with upper extremity injuries and 487 (32.6%) with injuries to the lower extremity. Hospital admissions were required in 109 (7.3%) patients. Fracture was the most common injury in all four patient age groups, but occurred at a lower rate in the 15 to 18 years old age group. The rate of soft tissue injury was higher in the 15 to 18 years old age group. The rate of closed head injury, which included concussions, was highest in the younger than 8 years old age group. Age does influence the rates of certain football-related injuries in children and adolescents. Fractures decrease with increasing age, while the rate of soft tissue trauma increases with increasing age. Younger patients (younger than 8 y old) trended toward higher rates of closed head injury compared
Bladin, C; Giddings, P; Robinson, M
Information on the rate and spectrum of snowboarding injuries is limited. This 4-year prospective study at 3 major Australian ski resorts assesses incidence and patterns of snowboarding injuries, particularly in relation to skill level and footwear. Ski injury data were collected for the same period. In a predominantly male study population (men:women, 3:1), 276 snowboarding injuries were reported; 58% occurred in novices. Fifty-seven percent of injuries were in the lower limbs, 30% in the upper limbs. The most common injuries were sprains (53%), fractures (24%), and contusions (12%). Comparing skiers' versus snowboarders' injuries, snowboarders had 2.4 times as many fractures, particularly to the upper limbs (21% versus 35% of upper limb injuries), fewer knee injuries (23% versus 44% of lower limb injuries), but more ankle injuries (23% versus 6% of lower limb injuries). Ankle injuries were more common with soft-shell boots, worn most by intermediate and advanced riders. Knee injuries and distal tibial fractures were more common with hard-shell boots, worn most by novices. Overall, novices had more upper limb fractures and knee injuries; intermediate and advanced riders had more ankle injuries. Falls were the principal mode of injury. To prevent injury, beginners should use "hybrid" or soft-shell boots and take lessons.
Lawrence, David W.; Hutchison, Michael G.; Comper, Paul
Background: The risk of all-cause injury and concussion associated with football is significant. The National Football League (NFL) has implemented changes to increase player safety warranting investigation into the incidence and patterns of injury. Purpose: To document the incidence and patterns of all-cause injury and concussions in the NFL. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Injury data were collected prospectively from official NFL injury reports over 2 regular seasons from 2012 to 2014, with identification of injury incidence rates and patterns. Concussion rate ratios were calculated using previously reported NFL rates. Results: A total of 4284 injuries were identified, including 301 concussions. The all-cause injury rate was 395.8 per 1000 athletes at risk (AAR) and concussion incidence was 27.8 per 1000 AAR. Only 2.3% of team games were injury free. Wide receivers, tight ends, and defensive backs had the highest incidence of injury and concussion. Concussion incidence was 1.61-fold higher in 2012 to 2014 compared with 2002 to 2007. The knee was injured most frequently, followed by the ankle, hamstring, shoulder, and head. Conclusion: The incidence of all-cause injury and concussion in the NFL is significant. Concussion injury rates are higher than previous reports, potentially reflecting an improvement in recognition and awareness. Injury prevention efforts should continue to reduce the prevalence of injury associated with football. PMID:26675321
Full Text Available ... the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...
BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ
We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26
Ritenour, Amber E; Morton, Melinda J; McManus, John G; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C
Lightning is an uncommon but potentially devastating cause of injury in patients presenting to burn centers. These injuries feature unusual symptoms, high mortality, and significant long-term morbidity. This paper will review the epidemiology, physics, clinical presentation, management principles, and prevention of lightning injuries.
Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...
Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow ...
other sports,[1,2] and youth football players are no exception to this. ... at risk of sports injury because of high levels of exposure at a time of major physiological change. The ..... As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and.
... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...
Connors, G. Patrick
Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…
Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, MD Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How ... arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...
Groin injuries have a bad reputation as very difficult to diagnose and treat. However, this is not justified and in the last two decades an increasing number of good scientific papers have been published. The key to the groin injuries is the anatomy. Groin injuries are related to muscles, tendons...
Full Text Available ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... What is a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...
Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie
School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…
Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; van Heurn, L.W.; Snoeijs, M.G.
- 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the
Quarrie, Kenneth L; Gianotti, Simon M; Hopkins, Will G; Hume, Patria A
To investigate the effect of RugbySmart, a nationwide educational injury prevention programme, on the frequency of spinal cord injuries. Ecological study. New Zealand rugby union. Population at risk of injury comprised all New Zealand rugby union players. From 2001, all New Zealand rugby coaches and referees have been required to complete RugbySmart, which focuses on educating rugby participants about physical conditioning, injury management, and safe techniques in the contact phases of rugby. Numbers of all spinal injuries due to participation in rugby union resulting in permanent disablement in 1976-2005, grouped into five year periods; observed compared with predicted number of spinal injuries in 2001-5. Eight spinal injuries occurred in 2001-5, whereas the predicted number was 18.9 (relative rate=0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 1.14). Only one spinal injury resulted from scrums over the period; the predicted number was 9.0 (relative rate=0.11, 0.02 to 0.74). Corresponding observed and predicted rates for spinal injuries resulting from other phases of play (tackle, ruck, and maul) were 7 and 9.0 (relative rate=0.83, 0.29 to 2.36). The introduction of the RugbySmart programme coincided with a reduction in the rate of disabling spinal injuries arising from scrums in rugby union. This study exemplifies the benefit of educational initiatives in injury prevention and the need for comprehensive injury surveillance systems for evaluating injury prevention initiatives in sport.
The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book enc...
Buchanan, Susan; Vossenas, Pamela; Krause, Niklas; Moriarty, Joan; Frumin, Eric; Shimek, Jo Anna M; Mirer, Franklin; Orris, Peter; Punnett, Laura
Hotel employees have higher rates of occupational injury and sustain more severe injuries than most other service workers. OSHA log incidents from five unionized hotel companies for a three-year period were analyzed to estimate injury rates by job, company, and demographic characteristics. Room cleaning work, known to be physically hazardous, was of particular concern. A total of 2,865 injuries were reported during 55,327 worker-years of observation. The overall injury rate was 5.2 injuries per 100 worker-years. The rate was highest for housekeepers (7.9), Hispanic housekeepers (10.6), and about double in three companies versus two others. Acute trauma rates were highest in kitchen workers (4.0/100) and housekeepers (3.9/100); housekeepers also had the highest rate of musculoskeletal disorders (3.2/100). Age, being female or Hispanic, job title, and company were all independently associated with injury risk. Sex- and ethnicity-based disparities in injury rates were only partially due to the type of job held and the company in which the work was performed. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Dubravcic-Simunjak, S; Kuipers, H; Moran, J; Simunjak, B; Pecina, M
Synchronized skating is a relatively new competitive sport and data about injuries in this discipline are lacking. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and pattern of acute and overuse injuries in synchronized skaters. Before and during the World Synchronized Skating Championship 2004, a questionnaire inquiring about the frequency of injuries in this skating discipline was given to 23 participating teams. A total of 514 women and 14 men senior skaters completed the questionnaires (100 % response). Two hundred and eighteen (42.4 %) female and 6 (42.9 %) male skaters had suffered from acute injuries during their synchronized skating career. As some skaters had suffered from more than one injury, the total number of acute injuries in females was 398 and in males 14. In female skaters 19.8 % of acute injuries were head injuries, 7.1 % trunk, 33.2 % upper, and 39.9 % lower extremity injuries. In male skaters 14.3 % were head injuries, 28.6 % upper, and 57.1 % lower extremity injuries, with no report of trunk injuries. Sixty-nine female and 2 male skaters had low back problems and 112 female and 2 male skaters had one or more overuse syndromes during their skating career. Of 155 overuse injuries in female skaters, 102 (65.8 %) occurred during their figure skating career, while 53 injuries (34.2 %) only occurred when they skated in synchronized skating teams. In male skaters, out of 5 overuse injuries, 4 (80 %) occurred in their figure skating career, while 1 (20 %) occurred during their synchronized skating career. Out of the total of 412 injuries, 338 (82 %) occurred during on-ice practice, while 74 (18 %) happened during off-ice training. Ninety-one (26.9 %) acute injures occurred while practicing individual elements, and 247 (73.1 %) on-ice injuries occurred while practicing different team elements. We conclude that injuries in synchronized skating should be of medical concern due to an increasing number of acute injuries, especially
Gregory H. Bledsoe
Full Text Available Mixed Martial Arts (MMA competitions were introduced in the United States with the first Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC in 1993. In 2001, Nevada and New Jersey sanctioned MMA events after requiring a series of rule changes. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of injury in professional MMA fighters. Data from all professional MMA events that took place between September 2001 and December 2004 in the state of Nevada were obtained from the Nevada Athletic Commission. Medical and outcome data from events were analyzed based on a pair-matched case-control design. Both conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for injury. A total of 171 MMA matches involving 220 different fighters occurred during the study period. There were a total of 96 injuries to 78 fighters. Of the 171 matches fought, 69 (40.3% ended with at least one injured fighter. The overall injury rate was 28.6 injuries per 100 fight participations or 12.5 injuries per 100 competitor rounds. Facial laceration was the most common injury accounting for 47.9% of all injuries, followed by hand injury (13.5%, nose injury (10.4%, and eye injury (8.3%. With adjustment for weight and match outcome, older age was associated with significantly increased risk of injury. The most common conclusion to a MMA fight was a technical knockout (TKO followed by a tap out. The injury rate in MMA competitions is compatible with other combat sports involving striking. The lower knockout rates in MMA compared to boxing may help prevent brain injury in MMA events
Staged residential post-acute rehabilitation for adults following acquired brain injury: A comparison of functional gains rated on the UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM+FAM) and the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4).
Jackson, Diana; Seaman, Karla; Sharp, Kristylee; Singer, Rachel; Wagland, Janet; Turner-Stokes, Lynne
To compare the UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM+FAM) and Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) as measures of functional change in patients with brain injury receiving a staged residential post-acute community-based rehabilitation programme. Longitudinal cohort study of consecutive admissions (N = 42) over 3 years. Patients were assessed at admission and discharge/annual review. We examined groups according to stage of independence on admission: Maximum support (stages 1 and 2: N = 17); moderate/maximum self-care/household support (stage 3: N = 15); minimal self-care and moderate household/community support (stages 4-6: N = 10). Median (IQR) age: 50 (37-56) years. Male:female ratio: (71%:29%). Aetiology: stroke (50%), traumatic (36%) and other brain injuries (14%). Both tools demonstrated significant gains in overall scores and all subscales (p MPAI-4 was more sensitive to changes in adjustment and participation for clients admitted in the later stages (4-6). The UK FIM+FAM and MPAI-4 provide complementary evaluation across functional tasks ranging from self-care to participation. This study supports their use for longitudinal outcome evaluation in community residential rehabilitation services that take patients at different stages of recovery.
Guth, Amber A.; O’Neill, Andrea; Pachter, H. Leon; Diflo, Thomas
Serious subway injuries are devastating to their young victims and have high rates of mortality and amputation. We identified the urban population at greatest risk for subway injuries and investigated the influence of local economies on injury rates. We propose using changes in social conditions as a “trigger” for increased vigilance and protective measures at times of higher risk. PMID:16449596
Alabbasi, Thamer; Nathens, Avery B.; Tien, Col Homer
Background The initial nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt splenic injuries in hemodynamically stable patients is common. In soldiers who experience blunt splenic injuries with concomitant severe brain injury while on deployment, however, NOM may put the injured soldier at risk for secondary brain injury from prolonged hypotension. Methods We conducted a decision analysis using a Markov process to evaluate 2 strategies for managing hemodynamically stable patients with blunt splenic injuries and severe brain injury — immediate splenectomy and NOM — in the setting of a field hospital with surgical capability but no angiography capabilities. We considered the base case of a 40-year-old man with a life expectancy of 78 years who experienced blunt trauma resulting in a severe traumatic brain injury and an isolated splenic injury with an estimated failure rate of NOM of 19.6%. The primary outcome measured was life expectancy. We assumed that failure of NOM would occur in the setting of a prolonged casualty evacuation, where surgical capability was not present. Results Immediate splenectomy was the slightly more effective strategy, resulting in a very modest increase in overall survival compared with NOM. Immediate splenectomy yielded a survival benefit of only 0.4 years over NOM. Conclusion In terms of overall survival, we would not recommend splenectomy unless the estimated failure rate of NOM exceeded 20%, which corresponds to an American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grade III splenic injury. For military patients for whom angiography may not be available at the field hospital and who require prolonged evacuation, immediate splenectomy should be considered for grade III–V injuries in the presence of severe brain injury. PMID:26100770
Kaplan, Yonatan; Myklebust, Grethe; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Victor, Jan; Witvrouw, Erik
American flag football is a non-tackle, contact sport with many moderate to severe contact-type injuries reported. A previous prospective injury surveillance study by the authors revealed a high incidence of injuries to the fingers, face, knee, shoulder and ankle. The objectives of the study were to conduct a pilot-prospective injury prevention study in an attempt to significantly reduce the incidence and the severity of injuries as compared to a historical cohort, as well as to provide recommendations for a future prospective injury prevention study. A prospective injury prevention study was conducted involving 724 amateur male (mean age: 20.0 ± 3.1 years) and 114 female (mean age: 21.2 ± 7.2 years) players. Four prevention measures were implemented: the no-pocket rule, self-fitting mouth guards, ankle braces (for those players with recurrent ankle sprains) and an injury treatment information brochure. An injury surveillance questionnaire was administered to record all time-loss injuries sustained in game sessions. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of injured players, the number of finger/hand injuries, the incidence rate and the incidence proportion between the two cohorts (p football. Prevention strategies for a longer, prospective, randomised-controlled injury prevention study should include the strict enforcement of the no-pocket rule, appropriate head gear, the use of comfortable-fitting ankle braces and mouth guards, and changing the blocking rules of the game.
Macera, C A
Recreational and competitive running is practised by many individuals to improve cardiorespiratory function and general well-being. The major negative aspect of running is the high rate of injuries to the lower extremities. Several well-designed population-based studies have found no major differences in injury rates between men and women; no increasing effect of age on injuries; a declining injury rate with more years of running experience; no substantial effect of weight or height; an uncertain effect of psychological factors; and a strong effect of previous injury on future injuries. Among the modifiable risk factors studied, weekly distance is the strongest predictor of future injuries. Other training characteristics (speed, frequency, surface, timing) have little or no effect on future injuries after accounting for distance run. More studies are needed to address the effects of appropriate stretching practices and abrupt change in training patterns. For recreational runners who have sustained injuries, especially within the past year, a reduction in running to below 32 km per week is recommended. For those about to begin a running programme, moderation is the best advice. For competitive runners, great care should be taken to ensure that prior injuries are sufficiently healed before attempting any racing event, particularly a marathon.
Schmikli, Sandor L; Backx, Frank J G; Kemler, Helena J; van Mechelen, Willem
To define target populations for sports injury prevention programs. A computer-assisted telephone survey on sports injuries and sports participation during 2000-2005 using a 3-month recall period. Data obtained from a representative sample of Dutch citizens. Fifty-eight thousand four hundred five Dutch citizens aged older than 3 years. Age, gender, and type of sports were used to distinguish subgroups with a substantial contribution to sports injuries. The absolute number of sports injuries, the incidence of sports injuries per 10,000 hours, the severity, and costs of sports injuries. Sports participation was associated with 1.5 million injuries per year and 10 injuries per 10,000 hours; of these, 50% had to be treated medically. Two-thirds of all medically treated sports injuries were associated with 9 sports (representing 18 subpopulations, all younger than 55 years): outdoor soccer (males 4-54 years and females 4-17 years), indoor soccer (males 18-34 years), tennis (males/females 35-54 years), volleyball (females 18-54 years), field hockey (males 18-34 years and females 4-17 years), running/jogging (males/females 35-54 years), gymnastics (males/females 4-17 years), skiing/snowboarding (males 4-17 years and females 18-34 years), and equestrian sports (females 18-34 years). These groups showed more than average injury rates and covered two-thirds of all direct and indirect costs (euro 400 million). The survey identified the most important (sports-, age-, and gender-specific) target populations for injury prevention programs in the Netherlands. Sports participants aged older than 55 years were excluded from these target groups because of their limited contribution to the total sports injury problem.
assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...... injury was €1406 (2009 price level) in the first year, and €8950 over a 10-year period. Per 100 000 population, the 10-year cost was €6 565 668. A severe traffic injury costs €4969 per person in the first year, and €4 006 685 per 100 000 population over a 10-year period. Victims of traffic injuries...
Shapira, S C
The trauma registry network constitutes an essential database in every injury prevention system. In order to rationally estimate the extent of injury in general, and injuries from traffic accidents in particular, the trauma registry systems should contain the most comprehensive and broad database possible, in line with the operational definitions. Ideally, the base of the injury pyramid should also include mild injuries and even "near-misses". The Israeli National Trauma Registry has come a long way in the last few years. The eventual inclusion of all trauma centers in Israel will enable the establishment of a firm base for the allocation of resources by decision-makers.
Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J
The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.
Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy
Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.
White, David; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nicholas; Ware, Robert S
Injury is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in adolescents worldwide, and injury rates have been shown to be higher among youth with intellectual disability. Despite this, injury among adolescents with intellectual disability remains poorly investigated. This study aimed to identify characteristics associated with injury among adolescents with intellectual disability living in the community. A cohort of adolescents with intellectual disability living in southern Queensland, Australia was investigated prospectively between January 2006 and June 2010. Personal characteristics were collected via postal questionnaire. Injury information, including mechanism and location of injury, was extracted from general practitioner records. The association between demographic, social and clinical characteristics of participants and episodes of injury was investigated using negative binomial regression. A total of 289 injuries were recorded from 432 participants over 1627.3 years of study-time. The overall annual injury incidence was 17.5 (95%CI 14.7, 20.9) per 100 person years. Presence of ADHD and less severe disability was associated with increased risk of injury. Down syndrome and reduced verbal communication capacity were associated with decreased risk of injury. Falls accounted for the highest single mechanism of injury (19.0%) with the majority (73.2%) of injuries involving either upper or lower limbs. ADHD is a co-morbidity that increases risk of injury among adolescents with intellectual disability. A critical component of injury prevention is avoidance of the great variety of environmental risk factors for injury relevant to this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tyrol (Austria) is one of the regions which pioneered skiing. Skiing is considered as a national sport and is deeply rooted within the school system. Thus most pupils partake in skiing courses in this period. It is clear that such a large group of pupils also leads to a significant number of skiing injuries. Preventive issues may be derived from an analysis of the pattern and circumstances of skiing injuries. During a period of ten years (2000 - 2009) 1522 school sports injuries have been reported to the health insurance agency (Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt) from all secondary schools in Tyrol. The major disciplines were ski (48 %, n = 734) ice skateing (23 %, n = 349) and snowboard injuries (21 %, n = 315), followed by tobogganing (6 %, n = 91), cross-country skiing (1 %, n = 17) and other wintersports (1 %, n = 16). Fractures (31 %) dominated in skiing, followed by contusions (23 %), and sprains (22 %). In the analysis of the distribution of injuries during alpine skiing accidents, lower extremity injuries (39 %) dominated followed by upper extremity injuries (34 %). Head and spine injuries (13 %) were rare. Analysing the circumstances of the injuries, most injuries during skiing occurred without person to person collision (82 %), 81 % either shortly before lunch-break or in the afternoon. Skiing injuries account for a significant proportion of all school sport-related injuries in Tyrol. Lower extremity injuries account for the vast majority of all injuries. Overestimation and overtiredness may be responsible for skiing sport injuries. Preventive measures such as a fitness training (e. g., skiing exercises) prior to skiing courses, appropriate breaks and proper protective gear (i. e., helmet and spine protector) may reduce the injury rate in skiing school sport. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Junge, Astrid; Langevoort, Gijs; Pipe, Andrew; Peytavin, Annie; Wong, Fook; Mountjoy, Margo; Beltrami, Gianfranco; Terrell, Robert; Holzgraefe, Manfred; Charles, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri
Several authors have analyzed the incidence of injuries in a given sport, but only a few have examined the exposure-related incidence of injuries in different types of sports using the same methodology. Analysis of the incidence, circumstances, and characteristics of injuries in different team sports during the 2004 Olympic Games. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. During the 2004 Olympic Games, injuries in 14 team sport tournaments (men's and women's soccer, men's and women's handball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's field hockey, baseball, softball, men's and women's water polo, and men's and women's volleyball) were analyzed. After each match, the physician of the participating teams or the official medical representative of the sport completed a standardized injury report form. The mean response rate was 93%. A total of 377 injuries were reported from 456 matches, an incidence of 0.8 injuries per match (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.91) or 54 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% confidence interval, 49-60). Half of all injuries affected the lower extremity; 24% involved the head or neck. The most prevalent diagnoses were head contusion and ankle sprain. On average, 78% of injuries were caused by contact with another player. However, a significantly higher percentage of noncontact (57%) versus contact injuries (37%) was expected to prevent the player from participating in his or her sport. Significantly more injuries in male players (46%) versus female players (35%) were expected to result in absence from match or training. The incidence, diagnosis, and causes of injuries differed substantially between the team sports. The risk of injury in different team sports can be compared using standardized methodology. Even if the incidence and characteristics of injuries are not identical in all sports, prevention of injury and promotion of fair play are relevant topics for almost all team sports.
Zetaruk, M N; Violán, M A; Zurakowski, D; Micheli, L J
To compare five martial arts with respect to injury outcomes. A one year retrospective cohort was studied using an injury survey. Data on 263 martial arts participants (Shotokan karate, n = 114; aikido, n = 47; tae kwon do, n = 49; kung fu, n = 39; tai chi, n = 14) were analysed. Predictor variables included age, sex, training frequency (3 h/week), experience (or=3 years), and martial art style. Outcome measures were injuries requiring time off from training, major injuries (>or=7 days off), multiple injuries (>or=3), body region, and type of injury. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI). Fisher's exact test was used for comparisons between styles, with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The rate of injuries, expressed as percentage of participants sustaining an injury that required time off training a year, varied according to style: 59% tae kwon do, 51% aikido, 38% kung fu, 30% karate, and 14% tai chi. There was a threefold increased risk of injury and multiple injury in tae kwon do than karate (por=18 years of age were at greater risk of injury than younger ones (p3 h/week was also a significant predictor of injury (pkarate, the risks of head/neck injury, upper extremity injury, and soft tissue injury were all higher in aikido (pinjuries were higher in tae kwon do (pkarate. Different martial arts have significantly different types and distribution of injuries. Martial arts appear to be safe for young athletes, particularly those at beginner or intermediate levels.
Aune, Kyle T; Powers, Joseph M
Extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) are fitness training regimens relying on aerobic, plyometric, and resistance training exercises, often with high levels of intensity for a short duration of time. These programs have grown rapidly in popularity in recent years, but science describing the safety profile of these programs is lacking. The rate of injury in the extreme conditioning program is greater than the injury rate of weightlifting and the majority of injuries occur to the shoulder and back. Cross-sectional study. Level 4. This is a retrospective survey of injuries reported by athletes participating in an ECP. An injury survey was sent to 1100 members of Iron Tribe Fitness, a gym franchise with 5 locations across Birmingham, Alabama, that employs exercises consistent with an ECP in this study. An injury was defined as a physical condition resulting from ECP participation that caused the athlete to either seek medical treatment, take time off from exercising, or make modifications to his or her technique to continue. A total of 247 athletes (22%) completed the survey. The majority (57%) of athletes were male (n = 139), and 94% of athletes were white (n = 227). The mean age of athletes was 38.9 years (±8.9 years). Athletes reported participation in the ECP for, on average, 3.6 hours per week (± 1.2 hours). Eighty-five athletes (34%) reported that they had sustained an injury while participating in the ECP. A total of 132 injuries were recorded, yielding an estimated incidence of 2.71 per 1000 hours. The shoulder or upper arm was the most commonly injured body site, accounting for 38 injuries (15% of athletes). Athletes with a previous shoulder injury were 8.1 times as likely to injure their shoulder in the ECP compared with athletes with healthy shoulders. The trunk, back, head, or neck (n = 29, 12%) and the leg or knee (n = 29, 12%) were the second most commonly injured sites. The injury incidence rate among athletes with study estimates the incidence of
Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Lauritsen, Jens M
were calculated. Employment levels in the construction sector were used as an indicator of fluctuations in the business cycle since 1980. Results: Through the last three decades the overall trend of work-related injuries was unchanged. For some subgroups of injuries, such as major injuries and injuries...... were significantly related to the business cycle, where the risk of injuries was higher during economic booms than during recessions. Further, periods with economic booms are positively related to the rate of minor injuries and injuries due to all other work activities than the use of power tools...
Rachel M Lance
Full Text Available Underwater blasts propagate further and injure more readily than equivalent air blasts. Development of effective personal protection and countermeasures, however, requires knowledge of the currently unknown human tolerance to underwater blast. Current guidelines for prevention of underwater blast injury are not based on any organized injury risk assessment, human data or experimental data. The goal of this study was to derive injury risk assessments for underwater blast using well-characterized human underwater blast exposures in the open literature. The human injury dataset was compiled using 34 case reports on underwater blast exposure to 475 personnel, dating as early as 1916. Using severity ratings, computational reconstructions of the blasts, and survival information from a final set of 262 human exposures, injury risk models were developed for both injury severity and risk of fatality as functions of blast impulse and blast peak overpressure. Based on these human data, we found that the 50% risk of fatality from underwater blast occurred at 302±16 kPa-ms impulse. Conservatively, there is a 20% risk of pulmonary injury at a kilometer from a 20 kg charge. From a clinical point of view, this new injury risk model emphasizes the large distances possible for potential pulmonary and gut injuries in water compared with air. This risk value is the first impulse-based fatality risk calculated from human data. The large-scale inconsistency between the blast exposures in the case reports and the guidelines available in the literature prior to this study further underscored the need for this new guideline derived from the unique dataset of actual injuries in this study.
Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Xiquan; Chen, Zhong; Zhu, Wei; Pan, Xiaolin [Dept. of nterventional Vascular, The 148th Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Zibo (China); Dong, Peng; Sun, Yequan [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Weifang Medical University, Weifang (China); Qi, Deming [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Qilu Medical University, Zibo (China)
To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of endovascular repair for blunt popliteal arterial injuries. A retrospective analysis of seven patients with clinical suspicion of popliteal arterial injuries that were confirmed by arteriography was performed from September 2009 to July 2014. Clinical data included demographics, mechanism of injury, type of injury, location of injury, concomitant injuries, time of endovascular procedures, time interval from trauma to blood flow restoration, instrument utilized, and follow-up. All patients were male (mean age of 35.9 ± 10.3 years). The type of lesion involved intimal injury (n = 1), partial transection (n = 2), complete transection (n = 2), arteriovenous fistula (n = 1), and pseudoaneurysm (n = 1). All patients underwent endovascular repair of blunt popliteal arterial injuries. Technical success rate was 100%. Intimal injury was treated with a bare-metal stent. Pseudoaneurysm and popliteal artery transections were treated with bare-metal stents. Arteriovenous fistula was treated with bare-metal stent and coils. No perioperative death and procedure-related complication occurred. The average follow-up was 20.9 ± 2.3 months (range 18–24 months). One patient underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis due to stent thrombosis at 18 months after the procedure. All limbs were salvaged. Stent migration, deformation, or fracture was not found during the follow-up. Endovascular repair seems to be a viable approach for patients with blunt popliteal arterial injuries, especially on an emergency basis. Endovascular repair may be effective in the short-term. Further studies are required to evaluate the long-term efficacy of endovascular repair.
Benson, Brian W; Meeuwisse, Willem H
This article reviews the distribution and determinants of injuries reported in the pediatric ice hockey literature, and suggests potential injury prevention strategies and directions for further research. Thirteen electronic databases, the ISI Web of Science, and 'grey literature' databases were searched using a combination of Medical Subject Headings and text words to identify potentially relevant articles. The bibliographies of selected studies were searched to identify additional articles. Studies were selected for review based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A comparison between studies on this topic area was difficult due to the variability in research designs, definition of injury, study populations, and measurements used to assess injury. The majority of injuries were sustained during games compared with practices. The two most commonly reported injuries were sprains/strains and contusions. Players competing at the Minor hockey, High School, and Junior levels of competition sustained most of their injuries to the upper extremity, head, and lower extremity, respectively. The primary mechanism of injury was body checking, followed by stick and puck contact. The frequency of catastrophic eye injuries has been significantly reduced with the world-wide mandation of full facial protection for all Minor hockey players. Specific hockey-related injury risk factors are poorly delineated and rarely studied among pediatric ice hockey players leaving large gaps in the knowledge of appropriate prevention strategies. Risk management strategies should be focused at avoiding unnecessary foreseeable risk, and controlling the risks inherent to the sport. Suggestions for injury prevention and future research are discussed.
Gönüllü, D; Ilgun, S; Gedik, M L; Demiray, O; Öner, Z; Er, M; Köksoy, F N
To discuss the efficiency of RTS (Revised TraumaScore), ISS (Injury Severity Score), and factors that affect mortality and morbidity in gastrointestinal injuries due to blunt trauma.Method and methods: Patients with gastrointestinal injuries due to blunt trauma operated within the last six years have been studied retrospectively in terms of demographics,injury mechanism and localization, additional injuries, RTS and ISS, operative technique, morbidity, mortality and duration of hospitalization. Of the eighteen cases, cause of injury was a traffic accident for 11 (61.1%), fall from height for 5 (27%) and physical attack for 2 (11%). Among the eighteen patients,there were 21 gastrointestinal injuries (11 intestinal, 6 colon,3 duodenum, 1 stomach). 10 (55.6%) had additional intraabdominal injuries while the number for extra-abdominal injuries were 12 (66.7%). Primary suture (10), segmentary resection (9) and pyloric exclusion (2) were the operations performed for the twenty-one gastrointestinal injuries.Although statistically not significant, 13(72.2%) patients with additional injuries compared with 5 (27.8%) patients with isolated gastrointestinal injuries, were found to have lower RTS (7.087/7.841), higher ISS (19.4/12.2), longer duration of hospitalization (11.5/8.4 day) as well as higher morbidity (7/1) and mortality (2/0) rates. Comparing the RTS (7.059/7.490) of patients who have and have not developed morbidity revealed no significant difference.However, ISS (23.9/12.2) was significantly higher in patients who have developed morbidity (p=0.003). RTS (6.085 7.445) and ISS (39.5/14.6) of patients who have survived were significantly different than patients who have not(p=0.037 and p=0.023, respectively) Additional injuries in patients with gastrointestinal injury due blunt abdominal traumas increases, although not significantly, morbidity, mortality and duration of hospitalization even when operated early. High ISS is significantly related to the risk of both
Williamson, D M; Lowdon, I M
The range of injuries sustained at an ice-rink and presented to an Accident Service department is described. A total of 203 patients with 222 injuries presented themselves during a 2-month period. There were 103 noteworthy injuries, including 61 fractures, 2 dislocations and 2 severed tendons, but the commonest injuries were wounds, sprains and bruises. Beginners appear to be more prone to injury than experienced skaters. In addition to using well-fitting skate-boots to protect the ankle, some injuries could be avoided by wearing elbow and knee pads, and a thick pair of gloves. The number of injuries compared with the total number of skaters was small but produced a noteworthy increase in the workload of the Accident Service.
Gabbe, B J; Bailey, M; Cook, J L; Makdissi, M; Scase, E; Ames, N; Wood, T; McNeil, J J; Orchard, J W
To establish the relationship between the history of hip and groin injuries in elite junior football players prior to elite club recruitment and the incidence of hip and groin injuries during their elite career. Retrospective cohort study. Analysis of existing data. 500 Australian Football League (AFL) players drafted from 1999 to 2006 with complete draft medical assessment data. Previous history of hip/groin injury, anthropometric and demographic information. The number of hip/groin injuries resulting in > or =1 missed AFL game. Data for 500 players were available for analysis. 86 (17%) players reported a hip/groin injury in their junior football years. 159 (32%) players sustained a hip/groin injury in the AFL. Players who reported a previous hip or groin injury at the draft medical assessment demonstrated a rate of hip/groin injury in the AFL >6 times higher (IRR 6.24, 95% CI 4.43 to 8.77) than players without a pre-AFL hip or groin injury history. This study demonstrated that a hip or groin injury sustained during junior football years is a significant predictor of missed game time at the elite level due to hip/groin injury. The elite junior football period should be targeted for research to investigate and identify modifiable risk factors for the development of hip/groin injuries.
Shafi, Shahid; Renfro, Lindsay A; Barnes, Sunni; Rayan, Nadine; Gentilello, Larry M; Fleming, Neil; Ballard, David
The Trauma Quality Improvement Program uses inhospital mortality to measure quality of care, which assumes patients who survive injury are not likely to suffer higher mortality after discharge. We hypothesized that survival rates in trauma patients who survive to discharge remain stable afterward. Patients treated at an urban Level I trauma center (2006-2008) were linked with the Social Security Administration Death Master File. Survival rates were measured at 30, 90, and 180 days and 1 and 2 years from injury among two groups of trauma patients who survived to discharge: major trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3 injuries, n = 2,238) and minor trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≤ 2 injuries, n = 1,171). Control groups matched to each trauma group by age and sex were simulated from the US general population using annual survival probabilities from census data. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses conditional u