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Sample records for injury characteristics

  1. Work-related injuries: injury characteristics, survival, and age effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Agathoklis; Talving, Peep; Kobayashi, Leslie; Barmparas, Galinos; Plurad, David; Lam, Lydia; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2011-06-01

    Work-related injuries impose a significant burden on society. The goal of this study was to delineate the epidemiology and the effect of age on type and mortality after occupational injuries. Patients 16 years of age or older sustaining work-related injuries were identified from the National Trauma Databank 12.0. The study population was stratified into four age groups: 16 to 35, 36 to 55, 56 to 65, and older than 65 years old. The demographic characteristics, type of injury, mechanism of injury, setting of injury, use of alcohol or other illicit drugs, and mortality were analyzed and related to age strata. Overall 67,658 patients were identified. There were 27,125 (40.1%) patients in the age group 16 to 35 years, 30,090 (44.5%) in the group 36 to 55 years, 6,618 (9.8%) in the group 56 to 65 years, and 3,825 (5.7%) older than 65 years. The injury severity increased significantly with age. Elderly patients were significantly more likely to sustain intracranial hemorrhages, spinal, and other skeletal injuries. The overall mortality was 2.9 per cent (1938) with the latter increasing significantly in a stepwise fashion with progressing age, becoming sixfold higher in patients older than 65 years (OR, 6.18; 95% CI, 4.78 to 7.80; P < 0.001). Our examination illustrates the associations between occupational injury and significant mortality that warrant intervention for mortality reduction. There is a stepwise-adjusted increase in mortality with progressing age.

  2. [Characteristics and structure of automobile injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, G A; Gubar', L N

    1978-05-01

    The characteristics of peculiarities of a car trauma in 788 cases is presented. A multiple and combined character of injuries with a severe clinical picture (72.4%) is emphasized. The attention is drawn to leading and frequent severe sequelae of the trauma: massive blood loss (55.6%), disturbance of external respiration (56.7%), injuries to vitally important organs (54.7%), which constitute main causes of fatal outcome in acute period (25.9%). The difficulties, one encounters during the treatment of such injuries, are listed and the conclusion is drawn that the treatment of car injuries should be carried out in a specialized department with the participation of broadly qualified surgeons and reanimatologists.

  3. Aetiological spectrum, injury characteristics and treatment outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) were the most common cause of injury accounting for 49.2% of patients. Scalp injuries, cerebral concussion and skull fractures were the most common type of head injuries. Fifty-six (21.5%) patients had associated injuries of which musculoskeletal region (36.1%) was commonly affected.

  4. Telemark skiing injuries: characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federiuk, C S; Mann, N C

    1999-01-01

    To determine the types of injuries associated with telemark skiing and the effects of ability level, equipment, and terrain. A survey was mailed to a sample of North American telemark skiers. Completed surveys were returned by 548 telemarkers (response rate = 74.5%). The mean age was 42.7 (+/- 9.3) years, and 69% were male. A total of 439 injury events resulted in 494 body injuries, reported by 285 skiers (52%). Lower-extremity injuries (n = 231) were more frequent than upper-extremity injuries (n = 187). Knee injuries were most common with 128 cases, followed by 80 thumb, 66 shoulder, and 44 ankle injuries. Surgery was required in 39 cases. Skiers suffering thumb injuries with sequela lasting greater than 3 months were 10.1 times less likely to have sought medical attention than skiers with other long-term injuries (p boot type and overall knee or ankle injury, but risk of severe ankle injury was increased in leather boots compared to plastic (OR = 8.0, CI = 1.05, 60.59). Release bindings were used by 27.9% of all skiers but were in use in only 18.7% of injury events, suggesting that release plates have a protective effect against injury (OR = 0.59, p knee, thumb, shoulder, and ankle are most frequently injured telemark skiing. Injuries are more likely to occur at lift-served areas than in the backcountry. Thumb injuries are often ignored and may result in long-term sequela. Ankle injuries appear more severe in leather boots. Release bindings appear protective against injury, but they often do not release.

  5. Original Research Variations in injury characteristics among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    injury in paediatric trauma patients evaluating pre-hospital and in-hospital ... All patients that present to the emergency ... males suffered the majority of deaths for both PHD and .... true magnitude and aetiology of injury in any environment.

  6. 93 Aetiological spectrum, injury characteristics and treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Head injury is considered as a major health problem that is a ... Road traffic accidents (RTAs) were the most common cause of injury accounting for .... Student t-test was used to test for significance of associations between the predictor and ..... Mwang'ombe, N.J. & Kiboi, J. (2001) Factors influencing the outcome of ...

  7. Characteristics of pellet injuries to the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kükner, A Sahap; Yilmaz, Turgut; Celebi, Serdal; Karslioğlu, Safak; Alagöz, Gürsoy; Serin, Didem; Acar, M Akif; Ozveren, M Faik

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the features of orbital injuries by pellets fired from the front. Retrospective, 4 cases of pellet injuries. Five orbits of 4 patients who sustained pellet injuries received from the front were reviewed retrospectively. The course of injury and results were assessed. Radiological examinations were reviewed. The patients were evaluated between December 1996 and June 2004. Five orbits of 4 patients sustained injuries caused by pellets fired from an anterior direction. The globe in the injured orbit was intact in 2 cases. Severe loss of vision was also present in these 2 globes due to optic nerve involvement. Final visual acuity was down to no light perception in 4 eyes and limited to light perception in 1 eye. The prognosis of orbital pellet injuries is, unfortunately, poor. A pellet passing through the floor of the orbit often causes double perforation of the globe and, once in the orbital aperture, it travels towards the apex as a result of the conical shape of the orbit and lodges in the optic canal or its entrance, severely damaging the optic nerve. Surgery or other treatments are usually unsuccessful. Even if the globe is intact, vision is usually severely impaired. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Specific Characteristics of Injuries Inflicted by Claw Hammer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchaillet, Céline; Gaudin, Arnaud; Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde; Jousset, Nathalie

    2016-09-01

    Claw hammers have the specific characteristic of having two distinct ends: one a flat head of variable form, the other bifurcated. So the use of this tool as a blunt instrument will cause varying injuries. The authors present two clinical cases of assault with a claw hammer. Examinations revealed two types of wound. A first injury composed of integumentary lacerations and underlying bone injuries in terms of "shape" suggested the use of a blunt instrument. A second injury made up of damage showing two parallel wounds or two wounds located one in the extension of the other suggested the use of an object with a bifurcated end. The combination of both types of injury should alert examiners to the possibility of the use of a claw hammer in causing the injuries in order to help direct investigators in their investigations and in the search for the weapon used. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. [Clinical and anatomical characteristic of nasal injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surikov, E V; Ivanets, I V

    2009-01-01

    A fracture of nasal bones is becoming a very common injury due to the increasingly greater number of car accidents and aggravated criminal situation. A total of 500 cases of nasal fracture associated with external deformities were included in the present study. The following kinds of deformities were identified: unilateral retraction, lateral displacement of the entire dorsum of the nose, and depressed comminuted fracture. Rhinoscopy revealed in addition such abnormalities associated with septal fracture as submucous hemorrhage, pathological mobility of the pyramid, deflection of the nasal septum at an acute angle. All in all, four types of nasal septum fractures were distinguished depending on the shape and localization of the fracture line. Two of them resulted in marked impairment of nasal breathing while two others required surgical intervention in the acute period after the injury.

  10. Epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes of open globe injury in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Rong Ji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes of open globe injury in Shanghai. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted for 148 unilateral open globe injury cases presenting to a tertiary referral hospital of Shanghai. Electronic medical records were reviewed and phone surveys were conducted to collect and analyze 1 background of patient; 2 setting of injury and clinical signs at presentation; 3 treatment procedure and outcome; 4 quality of life after injury. RESULTS: There were more male patients (77.03% than females (22.97%, more temporary habitants (79.05% than residents (20.95%. The subjects in this study presented a significantly lower constitutional status of education than that of the whole Shanghai population (P<0.001. Occupational injury was the first cause of injuries (39.86%, followed by home accident (20.27%, road accident (16.89%, violent behavior (16.89% and outdoor injury (6.08%. The 143 subjects (96.62% were not wearing spectacles at the time of injury. Of all patients, 77 subjects (52.03% had the outcome of no vision (including enucleation. The classification and regression tree (CART prognosis presents 59.58% sensitivity to predict visual survival correctly and 80.19% specificity to predict no vision correctly. The patients whose injured eye had no vision reported more reduction of life quality. CONCLUSION: We found that male subject, temporary habitants, low educational status and no eyewear are risk factors of open globe injury in Shanghai. Occupational injury is the leading cause. CART analysis presents a certain agreement to the actual visual outcome. The injury imposes negative impact on quality of life especially in no vision cases. The education of eye protection may help to avoid the injury.

  11. Injury Characteristics of Low-Energy Lisfranc Injuries Compared With High-Energy Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Christopher H; Cochran, Grant; Tompane, Trevor; Bellamy, Joseph; Kuhn, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    Lisfranc injuries result from high- and low-energy mechanisms though the literature has been more focused on high-energy mechanisms. A comparison of high-energy (HE) and low-energy (LE) injury patterns is lacking. The objective of this study was to report injury patterns in LE Lisfranc joint injuries and compare them to HE injury patterns. Operative Lisfranc injuries were identified over a 5-year period. Patient demographics, mechanism of injury, injury pattern, associated injuries, missed diagnoses, clinical course, and imaging studies were reviewed and compared. HE mechanism was defined as motor vehicle crash, motorcycle crash, direct crush, and fall from greater than 4 feet and LE mechanism as athletic activity, ground level twisting, or fall from less than 4 feet. Thirty-two HE and 48 LE cases were identified with 19.3 months of average follow-up. There were no differences in demographics or missed diagnosis frequency (21% HE vs 18% LE). Time to seek care was not significantly different. HE injuries were more likely to have concomitant nonfoot fractures (37% vs 6%), concomitant foot fractures (78% vs 4%), cuboid fractures (31% vs 6%), metatarsal base fractures (84% vs 29%), displaced intra-articular fractures (59% vs 4%), and involvement of all 5 rays (23% vs 6%). LE injuries were more commonly ligamentous (68% vs 16%), with fewer rays involved (2.7 vs 4.1). LE mechanisms were a more common cause of Lisfranc joint injury in this cohort. These mechanisms generally resulted in an isolated, primarily ligamentous injury sparing the lateral column. Both types had high rates of missed injury that could result in delayed treatment. Differences in injury patterns could help direct future research to optimize treatment algorithms. Level III, comparative series.

  12. Robbery characteristics and employee injuries in convenience stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, K A; Landsittel, D P; Hendricks, S A

    2001-12-01

    Each year approximately 30,000 convenience store employees are at risk for injuries related to robberies and many are fatal. A prospective cohort study of 460 convenience store robberies from 1 February 1995 to 30 September 1996 was conducted to uncover possible associations between injury and pertinent robbery circumstances and work environments. Data collection sources included police reports, employee interviews, store evaluations, and relevant Census data. Rate ratios and correlation statistics were calculated to identify associations with injury and relationships between variables. Injury risk was strongly associated with the following characteristics: employee resistance, robberies without firearms or money taken, daytime and merchandise robberies, stores with limited escape routes and no cash policy or drop safe, older clerks, and surrounding areas with lower valued buildings, less expensive rent, more vacant structures, and younger residents. Numerous intercorrelations between these characteristics were identified. Training opportunities, store procedures, and environmental designs are important factors to consider in reducing robbery-related injuries. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  13. Clinical characteristics and therapeutic effect of open globe injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Lin Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze clinical characteristics and postoperative outcomes after open globe injury. METHODS: Demographic characteristics(age, gender, eye trauma, profession, cause of injury and injured part, as well as complications and prognosis were analyzed in 152 cases(152 eyesof open globe injury. RESULTS: Patients with open globe injury had an average age of 40.45±38.32 years old with a 5.9:1 male-to-female gender ratio. The left-to-right eye ratio was 1.27:1. Most patients were workers, farmers, or retired. The most common etiologies were scratches, boxing, and falls. Zone Ⅲ was the most commonly injured part. Iridoptosis or iris incarceration, retinal detachment, vitreal prolapse, hyphema or hypopyon, and vitreous hemorrhage were the most common complications. Visual acuity improved in 86 cases postoperatively but ophthalmectomy was still required in 25 eyes. CONCLUSION: Vision can be improved after surgery in open globe injury. However, patients are usually seriously injured and improvement is minimal, thereby resulting in a great loss to patients and society.

  14. Incidence and injury characteristics of traumatic brain injury: Comparison between children, adults and seniors in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman-Tov, Maya; Radomislensky, Irina; Knoller, Nachshon; Bahouth, Hany; Kessel, Boris; Klein, Yoram; Michaelson, Moshe; Avraham Rivkind, Bala Miklosh; Shaked, Gad; Simon, Daniel; Soffer, Dror; Stein, Michael; Jeroukhimov, Igor; Peleg, Kobi

    2016-01-01

    To assess the incidence and injury characteristics of hospitalized trauma patients diagnosed with TBI. A retrospective study of all injured hospitalized patients recorded in the National Trauma Registry at 19 trauma centres in Israel between 2002-2011. Incidence and injury characteristics were examined among children, adults and seniors. The annual incidence rate of hospitalized TBI for the Israeli population in 2011 was 31.8/100,000. Age-specific incidence was highest among seniors with a dramatic decrease in TBI-related mortality rate among them. Adults, in comparison to children and seniors, had higher rates of severe TBI, severe and critical injuries, more admission to the intensive care unit, underwent surgery, were hospitalization for more than 2 weeks and were discharged to rehabilitation. After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, mechanism of injury and injury severity score, TBI-related in-hospital mortality was higher among seniors and adults compared to children. Seniors are at high risk for TBI-related in-hospital mortality, although adults had more severe and critical injuries and utilized more hospital resources. However, seniors showed the most significant reduction in mortality rate during the study period. Appropriate intervention programmes should be designed and implemented, targeted to reduce TBI among high risk groups.

  15. Recreational road runners: injuries, training, demographics and physical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris Pazin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n3p277 The purpose of this study was to study recreational road runners in order to identify: their physical characteristics, demographics, running profile (training distance, frequency, duration, and experience and the prevalence of injuries and their association with age, running profile, and other sports practiced. Body mass, height (from which BMI was calculated and waist circumference were also measured. The sample of runners was composed of 115 men who participated in two events organized in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in 2006: 22nd Maratona de Blumenau and 5th Desafio Praias e Trilhas (Florianópolis. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and the chi-square test to identify associations between injury prevalence and other variables (p<.05. The majority of the runners were aged between 18 and 50 years (63.2%, with 36.8% older than 50 years. In terms of educational level 24.3% had attended only elementary school, 35.4% high school, and 40% degree courses. Monthly family income (based on Brazilian minimum wage in Reais - R$ 380.00 varied between R$ 300 and R$ 999 for 23.3% of the runners, between R$ 1000 and R$ 2900 for 45.2%, and above R$ 3000 for 31.3% of them. Seventy two percent of them have been running regularly for more than 6 years, and 57% had received specialist guidance for running; 56.5% run more than 64 km/week. The injury prevalence for one year was 37.7%; BMI and waist circumference were within healthy limits. No associations were found between injury prevalence and other variables studied.

  16. Characteristics and contributing factors related to sports injuries in young volleyball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. Methods A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Conclusion Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries. PMID:24124803

  17. Characteristics and contributing factors related to sports injuries in young volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Bastos, Fabio Nascimento; Tsutsumi, Gustavo Yuki Cantalejo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Netto Júnior, Jayme; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo

    2013-10-14

    The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries.

  18. Acoustic characteristics of voice after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, M

    2000-07-01

    To describe the acoustic characteristics of voice in individuals with motor speech disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Prospective study of 100 individuals with TBI based on consecutive referrals for motor speech evaluations. Subjects were audio tape-recorded while producing sustained vowels and single word and sentence intelligibility tests. Laryngeal airway resistance was estimated, and voice quality was rated perceptually. None of the subjects evidenced vocal parameters within normal limits. The most frequently occurring abnormal parameter across subjects was amplitude perturbation, followed by voice turbulence index. Twenty-three percent of subjects evidenced deviation in all five parameters measured. The perceptual ratings of breathiness were significantly correlated with both the amplitude perturbation quotient and the noise-to-harmonics ratio. Vocal quality deviation is common in motor speech disorders after TBI and may impact intelligibility.

  19. Characteristics of neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Joon Young; Lee, Seung Hoon; Kim, MinYoung; Ryu, Ju Seok

    2014-06-01

    To characterize neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) according to classification used in the study by Baron et al. (Baron classification), a classification of neuropathic pain based on the mechanism. To also compare the patterns of neuropathic pain in SCI patients with those in patients with other etiologies and to determine the differences in patterns of neuropathic pain between the etiologies. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. We used the Baron classification to investigate the characteristics of neuropathic pain in SCI. Sixty-one SCI patients with neuropathic pain (The Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs score ≥12) were enrolled in this study between November 2012 and August 2013, after excluding patients patients with visual analog scale (VAS) score patients, and patients with systemic disease or pain other than neuropathic pain. The most common pain characteristic was pricking pain followed by electrical pain and numbness. The mean VAS score of at-level neuropathic pain was 7.51 and that of below-level neuropathic pain was 6.83. All of the patients suffered from rest pain, but 18 (54.6%) patients with at-level neuropathic pain and 20 (50.0%) patients with below-level neuropathic pain suffered from evoked pain. There was no significant difference in between at-level and below-level neuropathic pains. The result was quite different from the characteristics of post-herpetic neuralgia, but it was similar to the characteristics of diabetic neuropathy as shown in the study by Baron et al., which means that sensory nerve deafferentation may be the most common pathophysiologic mechanism of neuropathic pain after SCI. Since in our study, we included short and discrete symptoms and signs based on diverse mechanisms, our results could be helpful for determining further evaluation and treatment.

  20. Identifying injuries and motor vehicle collision characteristics that together are suggestive of diaphragmatic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Donald A; McGwin, Gerald; Metzger, Jesse; Windham, Samuel T; Doss, Marilyn; Rue, Loring W

    2002-12-01

    Diaphragmatic rupture (DR) remains a diagnostic challenge because of the lack of an accurate test demonstrating the injury. Our purpose was to identify motor vehicle collision (MVC) characteristics and patient injuries that collectively could identify the presence of a DR. The National Automotive Sampling System was used to identify occupants involved in MVCs from 1995 to 1999 who sustained abdominal (Abbreviated Injury Scale score >or= 2) and/or thoracic injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale score >or= 2). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to quantify the association between patient injuries, vehicle collision characteristics, and DR. Sensitivity and specificity were also calculated to determine the ability of organ injury and MVC characteristics to correctly classify patients with and without DR. Overall, occupants sustaining a DR had a significantly higher delta-V (DeltaV) (49.8 kilometers per hour [kph] vs. 33.8 kph, por= 30 cm or DeltaV >or= 40 kph with specific organ injuries generated a sensitivity for indicating the likelihood of diaphragm injury ranging from 68% to 89%. Patients with any of the following characteristics had a sensitivity for detecting DR of 91%: splenic injury, pelvic fracture, DeltaV >or= 40 kph, or occupant compartment intrusion from any direction >or= 30 cm. Specific MVC characteristics combined with patient injuries have been identified that are highly suggestive of DR. For this subpopulation, additional invasive procedures including exploratory laparotomy, laparoscopy, or thoracoscopy may be warranted to exclude DR.

  1. Injuries in youth amateur soccer and rugby players—comparison of incidence and characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Junge, A; Cheung, K; Edwards, T; Dvorak, J

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: In reviewing the literature on sports injuries, few studies could be found in which exposure related incidences of injury in different types of sport were compared. These studies indicated that ice hockey, handball, basketball, soccer, and rugby are popular team sports with a relatively high risk of injury. The aim of the study was to compare the characteristics and incidence of injuries in male youth amateur soccer and rugby players.

  2. Staircase falls: High-risk groups and injury characteristics in 464 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele van Hensbroek, P.; Mulder, S.; Luitse, J. S. K.; van Ooijen, M. R.; Goslings, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Few data are available about the epidemiology and injury characteristics in staircase falls. The available literature mainly concerns children and autopsy studies. Objective: To describe the epidemiology and injury characteristics of staircase falls, and to identify high-risk groups

  3. Self-reported psychological characteristics as risk factors for injuries in female youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, K; Pensgaard, A M; Bahr, R

    2009-06-01

    Identifying and understanding injury risk factors are necessary to target the injury-prone athlete and develop injury prevention measurements. The influence of psychological factors on injuries in football is poorly documented. The purpose of this 8-month prospective cohort study therefore was to examine whether psychological player characteristics assessed by a self-administered questionnaire represent risk factors for injury. At baseline, female football players (14-16 years) were asked to complete a detailed questionnaire covering player history, previous injuries, perception of success and motivational climate, life stress, anxiety and coping strategies. During the 2005 season, a total of 1430 players were followed up to record injuries. A history of a previous injury [odds ratio (OR)=1.9 (1.4; 2.5), Pfemale football players.

  4. Injuries in pre-professional ballet dancers: Incidence, characteristics and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, Christina L; Quested, Rachele; Brodrick, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Compared to other athletic activities, research on injury incidence and risk factors in dance is limited. There is also a need for more research evaluating the impact of intense training on elite adolescent athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rates and risk of injuries, the hours of dance exposure and the characteristics and consequences of injuries among elite pre-professional ballet students. Prospective epidemiological study. 266 (112 male) full-time students aged 15-19 years from three elite pre-professional ballet schools were followed prospectively over one school year. Injury rate was reported per 1000 h of dance and 1000 dance exposures (DEs). Injury details collected included type and anatomical location of injury. The clinical incidence of injury was 1.42 injuries per dancer and the risk of injury was 76% over the one-year period. The rate of injury was 1.38/1000 h of dance and 1.87/1000 DEs. Joints were the most commonly injured structures and the ankle was the most commonly injured body area. Overuse injuries were more common than traumatic injuries. Bony injuries (e.g. stress fractures), and injuries to the knee were associated with the greatest time loss per injury. Injury risk and rate increased as students progressed through their three years of training. In comparison with other adolescent athletic populations, participants in this study had a similar injury rate but a higher risk of injury. This may be attributable to the high level of training exposure in pre-professional ballet students. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Incidence, aetiology and injury characteristics of traumatic spinal cord injury in Stockholm, Sweden: A prospective, population-based update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Conran; Andersson, Nina; Bjelak, Sapko; Giesecke, Kajsa; Hultling, Claes; Nilsson Wikmar, Lena; Phillips, Julie; Seiger, Åke; Stenimahitis, Vasilios; Trok, Katarzyna; Åkesson, Elisabet; Wahman, Kerstin

    2017-05-16

    To update the incidence rate, aetiology and injury characteristics of acutely-injured adults with traumatic spinal cord injury in Stockholm, Sweden, using international standards of reporting. Prospective, (regional) population-based observation. Forty-nine consecutively enrolled individuals. A surveillance system of newly-injured adults with traumatic spinal cord injury was implemented for an 18-month period. The International Spinal Cord Injury Core Data Set was used to collect data on those who survived the first 7 days post-injury. After an 18-month period, 49 incident cases were registered, of whom 45 were included in this study. The crude incidence rate was 19.0 per million, consisting mainly of men (60%), and the mean age of the cohort was 55 years (median 58). Causes of injury were almost exclusively limited to falls and transport-related events, accounting for 58% and 40% of cases, respectively. The incidence has remained stable when compared with the previous study; however, significant differences exist for injury aetiology (p = 0.004) and impairment level (p = 0.01) in that more fall- and transport-related spinal cord injury occurred, and a larger proportion of persons was left with resultant tetraplegia, in the current study, compared with more sport-related injuries and those left with paraplegia in the previous study. The incidence rate appeared to remain stable in Stockholm, Sweden. However, significant changes in injury aetiology and impairment-level post injury were found, compared with the previous study. There remains a need for developing fall-related prevention strategies in rehabilitation settings as well as in population-based programmes.

  6. Characteristics of injuries among young cross-country skiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop information about injuries in cadet and junior cross-country skiers. Material and methods. Fifty female (n=21 and male (n=29 competitors from Podhale were in research group. Skiers completed questionnaire. The questions concerned the location of injuries, types of injuries, methods of treatments and rehabilitation and recovery exercises. Results. The most frequent injury in the research group was bruises, cuts and sprains and muscle strain. Few people had suffered broken bones and muscle ruptures. The most of the skiers suffered knee injuries. As a treatment PRICEMM procedure has been introduced. The main method of recovery was rest from training. Conclusions. No correlation was found epidemiology of injuries and the treatment, gender, age, level of sport and the number of starts of the season. Sports training and recovery should be similar In each group (female and male competitors. Players starting considerably more likely to devote less time to treatment and improvement of injury.

  7. Scalp Hematoma Characteristics Associated With Intracranial Injury in Pediatric Minor Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Emma C M; Grool, Anne M; Klassen, Terry P; Correll, Rhonda; Jarvis, Anna; Joubert, Gary; Bailey, Benoit; Chauvin-Kimoff, Laurel; Pusic, Martin; McConnell, Don; Nijssen-Jordan, Cheri; Silver, Norm; Taylor, Brett; Osmond, Martin H

    2016-05-01

    Minor head trauma accounts for a significant proportion of pediatric emergency department (ED) visits. In children younger than 24 months, scalp hematomas are thought to be associated with the presence of intracranial injury (ICI). We investigated which scalp hematoma characteristics were associated with increased odds of ICI in children less than 17 years who presented to the ED following minor head injury and whether an underlying linear skull fracture may explain this relationship. This was a secondary analysis of 3,866 patients enrolled in the Canadian Assessment of Tomography of Childhood Head Injury (CATCH) study. Information about scalp hematoma presence (yes/no), location (frontal, temporal/parietal, occipital), and size (small and localized, large and boggy) was collected by emergency physicians using a structured data collection form. ICI was defined as the presence of an acute brain lesion on computed tomography. Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, dangerous injury mechanism, irritability on examination, suspected open or depressed skull fracture, and clinical signs of basal skull fracture. ICI was present in 159 (4.1%) patients. The presence of a scalp hematoma (n = 1,189) in any location was associated with significantly greater odds of ICI (odds ratio [OR] = 4.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.06 to 6.02), particularly for those located in temporal/parietal (OR = 6.0, 95% CI = 3.9 to 9.3) and occipital regions (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 3.5 to 8.9). Both small and localized and large and boggy hematomas were significantly associated with ICI, although larger hematomas conferred larger odds (OR = 9.9, 95% CI = 6.3 to 15.5). Although the presence of a scalp hematoma was associated with greater odds of ICI in all age groups, odds were greatest in children aged 0 to 6 months (OR = 13.5, 95% CI = 1.5 to 119.3). Linear skull fractures were present in 156 (4.0%) patients. Of the 111 patients with scalp hematoma and ICI, 57 (51%) patients had

  8. Biopsychosocial characteristics of patients with neuropathic pain following spinal cord trauma injury. Case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Viviana Gonçalves; Jesus,Cristine Alves Costa de

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Spinal cord injury is a change in spinal canal structures and may induce motor, sensory, autonomic and psychoaffective changes. Trauma injury is the most prevalent. Neuropathic pain is more frequent in people with spinal cord injury and may be disabling. Pain development mechanism is poorly known being its management difficult for both patients and health professionals. This study aimed at identifying biopsychosocial characteristics associated to neuropathic ...

  9. Injury incidence and characteristics in South African school first team ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... of games played within the season, and the overlap of school and provincial ..... Preventing injuries in children playing school rugby (cited 11. March. 2016). ... under-18 players: real-match video analysis. Br J Sports Med.

  10. Intestinal Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury and Semen Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Nigeria. Summary: Increasing production of goats takes their reproductive ... of testicular damage and infertility and is a form of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. ... concentration, percentage of normal sperm cells, abnormal sperm cells and ...

  11. Characteristics and associated factors with sports injuries among children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele M. Vanderlei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The participation of children and adolescents in sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of sports injuries. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the sports injuries and verify the associated factors with injuries in children and adolescents. METHOD: Retrospective, epidemiological study. One thousand three hundred and eleven children and adolescents up to 18 years of age enrolled in a sports initiation school in the city of Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A reported condition inquiry in interview form was used to obtain personal data and information on training and sports injuries in the last 12 months. Injury was considered any physical complaint resulting from training and/or competition that limited the participation of the individual for at least one day, regardless of the need for medical care. RESULTS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was 1.20 among the children and 1.30 among the adolescents. Age, anthropometric data, and training characteristics only differed with regard to the presence or absence of injuries among the adolescents. The most commonly reported characteristics involving injuries in both the children and adolescents were the lower limbs, training, non-contact mechanism, mild injury, asymptomatic return to activities, and absence of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was similar among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, some peculiarities among adolescents were observed with greater values for weight, height, duration of training, and weekly hours of practice.

  12. Pediatric craniomaxillofacial injuries after road traffic crashes: characteristics of injuries and protective equipment use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Siti Salmiah Mohd; Ngeow, Wei Cheong; Ramli, Roszalina

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional study to determine the pattern of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) injuries among children involved in road traffic crashes was performed. The association of protective equipment use with the CMF injuries was evaluated. Retrospective records of children treated in the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, after road traffic crashes between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 were reviewed, and, after that, telephone interviews were made. Seventy-one children were included in this study. Fifty-two (73.6%) were involved in a motorcycle injury and 19 (23.4%) in a car crash. Their mean age was 6.02 years; SD, 3.46 (range between 0 to 13 years old). More male children were observed (52.1%) compared with females (47.9%). Thirty-nine point four percent of the children sustained CMF injuries, 33.8% body injuries, and 23.9% had both CMF and other body parts injuries. The highest injury severity score was 26, whereas the lowest was 0. Many children did not use protective equipment during traveling, 44.2% of children among motorcycle pillion riders, and 78.9% among car passengers. The association between helmet use and CMF injuries was shown to be statistically significant (P belt. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INJURY SEVERITY AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS: A SURVEY IN SOUTHERN CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Liang, Wenjie; Han, Shanshan; Abdullah, Abu S; Yang, Li

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationships between road traffic injury severity and individual characteristics in Liuzhou, a city in southern China. Data for this study were collected from the Guangxi Public Security Bureau Traffic Police Corps. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis was used. Of all 14,595 individuals involved in accidents, males, motor vehicle drivers, motorcyclists, and those aged 21-45 years accounted for the great proportion of all injuries. Children, the elderly, pedestrians, farmers and migrant workers, unemployed people, and novice drivers were at higher risk of serious injury in crashes. These findings suggest that individual characteristics (age, modes of transport, profession, driving experience) are strongly related to injury severity. To address road traffic related mortality and injuries, there is a need to develop policy strategies, strengthen road supervision, and improve public consciousness of road safety.

  14. Accidental and Nonaccidental Head Injuries in Infants: Distinguishing Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred fifty infants hospitalized with head injury over a 3-year period, 57 (38% due to child abuse, were studied prospectively at the Departments of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Neuro-ophthalmology, and Legal Medicine, CHRU de Lille, France.

  15. The characteristics of mine explosion injury of wading in shoal: A study on an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen ZHANG

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the characteristics and mechanism of mine blast injury that wading in shoal of different depths through an animal model. Methods Ninety-six healthy adult New Zealand white rabbits weighing 2.19±0.12kg were randomly divided into land group (n=16, limb wading group (n=16, the water depth reaching up the middle of the thighs of rabbits, and chest wading group (n=16, the water depth reaching up the thoracic xiphoid, stress test group (n=30, fake injury group (n=18. Punctiform burster was used to simulate landmine. Electric ignited the simulated mine away, causing landmine explosion injury to rabbits' one-sided hind limbs in upright state. High-speed photography was used to observe the movement of water accompanying the simulated mine explosion. Arterial blood serum markers of myocardial injury (CK-MB, cTnI and nerve injury (MBP, NSE were detected before injury, and 3, 6 and 12h after injury, and echocardiography, electrocardiography, CT, DSA and other examinations were implemented at the same time. Survival animals were killed 12h after injury for anatomy to record their injuries to the limbs and distant organs. The histopathological examination was done to define the injury characteristics further. Results Feet and distal tibia were broken, and closed femoral fractures and arterial damage were often found away from the stump in limb wading group. This type of injury was different from the mop-like tearing tissue in the land group. Chest, abdominal organs and the brain, spinal cord injury in wading group were more severe than those in land group. There were higher incidences of chest, abdominal organs and spinal cord injury in chest wading Group. Conclusion The energy transfer of underwater explosion is affected by water depth and limbs or trunk mutually, which is an important mechanism of the complex and serious injuries in the wading group. The wading depth is an important factor affecting severity of the injury. Based on

  16. Tackle characteristics and injury in a cross section of rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Savage, Trevor N; McCrory, Paul; Fréchède, Bertrand O; Wolfe, Rory

    2010-05-01

    The tackle is the game event in rugby union most associated with injury. This study's main aims were to measure tackle characteristics from video using a qualitative protocol, to assess whether the characteristics differed by level of play, and to measure the associations between tackle characteristics and injury. A cohort study was undertaken. The cohort comprised male rugby players in the following levels: younger than 15 yr, 18 yr, and 20 yr, grade, and elite (Super 12 and Wallabies). All tackle events and technique characteristics were coded in 77 game halves using a standardized qualitative protocol. Game injuries and missed-game injuries were identified and correlated with tackle events. A total of 6618 tackle events, including 81 resulting in a game injury, were observed and coded in the 77 game halves fully analyzed (145 tackle events per hour). An increase in the proportion of active shoulder tackles was observed from younger than 15 yr (13%) to elite (31%). Younger players engaged in more passive tackles and tended to stay on their feet more than experienced players. Younger than 15 yr rugby players had a significantly lower risk of tackle game injury compared with elite players. No specific tackle technique was observed to be associated with a significantly increased risk of game injury. There was a greater risk of game injury associated with two or more tacklers involved in the tackle event, and the greatest risk was associated with simultaneous contact by tacklers, after adjusting for level of play. Tackle characteristics differed between levels of play. The number of tacklers and the sequence of tackler contact with the ball carrier require consideration from an injury prevention perspective.

  17. Retrospective cohort analysis of chest injury characteristics and concurrent injuries in patients admitted to hospital in the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xi; Hu, Yang; Yuan, Yong; Zhao, Yong-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries.

  18. Retrospective cohort analysis of chest injury characteristics and concurrent injuries in patients admitted to hospital in the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. METHODS: We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. RESULTS: The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake

  19. Fire characteristics associated with firefighter injury on large federal wildland fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Carla; Lynch, Charles F; Torner, James; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-02-01

    Wildland fires present many injury hazards to firefighters. We estimate injury rates and identify fire-related factors associated with injury. Data from the National Interagency Fire Center from 2003 to 2007 provided the number of injuries in which the firefighter could not return to his or her job assignment, person-days worked, and fire characteristics (year, region, season, cause, fuel type, resistance to control, and structures destroyed). We assessed fire-level risk factors of having at least one reported injury using logistic regression. Negative binomial regression was used to examine incidence rate ratios associated with fire-level risk factors. Of 867 fires, 9.5% required the most complex management and 24.7% required the next-highest level of management. Fires most often occurred in the western United States (82.8%), during the summer (69.6%), caused by lightening (54.9%). Timber was the most frequent fuel source (40.2%). Peak incident management level, person-days of exposure, and the fire's resistance to control were significantly related to the odds of a fire having at least one reported injury. However, the most complex fires had a lower injury incidence rate than less complex fires. Although fire complexity and the number of firefighters were associated with the risk for at least one reported injury, the more experienced and specialized firefighting teams had lower injury incidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of traumatic brain injury in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Abbass, Hussein; Bahmad, Hisham; Ghandour, Hiba; Fares, Jawad; Wazzi-Mkahal, Rayyan; Yacoub, Basel; Darwish, Hala; Mondello, Stefania; Harati, Hayat; El Sayed, Mazen J.; Tamim, Hani; Kobeissy, Firas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a debilitating medical and emerging public health problem that is affecting people worldwide due to a multitude of factors including both domestic and war-related acts. The objective of this paper is to systematically review the status of TBI in Lebanon – a Middle Eastern country with a weak health system that was chartered by several wars and intermittent outbursts of violence - in order to identify the present gaps in knowledge, direct future research initiatives and to assist policy makers in planning progressive and rehabilitative policies. Methods: OVID/Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google Scholar were lastly searched on April 15th, 2016 to identify all published research studies on TBI in Lebanon. Studies published in English, Arabic or French that assessed Lebanese patients afflicted by TBI in Lebanon were warranting inclusion in this review. Case reports, reviews, biographies and abstracts were excluded. Throughout the whole review process, reviewers worked independently and in duplicate during study selection, data abstraction and methodological assessment using the Downs and Black Checklist. Results: In total, 11 studies were recognized eligible as they assessed Lebanese patients afflicted by TBI on Lebanese soils. Considerable methodological variation was found among the identified studies. All studies, except for two that evaluated domestic causes such as falls, reported TBI due to war-related injuries. Age distribution of TBI victims revealed two peaks, young adults between 18 and 40 years, and older adults aged 60 years and above, where males constituted the majority. Only three studies reported rates of mild TBI. Mortality, rehabilitation and systemic injury rates were rarely reported and so were the complications involved; infections were an exception. Conclusion: Apparently, status of TBI in Lebanon suffers from several gaps which need to be bridged through implementing more basic

  1. Characteristics of injuries caused by paragliding accidents: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbek, Umut; İmerci, Ahmet; Akgün, Ulaş; Yeşil, Murat; Aydin, Ali; Balci, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze the characteristics and risk factors relating to fatalities and injuries caused by paragliding. The judicial examination reports and hospital documents of 82 patients traumatized in 64 accidents during 242 355 paragliding jumps between August 2004 and September 2011 were analyzed. In these accidents, 18 of the 82 patients lost their lives. In the patients with a confirmed cause of accident, most of them were involved with multiple fractures and internal organ injuries (n=8, 44.4%). We investigated the incidence of paragliding injuries, the types of the injuries, and the severity of affected anatomical regions. The findings are significant for the prevention of paragliding injuries and future research.

  2. Characteristics of non-vitreoretinal ocular injury in child maltreatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, T; Ahmed, S; Maguire, S; Watts, P

    2017-08-01

    PurposeTo identify the spectrum of non-vitreoretinal ocular injury due to child maltreatment.MethodsAll language search of MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, AMED, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases, 1950-2015, was conducted. explicit confirmation of injury aetiology, age children that had suffered physical abuse with ocular injury had subconjunctival haemorrhages. Children presenting with abusive ocular injuries had a mean age of 13.9 months (range 1-68), while those who suffered violent corporal punishment were considerably older (mean 96 months). All cases, apart from severe corporal punishment, underwent screening for occult fractures, but neuroimaging only apparent in 2/5 eligible cases.ConclusionAlthough, the face is the most common site of abusive injury, there is a paucity of high-quality data on non-vitreoretinal ocular abusive injury. Thus, while subconjunctival haemorrhages are a potential sentinel injury of maltreatment, and may warrant further evaluation, the lack of large-scale published data limits our ability to highlight further specific characteristics of non-vitreoretinal ocular injury indicative of child abuse.

  3. Psychological Characteristics in Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: An MMPI-2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Carlton S; Rogers, David; Kinne, Erica

    2017-01-01

    The psychological characteristics of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) have received limited research focus, despite empirical evidence of their relevance for subsequent psychological adjustment and early therapeutic intervention. This study addressed a wide range of psychological features in 47 individuals who were hospitalized as a result of acute mild TBI (mTBI). Participants were screened from amongst consecutive TBI admissions for moderate to severe brain injury, and for pre-injury neurological, psychiatric, or substance abuse histories. Clinical and content scale scores on the MMPI-2 were explored in relation to patient gender, age, level of education, and extent of cognitive complaints. The results revealed diverse psychosocial problem areas across the sample, the most common of which were somatic and cognitive complaints, compromised insight, and a naively optimistic self-perception. The mediating roles of injury severity and demographic variables are discussed. Clinical implications and specific recommendations are presented.

  4. MECHANOGENESIS AND CLINICAL-ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HAND CONTACT BLAST INJURY IN PEACE AND WAR TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Fomin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thorough research has been done on the characteristics of surgical anatomy and mechanogenesis of the explosion-related hand injuries received during military campaigns and in non-military explosion-related accidents. This research consisted of clinical, statistical and experimental-anatomical parts. 241 patient data files of the wounded during the military campaign in Afghanistan have been analysed as well as 70 patient data files of the injured in non-military explosion-related accidents. The most common, according to the patient data analysis, morphological variations of the explosion-related hand injuries were simulated during 24 in-field experiments by exploding hands of cadavers. The characteristics of the explosion-related hand injuries were analysed using radiography and precision preparation of the extremities after the in-field experiments. The correlations between the hand damage levels, the types of explosive materials, their orientation and position in hand during explosion have been identified.

  5. Acute Alcohol Intoxication in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Characteristics, Recovery and Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, Myrthe; de Koning, Myrthe; van der Horn, Harm; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) at the time of sustaining mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), describe the characteristics of this intoxicated subgroup, and evaluate recovery and outcome in comparison to sober mTBI patients. Methods. Multicenter cohort

  6. Differences in injury risk and characteristics between Dutch amateur and professional soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anne-Marie van Beijsterveldt, A. M C; Stubbe, J. H.; Schmikli, S. L.; Van De Port, I. G L; Backx, F. J G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the incidence and characteristics of injuries between Dutch amateur and professional male soccer players during one entire competition season. Design A prospective two-cohort design. Methods During the 2009–2010 season, 456 Dutch male amateur soccer players and 217 professional

  7. Health and wellness characteristics of persons with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Cynthia A; Cuthbert, Jeffrey P; Brenner, Lisa; Hawley, Lenore; Morey, Clare; Newman, Jody; Staniszewski, Kristi; Harrison-Felix, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    To describe health and wellness characteristics of persons with TBI living in the community, compare to other disability populations and evaluate the associations between health-related constructs. Observational. Outpatient rehabilitation hospital and a Veterans Affairs Medical Centre. Seventy-four community-dwelling adults with moderate-to-severe TBI. None. Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II), Self Rated Abilities Health Practices Scale (SRAHP), Barriers to Health Promoting Activities for Disabled Scale (BHPAD), Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Health Status Survey Short Form (SF-12), Personal Resource Questionnaire-adapted (PRQ-a), Perceived Wellness Survey (PWS), Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools-Objective (PART-O). Health-promoting behaviours, self-efficacy and barriers to health were comparable to other disability populations. Perceived health status, participation and life satisfaction were decreased. Measures of health promotion and self-efficacy were positively associated with perceived mental health status, life satisfaction and participation. Barriers to healthy activities were negatively associated with health promotion, self-efficacy and perceived mental health status. Health and wellness status was below desired levels for the study cohort, and comparable to other disability populations. Better understanding of associations among health-related constructs is needed. Continued research on conceptually-based health and wellness interventions for persons with TBI is recommended.

  8. The Relation between Hamstring Strain Injury and Physical Characteristics of Japanese Collegiate Sepak Takraw Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Y; Nakazato, K; Koyama, K; Tahara, Y; Funaki, A; Hiranuma, K

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the injuries in Japanese collegiate sepak takraw players. We primarily focused on hamstring strain injury (HSI), and investigated the associated physical characteristics. The study included 77 Japanese collegiate sepak takraw players who were interviewed; data were collected regarding injuries sustained by them during the game within the past year. The hip range of motion (ROM) was measured. The total number of injuries was 48 in a year. The rate of HSI was the highest (31.3%) among all the injuries. All HSIs occurred in the dominant leg because of the sunback spike. Using the Mann-Whitney U test, significant differences in age and sport-related experience were observed between the injured group and uninjured group. Upon using logistic regression analysis, the presence of a HSI was found to be associated with the sport-related experience (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.77) and the hip extension ROM (adjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99) after adjusting for sex, sport-related experience, and the hip ROM. HSI is the most common injury in Japanese collegiate sepak takraw players. Short sport-related experience and small hip extension ROM are related with the occurrence of HSI. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Children with burns referred for child abuse evaluation: Burn characteristics and co-existent injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Marie-Christin; Kemp, Alison; Maguire, Sabine; Nuttall, Diane; Feldman, Kenneth W; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    Intentional burns represent a serious form of physical abuse that must be identified to protect children from further harm. This study is a retrospectively planned secondary analysis of the Examining Siblings To Recognize Abuse (ExSTRA) network data. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of burns injuries in children referred to Child Abuse Pediatricians (CAPs) in relation to the perceived likelihood of abuse. We furthermore compare the extent of diagnostic investigations undertaken in children referred to CAPs for burn injuries with those referred for other reasons. Within this dataset, 7% (215/2890) of children had burns. Children with burns were older than children with other injuries (median age 20 months vs. 10 months). Physical abuse was perceived as likely in 40.9% (88) and unlikely in 59.1% (127). Scalds accounted for 52.6% (113) and contact burns for 27.6% (60). Several characteristics of the history and burn injury were associated with a significantly higher perceived likelihood of abuse, including children with reported inflicted injury, absent or inadequate explanation, hot water as agent, immersion scald, a bilateral/symmetric burn pattern, total body surface area ≥10%, full thickness burns, and co-existent injuries. The rates of diagnostic testing were significantly lower in children with burns than other injuries, yet the yield of skeletal survey and hepatic transaminases testing were comparable between the two groups. This would imply that children referred to CAPs for burns warrant the same level of comprehensive investigations as those referred for other reasons. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Previous injuries and some training characteristics predict running-related injuries in recreational runners: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz Carlos; Pena Costa, Leonardo Oliveira; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2013-12-01

    What is the incidence of running-related injuries (RRIs) in recreational runners? Which personal and training characteristics predict RRIs in recreational runners? Prospective cohort study. A total of 200 recreational runners answered a fortnightly online survey containing questions about their running routine, races, and presence of RRI. These runners were followed-up for a period of 12 weeks. The primary outcome of this study was running-related injury. The incidence of injuries was calculated taking into account the exposure to running and was expressed by RRI/1000 hours. The association between potential predictive factors and RRIs was estimated using generalised estimating equation models. A total of 84 RRIs were registered in 60 (31%) of the 191 recreational runners who completed all follow-up surveys. Of the injured runners 30% (n=18/60) developed two or more RRIs, with 5/18 (28%) being recurrences. The incidence of RRI was 10 RRI/1000 hours of running exposure. The main type of RRI observed was muscle injuries (30%, n=25/84). The knee was the most commonly affected anatomical region (19%, n=16/84). The variables associated with RRI were: previous RRI (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.51), duration of training although the effect was very small (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02), speed training (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.10), and interval training (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.88). Physiotherapists should be aware and advise runners that past RRI and speed training are associated with increased risk of further RRI, while interval training is associated with lower risk, although these associations may not be causative. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics and clinical aspects of patients with spinal cord injury undergoing surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Simão de Melo-Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To identify the characteristics of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI undergoing surgery. METHODS: Previously, 321 patients with SCI were selected. Clinical and socio-demographic variables were collected. RESULTS: A total of 211 patients were submitted to surgery. Fall and injuries in the upper cervical and lumbosacral regions were associated with conservative treatment. Patients with lesions in the lower cervical spine, worse neurological status, and unstable injuries were associated with surgery. Individuals undergoing surgery were associated with complications after treatment. The authors assessed whether age influenced the characteristics of patients submitted to surgery. Subjects with <60 years of age were associated with motorcycle accidents and the morphologies of injury were fracture-dislocation. Elderly individuals were associated to fall, SCI in the lower cervical spine and the morphology of injury was listhesis. Subsequently, the authors analyzed the gender characteristics in these patients. Women who suffered car accidents were associated to surgery. Women were associated with paraparesis and the morphologic diagnosis was fracture-explosion, especially in the thoracolumbar transition and lumbosacral regions. Men who presented traumatic brain injury and thoracic trauma were related to surgery. These individuals had a worse neurological status and were associated to complications. Men and the cervical region were most affected, thereby, these subjects were analyzed separately (n= 92. The presence of complications increased the length of hospital stay. The simultaneous presence of morphological diagnosis, worst neurological status, tetraplegia, sensory, and motor alterations were associated with complications. Pneumonia and chest trauma were associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: These factors enable investments in prevention, rehabilitation, and treatment.

  12. Characteristics of successful and unsuccessful completers of 3 postacute brain injury rehabilitation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F; Degiorgio, Lisa

    2002-12-01

    To determine whether successful participants along different postacute brain injury rehabilitation pathways differ on demographic, injury-related, disability, and outcome variables. Secondary analysis of pre- and posttreatment, and 1-year follow-up data obtained in a previous study of specialized vocational services (SVS) for persons with brain injury. Outpatient brain injury rehabilitation clinic. One hundred fourteen persons with acquired brain injury. Participants in 3 distinct rehabilitation pathways were studied: SVS only; SVS and a 3-h/wk community reintegration outpatient group; and SVS and 6-h/d comprehensive day treatment (CDT). Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI); Vocational Independence Scale; and "success," as defined by community-based employment (CBE) at 1-year follow-up. The percentage (77%-85%) of participants in CBE at 1-year follow-up did not differ among the 3 pathways. CDT participants had more limited educational backgrounds, were less recently injured, and showed greater disability and more impaired self-awareness than those receiving limited intervention (ie, SVS or community reintegration outpatient group). MPAI scores for limited-intervention participants who were unsuccessful were similar in level to successful participants in CDT. Logistic regression models were developed to predict the probability of success with limited intervention and CDT. Different rehabilitation pathways result in CBE for a large percentage of persons with brain injury if the intensity of service is appropriately matched to the severity of the disability, the time since injury, and other participant characteristics. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  13. Characteristic of thoracolumbar burst fracture with mid column injury and analysis of relative surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Binhui; Zhang Bo; Ouyang Zhen; Sun Maomin; Xia Chunlin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: By analyzing the pathologic characteristics of the thoracolumbar burst fracture with mid column injury to explore the value of surgical treatment and the relationship between the spinal cord injury and the burst fracture. Methods: With the combination of X-ray film, CT, MRI examination, in 97 patients with thoracolumbar burst fracture, the rate of spinal canal stenosis was measured. For the fracture fragments morphology, translocation, and intervertebral disc, posterior longitudinal ligament injuries, a different surgical method was selected, the percentage of wound vertebral body compression, kyphosis Cobb angle and the rate of spinal canal stenosis, spinal cord nerve function recovery were compared between preoperation and postoperation. Results: After operation, all patients were reseted. Followed-up was performed from 6 to 28 months, in 88 cases bone graft fusion was obtained after 4 to 6 months, 1 ∼ 3 levels were restored in Frankel grade of spinal cord nerve function recovery. Between preoperation and postoperation, the percentage of wounded vertebral body compression, kyphosis Cobb angle and the rate of spinal canal stenosis were significantly different (P <0. 01). For the 9 cases of combined intervertebral disc injury, fusion was not achieved in the 6 cases there were loss in vertebral body height and Cobb angle in various extent. Conclusion: There is an interrelationship between thoracolumbar burst fracture caused by the reduction of spinal canal diameter and the spinal cord injury. Different forms of occupation of intraspinal bone fragments indicate different degrees of moment of violence and spinal cord primary injury. It is important to select the appropriate surgical method for clinic. The potential impact should be sufficient attention on the stability of intervertebral disc injury. (authors)

  14. Characteristics of laser-induced shock wave injury to the inner ear of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurioka, Takaomi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Niwa, Katsuki; Tamura, Atsushi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Satoh, Yasushi; Sato, Shunichi; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2014-12-01

    Recently, the number of blast injuries of the inner ear has increased in the general population. In blast-induced inner ear injury, a shock wave (SW) component in the blast wave is considered to play an important role in sensorineural hearing loss. However, the mechanisms by which an SW affects inner ear tissue remain largely unknown. We aimed to establish a new animal model for SW-induced inner ear injury by using laser-induced SWs (LISWs) on rats. The LISWs were generated by irradiating an elastic laser target with 694-nm nanosecond pulses of a ruby laser. After LISW application to the cochlea through bone conduction, auditory measurements revealed the presence of inner ear dysfunction, the extent of which depended on LISW overpressure. A significantly lower survival rate of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons, as well as severe oxidative damage, were observed in the inner ear exposed to an LISW. Although considerable differences in the pressure characteristics exist between LISWs and SWs in real blast waves, the functional and morphological changes shown by the present LISW-based model were similar to those observed in real blast-induced injury. Thus, our animal model is expected to be useful for laboratory-based research of blast-induced inner ear injury.

  15. Characteristics of laser-induced shock wave injury to the inner ear of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurioka, Takaomi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Niwa, Katsuki; Tamura, Atsushi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Satoh, Yasushi; Sato, Shunichi; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2014-12-01

    Recently, the number of blast injuries of the inner ear has increased in the general population. In blast-induced inner ear injury, a shock wave (SW) component in the blast wave is considered to play an important role in sensorineural hearing loss. However, the mechanisms by which an SW affects inner ear tissue remain largely unknown. We aimed to establish a new animal model for SW-induced inner ear injury by using laser-induced SWs (LISWs) on rats. The LISWs were generated by irradiating an elastic laser target with 694-nm nanosecond pulses of a ruby laser. After LISW application to the cochlea through bone conduction, auditory measurements revealed the presence of inner ear dysfunction, the extent of which depended on LISW overpressure. A significantly lower survival rate of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons, as well as severe oxidative damage, were observed in the inner ear exposed to an LISW. Although considerable differences in the pressure characteristics exist between LISWs and SWs in real blast waves, the functional and morphological changes shown by the present LISW-based model were similar to those observed in real blast-induced injury. Thus, our animal model is expected to be useful for laboratory-based research of blast-induced inner ear injury.

  16. Lower limb alignment characteristics are not associated with running injuries in runners: Prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz Carlos; de Carvalho, Aline Carla Araújo; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2016-11-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the association between lower limb alignment characteristics and the incidence of running-related injury (RRI). Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the association between lower limb alignment characteristics and the incidence proportion of RRI in a convenience sample of recreational runners. A total of 89 recreational runners were included in this prospective cohort study. These participants had been running for at least six months and were injury-free at baseline. Lower limb alignment measurements were conducted in order to calculate lower limb discrepancy, Q-angle, subtalar angle and plantar index. All participants also answered a baseline and biweekly online surveys about their running routine, history of RRI and newly developed RRI over a period of 12 weeks. The prevalence of previous RRI and the 12-week incidence proportion of new RRI were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the association between lower limb length discrepancy, Q-angle, subtalar angle and plantar ach index with the incidence proportion of RRI. The prevalence of previous RRI was 55.1% (n = 49). The 12-week incidence proportion of new RRI was 27.0% (n = 24). Muscle injuries and tendinopathies were the main types of RRI identified. The lower leg and the knee were the main anatomical regions affected. We did not find significant associations between lower limb length discrepancy, Q-angle, subtalar angle and plantar arch index and injury occurrence.

  17. Characteristics of brain injury induced by shock wave propagation in solids after underwater explosion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-ling LI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the characteristics of rat brain injury induced by shock wave propagation in solids resulting from underwater explosion and explore the related mechanism. Methods  Explosion source outside the simulated ship cabin underwater was detonated for establishing a model of brain injury in rats by shock wave propagation in solid; 72 male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n=8, injury group 1 (600mg RDX paper particle explosion source, n=32, injury group 2 (800mg RDX paper particle explosion source, n=32. The each injury group was randomly divided into 4 subgroups (n=8, 3, 6, 24 and 72h groups. The division plate as a whole and the head of 8 rats in each injury group were measured for the peak value of the solid shock wave, its rising time and the duration time of shock wave propagation in solid. To observe the physiological changes of animals after injury, plasma samples were collected for determination of brain damage markers, NSE and S-100β. All the animals were sacrificed, the right hemisphere of the brain was taken in each group of animals, weighting after baking, and the brain water content was calculated. Pathological examination was performed for left cerebral hemisphere in 24-h group. The normal pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 region were counted. Results  The peak value, rising time and duration time of shock wave propagation on the division plate and head were 1369.74±91.70g, 0.317±0.037ms and 24.85±2.53ms, 26.83±3.09g, 0.901±0.077ms and 104.21±6.26ms respectively in injury group 1, 1850.11±83.86g, 0.184±0.031ms and 35.61±2.66ms, 39.75±3.14g, 0.607±0.069ms and 132.44±7.17ms in injury group 2 (P<0.01. After the injury, there was no abnormality in the anatomy, and brain damage markers NSE, S-100β increased, reached the peak at 24 h, and they were highest in injury group 2 and lowest in control group with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05. The brain water content

  18. Geometric Characteristics of the Knee Are Associated With a Noncontact ACL Injury to the Contralateral Knee After Unilateral ACL Injury in Young Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levins, James G; Argentieri, Erin C; Sturnick, Daniel R; Gardner-Morse, Mack; Vacek, Pamela M; Tourville, Timothy W; Johnson, Robert J; Slauterbeck, James R; Beynnon, Bruce D

    2017-12-01

    Contralateral anterior cruciate ligament (CACL) injury after recovery from a first-time ACL rupture occurs at a high rate in young females; however, little is known about the risk factors associated with bilateral ACL trauma. The geometric characteristics of the contralateral knee at the time of the initial ACL injury are associated with risk of suffering a CACL injury in these female athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Sixty-two female athletes who suffered their first noncontact ACL injury while participating in sports at the high school or college level were identified, and geometry of the femoral notch, ACL, tibial spines, tibial subchondral bone, articular cartilage surfaces, and menisci of the contralateral, uninjured, knee was characterized in 3 dimensions. We were unable to contact 7 subjects and followed the remaining 55 until either a CACL injury or an ACL graft injury occurred or, if they were not injured, until the date of last contact (mean, 34 months after their first ACL injury). Cox regression was used to identify risk factors for CACL injury. Ten (18.2%) females suffered a CACL injury. Decreases of 1 SD in femoral intercondylar notch width (measured at its outlet and anterior attachment of the ACL) were associated with increases in the risk of suffering a CACL injury (hazard ratio = 1.88 and 2.05, respectively). Likewise, 1 SD decreases in medial-lateral width of the lateral tibial spine, height of the medial tibial spine, and thickness of the articular cartilage located at the posterior region of the medial tibial compartment were associated with 3.59-, 1.75-, and 2.15-fold increases in the risk of CACL injury, respectively. After ACL injury, subsequent injury to the CACL is influenced by geometry of the structures that surround the ACL (the femoral notch and tibial spines). This information can be used to identify individuals at increased risk for CACL trauma, who might benefit from targeted risk-reduction interventions.

  19. Work-related traumatic dental injuries: Prevalence, characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Alessandro; Parodi, Giovanni Battista; Casali, Claudia; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Giacinti, Flavio

    2018-02-01

    The prevalence of work-related oral trauma is underestimated because minor dental injuries are often not reported in patients with several injuries in different parts of the body. In addition, little data are available regarding their characteristics. The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the prevalence, types, and characteristics of occupational traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in a large working community. Work-related TDIs that occurred during the period between 2011 and 2013 in the District of Genoa (Northwest of Italy, 0.86 million inhabitants) were analyzed. Patients' data were obtained from the National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work database. During the 2 year period, 112 TDIs (345 traumatized teeth) were recorded. The prevalence was 5.6‰ of the total amount of occupational trauma. The highest prevalence was found in the fourth and fifth decades of life (OR=3.6, P construction/farm/factory workers and craftsmen were 48%. TDIs involved only teeth and surrounding tissue in 66% of cases, or in combination with another maxillofacial injury in 34%. They were statistically associated with construction/farm/factory workers group (Chi squared P cases, subluxation/luxation in 10.7%, avulsion in 9%, root fracture in 3.8%, and concussion in 3.5%. Thirty-two subjects (28.6%, 133 teeth, OR=4.3, P < .001) presented at least 1 traumatized tooth with previous dental treatment. Among 212 (61.4%) traumatized teeth, 67.5% were upper incisors, 17.5% were lower incisors, 3.3% were upper canines, 1.9% were lower canines, and 9.9% were bicuspids and molars. Work-related TDIs had a low overall prevalence, and fractures were the most frequent dental injury. Age, gender, and preexisting dental treatments represented risk factors for work-related TDIs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Characteristics of associated craniofacial trauma in patients with head injuries: An experience with 100 cases

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    Rajendra Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial fractures and concomitant cranial injuries carry the significant potential for mortality and neurological morbidity mainly in young adults. Aims and Objectives: To analyze the characteristics of head injuries and associated facial injuries, the management options and outcome following cranio-facial trauma. Methods: This retrospective review was performed at Justice K. S. Hegde Charitable Hospital, and associated A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. Following Ethical Committee approval, hospital charts and radiographs of 100 consecutive patients of cranio-facial trauma managed at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Neurosurgery between January 2004 and December 2004 were reviewed. Results: Majority of the patients were in the 2nd to 4th decade (79% with a male to female ratio of -8.09:1. Road traffic accidents were the common cause of craniofacial trauma in present study (54% followed by fall from height (30%. Loss of consciousness was the most common clinical symptom (62% followed by headache (33%. Zygoma was the most commonly fractured facial bone 48.2% (alone 21.2%, in combination 27.2%. Majority of patients had mild head injury and managed conservatively in present series. Causes of surgical intervention for intracranial lesions were compound depressed fracture, contusion and intracranial hematoma. Operative indications for facial fractures were displaced facial bone fractures. Major causes of mortality were associated systemic injuries. Conclusion: Adult males are the most common victims in craniofacial trauma, and road traffic accidents were responsible for the majority. Most of the patients sustained mild head injuries and were managed conservatively. Open reduction and internal fixation with miniplates was used for displaced facial bone fractures.

  1. Key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury living in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nützi, M; Trezzini, B; Ronca, E; Schwegler, U

    2017-08-08

    Descriptive qualitative and quantitative study using cross-sectional data from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI). To determine the key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Swiss community. Job titles indicated by SwiSCI participants were linked to occupational titles from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) and then frequency-analyzed across sociodemographic and injury-related factors. Subsequently, average O*NET relevance values ranging from 0 to 100 were calculated for the occupations' demands and characteristics, both in general and stratified by injury-related factors. The 1549 study participants indicated a total of 717 job titles and were primarily employed in administrative and management occupations (22.1% and 16.4%, respectively). The participants' occupations predominantly required verbal abilities (average relevance [AR]=68.4) and complex problem solving skills (AR=55.8) and were characterized by conventional work tasks (AR=62.9) and social relationships (AR=58.6). Both the occupations' frequency distribution as well as the average relevance levels of their demands and characteristics differed by SCI severity. Individuals with SCI perform a broad range of occupations that are mainly characterized by cognitive and communicative demands, while physical demands are of minor importance. By informing the development of job matching profiles for vocational guidance, our study facilitates the determination of well-matching jobs for persons with SCI and may contribute to a more sustainable return to work of the affected persons.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.84.

  2. Relation of child, caregiver, and environmental characteristics to childhood injury in an urban Aboriginal cohort in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Katherine; Burgess, Leonie; Falster, Kathleen; Banks, Emily; Möller, Holger; Ivers, Rebecca; Cowell, Chris; Isaac, Vivian; Kalucy, Deanna; Fernando, Peter; Woodall, Cheryl; Clapham, Kathleen

    2018-04-01

    Despite being disproportionately affected by injury, little is known about factors associated with injury in Aboriginal children. We investigated factors associated with injury among urban Aboriginal children attending four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in New South Wales, Australia. We examined characteristics of caregiver-reported child injury, and calculated prevalence ratios of 'ever-injury' by child, family, and environmental factors. Among children in the cohort, 29% (n=373/1,303) had ever broken a bone, been knocked out, required stitches or been hospitalised for a burn or poisoning; 40-78% of first injuries occurred at home and 60-91% were treated in hospital. Reported ever-injury was significantly lower (prevalence ratio ≤0.80) among children who were female, younger, whose caregiver had low psychological distress and had not been imprisoned, whose family experienced few major life events, and who hadn't experienced alcohol misuse in the household or theft in the community, compared to other cohort members. In this urban Aboriginal child cohort, injury was common and associated with measures of family and community vulnerability. Implications for public health: Prevention efforts targeting upstream injury determinants and Aboriginal children living in vulnerable families may reduce child injury. Existing broad-based intervention programs for vulnerable families may present opportunities to deliver targeted injury prevention. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Characteristics of Traumatic Brain Injury among Accident and Falling Down Cases

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    Kamran Aghakhani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle and falling down are responsible for the most number of traumatic injuries. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of traumatic brain injury among accident and falling down cases. In this analytical cross- sectional study, data were collected from the records of cadavers who died due to accident or falling down and referred to Kahrizak dissection hall, Tehran forensic medicine organization during 2013. A total of 237 subjects (183 (77.2% accident and 54 (22.8% falling down with a mean age of 35.62 (SD=15.75 were evaluated. A number of 213 (89.9% were male. From accident group, scalp injury was seen in 146 (79.8%, scalp abrasion in 122 (66.7%, scalp laceration in 104 (56.8%, sub skull bruising in 176 (96.3%, skull fracture in 119 (65%, hemorrhage in 166 (90.7%, Subdural hemorrhage (SDH in 155 (84.7%, Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in 161 (88%, Epidural hemorrhage (EDH in 41 (22.4%, contusion in 140 (76.5%, and skull base fracture in 140 (76.5% of cases. In falling down group scalp injury was seen in 42 (77.8% cadavers, scalp abrasion in 38 (70.4%, scalp laceration in 30 (55.6%, sub skull bruising in 49 (90.7%, skull fracture in 39 (72.2%, Hemorrhage in 49 (90.7%, SDH in 43 (79.6%, SAH in 47 (87%, EDH in 10 (18.5%, contusion in 33 (61.1%, and skull base fracture in 39 (72.2% of cases. There was no significant difference between these two groups (P Value> 0.05. Accident and falling down had no difference in terms of any injury or hemorrhage.

  4. Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury: Clinical Characteristics and a Prognostic Model of 12-Month Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsen, Cathrine Elisabeth; van der Naalt, Joukje; Jacobs, Bram; Follestad, Turid; Moen, Kent Gøran; Vik, Anne; Håberg, Asta Kristine; Skandsen, Toril

    2018-03-31

    Patients with moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) often are studied together with patients with severe TBI, even though the expected outcome of the former is better. Therefore, we aimed to describe patient characteristics and 12-month outcomes, and to develop a prognostic model based on admission data, specifically for patients with moderate TBI. Patients with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 9-13 and age ≥16 years were prospectively enrolled in 2 level I trauma centers in Europe. Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) score was assessed at 12 months. A prognostic model predicting moderate disability or worse (GOSE score ≤6), as opposed to a good recovery, was fitted by penalized regression. Model performance was evaluated by area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristics curves. Of the 395 enrolled patients, 81% had intracranial lesions on head computed tomography, and 71% were admitted to an intensive care unit. At 12 months, 44% were moderately disabled or worse (GOSE score ≤6), whereas 8% were severely disabled and 6% died (GOSE score ≤4). Older age, lower Glasgow Coma Scale score, no day-of-injury alcohol intoxication, presence of a subdural hematoma, occurrence of hypoxia and/or hypotension, and preinjury disability were significant predictors of GOSE score ≤6 (area under the curve = 0.80). Patients with moderate TBI exhibit characteristics of significant brain injury. Although few patients died or experienced severe disability, 44% did not experience good recovery, indicating that follow-up is needed. The model is a first step in development of prognostic models for moderate TBI that are valid across centers. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased psychological distress among individuals with spinal cord injury is associated with central neuropathic pain rather than the injury characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, Hila; Zeilig, Gabi; Laufer, Yocheved; Blumen, Nava; Defrin, Ruth

    2018-02-01

    Cross-sectional study. Central neuropathic pain (CNP) is common after spinal cord injury (SCI). The psychological impact of CNP is not clear. Previous studies reported depression and pain catastrophizing among patients with SCI and CNP; however, the lack of control groups prevented discerning whether these were attributed to CNP or to the SCI itself. The aim was to examine the psychological distress among individuals with SCI with and without CNP and controls to evaluate its impact and possible source. Outpatient clinic of a large rehabilitation center. Individuals with SCI and CNP (n = 27) and without CNP (n = 23), and able-bodied controls (n = 20) participated. Data collection included sociodemographics, SCI characteristics, and level of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, stress, depression, and pain catastrophizing. The sensory, affective, and cognitive dimensions of CNP were analyzed. Individuals with SCI and CNP exhibited elevated levels of PTSD, anxiety, stress, depression, and pain catastrophizing compared to the two control groups, which presented similar levels. The psychological variables among the CNP group correlated positively only with the affective dimension of CNP. Neither CNP nor the psychological variables correlated with SCI characteristics. Irrespective of CNP intensity, the affective dimension (suffering) is associated with increased psychological distress. Perhaps individual differences in the response to SCI and/or individual traits rather than the mere exposure to SCI may have a role in the emergence of CNP and psychological distress/mood dysfunction. Rehabilitation programs should prioritize stress management and prevention among individuals with SCI and CNP.

  6. Differences in the occurrence and characteristics of injuries between full-time and part-time dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Amy Jo; Pappas, Evangelos; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Hiller, Claire E

    2018-01-01

    Professional dancers are at significant risk of injury due to the physical demands of their career. Despite their high numbers, the experience of injury in freelance or part-time dancers is not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the occurrence and characteristics of injury in part-time compared with full-time Australian professional dancers. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey distributed to employees of small and large dance companies and freelance dancers in Australia. Statistical comparisons between full-time and part-time dancer demographics, dance training, injury prevalence and characteristics were made using χ 2 , two-tailed Fisher's exact tests, independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. A total of 89 full-time and 57 part-time dancers were included for analysis. A higher proportion of full-time dancers (79.8%) than part-time dancers (63.2%) experienced an injury that impacted on their ability to dance in the past 12 months (p=0.035). Injuries characteristics were similar between groups with fatigue being the most cited contributing factor. Part-time dancers took longer to seek treatment while a higher proportion of full-time dancers were unable to dance in any capacity following their injury. More full-time dancers sustained an injury in the past 12 months, and were unable to dance in any capacity following their injury. However injuries still commonly occurred in part-time dancers without necessarily a large volume of dance activity. Part-time dancers often access general community clinicians for treatment, who may need additional education to practically advise on appropriate return to dance.

  7. Menopause characteristics and subjective symptoms in women with and without spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Quint, Elisabeth H; Bushnik, Tamara; Rodriguez, Gianna M; Terrill, Melissa Sendroy

    2010-04-01

    To examine menopause transition characteristics and symptom bother in women with spinal cord injury (SCI). Prospective cohort (4 data collection periods across 4 years). Community. Women (n=62) with SCI (injury levels C6-T12, nonambulatory, >36mo postinjury; 86.1% retention) and women without SCI (n=66; 92.9% retention) with intact ovaries, not using hormone therapy, and between the ages of 45 and 60 years volunteered. A total of 505 observations were collected and analyzed. None. Age at final menstrual period (FMP), transitions through menopause status classifications, and menopause symptom bother (vasomotor, somatic, psychologic symptoms). The number of women transitioning through a menopause status classification over the course of the study did not significantly vary by group (P=.263), nor did age at FMP (P=.643). Women with SCI experienced greater bother of somatic symptoms (a subscale, P<.001), bladder infections (P<.001), and diminished sexual arousal (P=.012). Women without SCI had significantly greater bother of vasomotor symptoms (P=.020). There were no significant group by menopause status interactions; main effects for menopause status were significant only for vasomotor symptoms and vaginal dryness. Results suggested that women with SCI experience greater symptom bother in certain areas, but that patterns of symptom bother across menopause, transition through menopause, and age at FMP are similar to those of their peers. Larger studies are needed to examine menopause outcomes with respect to level of injury and completeness of injury. These findings provide a framework that women with SCI and their health care providers can use to address the menopause transition and highlight the importance of multidisciplinary involvement to maximize health and well being during this transition. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of family characteristics on the recovery of burn injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Robert L; Lee, Austin F; Kazis, Lewis E; Liang, Matthew H; Li, Nien-Chen; Hinson, Michelle I; Bauk, Helena; Meyer, Walter J; Stubbs, Teresa K; Palmieri, Tina L; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2012-09-01

    Interactions between family members and characteristics of family life and function may affect a child's recovery from burn injury. We prospectively examined the relationship between family characteristics and physical and psychosocial recovery from burns. The families of 399 burned children aged 5 years to 18 years admitted to one of four Shriners Hospitals for Children for management of acute burns completed the Family Environment Scale within 7 days of admission and then the American Burn Association/Shriners Hospitals for Children Burn Outcome Questionnaire (BOQ) at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 months. Generalized estimating equations with random effects for the time since burn were used to track recovery of the BOQ patient-centered domains associated with baseline family characteristics during the course of the study. The children had a mean age of 11 years and burn size of 32% total body surface area burned. Higher Family Environment Scale scores in cohesion, independence, organization, and active recreational orientation were associated with significantly better rates of recovery in multiple BOQ domains of health-related quality of life. Higher scores in conflict and achievement orientation predicted statistically significant impaired recovery. Higher expressiveness predicted greater difficulty with school reentry. Family characteristics affect the recovery of children after serious burns. Some of these may be amenable to focused anticipatory family interventions to help optimize outcomes. In particular, those characteristics that impair school reentry should be targeted.

  9. Neuropathic pain characteristics in patients from Curitiba (Brazil) with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vall, Janaína; Costa, Carlos Mauricio de Castro; Santos, Terezinha de Jesus Teixeira; Costa, Samuel Bovy de Castro

    2011-02-01

    This was a descriptive cross-sectional study on patients with spinal cord injuries living in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. The aim was to evaluate the pain characteristics among such patients seen at referral care centers for spinal cord injury patients in Curitiba. A total of 109 adults with spinal cord injury in this city were evaluated regarding the presence of pain, especially neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was evaluated using the DN4 questionnaire, a universal instrument that has been translated and validated for Portuguese. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the intensity of pain. The prevalence of pain among these 109 patients was 31.2% (34 patients). The nociceptive pain presented was classified as musculoskeletal pain (nine patients), visceral pain (four patients) and mixed pain (one patient), thus totaling 14 patients (12.8%). Another 20 patients (18.3%) showed symptoms of neuropathic pain and fulfilled the criteria for neuropathic pain with scores greater than 4 out 10 in the DN4 questionnaire. Regarding the characteristics of the patients with neuropathic pain, most of them were male, younger than 40 years of age and paraplegic with incomplete lesions. They had become injured from 1 to more than 5 years earlier. The predominant etiology was gunshot wounds, and the intensity of their pain was high, with VAS scores greater than 5. This study partially corroborates other studies conducted on this subject. Studies of this type are important for understanding the profile of these patients, for the purpose of designing strategies for their rehabilitation, with a focus on the appropriate treatment and management of pain.

  10. Neuropathic pain characteristics in patients from Curitiba (Brazil with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Vall

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This was a descriptive cross-sectional study on patients with spinal cord injuries living in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. The aim was to evaluate the pain characteristics among such patients seen at referral care centers for spinal cord injury patients in Curitiba. A total of 109 adults with spinal cord injury in this city were evaluated regarding the presence of pain, especially neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was evaluated using the DN4 questionnaire, a universal instrument that has been translated and validated for Portuguese. A visual analog scale (VAS was used to evaluate the intensity of pain. The prevalence of pain among these 109 patients was 31.2% (34 patients. The nociceptive pain presented was classified as musculoskeletal pain (nine patients, visceral pain (four patients and mixed pain (one patient, thus totaling 14 patients (12.8%. Another 20 patients (18.3% showed symptoms of neuropathic pain and fulfilled the criteria for neuropathic pain with scores greater than 4 out 10 in the DN4 questionnaire. Regarding the characteristics of the patients with neuropathic pain, most of them were male, younger than 40 years of age and paraplegic with incomplete lesions. They had become injured from 1 to more than 5 years earlier. The predominant etiology was gunshot wounds, and the intensity of their pain was high, with VAS scores greater than 5. This study partially corroborates other studies conducted on this subject. Studies of this type are important for understanding the profile of these patients, for the purpose of designing strategies for their rehabilitation, with a focus on the appropriate treatment and management of pain.

  11. The clinical characteristics of neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, E C; Erhan, B; Lakse, E

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the characteristics of neuropathic pain and observe intensity alterations in pain with regard to time during the day in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. A total of 50 SCI patients (M/F, 40/10; mean age, 35±12 years) with at-level and below-level neuropathic pain were included in the study. All patients were examined and classified according to the ASIA/ISCoS 2002 International Neurologic Examination and Classification Standards. The history, duration, localization and characteristics of the pain were recorded. Neuropathic pain of patients was evaluated with the McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire and LANSS (Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs) Pain Scale. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used to measure the severity of pain four times during the day. Quality of life was analyzed with Short Form 36. Out of 50 patients, 10 were tetraplegic and 40 were paraplegic. In all, 28 patients had motor and sensory complete injuries (AIS A), whereas 22 patients had sensory incomplete (AIS B, C and D) injuries. The most frequently used words to describe neuropathic pain were throbbing, tiring, hot and tingling. Pain intensity was significantly higher in the night than in the evening, noon and morning (PNeuropathic pain is a serious complaint in SCI patients and affects their quality of life. Neuropathic pain intensity was higher in the night hours than other times of day. This situation reinforces the need for a continued research and education on neuropathic pain in SCI.

  12. Unintentional injuries in the rural population of Twiserkan, Iran: A cross-sectional study on their incidence, characteristics and preventability

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    Naghavi Mohsen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge is sparse concerning injuries affecting rural populations in low and middle-income countries in general and in Iran in particular. This study documents the incidence and characteristics of severe injuries affecting rural people in the Iranian district of Twiserkan and it investigates these people's suggestions for injury prevention and control. Methods An interview-based investigation was undertaken that comprised all unintentional injuries leading to hospitalization (more than 6 hours or death that had occurred within a twelve month period and that were identified in the files of the 62 "health houses" of the Twiserkan district. For each case, semi-structured interviews were conducted at the households of the injured people (134 injuries affecting 117 households were identified. Results The incidence rates of fatal and non-fatal injuries were respectively 4.1 and 17.2 per 10 000 person-years and, as expected, men were more affected than women (77.6% of all injury cases. Traffic injuries (in particular among motorcyclists were as common as home-related injuries but they were far more fatal. Among common suggestions for prevention, people mentioned that the authorities could work on the design and engineering of the infrastructure in and around the village, that the rural health workers could contribute more with local information and education and that the people themselves could consider behaving in a safer manner. Conclusion Not only domestic injuries but also those in traffic are an important cause of severe and fatal injury among rural people. Health workers may play an important role in injury surveillance and in identifying context-relevant means of prevention that they or other actors may then implement.

  13. Demographic Characteristics and Clinical Outcome of Work-related Open Globe Injuries in the Most Industrialised Region of Turkey

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    Sertaç Argun Kıvanç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes of work-related open globe injuries in the most industrialized region of Turkey. Materials and Methods: The demographic and medical records of patients with work-related open globe injuries who presented to the ophthalmology or emergency departments with an official occupational accident report were retrospectively reviewed. Visual acuity categories were defined according to the World Health Organization. The injury types and zones of the open globes were classified according to Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System. Results: Among 479 patients with work-related eye injuries in 5 years, there were 102 eyes of 101 patients with open globe injuries (21%. The mean age of the patients was 34.5±8.9 years with a mean follow-up of 12.5±12.6 months. The injuries peaked in June in the hour between 12:00 and 13:00. Eighty-six percent presented to emergency services within 12 hours after the injury. Twenty-two percent of the patients had been wearing protective eyewear at the time of injury. The open globe injuries were penetrating in 51%, intraocular foreign body in 40%, rupture in 7% and perforation in 2% of the eyes. The most frequent finding was traumatic cataract. Final visual acuity of 33.3% of patients was below 3/60. Seventy-eight percent of patients that had visual acuity worse than 6/18 at presentation had visual acuity of 6/18 or better at final visit. Sixty-three percent of eyes which had injuries involving all 3 zones resulted in phthisis bulbi, enucleation or evisceration. Conclusion: Work-related open globe injuries may have severe consequences such as visual impairment and blindness among the young male working population in industrialized areas. Nearly half of the occupational open globe injuries resulted in visual impairment and blindness.

  14. The correlation between the imaging characteristics of hamstring injury and time required before returning to sports: a literature review.

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    Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports.

  15. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of traditional Chinese medicine-induced liver injury: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Qi, Xingshun; Yoshida, Eric M; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum; Teschke, Rolf; Sun, Mingyu; Liu, Xu; Su, Chunping; Deng, Jiao; Deng, Han; Hou, Feifei; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2018-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is becoming increasingly popular and related adverse events are often ignored or underestimated. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of TCM-induced liver injury (TCM-ILI) and to estimate the proportion of TCM-ILI in all drug-induced liver injuries (DILI). China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, VIP, PubMed, and Embase databases were searched. Demographic, clinical, and survival data were extracted and pooled. Factors associated with worse outcomes were calculated. For the proportion meta-analyses, the data were pooled by using a random-effects model. Overall, 21,027 articles were retrieved, of which 625 were finally included. There was a predominance of female and older patients. The proportion of liver transplantation was 2.18% (7/321). The mortality was 4.67% (15/321). Male, higher aspartate aminotransferase and direct bilirubin, and lower albumin were significantly associated with an increased risk of death/liver transplantation in TCM-ILI patients. The proportion of TCM-ILI in all DILI was 25.71%. The proportion was gradually increased with year. Our work summarises current knowledge regarding clinical presentation, disease course, and prognosis of TCM-ILI. TCM can result in hepatotoxicity, even death or necessitate life-saving liver transplantation. Governmental regulation of TCM products should be strictly established.

  16. Characteristics of the injuries of Syrian refugees sustained during the civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocamer Şimşek, Betül; Dokur, Mehmet; Uysal, Erdal; Çalıker, Necdet; Gökçe, Oruç Numan; Deniz, İbrahim Kürşat; Uğur, Murat; Geyik, Murat; Kaya, Mehmet; Dağlı, Güner

    2017-05-01

    During a war, many civilians are severely injured by firearms, bombs, and shrapnel. The triage of war injuries involves difficult and complicated processes requiring surgical procedures and patient monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of hospitals. In this study, we examine the demographic, traumatic, and critical care characteristics of cases injured during the civil war in Syria and requiring emergency surgery. Electronic data of the traumatic, surgical, and ICU monitoring features of 707 patients admitted to Kilis Public Hospital between March 2012 and January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively RESULTS: Most of the patients reported having been injured due to firearms (83.75%). Of the 707 cases studied in this work, 93.2% was male. Male patients reported a mean age of 26.1±12.1 years, while pediatric cases reported a mean age of 11.7±3.41 years. The most frequently injured region of the body was the head-neck region (52.7%). The New Injury Severity Score (NISS) of the cases was 42.5±11.2 and their American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score was 3.2±0.7. The number of cases with intraoperative exitus was 7, while the number of cases who had undergone damage control surgery was 204. The number of cases hospitalized in the ICU during the postoperative period was 233, and the average hospitalization duration in the ICU was 4.67±1.32 days. Among survivor patients, the first 24-hour invasive measurements (i.e., pH, hemoglobin, body temperature, and mean arterial blood pressure) and international normalized ratio were found to be high. The number of blood products used for surviving patients was fewer relative to that used for non-surviving patients, and these NISS of these patients was 29.7±10.1. The mortality rate of all patients followed up in the ICU after emergency surgery was 45%, and neurosurgical cases showed the lowest level of survival (24.1%). The results of this study indicated that head-neck, chest-abdomen, and multiple body injuries are

  17. Characteristics of Firearm Brain Injury Survivors in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database: A Comparison of Assault and Self-Inflicted Injury Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertisch, Hilary; Krellman, Jason W; Bergquist, Thomas F; Dreer, Laura E; Ellois, Valerie; Bushnik, Tamara

    2017-11-01

    To characterize and compare subgroups of survivors with assault-related versus self-inflicted traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) via firearms at the time of inpatient rehabilitation and at 1-, 2-, and 5-year follow-up. Secondary analysis of data from the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database (TBIMS NDB), a multicenter, longitudinal cohort study. Retrospective analyses of a subset of individuals enrolled in the TBIMS NDB. Individuals 16 years and older (N=399; 310 via assault, 89 via self-inflicted injury) with a primary diagnosis of TBI caused by firearm injury enrolled in the TBIMS NDB. Not applicable. Disability Rating Scale, Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, race, marital status), injury-related/acute care information (posttraumatic amnesia, loss of consciousness, time from injury to acute hospital discharge), and mental health variables (substance use history, psychiatric hospitalizations, suicide history, incarcerations). Individuals who survived TBI secondary to a firearm injury differed by injury mechanism (assault vs self-inflicted) on critical demographic, injury-related/acute care, and mental health variables at inpatient rehabilitation and across long-term recovery. Groups differed in terms of geographic area, age, ethnicity, education, marital status, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, and alcohol abuse, suicide attempts, and psychiatric hospitalizations at various time points. These findings have implications for prevention (eg, mental health programming and access to firearms in targeted areas) and for rehabilitation planning (eg, by incorporating training with coping strategies and implementation of addictions-related services) for firearm-related TBI, based on subtype of injury. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characteristics and prevalence of musculoskeletal injury in professional and non-professional ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Michelle S S; Ferreira, Arthur S; Orsini, Marco; Silva, Elirez B; Felicio, Lilian R

    2016-01-19

    Ballet is a high-performance activity that requires an advanced level of technical skills. Ballet places great stress on tendons, muscles, bones, and joints and may act directly as a trigger of injury by overuse. 1) to describe the main types of injuries and affected areas related to classical ballet and 2) to compare the frequency of musculoskeletal injuries among professional and non-professional ballet dancers, considering possible gender differences among the professional dancers. A total of 110 questionnaires were answered by professional and non-professional dancers. The questionnaire contained items related to the presence of injury, the regions involved, and the mechanism of the injury. We observed a high frequency of musculoskeletal injuries, with ankle sprains accounting for 69.8% of injuries in professional dancers and 42.1% in non-professional dancers. Pirouettes were the most frequent mechanism of injury in professional dancers, accounting for 67.9% of injuries, whereas in the non-professional dancers, repetitive movement was the most common mechanism (28.1%). Ankle sprains occurred in 90% of the women's injuries, and muscle sprains occurred in 54.5% of the men's injuries. The most frequent injury location was the ankle joint in both sexes among the professional dancers, with 67.6% in women and 40.9% in men. The identification of the mechanism of injury and time of practice may contribute to better therapeutic action aimed at the proper function of the dancers' bodies and improved performance by these athletes.

  19. Distribution and characteristics of occupational injuries and diseases among farmers: a retrospective analysis of workers' compensation claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-08-01

    Research indicates occupational injuries and diseases are not evenly distributed among workers. We investigated the distribution and characteristics of compensated occupational injuries and diseases requiring medical care in the Finnish farming population. The study population consisted of 93,564 Finnish farmers, spouses, and salaried family members who were covered by the mandatory workers' compensation insurance in 2002. This population had a total of 133,207 occupational injuries and 9,148 occupational diseases over a 26-year period (1982-2008). Clustering of claims was observed. Nearly half (47.1%) of the population had no compensated claims while 52.9% had at least one; 50.9% of farmers had one or more injuries and 8.1% had one or more diseases. Ten percent of the population had half of injury cases, and 3% of the population had half of occupational disease cases. Claims frequently involved work tasks related to animal husbandry and repair and maintenance of farm machinery. Injury and disease characteristics (work activity, cause, ICD-10 code) differed between individuals with high and low personal claim rate. Injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system had a tendency to reoccur among those with high claim rate. These outcomes were often related to strenuous working motions and postures in labor-intensive animal husbandry. Analyses of longitudinal insurance data contributes to better understanding of the long-term risk of occupational injury and disease among farmers. We suggest focusing on recurrent health outcomes and their causes among high risk populations could help design more effective interventions in agriculture and other industries. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Relationship jump-landing technique and neuropsychological characteristics, implications for ACL injury prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gokeler; Anne Benjaminse; N. Cortes; M. Meier

    2014-01-01

    Abstract from the IOC World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport, Monaco 2014 Background: Neuropsychological capabilities in athletes may be associated with a predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Objective: Assess differences between male and female athletes

  1. Characteristics of acute groin injuries in the hip flexor muscles - a detailed MRI study in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serner, A; Weir, A; Tol, J L

    2018-01-01

    acute hip flexor muscle injury were included. A total of 156 athletes presented with acute groin pain of which 33 athletes were included, median age 26 years (range 18-35). There were 16 rectus femoris, 12 iliacus, 7 psoas major, 4 sartorius, and 1 tensor fascia latae injury. Rectus femoris injuries...

  2. Physiological Demands, Morphological Characteristics, Physical Abilities and Injuries of Female Soccer Players

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    Milanović Zoran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of female soccer is increasing as well as the number of females playing soccer. Similarly, over the last twenty or so years, research in soccer has increased significantly, but a large disparity exists in the volume of studies involving male and female players. As a consequence of this, female players remain less well understood compared to males. The purpose of the present narrative review was to describe morphological characteristics, physiological demands, physical abilities and injuries in female soccer players. Physiological demands are similar between men’s and women’s soccer, but competitive women’s matches were characterized by nearly 33% less distance covered, although at higher intensity levels (maximum speeds greater than 15 km/h than typically found in the men’s game. Sub-elite female players also tended to run less at higher intensity levels at the end of both halves in comparison with elite female players. High intensity running is an important factor of success in soccer since many critical moments of the game occur under this condition. The ability to rapidly change direction also determined elite, sub-elite and amateur levels. The implementation of functional training, which focused on soccer-specific drills and plyometric exercises, to improve explosive power, may improve conditioning in female soccer players as well as decrease the risk of injuries which was 3-8 times higher in females compared to males. This review presents an in-depth overview of the most influential factors for determining success in female soccer.

  3. Characteristics of neurogenic bowel in spinal cord injury and perceived quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Connie; Bricker, Diedre; Rundquist, Jeanine; MacRae, Christi; Tebben, Cherisse

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the association between characteristics of individuals with spinal cord injury and neurogenic bowel and their perceived quality of life. The study design is an exploratory, descriptive correlational design. To measure the variables of the study the Quality of Life Survey developed by Randell et al. (2001) was used to measure perceived quality of life related to bowel management. Individual bowel management preferences and subjective costs and benefits of the preferences were gathered through the Neurogenic Bowel Characteristics Survey. PARTICIPANTS/METHOD: Data were collected from a random half of the individuals who met the inclusion criteria from the patient database (n=1193). Two hundred and forty one surveys were analyzed for this study. More than half of the sample (n=134) provided their own bowel management consisting of digital stimulation, suppositories, and other aids; 8% (n=19) had a colostomy. Regardless of the bowel management program 54% (n=127) were satisfied with current methods. Although time reported to complete bowel programs ranged from 1 to 120 minutes, there was no difference in rating of satisfaction with time. There was a statistically significant difference between those satisfied and dissatisfied with current bowel management and quality of life; those satisfied demonstrated a higher quality of life on three subscales, work function (p= .021), bowel problems (p< .001), and social function (p< .001). Those dissatisfied with their bowel program perceived a lower quality of life and indicated problems of time (p= .001), pain or discomfort (p= .033), and poor results (p< .001). Research data provide the patient's perspective on bowel management characteristics, complications, satisfaction, and their perceived quality of life. Results of this research will be incorporated into bowel management education and possible modification of the current inpatient bowel management program. © 2012 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  4. Scheduling and shift work characteristics associated with risk for occupational injury in newly licensed registered nurses: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpfel, Amy Witkoski; Brewer, Carol S; Kovner, Christine T

    2015-11-01

    Registered nurses across the globe bear a heavy injury burden. Every shift, nurses are exposed to a variety of hazards that can jeopardize their health, which negatively impacts their ability to provide high-quality patient care. Previous research suggests that inexperienced, or newly licensed nurses, may have an increased risk for certain occupational injuries. However, the current knowledge base is insufficient to fully understand how work hours influence newly licensed nurses' occupational injury, given the significant variation in hospital organization and work characteristics. To describe newly licensed nurses' shift work characteristics and determine the association between shift type and scheduling characteristics and nurse injury, before and after adjusting for individual and combined effects of demographics, external context, organizational context, and work context, following the Organization of Work model. This study is a secondary analysis of a nationally representative survey of newly licensed registered nurses using a cross-sectional design. The analytic sample includes 1744 newly licensed registered nurses from 34 states and the District of Columbia who reported working in a hospital and were within 6-18 months of passing their state licensure exam at the time of survey administration. Descriptive statistics were calculated, followed by bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression models to assess the relationship between shift type and scheduling characteristics and nurse injury. Lastly, full models with the addition of demographics, external context, organizational context, and work context variables were calculated. The majority (79%) of newly licensed nurses worked 12-h shifts, a near majority worked night shift (44%), and over half (61%) worked overtime (mandatory or voluntary) weekly. Nurses working weekly overtime were associated with a 32% [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.32, CI 1.07-1.62] increase in the risk of a needle stick and nurses

  5. Biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics of male athletes: implications for the development of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Karlsson, Jon; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is likely the most effective strategy to reduce undesired health consequences including reconstruction surgery, long-term rehabilitation, and pre-mature osteoarthritis occurrence. A thorough understanding of mechanisms and risk factors of ACL injury is crucial to develop effective prevention programs, especially for biomechanical and neuromuscular modifiable risk factors. Historically, the available evidence regarding ACL risk factors has mainly involved female athletes or has compared male and female athletes without an intra-group comparison for male athletes. Therefore, the principal purpose of this article was to review existing evidence regarding the investigation of biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics that may imply aberrant knee kinematics and kinetics that would place the male athlete at risk of ACL injury. Biomechanical evidence related to knee kinematics and kinetics was reviewed by different planes (sagittal and frontal/coronal), tasks (single-leg landing and cutting), situation (anticipated and unanticipated), foot positioning, playing surface, and fatigued status. Neuromuscular evidence potentially related to ACL injury was reviewed. Recommendations for prevention programs for ACL injuries in male athletes were developed based on the synthesis of the biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. The recommendations suggest performing exercises with multi-plane biomechanical components including single-leg maneuvers in dynamic movements, reaction to and decision making in unexpected situations, appropriate foot positioning, and consideration of playing surface condition, as well as enhancing neuromuscular aspects such as fatigue, proprioception, muscle activation, and inter-joint coordination.

  6. Comparative analysis of characteristics and risk factors of traffic injury in aged people from urban and rural areas in Chongqing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Ji-Hong; Qiu, Jun; Zhang, Xiu-Zhu; Yuan, Dan-Feng; Gao, Zhi-Ming; Dai, Wei

    2012-01-01

    To study the epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among people over 60 years old in the Nan'an district (urban) and Jiangjin district (rural) of Chongqing, and to discuss the corresponding strategies for its prevention and cure. Records of traffic injuries in people over 60 years old registered by the traffic police between 2000 and 2006 in Nan'an district and Jiangjin district were collected in the Database of Road Traffic Accidents and Traffic Injuries. Epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among the aged people were analyzed and compared. Between the year 2000 and 2006, the average annual incidence of traffic injuries and mortality rate in the aged people in Nan'an district were 124.62/100 000 and 13.85/ 100 000 respectively, higher than that in Jiangjin district (27.49/ 100 000, 7.13/100 000, P less than 0.01). However, the mortality rate for the aged people who were involved in traffic injuries in Jiangjin district was 20.60%, higher than that in Nan'an district (10.00%, P less than 0.01). Head injury was the primary cause of death. Totally 76.58% of casualties were pede-strians. Over 90% of the traffic accidents occurred in the areas with no traffic signal or traffic control system. The traffic environment is unfavorable to the aged people. It is important to enhance traffic safety consciousness of drivers and the elderly and to strengthen traffic safety system and traffic law, so as to provide a safe road traffic environment for the aged people.

  7. Incidence and characteristics of injuries during the 2010 FELDA/FAM National Futsal League in Malaysia.

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    Mohamad Shariff A Hamid

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In Malaysia, futsal is a popular sport played by individuals across all ages and genders. Despite its popularity, information on futsal related injury in Malaysia is not available. The purpose of this study is to examine the injury incidence and injury patterns among amateur men and women futsal players in Malaysia. METHODS: Players reported injury to the tournament medical team during the FELDA/FAM National Futsal League 2010 were interviewed and assessed by a Sports Medicine registrar. Player's socio-demographic profiles and information about the injury were documented in the injury report form adapted from medical report form used by FIFA: Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-Marc. RESULTS: A total of 86 injuries were reported from 141 matches, equivalent to an incidence of 91.5 injuries per 1000 player hours (95% CI 72.2 to 110.8, or 61.0 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% CI 48.1 to 73.9. Most were minor injuries resulted from contact with another player. Injuries often involved the lower extremity (44% followed by the trunk (14% and the upper limb (13%. Ankle (n = 7; 39% and knee (n = 6; 33% sprains were the most prevalent diagnoses of time-loss injuries. A significant association between time-loss and type of injury was found χ2 (1,N = 86 = 3.99, p = 0.04. In addition, time-loss injury was significantly associated with playing surface χ2 (1,N = 86 = 10.11, p = 0.018. CONCLUSION: The injury rate during the FELDA/FAM National Amateur Futsal Men's League in Malaysia was lower compared with previous Futsal World Cups competition. Most injuries resulted from contact with another player were minor and did not lead to time-loss from participation. Time-loss injury was significantly associated with type of injury and playing surface.

  8. Bomb blast injuries: an exploration of patient characteristics and outcome using Pakistan National Emergency Departments Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irum; Khan, Nadeem; Naeem, Rubaba; Kerai, Salima; Allen, Kate; Zia, Nukhba; Shahbaz, Sana; Afridi, Shiraz; Siddiqui, Emaduddin; Khan, Uzma; Hyder, Adnan A; Razzak, Junaid A

    2015-01-01

    Bomb blast injuries result in premature deaths and burdening of healthcare systems. The objective of this study was to explore the characteristics and outcome of patients presenting to the emergency departments in Pakistan with bomb blast injuries. Active surveillance was conducted in seven major emergency departments of Pakistan from November 2010-March 2011. All the sites are tertiary care urban centers. All the patients who presented to the hospital's emergency department (ED) following a bomb blast injury as per self-report or the ambulance personnel were included in the study. Frequency of demographics, injury pattern, and outcomes were calculated. A total of 103 patients with bomb blast injuries presented to the selected emergency departments. The median age of patients was 30 years. Around three-fourth of the patients were males (n = 74, 74.7%). Most of the bomb blast patients were seen in Peshawar (n = 41, 39.8%) and Karachi city (n = 31, 30.1%) and the most common mode of arrival was non-ambulance transport (n = 71, 76.3%). Upper limb injuries (n = 12, 40%) were common in the under 18 age group and lower limb injuries (n = 31, 39.2%) in the 18 years and above group. There were a total of 8 (7.7%) deaths reported out of these 103 patients. Bomb blast injuries in Pakistan generally affect young males. Non-ambulance transport is the most common way to access emergency departments (ED). Overall ED mortality is high and capturing data during a disaster in an emergency department is challenging.

  9. Characteristics of Bone Injuries Resulting from Knife Wounds Incised with Different Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Henneberg, Maciej

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this research was to experimentally determine the characteristics of incised bone wounds, which are commonly found in defense injuries. A specially constructed pivoting arm device was used to inflict wounds with controlled forces and direction. Five knives were selected to inflict the wounds on porcine forelimbs. Eight incised wounds were made per knife per force. A larger knife and a greater force caused longer and wider bone wounds. Comparisons of individual knives at the two forces produced varying results in the bone wounds. A correlation was seen between the force and the length (r = 0.69), width (r = 0.63), and depth (r = 0.57) of bone wounds. Serrated-edge and nonserrated knives can be distinguished from the appearance of the wound. The outcomes may be applicable in forensic investigations to ascertain the forces associated with incised wounds and identify the specific knife used. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. [Clinical characteristic of patients with acute kidney injury complicated severe cardio-vascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Paweł; Wyrwicz-Zielińska, Grażyna; Krzysztonek-Weber, Izabela; Sułowicz, Władysław

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cardiovascular diseases are a group of increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). Mortality in this group of patients with AKI, especially treated in intensive care units, is very high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristic of patients with AKI complicated severe cardiovascular diseases. Retrospective evaluation of 246 questionnaire of patients with AKI in the course of severe cardiovascular diseases treated in the wards of nephrological profile from the malopolska and podkarpackie voivodships in the years 2000-2011 was performed. The group of patients consisted of 157 men and 89 women, with mean age 67.9 ± 14.8 years. The most common cause of AKI were: acute decompensated heart failure--24 (9.8%), chronic decompensated heart failure--94 (38.2%), cardiac arrest--29 (11.8%), myocardial infarction--48 (19.5%), CABG--12 (4.9%), cardiac valve implantation--14 (5.7), heart transplantation--4 (1.6%) and aortic aneurysm--21 (8.5%). Age distribution of patients with AKI revealed that most numerous group had 71-80 years. The most of patients (95.9%) with AKI were treated with hemodialysis. The mortality rate in the study group was very high (69.5%). Recovery of renal function was observed in 39 (27.3%) of patients. Signs of kidney disease before AKI was noted in 116 (47.2%) of patients. Patients with severe cardiovascular complications and AKI had high mortality rate instead of performed hemodialysis treatment.

  11. Biomechanical characteristics of an anterior cruciate ligament injury in javelin throwing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Dai

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The ACL injury in this study occurred during the first 30% of the delivery phase, most likely during the first 25% of the delivery phase. A stiff landing of the left leg with a small knee flexion angle was the primary contributor to this injury. Javelin throwers may have a soft left leg landing with a flexed knee, which may help them prevent ACL injuries without compromising performance.

  12. Characteristics of helmet or knit cap use in head injury of snowboarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Osamu; Hirashima, Yutaka; Origasa, Hideki; Endo, Shunro

    2007-11-01

    The rate of head injury is 1.86-6 times higher for snowboarding than for skiing. Detailed data about the usefulness of a helmet or knit cap for protecting against serious head injuries have not been reported. The present study evaluated the use of a helmet or knit cap for preventing head injuries. Questionnaire data were collected from 1,190 consecutive patients in a hospital during the 1999/2000-2002/2003 winter seasons at Uonuma ski resort, Niigata, Japan. Patients were divided into the helmet, knit cap, and no cap groups. Upper technical level was highest and jumping as the cause of injury was most frequent in the helmet group. After adjustment for other confounders, there was a significant negative association between the occurrence of serious head injury during snowboarding and female sex (adjusted odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.421-0.718, p jumping (adjusted odds ratio 2.25, 95% confidence interval 1.48-3.43, p = 0.0001). Among snowboarding maneuvers, only jumping showed a significant negative association between wearing of a helmet or knit cap and the occurrence of serious head injury (p = 0.036). Snowboarders who wear helmets might attempt dangerous maneuvers causing injuries. Wearing of a helmet or knit cap protected against serious head injuries on jumping. Every snowboarder should wear a helmet or knit cap on jumping to prevent head injury.

  13. [Analysis of characteristics of road traffic injuries in Bao'an District, Shenzhen from 2004 to 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-hua; Li, Li-ping; Zhou, Zhi-ming; Liang, Jin-feng; Zhu, Yao; Wang, Gang; Deng, Shao-jie

    2012-12-18

    To analyze the characteristics of road traffic accidents in Bao'an District, Shenzhen from 2004 to 2011, and to provide scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of traffic accidents. The traffic injury cases recorded by Shenzhen traffic police from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed, including the time (year, month, date); the space (crossings and road segments, road type); the injury of patients (injuries, death). A total of 422 730 accidents from road traffic occurred in Bao'an District, Shenzhen from 2004 to 2011, with 63 809 people injured and 2 790 people died, and the mortality ratio was 22.87:1. Traffic accidents occurred in Bao'an District showed an increasing trend, especially in 2010, and the highest number up to 90 358, while the most deaths occurred in 2007, up to 473 people. As to the single month, the highest traffic accident rate was in August, accounting for 9.77% of the total, while the lowest was in February, accounting for 5.39% of the total; mortality rate in December reached 9.02%. As to one single day, the peaks of accidents occurred in two periods: 9:00-11:00 and 15:00-18:00, and 3:00-6:00 had the smallest number. Traffic injuries often occurred in the intersection, straight line, main road and the section only marked marking. According to the characteristics of regional traffic injury, we should enhance the populace traffic safe awareness, efficiently arrange the human resources, such as emergency personnel, traffic management personnel, set scientific preventive measures, and modify the emergency system and service mode. All of these are essential measures for the prevention and control of traffic injuries.

  14. Comparison of road traffic injury characteristics between local versus floating migrant patients in a tertiary hospital between 2007 and 2010.

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    Chungui Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to give a description of the road traffic injuries (RTIs characteristics of floating migrant population by comparing with those of local residents in a harbor city of China. METHODS: A population-based descriptive study was carried out between 2007 and 2010 with RTI patient records from the Fifth Center Hospital of Tianjin. Inpatient diagnoses of RTI patients were defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10 codes. We analyzed the demographics and general characteristics of RTI patients that were in the hospital during the four years. In order to compare the group differences between local resident patients and floating migrant patients, the distribution of their ages, diagnoses, severity of injuries, duration of inpatient stays, hospitalization cost were analyzed. RESULTS: People between the ages of 16 and 55 were the most likely to suffer RTIs. The floating migrant patients between the ages of 16 and 45 had a higher incidence of accidents, while local resident patients between 46 and 55 had a higher incidence of accidents. Compared to local resident patients, floating migrant patients were more vulnerable to open injuries and severe traffic injuries. With the severity of injuries ranked from mild to severe, floating migrant patients had lower duration of inpatient stay, but higher hospitalization costs compared to local resident patients. CONCLUSIONS: Floating migrant patients had a different age distribution, severity of injuries, diseases, inpatient duration and hospitalization cost compared with local resident patients. Compared to local resident patients, floating migrants had a higher risk to RTIs and were more vulnerable to severer traffic accidents at lower ages.

  15. Emergency room visits for work-related injuries: characteristics and associated factors - capitals and the Federal District, Brazil, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; de Freitas, Mariana Gonçalves; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; da Silva, Marta Maria Alves; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Gómez, Carlos Minayo

    2015-03-01

    Work-related injuries, often classified as occupational injuries (OI), stand out among visits due to external causes (accidents and violence) in health services. To describe the characteristics and factors associated with emergency room visits for OI, a cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Survey of Violence and Injuries in Emergency Services (VIVA Inquérito 2011) in 24 state capitals and the Federal District. The prevalence of treatment for OI and prevalence ratios (PR) with confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) were calculated. There were 29,463 emergency room visits due to accidental injuries in the population above 18 years of age. The prevalence of OI was 33.4% and was positively and significantly associated with the male gender, age 30-59 years old, industrial workers, agricultural sector or repair and maintenance services. The occurrence of OI was significantly higher in attendance for objects falling on people (PR = 3.37, 95% CI 2.80 to 4.05) and injuries due to perforating object (PR = 3.01, 95% CI 2.50-3.65). The results support the surveillance of external causes and direct public policies to promote occupational health.

  16. Migrant workers in Italy: an analysis of injury risk taking into account occupational characteristics and job tenure

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    Massimiliano Giraudo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migrants resident in Italy exceeded 5 million in 2015, representing 8.2% of the resident population. The study of the mechanisms that explain the differential health of migrant workers (as a whole and for specific nationalities has been identified as a priority for research. The international literature has shown that migrant workers have a higher risk of total and fatal injury than natives, but some results are conflicting. The aim of this paper is to study the injury risk differentials between migrants, born in countries with strong migratory pressure (SMPC, and workers born in high income countries (HIC, taking into account individual and firm characteristics and job tenure. In addition to a comprehensive analysis of occupational safety among migrants, the study focuses on Moroccans, the largest community in Italy in the years of the analysis. Methods Using the Work History Italian Panel-Salute integrated database, only contracts of employment in the private sector, starting in the period between 2000 and 2005 and held by men, were selected. The analysis focused on economic sectors with an important foreign component: engineering, construction, wholesale and retail trade, transportation and storage. Injury rates were calculated using a definition of serious occupational injuries based on the type of injury. Incidence rate ratios (IRR were calculated using a Poisson distribution for panel data taking into account time-dependent variables. Results Injury rates among SMPC workers were higher than for HIC workers in engineering (15.61 ‰ py vs. 8.92 ‰ py, but there were no significant differences in construction (11.21 vs. 10.09, transportation and storage (7.82 vs. 7.23 and the wholesale and retail sectors (4.06 vs. 4.67. Injury rates for Moroccans were higher than for both HIC and total migrant workers in all economic sectors considered. The multivariate analysis revealed an interaction effect of job tenure among both

  17. Migrant workers in Italy: an analysis of injury risk taking into account occupational characteristics and job tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Massimiliano; Bena, Antonella; Costa, Giuseppe

    2017-04-22

    Migrants resident in Italy exceeded 5 million in 2015, representing 8.2% of the resident population. The study of the mechanisms that explain the differential health of migrant workers (as a whole and for specific nationalities) has been identified as a priority for research. The international literature has shown that migrant workers have a higher risk of total and fatal injury than natives, but some results are conflicting. The aim of this paper is to study the injury risk differentials between migrants, born in countries with strong migratory pressure (SMPC), and workers born in high income countries (HIC), taking into account individual and firm characteristics and job tenure. In addition to a comprehensive analysis of occupational safety among migrants, the study focuses on Moroccans, the largest community in Italy in the years of the analysis. Using the Work History Italian Panel-Salute integrated database, only contracts of employment in the private sector, starting in the period between 2000 and 2005 and held by men, were selected. The analysis focused on economic sectors with an important foreign component: engineering, construction, wholesale and retail trade, transportation and storage. Injury rates were calculated using a definition of serious occupational injuries based on the type of injury. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated using a Poisson distribution for panel data taking into account time-dependent variables. Injury rates among SMPC workers were higher than for HIC workers in engineering (15.61 ‰ py vs. 8.92 ‰ py), but there were no significant differences in construction (11.21 vs. 10.09), transportation and storage (7.82 vs. 7.23) and the wholesale and retail sectors (4.06 vs. 4.67). Injury rates for Moroccans were higher than for both HIC and total migrant workers in all economic sectors considered. The multivariate analysis revealed an interaction effect of job tenure among both SMPC and Moroccan workers in the construction

  18. Acute alcohol intoxication in patients with mild traumatic brain injury : Characteristics, recovery, and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, Myrthe E.; de Koning, Myrthe E.; van der Horn, Harm J.; Roks, C.M.A.A.; Yilmaz, Tansel; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial number of patients (30% to 50%) sustains a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) while they are under the influence of alcohol. An acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) at the time of injury has been subject of research in severe TBI, but little is known about the relation between AAI and

  19. Acute Alcohol Intoxication in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury : Characteristics, Recovery, and Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, Myrthe E.; de Koning, Myrthe E.; van der Horn, Harm; Roks, Gerwin; Yilmaz, Tansel; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial number of patients (30% to 50%) sustains a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) while they are under the influence of alcohol. An acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) at the time of injury has been subject of research in severe TBI, but little is known about the relation between AAI and

  20. The synergic role of sociotechnical and personal characteristics on work injuries in mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P S; Maiti, J

    2008-05-01

    Occupational injuries in mines are attributed to many factors. In this study, an attempt was made to identify the various factors related to work injuries in mines and to estimate their effects on work injuries to mine workers. An accident path model was developed to estimate the pattern and strength of relationships amongst the personal and sociotechnical variables in accident/injury occurrences. The input data for the model were the correlation matrix of 18 variables, which were collected from the case study mines. The case study results showed that there are sequential interactions amongst the sociotechnical and personal factors leading to accidents/injuries in mines. Amongst the latent endogenous constructs, job dissatisfaction and safe work behaviour show a significant positive and negative direct relationship with work injury, respectively. However, the construct safety environment has a significant negative indirect relationship with work injury. The safety environment is negatively affected by work hazards and positively affected by social support. The safety environment also shows a significant negative relationship with job stress and job dissatisfaction. However, negative personality has no significant direct or indirect effect on work injury, but it has a significant negative relationship with safe work behaviour. The endogenous construct negative personality is positively influenced by job stress and negatively influenced by social support.

  1. Jump Landing Characteristics Predict Lower Extremity Injuries in Indoor Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, H T D; Brink, M S; Benjaminse, A; Visscher, C; Lemmink, K A P M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventy-five male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing stability after a single-leg jump landing and landing technique during a repeated counter movement jump by detailed 3-dimensional kinematics and kinetics. During the season 11 acute ankle injuries were reported along with 6 acute and 7 overuse knee injuries by the teams' physical therapist. Logistic regression analysis showed less landing stability in the forward and diagonal jump direction (OR 1.01-1.10, p≤0.05) in players who sustained an acute ankle injury. Furthermore landing technique with a greater ankle dorsiflexion moment increased the risk for acute ankle injury (OR 2.16, p≤0.05). A smaller knee flexion moment and greater vertical ground reaction force increased the risk of an overuse knee injury (OR 0.29 and 1.13 respectively, p≤0.05). Less one-legged landing stability and suboptimal landing technique were shown in players sustaining an acute ankle and overuse knee injury compared to healthy players. Determining both landing stability and technique may further guide injury prevention programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Characteristics of martial art injuries in a defined Canadian population: a descriptive epidemiological study

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    Pickett William

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The martial arts have emerged as common activities in the Canadian population, yet few studies have investigated the occurrence of associated injuries on a population basis. Methods We performed such an investigation and suggest potential opportunities for prevention. The data source was 14 years (1993 to 2006 of records from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospital Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP. Results 920 cases were identified. Incidence rates were initially estimated using census data as denominators. We then imputed annual injury rates per 10000 using a range of published estimates of martial arts participation available from a national survey. Rates of injury in males and females were 2300 and 1033 per 10000 (0.3% participation and 575 and 258 per 10000 (1.2% participation. Injuries were most frequently reported in karate (33% and taekwondo (14%. The most common mechanisms of injury were falls, throws and jumps (33%. Fractures (20% were the most frequently reported type of injury and the lower limb was the most common site of injury (41%. Conclusions Results provide a foundation for potential interventions with a focus on falls, the use of weapons, participation in tournaments, as well as head and neck trauma.

  3. Characteristics of martial art injuries in a defined Canadian population: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Mark; Pickett, William

    2010-12-30

    The martial arts have emerged as common activities in the Canadian population, yet few studies have investigated the occurrence of associated injuries on a population basis. We performed such an investigation and suggest potential opportunities for prevention. The data source was 14 years (1993 to 2006) of records from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospital Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP). 920 cases were identified. Incidence rates were initially estimated using census data as denominators. We then imputed annual injury rates per 10000 using a range of published estimates of martial arts participation available from a national survey. Rates of injury in males and females were 2300 and 1033 per 10000 (0.3% participation) and 575 and 258 per 10000 (1.2% participation). Injuries were most frequently reported in karate (33%) and taekwondo (14%). The most common mechanisms of injury were falls, throws and jumps (33%). Fractures (20%) were the most frequently reported type of injury and the lower limb was the most common site of injury (41%). Results provide a foundation for potential interventions with a focus on falls, the use of weapons, participation in tournaments, as well as head and neck trauma.

  4. Electrophysiologic and clinico-pathologic characteristics of statin-induced muscle injury

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    Mohammed Abdulrazaq

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Atorvastatin increased average creatine kinase, suggesting, statins produce mild muscle injury even in asymptomatic subjects. Diabetic statin users were more prone to develop muscle injury than others. Muscle fiber conduction velocity evaluation is recommended as a simple and reliable test to diagnose statin-induced myopathy instead of invasive muscle biopsy.

  5. Single-vehicle and Multi-vehicle Accidents Involving Motorcycles in a Small City in China: Characteristics and Injury Patterns

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    Lili Xiong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a gap that involves examining differences between patients in single-vehicle (SV versus multi-vehicle (MV accidents involving motorcycles in Shantou, China, regarding the injury patterns and mortality the patients sustained. This study aims to address this gap and provide a basis and reference for motorcycle injury prevention. Method: Medical record data was collected between October 2002 and June 2012 on all motorcycle injury patients admitted to a hospital in the city of Shantou of the east Guangdong province in China. Comparative analysis was conducted between patients in SV accidents and patients in MV accidents regarding demographic and clinic characteristics, mortality, and injury patterns. Results: Approximately 48% (n = 1977 of patients were involved in SV accidents and 52% (n = 2119 were involved in MV accidents. The average age was 34 years. Collision of a motorcycle with a heavy vehicle/bus (4% was associated with a 34 times greater risk of death (RR: 34.32|95% CI: 17.43–67.57. Compared to patients involved in MV accidents, those involved in SV accidents were more likely to sustain a skull fracture (RR: 1.47|95% CI: 1.22–1.77, an open head wound (RR: 1.46|95% CI: 1.23–1.74, an intracranial injury (RR: 1.39|95% CI: 1.26–1.53, a superficial head injury (RR: 1.37|95% CI: 1.01–1.86, an injury to an organ (RR: 2.01|95% CI: 1.24–3.26, and a crushing injury (RR: 1.98|95% CI: 1.06–3.70 to the thorax or abdomen. However, they were less likely to sustain a spinal fracture (RR: 0.58|95% CI: 0.39–0.85, a pelvic fracture (RR: 0.22|95% CI: 0.11–0.46, an upper extremity fracture (RR: 0.75|95% CI: 0.59–0.96, or injuries to their lower extremities, except for a dislocation, sprain, or injury to a joint or ligament (RR: 0.82|95% CI: 0.49–1.36. Conclusion: The relative risk of death is higher for patients involved in multi-vehicle accidents than patients in single-vehicle accidents, especially when a

  6. Crash characteristics and injury patterns of restrained front seat occupants in far-side impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Halloway, Dale E; Pintar, Frank A; Maiman, Dennis J; Szabo, Aniko; Rudd, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the association between vehicle-, crash-, and demographic-related factors and injuries to front seat far-side occupants in modern environments. Field data were obtained from the NASS-CDS database for the years 2009-2012. Inclusion factors included the following: adult restrained front outboard-seated occupants, no ejection or rollovers, and vehicle model years less than 10 years old at the time of crash. Far-side crashes were determined by using collision deformation classification. Injuries were scored using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Injuries (MAIS 2+, MAIS 3+, M denotes maximum score) were examined based on demographics, change in velocity, vehicle type, direction of force, extent zone, collision partner, and presence of another occupant in the front seat. Only weighted data were used in the analysis. Injuries to the head and face, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and upper and lower extremity regions were studied. Odds ratios and upper and lower confidence intervals were estimated from multivariate analysis. Out of 519,195 far-side occupants, 17,715 were MAIS 2+ and 4,387 were MAIS 3+ level injured occupants. The mean age, stature, total body mass, and body mass index (BMI) were 40.7 years, 1.7 m, 77.2 kg, and 26.8 kg/m2, respectively. Of occupants with MAIS 2+ injuries, 51% had head and 19% had thorax injuries. Of occupants with MAIS 3+ injuries, 50% had head and 69% had thorax injuries. The cumulative distribution of changes in velocities at the 50th percentile for the struck vehicle for all occupants and occupants with MAIS 2+ and MAIS 3+ injuries were 19, 34, and 42 km/h, respectively. Furthermore, 73% of MAIS 2+ injuries and 86% of MAIS 3+ injuries occurred at a change in velocity of 24 km/h or greater. Odds of sustaining MAIS 2+ and MAIS 3+ injuries increased with each unit increase in change in velocity, stature, and age, with one exception. Odds of sustaining injuries were higher with the presence of an occupant in

  7. TAEKWONDO TECHNIQUES AND COMPETITION CHARACTERISTICS INVOLVED IN TIME-LOSS INJURIES

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    Konstantinos Beis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess time-loss injuries in young and adult taekwondo athletes. Participants were 2739 children (11-13 years, Junior (14-17 years and adult males and females (18 years and older competing in the national Greek championships. Injury data were collected by project staff with all diagnoses made by the tournament physician. Odds ratios were computed as well as 95% confidence intervals around the injury rates. The female Juniors had a higher time-loss injury rate (Fisher's Exact Test p = 0.033 than their adult counterparts. However, they were not at a higher risk of incurring a time-loss injury: OR = 0.143, 95% CI: 0.018-1.124. Collapsed over age, the females as a group recorded more time-loss injuries [11.36/1,000 A-E (95% CI: 6.25-16.47 versus 7.40/1,000 A-E (95% CI: 4.44-10.36], but this was not significant (OR = 0.703, 95% CI: 0.383-1.293. In the Juniors, the boys only incurred time-loss injuries to the head and neck. There was no difference in the Junior girls in the distribution of time-loss injuries across body region, although they were at higher risk of sustaining an injury to the head and neck (OR = 1.510, 95% CI: 0.422-5.402 but this was not statistically significant. Although there were no statistical differences among age groups within gender, the Junior boys and girls (11-13 years sustained more cerebral concussions. The Junior boys were at a higher risk of incurring a cerebral concussion than the boys (OR = 7.871, 95% CI: 0.917-67.583, Fisher's Exact Test p = 0.036. In the males, there was no difference between the men and Junior boys in injury rate for swing kicks compared to other techniques (OR = 2.000, 95% CI = 0.397-28.416. There also was no difference between the men and boys (OR = 4.800, 95% CI: 0.141-58.013. To help reduce the incidence of time-loss injuries in taekwondo, especially cerebral concussions, it is suggested for coaches to emphasize blocking skills. Educating referees, coaches and

  8. Characteristics of and risk factors for compensated occupational injury and disease claims in dairy farmers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, J P; Rautiainen, R H

    2013-07-01

    Research indicates that dairy farmers have an elevated risk of work-related adverse health outcomes. This case-control study evaluated the characteristics of and risk factors for compensated occupational injury and disease claims among Finnish dairy farmers. The cases consisted of 19 farm couples in which both spouses had a history of multiple claims. There were 283 claims in total, a rate of 26.6 claims per 100 person-years. The controls consisted of 12 couples in which neither spouse had compensated or rejected claims during their work history as insured farmers. A combined mail/telephone survey charted potential risk factors for compensated claims. These claims frequently involved work tasks and causes related to animal husbandry. Cattle were the most common cause for injuries in general and for serious injuries in particular. Gender differences in farm work and claims were observed. Using logistic regression analyses, we identified personal and work-related risk factors including long work history, small-scale dairy farm operation, and conventional stanchion barn for dairy cattle. Outdated working conditions, while not statistically significant, were positively associated with claims as well. Declined current work ability and musculoskeletal or respiratory conditions were significantly associated with claims where each of these outcomes may contribute to the other. Identified factors could be used to select subgroups of dairy farmers with either elevated or reduced risk of claims. Prevention of adverse health outcomes could be most effective when targeted to farmers at highest risk of occupational injury and disease.

  9. Characteristics of neuropathic pain and its relationship with quality of life in 72 patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, N; Kaneko, S; Fujiyoshi, K; Takemitsu, M; Yagi, M; Iizuka, S; Miyake, A; Hasegawa, A; Machida, M; Konomi, T; Machida, M; Asazuma, T; Nakamura, M

    2016-09-01

    A cross-sectional study. Neuropathic pain (NP) after spinal cord injury (SCI) tends to be hard to treat, and its heterogeneous properties make it difficult to identify and characterize. This study was conducted to assess the characteristics of SCI-related NP in detail. A single hospital for SCI rehabilitation. This study included 72 patients who were seen at our hospital in 2012 and 2013 and who had sustained SCI at least 3 months before enrollment. The patients completed the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) and the Short Form (SF)-36 Health Inventory. The NPSI score was analyzed for correlations with clinical presentations of SCI and SF-36 subitems. Paresthesia/dysesthesia was the most common subtype of NP after SCI. With regard to location, below-level superficial NP was significantly more intense than at-level pain. Patients who underwent surgery showed significantly less evoked pain compared with patients with non-surgery. Patients reported significantly more severe pain if >1 year had elapsed after the SCI. Patients with an American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grade of B for completeness of injury reported more intense NP than those with other grades. Among the SF-36 subitems, NP correlated significantly with bodily pain, general health and mental health. NP in SCI patients was significantly associated with the location of pain, the time period since the injury, surgery and quality-of-life factors. A more detailed understanding of the characteristics of NP may contribute to better strategies for relieving the pain associated with SCI.

  10. [Forensic medical characteristic of the thermal injury caused by inflammation of combustible fluids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushkadamov, Z K; Iskhizova, L N; Gornostaev, D V

    2012-01-01

    The diagnostics of thermal injuries caused by inflammation of combustible fluids should be based on the comprehensive assessment of the results of examination of the scene of the accident, autopsy studies, forensic chemical expertise, and analysis of the circumstances of the case and/or medical documentation. Special attention should be given to the choice of adequate methods for taking samples to be used in forensic chemical studies. The assessment of thermal injuries caused by inflammation of combustible fluids must take into consideration the time and conditions under which they were inflicted (e.g. closed or open space, vertical or horizontal position, etc.).

  11. Jump landing characteristics predicts lower extremity injuries in indoor team sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, Hendrike; Brink, Michel; Benjaminse, Anne; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventyfive male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing

  12. Jump Landing Characteristics Predicts Lower Extremity Injuries in Indoor Team Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, H. T. D.; Brink, M. S.; Benjaminse, A.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.

    The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventy-five male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing

  13. Characteristics of Syntactic Comprehension Deficits Following Closed Head Injury versus Left Cerebrovascular Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Hinz, Susan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Two studies examined the ability to assign thematic roles and to coindex referentially dependent noun phrases in closed head injured adults (N=20), adult stroke patients (N=20), and normal adults (N=20). Results suggested that syntactic comprehension disturbances are similar following left cerebral hemisphere infarction and closed head injury.…

  14. Characteristics of Auditory Agnosia in a Child with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattiangadi, Nina; Pillion, Joseph P.; Slomine, Beth; Christensen, James; Trovato, Melissa K.; Speedie, Lynn J.

    2005-01-01

    We present a case that is unusual in many respects from other documented incidences of auditory agnosia, including the mechanism of injury, age of the individual, and location of neurological insult. The clinical presentation is one of disturbance in the perception of spoken language, music, pitch, emotional prosody, and temporal auditory…

  15. The Course of Intracranial Pressure in Traumatic Brain Injury : Relation with Outcome and CT-characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rosette; de Jong, Bauke M.; Wagemakers, Michiel; Regtien, Joost G.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    One of the predictive factors of outcome in traumatic brain injury is high intracranial pressure (ICP). Recently, the time course of ICP has been described but few data are available on the relation of these ICP profiles and outcome. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation of the time

  16. Morel-Lavallée Injuries: A Multimodality Approach to Imaging Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, James A; Rheinboldt, Matthew; Parrish, David; Rinker, Eric

    2017-02-01

    Morel-Lavallée lesions are relatively rare closed degloving injuries caused by a shearing force resulting in separation of the dermis and the hypodermis from the subjacent deeper fascia. Although most commonly encountered lateral to the greater trochanter, these injuries may occur throughout the body in a variety of locations. Separation of the hypodermal tissue planes results in a complex serosanguinous fluid collection with areas of internal fat necrosis. The imaging appearance is variable and nonspecific, potentially mimicking superficial hemorrhagic bursitis, or cystic or necrotic primary soft tissue neoplasms. If not treated in the acute or early subacute setting, these collections are at risk of superinfection, overlying tissue necrosis, and continued expansion. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology, cross-sectional imaging features, and differential diagnostic considerations of Morel-Lavallée lesions as well as discuss management and treatment options. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure characteristics of familial cases of lung injury associated with the use of humidifier disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Donguk; Leem, Jonghan; Lee, Kyoungmu; Lim, Heungkyu; Choi, Yeyong; Ahn, Jong-Ju; Lim, Sinye; Park, Jeongim; Choi, Kyungho; Lee, Naroo; Jung, Hyejung; Ha, Jongsik; Paek, Domyung

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes 17 families with 38 lung injury patients (14 males, 24 females; 22 preschool-age children less than six years of age and 16 individuals of 13–50 years) who used disinfectant added to humidifiers in the home. Methods Clinical examination and humidifier disinfectant-use histories were taken, and a thorough home investigation was performed to assess exposure to humidifier disinfectant. Results Nine of the patients (three pregnant females, six preschool-age childre...

  18. Exposure characteristics of familial cases of lung injury associated with the use of humidifier disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donguk; Leem, Jonghan; Lee, Kyoungmu; Lim, Heungkyu; Choi, Yeyong; Ahn, Jong-Ju; Lim, Sinye; Park, Jeongim; Choi, Kyungho; Lee, Naroo; Jung, Hyejung; Ha, Jongsik; Paek, Domyung

    2014-09-02

    This study describes 17 families with 38 lung injury patients (14 males, 24 females; 22 preschool-age children less than six years of age and 16 individuals of 13-50 years) who used disinfectant added to humidifiers in the home. Clinical examination and humidifier disinfectant-use histories were taken, and a thorough home investigation was performed to assess exposure to humidifier disinfectant. Nine of the patients (three pregnant females, six preschool-age children) died soon after they first developed lung damage. Six (16%) were pregnant females and 22 (58%) were preschool-aged children younger than six years. The patients used humidifier disinfectant products containing either polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG, n = 36) or oligo(2-(2-ethoxy)ethoxyethyl guanidinium chloride (PGH, n = 2). Twenty-six patients (68%) used the brand "Oxy"®, which contains PHMG. Of the ten patients with fatal lung injury, nine were found to have used PHMG. Our findings suggest that the use of humidifier disinfectant products containing either PGH or PHMG can cause lung injury, especially in preschool-age children younger than six years and pregnant women.

  19. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering ′excellent′ and ′good′ muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  20. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Xun-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Li, Su-Rong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yue

    2015-02-01

    Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering 'excellent' and 'good' muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  1. Assessment of gastrocnemius tensiomyographic neuromuscular characteristics as risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury in male soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Alvarez-Diaz, Pedro; Ramon, Silvia; Marin, Miguel; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Rius, Marta; Seijas, Roberto; Ares, Oscar; Cugat, Ramon

    2015-09-01

    There is a large number of publications evaluating neuromuscular risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in athletes. However, most of them have involved the female athlete and, in addition, the gastrocnemius muscles have been less investigated by far compared with the quadriceps and hamstring. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the gastrocnemius muscles as neuromuscular risk factors for ACL injury in male soccer players, through tensiomyography (TMG). All competitive male soccer players with confirmed ACL tear included in this study underwent resting TMG assessment of gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of the uninjured side. The same values were obtained from a sex-, and sports level-matched control group in both sides. The maximal displacement (D m), delay time (T d), contraction time (T c), sustained time (T s), and half-relaxation time (T r) were obtained for both muscles. TMG values of the uninjured side in ACL-injured group were compared with the mean values between both sides in the control subjects. There were no significant between-group differences in demographic characteristics. Most TMG parameters of the gastrocnemius muscles were not significantly different between the two groups. Only the GM-T r (p = 0.02) and GM-D m (p = 0.006) were significantly higher in the ACL-injured group compared with control group. Neuromuscular characteristics in terms of mechanical and contractile properties of the gastrocnemius muscles may not be significant risk factors for ACL injury in male soccer players.

  2. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Myocardial Infarction, Myocardial Injury, and Nonelevated Troponins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkisian, Laura; Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac troponins have emerged as the preferred biomarkers for detecting myocardial necrosis and diagnosing myocardial infarction. However, current cardiac troponin assays do not discriminate between ischemic and nonischemic causes of myocardial cell death. Thus, when an increased...... troponin value is encountered in the absence of obvious myocardial ischemia, a careful search for other clinical conditions is crucial. METHODS: In 2010 to 2011, we prospectively studied hospitalized patients who had cardiac troponin I measured on clinical indication. An acute myocardial infarction...... was diagnosed in cases of a cardiac troponin I increase or decrease pattern with at least 1 value >30 ng/L (99th percentile) together with myocardial ischemia. Myocardial injury was defined as cardiac troponin I values >30 ng/L, but without signs or symptoms indicating overt cardiac ischemia. Patients with peak...

  3. Characteristics of balance control in older persons who fall with injury--a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Ilan; Oddsson, Lars; Melzer, Itshak

    2013-08-01

    Older adults who have recently fallen demonstrate increased postural sway compared with non-fallers. However, the differences in postural control between older adults who were seriously injured (SI) as a result of a fall, compared with those who fell but were not injured (NSI) and non-fallers (NFs), has not been investigated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the underlying postural control mechanisms related to injuries resulting from a fall. Both traditional postural sway measures of foot center-of-pressure (CoP) displacements and fractal measures, the Stabilogram-Diffusion Analysis (SDA), were used to characterize the postural control. One hundred older adults aged 65-91years were tested during narrow base upright stance in eyes closed condition; falls were monitored over a 1-year period. Forty-nine older adults fell during the 1-year follow-up, 13 were seriously injured as a result of a fall (SI), 36 were not injured (NSI), and 49 were non-fallers (NFs); two passed away. The SDA showed significantly higher short-term diffusion coefficients and critical displacements in SI in the anterior-posterior direction compared with both NSI and NF. However, in the medio-lateral direction there were no statistically significant differences between groups. For the traditional measures of sway, the average anterior-posterior CoP range was also larger in SI individuals. This work suggests that older fallers with a deterioration of anterior-posterior postural control may be at higher risk of serious injury following fall events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristics of myogenic response and ankle torque recovery after lengthening contraction-induced rat gastrocnemius injury

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    Song Hongsun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although muscle dysfunction caused by unfamiliar lengthening contraction is one of most important issues in sports medicine, there is little known about the molecular events on regeneration process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal and spatial expression patterns of myogenin, myoD, pax7, and myostatin after acute lengthening contraction (LC-induced injury in the rat hindlimb. Methods We employed our originally developed device with LC in rat gastrocnemius muscle (n = 24. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with isoflurane (aspiration rate, 450 ml/min, concentration, 2.0%. The triceps surae muscle of the right hindlimb was then electrically stimulated with forced isokinetic dorsi-flexion (180°/sec and from 0 to 45°. Tissue contents of myoD, myogenin, pax7, myostatin were measured by western blotting and localizations of myoD and pax7 was measured by immunohistochemistry. After measuring isometric tetanic torque, a single bout of LC was performed in vivo. Results The torque was significantly decreased on days 2 and 5 as compared to the pre-treatment value, and recovered by day 7. The content of myoD and pax7 showed significant increases on day 2. Myogenin showed an increase from day 2 to 5. Myostatin on days 5 and 7 were significantly increased. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that myoD-positive/pax7-positive cells increased on day 2, suggesting that activated satellite cells play a role in the destruction and the early recovery phases. Conclusion We, thus, conclude that myogenic events associate with torque recovery after LC-induced injury.

  5. Characteristics of elderly fall patients with baseline mental status: high-risk features for intracranial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamden, Khalief; Agresti, Darin; Jeanmonod, Rebecca; Woods, Dexter; Reiter, Mark; Jeanmonod, Donald

    2014-08-01

    Falls are a major cause of morbidity in the elderly. We describe the low-acuity elderly fall population and study which historical and clinical features predict traumatic intracranial injuries (ICIs). This is a prospective observational study of patients at least 65 years old presenting with fall to a tertiary care facility. Patients were eligible if they were at baseline mental status and were not triaged to the trauma bay. At presentation, a data form was completed by treating physicians regarding mechanism and position of fall, history of head strike, headache, loss of consciousness (LOC), and signs of head trauma. Radiographic imaging was obtained at the discretion of treating physicians. Medical records were subsequently reviewed to determine imaging results. All patients were called in follow-up at 30 days to determine outcome in those not imaged. The study was institutional review board approved. A total of 799 patients were enrolled; 79.5% of patients underwent imaging. Twenty-seven had ICIs (3.4%). Fourteen had subdural hematoma, 7 had subarachnoid hemorrhage, 3 had cerebral contusion, and 3 had a combination of injuries. Logistic regression demonstrated 2 study variables that were associated with ICIs: LOC (odds ratio, 2.8; confidence interval, 1.2-6.3) and signs of head trauma (odds ratio, 13.2; confidence interval, 2.7-64.1). History of head strike, mechanism and position, headache, and anticoagulant and antiplatelet use were not associated with ICIs. Elderly fall patients who are at their baseline mental status have a low incidence of ICIs. The best predictors of ICIs are physical findings of trauma to the head and history of LOC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychological adjustment and marital satisfaction following head injury. Which critical personal characteristics should both partners develop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Marie Claude; Boisvert, Jean-Marie

    2007-04-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE AND RESEARCH DESIGN: Using a correlational design, this study verifies the relationships between personal characteristics of individuals with TBI and their spouses and their level of psychological and marital adjustment. Seventy individuals with TBI and their spouses in the post-acute rehabilitation phase completed self-report questionnaires assessing the predictive variables (coping and social problem-solving strategies; perceived communication skills) and the criteria variables of psychological and marital adjustment. In the target group, the characteristics most strongly related to adjustment variables were an effective attitude towards problems, infrequent use of avoidance coping strategies, and a positive perception of one's spouse's communication skills. Individuals with TBI and their spouses report significantly lower scores on some of these personal characteristics, compared to those of a matched control group of 70 couples from the general population. Specific personal characteristics are critical for psychological and marital adjustment following TBI. This knowledge may be of relevance for detecting couples at risk for developing difficulties in the post-acute rehabilitation phase. Rehabilitation interventions targeting the personal characteristics identified as critical for the adjustment process could help to prevent these difficulties.

  7. Expression of developmental myosin and morphological characteristics in adult rat skeletal muscle following exercise-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H K; Plyley, M J; Rodgers, C D; McKee, N H

    1999-07-01

    The extent and stability of the expression of developmental isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MHCd), and their association with cellular morphology, were determined in adult rat skeletal muscle fibres following injury induced by eccentrically-biased exercise. Adult female Wistar rats [274 (10) g] were either assigned as non-exercised controls or subjected to 30 min of treadmill exercise (grade, -16 degrees; speed, 15 m x min(-1)), and then sacrificed following 1, 2, 4, 7, or 12 days of recovery (n = 5-6 per group). Histologically and immunohistologically stained serial, transverse cryosections of the soleus (S), vastus intermedius (VI), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were examined using light microscopy and digital imaging. Fibres staining positively for MHCd (MHCd+) were seldom detected in the TA. In the VI and S, higher proportions of MHCd+ fibres (0.8% and 2.5%, respectively) were observed in rats at 4 and 7 days post-exercise, in comparison to all other groups combined (0.2%, 1.2%; P < or = 0.01). In S, MHCd+ fibres were observed less frequently by 12 days (0.7%) than at 7 days (2.6%) following exercise. The majority (85.1%) of the MHCd+ fibres had morphological characteristics indicative of either damage, degeneration, repair or regeneration. Most of the MHCd+ fibres also expressed adult slow, and/or fast myosin heavy chain. Quantitatively, the MHCd+ fibres were smaller (< 2500 microm2) and more angular than fibres not expressing MHCd. Thus, there was a transient increase in a small, but distinct population of MHCd+ fibres following unaccustomed, functional exercise in adult rat S and VI muscles. The observed close coupling of MHCd expression with morphological changes within muscle fibres suggests that these characteristics have a common, initial exercise-induced injury-related stimulus.

  8. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with acute lung injury and ARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Bhadade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acute lung injury (ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS are critical illnesses associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Aims : This was designed to assess various etiologies of ALI/ARDS, to determine the correlation between the diagnostic criteria and need of mechanical ventilation, and to correlate biochemical factors with the outcome of patients. Settings and Design : An observational, prospective study was conducted in a medical intensive care unit (MICU of a tertiary care hospital, for a period of 1 year. Materials and Methods : This study encompassed 58 consecutive cases of ALI/ARDS admitted to a MICU as per AECC guidelines. Patients excluded were with cardiac failure, chronic kidney diseases with fluid overload, and age below 12 years. Statistical Analysis : The data were analysed applying χ2 -test, multivariate logistic regression analysis of significance, using computer-based program SPSS. Results : There were more males (74% than females, and presentation was more common in the younger age group, with a total mortality of 57%. Factors attributable for ALI/ARDS were malaria in 16 patients (27.6%, leptospirosis in 12 (20.7%, malaria with dengue in 3 (5.2%, undiagnosed fever in 16 (27.6%, pneumonia in 8 (13.8%, urinary tract infection in 2 (3.4%, and pancreatitis in 1 (1.7% patient. Out of 41 patients with PaO 2 /FiO 2 200, 11 patients though initially managed on noninvasive ventilation (NIV subsequently required invasive ventilation, and remaining six were successfully managed on NIV. Out of 41 patients requiring mechanical ventilation, 36 had LIS >2.5, whereas only 3 out of 17 patients with LIS <2.5 required mechanical ventilation. Conclusion : Malaria, leptospirosis, and undiagnosed fever were the main etiologies followed by pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and pancreatitis. Both the PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio and lung injury score (LIS at the time of admission were significant predictors of the

  9. The Association Between Fall Frequency, Injury Risk, and Characteristics of Falls in Older Residents of Long-Term Care: Do Recurrent Fallers Fall More Safely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schooten, Kimberley S; Yang, Yijian; Feldman, Fabio; Leung, Ming; McKay, Heather; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Robinovitch, Stephen N

    2018-05-09

    Although a fall is a necessary prerequisite to a fall-related injury, previous studies suggest that frequent fallers are at lower injury risk for a given fall. We tested the hypotheses that differences in protective responses or the circumstances of falls underlie differences in injury risk with fall frequency. We analyzed video footage of 897 falls experienced by 220 long-term care residents (mean age 82 ± 9 years) to identify the cause of imbalance, activity leading to falling, direction of fall initiation, balance recovery and fall protective responses, and occurrence of impact to the head or hip. We further obtained injury information from the facilities' fall registration. We used generalized estimating equation models to examine the association between quartiles of fall frequency, injury risk, and fall characteristics. Residents with the highest fall frequency group (Q4; ≥5.6 falls/year) were less likely to sustain an injury per fall. They were less likely to fall during walking and more likely to fall during stand-to-sit transfers. Residents in the lowest fall frequency group (Q1; falls/year) were more likely to fall during walking, and walking was associated with an increased risk for injury. When compared to less frequent fallers, more frequent fallers had a lower risk for injury per fall. This appeared to be explained by differences in the circumstances of falls, and not by protective responses. Injury prevention strategies in long-term care should target both frequent and infrequent fallers, as the latter are more mobile and apt to sustain injury.

  10. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES IN RURAL JAIPUR: THE FIRST SINGLE CENTRE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Trauma is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the Indian Population. OBJECTIVE To evaluate and describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with traumatic brain injury and their clinical outcomes following admission to a rural tertiary care teaching hospital in India. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective, cross-sectional, hospital based analysis of 1713 patients of Traumatic Brain Injury [TBI] admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery in a tertiary health centre in Jaipur from January 2014 to August 2015. METHOD The medical records of all eligible patients were reviewed and data collected on age, sex, mechanism of injury, severity of injury Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS and Outcome (GOS score, Computed Tomography (CT scan results, modality of management and type of surgical intervention and outcome. RESULTS Among the 1713 patients admitted, age of patients varied >1 year to 92 years (mean age 21 years, majority of TBI’s were reported in the age group 20–29 years (34.38%, followed by 30–39 years (26.97%, 40–49 years (16.70%, p value <0.05. Most of the patients were male (63.46%, mostly unmarried. Majority lived in sub-urban areas (51.26% followed by rural (26.85% and urban (21.89%. Patients were mostly from middle class (46.58% and poor socio-economic background (42.62%, upper class only accounted for 10.8% of the cases. In terms of occupation, servicemen and farmers accounted for the majority (54.73%. Patients were brought to the hospital mainly by known persons (68% and rest by bystanders and policemen. The most common mechanism of injury was road traffic accidents (RTA 1199 (69.99%, followed by assault 251 (14.65%, 15.35% accounted for fall from height and fall of object on head. Mean hospital stay was 7.6±9.3 days (range <1 day to 87 days. In our study, patients were classified by GCS as mild TBI in 983(57.38% patients; moderate in 488 (28.48% and severe in 242 (14.12. 1481 (86.46% patients

  11. Normal versus sickle red blood cells: hemodynamic and permeability characteristics in reperfusion lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, J; Seibert, A; Shah, A; Taylor, A

    1990-01-01

    Decreased deformability and increased internal viscosity of the sickle red blood cell (SRBC) contribute to abnormal flow in the microcirculation. Since the lungs are commonly affected in sickle cell disease, we compared the hemodynamics of the normal human red blood cell (NRBC) with the SRBC in the pulmonary circulation. The SRBC has decreased antioxidant enzyme activities compared with the NRBC. Thus, using the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), we determined the ability of the NRBC and the SRBC to attenuate the increased permeability and resulting edema seen in the oxidant stress of reperfusion lung injury (RLI). We found that lungs perfused with a 5% SRBC perfusate had higher pulmonary arterial pressures (Ppa) and resistances than lungs perfused with a 5% NRBC perfusate. Lungs made ischemic and reperfused with a physiologic cell-free perfusate resulted in a significant increase (P less than .05) in Kfc compared with the preischemic Kfc (.45 +/- .06 to 1.4 +/- 22 mL.min-1.cm H2O.100 g-1). In lungs reperfused with 5% RBC-containing perfusates, the Kfc did not change from preischemic Kfc with NRBCs and decreased from the preischemic Kfc with SRBCs. These findings suggest that the SRBC causes physiologically significant increases in Ppa and resistances and the SRBC, like the NRBC, offers apparent protection in RLI.

  12. VEGF and BFGF Expression and Histological Characteristics of the Bone-Tendon Junction during Acute Injury Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone-tendon junction (BTJ injuries are common and may be caused by acute trauma and delayed healing during exercise or work. To understand the nature of the healing process of BTJ injuries would help to prevent injuries and improve treatment. Thirty-three mature female rabbit hindlimbs were assigned to normal control (CON, n = 7 and injury groups (n = 26. The acute injury was established by administering one 7 plum-blossom needle puncture. Specimens were harvested post injury at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks (ND1W, n = 6; ND2W, n = 6; ND4W, n = 7; and ND8W, n = 7. The injury existed in all of the injury groups. Compared with the CON group, all of the animals in the injury group showed poor cell profiles, an unclear or undetectable tide mark, a proteoglycan area and profile changes; the BTJ cell density diminished significantly in the ND1W (p 0.05. The basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF expression in the CON group was significantly less than in the ND1W group (p 0.05. The bFGF and VEGF expression levels indicated that the healing process stopped at 8 weeks post injury or was not activated, although the injury had not healed by histological examination. A repeatable animal model of BTJ acute injury was established in this study, and the results described the BTJ acute injury healing difficult concerned with the repairing stop.

  13. Association of prospective lower extremity musculoskeletal injury and musculoskeletal, balance, and physiological characteristics in Special Operations Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Karen A; Wohleber, Meleesa F; Perlsweig, Katherine A; Baldwin, Thomas M; Caviston, Michael; Lovalekar, Mita; Connaboy, Christopher; Nindl, Bradley C; Beals, Kim

    2017-11-01

    Previous research has examined lower extremity (LE) musculoskeletal injury (MSI) patterns and risk factors in Special Operations Forces (SOF) trainees, conventional military personnel, and athletes; however, it is unclear if SOF have the same patterns/risk factors. This study aimed to determine the association of musculoskeletal, balance, and physiological characteristics with LE MSI in SOF. Cohort study. A total of 726 Air Force (N=140), Navy Sea, Air, and Land (N=301), and Special Warfare Combatant Crewmen (N=285) SOF (age=25.72±4.77years, height=178.34±6.63cm, weight=84.28±9.03kg) participated in laboratory testing, including: LE muscular strength and flexibility; balance; body composition; anaerobic power/capacity; and aerobic capacity. Medical charts were reviewed for LE MSI 365days following laboratory testing. Participants were assigned by injury status and laboratory data stratified by tertile. Chi-square statistics were calculated to determine the frequency of LE MSI across tertiles for each characteristic. There was a significant association between LE MSI and: ankle inversion strength (weaker side: Χ(2)=17.703; stronger side: Χ(2)=18.911; p≤0.001); ankle eversion/inversion strength ratio (lower side: Χ(2)=13.456; higher side: Χ(2)=16.885; p≤0.001); hamstring flexibility (less flexible: Χ(2)=19.930; more flexible Χ(2)=15.185; p≤0.001); gastrocnemius-soleus flexibility (less flexible: Χ(2)=7.889, p=0.019); dynamic balance asymmetry (Χ(2)=7.444, p=0.024); Vestibular and Preference ratios (Χ(2)=9.124, p=0.010 and Χ(2)=6.572, p=0.037, respectively); and aerobic capacity (Χ(2)=13.935, p=0.001). Characteristics associated with LE MSI are unique in SOF. Human performance program initiatives should include efforts to optimize ankle strength and flexibility, maintain moderate hamstring flexibility, expand dynamic balance strategies, and maximize aerobic capacity to reduce LE MSI risk. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights

  14. Effects of long work hours and poor sleep characteristics on workplace injury among full-time male employees of small- and medium-scale businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long work hours and poor sleep characteristics on workplace injury. A total of 1891 male employees, aged 18-79 years (mean 45 years), in 296 small- and medium-scale businesses in a suburb of Tokyo were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire during August-December 2002. Work hours and sleep characteristics, including daily sleep hours, subjective sleep sufficiency, sleep quality and easiness to wake up in the morning, were evaluated. Information on workplace injury in the past 1-year period was self-reported. The risk of workplace injury associated with work hours and poor sleep was estimated using multivariate logistic regression with odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals as measures of associations. Compared with those working 6-8 h day(-1) with good sleep characteristics, positive interactive effects for workplace injury were found between long work hours (>8-10 h day(-1) or >10 h day(-1) ) and short sleep duration (Long work hours (aOR, 1.31-1.48), subjective insufficient sleep (aOR, 1.49) and sleeping poorly at night (aOR, 1.72) were also independently associated with workplace injury. This study suggests that long work hours coupled with poor sleep characteristics are synergistically associated with increased risk of workplace injury. Greater attention should be paid to manage/treat poor sleep and reduce excessive work hours to improve safety at the workplace. 2011 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Umbilical blood flow ultrasound characteristics of perioperative fetal intrauterine hypoxia and their relationship with maternal and fetal oxidative stress injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship between umbilical blood flow ultrasound characteristics of perioperative fetal intrauterine hypoxia and maternal as well as fetal oxidative stress injury. Methods: 108 puerperae giving birth in our hospital between May 2014 and October 2016 were selected and divided into normal pregnancy group with neonatal Apgar score >7 points and intrauterine hypoxia group with neonatal Apgar score ≤7 points, color Doppler diasonograph was used to determine umbilical blood flow ultrasound parameters, umbilical cord blood was collected to determine the levels of oxidative stress products, and the placenta was collected to determine the levels of oxidative stress products and related apoptosis molecules. Results: During 24–30 weeks, 31–36 weeks and 37–41 weeks of pregnancy, umbilical blood flow resistance index (RI, pulsatility index (PI and diastolic velocity/systolic velocity (S/D of intrauterine hypoxia group were significantly higher than those of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05; malondialdehyde (MDA, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox- LDL, 8-isoprostanes (8-iso, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70 levels in umbilical cord blood of intrauterine hypoxia group were significantly higher than those of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05, MDA, oxLDL, 8-ios, HSP-70, Fas, FasL and Bax levels in placenta tissue were significantly higher than those of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05, and Bcl-2 and XIAP levels were significantly lower than those of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05; RI, PI and S/ D were positively correlated with MDA, oxLDL, 8-ios and HSP-70 levels in umbilical cord blood and placenta tissue, positively correlated with Fas, FasL and Bax levels in placenta tissue, and negatively correlated with Bcl-2 and XIAP levels in placental tissue. Conclusions: The increased umbilical blood flow resistance and decreased flow volume of fetal intrauterine hypoxia are closely related to maternal, fetal and placental oxidative

  16. Correlation of lipid metabolism characteristics with bile acid metabolism and placental hypoxia injury in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

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    Liang Tang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of lipid metabolism characteristics with bile acid metabolism and placental hypoxia injury in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP. Methods: ICP pregnant women and healthy pregnant women who received antenatal care and delivered in Obstetrics Department of Panzhihua Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital between May 2013 and October 2016 were collected and included in ICP group and control group respectively. Serum lipid metabolism and bile acid metabolism indexes were measured at 20 weeks, 24 weeks, 28 weeks, 32 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation; mitochondria damage molecule expression levels in placenta were determined after childbirth. Results: Serum TC, LDL-C and HDL-C levels were not different between two groups of pregnant women at 20 weeks of gestation, and serum TC and LDL-C levels of ICP group at 24 weeks, 28 weeks, 32 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were significantly higher than those of control group while HDL-C levels were significantly lower than those of control group; serum TBA, ALT and AST levels were not different between two groups of pregnant women at 20 weeks, 24 weeks and 28 weeks of gestation, and serum TBA, ALT and AST levels of ICP group at 32 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were significantly higher than those of control group; CCO, ATPase, SDH and Bcl-2 protein expression in placenta tissue of ICP group were significantly lower than those of control group while Bax and Caspase-3 protein expression were significantly higher than those of control group. Serum LDL-C levels at 24 weeks, 28 weeks, 32 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were positively correlated with TBA, ALT and AST levels in serum as well as Bax and Caspase-3 protein expression in placental tissue, and negatively correlated with CCO, ATPase, SDH and Bcl-2 protein expression in placental tissue. Conclusion: Midtrimester lipid metabolism characteristics can early predict the risk of ICP and evaluate the

  17. Effect of less intensive rearing conditions on litter characteristics, growth performance, carcase injuries and meat quality of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meluzzi, A; Fabbri, C; Folegatti, E; Sirri, F

    2008-09-01

    1. The objective was to compare the effect of two litter types (wheat straw and wood shavings) and two different rearing conditions (Treated and Control) on welfare indicators, broiler performance, carcase injuries, particularly hock and foot pad dermatitis (FPD), litter characteristics and meat quality. 2. Treated conditions were characterised by a low stocking density (11 birds/m(2)), short photoperiod (16 h light: 8 h dark) and a large amount of litter (3 to 4.5 kg/m(2), respectively, for wheat straw or wood shavings). Control conditions were a high stocking density (14 birds/m(2)), long photoperiod (23 h light:1 h dark) and small amount of litter (2.3 to 3 kg/m(2), respectively, for wheat straw or wood shavings). In addition, the effects of two widely used litter materials, wheat straw and wood shavings, were investigated. 3. The combined effects of lower stocking density, greater amount of litter material and a photoperiod similar to the natural one, reduced the occurrence of FPD in Treated groups keeping the FPD score under the European threshold. 4. Improved rearing conditions led to faster growth rate associated with inferior feed efficiency, whereas litter type exerted negligible effects on broiler performance. 5. Litter moisture content, nitrogen and ammonia released by the litter were lower in Treated groups than Control groups. The use of wood shavings resulted in lower moisture and nitrogen concentrations in the litter.

  18. The comparative characteristic of extra- and intracranial hemodynamics in patients with traumatic brain injury in the long-term period

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    Shkolnyk V.M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI remains an actual problem of modern medicine, as well as of economic and social sectors. Vascular factor plays a leading role in forming of the clinical presentation of the disease in the long-term period of TBI. The aim of the study was to clarify the characteristics of hemodynamic changes at different levels of cerebral blood supply (main extra- and intracranial arteries and level of cerebral vessels depending on the severity of TBI. We examined 100 patients in the long-term period of mild, moderate and severe TBI. All patients underwent rheoencephalography, ultrasound duplex scanning of the main arteries of the head and neck with transcranial dopplerography and functional test with visual load. Extracranial vascular changes in the long-term period of TBI are characterized by significant increase of carotid intima-media thickness and the diameters of right internal carotid artery and left internal carotid artery together with the severity of TBI. The qualitative analysis of linear blood flow velocity reveals the decrease in the number of patients with a compensatory reaction in the form of its acceleration in the middle cerebral artery with increasing TBI severity but the number of patients with reduced linear blood flow velocity increases. Abnormal autoregulation of the cerebral circulation and reduction of vascular reactivity was established in the majority of patients of all groups. In addition, the incidence of vascular disturbances increased from 1st to 3rd group. According to the results of rheoencephalography, we detected prevailing spastic changes of the curve in all groups of patients. The degree of disturbances manifestations increases with the severity of TBI.

  19. Cerebral Lactate Concentration in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: In Relation to Time, Characteristic of Injury, and Serum Lactate Concentration

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    Tai-Wei Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCerebral lactate concentration can remain detectable in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE after hemodynamic stability. The temporal resolution of regional cerebral lactate concentration in relation to the severity or area of injury is unclear. Furthermore, the interplay between serum and cerebral lactate in neonatal HIE has not been well defined. The study aims to describe cerebral lactate concentration in neonatal HIE in relation to time, injury, and serum lactate.Design/methodsFifty-two newborns with HIE undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH were enrolled. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI + MR spectroscopy were performed during and after TH at 54.6 ± 15.0 and 156 ± 57.6 h of life, respectively. Severity and predominant pattern of injury was scored radiographically. Single-voxel 1H MR spectra were acquired using short-echo (35 ms PRESS sequence localized to the basal ganglia (BG, thalamus (Thal, gray matter (GM, and white matter. Cerebral lactate concentration was quantified by LCModel software. Serum and cerebral lactate concentrations were plotted based on age at time of measurement. Multiple comparisons of regional cerebral lactate concentration based on severity and predominant pattern of injury were performed. Spearman’s Rho was computed to determine correlation between serum lactate and cerebral lactate concentration at the respective regions of interest.ResultsOverall, serum lactate concentration decreased over time. Cerebral lactate concentration remained low for less severe injury and decreased over time for more severe injury. Cerebral lactate remained detectable even after TH. During TH, there was a significant higher concentration of cerebral lactate at the areas of injury and also when injury was more severe. However, these differences were no longer observed after TH. There was a weak correlation between serum lactate and cerebral lactate concentration at the BG (rs

  20. Characteristics and trends of pediatric traumatic brain injuries treated at a large pediatric medical center in China, 2002-2011.

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    Jianbo Shao

    Full Text Available Pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBIs have not been well studied in China. This study investigated characteristics and trends of hospitalized TBIs sustained by Chinese children.We analyzed 2002-2011 hospitalized TBI patients (0-17 years of age treated at a large pediatric medical center in China. TBIs were defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10 codes. We examined age patterns across external causes of TBIs. We reported the trend of traffic-related TBIs for each year from 2002 to 2011. Of 4,230 TBI patients, 67.1% (95% CI: 65.4%-68.8% were city residents and 28.8% (95% CI: 26.3%-31.3% came from rural villages. Males had disproportionately more TBIs than females (65.2% vs. 34.8%. Falls, struck by/against objects, and traffic collisions were the top three external causes of TBIs for all age groups. Falls were the leading cause of TBI for all ages but peaked at 2 years of age. There were 125 TBIs in 0-2 year olds (5.9% of all TBIs in this age group that were caused by suspected child abuse. Suspected child abuse was significantly more likely to occur in 0-1 year olds. The proportion of traffic -related TBIs increased significantly from 12.99% in 2002 to 19.68% in 2008 but dropped each subsequent year until it reached a level of 8.91% in 2011.Our study confirms that falls, struck by/against objects and traffic collisions are the top external causes of TBIs in Chinese children. When compared with national data from the developed countries, gender patterns are similar, but the ranking of external causes is different. This is the first study to highlight the important role of suspected child abuse in causing TBIs in infants in China. TBIs caused by child abuse warrant further research and government attention as a social and medical problem in China.

  1. The Adhesion Molecule-Characteristic HNK-1 Carbohydrate Contributes to Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liping; Shen, Hui-Fan; Shen, Yan-Qin; Schachner, Melitta

    2017-07-01

    The human natural killer cell antigen-1 (HNK-1) is functionally important in development, synaptic activity, and regeneration after injury in the nervous system of several mammalian species. It contains a sulfated glucuronic acid which is carried by neural adhesion molecules and expressed in nonmammalian species, including zebrafish, which, as opposed to mammals, spontaneously regenerate after injury in the adult. To evaluate HNK-1's role in recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI) of adult zebrafish, we assessed the effects of the two HNK-1 synthesizing enzymes, glucuronyl transferase and HNK-1 sulfotransferase. Expression of these two enzymes was increased at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level 11 days after injury in the brainstem nuclei that are capable of regrowth of severed axons, namely, the nucleus of medial longitudinal fascicle and intermediate reticular formation, but not at earlier time points after SCI. mRNA levels of glucuronyl transferase and sulfotransferase were increased in neurons, not only of these nuclei but also in the spinal cord caudal to the injury site at 11 days. Mauthner neurons which are not capable of regeneration did not show increased levels of enzyme mRNAs after injury. Reducing protein levels of the enzymes by application of anti-sense morpholinos resulted in reduction of locomotor recovery for glucuronyl transferase, but not for HNK-1 sulfotransferase. The combined results indicate that HNK-1 is upregulated in expression only in those neurons that are intrinsically capable of regeneration and contributes to regeneration after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish in the absence of its sulfate moiety.

  2. The correlation of initial radiographic characteristics of distal radius fractures and injuries of the triangular fibrocartilage complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapinova, K; Kamiloski, V

    2016-06-01

    Our purpose was to determine the correlation of initial radiographic parameters of a distal radius fracture with an injury of the triangular fibrocartilage complex. In a prospective study, 85 patients with surgically treated distal radius fractures were included. Wrist arthroscopy was used to identify and classify triangular fibrocartilage complex lesions. The initial radial length and angulation, dorsal angulation, ulnar variance and distal radioulnar distance were measured. Wrist arthroscopy identified a triangular fibrocartilage complex lesion in 45 patients. Statistical analysis did not identify a correlation with any single radiographic parameter of the distal radius fractures with the associated triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries. The initial radiograph of a distal radius fracture does not predict a triangular fibrocartilage complex injury. III. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Epidemiological analysis of demographic characteristics and type of injuries in patients with multiple trauma with respect to conclusive treatment outcome

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    Zagorac Slaviša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Multiple trauma is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the population of people under 45 years of age. The consequences of multiple trauma have huge epidemiological, social and economic significance. Objective The aim of the paper was to analyze the conclusive treatment outcome of multiply traumatized patients with respect to their sex, age, injury mechanism and type. METHOD This retrospective study included 100 patients with multiple injuries (ISS>16 treated in the Emergency Room of the Clinical Centre of Serbia in the course of 2004. Clinical, X-ray, laboratory and numerical presentation methods - scores (ISS and GCS were used to show the injury severity. Results Most of the injured were males (80%, and the average age was 40±20 (5-83. Out of the total number of patients who died, 23 (82% were males, and 5 (18% were females. The average age of the patients with fatal outcomes was 48±21 (8-86. Traffic accidents were the leading cause of injury (59%. The median GCS was 10±3 (3-15. The average ISS was 30 (20-66 in the surviving patients, and 53 (27-77 in those who died. Conclusion With respect to sex, in most cases multiple trauma affects males (p<0.01, with the average age of about 40. With respect to injury mechanism, the main cause of the occurrence of multiple trauma is traffic accidents (p<0.01. There is a statistically significant difference in the values of GCS and ISS relative to the definitive outcome (p<0.01. Statistical data processing indicated that there was a statistically significant correlation between mortality and type of injury in a given organic system (p<0.01, but that there was no statistically significant correlation between mortality and age. .

  4. Updated Review of the Applied Physiology of American College Football: Physical Demands, Strength and Conditioning, Nutrition, and Injury Characteristics of America's Favorite Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Hugh H K; McCunn, Robert; Murray, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    While there are various avenues for performance improvement in college American football (AF), there is no comprehensive evaluation of the collective array of resources around performance, physical conditioning, and injury and training/game characteristics to guide future research and inform practitioners. Accordingly, the aim of the present review was to provide a current examination of these areas in college AF. Recent studies show that there is a wide range of body compositions and strength characteristics between players, which appear to be influenced by playing position, level of play, training history/programming, and time of season. Collectively, game demands may require a combination of upper- and lower-body strength and power production, rapid acceleration (positive and negative), change of direction, high running speed, high-intensity and repetitive collisions, and muscle-strength endurance. These may be affected by the timing of and between-plays and/or coaching style. AF players appear to possess limited nutrition and hydration practices, which may be disadvantageous to performance. AF injuries appear due to a multitude of factors-strength, movement quality, and previous injury-while there is also potential for extrinsic factors such as playing surface type, travel, time of season, playing position, and training load. Future proof-of-concept studies are required to determine the quantification of game demands with regard to game style, type of opposition, and key performance indicators. Moreover, more research is required to understand the efficacy of recovery and nutrition interventions. Finally, the assessment of the relationship between external/internal-load constructs and injury risk is warranted.

  5. Swiss national community survey on functioning after spinal cord injury : Protocol, characteristics of participants and determinants of non-response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, Martin W G; Fekete, Christine; Chamberlain, Jonviea D; Post, Marcel W M; Gemperli, Armin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To detail the protocol, recruitment, study population, response, and data quality of the first population-based community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury (SwiSCI) Cohort Study. DESIGN: The survey consisted of 3 successive modules administered between September 2011 and March 2013.

  6. Swiss national community survey on functioning after spinal cord injury : Protocol, characteristics of participants and determinants of non-response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, Martin W. G.; Fekete, Christine; Chamberlain, Jonviea D.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Gemperli, Armin

    Objective: To detail the protocol, recruitment, study population, response, and data quality of the first population-based community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury (SwiSCI) Cohort Study. Design: The survey consisted of 3 successive modules administered between September 2011 and March 2013.

  7. Leaf injury characteristics of grassland species exposed to ozone in relation to soil moisture condition and vapour pressure deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bungener, P.; Balls, G.R.; Nussbaum, S.; Geissmann, M.; Grub, A.; Fuhrer, J.

    1999-01-01

    A range of plant species typical of semi-natural grasslands were tested for their sensitivity to short-term ozone injury under normal and reduced irrigation, and in relationship to air vapour pressure deficit. Potted specimens of 24 herbs, legumes and grasses were exposed during two seasons to four O 3 treatments in open-top chambers. The ozone treatments were: (a) charcoal-filtered air; (b) charcoal-filtered air plus ozone to match ambient levels; (c) charcoal-filtered air plus O 3 to ambient levels 1.5 and (d) charcoal-filtered air with ozone added to twice ambient levels during selected episodes of 7–13 d. During these ozone episodes, half of the plants in each ozone treatment received reduced irrigation (dry treatment) while the rest was kept under full irrigation (wet treatment). Type and date of first occurrence of leaf injury were noted during individual growth periods. Plants were harvested three times per year, and the percentage of injured leaves was recorded. Depending on species, injury symptoms were expressed as flecking (O 3 -specific injury), leaf yellowing or anthocyanin formation. Carum carvi and most species of the Fabaceae family (Onobrychis sativa, Trifolium repens, Trifolium pratense) were found to be most responsive to O 3 , injury occurring after only a few days of exposure in treatment (b). An episodic reduction in irrigation tended to reduce the expression of O 3 -specific symptoms, but only in species for which a reduction in soil moisture potential and an associated reduction in stomatal conductance during the dry episodes were observed. In other species, the protection from O 3 injury seemed to be of little importance. Using artificial neural networks the injury response of nine species was analysed in relation to Species, stomatal conductance, ozone as AOT40 (accumulated exposure above a threshold of 0.04 ppm for periods with global radiation ≥ 50 W m −2 (Fuhrer et al., 1997)), mean relative growth rate, air vapour pressure

  8. Clinical characteristics of bladder cancer in patients with spinal cord injury: the experience from a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böthig, Ralf; Kurze, Ines; Fiebag, Kai; Kaufmann, Albert; Schöps, Wolfgang; Kadhum, Thura; Zellner, Michael; Golka, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    Life expectancy for people with spinal cord injury has shown a marked increase due to modern advances in treatment methods and in neuro-urology. However, since life expectancy of people with paralysis increases, the risk of developing of urinary bladder cancer is gaining importance. Single-centre retrospective evaluation of patient data with spinal cord injuries and proven urinary bladder cancer and summary of the literature. Between 1998 and 2014, 24 (3 female, 21 male) out of a total of 6599 patients with spinal cord injury were diagnosed with bladder cancer. The average age at bladder cancer diagnosis was 57.67 years, which is well below the average for bladder cancer cases in the general population (male: 73, female: 77). All but one patient had a latency period between the onset of the spinal paralysis and tumour diagnosis of more than 10 years. The median latency was 29.83 years. The median survival for these patients was 11.5 months. Of the 24 patients, 19 (79%) had muscle invasive bladder cancer at ≥T2 at the time of diagnosis. The type of neurogenic bladder (neurogenic detrusor overactivity or acontractility) and the form of bladder drainage do not appear to influence the risk. Long-term indwelling catheter drainage played only a minor role in the investigated patients. The significantly younger age at onset and the frequency of invasive tumours at diagnosis indicate that spinal cord injury influences bladder cancer risk and prognosis as well. Early detection of bladder cancer in patients with spinal cord injury remains a challenge.

  9. Characteristics of acute treatment costs of traumatic brain injury in Eastern China--a multi-centre prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qiang; Liu, Hua; Wu, Xing; Sun, Yirui; Yao, Haijun; Zhou, Liangfu; Hu, Jin

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated acute treatment costs and related factors for traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in eastern China based on a prospective multicentre study. Data were prospectively collected from 80 hospitals in eastern China by standardized structured questionnaires during 2004. Included patients were admitted to hospitals via an emergency service with a diagnosis of TBI. The total acute hospitalization treatment costs derived from unsubsidized total hospital billings were used as the main outcome measure. Univariate and multivariable regression models were used to examine factors associated with each outcome. In total, 13,007 TBI cases were identified from 80 hospitals in eastern China. The median cost per hospitalization was $879 US (range, $72-45,894). The median cost per day was $79 (interquartile range, $49-126). The hospitalization costs varied based on the cause of TBI, with a median of $1017 for traffic accidents, $816 for falls, $490 for blows to the head, and $712 for falls. The hospitalization costs also varied by injury type with a mean of $918 for TBI associated with other injuries and $831 for isolated TBI. Using multiple regression analyses, lower admission Glasgow Coma score, longer hospital stay (LOS), male sex, transient patient status, traffic accident, injury occurring on a construction site, treatment at a tertiary hospital, neurosurgical intensive care unit (NICU) or ICU stay, associated polytrauma, and those who needed a neurosurgical operation had significantly higher total acute hospitalization costs than those of other groups. Good recovery and self-paying patients had lower total costs. A double LOS was associated with a 1.61 (95% confidence interval, 1.59-1.62) times higher hospital cost. Our results have potential implications for health-care resource planning during TBI treatment. Measures to prevent traffic accidents and reduce the LOS may help to reduce acute hospitalization costs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier

  10. [The expert characteristic of the forensic medical documentation for the purpose of investigations of the injuries to the maxillofacial region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V L; Yagmurov, M O; Troshin, E L

    2018-01-01

    The injuries to the maxillofacial region (MFR) are among the most frequently occurring problems encountered if the forensic medical practice. The objective of the present study was the analysis of the quality of the medical record documentation of the victims of the injuries to the maxillofacial region for obtaining the information necessary for forensic medical experts to make the well-founded conclusions. We undertook the in-depth analysis of random samples from the materials stored in the archive of living subjects at the Saint-Petersburg Bureau of forensic medical expertise for the period from 2010 to 2014. The results of a total of 438 forensic medical examinations were available for the analysis. The study has demonstrated the generally low forensic medical value of the expert conclusions that frequently fail to conform to the requirements of the departmental instructions on the description of MFR injuries. In all the cases, neurologists and radiologists were counselled. The results of analysis of the drawbacks of forensic medical examinations give evidence that they originate first and foremost from subjective circumstances which opens up the promising prospects for the improvement of expertise quality based on the enhancement of the professional responsibility of the forensic medical experts.

  11. Injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic accident among victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a prospective hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Mohammed; Azazh, Aklilu; Enquselassie, Fikre; Yisma, Engida

    2015-05-20

    Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally, and the leading cause of death for young people. More than a million people die each year on the world's roads, and the risk of dying as a result of a road traffic injury is highest in Africa. A prospective hospital based study was undertaken to assess injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic accident among victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to gather the required data. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of fatalities among the road traffic crash victims. A total of 230 road traffic accident victims were studied. The majority of the study subjects were men 165 (71.7%) and the male/female ratio was 2.6:1. The victims' ages ranged from 14 to 80 years with the mean and standard deviations of 32.15 and ± 14.38 years respectively. Daily laborers (95 (41.3%)) and students (28 (12.2%)) were the majority of road traffic accident victims. Head (50.4%) and musculoskeletal (extremities) (47.0%) were the most common body region injured. Fractures (78.0%) and open wounds (56.5%) were the most common type of injuries sustained. The overall length of hospital stay (LOS) ranged from 1 day to 61 days with mean (± standard deviation) of 7.12 ± 10.5 days and the mortality rate was 7.4%. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that age of the victims (ß = 0.16, p road traffic accident is a major public health problem. Urgent road traffic accident preventive measures and prompt treatment of the victims are warranted in order to reduce morbidity and mortality among the victims.

  12. Characteristics of Patient with Brachial Plexus Injury in Neurophysiology Laboratory of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung, Indonesia, from 2003 to 2012

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    Ivan Kurnianto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brachial plexus is a network of nerves that controls the upper limb. Unfortunately, it can be injured easily which is called brachial plexus injury (BPI. It can cause disability. Until now, the epidemiology of BPI in Indonesia is still lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients with BPI in Bandung, in order to increase knowledge and attention of health care provider and community to prevent BPI. Methods: This was a descriptive retrospective study. Data from medical records of patients with BPI who underwent electromyography (EMG in Neurophysiology Laboratory Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung from 2003 to 2012 were collected. The data included age, sex, mode of injury, affected side and distribution of paralysis. Collected data were presented as percentages shown in tables. Results: A total of 91 cases were collected during study period, which consisted of 69 males and 22 females (76% vs. 24%. Most of them were in productive age group (11−20 years and 21−30 years. The main cause of brachial plexus injury was traffic accident (76%, followed by birth injury. Distribution of paralysis was mostly in postganglionic area of cervical (C5, C6, C7, C8 and thoracal (T1 (67%. Around two third of the cases involved the right side of upper limb. Conclusions: The study showed that most of patients with BPI are male in their productive ages. Traffic accident is the most common cause, and the most affected side is the right side of upper limb.

  13. Incidence, characteristics, and long-term follow-up of sternoclavicular injuries: An epidemiologic analysis of 92 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesmueller, Sandra; Wech, Margit; Tiefenboeck, Thomas M; Popp, Domenik; Bukaty, Adam; Huf, Wolfgang; Fialka, Christian; Greitbauer, Manfred; Platzer, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    The majority of published studies concerning sternoclavicular injuries are case series or systematic reviews. Prospective studies on the subject are hindered by the low incidence of these lesions. The aims of the present study were to provide an overview of this rare entity compared with those described in the literature and to present the long-term clinical outcome. We performed a retrospective data analysis of all sternoclavicular injuries treated at a single Level I trauma center from 1992 to 2011. Long-term clinical outcome was assessed using the ASES [American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons], SST [Simple Shoulder Test], UCLA [University of California-Los Angeles] Shoulder Scale, and VAS [Visual Analog Scale] at latest follow-up. We detected an overall incidence of 0.9% of sternoclavicular injuries related to all shoulder-girdle lesions. Ninety-two patients (52 males and 40 females) with a mean (SD) age of 39.2 (19.5) years (median, 41 years; range, 4-92 years) were included in this study. The main trauma mechanism was fall. Classification was performed according to Allman, the time point of treatment after initial trauma, and the direction of the dislocation. Nine patients of the 15 Grade III lesions were treated conservatively by closed reduction and immobilization, while four patients were treated surgically by open reduction and internal fixation. Forty-nine percent of the patients were available for long-term follow-up at a median of 11.3 years (range, 5.3-22.6 years) with a mean ASES score of 96.21, SST score of 11.69, UCLA score of 31.89, and VAS score of 0.47. We found an overall incidence of 0.9% of sternoclavicular joint injuries related to all shoulder-girdle lesions and of 1.1% related to all dislocations, which is slightly lower compared with those described in the literature. Furthermore, we observed a high number of physeal sternoclavicular injuries with a percentage of 16% and overall good-to-excellent results at long-term follow-up. Epidemiologic

  14. Imaging characteristics and treatment of a penetrating brain injury caused by an oropharyngeal foreign body in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jennifer; Cooper Murphy, Megan; Broome, Cameron; Tayari, Hamaseh; Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo

    2017-07-20

    A 4-year-old Border collie was presented with one episode of collapse, altered mentation, and a suspected pharyngeal stick injury. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography showed a linear foreign body penetrating the right oropharynx, through the foramen ovale and the brain parenchyma. The foreign body was surgically removed and medical treatment initiated. Complete resolution of clinical signs was noted at recheck 8 weeks later. Repeat MRI showed chronic secondary changes in the brain parenchyma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the advanced imaging findings and successful treatment of a penetrating oropharyngeal intracranial foreign body in a dog. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  15. Falls among full-time wheelchair users with spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis: a comparison of characteristics of fallers and circumstances of falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, JongHun; Trace, Yarden; Peterson, Elizabeth W; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Rice, Laura A

    2017-10-25

    The purpose of this study is to (1) explore and (2) compare circumstances of falls among full-time wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI) and multiple sclerosis (MS). A mixed method approach was used to explore and compare the circumstances of falls of 41 full-time wheelchair users with SCI (n = 23) and MS (n = 18). In addition to collecting participants' demographic information (age, gender, type of wheelchair used, duration of wheelchair use, and duration of disability), self-reported fall frequency in the past 6 months, self-reported restriction in activity due to fear of falling and the Spinal Cord Injury-Fall Concerns Scale (SCI-FCS) was collected. Qualitative data in the form of participants' responses to an open-ended question yielding information regarding the circumstances of the most recent fall were also collected. To examine differences in survey outcomes and demographic characteristics between participants with SCI and MS, independent t-tests and Pearson's Chi-square tests were used. Qualitative data were analyzed with a thematic analysis. Statistical analysis revealed that individuals with MS (mean =3.3) had significantly higher average SCI-FCS than individuals with SCI (mean =2.4). The analysis of the participants' descriptions of the circumstances of their most recent falls resulted in three main categories: action-related fall contributors (e.g., transfer), (2) location of falls (e.g., bathroom), and (3) fall attributions (e.g., surface condition). The results from this study helped to understand fall circumstances among full-time wheelchair users with MS and SCI. Findings from this study can inform the development of evidenced-based interventions to improve the effectiveness of clinically based treatment protocols. Implications for rehabilitation Falls are a common health concern in full-time wheelchair users living with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. The circumstances surrounding falls reported by full

  16. Characteristics of injury and recovery of net NO3- transport of barley seedlings from treatments of NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobus, G.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of the injury and recovery of nitrate uptake (net uptake) from NaCl stress in young barley (Hordeum vulgare L, var CM 72) seedlings was investigated. Nitrate uptake was inhibited rapidly by NaCl, within 1 minute after exposure to 200 millimolar NaCl. The duration of exposure to saline conditions determined the time of recovery of NO3- uptake from NaCl stress. Recovery was dependent on the presence of NO3- and was inhibited by cycloheximide, 6-methylpurine, and cerulenin, respective inhibitors of protein, RNA, and sterol/fatty acid synthesis. These inhibitors also prevented the induction of the NO3- uptake system in uninduced seedlings. Uninduced seedlings exhibited endogenous NO3- transport activity that appeared to be constitutive. This constitutive activity was also inhibited by NaCl. Recovery of constitutive NO3- uptake did not require the presence of NO3-.

  17. Relationship of psychology inpatient rehabilitation services and patient characteristics to outcomes following spinal cord injury: the SCIRehab project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W; Wilson, Catherine S; Huston, Toby; Koval, Jill; Gordon, Samuel; Gassaway, Julie; Kreider, Scott E D; Whiteneck, Gale

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of psychological interventions on rehabilitation outcomes, including residence and functional status at discharge, and residence, school attendance, or employment, and physical, social, occupational, and mobility aspects of participation 1 year after spinal cord injury (SCI). Prospective observational cohort study. Six inpatient rehabilitation facilities in the United States. Inpatients with SCI 12 years of age and older. Usual rehabilitation care. Functional Independence Measure at rehabilitation discharge and 1-year injury anniversary; discharge destination and residence at 1-year anniversary; Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique, Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire, employment or school attendance, rehospitalization, and occurrence of a pressure ulcer at 1-year anniversary. More time in psycho-educational interventions was associated with better function, discharge to home, home residence at 1 year, and the absence of pressure ulcers at 1 year. More psychotherapeutic sessions focusing on processing emotions and/or locus of control were associated with poorer function at discharge and 1 year, less physical independence and community mobility, lower satisfaction with life, and the presence of pressure sores at 1 year. Psychological services are an important component of comprehensive medical rehabilitation and tailored to patient needs and readiness to benefit from rehabilitation. Services focused on remediating deficits tend to be associated with negative outcomes, while services intended to foster adjustment and growth tend to be associated with favorable outcomes. Further research is needed to determine the optimal type and timing of psychological services during inpatient rehabilitation based on individuals' strengths and vulnerabilities. Note: This is the sixth in this third series of SCIRehab articles.

  18. Temporal lobe injury after re-irradiation of locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma using intensity modulated radiotherapy: clinical characteristics and prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Lu, Taixiang; Zhao, Chong; Shen, Jingxian; Tian, Yunming; Guan, Ying; Zeng, Lei; Xiao, Weiwei; Huang, Shaomin; Han, Fei

    2014-09-01

    Temporal lobe injury (TLI) is a debilitating complication after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), especially in patients who suffer treatment relapses and receive re-irradiation. We explored the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of TLI in locally recurrent NPC (rNPC) patients after re-irradiation using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). A total of 454 temporal lobes (TLs) from 227 locally rNPC patients were reviewed. The clinical characteristics of TLI were analyzed. In the two radiotherapy courses, the equivalent dose in 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2) for the TLs was recalculated to facilitate comparison of the individual data. The median follow-up time was 31 (range, 3-127) months. After re-irradiation using IMRT, 31.3 % (71/227) of patients developed TLI. The median latency of TLI was 15 (range, 4-100) months. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that the interval time (IT) between the two courses of radiotherapy and the summation of the maximum doses of the two radiotherapy courses (EQD2 - ∑max) were independent factors influencing TLI. The 5-year incidence of TLI for an IT ≤26 or >26 months was 35.9 and 53.7 % respectively (p = 0.024). The median maximum doses delivered to the injured TLs were significantly higher than was the case for the uninjured TLs after two courses of radiotherapy (135.3 and 129.8 Gy, respectively: p 2-year interval was found to be relatively safe.

  19. Quantifying the Influence of Social Characteristics on Accident and Injuries Risk: A Comparative Study Between Motorcyclists and Car Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Olesen, Morten N.; Hels, Tove

    2011-01-01

    In the recent years many European countries have experienced an increase in the number of fatal traffic accidents with motorcycles. Bos et al. (2008) reports an increase from 17.4% to 21.1% of the total number of fatalities on powered two-wheelers in the European traffic. Several reasons...... for this have been suggested, among the most common is the hypothesis that during the last decade or so, the typical motorcyclist has become older, and as a result of the increase in age, the loss of physical ability in driving and orientation has resulted in the increase in the number of accidents (Værø 2008....... In this analysis we establish relationships between social and demographic characteristics and the probability of being in an accident and being injured in an accident. Logistic regression was applied to both motorcyclists and car drivers with the purpose of calculating the odds ratio with the car drivers...

  20. The characteristics and mortality risk factors for acute kidney injury in different age groups in China-a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qing; Liu, Hong; Tu, Yan-; Tang, Ri-Ning; Wang, Yan-Li; Pan, Ming-Ming; Liu, Bi-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Age is an independent risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI). The causes and outcomes of AKI in children, middle-aged, and older patients are different. The objective of this country-based study was to identify the characteristics and mortality factors for AKI in different age groups in China. Using data from 374,286 adult patients (≥18 years) admitted to 44 study hospitals, we investigated the characteristics and mortality risk factors for AKI in four different age groups: 18-39 years of age, 40-59 years of age, 60-79 years of age, and ≥80 years of age. The identification criteria for AKI included the 2012 KDIGO AKI definition and an expanded criterion. The country-based survey included 7604 AKI patients (7604/374,286, 2.03%). The proportions of AKI in the four age groups were 11.52%, 30.79%, 41.03%, and 16.66%, respectively. In any age group, the patients with AKI stage 1 were the majority (43.4%, 42.4%, 46.4%, and 52.2%, respectively), and the most common classification of AKI was pre-renal AKI (44.3%, 51.3%, 52.3%, and 56.4%, respectively). The higher AKI peak stage occurred for the in-hospital mortality factors for AKI in all age groups; except for the AKI stage 2 patients in the 18-39 age group. The characteristics and mortality factors for AKI vary by age in China. Elderly patients were the primary population with AKI, and the most common type of AKI was pre-renal AKI. Special caution should be taken to the old population in hospitalized patients to prevent the pre-renal AKI.

  1. Association of Suicide Attempts and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Behaviors With Substance Use and Family Characteristics Among Children and Adolescents Seeking Treatment for Substance Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvendeger Doksat, Neslim; Zahmacioglu, Oguzhan; Ciftci Demirci, Arzu; Kocaman, Gizem Melissa; Erdogan, Ayten

    2017-04-16

    Numerous studies in youth and adults suggest strong association between substance use disorders and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors. There is paucity of studies exploring the association of substance use with history of suicide attempts (HSA) and NSSI in children and adolescents in Turkey. We aimed to examine the prevalence of NSSI and HSA and their relationship with substance use and family characteristics among youth seeking treatment for substance use in Turkey. Participants were children and adolescents who were admitted to the Bakirkoy Trainee and Research Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurologic Disorders in Istanbul between January 2011 and December 2013. Two thousand five hundred eighteen participants were included. Questionnaires were applied to all patients. The association of NSSI and HSA with substance use, family characteristics, and subject characteristics were analyzed. The prevalence of NSSI and HSA behaviors among substance using youth in our sample were 52% and 21% respectively. Cannabis and cocaine use was found to be a significant risk factor for HSA, and polysubstance use was associated with both NSSI and HSA. Parental separation/divorce, parental mental disorders, alcohol and drug use, and crime were the risk factors for HSA. A positive history of physical and sexual abuse increased the risk of HAS, and a history of neglect increased the risk of NSSI. Conclusions/importance: We suggest that results showing relationship between substance use and associated social features with NSSI and HSA may contribute to elaborating effective and targeted preventive and intervention programs for these high-risk youth groups in Turkey.

  2. [Characteristics and Treatment Strategies for Penetrating Injuries on the Example of Gunshot and Blast Victims without Ballistic Body Armour in Afghanistan (2009 - 2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güsgen, Christoph; Willms, Arnulf; Richardsen, Ines; Bieler, Dan; Kollig, Erwin; Schwab, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Much like other countries, Germany has recently seen terrorist attacks being planned, executed or prevented at the last minute. This highlights the need for expertise in the treatment of penetrating torso traumas by bullets or explosions. Data on the treatment of firearm injuries and, even more so, blast injuries often stems from crises or war regions. However, it is difficult to compare injuries from such regions with injuries from civilian terrorist attacks due to the ballistic body protection (protective vests, body armour) worn by soldiers. Methods An analysis was performed based on data from patients who were treated in the German Military Hospital Mazar-e Sharif for gunshots or injuries from explosions in the years 2009 to 2013. The data selection was based on patients with penetrating injuries to the thorax and/or abdomen. For better comparability with civilian attack scenarios, this study only included civilian patients without ballistic body protection (body armour, protective vests). Results Out of 117 analysed patients, 58 were affected by firearms and 59 by explosive injuries of the thorax or abdomen. 60% of patients had a thoracic injury, 69% had an abdominal injury, and 25.6% had combined thoracic-abdominal injuries. Blast injury patients were significantly more affected by thoracic trauma. As regards abdominal injuries, liver, intestinal, and colonic lesions were leading in number. Patients with blast injuries had significantly more injured organs and a significantly higher ISS averaging 29. 26% of the shot patients and 41% of the blast wounded patients received Damage Control Surgery (DCS). Despite a lower ISS, gunshot victims did not have a lower total number of operations per patient. Overall mortality was 13.7% (10.3% gunshot wounds, 16.7% blast injury). The highest mortality rate (25.7%) was recorded for patients with combined thoracoabdominal injuries (vs. 8.3% for thoracic and 8.7% for abdominal injuries). The ISS of deceased patients was

  3. Characteristics of maxillofacial injuries resulting from road traffic accidents – a 5 year review of the case records from Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Katowice, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drugacz Jan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of employing numerous devices improving the safety in motor vehicles, traffic accidents are still among the main reasons of maxillofacial injuries. The maxillofacial injuries remain the serious clinical problem because of the specificity of this anatomical region. The knowledge of etiologic factors and mechanisms of injuries can be helpful in a satisfactory trauma prevention. The aim of this study was to find out the incidence and the pattern of maxillofacial injuries resulting from traffic accidents in the patients treated in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery (Silesian Medical Academy in Katowice, Poland from January 2001 to December 2005. Methods The material consisted of 1024 case records of patients with maxillofacial injuries treated in the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Silesian Medical Academy. The detailed analysis was carried out on the case records of 198 patients in the age of 3 to 68 with maxillofacial injuries resulting from traffic accidents. On the basis of data from a history, examination on admission, consultations and radiological examinations, patients' age and gender, we obtained the information on a pattern of injury and detailed description of an accident (the date and the time of an accident, the role of the patient in an accident. Results The traffic accidents were the cause of 19,93% maxillofacial injuries in the analyzed period of time. Most of the patients had injuries to the soft tissues of the face (22,21%, followed by tooth and alveolar process injuries (20,71% and mandibular fractures (18,69%. All the types of injuries were more common in men than in women. The majority of the patients were car drivers followed by car passengers, pedestrians, cyclists and motor cyclists. The peak age of the patients was between 18 to 25 years. The prevalent number of accidents resulting in injuries to this region took place in spring, especially between noon and 4 PM. Conclusion Our results

  4. Young adult's own and parental social characteristics predict injury morbidity: a register-based follow-up of 135,000 men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Hanna; Martikainen, Pekka

    2015-04-28

    Sociodemographic differences in injury mortality are well-established, but population-level studies on social patterns of injury morbidity remain few in numbers, particularly among young adults. Yet injuries are the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and disability among young people. Studies among children have shown steep social gradients in severe injuries, but less is known on the social patterning of injuries in late adolescence and early adulthood, when young people are in the process of becoming independent adults. This study examines how young adults' current living arrangements, education, main economic activity, and parental social background are associated with hospital-treated injuries in late adolescence and early adulthood. The study uses prospective, individual-level data gathered from several administrative sources. From a representative 11% sample of the total Finnish population, we included young people between ages 17-29 years during the follow-up (N = 134,938). We used incidence rates and Cox proportional hazards models to study hospital-treated injuries and poisonings in 1998-2008. Higher rates of injury were found among young adults living alone, single mothers, the lower educated and the non-employed, as well as those with lower parental social background, experience of childhood family changes or living with a single parent, and those who had left the parental home at a young age. Injury risks were consistently higher among young adults with lower education, but current living arrangements and main economic activity showed some age-related nuances in the associations: both earlier and later than average transitions in education, employment, and family formation associated with increased injury risks. The social differentials were strongest in poisonings, intentional self-harm, and assaults, but social patterns were also found in falls, traffic-related injuries and other unintentional injuries, underlining the existence of multiple

  5. Pathological characteristics of extremely severe acute radiation injury in a patient's legs and hands after a very uneven accidental exposure to an extremely high dose of 192Ir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qing; Li Guomin; Liu Shujun; Yang Yijing; Li Fumeng; Yang Junhua

    1997-01-01

    The pathological characteristics of an extremely high dose radiation in the legs and hands of a patient is reported. the patient was exposed to 192 Ir γ-rays for 9 hours and 20 minutes, the activity of which was 2.76 TBq. The amputations of the right thigh and left forearm had to be performed 8 days after the irradiation and the debridements and skin graftings were performed on the right hand and the inner side of left knee 55 days after the radiation. Microscopically, massive necrosis of cells of the epidermis, cutaneous appendages, hypodermics and skeletal muscles, and hemorrhage in the dermis, hypodermics and skeletal muscles were seen in the local irradiated parts of the right shank. But the arrector pili muscles in the dermis of the right shank remained. On the fingers and the palm of the left hand, vacuolar degeneration and massive necrosis of the cells of epidermis were present with extensive neutrophil infiltration. Cysts of large or small size were formed from the necrotic cells, separating epidermis from dermis. There were degeneration and necrosis of glandular epithelium cells of sweat glands. Hemorrhage was present in dermis and hypodermics. All the hematopoietic tissues in the bone marrow in the upper ends of the tibia and fibula and in the lower ends of the femur, the radius and the ulna disappeared. Acute radiation ulcers were present on the skin of the left knee and on the skin of the thumb, index finger and middle finger of the right hand. The extremely severe acute radiation injury caused by extremely high dose of 192 Ir led to the necrosis of the extensive soft tissues deep to skeletal muscles and the disappearance of the hematopoietic tissues in the bone marrow

  6. Epidemiological Characteristics of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (TSCI) in the Middle-East and North-Africa (MENA) Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshahidi, Mohamed H; Monir, Nada Y; Elzhery, Mohamed A; Sharaqi, Ahmed A; Haedaya, Hames; Awad, Basem I; Zaghloul, Khaled

    2018-04-01

    To systematically search the literature and to summarize current evidence pertaining to the epidemiology of SCI in the MENA region incidence, gender, age, type of the injury and etiology of the injury. Embase, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and EBSCOhost were systematically searched from their dates of inception till July 2017 for English and non-English language articles. Also, regional databases were searched. Data were extracted from eligible articles and pooled under the random effect model using R . References of the included articles were also screened for potentially relevant studies. We identified 29 articles from seven countries in the MENA region (Turkey, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait and Qatar). The mean age of the cases at time of injury was 31.32 (95% CI: 28.74-33.91). The random pooled annual incidence of TSCI per million was 23.24 (95% CI: 5.64-49.21). Pooled proportion of male gender was 77% (95% CI 73-80%) of the cases. Complete paraplegia was the most common type of injury. Thoracic level injury predominated. Also, the most commonly affected age group was 20-29 then 30-39. Motor vehicle accidents were found to be the leading cause of injury, then falls, gunshot, violence and sports. Further meta-regression analysis showed no association between age and etiology of the injury. This review shows lack of evidence about SCI in most countries of the MENA region. More epidemiological studies are needed.

  7. Epidemiologic study of road traffic injuries by road user type characteristics and road environment in Iran: a community-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamabadi, Hamidreza; Vafaee, Reza; Hadadi, Mashyaneh; Abdalvand, Ali; Esnaashari, Hamidreza; Soori, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Crash injuries in traffic accidents are affected by a variety of factors. In this study we analyzed road user type information based on different contributing factors. Data from all of the road traffic victims on a road extending from the east of the city of Tehran to Mazandaran province were included prospectively over a one-year period (May 2008 to May 2009). Data collected included the crash time, patient's age and sex, road user category, helmet or seat belt use, anatomical site of injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and mortality. Prevalence and cross-tabulations were included in the analysis. There were 433 patients, of whom 345 were hospitalized and 33 died either before or after arriving at the hospital. Sixty-nine percent of injured patients were vehicle occupants. Mean and median of ISS were higher for pedestrians, who accounted for 49 percent of the deaths. Head injury was the most common injury and injury to upper and lower extremities was the most common cause of admission. A significant difference in lower extremity injuries between vehicle occupants and nonoccupants was found. Sex and age group did not have a significant effect on mortality. Mortality was significantly higher in pedestrians (P road user type. Because pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, stricter legislation and law enforcement should be used to protect them. Greater protection can also be reached by holding effective public awareness campaigns on how to use different roads safely. On the other hand, because rear seat passengers are at the same risk for road traffic injuries as front seat passengers, employment of newer laws and preventive measures targeting this group of occupants can prevent many road traffic injuries (RTIs).

  8. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  9. Golf Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Golf Injuries Golf looks like an easy game to ... WHAT TYPES OF INJURIES ARE MOST COMMON IN GOLF? Acute injuries are usually the result of a ...

  10. Diagnosis of Acute Groin Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serner, Andreas; Tol, Johannes L; Jomaah, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute groin injuries are common in high-intensity sports, but there are insufficient data on injury characteristics such as injury mechanisms and clinical and radiological findings. PURPOSE: To describe these characteristics in a cohort of athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study......; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: A total of 110 male athletes (mean age, 25.6 ± 4.7 years) with sports-related acute groin pain were prospectively included within 7 days of injury from August 2012 to April 2014. Standardized history taking, a clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and....../or ultrasound (US) were performed. RESULTS: The most frequent injury mechanism in soccer was kicking (40%), and change of direction was most frequent in other sports (31%). Clinically, adductor injuries accounted for 66% of all injuries and primarily involved the adductor longus on imaging (91% US, 93% MRI...

  11. Epidemiology of injuries in elite football

    OpenAIRE

    Waldén, Markus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the injury characteristics in elite football, and risk factors for injury with special emphasis on anterior cruciate ligament injury. All five papers followed a prospective design using a standardised methodology. Individual training and match exposure was recorded for all players participating as well as all injuries resulting in time loss. Severe injury was defined as absence from play longer than 4 weeks. In Paper I, all 14 teams in the Swedish men’s...

  12. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N

    2010-07-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  13. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work in certain jobs, you may need protection. The most common type of injury happens when something irritates the ...

  14. Ocular Injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2015-04-02

    Apr 2, 2015 ... KEYWORDS: Bangers, eye injuries, holidays, Nigeria ... antibiotic and cycloplegic eye drops, antibiotic ointment at night and .... Adeoti C. O, Bello T. O., Ashaye A. O. Blinding ... Can fireworks-related injuries to children during ...

  15. ACL Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... while doing things like skiing, playing soccer or football, and jumping on a trampoline. When you injure ... severity of the injury, age, physical condition, medical history, and other injuries or illnesses. People who are ...

  16. Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Knee Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Knee Injuries What's in ... can do to protect them. What's in a Knee? The knee is a joint , actually the largest ...

  17. Hamstring Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstring injury Overview A hamstring injury occurs when you strain or pull one of your hamstring muscles — the group of three muscles that run along ... You may be more likely to get a hamstring injury if you play soccer, basketball, football, tennis ...

  18. Orienteering injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.

  19. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  20. Measuring anxiety after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Anxiety item bank and linkage with GAD-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Heinemann, Allen W; Pohlig, Ryan T; Carle, Adam; Choi, Seung W

    2015-05-01

    To develop a calibrated item bank and computer adaptive test to assess anxiety symptoms in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), transform scores to the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) metric, and create a statistical linkage with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-7, a widely used anxiety measure. Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods; large-scale item calibration field testing; confirmatory factor analysis; graded response model item response theory analyses; statistical linking techniques to transform scores to a PROMIS metric; and linkage with the GAD-7. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Spinal Cord Injury-Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Anxiety Item Bank Seven hundred sixteen individuals with traumatic SCI completed 38 items assessing anxiety, 17 of which were PROMIS items. After 13 items (including 2 PROMIS items) were removed, factor analyses confirmed unidimensionality. Item response theory analyses were used to estimate slopes and thresholds for the final 25 items (15 from PROMIS). The observed Pearson correlation between the SCI-QOL Anxiety and GAD-7 scores was 0.67. The SCI-QOL Anxiety item bank demonstrates excellent psychometric properties and is available as a computer adaptive test or short form for research and clinical applications. SCI-QOL Anxiety scores have been transformed to the PROMIS metric and we provide a method to link SCI-QOL Anxiety scores with those of the GAD-7.

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...

  3. A cross-sectional study of the effects of load carriage on running characteristics and tibial mechanical stress: implications for stress-fracture injuries in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun; Silder, Amy; Zhang, Ju; Reifman, Jaques; Unnikrishnan, Ginu

    2017-03-23

    Load carriage is associated with musculoskeletal injuries, such as stress fractures, during military basic combat training. By investigating the influence of load carriage during exercises on the kinematics and kinetics of the body and on the biomechanical responses of bones, such as the tibia, we can quantify the role of load carriage on bone health. We conducted a cross-sectional study using an integrated musculoskeletal-finite-element model to analyze how the amount of load carriage in women affected the kinematics and kinetics of the body, as well as the tibial mechanical stress during running. We also compared the biomechanics of walking (studied previously) and running under various load-carriage conditions. We observed substantial changes in both hip kinematics and kinetics during running when subjects carried a load. Relative to those observed during running without load, the joint reaction forces at the hip increased by an average of 49.1% body weight when subjects carried a load that was 30% of their body weight (ankle, 4.8%; knee, 20.6%). These results indicate that the hip extensor muscles in women are the main power generators when running with load carriage. When comparing running with walking, finite element analysis revealed that the peak tibial stress during running (tension, 90.6 MPa; compression, 136.2 MPa) was more than three times as great as that during walking (tension, 24.1 MPa; compression, 40.3 MPa), whereas the cumulative stress within one stride did not differ substantially between running (15.2 MPa · s) and walking (13.6 MPa · s). Our findings highlight the critical role of hip extensor muscles and their potential injury in women when running with load carriage. More importantly, our results underscore the need to incorporate the cumulative effect of mechanical stress when evaluating injury risk under various exercise conditions. The results from our study help to elucidate the mechanisms of stress fracture in women.

  4. Ocular injury in hurling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, T H

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular injuries sustained in hurling in the south of Ireland and to investigate reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear. METHODS: Retrospective review of the case notes of 310 patients who attended Cork University Hospital or Waterford Regional Hospital between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2002 with ocular injuries sustained during a hurling match. A confidential questionnaire on reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear was completed by 130 players. RESULTS: Hurling related eye injuries occurred most commonly in young men. Fifty two patients (17%) required hospital admission, with hyphaema accounting for 71% of admissions. Ten injuries required intraocular surgical INTERVENTION: retinal detachment repair (5); macular hole surgery (1); repair of partial thickness corneal laceration (1); repair of globe perforation (1); enucleation (1); trabeculectomy for post-traumatic glaucoma (1). Fourteen eyes (4.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6\\/12 and six (2%) had BCVA <3\\/60. In the survey, 63 players (48.5%) reported wearing no protective facemask while playing hurling. Impairment of vision was the most common reason cited for non-use. CONCLUSIONS: Hurling related injury is a significant, and preventable, cause of ocular morbidity in young men in Ireland. The routine use of appropriate protective headgear and faceguards would result in a dramatic reduction in the incidence and severity of these injuries, and should be mandatory.

  5. Hamstring injuries: update article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Ernlund

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hamstring (HS muscle injuries are the most common injury in sports. They are correlated to long rehabilitations and have a great tendency to recur. The HS consist of the long head of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus. The patient's clinical presentation depends on the characteristics of the lesion, which may vary from strain to avulsions of the proximal insertion. The most recognized risk factor is a previous injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the injury diagnosis and classification. Many classification systems have been proposed; the current classifications aim to describe the injury and correlate it to the prognosis. The treatment is conservative, with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the acute phase followed by a muscle rehabilitation program. Proximal avulsions have shown better results with surgical repair. When the patient is pain free, shows recovery of strength and muscle flexibility, and can perform the sport's movements, he/she is able to return to play. Prevention programs based on eccentric strengthening of the muscles have been indicated both to prevent the initial injury as well as preventing recurrence.

  6. Measuring depression after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Depression item bank and linkage with PHQ-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Kisala, Pamela A; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Bombardier, Charles H; Pohlig, Ryan T; Heinemann, Allen W; Carle, Adam; Choi, Seung W

    2015-05-01

    To develop a calibrated spinal cord injury-quality of life (SCI-QOL) item bank, computer adaptive test (CAT), and short form to assess depressive symptoms experienced by individuals with SCI, transform scores to the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) metric, and create a crosswalk to the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9. We used grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration field testing, confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory (IRT) analyses, and statistical linking techniques to transform scores to a PROMIS metric and to provide a crosswalk with the PHQ-9. Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Adults with traumatic SCI. Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Depression Item Bank Individuals with SCI were involved in all phases of SCI-QOL development. A sample of 716 individuals with traumatic SCI completed 35 items assessing depression, 18 of which were PROMIS items. After removing 7 non-PROMIS items, factor analyses confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. We used a graded response IRT model to estimate slopes and thresholds for the 28 retained items. The SCI-QOL Depression measure correlated 0.76 with the PHQ-9. The SCI-QOL Depression item bank provides a reliable and sensitive measure of depressive symptoms with scores reported in terms of general population norms. We provide a crosswalk to the PHQ-9 to facilitate comparisons between measures. The item bank may be administered as a CAT or as a short form and is suitable for research and clinical applications.

  7. Paragliding injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during st...

  8. Paragliding injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-06-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries.

  9. Training errors and running related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries.......The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries....

  10. 中国道路交通伤的流行病学特征%Epidemiology characteristics of road traffic injury in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘曙明; 陈尔真; Shankuan Zhu; PeterLayde; Ronald Pirralo; Stephen Hargarten

    2005-01-01

    Objective To provide a broad epidemiological view of road traffic injury and death in China to help in policy and infrastructure development.Methods We searched MEDLINE and the China Academic Journal Full-Text Database (CAJ), and reviewed the annual reports of road traffic injuries, road traffic violations, and motor vehicle drivers in China from the website of Municipal Public Security (MPS) of the People's Republic of China.Results Road crash fatalities had been increasing rapidly in China, risky driving behavior and slow increase in road construction compared with the rapid increase in the number of cars might be the main factors in increasing morbidity and mortality in motor vehicle crashes.Conclusion Road traffic safety is a complicated and serious problem in China. Particular attention must be paid to road traffic events and conditions in rural areas, the most vulnerable road users.Government would establish a sound surveillance system using consistent definitions and improve EMS systems throughout China.%目的通过分析中国道路交通损伤的流行病学现状,为相关交通政策的制定和改进提供依据.方法分析近年来中国公安部发布的道路交通损伤年报以及检索MEDLINE和CAJ上有关中国道路交通损伤研究的论文和论著.结果中国交通事故伤亡人数目前增长十分迅速,其中风险驾驶行为和道路交通建设的相对滞后是影响道路交通损伤的重要因素.结论道路交通损伤在中国是一个十分复杂而严重的问题,政府应该更多关注农村地区、行人的安全问题,建立全国统一的监控体系,加强EMS体系建设.

  11. Measuring stigma after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Stigma item bank and short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S; Pace, Natalie; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W; Heinemann, Allen W

    2015-05-01

    To develop a calibrated item bank and computer adaptive test (CAT) to assess the effects of stigma on health-related quality of life in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration field testing, confirmatory factor analysis, and item response theory (IRT)-based psychometric analyses. Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Adults with traumatic SCI. SCI-QOL Stigma Item Bank A sample of 611 individuals with traumatic SCI completed 30 items assessing SCI-related stigma. After 7 items were iteratively removed, factor analyses confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. Graded Response Model IRT analyses were used to estimate slopes and thresholds for the final 23 items. The SCI-QOL Stigma item bank is unique not only in the assessment of SCI-related stigma but also in the inclusion of individuals with SCI in all phases of its development. Use of confirmatory factor analytic and IRT methods provide flexibility and precision of measurement. The item bank may be administered as a CAT or as a 10-item fixed-length short form and can be used for research and clinical applications.

  12. Measuring resilience after spinal cord injury: Development, validation and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Resilience item bank and short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorson, David; Tulsky, David S; Kisala, Pamela A; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Weiland, Brian; Choi, Seung W

    2015-05-01

    To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Resilience item bank and short form. Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a resilience item bank through the use of focus groups with individuals with SCI and clinicians with expertise in SCI, cognitive interviews, and item-response theory based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit and differential item functioning (DIF). We tested a 32-item pool at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs medical center. A total of 717 individuals with SCI completed the Resilience items. A unidimensional model was observed (CFI=0.968; RMSEA=0.074) and measurement precision was good (theta range between -3.1 and 0.9). Ten items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes we found this to be negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 21 retained items. This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Resilience item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available.

  13. Measuring self-esteem after spinal cord injury: Development, validation and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Self-esteem item bank and short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Tate, Denise G; Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S

    2015-05-01

    To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury-Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Self-esteem item bank. Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a self-esteem item bank through the use of focus groups with individuals with SCI and clinicians with expertise in SCI, cognitive interviews, and item-response theory-(IRT) based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit, differential item functioning (DIF) and precision. We tested a pool of 30 items at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital, and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. A total of 717 individuals with SCI completed the self-esteem items. A unidimensional model was observed (CFI=0.946; RMSEA=0.087) and measurement precision was good (theta range between -2.7 and 0.7). Eleven items were flagged for DIF; however, effect sizes were negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 23 retained items. This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Self-esteem item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available.

  14. Whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard; Peter, Jason

    2005-10-01

    Whiplash injuries are very common and usually are associated with rear-end collisions. However, a whiplash injury can be caused by any event that results in hyperextension and flexion of the cervical spine. These injuries are of serious concern to all consumers due to escalating cost of diagnosis, treatment, insurance, and litigation. Most acute whiplash injury cases respond well to conservative treatments, which result in resolution of symptoms usually within weeks to a few months after the injury occurred. Chronic whiplash injuries often are harder to diagnose and treat and often result in poor outcomes. Current research shows that various structures in the cervical spine receive nociceptive innervation and potentially may be the cause of chronic pain symptoms. One potential pain generator showing promise is the facet or zygapophyseal joints. Various researchers have proven that these joints are injured during whiplash injuries and that diagnosis and temporary pain relief can be obtained with facet joint injections. The initial evaluation of any patient should follow an organized and stepwise approach, and more serious causes of neck pain must first be ruled out through the history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. Treatment regimens should be evidence-based, focusing on treatments that have proven to be effective in treating acute and chronic whiplash injuries.

  15. Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trauma can happen at home, school, play or sports. Most common injuries are scratches to the cornea or blunt trauma. Approved and tested eye and face protection is essential to prevent injuries. Sports such as hockey, baseball, racquet ball, squash, and ...

  16. Rowing Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Jane S; Vinther, Anders; Wilson, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport. Through a better understanding of the nature of the sport and mechanisms of injury, physicians and other healthcare providers will be better equipped to treat...

  17. Trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysted, M; Drogset, J O

    2006-12-01

    To describe the mechanism, location and types of injury for all patients treated for trampoline-associated injuries at St Olav's University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, from March 2001to October 2004. Patients were identified from a National Injury Surveillance System. All patients were asked to complete a standard questionnaire at their first visit at the hospital. Most data were recorded prospectively, but data on the mechanism of injury, the number of participants on the trampoline at the time of injury, adult supervision and whether the activity occurred at school or in another organised setting were collected retrospectively. A total of 556 patients, 56% male and 44% female, were included. The mean age of patients was 11 (range 1-62) years. 77% of the injuries occurred on the body of the trampoline, including falls on to the mat, collisions with another jumper, falls on to the frame or the springs, and performing a somersault, whereas 22% of the people fell off the trampoline. In 74% of the cases, more than two people were on the trampoline, with as many as nine trampolinists noted at the time of injury. For children Trampolining can cause serious injuries, especially in the neck and elbow areas of young children. The use of a trampoline is a high-risk activity. However, a ban is not supported. The importance of having safety guidelines for the use of trampolines is emphasised.

  18. Injuries in Spanish female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiologic research to learn the incidence, type, location, and severity of female soccer injuries and the risk factors for sustaining a sport injury is the first step in developing preventive policies. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of injuries in the population of female soccer players in Spain. Methods: The injuries incurred by 25,397 female soccer players were registered by the medical staff of the Spanish Football Federation during 1 season. A standardized medical questionnaire was used to classify the injury according to type, severity, location, and injury mechanism. A total of 2108 injuries was reported with an incidence of 0.083 injuries per player per season. Most injuries were in the lower limbs (74.0%, mainly affecting knee (30.4% and ankle joints (17.9%. Results: The proportion of injuries derived from contact with another player was higher during matches (33.7% than during training (11.4%; p  0.05. Conclusion: Most female soccer injuries were located at the knee and ankle; the injury mechanism determined the playing time lost; and the player's age did not affect injury characteristics. Keywords: Ankle, Epidemiology, Knee, Sport injuries, Women

  19. Exploring the relationship between general practice characteristics, and attendance at walk-in centres, minor injuries units and EDs in England 2012/2013: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammes, Peter; Morris, Richard W; Brangan, Emer; Checkland, Kath; England, Helen; Huntley, Alyson; Lasserson, Daniel; MacKichan, Fiona; Salisbury, Chris; Wye, Lesley; Purdy, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    For several years, EDs in the UK NHS have faced considerable increases in attendance rates. Walk-in centres (WiCs) and minor injuries units (MIUs) have been suggested as solutions. We aimed to investigate the associations between practice and practice population characteristics with ED attendance rates or combined ED/WiC/MIU attendance, and the associations between WiC/MIU and ED attendance. We used general practice-level data including 7462 English practices in 2012/2013 and present adjusted regression coefficients from linear multivariable analysis for relationships between patients' emergency attendance rates and practice characteristics. Every percentage-point increase in patients reporting inability to make an appointment was associated with an increase in emergency attendance by 0.36 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.66) per 1000 population. Percentage-point increases in patients unable to speak to a general practitioner (GP)/nurse within two workdays and patients able to speak often to their preferred GP were associated with increased emergency attendance/1000 population by 0.23 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.42) and 0.10 (95% CI 0.00 to 0.19), respectively. Practices in areas encompassing several towns (conurbations) had higher attendance than rural practices, as did practices with more non-UK-qualified GPs. Practice population characteristics associated with increased emergency attendance included higher unemployment rates, higher percentage of UK whites and lower male life expectancy, which showed stronger associations than practice characteristics. Furthermore, higher MIU or WiC attendance rates were associated with lower ED attendance rates. Improving availability of appointments and opportunities to speak a GP/nurse at short notice might reduce ED attendance. Establishing MIUs and WiCs might also reduce ED attendance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, Post-renal failure - injury; Kidney obstruction - injury Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...

  2. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  3. Badminton injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøner, K; Schmidt, S A; Nielsen, A B; Yde, J; Jakobsen, B W; Møller-Madsen, B; Jensen, J

    1990-01-01

    In a one year period, from 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1986, 4303 patients with sports injuries were treated at Aarhus Amtssygehus and Aarhus Kommunehospital. The mean age was 21.6 years (range 7-72 years) and 2830 were men. Two hundred and seventeen badminton injuries occurred in 208 patients (136 men) with a mean age of 29.6 years (range 7-57 years), constituting 4.1 percent of all sport injuries in Aarhus. Joints and ligaments were injured in 58.5 percent of the patients, most frequently located in the lower limb and significantly more often among patients younger than 30 years of age. Muscle injury occurred in 19.8 percent of the patients. This type of injury was significantly more frequent among patients older than 30 years of age. Most injuries were minor. However, 6.8 percent of the patients were hospitalized and 30.9 percent received additional treatment by a physician. As the risk of injury varies with age, attempts to plan training individually and to institute prophylactic measures should be made. PMID:2078802

  4. [Forensic analysis of injuries in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heltai, Nóra; Baráth, Zoltán; Kereszty, Éva M

    2016-03-13

    Documentation and evaluation of dental injuries in forensic medicine are rather problematic. It needs a professional work up why dental injuries are out of focus, and how the diagnosis, pattern and treatment are influenced by novel approaches of dentistry. The aims of the authors were to characterize dental injuries, to compare their own findings to literature data concerning the type and characteristics of injuries, and propose a diagnostic workflow. Expert's reports between 2009 and 2013 at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Szeged were reviewed. Review of about 7000 reports revealed only 20 cases with dental injury, which is in contrast with literature data indicating a significantly higher frequency of dental injuries. Although the number of "dental cases" was low, there were several additional cases where the trauma probably affected the teeth but the injury was not documented. In future more attention is needed in forensic evaluation of the mechanism, therapeutic strategy and prognosis of dental injuries.

  5. ETIOPATHOGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INTRAVENTRICULAR HEMORRHAGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF PERINATAL BRAIN INJURIES: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND THE RESULTS OF OWN RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Glukhov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The term «intraventricular hemorrhage of the newborn» was first introduced in the Soviet Union in 1970s. In the first soviet guidelines on pediatric neurology, the intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH was considered as a complication after birth injury induced by a mechanical trauma to the fetal head due to the choroidal vascular plexus. The first large-scale studies devoted to IVH in children were conducted in the USA in the 1970s after the introduction of ultrasound examination of brain, which is the main instrumental method for IVH diagnostics. In 1978, the specialists manage to explore the germinal matrix of the brain in the fetus and newborn, which is believed to be the main source of IVH in premature newborns. This structure was shown to give rise to brain neuroblasts and glia: this is a capillary-rich area that consists of poorly differentiated randomly arranged cells, and has a soft connective-tissue carcass that can cause IVH in this area in newborns. According to a currently accepted approach, risk factors for IVH are divided into 3 pathogenetic groups: antenatal, intranatal and postnatal. Among the antenatal risk factors, the main role belongs to the prenatal infection, especially viral infection. Besides, mother comorbidities (first of all cardiovascular and endocrine diseases and pathological pregnancy (threatened abortion, severe gestosis and placental insufficiency are also considered as important predictors of IVH. The internatal risk factors include placental detachment, precipitate labor, disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome in mother etc. In this article the authors present a detailed review of currently available data as well as the results of own studies.Objective: to provide an overview of the stages of the IVH investigation, to identify the main features of the IVH etiopathogenesis comparing to other perinatal disorders of the central nervous system, and to assess the consequences of IVH.Materials and

  6. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dallas, TX: American Red Cross; 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  7. Chilling injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahar

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... ROS avoidance genes play pivotal role in defense mechanism against chilling injury derived oxidative stress. ... Low temperature storage is a postharvest technology ..... crops is highly dependent on ethylene production and.

  8. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Power Saws for 2001 05/15/2002 Nail Gun Related Injuries and Deaths Home Maintenance & Construction 05/ ... Information (FOIA) Inspector General No Fear Act Data USA.gov Report an Unsafe Product Contact Us: 800- ...

  9. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  10. Ear Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of different injuries can affect the outer ear. Cauliflower ear (subperichondrial hematoma) A blunt blow to the ... to a deformed ear. This deformity, called a cauliflower ear, is common among wrestlers, boxers, and rugby ...

  11. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  12. Tibial shaft fracture and ankle injury - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Zamboni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The authors report on a case of tibial shaft fracture associated with ankle injury. The clinical, radiological and surgical characteristics are discussed. Assessment of associated injuries is often overlooked and these injuries are hard to diagnose. When torque occurs in the lower limb, the ankle becomes susceptible to simultaneous injury. It is essential to make careful assessment based on clinical, radiographic, intraoperative and postoperative characteristics in order to attain functional recovery.

  13. Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Although there have been significant advances in management, associated severe injuries, in particular chest injuries, remain a major challenge. Extracranial injuries, especially chest injuries increase mortality in patients with TBI in both short.

  14. [Definition of hospital discharge, serious injury and death from traffic injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Katherine; Seguí-Gómez, María; Arrufat, Vita; Barberia, Eneko; Cabeza, Elena; Cirera, Eva; Gil, Mercedes; Martín, Carlos; Novoa, Ana M; Olabarría, Marta; Lardelli, Pablo; Suelves, Josep Maria; Santamariña-Rubio, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic injury surveillance involves methodological difficulties due, among other reasons, to the lack of consensus criteria for case definition. Police records have usually been the main source of information for monitoring traffic injuries, while health system data has hardly been used. Police records usually include comprehensive information on the characteristics of the crash, but often underreport injury cases and do not collect reliable information on the severity of injuries. However, statistics on severe traffic injuries have been based almost exclusively on police data. The aim of this paper is to propose criteria based on medical records to define: a) "Hospital discharge for traffic injuries", b) "Person with severe traffic injury", and c) "Death from traffic injuries" in order to homogenize the use of these sources. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  18. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ... Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  2. Injury Pattern in Icelandic Elite Male Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafnsson, Elis Thor; Valdimarsson, Örnólfur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Árnason, Árni

    2017-10-10

    To examine the incidence, type, location, and severity of injuries in Icelandic elite male handball players and compare across factors like physical characteristics and playing position. Prospective cohort study. The latter part of the preseason and the competitive season of Icelandic male handball. Eleven handball teams (185 players) from the 2 highest divisions in Iceland participated in the study. Six teams (109 players) completed the study. Injuries were recorded by the players under supervision from their team physiotherapists or coaches. Coaches recorded training exposure, and match exposure was obtained from the Icelandic and European Handball Federations. The players directly recorded potential risk factors, such as age, height, weight, previous injuries, and player position. Injury incidence and injury location and number of injury days. Recorded time-loss injuries were 86, of which 53 (62%) were acute and 33 (38%) were due to overuse. The incidence of acute injuries was 15.0 injuries/1000 hours during games and 1.1 injuries/1000 hours during training sessions. No significant difference was found in injury incidence between teams, but number of injury days did differ between teams (P = 0.0006). Acute injuries were most common in knees (26%), ankles (19%), and feet/toes (17%), but overuse injuries occurred in low back/pelvic region (39%), shoulders (21%), and knees (21%). Previous knee injuries were the only potential risk factor found for knee injury. The results indicate a higher rate of overuse injuries in low back/pelvic region and shoulders than in comparable studies.

  3. Rollerblading and skateboarding injuries in children in northeast England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, I; Dorani, B J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the demographic profile and injury characteristics of children presenting with rollerblading or skateboarding associated injuries. This study also examines the circumstances leading to these injuries with a view to suggesting preventive measures. METHODS: A prospective study using a proforma to collect data from each child presenting with rollerblading or skateboarding related injuries. Injury details were obtained from clinical and radiological records. The injury severity score (ISS) was calculated for each child and statistical analysis was done using chi2. RESULTS: Eighty one children presented with rollerblading associated injuries accounting for 7% of childhood injuries seen during the eight month study period. The mean age was 10.3 years and sex distribution was equal. Soft tissue injuries accounted for 51% and fractures for 49% of the injuries. Wrist fractures alone accounted for 86% of all fractures seen. Seventy per cent of soft tissue injuries involved the upper limb. The overall mean ISS was 3.0 with a range from 1 to 9. Injury was attributed to fall secondary to loss of control or collision with an obstacle while rollerblading in the majority of children. Injury occurred while rollerblading in residential or public places in 99% of the children. In contrast skateboarding related injuries were much rarer and caused soft tissue injuries only. CONCLUSION: This study has revealed a higher incidence of rollerblading injuries than previously suspected. Effective management strategies should include not only the treatment of these injuries but also attention to their causes and prevention. PMID:10505916

  4. Muscle injury is the principal injury type and hamstring muscle injury is the first injury diagnosis during top-level international athletics championships between 2007 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2016-05-01

    During top-level international athletics championships, muscle injuries are frequent. To analyse the incidence and characteristics of muscle injuries and hamstring muscle injuries (hamstring injuries) occurring during top-level international athletics championships. During 16 international championships held between 2007 and 2015, national medical team and local organising committee physicians reported daily all injuries on a standardised injury report form. Only muscle injuries (muscle tears and muscle cramps) and hamstring injuries have been analysed. 40.9% of all recorded injuries (n=720) were muscle injuries, with 57.5% of them resulting in time loss. The overall incidence of muscle injuries was higher in male athletes than female athletes (51.9±6.0 vs 30.3±5.0 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.71; 95% CI 1.45 to 2.01). Muscle injuries mainly affected the thigh (52.9%) and lower leg (20.1%), and were mostly caused by overuse with sudden onset (38.2%) and non-contact trauma (24.6%). Muscle injury risk varied according to the event groups. Hamstring injuries represented 17.1% of all injuries, with a higher risk in male compared to female athletes (22.4±3.4 vs 11.5±2.6 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.94; 95% CI 1.42 to 2.66). During international athletics championships, muscle injury is the principal type of injury, and among those, the hamstring is the most commonly affected, with a two times higher risk in male than female athletes. Athletes in explosive power events, male athletes and older male athletes, in specific were more at risk of muscle injuries and hamstring injuries. Injury prevention strategies should be sex-specific. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Combination of radiation injuries: pathogenesis, clinic, therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyba, A.F.; Farshatova, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    Modern notions on combined radiation injuries (CRI) are presented. Characteristic of injurious factors of nuclear explosion and common regularities of the CRI origination is given. The data on the CRI clinical peculiarities, diagnostics and treatment, principles of medical assistance for the injured on the stages of medical evacuation and recommendations on rehabilitation are presented

  6. Surfing-related ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; McDonald, H R; Rubsamen, P E; Luttrull, J K; Drouilhet, J H; Frambach, D A; Boyer, D S; Lambrou, F H; Hendrick, A; Weiss, J N; Engstrom, R E; Ing, M

    1998-01-01

    This report evaluates the clinical characteristics of surfing-related ocular trauma to learn the nature of such injuries and propose possible preventive measures. The authors reviewed 11 cases of surfing-related eye injuries caused by direct trauma from the surfboard, studying their mechanism of injury, the associated ocular complications, and the anatomic and visual outcomes of surgical repair. Surfing-related ocular injuries occurred exclusively in young males (mean age, 24.8 years; range, 14-37 years). The mechanism of injury most frequently responsible was impact with the sharp nose of the surfboard following a fall. Serious posterior segment complications were observed in all 11 patients, with nine patients suffering ruptured globes. Despite immediate medical attention, five patients did not recover ambulatory levels of visual acuity (>5/200). Surfing-related ocular trauma presenting to the retinal specialist typically leaves the patient with a permanent visual disability. Important factors contributing to these high-velocity injuries include the sharply pointed nose of the surfboard and the leash keeping the surfer in close proximity to the board following a fall. A simple modification in surfboard design such as blunting the sharp nose of the surfboard, or appropriate protective guards fitted over the surfboard nose, should lessen the severity of such injuries.

  7. Musculoskeletal Injury in Professional Dancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Craig L; Cassidy, John David; Côté, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with injury in professional ballet and modern dancers, and assess if dancers are reporting their injuries and explore reasons for not reporting injuries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Participants...... were recruited from nine professional ballet and modern dance companies in Canada, Denmark, Israel, and Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Professional ballet and modern dancers. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: Sociodemographic variables included age, sex, height, weight, and before-tax yearly or monthly income. Dance...... specific characteristics included number of years in present dance company, number of years dancing professionally, number of years dancing total, and rank in the company. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported injury and Self-Estimated Functional Inability because of Pain. RESULTS: A total of 260 dancers...

  8. Fingertip Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Fingertip Injury Email to a friend * required fields ...

  9. Musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigirey, V

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.

  10. Methodological systematic review: mortality in elderly patients with cervical spine injury: a critical appraisal of the reporting of baseline characteristics, follow-up, cause of death, and analysis of risk factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Albert, T.J.; Veth, R.P.H.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Methodologic systematic review. OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of reported risk factors for mortality in elderly patients with cervical spine injury. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In elderly patients with cervical spine injury, mortality has frequently been associated with the type

  11. An internet survey of the characteristics and physical activity of community-dwelling Australian adults with acquired brain injury: Exploring interest in an internet-delivered self-management program focused on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Taryn M; Dean, Catherine M; Dear, Blake F; Hush, Julia M; Titov, Nickolai

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) are more likely to be physically inactive and experience barriers to accessing services to address inactivity. This study was designed to guide the development of an internet-delivered self-management program to increase physical activity after ABI. The aims of this study were to examine the current physical activity status of community-dwelling Australian adults with ABI, the barriers to physical activity they experience and to explore interest an internet-delivered self-management program aimed at increasing physical activity. An online survey of Australian adults with ABI was used to collect information about demographic characteristics; general health; emotional well-being; mobility and physical activity status, and satisfaction; barriers to physical activity; confidence in overcoming barriers, and; interest in an internet self-management program. Data were analyzed descriptively and correlational analyses examined relationships between variables. Data were analyzed from 59 respondents. Over half were not satisfied with their current physical activity status. The most frequently reported barriers were pain/discomfort, fatigue and fear, and confidence to overcome these barriers was very low. Interest in an internet-delivered self-management program was high (74%) and not related to the amount of physical activity, satisfaction with physical activity and mobility status or total number of barriers. Australian adults with ABI are not satisfied with their activity levels and experience barriers in maintaining their physical activity levels. Participants were interested in accessing an internet-delivered self-management program aimed at improving physical activity levels. Therefore such a program warrants development and evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute Gastrocnemius-Soleus Complex Injuries in National Football League Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Brian C.; Belkin, Nicole S.; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P.; Potter, Hollis G.; Warren, Russell F.; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity muscle injuries are common in professional football. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps injuries in National Football League (NFL) athletes, calf injuries occur with relative frequency and have not previously been studied. Purpose: To evaluate gastrocnemius-soleus complex muscle injuries over the past 13 years from a single NFL team to determine the incidence of such injuries, their imaging characteristics, and return to play after such injuries and ...

  13. Exploring the relationship between general practice characteristics and attendance at Walk-in Centres, Minor Injuries Units and Emergency Departments in England 2009/10-2012/2013: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammes, Peter; Morris, Richard W; Brangan, Emer; Checkland, Kath; England, Helen; Huntley, Alyson; Lasserson, Daniel; MacKichan, Fiona; Salisbury, Chris; Wye, Lesley; Purdy, Sarah

    2017-08-08

    The UK National Health Service Emergency Departments (ED) have recently faced increasing attendance rates. This study investigated associations of general practice and practice population characteristics with emergency care service attendance rates. A longitudinal design with practice-level measures of access and continuity of care, patient population demographics and use of emergency care for the financial years 2009/10 to 2012/13. The main outcome measures were self-referred discharged ED attendance rate, and combined self-referred discharged ED, self-referred Walk-in Centre (WiC) and self-referred Minor Injuries Unit (MIU) attendance rate per 1000 patients. Multilevel models estimated adjusted regression coefficients for relationships between patients' emergency attendance rates and patients' reported satisfaction with opening hours and waiting time at the practice, proportion of patients having a preferred GP, and use of WiC and MIU, both between practices, and within practices over time. Practice characteristics associated with higher ED attendance rates included lower percentage of patients satisfied with waiting time (0.22 per 1% decrease, 95%CI 0.02 to 0.43) and lower percentage having a preferred GP (0.12 per 1% decrease, 95%CI 0.02 to 0.21). Population influences on higher attendance included more elderly, more female and more unemployed patients, and lower male life-expectancy and urban conurbation location. Net reductions in ED attendance were only seen for practices whose WiC or MIU attendance was high, above the 60th centile for MIU and above the 75th centile for WiC. Combined emergency care attendance fell over time if more patients within a practice were satisfied with opening hours (-0.26 per 1% increase, 95%CI -0.45 to -0.08). Practices with more patients satisfied with waiting time, having a preferred GP, and using MIU and WIC services, had lower ED attendance. Increases over time in attendance at MIUs, and patient satisfaction with opening hours

  14. Comparative outcome of bomb explosion injuries versus high-powered gunshot injuries of the upper extremity in a civilian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Rivkin, Gurion; Avitzour, Malka; Liebergall, Meir; Mintz, Yoav; Mosheiff, Ram

    2013-03-01

    Explosion injuries to the upper extremity have specific clinical characteristics that differ from injuries due to other mechanisms. To evaluate the upper extremity injury pattern of attacks on civilian targets, comparing bomb explosion injuries to gunshot injuries and their functional recovery using standard outcome measures. Of 157 patients admitted to the hospital between 2000 and 2004, 72 (46%) sustained explosion injuries and 85 (54%) gunshot injuries. The trauma registry files were reviewed and the patients completed the DASH Questionnaire (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand) and SF-12 (Short Form-12) after a minimum period of 1 year. Of the 157 patients, 72 (46%) had blast injuries and 85 (54%) had shooting injuries. The blast casualties had higher Injury Severity Scores (47% vs. 22% with a score of > 16, P = 0.02) and higher percent of patients treated in intensive care units (47% vs. 28%, P = 0.02). Although the Abbreviated Injury Scale score of the upper extremity injury was similar in the two groups, the blast casualties were found to have more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries and were treated surgically more often. No difference was found in the SF-12 or DASH scores between the groups at follow up. The casualties with upper extremity blast injuries were more severely injured and sustained more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries to the upper extremity. However, the rating of the local injury to the isolated limb is similar, as was the subjective functional recovery.

  15. [Injuries in France: trends and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, J-B; Thélot, B; Beck, F

    2013-06-01

    Whatever the type of injury considered, prevention requires an improvement in health services' awareness of risk factors. The Health Barometer is a general population survey conducted in France since 1992 to contribute to surveillance in this field. The survey's statistical power and the numerous health topics included in the questionnaire provide accurate information for healthcare professionals and decision-makers. The Health Barometer 2010 was a nationwide telephone survey of 9110 persons representative of the 15-85-year-old population. One part of the questionnaire detailed injuries which had occurred during the past year. The numerous variables recorded enabled application of logistic regression models to explore risk factors related to different types of injury by age group. The findings were compared with the Health Barometer 2005 data to search for temporal trends of injury prevalence. The data analysis showed that 10.3% of the 15-85-year-olds reported an injury during the past year. This rate was higher than recorded in 2005; the increase was mainly due to domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities. Both type of injury and risk factors exhibited age-related variability. Domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities predominated in the older population and were associated with physical or mental health problems (chronic disease, diability, sleep disorders). For younger people, injuries were related to cannabis use, drunkedness, and insufficient sleep. Risk factors were also depended on type of injury: occupational accident-related injuries were linked with social disadvantage (manual worker population) whereas sports injuries were more common in the socially advantaged population. This survey confirms established knowledge and highlights, at different stages of life, new risk factors that contribute to injuries in France. These findings should be helpful for the development of adapted injury

  16. Injury Rate and Patterns Among CrossFit Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Weisenthal, Benjamin M.; Beck, Christopher A.; Maloney, Michael D.; DeHaven, Kenneth E.; Giordano, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: CrossFit is a type of competitive exercise program that has gained widespread recognition. To date, there have been no studies that have formally examined injury rates among CrossFit participants or factors that may contribute to injury rates. Purpose: To establish an injury rate among CrossFit participants and to identify trends and associations between injury rates and demographic categories, gym characteristics, and athletic abilities among CrossFit participants. Study Design: ...

  17. Injury Incidence and Patterns Among Dutch CrossFit Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrab, M. (Mirwais); Vos, Robert-Jan; Kraan, Gerald; Mathijssen, Nina M.C.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program that has gained widespread recognition, with 11,000 affiliated gyms worldwide. The incidence of injuries during CrossFit training is poorly analyzed. Purpose: To investigate the incidence of injuries for persons participating in CrossFit. Risk factors for injury and injury mechanisms were also explored through athlete demographics and characteristics. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: A questionnaire ...

  18. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell JA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey A Russell Division of Athletic Training, School of Applied Health Sciences and Wellness, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA Abstract: Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1 screening; (2 physical training; (3 nutrition and rest; (4 specialized dance health care; and (5 becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. Keywords: dance, injuries, injury prevention, fitness, wellness, health

  19. Ocular firework injuries at New Year's eve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacu, Stefan; Ségur-Eltz, Nikolaus; Stenng, Karin; Zehetmayer, Martin

    2002-01-01

    To prospectively study mechanisms and injury characteristics of ocular firework burns. A prospective analysis of all patients with firework injuries attending the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Vienna, between 1994 and 2001. We looked for classes of fireworks and mechanisms of injuries. The number of diagnoses was established and their severity classified. During this period (8 years) we identified 116 eyes of 102 patients. 67/102 (66%) of all injuries were caused by class II and III fireworks. Patients ranged between 4 and 83 years. Ocular injuries occurred more frequently in males (69, 68%) and affected the right eye in 53 patients (52.5%). Ocular firework injuries to minors (under the age of 18 years) occurred in 48 (49%). The most common types of injury were skin and corneal erosions and abrasions (32/116, 28%). 11/116 eyes (10%) had severe injuries. 8 of 11 severe injuries (72%) occurred in minors (<18 years). 2 patients (1.7%) developed permanent blindness. In 32/116 patients (28%), the ocular trauma resulted in visual impairment, mainly due to corneal scars or retinal pathologies. In all patients, the severity index was 1.4 +/- 0.8. In minors the severity index was 1.6 +/- 1.0, in adults 1.2 +/- 0.5 (p = 0.013). Injuries in minors were significantly more severe than those in adults. Possible preventive measures include legislation, education of minors and eye protection. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. The epidemiology of injuries at the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Webborn, Nick; Emery, Carolyn; Blauwet, Cheri A; Pit-Grosheide, Pia; Stomphorst, Jaap; Van de Vliet, Peter; Patino Marques, Norma Angelica; Martinez-Ferrer, J Oriol; Jordaan, Esmè; Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin

    2013-05-01

    The characteristics and incidence of injuries at the Summer Paralympic Games have not previously been reported. A better understanding of injuries improves the medical care of athletes and informs future injury prevention strategies. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to characterise the incidence and nature of injuries during the London 2012 Summer Paralympic Games. Injury information was obtained from two databases. One database was populated from medical encounter forms completed by providers at the time of assessment in one of the medical stations operated by the Organising Committee. The second database was populated daily with information provided by team medical personnel who completed a comprehensive, web-based injury survey. The overall injury incidence rate was 12.7 injuries/1000 athlete-days. Injury rates were similar in male and female athletes. The precompetition injury rates in women were higher than those in the competition period. Higher injury rates were found in older athletes and certain sports such as football 5-a-side (22.4 injuries/1000 athlete-days). Overall, 51.5% of injuries were new onset acute traumatic injuries. The most commonly injured region (percentage of all injuries) was the shoulder (17.7%), followed by the wrist/hand (11.4%), elbow (8.8%) and knee (7.9%). This is the largest and most comprehensive epidemiological report examining injuries in Paralympic athletes. Injury rates differ according to age and sport. Upper limb injuries are common. The knowledge gained from this study will inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies in Paralympic sport. The Epidemiology of Injuries at the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

  1. ORBITAL INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kansky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orbit is involved in 40% of all facial fractures. There is considerable variety in severity, ranging from simple nondisplaced to complex comminuted fractures. Complex comminuted fractures (up to 20% are responsible for the majority of complications and unfavorable results. Orbital fractures are classified as internal orbital fractures, zygomatico-orbital fractures, naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures and combined fractures. The ophtalmic sequelae of midfacial fractures are usually edema and ecchymosis of the soft tissues, subconjuctival hemorrhage, diplopia, iritis, retinal edema, ptosis, enophthalmos, ocular muscle paresis, mechanical restriction of ocular movement and nasolacrimal disturbances. More severe injuries such as optic nerve trauma and retinal detachments have also been reported. Within the wide range of orbital fractures small group of complex fractures causes most of the sequelae. Therefore identification of severe injuries and adequate treatment is of major importance. The introduction of craniofacial techniques made possible a wide exposure even of large orbital wall defects and their reconstruction by bone grafts. In spite of significant progress, repair of complex orbital wall defects remains a problem even for the experienced surgeons.Results. In 1999 121 facial injuries were treated at our department (Clinical Centre Ljubljana Dept. Of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Orbit was involved in 65% of cases. Isolated inner orbital fractures presented 4% of all fractures. 17 (14% complex cases were treated, 5 of them being NOE, 5 orbital (frame and inner walls, 3 zygomatico-orbital, 2 FNO and 2 maxillo-orbital fractures.Conclusions. Final result of the surgical treatment depends on severity of maxillofacial trauma. Complex comminuted fractures are responsable for most of the unfavorable results and ocular function is often permanently damaged (up to 75% in these fractures.

  2. Injuries in Professional Male Soccer Players in the Netherlands: A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbe, J.H.; Beijsterveldt, A.M. van; Knaap, S. van der; Stege, J.; Verhagen, E.; Mechelen, W. van; Backx, F.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Context : Injuries are a major adverse event in a soccer player's career. Reducing injury incidence requires a thorough knowledge of the epidemiology of soccer injuries. Objective : To investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in the Dutch premier soccer league. Design : Cohort

  3. Injuries in Professional Male Soccer Players in the Netherlands: A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbe, J.H.; van Beijsterveldt, A.M.M.C.; van der Knaap, S.; Stege, J.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Backx, F.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Injuries are a major adverse event in a soccer player's career. Reducing injury incidence requires a thorough knowledge of the epidemiology of soccer injuries. Objective: To investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in the Dutch premier soccer league. Design: Cohort study.

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos ... Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow What kind of surgery is common after a spinal cord injury? play_ ... How soon after a spinal cord injury should surgery be performed? play_arrow Is it common to ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences ...

  8. Radiotherapy injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalifa, G.; Bennet, J.; Couanet, D.; Masselot, J.

    1985-01-01

    Side effects of radiotherapy in pediatrics are reviewed including bone injuries and radio-induced bone tumors; nervous system injuries with emphasis on hypothalamus, pituitary gland, brain and spinal cord; lung, digestive system and urinary tract injuries [fr

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury ... Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute ...

  10. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical ...

  13. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ... a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? ...

  16. Estimated rate of agricultural injury: the Korean Farmers’ Occupational Disease and Injury Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study estimated the rate of agricultural injury using a nationwide survey and identified factors associated with these injuries. Methods The first Korean Farmers’ Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (KFODIS) was conducted by the Rural Development Administration in 2009. Data from 9,630 adults were collected through a household survey about agricultural injuries suffered in 2008. We estimated the injury rates among those whose injury required an absence of more than 4 days. Logistic regression was performed to identify the relationship between the prevalence of agricultural injuries and the general characteristics of the study population. Results We estimated that 3.2% (±0.00) of Korean farmers suffered agricultural injuries that required an absence of more than 4 days. The injury rates among orchard farmers (5.4 ± 0.00) were higher those of all non-orchard farmers. The odds ratio (OR) for agricultural injuries was significantly lower in females (OR: 0.45, 95% CI = 0.45–0.45) compared to males. However, the odds of injury among farmers aged 50–59 (OR: 1.53, 95% CI = 1.46–1.60), 60–69 (OR: 1.45, 95% CI = 1.39–1.51), and ≥70 (OR: 1.94, 95% CI = 1.86–2.02) were significantly higher compared to those younger than 50. In addition, the total number of years farmed, average number of months per year of farming, and average hours per day of farming were significantly associated with agricultural injuries. Conclusions Agricultural injury rates in this study were higher than rates reported by the existing compensation insurance data. Males and older farmers were at a greater risk of agriculture injuries; therefore, the prevention and management of agricultural injuries in this population is required. PMID:24808945

  17. Estimated rate of agricultural injury: the Korean Farmers' Occupational Disease and Injury Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Hyeseon; Min, Kyungdoo; Youn, Kanwoo; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Kyungran; Kim, Hyocher; Lee, Kyungsuk

    2014-01-01

    This study estimated the rate of agricultural injury using a nationwide survey and identified factors associated with these injuries. The first Korean Farmers' Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (KFODIS) was conducted by the Rural Development Administration in 2009. Data from 9,630 adults were collected through a household survey about agricultural injuries suffered in 2008. We estimated the injury rates among those whose injury required an absence of more than 4 days. Logistic regression was performed to identify the relationship between the prevalence of agricultural injuries and the general characteristics of the study population. We estimated that 3.2% (±0.00) of Korean farmers suffered agricultural injuries that required an absence of more than 4 days. The injury rates among orchard farmers (5.4 ± 0.00) were higher those of all non-orchard farmers. The odds ratio (OR) for agricultural injuries was significantly lower in females (OR: 0.45, 95% CI = 0.45-0.45) compared to males. However, the odds of injury among farmers aged 50-59 (OR: 1.53, 95% CI = 1.46-1.60), 60-69 (OR: 1.45, 95% CI = 1.39-1.51), and ≥70 (OR: 1.94, 95% CI = 1.86-2.02) were significantly higher compared to those younger than 50. In addition, the total number of years farmed, average number of months per year of farming, and average hours per day of farming were significantly associated with agricultural injuries. Agricultural injury rates in this study were higher than rates reported by the existing compensation insurance data. Males and older farmers were at a greater risk of agriculture injuries; therefore, the prevention and management of agricultural injuries in this population is required.

  18. Injury among adolescents with intellectual disability: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nicholas; Ware, Robert S

    2018-04-12

    Injury is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in adolescents worldwide, and injury rates have been shown to be higher among youth with intellectual disability. Despite this, injury among adolescents with intellectual disability remains poorly investigated. This study aimed to identify characteristics associated with injury among adolescents with intellectual disability living in the community. A cohort of adolescents with intellectual disability living in southern Queensland, Australia was investigated prospectively between January 2006 and June 2010. Personal characteristics were collected via postal questionnaire. Injury information, including mechanism and location of injury, was extracted from general practitioner records. The association between demographic, social and clinical characteristics of participants and episodes of injury was investigated using negative binomial regression. A total of 289 injuries were recorded from 432 participants over 1627.3 years of study-time. The overall annual injury incidence was 17.5 (95%CI 14.7, 20.9) per 100 person years. Presence of ADHD and less severe disability was associated with increased risk of injury. Down syndrome and reduced verbal communication capacity were associated with decreased risk of injury. Falls accounted for the highest single mechanism of injury (19.0%) with the majority (73.2%) of injuries involving either upper or lower limbs. ADHD is a co-morbidity that increases risk of injury among adolescents with intellectual disability. A critical component of injury prevention is avoidance of the great variety of environmental risk factors for injury relevant to this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PEDIATRIC SPORTS INJURIES: INDIVIDUAL SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Caine

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to

  20. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild Traumatic Brain Injury Resilience Families with Kids Depression Families & Friendships Tobacco Life Stress Spirituality Anger Physical Injury Stigma Health & Wellness Work Adjustment Community Peer-2-Peer Forum ...

  1. Baseball and softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quincy

    2006-05-01

    Baseball and softball injuries can be a result of both acute and overuse injuries. Soft tissue injuries include contusions, abrasions, and lacerations. Return to play is allowed when risk of further injury is minimized. Common shoulder injuries include those to the rotator cuff, biceps tendon, and glenoid labrum. Elbow injuries are common in baseball and softball and include medial epicondylitis, ulnar collateral ligament injury, and osteochondritis dissecans. Typically conservative treatment with relative rest, medication, and a rehabilitation program will allow return to play. Surgical intervention may be needed for certain injuries or conservative treatment failure.

  2. [Sports injuries of the face].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzavzez, G; Chrzavzez, J P; D'Erceville, T; Kharrat, N; Barbillon, C; Pilz, F

    1984-01-01

    Of 249 patients with facial injuries admitted to the Department of Stomatology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hôpital Bel Air, Thionville, France, between 1981 and 1982, 45 (18%) were cases of injury from sporting activities. The particular characteristics of the latter lesions were their predominance in males, their increased seasonal frequency in spring and early summer, the high incidence of damage to the nasal pyramid and maxillomalar complex, and the fact that the most implicated sport was football (71% of cases). Whereas most accidents resulted in relatively minor lesions, three cases--including two from riding--involved severe, complex injuries comparable to those seen in certain car accidents. Findings in this series confirm the natural "bumper" property of the face. Emphasis is placed on the importance of well-conducted training, and the need to eliminate consideration of sport as a means for expressing aggressiveness that is not always possible in daily life.

  3. Diagnosis of Acute Groin Injuries: A Prospective Study of 110 Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serner, Andreas; Tol, Johannes L.; Jomaah, Nabil; Weir, Adam; Whiteley, Rodney; Thorborg, Kristian; Robinson, Matthew; Hölmich, Per

    2015-01-01

    Acute groin injuries are common in high-intensity sports, but there are insufficient data on injury characteristics such as injury mechanisms and clinical and radiological findings. To describe these characteristics in a cohort of athletes. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 110

  4. Severe ocular injuries in Greek children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mela, Ephigenia K; Georgakopoulos, Constantinos D; Georgalis, Athanasios; Koliopoulos, John X; Gartaganis, Sotirios P

    2003-02-01

    To determine the epidemiological characteristics of severe eye injuries in childhood, in a mixed urban and rural Greek setting. Retrospective analysis of 95 cases (103 eyes) of eye injuries in children younger than 17 years of age admitted to the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Patras, Greece, during a five-year period. The data were analyzed with respect to age, sex, type, cause and mode of injury, method of management, duration of hospitalization and final visual deficit. The average age was 9.8 years and males were involved in 80% of the cases. The most common type of eye injury was mechanical closed-globe injury (71.8%). Mechanical open-globe injuries were found in 21.3% of the eyes, while burns comprised 6.7% of the injuries. Most injuries were agent-related, with blows and falls being responsible most often. Multiple operations were part of the treatment in 11.6% of the eyes; 14.5% of the eyes were blinded and 15.5% had significant final visual acuity loss. These hospital-based data suggest that there is a need for health education of both parents and children, since some injuries in children could easily have been prevented.

  5. Sports injuries in Brazilian blind footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno e Silva, M P; Morato, M P; Bilzon, J L J; Duarte, E

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes, 11 succumbed to some form of injury during the 5 competitions, which incorporated 23 matches, representing a prevalence of 84.6%. A total of 35 sports injuries were recorded, giving a clinical incidence of 2.7 injuries per athlete and an injury risk of 0.85 and an incidence rate of 0.12 injuries per match. Traumatic injuries (80%) were more common than overuse injuries (20%) (psports-related injuries in 5-a-side football in blind athletes. The results are important in guiding strategies to inform the implementation of preventive pathways and provide a strong rationale for the compulsory use of additional protective equipment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubner, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation accidents and incidents continue to be of great interest and concern to the public. Issues such as the threat of nuclear war, the Chernobyl reactor accident, or reports of sporadic incidences of accidental radiation exposure keep this interest up and maintain a high level of fear among the public. In this climate of real concern and radiation phobia, physicians should not only be prepared to answer questions about acute or late effects of ionizing radiation, but also be able to participate in the initial assessment and management of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation or contaminated with radioactive material. Some of the key facts about radiation injury and its medical treatment are discussed by the author

  7. Sport injuries treated at a physiotherapy center specialized in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme S. Nunes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The risk of injuries related to physical activity and sports may increase if there is predisposition, inappropriate training and/or coach guidance, and absence of sports medicine follow-up. Objective: To assess the frequency of injuries in athletes treated at a physiotherapy center specialized in sports. Methods: For the data collection was carried out the survey of injuries in records of athletes treated in eight years of activities. The data collected included: characteristics of patients, sport, injury kind, injury characteristics and affected body part. Results: From 1090 patient/athlete records, the average age was 25 years old, the athletes were spread across 44 different sports modalities, being the great majority men (75%. The most common type of injury was joint injury, followed by muscular and bone injuries. Chronic injury was the most frequent (47%, while the most common body part injured was the knee, followed by ankle and shoulder. Among all the sports, soccer, futsal, and track and field presented the highest number of injured athletes, respectively. Conclusion: Soccer was the most common sport among the injured athletes, injury kind most frequent was joint injuries and knee was the body part most injured. Chronic injuries were the most common.

  8. Open extensor tendon injuries: an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patillo, Dominic; Rayan, Ghazi M

    2012-01-01

    To report the epidemiology, mechanism, anatomical location, distribution, and severity of open extensor tendon injuries in the digits, hand, and forearm as well as the frequency of associated injuries to surrounding bone and soft tissue. Retrospective chart review was conducted for patients who had operative repair of open digital extensor tendon injuries in all zones within an 11-year period. Data was grouped according to patient characteristics, zone of injury, mechanism of injury, and presence of associated injury. Statistical analysis was used to determine the presence of relevant associations. Eighty-six patients with 125 severed tendons and 105 injured digits were available for chart reviews. Patients were predominantly males (83%) with a mean age of 34.2 years and the dominant extremity was most often injured (60%). The thumb was the most commonly injured (25.7%), followed by middle finger (24.8), whereas small finger was least affected (10.5%). Sharp laceration was the most common mechanism of injury (60%), and most of these occurred at or proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joints. Most saw injuries occurred distal to the metacarpophalangeal joint. Zone V was the most commonly affected in the fingers (27%) while zone VT was the most commonly affected in the thumb (69%). Associated injuries to bone and soft tissue occurred in 46.7% of all injuries with saw and crush/avulsions being predictive of fractures and damage to the underlying joint capsule. The extensor mechanism is anatomically complex, and open injuries to the dorsum of the hand, wrist, and forearm, especially of crushing nature and those inflicted by saws, must be thoroughly evaluated. Associated injuries should be ruled out in order to customize surgical treatment and optimize outcome.

  9. Missile injuries of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmi, S.A.M.; Ashraf, A.T.; Qureshi, N.A.

    2001-01-01

    Data was analyzed relating to a consecutive series of 16 patients of penetrating brain injuries received at forward defense lines. Characteristics studied were the cause of injury, level of consciousness and various neurological deficits presented on initial examination, CT scan findings, the surgical procedures performed and the final outcome after one year of follow-up. One out of 16 patients, died due to severe associated injuries to abdominal viscera and major vessels. Meningitis occurred in one patient during the immediate postoperative period. All patients with motor weakness speech deficits and incontinence showed significant improvement. Hearing loss of one ear persisted in one patient. Two patients developed delayed onset seizures. It is concluded that, patients with penetrating brain injuries should be evacuated to the tertiary care neurosurgical centres as soon as possible. In operation only obviously necrotic brain and easily accessible metal and bone pieces should be removed. There is no need to explore the normal brain as it would only result in increased neurological deficits. The patients with such injuries should receive broad-spectrum antibiotics to prevent the infective complications. (author)

  10. MR imaging of medial collateral ligament injury and associated internal knee joint injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chae Ha; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lim, Dong Hun; Kim, Young Sook; Byun, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Jae Hee

    1996-01-01

    To assess the value of MR imaging in the diagnosis of medial collateral ligament injury of the knee, we used MR imaging to evaluate the characteristic findings in MCL tears and the frequency of associated knee joint injury. We retrospectively reviewed 26 patients within four weeks of MCL injury, analysed MR findings and correlated them with surgical findings. We evaluated discontinuity, heterogeneous signal intensity of MCL, thin band- like low signal intensity at MCL, facial edema, loss of clear demarcation of adjacent fat also combined bone injury, meniscus injury and other ligament injury. Complete MCL tears were present in 14 patients and partial tears in 12. Complete tears showed discontinuity of MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in 11 patients(79%);proximal MCL tears are more common than distal tears. Partial tears showed thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in seven patients (58%);all patient s with MCL injury showed fascial edema;in 12 patients there was loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. We could not, however, distinguish between complete tears and partial tears when MCL showed heterogeneous high signal intensity. Combined bone injury in MCL tears was found in eight patients(62%);the most common sites of this were the lateral femoral condyle and lateral tibial plateau. There was associated injury involving other ligaments(ACL:50%;PCL:27%). Combined meniscus injury in MCL tears was present in 17 patients and the most common meniscus site(50%) is the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Complete MCL tears showed discontinuity of MCL and partial tears showed a thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL. All patients with MCL injury showed fascial edema, and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. Various other injuries combine with MCL tears. MR imaging is therefore useful in the evaluation of medial collateral ligament injury and

  11. Monitoring of sport participation and injury risk in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, Laurent; Frisch, Anne; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Careful modulation of training characteristics in high-level sports optimizes performance and avoids inappropriate workloads and associated sports injury risk. The aims of this study were to compare sport participation characteristics in different youth sport categories and to investigate their relationship with injury. Prospective cohort follow-up. Young (12-19 years) high-level athletes (n=154) from a regional sport school were followed during 41 weeks regarding sport participation characteristics and traumatic and overuse sports injuries (time-loss definition). All data were self-recorded by the athletes in an electronic system "TIPPS" (Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports) and subject to a systematic data quality control. Volume and intensity (self-rated perceived exertion) of each sport session were used to compute weekly load, monotony and strain. Sport categories were defined as team, racket, and individual sports. All sport participation characteristics were dependent on sport category (psports were associated with lower injury risk (HR=0.37 and 0.34, p=0.001 and psports. Average sport participation characteristics were not related to injury according to the survival analysis. However, intensity during the week prior to injury was significantly higher (psport participation pattern and injury risk in young athletes. The monitoring method was sensitive to variations according to pertinent variables and might help identify athletes with increased sports injury risk. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intra-abdominal solid organ injuries: an enhanced management algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabi, Nima; Shuaib, Waqas; Xing, Minzhi; Harmouche, Elie; Wilson, Kenneth; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Khosa, Faisal

    2014-11-01

    The organ injury scale grading system proposed by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma provides guidelines for operative versus nonoperative management in solid organ injuries; however, major shortcomings of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma injury scale may become apparent with low-grade injuries, in which conservative management may fail. Nonoperative management of common intra-abdominal solid organ injuries relies increasingly on computed tomographic findings and other clinical factors, including patient age, presence of concurrent injuries, and serial clinical assessments. Familiarity with characteristic imaging features is essential for the prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of blunt abdominal trauma. In this pictorial essay, the spectrum of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma organ injury scale grading system is illustrated, and a multidisciplinary management algorithm for common intra-abdominal solid organ injuries is proposed. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Occupational injuries in workers from different ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkodathil, Ahammed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Occupational injuries remain an important unresolved issue in many of the developing and developed countries. We aimed to outline the causes, characteristics, measures and impact of occupational injuries among different ethnicities. We reviewed the literatures using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and EMBASE search engine using words: "Occupational injuries" and "workplace" between 1984 and 2014. Incidence of fatal occupational injuries decreased over time in many countries. However, it increased in the migrant, foreign born and ethnic minority workers in certain high risk industries. Disproportionate representations of those groups in different industries resulted in wide range of fatality rates. Overrepresentation of migrant workers, foreign born and ethnic minorities in high risk and unskilled occupations warrants effective safety training programs and enforcement of laws to assure safe workplaces. The burden of occupational injuries at the individual and community levels urges the development and implementation of effective preventive programs.

  14. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  15. Sports-specific injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, K D; Minnich, J M

    1996-04-01

    Injuries to the upper extremities can happen in any sport. Injury patterns are common to specific sports. Understanding which injuries occur with these sports allows the examiner to diagnose and treat the athlete easily. This article reviews some of the injuries common in sports such as bicycling, golf, gymnastics, martial arts, racquet sports, and weightlifting.

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  17. Sports injuries during the Summer Olympic Games 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Astrid; Engebretsen, Lars; Mountjoy, Margo L; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Renström, Per A F H; Aubry, Mark John; Dvorak, Jiri

    2009-11-01

    Standardized assessment of sports injuries provides important epidemiological information and also directions for injury prevention. To analyze the frequency, characteristics, and causes of injuries incurred during the Summer Olympic Games 2008. Descriptive epidemiology study. The chief physicians and/or chief medical officers of the national teams were asked to report daily all injuries newly incurred during the Olympic Games on a standardized injury report form. In addition, injuries were reported daily by the physicians at the medical stations at the different Olympic venues and at the polyclinic in the Olympic Village. Physicians and/or therapists of 92 national teams covering 88% of the 10,977 registered athletes took part in the study. In total, 1055 injuries were reported, resulting in an incidence of 96.1 injuries per 1000 registered athletes. Half of the injuries (49.6%) were expected to prevent the athlete from participating in competition or training. The most prevalent diagnoses were ankle sprains and thigh strains. The majority (72.5%) of injuries were incurred in competition. One third of the injuries were caused by contact with another athlete, followed by overuse (22%) and noncontact incidences (20%). Injuries were reported from all sports, but their incidence and characteristics varied substantially. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of incurring an injury was highest in soccer, taekwondo, hockey, handball, weightlifting, and boxing (all >or=15% of the athletes) and lowest for sailing, canoeing/kayaking, rowing, synchronized swimming, diving, fencing, and swimming. The data indicate that the injury surveillance system covered almost all of the participating athletes, and the results highlight areas of high risk for sport injury such as the in-competition period, the ankle and thigh, and specific sports. The identification of these factors should stimulate future research and subsequent policy change to prevent injury in

  18. Injuries in team sport tournaments during the 2004 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Astrid; Langevoort, Gijs; Pipe, Andrew; Peytavin, Annie; Wong, Fook; Mountjoy, Margo; Beltrami, Gianfranco; Terrell, Robert; Holzgraefe, Manfred; Charles, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri

    2006-04-01

    Several authors have analyzed the incidence of injuries in a given sport, but only a few have examined the exposure-related incidence of injuries in different types of sports using the same methodology. Analysis of the incidence, circumstances, and characteristics of injuries in different team sports during the 2004 Olympic Games. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. During the 2004 Olympic Games, injuries in 14 team sport tournaments (men's and women's soccer, men's and women's handball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's field hockey, baseball, softball, men's and women's water polo, and men's and women's volleyball) were analyzed. After each match, the physician of the participating teams or the official medical representative of the sport completed a standardized injury report form. The mean response rate was 93%. A total of 377 injuries were reported from 456 matches, an incidence of 0.8 injuries per match (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.91) or 54 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% confidence interval, 49-60). Half of all injuries affected the lower extremity; 24% involved the head or neck. The most prevalent diagnoses were head contusion and ankle sprain. On average, 78% of injuries were caused by contact with another player. However, a significantly higher percentage of noncontact (57%) versus contact injuries (37%) was expected to prevent the player from participating in his or her sport. Significantly more injuries in male players (46%) versus female players (35%) were expected to result in absence from match or training. The incidence, diagnosis, and causes of injuries differed substantially between the team sports. The risk of injury in different team sports can be compared using standardized methodology. Even if the incidence and characteristics of injuries are not identical in all sports, prevention of injury and promotion of fair play are relevant topics for almost all team sports.

  19. Employment Trajectories After Spinal Cord Injury : Results From a 5-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdiana, Astri; Post, Marcel W.; Hoekstra, Trynke; van der Woude, Luccas H.; van der Klink, Jac J.; Bultmann, Ute

    Objectives: To identify different employment trajectories in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) after discharge from initial rehabilitation and to determine predictors of different trajectories from demographic, injury, functional, and psychological characteristics. Design: Prospective cohort

  20. Tackle injuries in professional Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Will G

    2008-09-01

    The tackle is the most dangerous facet of play in rugby union, but little is known about risk factors for tackle injuries. To estimate the injury risk associated with various characteristics of tackles in professional rugby union matches. Descriptive epidemiology study. All 140 249 tackles in 434 professional matches were coded from video recordings for height and direction of tackle on the ball carrier, speed of tackler, and speed of ball carrier; injuries were coded for various characteristics, including whether the tackler or ball carrier required replacement or only on-field assessment. There were 1348 injury assessments requiring only on-field treatment and 211 requiring player replacement. The inciting event and medical outcomes were matched to video records for 281 injuries. Injuries were most frequently the result of high or middle tackles from the front or side, but rate of injury per tackle was higher for tackles from behind than from the front or side. Ball carriers were at highest risk from tackles to the head-neck region, whereas tacklers were most at risk when making low tackles. The impact of the tackle was the most common cause of injury, and the head was the most common site, but an important mechanism of lower limb injuries was loading with the weight of another player. Rates of replacement increased with increasing player speed. Strategies for reducing tackle injuries without radically changing the contact nature of the sport include further education of players about safe tackling and minor changes to laws for the height of the tackle.

  1. Managing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Mutie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on what you found during the eye examination, classify the injury as a non-mechanical injury (chemical or thermal injury, a non-globe injury (orbital or adnexal injury or as a mechanical globe injury. In the case of mechanical globe injuries, it is important to classify the injury according to the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS and write it down in the patient’s notes; this will help to ensure that everyone involved in caring for the patient will have a consistent understanding of the type of injury. The resulting uniformity of terminology also helps with research, making it possible to compare data and do audits of injuries – which is essential for prevention.

  2. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  3. Soleus muscle injury: sensitivity of ultrasound patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balius, Ramon [Sport Catalan Council, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Clinica CMI Diagonal, Barcelona (Spain); Rodas, Gil [F.C. Barcelona Medical Services, Barcelona (Spain); Pedret, Carles [Clinica CMI Diagonal, Barcelona (Spain); Clinica Mapfre de Medicina del Tenis, Sports Medicine and Imaging Department, Barcelona (Spain); Centre de Diagnostic per Imatge de Tarragona, Tarragona (Spain); Capdevila, Lluis [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Laboratory of Sport Psychology, Barcelona (Spain); Alomar, Xavier [Clinica Creu Blanca, Barcelona (Spain); Bong, David A. [Instituto Poal de Reumatologia, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    To assess the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting soleus muscle lesions diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to characterize their location, ultrasound pattern, and evolution. Ultrasound and MRI studies were performed between May 2009 and February 2013 on all patients who presented to the Medical Services Clinic of the Catalan Sport Council with the initial onset of sharp pain in the calf compatible with injury of the soleus muscle. An inter-observer ultrasound reliability study was also performed. A total of 55 cases of soleus injury were studied prospectively (22 with right leg involvement, 33 left) by ultrasound and MRI, which was utilized as the ''gold standard.'' In MRI studies, 24 cases (43.7 %) had myofascial injuries that were localized in the posterior aponeurosis (PMF) in 15 cases (27.3 %) and in the anterior aponeurosis (AMF) in 9 (16.4 %). Thirty-one cases (56.3 %) were musculotendinous injuries, with 9 cases (16.4 %) in the medial aponeurosis (MMT), 11 cases (20 %) in the lateral aponeurosis (LMT), and 11 cases (20 %) in the central tendon (CMT). In comparison to MRI, ultrasound was able to detect injury to the soleus in 27.2 % of cases. No injuries were detected by ultrasound alone. Posterior myofascial injuries were more likely to be detected by ultrasound than anterior myofascial injuries or all types of musculotendinous injuries. Ultrasound patterns for each type of injury were described. Ultrasound is not a sensitive technique for detecting and assessing soleus traumatic tears compared with MRI, although the sensitivity is enhanced by a thorough anatomically based ultrasound examination. Timing of the ultrasound examination may be of importance. Each type of soleus injury appears to have a characteristic ultrasound pattern based on a defect of connective expansions, the existence of small myofascial filiform collections, and the rarefaction of the fibrillar area. (orig.)

  4. Soleus muscle injury: sensitivity of ultrasound patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balius, Ramon; Rodas, Gil; Pedret, Carles; Capdevila, Lluís; Alomar, Xavier; Bong, David A

    2014-06-01

    To assess the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting soleus muscle lesions diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to characterize their location, ultrasound pattern, and evolution. Ultrasound and MRI studies were performed between May 2009 and February 2013 on all patients who presented to the Medical Services Clinic of the Catalan Sport Council with the initial onset of sharp pain in the calf compatible with injury of the soleus muscle. An inter-observer ultrasound reliability study was also performed. A total of 55 cases of soleus injury were studied prospectively (22 with right leg involvement, 33 left) by ultrasound and MRI, which was utilized as the "gold standard." In MRI studies, 24 cases (43.7%) had myofascial injuries that were localized in the posterior aponeurosis (PMF) in 15 cases (27.3%) and in the anterior aponeurosis (AMF) in 9 (16.4%). Thirty-one cases (56.3%) were musculotendinous injuries, with 9 cases (16.4%) in the medial aponeurosis (MMT), 11 cases (20%) in the lateral aponeurosis (LMT), and 11 cases (20%) in the central tendon (CMT). In comparison to MRI, ultrasound was able to detect injury to the soleus in 27.2% of cases. No injuries were detected by ultrasound alone. Posterior myofascial injuries were more likely to be detected by ultrasound than anterior myofascial injuries or all types of musculotendinous injuries. Ultrasound patterns for each type of injury were described. Ultrasound is not a sensitive technique for detecting and assessing soleus traumatic tears compared with MRI, although the sensitivity is enhanced by a thorough anatomically based ultrasound examination. Timing of the ultrasound examination may be of importance. Each type of soleus injury appears to have a characteristic ultrasound pattern based on a defect of connective expansions, the existence of small myofascial filiform collections, and the rarefaction of the fibrillar area.

  5. Soleus muscle injury: sensitivity of ultrasound patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balius, Ramon; Rodas, Gil; Pedret, Carles; Capdevila, Lluis; Alomar, Xavier; Bong, David A.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting soleus muscle lesions diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to characterize their location, ultrasound pattern, and evolution. Ultrasound and MRI studies were performed between May 2009 and February 2013 on all patients who presented to the Medical Services Clinic of the Catalan Sport Council with the initial onset of sharp pain in the calf compatible with injury of the soleus muscle. An inter-observer ultrasound reliability study was also performed. A total of 55 cases of soleus injury were studied prospectively (22 with right leg involvement, 33 left) by ultrasound and MRI, which was utilized as the ''gold standard.'' In MRI studies, 24 cases (43.7 %) had myofascial injuries that were localized in the posterior aponeurosis (PMF) in 15 cases (27.3 %) and in the anterior aponeurosis (AMF) in 9 (16.4 %). Thirty-one cases (56.3 %) were musculotendinous injuries, with 9 cases (16.4 %) in the medial aponeurosis (MMT), 11 cases (20 %) in the lateral aponeurosis (LMT), and 11 cases (20 %) in the central tendon (CMT). In comparison to MRI, ultrasound was able to detect injury to the soleus in 27.2 % of cases. No injuries were detected by ultrasound alone. Posterior myofascial injuries were more likely to be detected by ultrasound than anterior myofascial injuries or all types of musculotendinous injuries. Ultrasound patterns for each type of injury were described. Ultrasound is not a sensitive technique for detecting and assessing soleus traumatic tears compared with MRI, although the sensitivity is enhanced by a thorough anatomically based ultrasound examination. Timing of the ultrasound examination may be of importance. Each type of soleus injury appears to have a characteristic ultrasound pattern based on a defect of connective expansions, the existence of small myofascial filiform collections, and the rarefaction of the fibrillar area. (orig.)

  6. Fatal lawn mower related projectile injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Lynnerup, Niels; Banner, Jytte

    2014-06-01

    Fatal lawn mower related injuries are a relatively rare occurrence. In a forensic setting, the primary aim is to reconstruct the injury mechanism and establish the cause of death. A relatively rare, but characteristic type of injury is a so-called projectile or missile injury. This occurs when the operator or a bystander is impacted by an object mobilized from the grass by the rotating mower blades. This type of injury often leaves only modest external trauma, which increases the risk of overlooking an entry wound. In this paper we present a case of a fatal lawn mower related projectile injury which was initially overlooked, later interpreted as a possible gunshot homicide, and finally identified as a lawn mower related projectile injury when autopsy revealed a piece of metal thread in the main bronchus to the right middle lobe, hemopericardium, and right-sided hemothorax. To our knowledge, this injury mechanism has not previously been reported as a cause of death. This case illustrates the importance of postmortem radiological imaging and interdisciplinary cooperation when establishing manner and cause of death in unusual cases.

  7. Correlation between hypermobility score and injury rate in artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukva, Bojan; Vrgoč, Goran; Madić, Dejan; Sporiš, Goran; Trajković, Nebojša

    2018-01-10

    Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is suggested as a contributing factor for injuries in young athletes and adults. It is presumed that GJH causes decreased joint stability, thereby increasing the risk of joint and soft tissue injuries during sports activities. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the hypermobility rate (using the Beighton`s modification of the Carter-Wilkinson criteria of hypermobility) in gymnasts and injury rate, during the period of one year. This study observed 24 artistic gymnasts (11-26 years old), members of Qatar National Team in artistic gymnastics. We examined the Beighton joint hypermobility screen and a seasonal injury survey. The gymnasts characteristics (age, gender) and gymnastics characteristics (training per day and number of years in training artistic gymnastics) and its' relations to injury rate were also included. The most common injury was the lower back pain injury, followed by knee, shoulder, hip and ankle injuries. We found strong correlation of number of years gymnastics training and injury rate (p0.05). According to this study there is no correlation between GJH rate and injury rate in artistic gymnasts in Qatar. Total training period in gymnastics have greater contribution in injury rate.

  8. Childhood injuries in a tertiary institution in north east Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Abdul Razaq Esin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injury has been recognised as a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The aim of this study was to determine the aetiology, pattern and location of childhood injuries in north east Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a 3-year retrospective hospital-based descriptive study. The study included 114 children (77 boys, 37 girls; mean age 6.4 ± 3.2 years; range 2 months to 15 years who were admitted for various injuries in the female/paediatric surgical ward from January 2007 to December 2009. Information obtained from their case notes included demographic data, mechanism of injury, location of injury, anatomical site of injury and outcome of treatment. Results: Records for 114 children (77 boys, 37 girls; mean age 6.2 years; range 2 months to 15 years were available for analysis. The highest number of injuries occurred in the age group 6-10 years. Home was the most common location of injury among the age group 0-5 years while older children sustained most of their injuries outside the home on the street/highways. Burns from hot water was the most common injury among children aged 0-5 years while pedestrian accident accounted for the highest cause of injury among older children. Fall accounted for 20.2% of the injuries. The most common specific anatomic injury was head injury followed by limb fractures. Two mortalities were recorded (1.8%. Conclusion: This study provided useful information on the characteristics of childhood injuries in our environment. There is the need for parents and children education about the risks of injury and preventive measures in addition to legislation and policy on environmental modifications and enforcements to significantly reduce childhood injury.

  9. Radiological evaluation of the posterior pelvic ring in paediatric patients: Results of a retrospective study developing age- and gender-related non-osseous baseline characteristics in paediatric pelvic computed tomography - References for suspected sacroiliac joint injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Jörg; Neubauer, Jakob; Saueressig, Ulrich; Südkamp, Norbert Paul; Reising, Kilian

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of paediatric pelvic injury is low, yet they are often indicative of accompanying injuries, and an instable pelvis at presentation is related to long-term poor outcome. Judging diastasis of the sacroiliac joint in paediatric pelvic computed tomography is challenging, as information on their normal appearance is scarce. We therefore sought to generate age- and gender-related standard width measurements of the sacroiliac joint in children for comparison. A total of 427 pelvic computed tomography scans in paediatric patients (sacroiliac joint width bilaterally in axial and coronal planes. We illustrate age- and gender-related measurements of the sacroiliac joint width as a designated continuous 3rd, 15th, 50th, 85th and 97th centile graph, respectively. Means and standard deviations in the joint width are reported for four age groups. There are distinct changes in the sacroiliac joint's appearance during growth. In general, male children exhibit broader sacroiliac joints than females at the same age, although this difference is significant only in the 11 to 15-year-old age group. The sacroiliac joint width in children as measured in coronal and axial CT scans differs in association with age and gender. When the sacroiliac joint width is broader than the 97th centile published in our study, we strongly encourage considering a sacroiliac joint injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Blunt gastric injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, Didem; Malinoski, Darren; Brown, Carlos; Demetriades, Demetrios; Salim, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Gastric rupture after blunt abdominal trauma is a rare injury with few reports in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with blunt gastric injuries and compare outcomes with small bowel or colon injuries. All patients with hollow viscus perforations after blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2005 at our level I trauma center were reviewed. Of 35,033 blunt trauma admissions, there were 268 (0.7%) patients with a total of 319 perforating hollow viscus injuries, 25 (0.07%) of which were blunt gastric injuries. When compared with the small bowel or colon injuries, the blunt gastric injury group had a higher Injury Severity Score (22 versus 17, P = 0.04), more patients with a chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2 (36% versus 12%, P < 0.01), and a shorter interval from injury to laparotomy (221 versus 366 minutes, P = 0.017). Multivariate analysis identified five independent risk factors for mortality: age older than 55 years, head Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, the presence of hypotension on admission, and Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or less. The results of this study suggest that mortality in patients with blunt hollow viscus injuries can be attributed to concurrent head and chest injuries, but not the specific hollow viscus organ that is injured.

  11. Urological injuries following trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent, C.; Iyngkaran, T.; Power, N.; Matson, M.; Hajdinjak, T.; Buchholz, N.; Fotheringham, T.

    2008-01-01

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated

  12. Urological injuries following trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Iyngkaran, T.; Power, N.; Matson, M. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hajdinjak, T.; Buchholz, N. [Department of Urology, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fotheringham, T. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.

  13. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  14. Trauma: Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Matthew J; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Injuries to the spinal column and spinal cord frequently occur after high-energy mechanisms of injury, or with lower-energy mechanisms, in select patient populations like the elderly. A focused yet complete neurologic examination during the initial evaluation will guide subsequent diagnostic procedures and early supportive measures to help prevent further injury. For patients with injury to bone and/or ligaments, the initial focus should be spinal immobilization and prevention of inducing injury to the spinal cord. Spinal cord injury is associated with numerous life-threatening complications during the acute and long-term phases of care that all acute care surgeons must recognize. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  16. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  17. Urological injuries following trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, C; Iyngkaran, T; Power, N; Matson, M; Hajdinjak, T; Buchholz, N; Fotheringham, T

    2008-12-01

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.

  18. Injury Patterns Among Illegal Migrants from Africa in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Amotz; Radomislensky, Irina; Peleg, Kobi

    2015-08-01

    In recent years Israel has become a destination for many migrants from Africa that illegally cross the Egyptian-Israeli border. The objective of this paper is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of injuries among illegal migrants in Israel. The study was carried out retrospectively using data from 19 trauma centers that participated in the Israel National Trauma Registry between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011. Illegal migrants from Africa were compared to the local population. Migrants were injured more often than the local population from intentional injuries (57.11 %). Migrants were also less likely than the local population (58.38 %) to sustain a minor injury (i.e., injury severity ≤8). The study also shows the hospitalization cost as a result of injuries among migrants from Africa. Preventive measures among illegal migrants from Africa should prioritize intentional injuries and industrial site injuries.

  19. Sports related injuries in Scottish adolescents aged 11-15

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, J. M.; Wright, P.; Currie, C. E.; Beattie, T. F.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To measure the age and sex distribution of self reported sports and leisure injuries in a 12 month retrospective recall period among a representative national sample of Scottish adolescents, and to examine the characteristics (gender, age, handedness, and level of sports participation) of sports related injuries in relation to injuries sustained during other activities. DESIGN/SETTING: Self completion questionnaire survey administered in schools during April- June 1994. SUBJ...

  20. [Neodymium magnet injury causing nasal fracture: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykan, Andaç; Güzey, Serbülent; Avşar, Sedat; Öztürk, Serdar

    2015-05-01

    In parallel with technological developments, small size but strong magnets are commonly used in modern devices. In terms of foreign body injuries, magnet injuries are quite rare. However, due to their unique characteristics, there are some difficulties in their management. The magnetic field generated by the magnet affects the surgical instruments and make treatment difficult. In this case report, a nasal injury due to neodymium magnet and our alternative approach for its management was reported.

  1. Constructing Model of Relationship among Behaviors and Injuries to Products Based on Large Scale Text Data on Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomori, Koji; Kitamura, Koji; Motomura, Yoichi; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Komatsubara, Akinori

    In Japan, childhood injury prevention is urgent issue. Safety measures through creating knowledge of injury data are essential for preventing childhood injuries. Especially the injury prevention approach by product modification is very important. The risk assessment is one of the most fundamental methods to design safety products. The conventional risk assessment has been carried out subjectively because product makers have poor data on injuries. This paper deals with evidence-based risk assessment, in which artificial intelligence technologies are strongly needed. This paper describes a new method of foreseeing usage of products, which is the first step of the evidence-based risk assessment, and presents a retrieval system of injury data. The system enables a product designer to foresee how children use a product and which types of injuries occur due to the product in daily environment. The developed system consists of large scale injury data, text mining technology and probabilistic modeling technology. Large scale text data on childhood injuries was collected from medical institutions by an injury surveillance system. Types of behaviors to a product were derived from the injury text data using text mining technology. The relationship among products, types of behaviors, types of injuries and characteristics of children was modeled by Bayesian Network. The fundamental functions of the developed system and examples of new findings obtained by the system are reported in this paper.

  2. Holiday ornament-related injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimia, Amir; Lee, Lois; Shannon, Michael; Capraro, Andrew; Mays, Donald; Johnston, Patrick; Hummel, David; Shuman, Margot

    2009-12-01

    Holiday ornament injuries in children have not been well documented in the medical literature. Our aim was to investigate the patterns of injuries sustained from these ornaments as a first measure toward prevention. This was a retrospective cohort analysis of all patients examined in an urban pediatric emergency department over a 13-year period ending in March 2008 for holiday ornament-related injuries. Cases were identified using a computer-assisted text query followed by a manual chart review. Data collected from each chart included the child's age, sex, injury characteristics, physical examination findings, radiographic imaging, interventions, and disposition. To analyze injury rates over the years, we used a multiplicative Poisson model allowing varying exposures. Over the study period, we identified 76 eligible patients. The median age was 2 years (interquartile range, 1.17-3.3 years); 44.7% were female. Forty-three of the 76 cases (53.9%) involved ingestions: 35 were of holiday ornaments, and 8 were of light bulbs. All but one of these ornaments were made of glass. In 28%, there was an associated bleed either from the mouth or as a delayed gastrointestinal bleed. Other patients experienced lacerations (27.6%), eye injuries (5.1%), and minor electrocution injury (2.5%). Imaging was performed in 85%. A subspecialty consult was obtained in 23%, primarily addressing a foreign body ingestion or removal after skin exploration. The incidence rate has not changed over the years. Holiday ornament-related injuries primarily involve foreign body ingestions and glass-related injuries. Over half of the injuries involved small light bulbs and ornaments made of glass placed at the level a toddler can reach. Pediatricians are advised to discuss these points with families during holiday season.

  3. Trampoline Park and Home Trampoline Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmire, Kathryn E; Rogers, Steven C; Sturm, Jesse J

    2016-09-01

    Trampoline parks, indoor recreational facilities with wall-to-wall trampolines, are increasing in number and popularity. The objective was to identify trends in emergency department visits for trampoline park injuries (TPIs) and compare TPI characteristics with home trampoline injuries (HTIs). Data on trampoline injuries from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed. Sample weights were applied to estimate yearly national injury trends; unweighted cases were used for comparison of injury patterns. Estimated US emergency department visits for TPI increased significantly, from 581 in 2010 to 6932 in 2014 (P = .045), whereas HTIs did not increase (P = .13). Patients with TPI (n = 330) were older than patients with HTI (n = 7933) (mean 13.3 vs 9.5 years, respectively, P trampoline parks and homes. Compared with HTIs, TPIs were less likely to involve head injury (odds ratio [OR] 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.89), more likely to involve lower extremity injury (OR 2.39; 95% CI, 1.91-2.98), more likely to be a dislocation (OR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.10-4.09), and more likely to warrant admission (OR 1.76; 95% CI, 1.19-2.61). TPIs necessitating hospital admission included open fractures and spinal cord injuries. TPI mechanisms included falls, contact with other jumpers, and flips. TPI patterns differed significantly from HTIs. TPIs are an emerging concern; additional investigation and strategies are needed to prevent injury at trampoline parks. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  5. A closer look at overuse injuries in the pediatric athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Casciano, Rebecca; Friedman, Hilary Levey; Meehan, William P; Micheli, Lyle J

    2015-01-01

    To examine male-female differences in pediatric overuse sports injuries. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Tertiary level sports medicine division in a large academic pediatric medical center. Five percent probability sample of patients 5 to 17 years seen from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009. About 3813 charts reviewed. Final study cohort included 1614 patients. Nonlinear decomposition analysis of male-female differences in overuse injuries. Age, body mass index, history of previous injury, and activity type (contact/collision, team vs individual, "high overuse"). Females sustained approximately half of the total injuries. Fifty-two percent of the injuries were overuse, 61% to the lower extremity. A high proportion of tennis players, swimmers, dancers, track athletes, runners, gymnasts, and cheerleaders were seen for overuse injuries. Females sustained more overuse injuries versus males (63% and 40%, respectively). Males playing team sports have a 5.3 times higher likelihood of being seen for an overuse injury compared with males not playing team sports (P sport participation increased overuse injury odds by a factor of 10 for males versus 3.6 for females (P ≤ 0.01 for males and females). Forty-six percent of the male-female difference in overuse injuries could be attributed to sport/activity characteristics-contact/collision, team, and high overuse. A large proportion of the sex discrepancy in overuse injuries in this cohort was attributed to compositional differences in sports played. Future research is needed to investigate the independent effect of sex on risk for pediatric sports injuries. This study provides a unique analysis of male-female differences in pediatric sports injuries and is the first study to estimate the impact of the different characteristics (ie, collision, team, high overuse) of sports children play on overuse injuries sustained by young athletes. The findings will help guide future prevention efforts.

  6. Perfil das características do treinamento e associação com lesões musculoesqueléticas prévias em corredores recreacionais: um estudo transversal A description of training characteristics and its association with previous musculoskeletal injuries in recreational runners: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. Hespanhol Junior

    2012-02-01

    the routines, training characteristics and history of injury in recreational runners and to evaluate possible associations between the routines and training characteristics with previous musculoskeletal running-related injuries. METHODS: A total of 200 runners participated in this study. The participants completed an electronic form containing questions about personal characteristics, running experience, training characteristics, type of running shoes, foot type and previous injuries history over the last 12 months. The data were analyzed descriptively as well as by using logistic regression models. RESULTS: The majority of the runners was male, aged 43.0 (SD=10.5 years-old, have a body mass index of 24.2 (IQR=4.3 kg/m², and had training volume of 35.0 (IQR=28.0 kilometers per week. Fifty-five percent of runners had injuries over the last 12 months. The most prevalent injuries observed were tendinopathies and muscle injuries. The variable that showed an association with previous running-related injuries was running experience from 5 to 15 years (Odds Ratio (OR=0.2; 95%CI=0.1 to 0.9. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of running-related injuries over the last 12 months was 55%. The variable running experience was associated with the absence of previous musculoskeletal running-related injuries.

  7. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS Occupational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Katie Powell, OT ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  10. Elbow Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many things can make your elbow hurt. A common cause is tendinitis, an inflammation or injury to the tendons that attach muscle to bone. Tendinitis of the elbow is a sports injury, often from playing tennis or golf. You ...

  11. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your knee is bent also can cause this injury. Risk factors Being in a motor vehicle accident and participating in sports such as football and soccer are the most common risk factors for a PCL injury. Complications In ...

  12. Brain injury - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect stem-cell treatments to become available for spinal cord injuries? ...

  14. Football injuries: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect stem-cell treatments to become available for spinal cord injuries? ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite ... arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ...

  18. Mountain Biking Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Majid; Nourian, Ruhollah; Khodaee, Morteza

    With the increasing popularity of mountain biking, also known as off-road cycling, and the riders pushing the sport into extremes, there has been a corresponding increase in injury. Almost two thirds of acute injuries involve the upper extremities, and a similar proportion of overuse injuries affect the lower extremities. Mountain biking appears to be a high-risk sport for severe spine injuries. New trends of injury patterns are observed with popularity of mountain bike trail parks and freeride cycling. Using protective gear, improving technical proficiency, and physical fitness may somewhat decrease the risk of injuries. Simple modifications in bicycle-rider interface areas and with the bicycle (bike fit) also may decrease some overuse injuries. Bike fit provides the clinician with postural correction during the sport. In this review, we also discuss the importance of race-day management strategies and monitoring the injury trends.

  19. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Standards Institute (ANSI) to meet their eye protection standards. If an eye injury occurs, see an ophthalmologist or go to the emergency room immediately, even if the eye injury appears minor. Delaying medical attention can result in permanent vision ...

  20. Injury & Safety Report - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Injury & Safety Report is a mandatory post trip legal document observers fill out to report any injuries they have incurred, illnesses they have had, or...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  3. Skateboarding injuries of today

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, L; Eriksson, A

    2001-01-01

    Background—Skateboarding injuries have increased with the rise in popularity of the sport, and the injury pattern can be expected to have changed with the development of both skateboard tricks and the materials used for skateboard construction.

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain injury Some traumatic brain injuries have lasting effects, and some do not. You may be left with disabilities. These can be physical, behavioral, communicative, and/or mental. Customized treatment helps you to have as full ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  6. Softball Pitching and Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Aaron; Patel, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    The windmill softball pitch generates considerable forces about the athlete's shoulder and elbow. The injury pattern of softball pitchers seems to be primarily overuse injury, and they seem not to suffer the same volume of injury that baseball pitchers do. This article will explore softball pitching techniques, kinetics and kinematics of the windmill pitch, epidemiology of softball pitchers, and discuss possible etiologies of softball pitching injuries.

  7. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  8. Development of an Ontology for Rehabilitation: Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) rehabilitation interventions are very heterogeneous due to injury characteristics and pathology, patient demographics, healthcare settings, caregiver variability, and individualized, multi-discipline treatment plans. Consequently, comparing and generalizing the effectiveness of interventions is limited largely due to…

  9. Management of Laryngotracheal and Tracheobronchial Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Davari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Laryngotracheal and tracheobronchial injuries are uncommon,and their successful diagnosis and management often require ahigh level of expertise. This paper aimed at retrospectiveanalysis of a thoracic surgeon's experience in the diagnosisand management of traumatic injuries to the larynx, tracheaand major bronchi. Forty one patients with major airwaytrauma were managed from March 1994 to November 2008.Their demographic characteristics including age, gender,mechanisms and locations of injuries, associated other organinjuries as well as surgical airway managements and the outcomeswere recorded. Seven patients had re-implantation ofthe main bronchus, and one patient had a repair of the rightupper lobe bronchus with concomitant bilobectomy. In casesof tracheal injury, 16 patients had a primary repair of trachea.However, seven patients with tracheal injury first conservativeapproaches, but 4 of them were later subjected to sleeve resectionof trachea. In patients with laryngotracheal injuries, and ina patient with thermal injury, Montgomery T-Tube was usedwith or without repair and/or reconstruction. Four patients died,but no significant morbidity was seen in others. The analysis ofthe cases suggests that laryngotracheal and tracheobronchialinjuries require early correct diagnosis, skillful management,and prompt individualized surgical airway repair.

  10. Safety of repair for severe duodenal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmahos, George C; Constantinou, Constantinos; Kasotakis, George

    2008-01-01

    There is ongoing debate about the management of severe duodenal injuries (SDIs), and earlier studies have recommended pyloric exclusion. The objective of this study was to compare primary repair with pyloric exclusion to examine if primary repair can be safely used in SDIs. The medical records of 193 consecutive patients who were admitted between August 1992 and January 2004 with duodenal injuries were reviewed. After excluding early deaths (n = 50), low-grade duodenal injuries (n = 81), and pancreatoduodenectomies for catastrophic trauma (n = 12), a total of 50 patients with SDIs (grade III, IV, or V) were analyzed. Primary repair (PR--simple duodenorrhaphy or resection and primary anastomosis) was performed in 34 (68%) and pyloric exclusion (PE) in 16 (32%). Characteristics and outcomes of these two groups were compared. PE and PR patients were similar for age, injury severity score, abdominal abbreviated injury score, physiologic status on admission, time to operation, and most abdominal organs injured. PE patients had more pancreatic injuries (63% vs. 24%, p duodenum (79% vs. 42%, p = 0.02), and a nonsignificant trend toward more grade IV and V injuries (37% vs. 18%, p = 0.11). There was no difference in morbidity (including complications specific to the duodenal repair), mortality, and intensive care unit and hospital length of stay between the two groups. Pyloric exclusion is not necessary for all patients with SDIs, as previously suggested. Selected SDI patients can be safely managed by simple primary repair.

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  12. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26

  13. Lightning injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritenour, Amber E; Morton, Melinda J; McManus, John G; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2008-08-01

    Lightning is an uncommon but potentially devastating cause of injury in patients presenting to burn centers. These injuries feature unusual symptoms, high mortality, and significant long-term morbidity. This paper will review the epidemiology, physics, clinical presentation, management principles, and prevention of lightning injuries.

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow ...

  16. Injury prevention in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    other sports,[1,2] and youth football players are no exception to this. ... at risk of sports injury because of high levels of exposure at a time of major physiological change.[4] The ..... As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and.

  17. Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...

  18. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, MD Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How ... arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  20. Knee injuries in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    swimming and basketball.1 In 2001 it was reported to have injury rates of 1 000 times ... knee injury in football are the age of the player, a previous injury and the ligamentous .... football is possible, although the success rates may vary from ...

  1. Groin injuries in atheletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Per

    2017-01-01

    Groin injuries have a bad reputation as very difficult to diagnose and treat. However, this is not justified and in the last two decades an increasing number of good scientific papers have been published. The key to the groin injuries is the anatomy. Groin injuries are related to muscles, tendons...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... What is a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...

  3. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  4. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; van Heurn, L.W.; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  5. Injuries in synchronized skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubravcic-Simunjak, S; Kuipers, H; Moran, J; Simunjak, B; Pecina, M

    2006-06-01

    Synchronized skating is a relatively new competitive sport and data about injuries in this discipline are lacking. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and pattern of acute and overuse injuries in synchronized skaters. Before and during the World Synchronized Skating Championship 2004, a questionnaire inquiring about the frequency of injuries in this skating discipline was given to 23 participating teams. A total of 514 women and 14 men senior skaters completed the questionnaires (100 % response). Two hundred and eighteen (42.4 %) female and 6 (42.9 %) male skaters had suffered from acute injuries during their synchronized skating career. As some skaters had suffered from more than one injury, the total number of acute injuries in females was 398 and in males 14. In female skaters 19.8 % of acute injuries were head injuries, 7.1 % trunk, 33.2 % upper, and 39.9 % lower extremity injuries. In male skaters 14.3 % were head injuries, 28.6 % upper, and 57.1 % lower extremity injuries, with no report of trunk injuries. Sixty-nine female and 2 male skaters had low back problems and 112 female and 2 male skaters had one or more overuse syndromes during their skating career. Of 155 overuse injuries in female skaters, 102 (65.8 %) occurred during their figure skating career, while 53 injuries (34.2 %) only occurred when they skated in synchronized skating teams. In male skaters, out of 5 overuse injuries, 4 (80 %) occurred in their figure skating career, while 1 (20 %) occurred during their synchronized skating career. Out of the total of 412 injuries, 338 (82 %) occurred during on-ice practice, while 74 (18 %) happened during off-ice training. Ninety-one (26.9 %) acute injures occurred while practicing individual elements, and 247 (73.1 %) on-ice injuries occurred while practicing different team elements. We conclude that injuries in synchronized skating should be of medical concern due to an increasing number of acute injuries, especially

  6. Sports injuries and illnesses during the Winter Olympic Games 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Lars; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Renström, Per; Wilkinson, Mike

    2010-09-01

    Identification of high-risk sports, including their most common and severe injuries and illnesses, will facilitate the identification of sports and athletes at risk at an early stage. To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the XXI Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver 2010. All National Olympic Committees' (NOC) head physicians were asked to report daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form. In addition, the medical centres at the Vancouver and Whistler Olympic clinics reported daily on all athletes treated for injuries and illnesses. Physicians covering 2567 athletes (1045 females, 1522 males) from 82 NOCs participated in the study. The reported 287 injuries and 185 illnesses resulted in an incidence of 111.8 injuries and 72.1 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of sustaining an injury was highest for bobsleigh, ice hockey, short track, alpine freestyle and snowboard cross (15-35% of registered athletes were affected in each sport). The injury risk was lowest for the Nordic skiing events (biathlon, cross country skiing, ski jumping, Nordic combined), luge, curling, speed skating and freestyle moguls (less than 5% of registered athletes). Head/cervical spine and knee were the most common injury locations. Injuries were evenly distributed between training (54.0%) and competition (46.0%; p=0.18), and 22.6% of the injuries resulted in an absence from training or competition. In skeleton, figure and speed skating, curling, snowboard cross and biathlon, every 10th athlete suffered from at least one illness. In 113 illnesses (62.8%), the respiratory system was affected. At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games, and 7% of the athletes an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Analyses of injury mechanisms in high-risk Olympic winter

  7. Injuries among weightlifters and powerlifters: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasa, Ulrika; Svartholm, Ivar; Andersson, Fredrik; Berglund, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Olympic weightlifting and powerlifting are two sports that expose the body to great forces. Injury characteristics have not been systematically reviewed for these two growing sports. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding various definitions of injuries used, injury localisation, the prevalence and incidence of injuries and the associated risk factors for injuries in weightlifting and powerlifting. Systematic review. Five databases, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Scopus and Web of Science, were searched between 9 March and 6 April 2015. Studies assessing injury incidence and prevalence in Olympic weightlifting and powerlifting were included. The Quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies was used to assess methodological quality. 9 studies were included in the review. Injury was defined fairly consistently across studies. Most studies were of low methodological quality. The spine, shoulder and the knee were the most common injury localisations in both sports. The injury incidence in weightlifting was 2.4-3.3 injuries/1000 hours of training and 1.0-4.4 injuries/1000 hours of training in powerlifting. Only one retrospective study had analysed possible risk factors. The risk of injury in both sports were similar to other non-contact sports also requiring strength/power, but low compared to contact sports. The severity of injuries differed in the included studies. Since little has been studied regarding possible risk factors to injuries, further research is therefore warranted to explain why athletes get injured and how to prevent injuries. PROSPERO CRD42015014805. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Diagnostic imaging of sport related musculoskeletal system injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Schivartche, Vivian

    1998-01-01

    The authors review the literature about musculoskeletal injuries related to sports, emphasizing the main findings with different imaging methods. They also present the specific characteristics of each method. (author)

  9. Snowboarding and ski boarding injuries in Niigata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yuko; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the injury patterns and incidence of snowboarding and ski boarding injuries with that of alpine skiing in 2000 to 2005, as there are few previous studies comparing these 3 sports, especially in Asia. The injury patterns are different among the 3 snow sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. The subjects were alpine skiers (1240 cases), snowboarders (2220 cases), and ski boarders (132 cases) who were injured in 2 ski resorts located in Niigata prefecture in Japan and visited the authors' clinics in these ski resorts between 2000 and 2005. On visiting the clinics, patients completed a questionnaire reviewing the circumstances surrounding the injury event, and physicians documented the diagnosis. The injury rate, which was based on all purchased lift tickets, in snowboarding decreased gradually, although it was still 2 times higher than that of alpine skiing. Snowboarding and ski boarding had a higher fracture and dislocation rate. Both sports also had a 4 times higher rate of injuries because of jumping. The characteristics of ski boarding were a lower head and neck injury rate and collision injury rate than those of the other 2 snow sports, as well as a 2 times higher rate of fractures compared with alpine skiing injuries and a 1.4 times higher incidence than that of snowboarding injuries. Of the fractures caused by ski boarding accidents, 39.6% affected the lower leg bones. Injury prevention strategies should focus on jumps for snowboarders and ski boarders.

  10. Industrial distributions of severe occupational injuries among workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Michiyo; Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Yorifuji, Takashi; Hengpraprom, Sarunya; Hiransuthikul, Narin; Doi, Hiroyuki; Takao, Soshi

    2014-01-01

    In industrializing countries, occupational safety and health have been affected by globalization. However, a lack of reliable data prevents evaluation of this situation. Therefore, we examined industrial distributions and risks of severe occupational injuries among workers in Thailand, which is one of the few industrializing countries that compiles nationwide data. Data on workers who made claims for occupational injuries from 2007 to 2009 were extracted from the Workmen's Compensation Fund records in Thailand. Among 501,334 claimants, we evaluated the industrial distributions of severe occupational injuries (i.e., permanent disability and death). We then examined the associations between industry and those injuries, using proportionate ratios (PRs) between each industrial category and the overall distribution of occupational injuries. The number of workers in manufacturing making claims for severe occupational injuries was the largest among all industrial categories (319,114/501,334 injuries), although the total number of occupational injuries recently declined. Additionally, workers in manufacturing experienced severe occupational injuries more often compared with the overall distribution of occupational injuries. The PRs (95% confidence interval) for manufacturing were 1.17 (1.14-1.20) in men and 1.33 (1.27-1.38) in women. After adjusting for individual characteristics, the results did not substantially change. Manufacturing seems to have the largest burden of occupational injuries in industrializing countries like Thailand.

  11. Patterns of urban violent injury: a spatio-temporal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cusimano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury related to violent acts is a problem in every society. Although some authors have examined the geography of violent crime, few have focused on the spatio-temporal patterns of violent injury and none have used an ambulance dataset to explore the spatial characteristics of injury. The purpose of this study was to describe the combined spatial and temporal characteristics of violent injury in a large urban centre.Using a geomatics framework and geographic information systems software, we studied 4,587 ambulance dispatches and 10,693 emergency room admissions for violent injury occurrences among adults (aged 18-64 in Toronto, Canada, during 2002 and 2004, using population-based datasets. We created kernel density and choropleth maps for 24-hour periods and four-hour daily time periods and compared location of ambulance dispatches and patient residences with local land use and socioeconomic characteristics. We used multivariate regressions to control for confounding factors. We found the locations of violent injury and the residence locations of those injured were both closely related to each other and clearly clustered in certain parts of the city characterised by high numbers of bars, social housing units, and homeless shelters, as well as lower household incomes. The night and early morning showed a distinctive peak in injuries and a shift in the location of injuries to a "nightlife" district. The locational pattern of patient residences remained unchanged during those times.Our results demonstrate that there is a distinctive spatio-temporal pattern in violent injury reflected in the ambulance data. People injured in this urban centre more commonly live in areas of social deprivation. During the day, locations of injury and locations of residences are similar. However, later at night, the injury location of highest density shifts to a "nightlife" district, whereas the residence locations of those most at risk of injury do not change.

  12. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...... injury was €1406 (2009 price level) in the first year, and €8950 over a 10-year period. Per 100 000 population, the 10-year cost was €6 565 668. A severe traffic injury costs €4969 per person in the first year, and €4 006 685 per 100 000 population over a 10-year period. Victims of traffic injuries...

  13. [Trauma registry and injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, S C

    2001-10-01

    The trauma registry network constitutes an essential database in every injury prevention system. In order to rationally estimate the extent of injury in general, and injuries from traffic accidents in particular, the trauma registry systems should contain the most comprehensive and broad database possible, in line with the operational definitions. Ideally, the base of the injury pyramid should also include mild injuries and even "near-misses". The Israeli National Trauma Registry has come a long way in the last few years. The eventual inclusion of all trauma centers in Israel will enable the establishment of a firm base for the allocation of resources by decision-makers.

  14. Triathlon: running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  15. [Trampoline injuries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.

  16. Dismounted Complex Blast Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Romney C; Fleming, Mark; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Gordon, Wade T; Nanos, George P; Charlton, Michael T; Ficke, James R

    2012-01-01

    The severe Dismounted Complex Blast Injury (DCBI) is characterized by high-energy injuries to the bilateral lower extremities (usually proximal transfemoral amputations) and/or upper extremity (usually involving the non-dominant side), in addition to open pelvic injuries, genitourinary, and abdominal trauma. Initial resuscitation and multidisciplinary surgical management appear to be the keys to survival. Definitive treatment follows general principals of open wound management and includes decontamination through aggressive and frequent debridement, hemorrhage control, viable tissue preservation, and appropriate timing of wound closure. These devastating injuries are associated with paradoxically favorable survival rates, but associated injuries and higher amputation levels lead to more difficult reconstructive challenges.

  17. Role of Melatonin in Traumatic Brain Injury and Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehar Naseem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain and spinal cord are implicated in incidences of two of the most severe injuries of central nervous system (CNS. Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a devastating neurological deficit involving primary and secondary injury cascades. The primary and secondary mechanisms include complex consequences of activation of proinflammatory cytokines, cerebral edema, upregulation of NF-κβ, disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB, and oxidative stress. Spinal cord injury (SCI includes primary and secondary injury cascades. Primary injury leads to secondary injury in which generation of free radicals and oxidative or nitrative damage play an important pathophysiological role. The indoleamine melatonin is a hormone secreted or synthesized by pineal gland in the brain which helps to regulate sleep and wake cycle. Melatonin has been shown to be a versatile hormone having antioxidative, antiapoptotic, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties. It has a special characteristic of crossing BBB. Melatonin has neuroprotective role in the injured part of the CNS after TBI and SCI. A number of studies have successfully shown its therapeutic value as a neuroprotective agent in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Here in this review we have compiled the literature supporting consequences of CNS injuries, TBI and SCI, and the protective role of melatonin in it.

  18. Liver injury from Herbals and Dietary Supplements in the US Drug Induced Liver Injury Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Victor J.; Barnhart, Huiman; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Davern, Timothy; Fontana, Robert J.; Grant, Lafaine; Reddy, K. Rajender; Seeff, Leonard B.; Serrano, Jose; Sherker, Averell H.; Stolz, Andrew; Talwalkar, Jayant; Vega, Maricruz; Vuppalanchi, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Background The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) studies hepatotoxicity due to conventional medications as well as herbals and dietary supplements (HDS). Rationale To characterize hepatotoxicity and its outcomes from HDS versus medications, patients with hepatotoxicity attributed to medications or HDS were enrolled prospectively between 2004 and 2013. The study took place among eight US referral centers that are part of the DILIN. Consecutive patients with liver injury referred to a DILIN center were eligible. The final sample comprised 130 (15.5%) of all subjects enrolled (839) who were judged to have experienced liver injury due to HDS. Hepatotoxicity due to HDS was evaluated by expert opinion. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome assessments including death and liver transplantation were ascertained. Cases were stratified and compared according to the type of agent implicated in liver injury; 45 had injury due to bodybuilding HDS, 85 due to non-bodybuilding HDS, and 709 due to medications. Main Results Liver injury due to HDS increased from 7% to 20% (p Bodybuilding HDS caused prolonged jaundice (median 91 days) in young men but did not result in any fatalities or liver transplantation. The remaining HDS cases presented as hepatocellular injury, predominantly in middle-aged women and more frequently led to death or transplantation compared to injury from medications (13% vs. 3%, p bodybuilding HDS is more severe than from bodybuilding HDS or medications, as evidenced by differences in unfavorable outcomes; death and transplantation. PMID:25043597

  19. Martial arts injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieter, Willy

    2005-01-01

    To review the current evidence for the epidemiology of pediatric injuries in martial arts. The relevant literature was searched using SPORT DISCUS (keywords: martial arts injuries, judo injuries, karate injuries, and taekwondo injuries and ProQuest (keywords: martial arts, taekwondo, karate, and judo), as well as hand searches of the reference lists. In general, the absolute number of injuries in girls is lower than in boys. However, when expressed relative to exposure, the injury rates of girls are higher. Injuries by body region reflect the specific techniques and rules of the martial art. The upper extremities tend to get injured more often in judo, the head and face in karate and the lower extremities in taekwondo. Activities engaged in at the time of injury included performing a kick or being thrown in judo, while punching in karate, and performing a roundhouse kick in taekwondo. Injury type tends to be martial art specific with sprains reported in judo and taekwondo and epistaxis in karate. Injury risk factors in martial arts include age, body weight and exposure. Preventive measures should focus on education of coaches, referees, athletes, and tournament directors. Although descriptive research should continue, analytical studies are urgently needed.

  20. Ice hockey injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Brian W; Meeuwisse, Willem H

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the distribution and determinants of injuries reported in the pediatric ice hockey literature, and suggests potential injury prevention strategies and directions for further research. Thirteen electronic databases, the ISI Web of Science, and 'grey literature' databases were searched using a combination of Medical Subject Headings and text words to identify potentially relevant articles. The bibliographies of selected studies were searched to identify additional articles. Studies were selected for review based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A comparison between studies on this topic area was difficult due to the variability in research designs, definition of injury, study populations, and measurements used to assess injury. The majority of injuries were sustained during games compared with practices. The two most commonly reported injuries were sprains/strains and contusions. Players competing at the Minor hockey, High School, and Junior levels of competition sustained most of their injuries to the upper extremity, head, and lower extremity, respectively. The primary mechanism of injury was body checking, followed by stick and puck contact. The frequency of catastrophic eye injuries has been significantly reduced with the world-wide mandation of full facial protection for all Minor hockey players. Specific hockey-related injury risk factors are poorly delineated and rarely studied among pediatric ice hockey players leaving large gaps in the knowledge of appropriate prevention strategies. Risk management strategies should be focused at avoiding unnecessary foreseeable risk, and controlling the risks inherent to the sport. Suggestions for injury prevention and future research are discussed.

  1. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect.

  2. Ice-skating injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D M; Lowdon, I M

    1986-05-01

    The range of injuries sustained at an ice-rink and presented to an Accident Service department is described. A total of 203 patients with 222 injuries presented themselves during a 2-month period. There were 103 noteworthy injuries, including 61 fractures, 2 dislocations and 2 severed tendons, but the commonest injuries were wounds, sprains and bruises. Beginners appear to be more prone to injury than experienced skaters. In addition to using well-fitting skate-boots to protect the ankle, some injuries could be avoided by wearing elbow and knee pads, and a thick pair of gloves. The number of injuries compared with the total number of skaters was small but produced a noteworthy increase in the workload of the Accident Service.

  3. A comparative study of bike lane injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Jung Hee; Park, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyu Nam; Choi, Seung Pill

    2012-02-01

    Because of the increased number of bicycle riders and governmental promotions, a recent increase in the construction of bicycle lanes has occurred. We aimed to characterize injuries specific to bicycle lane accidents by comparing them with injuries that occurred on regular roadways. On the basis of our findings, we provide suggestions on proper preventive strategies. We performed a retrospective study on 408 cases obtained between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2010. Of these cases, 387 met the criterion that the location of the injury could be confirmed by telephone or via review of the patient's chart. Data regarding age, gender, Injury Severity Score, time of the accident, location of the accident, and other characteristics were collected. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0K. Of the 387 cases, 204 (52.7%) patients were injured in bicycle lanes and 183 (47.3%) were injured on regular roadways. Comparing cases of bicycle lane injuries and non-bicycle lane injuries, there were no differences in age, day of the week, season, or the time at which the accident occurred. Bicycle helmets were used more frequently in bicycle lane injuries (33.2% vs. 13.7%; p cases, falls (42.6%) and collisions with other vehicles (39.3%) were the most common causes of injury. Although the severity of injuries was slightly lower in bicycle lane cases, it was not significantly lower than non-bicycle lane cases. Although people are increasingly using bicycle lanes for safety, this study shows that they are not definitively safer. Therefore, improvements in the policies related to implementing bicycle lane safety are needed, for example, by enforcing the use of protective gear or preventing the use of bicycle lanes by pedestrians. More safety education programs are also needed. III.

  4. Illness perceptions and mood states are associated with injury-related outcomes in athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C. Paul; Kaptein, Ad A.; Brink, Michel S.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Athletes have to cope adequately with the consequences of their injury in order to return into sports as soon as possible. Besides the physical characteristics of the injury, illness perceptions and emotional responses impact the behavioural responses to the injury. Purpose. To apply

  5. Evaluation of a 15-year experience with splenic injuries in a state trauma system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbrecht, Brian G; Zenati, Mazen S; Ochoa, Juan B; Puyana, Juan C; Alarcon, Louis H; Peitzman, Andrew B

    2007-02-01

    The management of splenic injuries has evolved with a greater emphasis on nonoperative management. Although several institutions have demonstrated that nonoperative management of splenic injuries can be performed with an increasing degree of success, the impact of this treatment shift on outcome for all patients with splenic injuries remains unknown. We hypothesized that outcomes for patients with splenic injuries have improved as the paradigm for splenic injury treatment has shifted. Consecutive patients from 1987 to 2001 with splenic injuries who were entered into a state trauma registry were reviewed. Demographic variables, injury characteristics, and outcome data were collected. The number of patients who were diagnosed with splenic injuries increased from 1987 through 2001, despite a stable number of institutions submitting data to the registry. The number of minor injuries and severe splenic injuries remained stable, and the number of moderately severe injuries significantly increased over time. Overall mortality rate improved but primarily reflected the decreased mortality rates of moderately severe injuries; the mortality rate for severe splenic injuries was unchanged. Trauma centers are seeing increasing numbers of splenic injuries that are less severe in magnitude, although the number of the most severe splenic injuries is stable. The increased proportion of patients with less severe splenic injuries who are being admitted to trauma centers is a significant factor in the increased use and success rate of nonoperative management.

  6. Stress injury of the rib in a swimmer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heincelman, Carrie [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Brown, Seth; England, Eric; Mehta, Kaushal; Wissman, Robert D. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Rib stress injuries are uncommonly reported but have been documented among athletes, most notably rowers. There have only been two prior case reports of rib stress injuries in swimmers, both of which were young females. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was either not obtained or the imaging characteristics were incompletely described. We present a case of an isolated third rib stress injury in a collegiate male swimmer diagnosed via MR imaging. We briefly discuss the possible etiologies for rib stress injuries, their MR appearance, as well as their treatment. (orig.)

  7. Working with Students with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    The participation of a student with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in general physical education can often be challenging and rewarding for the student and physical education teacher. This article addresses common characteristics of students with TBI and presents basic solutions to improve the education of students with TBI in the general physical…

  8. Snowboarding injuries. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladin, C; McCrory, P

    1995-05-01

    Over the last 10 years, snowboarding has become established as a popular and legitimate alpine sport. However, at present, there are few epidemiological studies examining the spectrum of injuries associated with this new sport. Snowboarders are typically male (male: female ratio of 3:1) and in their early twenties. They have an injury rate of 4 to 6 per 1000 visits, which is comparable to that which occurs with skiing. However, in contrast to skiing, in which only 34% of those injured are beginners, the majority (60%) of snowboarders injured are beginners. This is a reflection of the participant profile of this developing sport. 57% of injuries occur in the lower limbs, and 30% in the upper limbs. The most common injuries are simple sprains (31 to 53%), particularly of the ankles (23 to 26%) and knees (12 to 23%), followed by fractures (24 to 27%) and contusions (12%). Compared with skiing injuries, snowboarders have 2.4 times as many fractures, particularly of the upper limbs (constituting 21 vs 35% of upper limb injuries), fewer knee injuries (23 vs 44% of lower limb injuries), but more ankle injuries (23 vs 6% of lower limb injuries). Snowboarding knee injuries are less severe than those associated with skiing. Fracture of the lateral process of the talus is an unusual and uncommon snowboarding injury that can be misdiagnosed as a severe ankle sprain. Ankle injuries are more common with soft shell boots, whereas knee injuries and distal tibia fractures are more common with hard shell boots.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Short-Term Absenteeism and Health Care Utilization Due to Lower Extremity Injuries Among Novice Runners : A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Huisstede, Bionka; Verhagen, Evert; van der Worp, Henk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Hartgens, Fred; Backx, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe absenteeism and health care utilization (HCU) within 6 weeks after occurrence of running-related injuries (RRIs) among novice runners and to explore differences relating to injury and personal characteristics. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Primary care.

  10. Measuring positive affect and well-being after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Positive Affect and Well-being bank and short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertisch, Hilary; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S

    2015-05-01

    To develop an item response theory (IRT)-calibrated spinal cord injury (SCI)-specific Positive Affect and Well-being (PAWB) item bank with flexible options for administration. Qualitative feedback from patient and provider focus groups was used to expand on the Neurological Disorders and Quality of Life (Neuro-QOL) positive affect & well-being item bank for use in SCI. New items were created and revised based on expert review and patient feedback and were then field tested. Analyses included confirmatory factor analysis, graded response IRT modeling and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF). We tested a 32-item pool at several rehabilitation centers across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. A total of 717 individuals with SCI answered the PAWB questions. A unidimensional model was observed (Confirmatory Fit Index=0.947; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.094) and measurement precision was good (reliability in theta of -2.9 to 1.2 is roughly equivalent to classical reliability of 0.95 or above). Twelve items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes, the DIF was determined to be negligible and would have little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 28 retained items This study indicates that the Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life PAWB bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and a computer adaptive test is available.

  11. Patterns of severe injury in pediatric car crash victims: Crash Injury Research Engineering Network database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J Kristine; Jing, Yuezhou; Wang, Stewart; Ehrlich, Peter F

    2006-02-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) account for 50% of pediatric trauma. Safety improvements are typically tested with child crash dummies using an in vitro model. The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) provides an in vivo validation process. Previous research suggest that children in lateral crashes or front-seat locations have higher Injury Severity Scale scores and lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores than those in frontal-impact crashes. However, specific injury patterns and crash characteristics have not been characterized. Data were collected from the CIREN multidisciplinary crash reconstruction network (10 pediatric trauma centers). Injuries were examined with regard to crash direction (frontal/lateral), restraint use, seat location, and change in velocity at impact (DeltaV). Injuries were limited to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores of 3 or higher and included head, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic, spine, and long bone (orthopedic) injuries. Standard age groupings (0-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-18 years) were used. Statistical analyses used Fisher's Exact test and multiple logistic regressions. Four hundred seventeen MVCs with 2500 injuries were analyzed (males = 219, females = 198). Controlling for DeltaV and age, children in lateral-impact crashes (n = 232) were significantly more likely to suffer severe injuries to the head and thorax as compared with children in frontal crashes (n = 185), who were more likely to suffer severe spine and orthopedic injuries. Children in a front-seat (n = 236) vs those in a back-seat (n = 169) position had more injuries to the thoracic (27% vs 17%), abdominal (21% vs 13%), pelvic (11% vs 1%), and orthopedic (28% vs 10%) regions (P < .05 for all). Seat belts were protective for pelvic (5% vs 12% unbelted) and orthopedic (15% vs 40%) injuries (odds ratio = 3, P < .01 for both). A reproducible pattern of injury is noted for children involved in lateral-impact crashes characterized by head and chest injuries. The Injury Severity

  12. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Tips for a safe running program. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00132. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Overuse injury. The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. http:// ...

  13. Ulnar nerve injury associated with trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclin, Melvin M; Novak, Christine B; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2004-08-01

    This study reports three cases of ulnar neuropathy after trampoline injuries in children. A chart review was performed on children who sustained an ulnar nerve injury from a trampoline accident. In all cases, surgical intervention was required. Injuries included upper-extremity fractures in two cases and an upper-extremity laceration in one case. All cases required surgical exploration with internal neurolysis and ulnar nerve transposition. Nerve grafts were used in two cases and an additional nerve transfer was used in one case. All patients had return of intrinsic hand function and sensation after surgery. Children should be followed for evolution of ulnar nerve neuropathy after upper-extremity injury with consideration for electrical studies and surgical exploration if there is no improvement after 3 months.

  14. Collateral Ligament Knee Injuries in Pediatric and Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Dennis E; Miller, Patricia E; Berrahou, Iman K; Yen, Yi-Meng; Heyworth, Benton E

    2017-12-08

    The majority of research on medial (MCL) and lateral (LCL) collateral ligament injuries has focused on adults and combined collateral/cruciate injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine characteristics associated with isolated collateral ligament injuries in adolescents, and assess timing for return to sports. Electronic medical records were queried to identify patients aged below 17 years who sustained a magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed isolated MCL or LCL injury over an 8-year period. Retrospective review then documented patient and injury characteristics and clinical course. General linear modeling was used to analyze risk factors for prolonged return to sports, continued pain or reinjury. Fifty-one knees (33 in males, 65%), mean age 13.8 years (range, 5 to 17), were identified, of which 40 (78%) had MCL injuries. Over half (29, 57%) of knees had an open distal femoral physis including all 5 bony avulsion injuries. Eleven (22%) had LCL injuries of which 3 (6%) had concurrent posterolateral corner injuries. Forty-two (82%) knees had injuries that occurred during sports. Eleven knees (28%) with MCL tears had a simultaneous patellar instability episode. Knee injuries that occurred during sports had 37% shorter recovery time (P=0.02). Eight knees (16%) experienced a reinjury and 12 (24%) were followed over an extended period of time for various knee issues. Football injuries were more likely to be grade 3 (P=0.03), and football and soccer accounted for all grade III injuries. The mean return to sports was 2.2 months, with grade III cases returning at 2.4 months, and 95% of cases within 4 months. Isolated collateral ligament injuries are rare in adolescent athletes. MCL injuries, one-quarter of which occurred in conjunction with patellar instability events, were 4 times more common than LCL injuries, one quarter of which have other posterolateral corner structures involved. Grade III injuries represent 20% to 25% of collateral ligament injuries and

  15. Injuries in Irish dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury.

  16. Soccer Injuries in Players Aged 7 to 12 Years: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study Over 2 Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Roland; Junge, Astrid; Chomiak, Jiri; Dvorak, Jiri; Faude, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    As part of a risk-management approach, sound epidemiological data are needed to develop prevention programs. A recent review on soccer injuries of players younger than 19 years concluded that prospective data concerning children are lacking. To analyze the incidence and characteristics of soccer injuries in children aged 7 to 12 years. Descriptive epidemiological study. The present survey was a prospective descriptive epidemiological study on soccer injuries over 2 seasons in the Czech Republic and Switzerland. Exposure of players during training and match play (in hours) and injury data were reported by coaches via an Internet-based registration system. Location, type, and severity of injuries were classified according to an established consensus. Injury characteristics are presented as absolute numbers and injury incidence rates (injuries per 1000 hours of soccer exposure). An injury was defined as any physical complaint sustained during a scheduled training session or match play resulting in at least 1 of the following: (1) inability to complete the current match or training session, (2) absence from subsequent training sessions or matches, and (3) injury requiring medical attention. In total, 6038 player-seasons with 395,295 hours of soccer exposure were recorded. The mean (±SD) age of the players was 9.5 ± 2.0 years, and 3.9% of the participants were girls. A total of 417 injuries were reported. Most (76.3%) injuries were located in the lower limbs, with 15.6% located in the upper limbs. Joint and ligament injuries comprised 30.5%, contusions 22.5%, muscle and tendon injuries 18.5%, and fractures and bone injuries 15.4% of all injuries; 23.7% of injuries led to more than 28 days of absence from sport participation. The overall injury incidence was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.53-0.69) injuries per 1000 hours of soccer exposure during training sessions and 4.57 (95% CI, 4.00-5.23) during match play. Injury incidence rates increased with increasing age. The observed injury

  17. MR findings of brainstem injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Man Soo; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Park, Choong Ki [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Dae Chul [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Joon [Dankook University of College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-15

    To analyze the characteristics of traumatic brainstem injury by CT and MR. CT and MR studies of 10 patients with traumatic brainstem lesion in MR were retrospectively reviewed, particularly attended to location, signal intensity and associated lesions. CT failed to depict 8 of 10 brainstem lesions. All lesions were detected in MR images with T2-weighted images showing higher detection rate (n = 10) (100%) than T1-weighted images (n = 3) (30%) or CT (n = 2) (20%). The brainstem lesions located in the dorsolateral aspects of the rostral brainstem (mid brain and upper pons) in 7 (70%) cases, in ventral aspects of rostral brain in 2 (20%) cases and in median portion of pons in 1 (10%) case. Corpus callosal (n = 5), lobar white matter (n = 5) diffuse axonal injury, and 2 hemorrhagic lesions in basal ganglia were the associated findings. MR imaging is more helpful than CT in the detection of brainstem injury, especially T2 weighted images. Primary brainstem lesions were typically located in the dorsolateral aspect of rostral brainstem (midbrain and upper pons). Corpus callosum and white matter lesions were frequently associated.

  18. Competitive Wrestling-related Injuries in School Aged Athletes in U.S. Emergency Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Richard J.; Linakis, Seth W.; Mello, Michael J.; Linakis, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristics of wrestling injuries occurring in male athletes aged 7-17 treated in United States (U.S.) emergency departments (ED) from 2000-2006, and to compare injury patterns between younger & older youth wrestlers. Methods: A stratified probability sample of U.S. hospitals providing emergency services in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was used for 2000-2006. ED visits for injuries sustained in organized wrestling were analyzed for...

  19. Injuries prevalence in elite male artistic gymnasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Batista Albuquerque GOULART

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the injuries prevalence in men elite artistic gymnasts. Twenty Brazilian senior gymnasts, aged 23.1 ± 6.5 years, 13.9 ± 5.0 years of practice and 36.5 ± 4.7 hours per week training, participated in this study. The athletes answered a morbidity questionnaire, formulated according to studies from the literature, for information on the injuries’ characteristics and circumstances. Information about the injury circumstances (gymnastic apparatus, overload training and physical exercises, the anatomic site injured, the affect biological tissue and the return to training after injury treatment were evaluated. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, absolute and relative frequencies. The training overload, and floor, pommel horse and vault were the events that presented higher injuries frequency. In relation to anatomic site, ankle, hands/fingers and shoulder were the most cited regions. The ligament, bone and articular capsule were the most affected biological tissues. In relation to gymnasts’ return to their sports activities, 56% of them reported a better condition at return, 33% reported to have returned at the same fitness level and 10% indicated that they were in a worse condition when they returned to the sports activities. The men’s artistic gymnastics injuries are related to the mechanical demands of this sport. The analysis of risk factors helps in understanding the injuries mechanisms in gymnastics, and provides relevant information that can assist in effective prevention strategies.

  20. A profile of injury in Fiji: findings from a population-based injury surveillance system (TRIP-10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Kool, Bridget; Herman, Josephine; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2012-12-12

    Over 90% of injury deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. However, the epidemiological profile of injuries in Pacific Islands has received little attention. We used a population-based-trauma registry to investigate the characteristics of all injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji. The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH) database prospectively collected data on all injury-related deaths and primary admissions to hospital (≥ 12 hours stay) in Viti Levu during 12 months commencing October 2005. The 2167 injury-related deaths and hospitalisations corresponded to an annual incidence rate of 333 per 100,000, with males accounting for twice as many cases as females. Almost 80% of injuries involved people aged less than 45 years, and 74% were deemed unintentional. There were 244 fatalities (71% died before admission) and 1994 hospitalisations corresponding to crude annual rates of 37.5 per 100,000 and 306 per 100,000 respectively. The leading cause of fatal injury was road traffic injury (29%) and the equivalent for injury admissions was falls (30%). The commonest type of injury resulting in death and admission to hospital was asphyxia and fractures respectively. Alcohol use was documented as a contributing factor in 13% of deaths and 12% of admissions. In general, indigenous Fijians had higher rates of injury admission, especially for interpersonal violence, while those of Indian ethnicity had higher rates of fatality, especially from suicide. Injury is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects young males in Fiji, with a high proportion of deaths prior to hospital presentation. This study highlights key areas requiring priority attention to reduce the burden of potentially life-threatening injuries in Fiji.

  1. A profile of Injury in Fiji: findings from a population-based injury surveillance system (TRIP-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainiqolo Iris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 90% of injury deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. However, the epidemiological profile of injuries in Pacific Islands has received little attention. We used a population-based-trauma registry to investigate the characteristics of all injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji. Method The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH database prospectively collected data on all injury-related deaths and primary admissions to hospital (≥12 hours stay in Viti Levu during 12 months commencing October 2005. Results The 2167 injury-related deaths and hospitalisations corresponded to an annual incidence rate of 333 per 100,000, with males accounting for twice as many cases as females. Almost 80% of injuries involved people aged less than 45 years, and 74% were deemed unintentional. There were 244 fatalities (71% died before admission and 1994 hospitalisations corresponding to crude annual rates of 37.5 per 100,000 and 306 per 100,000 respectively. The leading cause of fatal injury was road traffic injury (29% and the equivalent for injury admissions was falls (30%. The commonest type of injury resulting in death and admission to hospital was asphyxia and fractures respectively. Alcohol use was documented as a contributing factor in 13% of deaths and 12% of admissions. In general, indigenous Fijians had higher rates of injury admission, especially for interpersonal violence, while those of Indian ethnicity had higher rates of fatality, especially from suicide. Conclusions Injury is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects young males in Fiji, with a high proportion of deaths prior to hospital presentation. This study highlights key areas requiring priority attention to reduce the burden of potentially life-threatening injuries in Fiji.

  2. Occupational injuries in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Arrayed, A; Hamza, A

    1995-10-01

    A study was conducted to show the problem of occupational injuries in Bahrain and try to highlight some solutions that may help to prevent or reduce workplace hazards. The data for occupational injuries between 1988 to 1991 from the social insurance records were reviewed and analysed. The data were summarized, grouped and tabulated according to age, sex, nationality, work place, type of injuries, cause and site of injury. Data were analysed statistically, frequencies were computed and results represented graphically. The study shows that there was a decline in the number of injuries in 1990 and 1991 due to a slow-down of economic activities in general in the Arabian Gulf region during the Gulf War. It also shows that Asian workers are at a high risk of occupational injuries.

  3. Paediatric treadmill friction injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremijenko, Luke; Mott, Jonathan; Wallis, Belinda; Kimble, Roy

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to report on the severity and incidence of children injured by treadmills and to promote the implementation of safety standards. This retrospective review of children with treadmill friction injuries was conducted in a single tertiary-level burns centre in Australia between January 1997 and June 2007. The study revealed 37 children who sustained paediatric treadmill friction injuries. This was a presentation of 1% of all burns. Thirty-three (90%) of the injuries occurred in the last 3.5 years (January 2004 to June 2007). The modal age was 3.2 years. Thirty-three (90%) injuries were either full thickness or deep partial friction burns. Eleven (30%) required split thickness skin grafts. Of those who became entrapped, 100% required skin grafting. This study found that paediatric treadmill friction injuries are severe and increasing in incidence. Australian standards should be developed, implemented and mandated to reduce this preventable and severe injury.

  4. Injuries in women's basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojian, Thomas H; Ragle, Rosemary B

    2008-03-01

    Women's basketball has changed over time. It is a faster paced game than it was 30 years ago. Greatplayers, like Anne Meyers,who was the first, and only, woman to be signed to an NBA contract, would agree today's game is different. The game is played mostly "below the rim" but with players like Candice Parker, Sylvia Fowles and Maya Moore able to dunk the ball, the game is still changing. The one thing that remains constant in basketball, especially women's basketball, is injury. The majority of injuries in women's basketball are similar to those in men's basketball. Studies at the high school and college level show similar injury rates between women and men. ACL injuries are one exception, with female athletes having atwo to four times higher rate ofACL injuries. In this article, we review the common injuries in women's basketball. We discuss treatment issues and possible preventive measures.

  5. Soccer injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  6. Soccer injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Anne [Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Radiology Department, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  7. Soccer injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Anne

    2009-12-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics.

  8. Sports-related injuries in athletes with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, K; Lexell, J

    2014-10-01

    The number of athletes with disabilities participating in organized sports and the popularity of the Paralympic Games is steadily increasing around the world. Despite this growing interest and the fact that participation in sports places the athlete at risk for injury, there are few studies concerning injury patterns, risk factors, and prevention strategies of injuries in disabled athletes. In this systematic literature search and critical review, we summarize current knowledge of the epidemiology of sports-related injuries in disabled athletes and describe their characteristics, incidence, prevalence, and prevention strategies. The outcomes of interest were any injury, either an acute trauma or an overuse event. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were systematically searched and 25 of 605 identified studies met the inclusion criteria. Lower extremity injuries were more common in walking athletes, whereas upper extremity injuries were more prevalent in wheelchair athletes. The methodologies and populations varied widely between the studies. Few studies were sports or disability specific, which makes it difficult to determine specific risk factors, and few studies reported injury severity and prevention of injuries. Further longitudinal, systematic sports and disability specific studies are needed in order to identify and prevent injuries in athletes with disabilities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Lower extremity injuries in runners. Advances in prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macera, C A

    1992-01-01

    Recreational and competitive running is practised by many individuals to improve cardiorespiratory function and general well-being. The major negative aspect of running is the high rate of injuries to the lower extremities. Several well-designed population-based studies have found no major differences in injury rates between men and women; no increasing effect of age on injuries; a declining injury rate with more years of running experience; no substantial effect of weight or height; an uncertain effect of psychological factors; and a strong effect of previous injury on future injuries. Among the modifiable risk factors studied, weekly distance is the strongest predictor of future injuries. Other training characteristics (speed, frequency, surface, timing) have little or no effect on future injuries after accounting for distance run. More studies are needed to address the effects of appropriate stretching practices and abrupt change in training patterns. For recreational runners who have sustained injuries, especially within the past year, a reduction in running to below 32 km per week is recommended. For those about to begin a running programme, moderation is the best advice. For competitive runners, great care should be taken to ensure that prior injuries are sufficiently healed before attempting any racing event, particularly a marathon.

  10. Pediatric injuries associated with fireplaces, United States, 2002-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammig, Bart J; Henry, Jean

    2011-02-01

    To examine injuries among pediatric patients treated in an emergency department (ED) related to contact with a fireplace. Data were obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System for the years 2002 through 2007. National estimates of ED visits for injuries associated with fireplaces were analyzed. Average annual rates were calculated, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine risk estimates for patient demographic characteristics related to ED visits for injuries associated with fireplaces. From 2002 through 2007, there were an estimated 8000 ED visits annually for injuries related to fireplaces in the United States, with an average annual rate of 18.8 ED visits per 100,000 children aged birth through 10 years. The most common injuries involved lacerations (66%), burns (10%), and contusions (10%). Most injuries occurred to the face (46%) or head (31%). Most patients (98%) were treated and released the same day. Results of logistic regression analyses revealed that children aged birth to 3 years (odds ratio, 12.2; 95% confidence interval, 9.1-16.5) and children aged 4 to 6 years (odds ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 3.5-6.5) were more likely present in an ED for a fireplace-related injury when compared with older children aged 7 to 10 years. Further research is warranted in the areas of etiology, injury prevention interventions, health communications, and surveillance to facilitate more effective injury prevention efforts.

  11. Injury incidence in a Spanish sub-elite professional football team: A prospective study during four consecutive seasons

    OpenAIRE

    Mallo Sainz, Javier; González Frutos, Pablo; Veiga Fernandez, Santiago; Navarro Cabello, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the injury incidence and injury characteristics of a Spanish sub-elite professional football team during four consecutive seasons. A team was followed prospectively from the season 2003-2004 to 2006-2007 and individual player exposure and time loss injuries were recorded during all club training sessions and matches. A total of 313 time-loss injuries were recorded. The mean injury incidence was 10.9 injuries/1000 hours (5.2 injuries/1000 training hours...

  12. Karate and karate injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    McLatchie, G.

    1981-01-01

    The origins of karate and its evolution as a sport are described. Karate injuries tend to occur in three main areas: the head and neck, the viscera, and the limbs. Effective legislation controlling karate, which could help prevent injuries, is lacking at the moment and should be established. Recommendations for the prevention of injury include the introduction of weight classes, mandatory provision of protective equipment such as padded flooring, and the outlawing of certain uncontrollable m...

  13. Skateboarding injuries of today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, L; Eriksson, A

    2001-01-01

    Background—Skateboarding injuries have increased with the rise in popularity of the sport, and the injury pattern can be expected to have changed with the development of both skateboard tricks and the materials used for skateboard construction. Objective—To describe the injury pattern of today. Methods—The pattern of injuries, circumstances, and severity were investigated in a study of all 139 people injured in skateboarding accidents during the period 1995–1998 inclusive and admitted to the University Hospital of Umeå. This is the only hospital in the area, serving a population of 135 000. Results—Three of the 139 injured were pedestrians hit by a skateboard rider; the rest were riders. The age range was 7–47 years (mean 16). The severity of the injuries was minor (AIS 1) to moderate (AIS 2); fractures were classified as moderate. The annual number of injuries increased during the study period. Fractures were found in 29% of the casualties, and four children had concussion. The most common fractures were of the ankle and wrist. Older patients had less severe injuries, mainly sprains and soft tissue injuries. Most children were injured while skateboarding on ramps and at arenas; only 12 (9%) were injured while skateboarding on roads. Some 37% of the injuries occurred because of a loss of balance, and 26% because of a failed trick attempt. Falls caused by surface irregularities resulted in the highest proportion of the moderate injuries. Conclusions—Skateboarding should be restricted to supervised skateboard parks, and skateboarders should be required to wear protective gear. These measures would reduce the number of skateboarders injured in motor vehicle collisions, reduce the personal injuries among skateboarders, and reduce the number of pedestrians injured in collisions with skateboarders. Key Words: skateboard; injury; prevention PMID:11579065

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About ... Your email address * This iframe contains the logic required to ...

  15. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  16. Epidemiological aspects of ocular superglue injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Tabatabaei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To report the frequency, associated risk factors and characteristics of cases referred to Farabi Eye Hospital with ocular superglue injuries. METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between December 2012 and February 2013, patients with ocular superglue injuries were evaluated. Age, sex, educational level, location, time, mechanism, type, site and time of eye injury were gathered through interview using a customized questionnaire. All participants had given consent to undergo thorough eye examination. RESULTS: Over the course of three months, 105 patients with ocular superglue injuries enrolled in the study, including 56(53.3% men and 49(46.7% women with the mean age of 24.7±11.6 (range, 2 to 53y. The right eye, left eye and both eyes were involved in 52%, 42% and 6% of the patients, respectively. Most of injuries had occurred at home (72.4% and at night (55%. More than half of patients (52.4% did not take any primary aids following the ocular injury. Patient carelessness (78.1%, childhood curiosity and lack of parental supervision (11.4%, storing superglue in inappropriate places and inadvertently using superglue as eye drops due to poor vision (2.9%, inadequate awareness of superglue applications [used to stick on artificial nails (3.8%, artificial eyelashes (1.9% and broken tooth (1%] and being assaulted with glue (1% were common risk factors. CONCLUSION: The frequency of ocular superglue injuries in patients referred to Farabi Eye Hospital is relatively high. This finding underlines the importance of public education and awareness about superglue injuries to the eye and taking protective measures and safety strategies in order to prevent these injures.

  17. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motevalian Seyed Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder抯 consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran

  18. A Comparison of Women's Collegiate and Girls' High School Volleyball Injury Data Collected Prospectively Over a 4-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, Jonathan C; Gregory, Andrew; Berg, Richard L; Comstock, R Dawn

    2015-01-01

    There is a relative paucity of research examining the sport-specific injury epidemiology of high school and collegiate volleyball athletes. Moreover, differences in study methodology frequently limit our ability to compare and contrast injury data collected from selected populations. There are differences between the injury patterns characteristic of high school and collegiate female volleyball athletes. Retrospective clinical review. Level 3. We statistically analyzed injury incidence and outcome data collected over a 4-year interval (2005-2006 to 2008-2009) by 2 similar injury surveillance systems, the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) and the High School Reporting Injuries Online (HS RIO). We compared diagnoses, anatomic distribution of injuries, mechanisms of injury, and time lost from training or competition between high school and collegiate volleyball athletes. The overall volleyball-related injury rate was significantly greater among collegiate athletes than among high school athletes during both competition (injury rate ratio, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.5-3.4) and practice (injury rate ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 3.1-3.9). Collegiate athletes had a higher rate of ankle sprain, knee injury, and shoulder injury. Concussions represented a relatively high percentage of injuries in both populations (5.0% of total NCAA ISS injuries vs 4.8% of total HS RIO injuries, respectively). The data suggest that although similar, there were distinct differences between the injury patterns of the 2 populations. Compared with high school volleyball players, collegiate athletes have a higher rate of acute time loss injury as well as overuse time loss injury (particularly patellar tendinosis). Concussions represented a significant and worrisome component of the injury pattern for both study populations. The injury data suggest that important differences exist in the injury patterns of female high school compared with collegiate volleyball athletes

  19. Injuries in Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardiwala, Dinshaw N; Rao, Nandan N; Varshney, Ankit V

    Cricket is a popular global sport that requires a combination of physical fitness, skill, and strategy. Although a noncontact sport, overuse and impact injuries are common since players engage in a wide range of physical activities, including running, throwing, batting, bowling, catching, and diving. Significant or match time-loss injuries are defined as those that either prevent a player from being fully available for selection in a major match, or during a major match, cause a player to be unable to bat, bowl, or keep wicket when required by either the rules or the team's captain. This review describes the various region-wise injuries sustained in cricket along with their epidemiology, biomechanics, treatment, and prevention. Data were collected from peer-reviewed articles (obtained via PubMed search) published through November 2016 that involved the medical, biomechanical, and epidemiological aspects of cricket injuries. Clinical review. Level 4. Cricket was one of the first sports to publish recommended methods for injury surveillance in 2005 from England, South Africa, Australia, the West Indies, and India. While the incidence of injuries is about the same, the prevalence of injuries has increased due to game format changes, increasing number of matches played, and decreased rest between matches. Bowling (41.3%), fielding, and wicket keeping (28.6%) account for most injuries. Acute injuries are most common (64%-76%), followed by acute-on-chronic (16%-22.8%) and chronic ones (8%-22%). The most common modern-day cricket injury is hamstring strain, and the most severe is lumbar stress fracture in young fast bowlers. With improved understanding of the scientific and medical aspects of cricket, along with advances in surgical and nonsurgical treatment techniques, the time to return to play has shortened considerably. While the prevalence of cricket injuries has increased, their severity has decreased over the past decades.

  20. Trends in new injuries, prevalent cases, and aging with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVivo, Michael J; Chen, Yuying

    2011-03-01

    To determine the characteristics of the newly injured and prevalent population with spinal cord injury (SCI) and assess trends over time. Prospective cohort study. SCI Model Systems and Shriners Hospital SCI units. The study population included people whose injuries occurred from 1935 to 2008 (N=45,442). The prevalent population was estimated based on those who were still alive in 2008. Losses to follow-up (approximately 10%) were excluded from the prevalent population. Not applicable. Demographic and injury characteristics, mortality, self-reported health, rehospitalization, FIM, Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique, and the Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale. Mean age at injury increased 9 years since the 1970s. Injuries caused by falls and injuries resulting in high-level tetraplegia and ventilator dependency are increasing, while neurologically complete injuries are decreasing. Discharge to a nursing home is increasing. The mean age of the prevalent population is slightly higher than that of newly injured individuals, and the percentage of incident and prevalent cases older than 60 years is the same (13%). Prevalent cases tend to be less severely injured than incident cases, and less than 5% of prevalent cases reside in nursing homes. Within the prevalent population, life satisfaction and community participation are greater among persons who are at least 30 years postinjury. These findings are a result of very high mortality rates observed after 60 years of age. Within the prevalent population, the percentage of elderly persons will not increase meaningfully. Those who reach older ages will typically have incomplete and/or lower-level injuries and will have relatively high degrees of independence and overall good health. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Evidence for Brain Injury in Whiplash Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence that brain damage can occur in injuries that produce whiplash is reviewed. The clinical phenomena for the two injuries are the same. Pure whiplash injury implies no, or minimal head contact, but many patients also have head contact against a head rest or the steering wheel or windshield. The relative severity of the neck injury and the head injury distinguishes whiplash from mild closed head injury. If there is brain injury is some patients with whiplash, it, by definition, falls at the mildest end of the concussion spectrum. The relationship between these two injuries is examined.

  2. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes injury mortality in the United States beginning in 1999. Two concepts are included in the circumstances of an injury death: intent of injury...

  3. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Injuries First Aid for Eye Scratches Protective Eyewear Children’s Eye Injuries: Prevention and Care Eye Injuries ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  4. Injury Patterns, Physiological Profile, and Performance in University Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Shane; Halaki, Mark; Sharp, Tristan; Orr, Rhonda

    2018-01-01

    Rugby union is a physically demanding collision sport with high injury rates. There is a common perception that higher training loads result in greater injury risk in field-based sports. To determine injury, anthropometric, and physical-performance characteristics in junior rugby union players and investigate the interaction between training load and injury across a competitive season. Prospective cohort study. Fifty-one players (age 19.2 ± 0.7 y) from an under-20 university rugby union team (forwards, n = 27; backs, n = 24) participated in a study conducted over a competition season. Training load, injury characteristics, anthropometry, physiological performance, and match time-loss injury incidence were observed. Backs had significantly lower body mass (ES [95% CI] = 1.6 [0.9, 2.2]), skinfold thickness (ES = 1.1 [0.5, 1.7]), strength (squat ES = 0.6 [0.0, 1.2], deadlift ES = 0.6 [0.0, 1.1], bench press ES = 0.9 [0.4, 1.5]), lower-body power (ES = 0.4 [-0.2, 1.0]), and higher maximal aerobic capacity (ES = -0.3 [-0.8, 0.3]) than forwards. Match injury incidence was 107.3 injuries/1000 player hours (forwards 91.4/1000, backs 125.5/1000) during preseason and 110.7 injuries/1000 player hours (forwards 124.1/1000, backs 95.2/1000) during in-season. Forwards showed higher incidence of joint and ligament (P = .049) and upper-limb (P = .011) injuries than backs. No significant relationship between overall training load and match injury incidence was found. However, lower match injury incidence was associated with higher weekly training volume in backs (P = .007). Positional differences in body composition, performance, injury characteristics, and match injury patterns were identified in junior university rugby union players, indicating the need for position-specific training programs to reduce risk of injury.

  5. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Choung Young

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. Results A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4–6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%, followed by upper extremity (18%, back (10%, and head (3.6%. The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%, followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. Conclusion More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention.

  6. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Shearer, Heather; Su Choung, Young

    2005-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. Results A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4–6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%), followed by upper extremity (18%), back (10%), and head (3.6%). The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%), followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. Conclusion More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention. PMID:15921510

  7. Civilian popliteal artery injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with reversed vein grafting in 68 patients, primary anastomosis in 33, prosthetic graft insertion in 11, ... patients underwent delayed amputation, giving an overall amputation rate of 37.5%. .... injury, level of arterial injury and type of repair had no significant ... patients, graft occlusion, and diseased crural vessels with poor run-.

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work ... cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After ... program? play_arrow What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What ...

  10. Downhill Skiing Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, D H

    1981-01-01

    In brief: Lower extremity injuries are common in downhill skiing. Fifty-three percent of the skiing injuries in one study, and 81% in another, were below the knee. Twelve case reports are presented and their treatment is discussed. The author suggests that skiers undertake a physical fitness program to increase stamina and elasticity of muscles and ligaments.

  11. Injuries in mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulrapp, H; Weber, A; Rosemeyer, B

    2001-01-01

    Despite still growing attraction mountain biking as a matter of sports traumatology still lacks relevant data based on large cross-sectional surveys. To obtain an overview of risk factors, types, and main body sites of injuries occurring in mountain biking we assessed the results of a questionnaire answered by 3873 athletes. A total of 8133 single lesions were reported by 3474 athletes, 36% of whom regularly participated in competitions. The incidence of injuries in mountain biking is comparable to that in other outdoor sports, the majority of injuries being minor. Mountain biking athletes were found to have an overall injury risk rate of 0.6% per year and 1 injury per 1000 h of biking. The main risk factors included slippery road surface, cyclist's poor judgement of the situation, and excessive speed, representing personal factors that could be altered by preventive measures. Of all injuries 14% were due to collision with some part of the bike, especially the pedals and the handlebar. While 75% of the injuries were minor, such as skin wounds and simple contusions, 10% were so severe that hospitalization was required. A breakdown of the injuries according to body site and frequency of occurrence is presented.

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite David, ... injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  13. Conquering Athletic Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul M., Ed.; Taylor, Diane K., Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to be a source of complete, reliable, and practical sports medicine information. Experts from the American Running and Fitness Association describe in clear language how overuse injuries occur, how to recognize and self-treat them, when to seek professional help, and how to prevent future injuries. The book also…

  14. Overuse injuries in running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Rasmussen, Sten; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence.......What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence....

  15. Telemark skiing injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggy, M L

    1996-09-01

    Telemark skiing has become increasingly popular over the past 5 years. Telemark skiing poses unique risks when compared to alpine skiing, because of different equipment, technique, and varied skiing environments. A retrospective survey of telemark skiers was conducted in Western Washington in 1994 to obtain skier information on ski habits, demographics, frequency and types of injury, and equipment used at time of injury. During the 5 month survey period, 118 (63%) of 187 surveys distributed at 7 sites were returned. The overall injury rate was comparable to alpine skiing injury rates at 10.7/1000 skier days. Less experienced skiers and women had higher injury rates, 20/1000 and 13.1/1000 skier days, respectively. The predominant injury sites were knee (41%), hip (13%), and thumb (8%). The knee injuries sustained by telemark skiers appear to be less severe than alpine skiers, with less duration of disability and lower surgical rates. An association was found between the use of plastic reinforced boots and significant ligamentous knee injuries when compared to skiers with leather boots (p < 0.01, chi 2 = 5.43).

  16. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of occupational injuries (N = 2,365) were investigated. Accidents with machinery and hand tools were the two main causes (49.9%). 89% of the patients with occupational injuries were male. The highest risk group were in the age category of 19 years or less (51.9%). This age group also

  17. Epidemiology of Muay Thai fight-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria

    2016-12-01

    fighters were at increased odds for injury within this sample. We identified a preliminary fight-related injury rate and identified fighter characteristics (experience level, protection level, and previous injury) associated with increased odds for fight-related injury outcome. While rigorous research into causality is required, these data provide plausible information that may be used to reduce injury outcomes among fighters.

  18. Characterization of American Football Injuries in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J; Hollins, Anthony M; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Spence, David D; Outlaw, Shane; Kelly, Derek M

    2018-02-01

    As a collision sport, football carries a significant risk of injury, as indicated by the large number of pediatric football-related injuries seen in emergency departments. There is little information in the medical literature focusing on the age-related injury patterns of this sport. Our purpose was to evaluate the types of football-related injuries that occur in children and adolescents and assess which patient characteristics, if any, affect injury pattern. Retrospective chart review was performed of football-related injuries treated at a level 1 pediatric referral hospital emergency department and surrounding urgent care clinics between January 2010 and January 2014. Patients with e-codes for tackle football selected from the electronic medical record were divided into 4 age groups: younger than 8 years old, 8 to 11, 12 to 14, and 15 to 18 years. Data collected included diagnosis codes, procedure codes, and hospital admission status. Review identified 1494 patients with 1664 football-related injuries, including 596 appendicular skeleton fractures, 310 sprains, 335 contusions, 170 closed head injuries, 62 dislocations, 9 spinal cord injuries, and 14 solid organ injuries. There were 646 (43.2%) athletes with upper extremity injuries and 487 (32.6%) with injuries to the lower extremity. Hospital admissions were required in 109 (7.3%) patients. Fracture was the most common injury in all four patient age groups, but occurred at a lower rate in the 15 to 18 years old age group. The rate of soft tissue injury was higher in the 15 to 18 years old age group. The rate of closed head injury, which included concussions, was highest in the younger than 8 years old age group. Age does influence the rates of certain football-related injuries in children and adolescents. Fractures decrease with increasing age, while the rate of soft tissue trauma increases with increasing age. Younger patients (younger than 8 y old) trended toward higher rates of closed head injury compared

  19. Preventing playground injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselli, Pamela; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2012-06-01

    With concerns increasing around childhood obesity and inactivity, playgrounds offer a chance for children to be active. But playgrounds also have risks, with injuries from falls being the most common. Research has shown that playground injuries can be reduced by lowering the heights of play equipment and using soft, deep surfaces to cushion falls. The Canadian Standards Association has published voluntary standards for playgrounds to address these risks for several years. Parents can further reduce injury risks by following simple playground strategies. This statement outlines the burden of playground injuries. It also provides parents and health care providers with opportunities to reduce injury incidence and severity through education and advocacy, and to implement evidence-informed safety standards and safer play strategies in local playgrounds. This document replaces a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement published in 2002.

  20. Ankle ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per A.F.H. Renström

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL. For this reason, the ATFL is the most commonly torn ligament during an inversion injury. In more severe inversion injuries the calcaneofibular (CFL, posterotalofibular (PTFL and subtalar ligament can also be injured. Most acute lateral ankle ligament injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management. The treatment program, called "functional treatment," includes application of the RICE principle (rest, ice, compression, and elevation immediately after the injury, a short period of immobilization and protection with an elastic or inelastic tape or bandage, and early motion exercises followed by early weight bearing and neuromuscular ankle training. Proprioceptive training with a tilt board is commenced as soon as possible, usually after 3 to 4 weeks. The purpose is to improve the balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle. Sequelae after ankle ligament injuries are very common. As much as 10% to 30% of patients with a lateral ligament injury may have chronic symptoms. Symptoms usually include persistent synovitis or tendinitis, ankle stiffness, swelling, and pain, muscle weakness, and frequent giving-way. A well designed physical therapy program with peroneal strengthening and proprioceptive training, along with bracing and/or taping can alleviate instability problems in most patients. For cases of chronic instability that are refractory to bracing and external support, surgical treatment can be explored. If the chronic instability is associated with subtalar instability

  1. Trampoline injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, C; Quinlan, J F; Kelly, I P

    2006-06-01

    We reviewed the records of children referred to our hospital between April and September 2005 who had been injured whilst trampolining. Of 88 such children there were 33 boys and 55 girls with a mean age of 8 years 6 months (2 years 4 months to 15 years 9 months). Most of the injuries (53; 60%) occurred when bouncing and 34 (39%) were secondary to falls from the trampoline. The cause of injury was unknown in one child. The injured child was supervised in only 35 cases (40%). In 31 (35%) cases, the injury was related to the presence of others on the trampoline. A total of 36 (40%) children required surgery. Fractures of the upper limbs occurred in 62 cases (70%). Injuries related to the recreational use of trampolines are a significant cause of childhood injury. Our results suggest strongly that there is a need for clear guidelines on safe and responsible use of domestic trampolines.

  2. Comparison of injury epidemiology between the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Zheng, Xi; Yuan, Yong; Pu, Qiang; Liu, Lunxu; Zhao, Yongfan

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to compare injury characteristics and the timing of admissions and surgeries in the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 and the Lushan earthquake in 2013. We retrospectively compared the admission and operating times and injury profiles of patients admitted to our medical center during both earthquakes. We also explored the relationship between seismic intensity and injury type. The time from earthquake onset to the peak in patient admissions and surgeries differed between the 2 earthquakes. In the Wenchuan earthquake, injuries due to being struck by objects or being buried were more frequent than other types of injuries, and more patients suffered injuries of the extremities than thoracic injuries or brain trauma. In the Lushan earthquake, falls were the most common injury, and more patients suffered thoracic trauma or brain injuries. The types of injury seemed to vary with seismic intensity, whereas the anatomical location of the injury did not. Greater seismic intensity of an earthquake is associated with longer delay between the event and the peak in patient admissions and surgeries, higher frequencies of injuries due to being struck or buried, and lower frequencies of injuries due to falls and injuries to the chest and brain. These insights may prove useful for planning rescue interventions in trauma centers near the epicenter.

  3. Driver Injury Risk Variability in Finite Element Reconstructions of Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) Frontal Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaewsky, James P; Weaver, Ashley A; Koya, Bharath; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    A 3-phase real-world motor vehicle crash (MVC) reconstruction method was developed to analyze injury variability as a function of precrash occupant position for 2 full-frontal Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) cases. Phase I: A finite element (FE) simplified vehicle model (SVM) was developed and tuned to mimic the frontal crash characteristics of the CIREN case vehicle (Camry or Cobalt) using frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash test data. Phase II: The Toyota HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) v4.01 was positioned in 120 precrash configurations per case within the SVM. Five occupant positioning variables were varied using a Latin hypercube design of experiments: seat track position, seat back angle, D-ring height, steering column angle, and steering column telescoping position. An additional baseline simulation was performed that aimed to match the precrash occupant position documented in CIREN for each case. Phase III: FE simulations were then performed using kinematic boundary conditions from each vehicle's event data recorder (EDR). HIC15, combined thoracic index (CTI), femur forces, and strain-based injury metrics in the lung and lumbar vertebrae were evaluated to predict injury. Tuning the SVM to specific vehicle models resulted in close matches between simulated and test injury metric data, allowing the tuned SVM to be used in each case reconstruction with EDR-derived boundary conditions. Simulations with the most rearward seats and reclined seat backs had the greatest HIC15, head injury risk, CTI, and chest injury risk. Calculated injury risks for the head, chest, and femur closely correlated to the CIREN occupant injury patterns. CTI in the Camry case yielded a 54% probability of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ chest injury in the baseline case simulation and ranged from 34 to 88% (mean = 61%) risk in the least and most dangerous occupant positions. The greater than 50% probability was consistent with the case occupant's AIS 2

  4. Acute spinal injury after centrifuge training in asymptomatic fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Wook; Shin, Young Ho; Kang, Seungcheol

    2015-04-01

    Many countries have hypergravity training centers using centrifuges for pilots to cope with a high gravity (G) environment. The high G training carries potential risk for the development of spinal injury. However, no studies evaluated the influence of centrifuge training on the spines of asymptomatic fighter pilots on a large scale. Study subjects were 991 male fighter pilots with high G training at one institution. Subject variables included information about physical characteristics, flight hours of pilots prior to the training, and G force exposure related factors during training. The two dependent variables were whether the pilots developed acute spinal injury after training and the severity of the injury (major/minor). The incidence of acute spinal injury after high G training was 2.3% (23 of 991 subjects). There were 19 subjects who developed minor injury and 4 subjects who developed a herniated intervertebral disc, which is considered a major injury. In multivariate analysis, only the magnitude of G force during training was significantly related to the development of acute spinal injury. However, there was no significant factor related to the severity of the injury. These results suggest that high G training could cause negative effects on fighter pilots' spines. The magnitude of G force during training seemed to be the most significant factor affecting the occurrence of acute spinal injury.

  5. [Occupational injuries among construction workers in Hong Kong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zihui; Chen, Weiqing

    2002-02-01

    To explore the nature and severity of occupational injuries among construction workers and its risk factors in Hong Kong. One hundred and twenty-two injured construction workers in a public hospital and an equal number of workmate controls were studied. Contents included socio -demographic characteristics, the availability and use of safety equipment, smoking and alcohol consumption, etc. Abbreviated injury scale (AIS) and injury severity score (ISS) were employed for describing the nature, pattern and severity of injuries. Single injuries were seen in 80% of cases. Of 149 injuries classified by body region, 49% were external, 26% involved either the upper or lower extremities, and 11% were spinal injuries. Working at height was associated with the injury severity score. Safety hazards were identified in the work environment in 68% of the cases. Significant odds ratios for accidents were obtained for 'no formal education', 'non safety training' and 'current smokers'. The results implicated that construction was a hazardous occupation in Hong Kong. Improving the work environment and promoting safety education among construction workers would be helpful for minimizing or eliminating occupational injuries in construction occupation in Hong Kong.

  6. Sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Anthony E; Sitrin, Robert G; Bauman, Kristy A

    2016-07-01

    Spinal cord injury commonly results in neuromuscular weakness that impacts respiratory function. This would be expected to be associated with an increased likelihood of sleep-disordered breathing. (1) Understand the incidence and prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (2) Understand the relationship between injury and patient characteristics and the incidence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (3) Distinguish between obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea incidence in spinal cord injury. (4) Clarify the relationship between sleep disordered breathing and stroke, myocardial infarction, metabolic dysfunction, injuries, autonomic dysreflexia and spasticity incidence in persons with spinal cord injury. (5) Understand treatment tolerance and outcome in persons with spinal cord injury and sleep disordered breathing. Extensive database search including PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Web of Science. Given the current literature limitations, sleep disordered breathing as currently defined is high in patients with spinal cord injury, approaching 60% in motor complete persons with tetraplegia. Central apnea is more common in patients with tetraplegia than in patients with paraplegia. Early formal sleep study in patients with acute complete tetraplegia is recommended. In patients with incomplete tetraplegia and with paraplegia, the incidence of sleep-disordered breathing is significantly higher than the general population. With the lack of correlation between symptoms and SDB, formal study would be reasonable. There is insufficient evidence in the literature on the impact of treatment on morbidity, mortality and quality of life outcomes.

  7. Musculoskeletal injuries and pain in dancers: a systematic review update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Craig L; Hincapié, Cesar A; Cassidy, J David

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assemble and synthesize the best available literature from 2004 to 2008 on musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. MEDLINE and CINAHL were the primary sources of data. Indexed terms such as dance, dancer, dancing, athletic injuries, occupational injuries, sprains and strains, musculoskeletal diseases, bone density, menstruation disturbances, and eating disorders were used to search the databases. Citations were screened for relevance using a priori criteria, and relevant studies were critically reviewed for scientific merit by the best-evidence synthesis method. After screening, 19 articles were found to be scientifically admissible. Data from accepted studies were abstracted into evidence tables relating to: prevalence and associated factors; incidence and risk factors; intervention; and injury characteristics and prognosis of musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. Principal findings included: a high prevalence and incidence of lower extremity, hip and back injuries; preliminary evidence that psychosocial and psychological issues such as stress and coping strategies affect injury frequency and duration; history of a previous lateral ankle sprain is associated with an increased risk of ankle sprain in the contralateral ankle in dance students; fatigue may play a role in ACL injury in dancers; acute hamstring strains in dancers affect tendon more than muscle tissue, often resulting in prolonged absence from dance. It is concluded that, while there are positive developments in the literature on the epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of MSK injuries and pain in dancers, much room for improvement remains. Suggestions for future research are offered.

  8. Cerebral Vascular Injury in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Kimbra; Amyot, Franck; Haber, Margalit; Pronger, Angela; Bogoslovsky, Tanya; Moore, Carol; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic cerebral vascular injury (TCVI) is a very frequent, if not universal, feature after traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is likely responsible, at least in part, for functional deficits and TBI-related chronic disability. Because there are multiple pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies that promote vascular health, TCVI is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention after TBI. The cerebral microvasculature is a component of the neurovascular unit (NVU) coupling neuronal metabolism with local cerebral blood flow. The NVU participates in the pathogenesis of TBI, either directly from physical trauma or as part of the cascade of secondary injury that occurs after TBI. Pathologically, there is extensive cerebral microvascular injury in humans and experimental animal, identified with either conventional light microscopy or ultrastructural examination. It is seen in acute and chronic TBI, and even described in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Non-invasive, physiologic measures of cerebral microvascular function show dysfunction after TBI in humans and experimental animal models of TBI. These include imaging sequences (MRI-ASL), Transcranial Doppler (TCD), and Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS). Understanding the pathophysiology of TCVI, a relatively under-studied component of TBI, has promise for the development of novel therapies for TBI. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Habelt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.

  10. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besenski, N. [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2002-06-01

    Due to the forces of acceleration, linear translation, as well as rotational and angular acceleration, the brain undergoes deformation and distortion depending on the site of impact of traumatizing force direction, severity of the traumatizing force, and tissue resistance of the brain. Linear translation of accereration in a closed-head injury can run along the shorter diameter of the skull in latero-lateral direction causing mostly extra-axial lesions (subdural hematoma,epidural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage) or quite pronounced coup and countercoup contusions. Contusions are considerably less frequently present in medial or paramedial centroaxial blows (fronto-occipital or occipito-frontal). The centroaxial blows produce a different pattern of lesions mostly in the deep structures, causing in some cases a special category of the brain injury, the diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The brain stem can also be damaged, but it is damaged more often in patients who have suffered centroaxial traumatic force direction. Computed tomography and MRI are the most common techniques in patients who have suffered brain injury. Computed tomography is currently the first imaging technique to be used after head injury, in those settings where CT is available. Using CT, scalp, bone, extra-axial hematomas, and parenchymal injury can be demonstrated. Computed tomography is rapid and easily performed also in monitored patients. It is the most relevant imaging procedure for surgical lesions. Computed tomography is a suitable method to follow the dynamics of lesion development giving an insight into the corresponding pathological development of the brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for all posttraumatic lesions except skull fractures and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but scanning time is longer, and the problem with the monitoring of patients outside the MRI field is present. If CT does not demonstrate pathology as can adequately be explained to account for

  11. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besenski, N.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the forces of acceleration, linear translation, as well as rotational and angular acceleration, the brain undergoes deformation and distortion depending on the site of impact of traumatizing force direction, severity of the traumatizing force, and tissue resistance of the brain. Linear translation of accereration in a closed-head injury can run along the shorter diameter of the skull in latero-lateral direction causing mostly extra-axial lesions (subdural hematoma,epidural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage) or quite pronounced coup and countercoup contusions. Contusions are considerably less frequently present in medial or paramedial centroaxial blows (fronto-occipital or occipito-frontal). The centroaxial blows produce a different pattern of lesions mostly in the deep structures, causing in some cases a special category of the brain injury, the diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The brain stem can also be damaged, but it is damaged more often in patients who have suffered centroaxial traumatic force direction. Computed tomography and MRI are the most common techniques in patients who have suffered brain injury. Computed tomography is currently the first imaging technique to be used after head injury, in those settings where CT is available. Using CT, scalp, bone, extra-axial hematomas, and parenchymal injury can be demonstrated. Computed tomography is rapid and easily performed also in monitored patients. It is the most relevant imaging procedure for surgical lesions. Computed tomography is a suitable method to follow the dynamics of lesion development giving an insight into the corresponding pathological development of the brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for all posttraumatic lesions except skull fractures and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but scanning time is longer, and the problem with the monitoring of patients outside the MRI field is present. If CT does not demonstrate pathology as can adequately be explained to account for

  12. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Abbas Motevalian; Mashyaneh Haddadi; Hesam Akbari; Reza Khorramirouz; Soheil Saadat; Arash Tehrani; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System) in order to better monitor injury conditions,improve protection ways and promote safety.Methods:At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries.Then all the available documents from World Health OrganizationEastern Mediterranean Regional Organization,as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed.Later a national stakeholder's consultation was held to collect opinions and views.A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance.Results:The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems,mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry,need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers,incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry.The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility,acceptability,simplicity,usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts.Contusions:Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran.The following elements should be added to the questionnaire:identifier,manner of arrival to the hospital,situation of the injured patient,consumption of alcohol and opioids,other involved participants in the accident,intention,severity and site of injury,side effects of surgery and medication,as well as one month follow-up results.Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months.Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches.

  13. Risk factors for severe injury following indoor and outdoor falls in geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hyu

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the characteristics of indoor and outdoor falls in older patients and the factors related to severe injury in the emergency department (ED). In total, 26,515 patients fell indoors and 19,581 outdoors. The general and clinical characteristics were compared between the two groups and factors associated with severe injury following the falls were evaluated. Younger males fell more frequently outdoors than indoors. The common activities during outdoor falls were sports and leisure activities. Environmental hazards lead to more outdoor falls than indoor falls. Factors associated with severe injury after indoor falls were transport to the ED by public ambulance or from another medical facility rather than individual transportation, fall from stairs rather than fell over, and a head and neck injury rather than a lower extremity injury. Factors related to severe injury after outdoor falls were male sex, transport to the ED by public ambulance or from another medical facility or by another method rather than individual transportation, state employed, fall from stairs rather than fell over, head and neck or thorax or abdomen injury rather than a lower extremity injury. Transport to the ED by public ambulance or from another medical facility, and head and neck injury were risks for severe injury following indoor and outdoor falls in elderly subjects. Efforts to identify the risk factors for severe injury and for falling itself are important to prevent and reduce fall injuries in elderly subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Coronary heart disease is not significantly linked to acute kidney injury identified using Acute Kidney Injury Group criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayan, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarction are at risk of acute kidney injury, which may be aggravated by the iodine-containing contrast agent used during coronary angiography; however, the relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. The current study investigated the relationship between acute kidney injury and coronary heart disease prior to coronary angiography. All patients were evaluated after undergoing coronary angiography in the cardiac catheterization laboratory of the Vinzentius Hospital in Landau, Germany, in 2011. The study group included patients with both acute coronary heart disease and acute kidney injury (as defined according to the classification of the Acute Kidney Injury Group); the control group included patients without acute coronary heart disease. Serum creatinine profiles were evaluated in all patients, as were a variety of demographic and health characteristics. Of the 303 patients examined, 201 (66.34%) had coronary artery disease. Of these, 38 (18.91%) also had both acute kidney injury and acute coronary heart disease prior to and after coronary angiography, and of which in turn 34 (16.91%) had both acute kidney injury and acute coronary heart disease only prior to the coronary angiography. However, the occurrence of acute kidney injury was not significantly related to the presence of coronary heart disease (P = 0.95, Chi-square test). The results of this study indicate that acute kidney injury is not linked to acute coronary heart disease. However, physicians should be aware that many coronary heart patients may develop kidney injury while hospitalized for angiography.

  15. Injury patterns of soldiers in the second Lebanon war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Dagan; Glassberg, Elon; Nadler, Roy; Hirschhorn, Gil; Marom, Ophir Cohen; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2014-01-01

    In the second Lebanon war in 2006, the Israeli Defense Forces fought against well-prepared and well-equipped paramilitary forces. The conflict took place near the Israeli border and major Israeli medical centers. Good data records were maintained throughout the campaign, allowing accurate analysis of injury characteristics. This study is an in-depth analysis of injury mechanisms, severity, and anatomic locations. Data regarding all injured soldiers were collected from all care points up to the definitive care hospitals and were cross-referenced. In addition, trauma branch physicians and nurses interviewed medical teams to validate data accuracy. Injuries were analyzed using Injury Severity Score (ISS) (when precise anatomic data were available) and multiple injury patterns scoring for all. A total of 833 soldiers sustained combat-related injury during the study period, including 119 fatalities (14.3%). Although most soldiers (361) sustained injury only to one Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) region, the average number of regions per soldier was 2.0 but was 1.5 for survivors versus 4.2 for fatalities. Current war injury classifications have limitations that hinder valid comparisons between campaigns and settings. In addition, limitation on full autopsy in war fatalities further hinders data use. To partly compensate for those limitations, we have looked at the correlation between fatality rates and number of involved anatomic regions and found it to be strong. We have also found high fatality rates in some "combined" injuries such as head and chest injuries (71%) or in the abdomen and an extremity (75%). The use of multiinjury patterns analysis may help understand fatality rates and improve the utility of war injury analysis. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  16. [Parkour--"art of movement" and its injury risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, E M; Thiel, N; Groneberg, D A; Fischer, A

    2013-09-01

    Parkour sport is the playfully breaching of obstacles originally not created to get from A to B in the fastest manner. There have been only few publications on injuries in this young and trendy sport mainly performed in urban areas. The aim of this study is to analyse parkour-related acute injuries and their factors. For the retrospective cross-sectional study, a total of n = 266 traceurs (m: n = 255, w: n = 11) completed anonymized online questionnaires. On average, each traceur sustained 1.9 injuries per sport career/year, or 5.5 injuries/1000 h training, respectively. The upper extremity was the most affected body region (58 %), followed by the lower extremity (27 %), head and the back. An increase of injuries from proximal to distal was observed in the upper extremity. However, for the lower extremity it was the opposite. Of all injuries, the most common were skin abrasions (70.3 %). Muscle injuries were observed in 13.1 % of the traceurs, followed by dislocations (6.1 %), and soft tissue (e. g., ligaments, tendons) injuries (5.3 %). Passive precautionary measures were abandoned by the majority of the traceurs (88 %). Landing belonged to the movement elements resulting in most of the injuries (61 %), followed by supportive and static efforts of the arms (10.7 %). Overestimation (23 %) as well as misjudging the situation (20 %) were the most common causes. Other than expected, parkour is an urban movement style with most of the injuries being neither severe nor common despite the lack of precautionary measures. Localisation and type of injuries reflect the characteristic movement elements. There is a need for further investigations to allow a more differentiated analysis in order to develop injury prevention concepts. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Nerve injuries do occur in elbow arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgersom, Nick F J; van Deurzen, Derek F P; Gerritsma, Carina L E; van der Heide, Huub J L; Malessy, Martijn J A; Eygendaal, Denise; van den Bekerom, Michel P J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose is to create more awareness as well as emphasize the risk of permanent nerve injury as a complication of elbow arthroscopy. Patients who underwent elbow arthroscopy complicated by permanent nerve injury were retrospectively collected. Patients were collected using two strategies: (1) by word-of-mouth throughout the Dutch Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, and the Leiden University Nerve Centre, and (2) approaching two medical liability insurance companies. Medical records were reviewed to determine patient characteristics, disease history and postoperative course. Surgical records were reviewed to determine surgical details. A total of eight patients were collected, four men and four women, ageing 21-54 years. In five out of eight patients (62.5%), the ulnar nerve was affected; in the remaining three patients (37.5%), the radial nerve was involved. Possible causes for nerve injury varied among patients, such as portal placement and the use of motorized instruments. A case series on permanent nerve injury as a complication of elbow arthroscopy is presented. Reporting on this sequel in the literature is little, however, its risk is not to be underestimated. This study emphasizes that permanent nerve injury is a complication of elbow arthroscopy, concurrently increasing awareness and thereby possibly aiding to prevention. IV, case series.

  18. Surgical therapy for craniocerebral firearm injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liang-Feng; Wang, Shou-Sen; Jing, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Zhao-Cong; Gao, Jin-Xi; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Ru-Mi

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the clinical characteristics of craniocerebral firearm injury and to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Data from 56 patients with craniocerebral firearm injury were analyzed retrospectively for projectile types, traumatic conditions, and treatment approaches. 43 patients exhibited intracranial foreign body residence. Of them, 40 were subjected to complete foreign body removal and 2 to partial removal, leaving 1 without receiving removal treatment. 54 patients (96.4%) survived and 2 (3.6%) died. Of the survivors, 36 (64.3%) recovered well, 15 (26.8%) were moderately disabled, 2 (3.6%) were severely disabled, and 1 (1.8%) lapsed into vegetative state. Patients receiving debridement within 8 h after injury had a significantly higher recovery rate than those receiving such treatment after 8 h (82.1% vs. 26.7%; P debridement as early as possible, reasonably deciding on the operative mode and approach for intracranial residing foreign body removal, and increasing vigilance regarding concomitant injuries are the keys to the improvement of the overall treatment of craniocerebral firearm injury.

  19. Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury | Mezue | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Associated chest injuries result in higher mortality from head injuries. This association is more likely in the young and more productive. All patients presenting with head and spinal cord injury should be specifically and carefully evaluated for associated chest injuries. Computerized tomographic has not replaced ...

  20. Athletic Hip Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.

  1. Heelys injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, D; Arjandas, M; Lim, K B L; Lee, E H

    2006-05-01

    Heelys, a type of shoes with stealth wheels, are extremely popular among children in Singapore. The widespread availability of cheap imitations has led to a proliferation of young users. Coupled with a total lack of safety equipment and instructions, these shoes can lead to significant injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence and type of injuries sustained by children using Heelys. During a seven-month period from February to August 2004, all children treated at the Paediatric Orthopaedic Department of the KK Women's and Children's Hospital, were asked if the injury was sustained while "heeling". All the patients were reviewed by the authors. A total of 37 patients with significant injuries sustained while "heeling" were identified. Their radiographs and clinical charts were reviewed. The patients and/or their parents were also interviewed to obtain additional information. Upper limb injuries were by far the most common. Distal radius fractures and elbow injuries predominated. None of the children used safety gear. "Heeling" can lead to serious injuries despite the relatively low velocity involved. Children and their parents need to be educated on the use of safety gear.

  2. Brain injuries from blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Cameron R; Panzer, Matthew B; Rafaels, Karen A; Wood, Garrett; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) from blast produces a number of conundrums. This review focuses on five fundamental questions including: (1) What are the physical correlates for blast TBI in humans? (2) Why is there limited evidence of traditional pulmonary injury from blast in current military field epidemiology? (3) What are the primary blast brain injury mechanisms in humans? (4) If TBI can present with clinical symptoms similar to those of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), how do we clinically differentiate blast TBI from PTSD and other psychiatric conditions? (5) How do we scale experimental animal models to human response? The preponderance of the evidence from a combination of clinical practice and experimental models suggests that blast TBI from direct blast exposure occurs on the modern battlefield. Progress has been made in establishing injury risk functions in terms of blast overpressure time histories, and there is strong experimental evidence in animal models that mild brain injuries occur at blast intensities that are similar to the pulmonary injury threshold. Enhanced thoracic protection from ballistic protective body armor likely plays a role in the occurrence of blast TBI by preventing lung injuries at blast intensities that could cause TBI. Principal areas of uncertainty include the need for a more comprehensive injury assessment for mild blast injuries in humans, an improved understanding of blast TBI pathophysiology of blast TBI in animal models and humans, the relationship between clinical manifestations of PTSD and mild TBI from blunt or blast trauma including possible synergistic effects, and scaling between animals models and human exposure to blasts in wartime and terrorist attacks. Experimental methodologies, including location of the animal model relative to the shock or blast source, should be carefully designed to provide a realistic blast experiment with conditions comparable to blasts on humans. If traditional blast scaling is

  3. Occupational open globe injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, U; Vasnaik, A; Battu, R R; Kurian, M; George, S

    2001-03-01

    Occupational ocular trauma is an important cause of acquired monocular blindness in a rapidly industrialising country like India. Knowledge of the epidemiology of occupational eye injuries is essential to formulate viable industrial safety measures. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with occupational open globe injuries between 1994 and 1998. We documented the circumstances of the injuries, their clinical findings and the use of appropriate protective eyewear at the time of the injury. The visual acuity 6 months after the injury was the final outcome measure. In this study period we examined 43 patients with open globe injuries sustained at the work place. Thirty-four (79.1%) patients were young males. The iron and steel industry accounted for 19 (44.2%) cases while 8 (18.6%) patients each were from the agricultural, mining and other small scale industrial sectors. At the time of the injury, 33 (76.7%) were not wearing the recommended protective eyewear and 6 (13.9%) were under the influence of alcohol. The injuries were mild in 6 (13.9%), moderate in 18 (41.9%) and severe in 19 (44.2%) patients. At the end of 6 months, 2 (4.7%) patients had a visual acuity of 6/12 or better, 4 (9.3%) had a visual acuity of 6/18 to 6/60 and 29 (67.4.%) had a vision of eyewear and alcohol-free environment at the work place is likely to reduce the incidence of severe occupational open globe injuries.

  4. Incidence and clinical presentation of groin injuries in sub-elite male soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Groin injuries cause major problems in the football codes, as they are prevalent and lead to prolonged symptoms and high recurrence. The aim of the present study was to describe the occurrence and clinical presentation of groin injuries in a large cohort of sub-elite soccer players.......0096). Having both adductor and abdominal pain also increased the injury time significantly when compared to injuries with no adductor and no abdominal pain (RIT=4.56, 95% CI 1.91 to 10.91, p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Adductor-related groin injury was the most common clinical presentation of groin injuries in male...... during a season. METHODS: Physiotherapists allocated to each of the participating 44 soccer clubs recorded baseline characteristics and groin injuries sustained by a cohort of 998 sub-elite male soccer players during a full 10-month season. All players with groin injuries were examined using the clinical...

  5. [Analysis of the Injury-disease Relationship between Spondylolysis and Trauma in 26 Forensic Identifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L X; Zhu, G L; Qi, L Q; Sheng, Y Y

    2016-12-01

    To expound the injury-disease relationship between spondylolysis and trauma for the points of forensic identification. Total 26 cases of spondylolysis were collected and the characteristics of this disease such as age, accompanied symptoms, treatment and injury manner were discussed. The causal relationship existed between trauma and injury consequence in 2 appraised individuals and both of them aged less than 50 years old. The injury manners of both were high-energy injury with combined injury and these 2 patients were treated by operation. The analysis of injury-disease relationship between spondylolysis and trauma should be paid attention in the middle-young age under 50 years old. More importantly, the injury-disease relationship should be analyzed in the patients who chose operative treatment. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  6. Work injuries and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feveile, Helene

    2009-01-01

    of 4,217 male and 4,105 female employees from a national survey were followed up for subsequent DPR. RESULTS AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT: Having had a work injury was a strong predictor of DPR among men. After control for age, smoking, body mass index, body postures, and physical demands......, the hazard ratio (HR) among those employees who had ever experienced a work injury was 1.80 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-2.68). No association was found among women. SUMMARY: Having had a reportable work injury is a strong predictor of subsequent DPR for men....

  7. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  8. Nasal avulsion injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneny, J C

    1987-11-01

    The nose is the most frequently traumatized portion of the human face. High-speed motor vehicle accidents and interpersonal violence commonly produce bony pyramid and septal damage and occasional minor soft-tissue damage. Major soft-tissue injuries are much less commonly encountered. Avulsion injuries of this type may involve skin only or the bony and cartilaginous framework as well. The severity of these injuries can range from total avulsion to minor skin loss and anywhere within the spectrum between. My experience is reviewed, management guidelines and options are detailed, and selected cases are presented.

  9. Fatal and hospitalised childhood injuries in Fiji (TRIP Project-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naisaki, Asilika; Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Kool, Bridget; Taoi, Mabel; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2013-01-01

    Although childhood injury rates in low- and middle-income countries are known to be high, contemporary data on this topic from Pacific Island countries and territories are scant. We describe the epidemiology of childhood injuries resulting in death or hospital admission in Fiji using a population-based registry. A cross-sectional analysis of the Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals system investigated the characteristics associated with childhood injuries (Fiji. Priority actions should include investment in technical support and research to identify local contextual and social determinants that inform the development and implementation of effective injury prevention interventions as a child health survival strategy. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. [Injuries to the upper limbs in competitive wrestlers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, J W-P; Müller, L; Schikora, N; Eysel, P; König, D P

    2008-06-01

    Great variety of tackling and defence in wrestling in standing position and on the floor cannot be compared to other kind of sports. High demand to motoric characteristics and tournament specific movability is required. However wrestling in Germany belongs to a fringe sport there is an increase of professionality. This leads to a sufficient and high-demanded supervision. Aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate sport injuries using a questionnaire and to figure out a correlation between kind and frequency of sport injuries of different body regions. 163 questionnaires out of 200 had been evaluated. In the region of the upper limb injuries had been found in 23%. The injury rate was higher in the athletes wrestling in the 2nd league. Wrestling is a technically and tactically ambitious sport. Injuries should be evaluated very careful to minimize the risk changing tactics and training methods.

  11. Investigations of Tissue-Level Mechanisms of Primary Blast Injury Through Modeling, Simulation, Neuroimaging and Neuropathological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    2007;25(1):97-98. [19] Stewart C. Blast Injuries. Colorado Springs: USAF Academy Hospital; 2006. 88 p. [20] Cernak I, Wang Z, Jiang J, Bian X, Savic J...Wang Z, Jiang J, Bian X, Savic J. Ultrastructural and Functional Characteristics of Blast Injury- Induced Neurotrauma. Journal of Trauma: Injury

  12. Sports injuries profile of a first division Brazilian soccer team: a descriptive cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme F. Reis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective:To establish the injury profile of soccer players from a first division Brazilian soccer team. In addition, we investigated the association between the characteristics of the injuries and the player's age and position.Method: Forty-eight players from a Brazilian first division soccer team were followed during one season. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the injury profile. Spearman's tests were used to verify the association between the number and severity of injuries and the player's age. Chi-square test was used to verify the association between type of injury and player's position. Fisher's exact test was used to verify the association between the severity of injuries and player's position.Results: The incidence of injuries was 42.84/1000 hours in matches and 2.40/1000 hours in training. The injury severity was 19.5±34.4 days off competition or training. Lower limb was the most common location of injury and most injuries were muscular/tendinous, overuse, non-recurrent, and non-contact injuries. Player's age correlated with the amount and severity of muscle and tendon injuries. Defenders had more minimal injuries (1-3 days lost, while forwards had more moderate (8-28 days lost and severe injuries (>28 days lost. Furthermore, wingbacks had more muscle and tendon injuries, while midfielders had more joint and ligament injuries.Conclusion: The injury profile of the Brazilian players investigated in this study reflected regional differences in soccer practices. Results confirm the influence of the player's age and position on the soccer injuries profile.

  13. Sports injuries profile of a first division Brazilian soccer team: a descriptive cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Guilherme F; Santos, Thiago R T; Lasmar, Rodrigo C P; Oliveira Júnior, Otaviano; Lopes, Rômulo F F; Fonseca, Sérgio T

    2015-01-01

    To establish the injury profile of soccer players from a first division Brazilian soccer team. In addition, we investigated the association between the characteristics of the injuries and the player's age and position. Forty-eight players from a Brazilian first division soccer team were followed during one season. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the injury profile. Spearman's tests were used to verify the association between the number and severity of injuries and the player's age. Chi-square test was used to verify the association between type of injury and player's position. Fisher's exact test was used to verify the association between the severity of injuries and player's position. The incidence of injuries was 42.84/1000 hours in matches and 2.40/1000 hours in training. The injury severity was 19.5±34.4 days off competition or training. Lower limb was the most common location of injury and most injuries were muscular/tendinous, overuse, non-recurrent, and non-contact injuries. Player's age correlated with the amount and severity of muscle and tendon injuries. Defenders had more minimal injuries (1-3 days lost), while forwards had more moderate (8-28 days lost) and severe injuries (>28 days lost). Furthermore, wingbacks had more muscle and tendon injuries, while midfielders had more joint and ligament injuries. The injury profile of the Brazilian players investigated in this study reflected regional differences in soccer practices. Results confirm the influence of the player's age and position on the soccer injuries profile.

  14. Injury Profile in Women Shotokan Karate Championships in Iran (2004-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabchi, Farzin; Ziaee, Vahid; Lotfian, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this paper were to record injury rates among Iranian women competitive Shotokan karate athletes and propose possible predisposing factors. A prospective recording of the injuries resulting from all matches in 6 consecutive women national Shotokan Karate Championships in all age groups in Iran (season 2004-2005) was performed. Data recorded included demographic characteristics (Age and Weight), athletic background (rank, years of experience, time spent training and previous injuries), type, location and reason for the injury, and the result of the match. Results indicate 186 recorded injuries from a total of 1139 bouts involving 1019 athletes, therefore there were 0.163 injury per bout [C.I. 95%: 0.142-0.184] and 183 injuries per 1000 athletes [C.I. 95%: 159-205]. Injuries were most commonly located in the head and neck (55.4%) followed by the lower limb (21%), upper limb (12.9%) and trunk (10.8%). Punches (48. 4%) were associated with more injuries than kicks (33.3%). The injuries consisted of muscle strain and contusion (81, 43.6%), hematoma and epistaxis (49, 26.3%), lacerations and abrasions (28, 15. 1%), concussion (13, 7%), tooth avulsion or subluxation (3, 1.6%), joint dislocation (3, 1.6%) and fractures (3, 1.6%). In conclusion, as the majority of injuries are minor, and severe or longstanding injuries are uncommon, it can be argued that shotokan karate is a relatively safe for females, despite its image as a combat sport, where ostensibly the aim appears to injure your opponent. Further research is needed to evaluate the effective strategies to minimize the risk of injuries. Key points 186 injuries were recorded during women competitions. Incidence rates of 0.163 injury per bout and 183 injuries per 1000 athletes were calculated. The injuries were most commonly located in the head and neck. Muscle strain and contusion, hematoma and epistaxis constitute the majority of injuries. PMID:24198704

  15. Video incident analysis of head injuries in high school girls' lacrosse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Shane V; Lincoln, Andrew E; Almquist, Jon L; Dunn, Reginald E; Hinton, Richard Y

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge of injury mechanisms and game situations associated with head injuries in girls' high school lacrosse is necessary to target prevention efforts. To use video analysis and injury data to provide an objective and comprehensive visual record to identify mechanisms of injury, game characteristics, and penalties associated with head injury in girls' high school lacrosse. Descriptive epidemiology study. In the 25 public high schools of 1 school system, 529 varsity and junior varsity girls' lacrosse games were videotaped by trained videographers during the 2008 and 2009 seasons. Video of head injury incidents was examined to identify associated mechanisms and game characteristics using a lacrosse-specific coding instrument. Of the 25 head injuries (21 concussions and 4 contusions) recorded as game-related incidents by athletic trainers during the 2 seasons, 20 head injuries were captured on video, and 14 incidents had sufficient image quality for analysis. All 14 incidents of head injury (11 concussions, 3 contusions) involved varsity-level athletes. Most head injuries resulted from stick-to-head contact (n = 8), followed by body-to-head contact (n = 4). The most frequent player activities were defending a shot (n = 4) and competing for a loose ball (n = 4). Ten of the 14 head injuries occurred inside the 12-m arc and in front of the goal, and no penalty was called in 12 injury incidents. All injuries involved 2 players, and most resulted from unintentional actions. Turf versus grass did not appear to influence number of head injuries. Comprehensive video analysis suggests that play near the goal at the varsity high school level is associated with head injuries. Absence of penalty calls on most of these plays suggests an area for exploration, such as the extent to which current rules are enforced and the effectiveness of existing rules for the prevention of head injury.

  16. Injury Incidence and Patterns Among Dutch CrossFit Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrab, Mirwais; de Vos, Robert-Jan; Kraan, Gerald A; Mathijssen, Nina M C

    2017-12-01

    CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program that has gained widespread recognition, with 11,000 affiliated gyms worldwide. The incidence of injuries during CrossFit training is poorly analyzed. To investigate the incidence of injuries for persons participating in CrossFit. Risk factors for injury and injury mechanisms were also explored through athlete demographics and characteristics. Descriptive epidemiology study. A questionnaire that focused on injury incidence in CrossFit in the past year and included data on athlete demographics and characteristics was distributed to all 130 CrossFit gyms in the Netherlands and was also available online in active Facebook groups. Data were collected from July 2015 to January 2016. Inclusion criteria consisted of age ≥18 years and training at a registered CrossFit gym in the Netherlands. A total of 553 participants completed the survey. Univariable and multivariable generalized linear mixed models were used to identify potential risk factors for injury. A total of 449 participants met the inclusion criteria. Of all respondents, 252 athletes (56.1%) sustained an injury in the preceding 12 months. The most injured body parts were the shoulder (n = 87, 28.7%), lower back (n = 48, 15.8%), and knee (n = 25, 8.3%). The duration of participation in CrossFit significantly affected the injury incidence rates (CrossFit was 56.1%. The most frequent injury locations were the shoulder, lower back, and knee. A short duration of participation (<6 months) was significantly associated with an increased risk for injury.

  17. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON BLUNT INJURY ABDOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Kopperundevi; Jagadeesan; Kiruthiga

    2016-01-01

    Blunt injury abdomen is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups. Blunt trauma differs from penetrating trauma as different organs are characteristically injured by compression from blunt straining. A total of 53 cases of blunt trauma were studied in this study for the period of 1 year. In this study, commonest cause for blunt abdominal trauma was road traffic accident. The maximum incidence was noted in 20-40 middle age group of which 90% male patients were ...

  18. Sports Injuries in Brazilian Blind Footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, MPME; Morato, MP; Bilzon, JLJ; Duarte, E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes...

  19. Direct catastrophic injury in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P

    2005-11-01

    Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes.

  20. Prevention of childhood injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    road traffic crashes, drowning, burns, poisoning or falls), has become a major ... hugely on childhood health in terms of disability and, depending on their cause ... SA, children continue to be threatened by injuries of various kinds, although this ...

  1. Traumatic bronchial injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Cheaito, MD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: A high level of suspicion and the liberal use of bronchoscopy are important in the diagnosis of tracheobronchial injury. A tailored surgical approach is often necessary for definitive repair.

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering ... Rogers, SW Marguerite David, MSW Kathy Hulse, MSW Physical Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Laura Wehrli, PT ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... com is an informational and support website for families facing spinal cord injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or ...

  5. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the patient has HIV or hepatitis. Facial Fractures Sports injuries can cause potentially serious broken bones or fractures of the face. Common symptoms of facial fractures include: swelling and bruising, ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite ... play_arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal ... with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical ...

  9. Ocular fishhook injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, C S

    2001-06-01

    Ocular fishhook injuries are rare, yet potentially vision threatening as complications such as corneal scarring, retinal detachment and endophthalmitis may result. The surgical management of these cases is challenging due to the construction of barbed fishhooks.

  10. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 ... Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury ...

  14. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TBI Online Concussion Training Press Room Guide to Writing about TBI in News and Social Media Living with TBI HEADS UP to Brain Injury Awareness Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this topic, ...

  15. Spinal Injury: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EmergencyManual/WhatToDoInMedicalEmergency/Default.aspx?id=258&terms=spinal+injuries. Accessed Jan. 8, 2015. Marx JA, et al. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What are the chances of regaining feeling and mobility after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How long does it usually take for feeling and movement to return after a spinal cord ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite ... or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By Topic Media Resources Donate to support families facing spinal cord ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW ... Experiences By Topic Resources Blog Peer Counseling About Media Donate Contact Us Terms of Use Site Map ...

  3. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brachial Plexus Injuries Show More Show Less Search Disorders SEARCH SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that conducts signals from the spine to the shoulder, arm, ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, ... OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW ...

  5. Overuse Injury Assessment Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stuhmiller, James H; Shen, Weixin; Sih, Bryant

    2005-01-01

    ... bone stresses and strains from kinematic and ground reaction force measures. We broaden the work to address not only the overuse injuries, but the performance enhancement and metabolic demands associated with training...

  6. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are important for motion and standing. Playing sports, running, falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. ...

  7. RUNNING INJURY DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karen Krogh; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. PURPOSE: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. METHODS: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: "Which...... factors do you believe influence the risk of running injuries?". In response to this question, the athletes and coaches had to click "Yes" or "No" to 19 predefined factors. In addition, they had the possibility to submit a free-text response. RESULTS: A total of 68 athletes and 19 coaches were included...

  8. Running Injury Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Johansen, Karen; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. Purpose: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. Methods: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: “Which...... factors do you believe influence the risk of running injuries?”. In response to this question, the athletes and coaches had to click “Yes” or “No” to 19 predefined factors. In addition, they had the possibility to submit a free-text response. Results: A total of 68 athletes and 19 coaches were included...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow ... recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  11. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Leer en Español: ... that can splatter hot grease or oil. Opening champagne bottles during a celebration. Drilling or hammering screws ...

  12. Chemical and radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is a discussion of radiation injuries and the treatment thereof. Radiation injuries are mainly caused as a result of nuclear leaks or nuclear bomb explosions. Such an explosion is usually accompanied by a light flash, noise, heat radiation and nuclear radiation which can all caurse various types of injuries. The general effect of radioactive radiation is discussed. The seriousness of the situation where the whole body was exposed to nuclear radiation, depends on the total radiation dose received and varies from person to person. The progress of radiation sickness is described. Mention is also made of long term radiation effects. The emergency treatment of the injured before specialised aid is available, is discussed. The primary aim of treatment is to save life and to prevent further injuries and complications. Injured people must be removed as far as possible from the point of maximum radiation. Attention must also be given to decontamination

  13. Injuries Sustained by the Mixed Martial Arts Athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Andrew R.; Maciel, Robert C.; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Rodriguez, John P.; Brooks, Adam G.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Mixed martial arts (MMA) is rapidly growing in popularity in the United States and abroad. This combat sport joins athletes from a wide variety of martial art disciplines, each with characteristic and distinguishing injury profiles, together in competition. Because of increasing participation by professionals and amateurs alike, injuries sustained by MMA athletes have been on the rise. Evidence Acquisition: A review of relevant publications using the search term mixed martial arts an...

  14. Employer knowledge of federal requirements for recording work-related injuries and illnesses: Implications for occupational injury surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuellner, Sara; Phipps, Polly

    2018-05-01

    Accuracy of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII) data is dependent on employer compliance with workplace injury and illness recordkeeping requirements. Characterization of employer recordkeeping can inform efforts to improve the data. We interviewed representative samples of SOII respondents from four states to identify common recordkeeping errors and to assess employer characteristics associated with limited knowledge of the recordkeeping requirements and non compliant practices. Less than half of the establishments required to maintain OSHA injury and illness records reported doing so. Few establishments knew to omit cases limited to diagnostic services (22%) and to count unscheduled weekend days as missed work (27%). No single state or establishment characteristic was consistently associated with better or worse record-keeping. Many employers possess a limited understanding of workplace injury recordkeeping requirements, potentially leading them to over-report minor incidents, and under-report missed work cases. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Isometric muscle fatigue of the paravertebral and upper extremity muscles after whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastovic, Pejana; Gojanovic, Marija Definis; Berberovic, Marina; Pavlovic, Marko; Lesko, Josip; Galic, Gordan; Pandza, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) result from injury of neck structures that most often occur during traffic accidents as a result of rapid acceleration-deceleration. The dominant symptoms manifest in the musculoskeletal system and include increased fatigue. Because of the frequency of whiplash injuries, a simple, cheap and useful diagnostic tool is needed to differentiate whiplash injury from healthy patients or those faking symptoms. To determine muscle fatigue in patients with whiplash injury in six body positions. Analytical cross-sectional study. Emergency center, university hospital. We studied patients with whiplash injury from vehicular traffic accidents who presented to the emergency center within 6 hours of sustaining the injury. We determined whiplash injury grade according to the Quebec Task Force (QTF) classification and measured isometric muscle endurance in six different body positions. Control subjects for each patient were matched by age, gender and anthropomorphic characteristics. Cut-off values were determined to distinguish patients with whiplash injury from controls and for determination of injury grade . QTF grade, time to muscle fatigue in seconds. From September 2013 to September 2016, we enrolled 75 patients with whiplash injury and 75 matching control subjects. In all six positions, the patients with whiplash injury felt muscle fatigue faster than equivalent controls (P whiplash injury grade in all six positions (P whiplash injury and grade. The size of the sample was small. An objective parameter such as electromyography is needed to confirm isometric muscle fatigue.

  16. Impact of adverse pancreatic injury at surgical procurement upon islet isolation outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Axel; Kin, Tatsuya; O'Gorman, Doug; Bigam, David; Kneteman, Norman; Senior, Peter; Shapiro, Am James

    2014-11-01

    The consequence of a pancreas injury during the procurement for islet isolation purpose is unknown. The goal of this work was to assess the injuries of the pancreata procured for islet isolation, and to determine their effect on the islet yield. Between January 2007 and October 2013, we prospectively documented every injury of the pancreata processed in our centre for islet isolation. Injuries involving the main duct were classified as major, the others as minor. Donors' characteristics and islet yields were compared between the groups of injuries. A pancreas injury was identified in 42 of 452 pancreata received for islet isolation (9.3%). In 15 cases, the injury was major (3.3% of all pancreata). Although a minor injury did not affect the islet yield, a major injury was significantly associated with unfavourable outcomes (postpurification mean islet equivalent of 364 ± 181, 405 ± 190 and 230 ± 115 × 10(3) for absence of injury, minor injury and major injury, respectively). A major injury was significantly more prevalent in lean and short donors. We recommend assessing the quality of the pancreas in the islet isolation centre before starting the isolation procedure. Each centre should determine its own policy based on its financial resources and on the wait list. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  17. Traumatic Aortic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Miner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 48-year-old male with unknown past medical history presents as a trauma after being hit by a car traveling approximately 25 miles per hour. On initial presentation, the patient is confused, combative, and not answering questions appropriately. The patient is hypotensive with a blood pressure of 68/40 and a heart rate of 50 beats per minute, with oxygen saturation at 96% on room air. FAST scan is positive for fluid in Morrison’s pouch, splenorenal space, and pericardial space. Significant findings: The initial chest x-ray showed an abnormal superior mediastinal contour (blue line, suggestive of a possible aortic injury. The CT angiogram showed extensive circumferential irregularity and outpouching of the distal aortic arch (red arrows compatible with aortic transection. In addition, there was a circumferential intramural hematoma, which extended through the descending aorta to the proximal infrarenal abdominal aorta (green arrow. There was also an extensive surrounding mediastinal hematoma extending around the descending aorta and supraaortic branches (purple arrows. Discussion: Traumatic aortic injury is a life-threatening event. The incidence of blunt thoracic aortic injury is low, between 1 to 2 percent of those patients with blunt thoracic trauma.1 However, approximately 80% of patients with traumatic aortic injury die at the scene.2 Therefore it is imperative to diagnose traumatic aortic injury in a timely fashion. The diagnosis can be difficult due to the non-specific signs and symptoms and other distracting injuries. Clinical suspicion should be based on the mechanism of the injury and the hemodynamic status of the patient. In any patient with blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest that is hemodynamically unstable, traumatic aortic injury should be on the differential. Chest x-ray can be used as a screening tool. A normal chest x-ray has a negative predictive value of approximately 97%. CTA chest is the

  18. Lawn mower injuries to children in Pennsylvania, 1989 to 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, L M; Gardner, M J

    1996-01-01

    Lawn mowers pose a significant risk of morbidity and mortality to children. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of children injured by lawn mowers admitted to accredited trauma centers in Pennsylvania from 1989 to 1993. Data were available on 177 children who sustained 504 injuries. The majority of children were less than 5 years old, male, injured by a power mower, during the summer, at home, and with an injury to an extremity. Four cases that represent patients with a low injury Severity Score but a long hospitalization are discussed.

  19. Cervical spine injury in the elderly: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehara, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Shimamura, Tadashi [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    An increase in the elderly population has resulted in an increased incidence of cervical spine injury in this group. No specific type of cervical spine trauma is seen in the elderly, although dens fractures are reported to be common. Hyperextension injuries due to falling and the resultant central cord syndrome in the mid and lower cervical segments due to decreased elasticity as a result of spondylosis may be also characteristic. The imaging features of cervical spine injury are often modified by associated spondylosis deformans, DISH and other systemic disorders. The value of MR imaging in such cases is emphasized. (orig.)

  20. Overuse Injuries in Professional Ballet

    OpenAIRE

    Sobrino, Francisco Jos?; de la Cuadra, Cr?tida; Guill?n, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite overuse injuries being previously described as the most frequent in ballet, there are no studies on professional dancers providing the specific clinical diagnoses or type of injury based on the discipline. Hypothesis Overuse injuries are the most frequent injuries in ballet, with differences in the type and frequency of injuries based on discipline. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study performed betwe...