WorldWideScience

Sample records for injury atrophy synaptic

  1. Reduced sensory synaptic excitation impairs motor neuron function via Kv2.1 in spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Emily V; Simon, Christian M; Pagiazitis, John G; Chalif, Joshua I; Vukojicic, Aleksandra; Drobac, Estelle; Wang, Xiaojian; Mentis, George Z

    2017-07-01

    Behavioral deficits in neurodegenerative diseases are often attributed to the selective dysfunction of vulnerable neurons via cell-autonomous mechanisms. Although vulnerable neurons are embedded in neuronal circuits, the contributions of their synaptic partners to disease process are largely unknown. Here we show that, in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a reduction in proprioceptive synaptic drive leads to motor neuron dysfunction and motor behavior impairments. In SMA mice or after the blockade of proprioceptive synaptic transmission, we observed a decrease in the motor neuron firing that could be explained by the reduction in the expression of the potassium channel Kv2.1 at the surface of motor neurons. Chronically increasing neuronal activity pharmacologically in vivo led to a normalization of Kv2.1 expression and an improvement in motor function. Our results demonstrate a key role of excitatory synaptic drive in shaping the function of motor neurons during development and the contribution of its disruption to a neurodegenerative disease.

  2. Survival motor neuron protein in motor neurons determines synaptic integrity in spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Tara L; Kong, Lingling; Wang, Xueyong; Osborne, Melissa A; Crowder, Melissa E; Van Meerbeke, James P; Xu, Xixi; Davis, Crystal; Wooley, Joe; Goldhamer, David J; Lutz, Cathleen M; Rich, Mark M; Sumner, Charlotte J

    2012-06-20

    The inherited motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by deficient expression of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein and results in severe muscle weakness. In SMA mice, synaptic dysfunction of both neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and central sensorimotor synapses precedes motor neuron cell death. To address whether this synaptic dysfunction is due to SMN deficiency in motor neurons, muscle, or both, we generated three lines of conditional SMA mice with tissue-specific increases in SMN expression. All three lines of mice showed increased survival, weights, and improved motor behavior. While increased SMN expression in motor neurons prevented synaptic dysfunction at the NMJ and restored motor neuron somal synapses, increased SMN expression in muscle did not affect synaptic function although it did improve myofiber size. Together these data indicate that both peripheral and central synaptic integrity are dependent on motor neurons in SMA, but SMN may have variable roles in the maintenance of these different synapses. At the NMJ, it functions at the presynaptic terminal in a cell-autonomous fashion, but may be necessary for retrograde trophic signaling to presynaptic inputs onto motor neurons. Importantly, SMN also appears to function in muscle growth and/or maintenance independent of motor neurons. Our data suggest that SMN plays distinct roles in muscle, NMJs, and motor neuron somal synapses and that restored function of SMN at all three sites will be necessary for full recovery of muscle power.

  3. Brain Injury-Induced Synaptic Reorganization in Hilar Inhibitory Neurons Is Differentially Suppressed by Rapamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Corwin R; Boychuk, Jeffery A; Smith, Bret N

    2017-01-01

    Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), treatment with rapamycin suppresses mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity and specific components of hippocampal synaptic reorganization associated with altered cortical excitability and seizure susceptibility. Reemergence of seizures after cessation of rapamycin treatment suggests, however, an incomplete suppression of epileptogenesis. Hilar inhibitory interneurons regulate dentate granule cell (DGC) activity, and de novo synaptic input from both DGCs and CA3 pyramidal cells after TBI increases their excitability but effects of rapamycin treatment on the injury-induced plasticity of interneurons is only partially described. Using transgenic mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) is expressed in the somatostatinergic subset of hilar inhibitory interneurons, we tested the effect of daily systemic rapamycin treatment (3 mg/kg) on the excitability of hilar inhibitory interneurons after controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced focal brain injury. Rapamycin treatment reduced, but did not normalize, the injury-induced increase in excitability of surviving eGFP+ hilar interneurons. The injury-induced increase in response to selective glutamate photostimulation of DGCs was reduced to normal levels after mTOR inhibition, but the postinjury increase in synaptic excitation arising from CA3 pyramidal cell activity was unaffected by rapamycin treatment. The incomplete suppression of synaptic reorganization in inhibitory circuits after brain injury could contribute to hippocampal hyperexcitability and the eventual reemergence of the epileptogenic process upon cessation of mTOR inhibition. Further, the cell-selective effect of mTOR inhibition on synaptic reorganization after CCI suggests possible mechanisms by which rapamycin treatment modifies epileptogenesis in some models but not others.

  4. Progranulin gene delivery reduces plaque burden and synaptic atrophy in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackalina M Van Kampen

    Full Text Available Progranulin (PGRN is a multifunctional protein that is widely expressed throughout the brain, where it has been shown to act as a critical regulator of CNS inflammation and also functions as an autocrine neuronal growth factor, important for long-term neuronal survival. PGRN has been shown to activate cell signaling pathways regulating excitoxicity, oxidative stress, and synaptogenesis, as well as amyloidogenesis. Together, these critical roles in the CNS suggest that PGRN has the potential to be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD. AD is the leading cause of dementia and is marked by the appearance of extracellular plaques consisting of aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ, as well as neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, neuronal loss and synaptic atrophy. The ability of PGRN to target multiple key features of AD pathophysiology suggests that enhancing its expression may benefit this disease. Here, we describe the application of PGRN gene transfer using in vivo delivery of lentiviral expression vectors in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Viral vector delivery of the PGRN gene effectively enhanced PGRN expression in the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice. This elevated PGRN expression significantly reduced amyloid plaque burden in these mice, accompanied by reductions in markers of inflammation and synaptic atrophy. The overexpression of PGRN was also found to increase activity of neprilysin, a key amyloid beta degrading enzyme. PGRN regulation of neprilysin activity could play a major role in the observed alterations in plaque burden. Thus, PGRN may be an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of AD.

  5. Synaptic reorganization of inhibitory hilar interneuron circuitry after traumatic brain injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Robert F.; Scheff, Stephen W.; Smith, Bret N.

    2011-01-01

    Functional plasticity of synaptic networks in the dentate gyrus has been implicated in the development of posttraumatic epilepsy and in cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury, but little is known about potentially pathogenic changes in inhibitory circuits. We examined synaptic inhibition of dentate granule cells and excitability of surviving GABAergic hilar interneurons 8–13 weeks after cortical contusion brain injury in transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein in a subpopulation of inhibitory neurons. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in granule cells revealed a reduction in spontaneous and miniature IPSC frequency after head injury; no concurrent change in paired-pulse ratio was found in granule cells after paired electrical stimulation of the hilus. Despite reduced inhibitory input to granule cells, action potential and EPSC frequencies were increased in hilar GABA neurons from slices ipsilateral to the injury, versus those from control or contralateral slices. Further, increased excitatory synaptic activity was detected in hilar GABA neurons ipsilateral to the injury after glutamate photostimulation of either the granule cell or CA3 pyramidal cell layers. Together, these findings suggest that excitatory drive to surviving hilar GABA neurons is enhanced by convergent input from both pyramidal and granule cells, but synaptic inhibition of granule cells is not fully restored after injury. This rewiring of circuitry regulating hilar inhibitory neurons may reflect an important compensatory mechanism, but it may also contribute to network destabilization by increasing the relative impact of surviving individual interneurons in controlling granule cell excitability in the posttraumatic dentate gyrus. PMID:21543618

  6. Hepatic parenchymal atrophy induction for intractable segmental bile duct injury after liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shin; Park, Gil-Chun; Ha, Tae-Yong; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong-Il; Choi, Young-Il; Song, Gi-Won; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2012-05-01

    Liver resection can result in various types of bile duct injuries but their treatment is usually difficult and often leads to intractable clinical course. We present an unusual case of hepatic segment III duct (B3) injury, which occurred after left medial sectionectomy for large hepatocellular carcinoma and was incidentally detected 1 week later due to bile leak. Since the pattern of this B3 injury was not adequate for operative biliary reconstruction, atrophy induction of the involved hepatic parenchyma was attempted. This treatment consisted of embolization of the segment III portal branch to inhibit bile production, induction of heavy adhesion at the bile leak site and clamping of the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube to accelerate segment III atrophy. This entire procedure, from liver resection to PTBD tube removal took 4 months. This patient has shown no other complication or tumor recurrence for 4 years to date. These findings suggest that percutaneous segmental portal vein embolization, followed by intentional clamping of external biliary drainage, can effectively control intractable bile leak from segmental bile duct injury.

  7. Apoptosis-inducing effect of selective sensory or motor nerve injury on skeletal muscle atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei ZHAO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the apoptosis-inducing effect of selective sensory or motor nerve injury on skeletal muscle atrophy.Methods Thirty healthy adult SD rats were randomly divided into three groups,namely,ventral root transection group(VRT group,received left L4-L6 ventral rhizotomy,dorsal root transection group(DRT group,received left L4-L6 dorsal rhizotomy,and sciatic nerve transection group(SNT group,received left sciatic nerve transection.Each group comprised 10 SD rats.The bilateral gastrocnemius was harvested 10 weeks after operation to observe the apoptosis and Fas/FasL expression of the skeletal muscle cells through fluorescent labeling,transmission electron microscopy,and immunohistochemistry.Result Ten weeks after the denervation,apoptosis-related changes,especially obvious changes of the nuclear apoptotic morphology,were observed in the skeletal muscle cells.The aggregation degree of the nucleus and the expression of Fas/FasL increased in the following order: DRT group,VRT group,and SNT group.No apoptotic body,but early apoptotic morphology,was found in the denervated gastrocnemius through transmission electron microscopy.Conclusions The effect of motor nerve injury on skeletal muscle atrophy is more serious than that of sensory nerve injury.The rebuilding of motor nerves should be preferentially considered in the clinical treatment of muscle atrophy induced by denervation.

  8. Two Aspects of ASIC Function: Synaptic Plasticity and Neuronal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Jiang, Nan; Li, Jun; Ji, Yong-Hua; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Zha, Xiang-ming

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular brain pH fluctuates in both physiological and disease conditions. The main postsynaptic proton receptor is the acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). During the past decade, much progress has been made on protons, ASICs, and neurological disease. This review summarizes the recent progress on synaptic role of protons and our current understanding of how ASICs contribute to various types of neuronal injury in the brain. PMID:25582290

  9. Calpain 3 Expression Pattern during Gastrocnemius Muscle Atrophy and Regeneration Following Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghua Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Calpain 3 (CAPN3, also known as p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific member of the calpain family that is involved in muscular dystrophy; however, the roles of CAPN3 in muscular atrophy and regeneration are yet to be understood. In the present study, we attempted to explain the effect of CAPN3 in muscle atrophy by evaluating CAPN3 expression in rat gastrocnemius muscle following reversible sciatic nerve injury. After nerve injury, the wet weight ratio and cross sectional area (CSA of gastrocnemius muscle were decreased gradually from 1–14 days and then recovery from 14–28 days. The active form of CAPN3 (~62 kDa protein decreased slightly on day 3 and then increased from day 7 to 14 before a decrease from day 14 to 28. The result of linear correlation analysis showed that expression of the active CAPN3 protein level was negatively correlated with muscle wet weight ratio. CAPN3 knockdown by short interfering RNA (siRNA injection improved muscle recovery on days 7 and 14 after injury as compared to that observed with control siRNA treatment. Depletion of CAPN3 gene expression could promote myoblast differentiation in L6 cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that the expression pattern of the active CAPN3 protein is linked to muscle atrophy and regeneration following denervation: its upregulation during early stages may promote satellite cell renewal by inhibiting differentiation, whereas in later stages, CAPN3 expression may be downregulated to stimulate myogenic differentiation and enhance recovery. These results provide a novel mechanistic insight into the role of CAPN3 protein in muscle regeneration after peripheral nerve injury.

  10. Stress-triggered synaptic malfunction: a gate along the path from depression to dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Sotiropoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental studies suggest a causal role of chronic stress for brain pathology and diseases e.g. depression and Alzheimer´s disease (AD as stress is strongly associated with neuronal and synaptic atrophy/loss resulting in impaired mood and/or cognition. Indeed, synaptic loss is a key underlying pathomechanism in both disorders while growing clinical evidence supports a pathological link between depression and AD pointing to shared neurobiological underpinnings and pathogenic mechanisms e.g. AD-related mechanisms, such as APP misprocessing, are also found to be affected in depression while depression predisposes individuals to develop AD. Based on the above, our studies have been conceived to contribute towards bridging the current gap monitoring AD-related mechanisms in the CMS (chronic mild stress animal model of depression before and after antidepressant treatment. We found that depressive status in these animals was accompanied by increased APP misprocessing and tau accumulation as well as neuronal atrophy in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Interestingly, antidepressant treatment with two different antidepressants reversed both biochemical and synaptic changes. Furthermore, we demonstrate the blockage of stress-triggered depressive behavior and neuronal/synaptic atrophy in animals lacking APP misprocessing and amyloid beta generation, further supporting the involvement of APP misprocessing in depressive pathology and behavior. Thus, this study forms the first in vivo approach to clarify the involvement of AD-related APP misprocessing on stress-driven synaptic pathology underlying depressive pathology.

  11. Two aspects of ASIC function: Synaptic plasticity and neuronal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Jiang, Nan; Li, Jun; Ji, Yong-Hua; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Zha, Xiang-ming

    2015-07-01

    Extracellular brain pH fluctuates in both physiological and disease conditions. The main postsynaptic proton receptor is the acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). During the past decade, much progress has been made on protons, ASICs, and neurological disease. This review summarizes the recent progress on synaptic role of protons and our current understanding of how ASICs contribute to various types of neuronal injury in the brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Acid-Sensing Ion Channels in the Nervous System'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synaptic defects in the spinal and neuromuscular circuitry in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen K Y Ling

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a major genetic cause of death in childhood characterized by marked muscle weakness. To investigate mechanisms underlying motor impairment in SMA, we examined the spinal and neuromuscular circuitry governing hindlimb ambulatory behavior in SMA model mice (SMNΔ7. In the neuromuscular circuitry, we found that nearly all neuromuscular junctions (NMJs in hindlimb muscles of SMNΔ7 mice remained fully innervated at the disease end stage and were capable of eliciting muscle contraction, despite a modest reduction in quantal content. In the spinal circuitry, we observed a ∼28% loss of synapses onto spinal motoneurons in the lateral column of lumbar segments 3-5, and a significant reduction in proprioceptive sensory neurons, which may contribute to the 50% reduction in vesicular glutamate transporter 1(VGLUT1-positive synapses onto SMNΔ7 motoneurons. In addition, there was an increase in the association of activated microglia with SMNΔ7 motoneurons. Together, our results present a novel concept that synaptic defects occur at multiple levels of the spinal and neuromuscular circuitry in SMNΔ7 mice, and that proprioceptive spinal synapses could be a potential target for SMA therapy.

  13. Lateral Fluid Percussion Injury Impairs Hippocampal Synaptic Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide Sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor Complex Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun W. Carlson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI and the activation of secondary injury mechanisms have been linked to impaired cognitive function, which, as observed in TBI patients and animal models, can persist for months and years following the initial injury. Impairments in neurotransmission have been well documented in experimental models of TBI, but the mechanisms underlying this dysfunction are poorly understood. Formation of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE complex facilitates vesicular docking and neurotransmitter release in the synaptic cleft. Published studies highlight a direct link between reduced SNARE complex formation and impairments in neurotransmitter release. While alterations in the SNARE complex have been described following severe focal TBI, it is not known if deficits in SNARE complex formation manifest in a model with reduced severity. We hypothesized that lateral fluid percussion injury (lFPI reduces the abundance of SNARE proteins, impairs SNARE complex formation, and contributes to impaired neurobehavioral function. To this end, rats were subjected to lFPI or sham injury and tested for acute motor performance and cognitive function at 3 weeks post-injury. lFPI resulted in motor impairment between 1 and 5 days post-injury. Spatial acquisition and spatial memory, as assessed by the Morris water maze, were significantly impaired at 3 weeks after lFPI. To examine the effect of lFPI on synaptic SNARE complex formation in the injured hippocampus, a separate cohort of rats was generated and brains processed to evaluate hippocampal synaptosomal-enriched lysates at 1 week post-injury. lFPI resulted in a significant reduction in multiple monomeric SNARE proteins, including VAMP2, and α-synuclein, and SNARE complex abundance. The findings in this study are consistent with our previously published observations suggesting that impairments in hippocampal SNARE complex formation may contribute to

  14. Agrin and synaptic laminin are required to maintain adult neuromuscular junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A Samuel

    Full Text Available As synapses form and mature the synaptic partners produce organizing molecules that regulate each other's differentiation and ensure precise apposition of pre- and post-synaptic specializations. At the skeletal neuromuscular junction (NMJ, these molecules include agrin, a nerve-derived organizer of postsynaptic differentiation, and synaptic laminins, muscle-derived organizers of presynaptic differentiation. Both become concentrated in the synaptic cleft as the NMJ develops and are retained in adulthood. Here, we used mutant mice to ask whether these organizers are also required for synaptic maintenance. Deletion of agrin from a subset of adult motor neurons resulted in the loss of acetylcholine receptors and other components of the postsynaptic apparatus and synaptic cleft. Nerve terminals also atrophied and eventually withdrew from muscle fibers. On the other hand, mice lacking the presynaptic organizer laminin-α4 retained most of the synaptic cleft components but exhibited synaptic alterations reminiscent of those observed in aged animals. Although we detected no marked decrease in laminin or agrin levels at aged NMJs, we observed alterations in the distribution and organization of these synaptic cleft components suggesting that such changes could contribute to age-related synaptic disassembly. Together, these results demonstrate that pre- and post-synaptic organizers actively function to maintain the structure and function of adult NMJs.

  15. Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Expression of Glycyl-tRNA Synthetase and Ultrastructure Changes in Atrophied Rat Peroneus Longus Muscle Induced by Sciatic Nerve Injection Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS is one of the key enzymes involved in protein synthesis. Its mutations have been reported to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease which demonstrates muscular atrophy in distal extremities, particularly manifested in peroneus muscles. In this situation, the dysfunctions of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR affect energy supply and excitation-contraction coupling of muscle fibers, therefore resulting in muscular atrophy. Although the treatment of muscular atrophy is a global urgent problem, it can be improved by electroacupuncture (EA treatment. To investigate the mechanism underlying EA treatment improving muscular atrophy, we focused on the perspective of protein synthesis by establishing a penicillin injection-induced sciatic nerve injury model. In our model, injured rats without treatment showed decreased sciatic functional index (SFI, decreased peroneus longus muscle weight and muscle fiber cross-sectional area, aggregated mitochondria with vacuoles appearing, swollen SR, and downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of GlyRS and myosin heavy chain IIb (MHC-IIb. The injured rats with EA treatment showed significant recovery. These results indicated that EA stimulation can alleviate peroneus longus muscular atrophy induced by iatrogenic sciatic nerve injury through promoting the recovery of GlyRS and muscle ultrastructure and increasing muscle protein synthesis.

  16. Protein translation, proteolysis and autophagy in human skeletal muscle atrophy after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, L S; Savikj, M; Kostovski, E; Iversen, P O; Zierath, J R; Krook, A; Chibalin, A V; Widegren, U

    2018-02-08

    Spinal cord injury-induced loss of skeletal muscle mass does not progress linearly. In humans, peak muscle loss occurs during the first 6 weeks postinjury, and gradually continues thereafter. The aim of this study was to delineate the regulatory events underlying skeletal muscle atrophy during the first year following spinal cord injury. Key translational, autophagic and proteolytic proteins were analysed by immunoblotting of human vastus lateralis muscle obtained 1, 3 and 12 months following spinal cord injury. Age-matched able-bodied control subjects were also studied. Several downstream targets of Akt signalling decreased after spinal cord injury in skeletal muscle, without changes in resting Akt Ser 473 and Akt Thr 308 phosphorylation or total Akt protein. Abundance of mTOR protein and mTOR Ser 2448 phosphorylation, as well as FOXO1 Ser 256 phosphorylation and FOXO3 protein, decreased in response to spinal cord injury, coincident with attenuated protein abundance of E3 ubiquitin ligases, MuRF1 and MAFbx. S6 protein and Ser 235/236 phosphorylation, as well as 4E-BP1 Thr 37/46 phosphorylation, increased transiently after spinal cord injury, indicating higher levels of protein translation early after injury. Protein abundance of LC3-I and LC3-II decreased 3 months postinjury as compared with 1 month postinjury, but not compared to able-bodied control subjects, indicating lower levels of autophagy. Proteins regulating proteasomal degradation were stably increased in response to spinal cord injury. Together, these data provide indirect evidence suggesting that protein translation and autophagy transiently increase, while whole proteolysis remains stably higher in skeletal muscle within the first year after spinal cord injury. © 2018 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [Evaluation of diffuse cerebral atrophy in patients with a history of traumatic brain injury and its relation to cognitive deterioration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narberhaus, A; Segarra-Castells, M D; Verger-Maestre, K; Serra-Grabulosa, J M; Salgado-Pineda, P; Bartomeus-Jené, F; Mercader-Sobrequés, J M

    Diffuse damage secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be studied through volumetric analysis of several structures that are sensible to this kind of injury, such as corpus callosum, ventricular system, hippocampus, basal ganglia and the volume of cerebrospinal fluid spaces. Our aim is to describe how closed head injury (CHI) occurred in early years produce diffuse damage, and how this damage affects general cognitive functioning at long term. Initially the group of subjects was composed of 27 head injured children and adolescents following paediatric moderate to severe TBI. From this initial group we selected 15 patients without focal lesion, or in case of having suffered focal lesion, this was smaller than 2,600 mm3. These subjects were assessed by means of volumetric analysis of cerebrospinal fluid spaces, corpus callosum, hippocampus and caudate nucleus, comparing the results with a matched control group. We calculated the degree of general cognitive ability of these subjects through tests of intellectual, memory, frontal lobe and motor speed functioning. This study demonstrates that early CHI produce a volume decrease in all measured structures. Corpus callosum atrophy is the factor that better explains general cognitive impairment. Diffuse damage secondary to moderate to severe peadiatric TBI has long term effects on several cerebral structures and on cognitive performance. Corpus callosum atrophy is the best predictor for general cognitive impairment, compared with other affected structures.

  18. Synaptic pathology in the cerebellar dentate nucleus in chronic multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Monika; Barrantes-Freer, Alonso; Lohrberg, Melanie; Antel, Jack P; Prineas, John W; Palkovits, Miklós; Wolff, Joachim R; Brück, Wolfgang; Stadelmann, Christine

    2017-11-01

    In multiple sclerosis, cerebellar symptoms are associated with clinical impairment and an increased likelihood of progressive course. Cortical atrophy and synaptic dysfunction play a prominent role in cerebellar pathology and although the dentate nucleus is a predilection site for lesion development, structural synaptic changes in this region remain largely unexplored. Moreover, the mechanisms leading to synaptic dysfunction have not yet been investigated at an ultrastructural level in multiple sclerosis. Here, we report on synaptic changes of dentate nuclei in post-mortem cerebella of 16 multiple sclerosis patients and eight controls at the histological level as well as an electron microscopy evaluation of afferent synapses of the cerebellar dentate and pontine nuclei of one multiple sclerosis patient and one control. We found a significant reduction of afferent dentate synapses in multiple sclerosis, irrespective of the presence of demyelination, and a close relationship between glial processes and dentate synapses. Ultrastructurally, we show autophagosomes containing degradation products of synaptic vesicles within dendrites, residual bodies within intact-appearing axons and free postsynaptic densities opposed to astrocytic appendages. Our study demonstrates loss of dentate afferent synapses and provides, for the first time, ultrastructural evidence pointing towards neuron-autonomous and neuroglia-mediated mechanisms of synaptic degradation in chronic multiple sclerosis. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  19. Crossed cerebellar atrophy in children: a neurologic sequela of extreme prematurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollins, N.K.; Wen, T.S.; Dominguez, R.

    1995-01-01

    We retrospectively identified eight children, aged 8 months to 13 years, in whom cerebellar atrophy associated with cerebral injury was diagnosed on MR or CT, and reviewed their past medical history, neurologic findings, and neuroimaging studies. Seven patients were born extremely premature, EGA 25-28 weeks, and had severe perinatal intracranial hemorrhage. Neurologic problems include severe developmental delay in seven, spastic paresis in six, and seizures in five. Neuroimaging showed severe unilaterial holohemispheric atrophy in four, bilateral asymmetric holohemispheric atrophy in two, and left temporoparietal atrophy in one. Cerebellar atrophy was unilateral in five and bilateral but asymmetric in two. Gliosis of the atrophic cerebellum occurred in one patient. Sequential neuroimaging in one patient showed evolution of crossed cerebellar atrophy at 8 months of age. The final patient, a term infant, had an idiopathic perinatal left cerebral infarct. (orig./MG)

  20. MRI of rotator cuff muscle atrophy in relation to glenohumeral joint incongruence in brachial plexus birth injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeyhiae, Tiina H.; Nietosvaara, Yrjaenae A.; Peltonen, Jari I.; Remes, Ville M.; Kirjavainen, Mikko O.; Lamminen, Antti E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate rotator cuff muscles and the glenohumeral (GH) joint in brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) using MRI and to determine whether any correlation exists between muscular abnormality and the development of glenoid dysplasia and GH joint incongruity. Thirty-nine consecutive BPBI patients with internal rotation contracture or absent active external rotation of the shoulder joint were examined clinically and imaged with MRI. In the physical examination, passive external rotation was measured to evaluate internal rotation contracture. Both shoulders were imaged and the glenoscapular angle, percentage of humeral head anterior to the middle of the glenoid fossa (PHHA) and the greatest thickness of the subscapular, infraspinous and supraspinous muscles were measured. The muscle ratio between the affected side and the normal side was calculated to exclude age variation in the assessment of muscle atrophy. All muscles of the rotator cuff were atrophic, with the subscapular and infraspinous muscles being most severely affected. A correlation was found between the percentage of humeral head anterior to the middle of the glenoid fossa (PHHA) and the extent of subscapular muscle atrophy (r s =0.45, P=0.01), as well as between its ratio (r s =0.5, P P=0.01). Severity of rotator cuff muscle atrophy correlated with increased glenoid retroversion and the degree of internal rotation contracture. Glenoid retroversion and subluxation of the humeral head are common in patients with BPBI. All rotator cuff muscles are atrophic, especially the subscapular muscle. Muscle atrophy due to neurogenic damage apparently results in an imbalance of the shoulder muscles and progressive retroversion and subluxation of the GH joint, which in turn lead to internal rotation contracture and deformation of the joint. (orig.)

  1. Moderate traumatic brain injury causes acute dendritic and synaptic degeneration in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Hippocampal injury-associated learning and memory deficits are frequent hallmarks of brain trauma and are the most enduring and devastating consequences following traumatic brain injury (TBI. Several reports, including our recent paper, showed that TBI brought on by a moderate level of controlled cortical impact (CCI induces immature newborn neuron death in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In contrast, the majority of mature neurons are spared. Less research has been focused on these spared neurons, which may also be injured or compromised by TBI. Here we examined the dendrite morphologies, dendritic spines, and synaptic structures using a genetic approach in combination with immunohistochemistry and Golgi staining. We found that although most of the mature granular neurons were spared following TBI at a moderate level of impact, they exhibited dramatic dendritic beading and fragmentation, decreased number of dendritic branches, and a lower density of dendritic spines, particularly the mushroom-shaped mature spines. Further studies showed that the density of synapses in the molecular layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly reduced. The electrophysiological activity of neurons was impaired as well. These results indicate that TBI not only induces cell death in immature granular neurons, it also causes significant dendritic and synaptic degeneration in pathohistology. TBI also impairs the function of the spared mature granular neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. These observations point to a potential anatomic substrate to explain, in part, the development of posttraumatic memory deficits. They also indicate that dendritic damage in the hippocampal dentate gyrus may serve as a therapeutic target following TBI.

  2. Distal axotomy enhances retrograde presynaptic excitability onto injured pyramidal neurons via trans-synaptic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, Tharkika; Larsen, Rylan S; Bigler, Rebecca L; Frost, Shawn B; Philpot, Benjamin D; Nudo, Randolph J; Taylor, Anne Marion

    2017-09-20

    Injury of CNS nerve tracts remodels circuitry through dendritic spine loss and hyper-excitability, thus influencing recovery. Due to the complexity of the CNS, a mechanistic understanding of injury-induced synaptic remodeling remains unclear. Using microfluidic chambers to separate and injure distal axons, we show that axotomy causes retrograde dendritic spine loss at directly injured pyramidal neurons followed by retrograde presynaptic hyper-excitability. These remodeling events require activity at the site of injury, axon-to-soma signaling, and transcription. Similarly, directly injured corticospinal neurons in vivo also exhibit a specific increase in spiking following axon injury. Axotomy-induced hyper-excitability of cultured neurons coincides with elimination of inhibitory inputs onto injured neurons, including those formed onto dendritic spines. Netrin-1 downregulation occurs following axon injury and exogenous netrin-1 applied after injury normalizes spine density, presynaptic excitability, and inhibitory inputs at injured neurons. Our findings show that intrinsic signaling within damaged neurons regulates synaptic remodeling and involves netrin-1 signaling.Spinal cord injury can induce synaptic reorganization and remodeling in the brain. Here the authors study how severed distal axons signal back to the cell body to induce hyperexcitability, loss of inhibition and enhanced presynaptic release through netrin-1.

  3. Subacute brain atrophy induced by radiation therapy to the malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Akio; Matsutani, Masao; Takakura, Kintomo.

    1987-01-01

    In order to analyze brain atrophy after radiation therapy to the brain tumors, we calculated a CSF-cranial volume ratio on CT scan as an index of brain atrophy, and estimated dementia-score by Hasegawa's method in 91 post-irradiated patients with malignant brain tumors. Radiation-induced brain atrophy was observed in 51 out of 91 patients (56 %) and dementia in 23 out of 47 patients (49 %). These two conditions were closely related, and observed significantly more often in aged and whole-brain-irradiated patients. As radiation-induced brain atrophy accompanied by dementia appeared 2 - 3 months after the completion of radiation therapy, it should be regarded as a subacute brain injury caused by radiation therapy. (author)

  4. Atrophy of the brachialis muscle after a displaced clavicle fracture in an Ironman triathlete: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knechtle Patrizia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clavicle fractures are frequent injuries in athletes and midshaft clavicle fractures in particular are well-known injuries in Ironman triathletes. In 2000, Auzou et al. described the mechanism leading to an isolated truncular paralysis of the musculocutaneous nerve after a shoulder trauma. It is well-known that nerve palsies can lead to an atrophy of the associated muscle if they persist for months or even longer. In this case report we describe a new case of an Ironman triathlete suffering from a persistent isolated atrophy of the brachialis muscle. The atrophy occurred following a displaced midshaft clavicle fracture acquiring while falling off his bike after hitting a duck during a competition.

  5. Synaptic Plasticity, Dementia and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaper, Stephen D; Facci, Laura; Zusso, Morena; Giusti, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment. Degenerative diseases of the human brain continue to pose one of biomedicine's most intractable problems. Research on human neurodegeneration is now moving from descriptive to mechanistic analyses. At the same time, it is increasing apparently that morphological lesions traditionally used by neuropathologists to confirm post-mortem clinical diagnosis might furnish us with an experimentally tractable handle to understand causative pathways. Consider the aging-dependent neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) which is characterised at the neuropathological level by deposits of insoluble amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in extracellular plaques and aggregated tau protein, which is found largely in the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. We now appreciate that mild cognitive impairment in early AD may be due to synaptic dysfunction caused by accumulation of non-fibrillar, oligomeric Aβ, occurring well in advance of evident widespread synaptic loss and neurodegeneration. Soluble Aβ oligomers can adversely affect synaptic structure and plasticity at extremely low concentrations, although the molecular substrates by which synaptic memory mechanisms are disrupted remain to be fully elucidated. The dendritic spine constitutes a primary locus of excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. These structures protruding from dendritic

  6. Vaginal Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Vaginal Atrophy October 2017 Download PDFs English Editors Christine ... during this time, including vaginal dryness. What is vaginal atrophy? Vaginal atrophy (also referred to as vulvovaginal ...

  7. Progressive hemifacial atrophy with ciliary body atrophy and ocular hypotony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ashwini Kini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA is a disease of unknown etiology affecting one-half of the face. Ocular involvement is uncommon. Atrophy of iris is rare, with only a few cases of partial atrophy being reported in the literature. We report a case of total atrophy of iris and ciliary body with associated ocular hypotony in a 16-year-old girl with PHA. We believe this is the first reported case of complete atrophy of iris and ciliary body in PHA. Ocular hypotony in PHA was thought to be due to intra-ocular inflammation. However in our case it appears to be secondary to severe atrophy of the ciliary body.

  8. Spatial patterns of progressive brain volume loss after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Amy; de Simoni, Sara; Bourke, Niall; Patel, Maneesh C; Scott, Gregory; Sharp, David J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury leads to significant loss of brain volume, which continues into the chronic stage. This can be sensitively measured using volumetric analysis of MRI. Here we: (i) investigated longitudinal patterns of brain atrophy; (ii) tested whether atrophy is greatest in sulcal cortical regions; and (iii) showed how atrophy could be used to power intervention trials aimed at slowing neurodegeneration. In 61 patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (mean age = 41.55 years ± 12.77) and 32 healthy controls (mean age = 34.22 years ± 10.29), cross-sectional and longitudinal (1-year follow-up) brain structure was assessed using voxel-based morphometry on T1-weighted scans. Longitudinal brain volume changes were characterized using a novel neuroimaging analysis pipeline that generates a Jacobian determinant metric, reflecting spatial warping between baseline and follow-up scans. Jacobian determinant values were summarized regionally and compared with clinical and neuropsychological measures. Patients with traumatic brain injury showed lower grey and white matter volume in multiple brain regions compared to controls at baseline. Atrophy over 1 year was pronounced following traumatic brain injury. Patients with traumatic brain injury lost a mean (± standard deviation) of 1.55% ± 2.19 of grey matter volume per year, 1.49% ± 2.20 of white matter volume or 1.51% ± 1.60 of whole brain volume. Healthy controls lost 0.55% ± 1.13 of grey matter volume and gained 0.26% ± 1.11 of white matter volume; equating to a 0.22% ± 0.83 reduction in whole brain volume. Atrophy was greatest in white matter, where the majority (84%) of regions were affected. This effect was independent of and substantially greater than that of ageing. Increased atrophy was also seen in cortical sulci compared to gyri. There was no relationship between atrophy and time since injury or age at baseline. Atrophy rates were related to memory performance at the end of the

  9. Atrophy and Primary Somatosensory Cortical Reorganization after Unilateral Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury: A Longitudinal Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sheng Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI on the changes in the central nervous system (CNS over time may depend on the dynamic interaction between the structural integrity of the spinal cord and the capacity of the brain plasticity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used in a longitudinal study on five rhesus monkeys to observe cerebral activation during upper limb somatosensory tasks in healthy animals and after unilateral thoracic SCI. The changes in the spinal cord diameters were measured, and the correlations among time after the lesion, structural changes in the spinal cord, and primary somatosensory cortex (S1 reorganization were also determined. After SCI, activation of the upper limb in S1 shifted to the region which generally dominates the lower limb, and the rostral spinal cord transverse diameter adjacent to the lesion exhibited obvious atrophy, which reflects the SCI-induced changes in the CNS. A significant correlation was found among the time after the lesion, the spinal cord atrophy, and the degree of contralateral S1 reorganization. The results indicate the structural changes in the spinal cord and the dynamic reorganization of the cerebral activation following early SCI stage, which may help to further understand the neural plasticity in the CNS.

  10. The cumulative analgesic effect of repeated electroacupuncture involves synaptic remodeling in the hippocampal CA3 region☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiuling; Liu, Tao; Chen, Shuping; Gao, Yonghui; Wang, Junying; Qiao, Lina; Liu, Junling

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the analgesic effect of repeated electroacupuncture at bilateral Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34) once a day for 14 consecutive days in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain. In addition, concomitant changes in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression and synaptic ultrastructure of neurons in the hippocampal CA3 region were examined. The thermal pain threshold (paw withdrawal latency) was increased significantly in both groups at 2 weeks after electroacupuncture intervention compared with 2 days of electroacupuncture. In ovariectomized rats with chronic constriction injury, the analgesic effect was significantly reduced. Electroacupuncture for 2 weeks significantly diminished the injury-induced increase in synaptic cleft width and thinning of the postsynaptic density, and it significantly suppressed the down-regulation of intracellular calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression in the hippocampal CA3 region. Repeated electroacupuncture intervention had a cumulative analgesic effect on injury-induced neuropathic pain reactions, and it led to synaptic remodeling of hippocampal neurons and upregulated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression in the hippocampal CA3 region. PMID:25657670

  11. Quantitative MRI study of progressive cerebral atrophy in multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konagaya, Masaaki; Matsuoka, Yukihiko; Konagaya, Yoko

    2002-01-01

    We investigated cerebral atrophy in multiple system atrophy (MSA) by quantitative analysis of MRI. The subjects were 28 patients with MSA (14 striato-nigral degeneration; SND, 14 olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy; OPCA. 106 MRI examinations were performed totally) and 85 normal persons for control. The ratios of the ventral pons to the infratentorial space in the sagittal section, the putamen, cerebrum, frontal lobe and parietal and occipital lobes to the intracranial space in the horizontal section, and the temporal lobe to the intracranial space in the coronal section were measured. In the early stage of the disease, OPCA showed significant atrophy of the ventral pons compared with SND, and conversely, SND demonstrated significantly smaller putamen than that in OPCA. According to the progression of the disease, the atrophy of these neural tissues progressed, which resulted in so significant differences between SND and OPCA. The cerebral atrophy was observed in 17 MSA patients. The atrophy of the frontal lobe was much frequent and prominent to that in the temporal lobe and parietal and occipital lobes. SND showed higher incidence of the cerebral atrophy than OPCA in the early stage of the disease. In long period follow-up cases, one case showed cerebral atrophy in earlier stage, and another case in late stage. We indicated the involvement of the cerebral hemispheres in MSA, especially the frontal lobe. (author)

  12. Quantitative MRI study of progressive cerebral atrophy in multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konagaya, Masaaki; Matsuoka, Yukihiko [Suzuka National Hospital, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Konagaya, Yoko [JR Tokai General Hospital, Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    We investigated cerebral atrophy in multiple system atrophy (MSA) by quantitative analysis of MRI. The subjects were 28 patients with MSA (14 striato-nigral degeneration; SND, 14 olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy; OPCA. 106 MRI examinations were performed totally) and 85 normal persons for control. The ratios of the ventral pons to the infratentorial space in the sagittal section, the putamen, cerebrum, frontal lobe and parietal and occipital lobes to the intracranial space in the horizontal section, and the temporal lobe to the intracranial space in the coronal section were measured. In the early stage of the disease, OPCA showed significant atrophy of the ventral pons compared with SND, and conversely, SND demonstrated significantly smaller putamen than that in OPCA. According to the progression of the disease, the atrophy of these neural tissues progressed, which resulted in so significant differences between SND and OPCA. The cerebral atrophy was observed in 17 MSA patients. The atrophy of the frontal lobe was much frequent and prominent to that in the temporal lobe and parietal and occipital lobes. SND showed higher incidence of the cerebral atrophy than OPCA in the early stage of the disease. In long period follow-up cases, one case showed cerebral atrophy in earlier stage, and another case in late stage. We indicated the involvement of the cerebral hemispheres in MSA, especially the frontal lobe. (author)

  13. Spatial patterns of progressive brain volume loss after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James H; Jolly, Amy; de Simoni, Sara; Bourke, Niall; Patel, Maneesh C; Scott, Gregory; Sharp, David J

    2018-01-04

    Traumatic brain injury leads to significant loss of brain volume, which continues into the chronic stage. This can be sensitively measured using volumetric analysis of MRI. Here we: (i) investigated longitudinal patterns of brain atrophy; (ii) tested whether atrophy is greatest in sulcal cortical regions; and (iii) showed how atrophy could be used to power intervention trials aimed at slowing neurodegeneration. In 61 patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (mean age = 41.55 years ± 12.77) and 32 healthy controls (mean age = 34.22 years ± 10.29), cross-sectional and longitudinal (1-year follow-up) brain structure was assessed using voxel-based morphometry on T1-weighted scans. Longitudinal brain volume changes were characterized using a novel neuroimaging analysis pipeline that generates a Jacobian determinant metric, reflecting spatial warping between baseline and follow-up scans. Jacobian determinant values were summarized regionally and compared with clinical and neuropsychological measures. Patients with traumatic brain injury showed lower grey and white matter volume in multiple brain regions compared to controls at baseline. Atrophy over 1 year was pronounced following traumatic brain injury. Patients with traumatic brain injury lost a mean (± standard deviation) of 1.55% ± 2.19 of grey matter volume per year, 1.49% ± 2.20 of white matter volume or 1.51% ± 1.60 of whole brain volume. Healthy controls lost 0.55% ± 1.13 of grey matter volume and gained 0.26% ± 1.11 of white matter volume; equating to a 0.22% ± 0.83 reduction in whole brain volume. Atrophy was greatest in white matter, where the majority (84%) of regions were affected. This effect was independent of and substantially greater than that of ageing. Increased atrophy was also seen in cortical sulci compared to gyri. There was no relationship between atrophy and time since injury or age at baseline. Atrophy rates were related to memory performance at the end of the follow

  14. PKA Inhibitor H89 (N-[2-p-bromocinnamylamino-ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide Attenuates Synaptic Dysfunction and Neuronal Cell Death following Ischemic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhyun Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA, which activates prosurvival signaling proteins, has been implicated in the expression of long-term potentiation and hippocampal long-term memory. It has come to light that H89 commonly known as the PKA inhibitor have diverse roles in the nervous system that are unrelated to its role as a PKA inhibitor. We have investigated the role of H89 in ischemic and reperfusion injury. First, we examined the expression of postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2, and synaptophysin in mouse brain after middle cerebral artery occlusion injury. Next, we examined the role of H89 pretreatment on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, PSD95, MAP2, and the apoptosis regulators Bcl2 and cleaved caspase-3 in cultured neuroblastoma cells exposed to hypoxia and reperfusion injury. In addition, we investigated the alteration of AKT activation in H89 pretreated neuroblastoma cells under hypoxia and reperfusion injury. The data suggest that H89 may contribute to brain recovery after ischemic stroke by regulating neuronal death and proteins related to synaptic plasticity.

  15. Neuronal cytoskeleton in synaptic plasticity and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Weeks, Phillip R; Fournier, Alyson E

    2014-04-01

    During development, dynamic changes in the axonal growth cone and dendrite are necessary for exploratory movements underlying initial axo-dendritic contact and ultimately the formation of a functional synapse. In the adult central nervous system, an impressive degree of plasticity is retained through morphological and molecular rearrangements in the pre- and post-synaptic compartments that underlie the strengthening or weakening of synaptic pathways. Plasticity is regulated by the interplay of permissive and inhibitory extracellular cues, which signal through receptors at the synapse to regulate the closure of critical periods of developmental plasticity as well as by acute changes in plasticity in response to experience and activity in the adult. The molecular underpinnings of synaptic plasticity are actively studied and it is clear that the cytoskeleton is a key substrate for many cues that affect plasticity. Many of the cues that restrict synaptic plasticity exhibit residual activity in the injured adult CNS and restrict regenerative growth by targeting the cytoskeleton. Here, we review some of the latest insights into how cytoskeletal remodeling affects neuronal plasticity and discuss how the cytoskeleton is being targeted in an effort to promote plasticity and repair following traumatic injury in the central nervous system. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  16. Synaptic Cell Adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Missler, Markus; Südhof, Thomas C.; Biederer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Chemical synapses are asymmetric intercellular junctions that mediate synaptic transmission. Synaptic junctions are organized by trans-synaptic cell adhesion molecules bridging the synaptic cleft. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules not only connect pre- and postsynaptic compartments, but also mediate trans-synaptic recognition and signaling processes that are essential for the establishment, specification, and plasticity of synapses. A growing number of synaptic cell adhesion molecules that inc...

  17. Brain atrophy during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamada, Kenji; Yamada, Susumu; Ono, Shuichi; Takeda, Shunpei; Hatazawa, Jun; Ito, Masatoshi; Kubota, Kazuo

    1985-01-01

    Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34-35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34-35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multi-infarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34-35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extent of brain atrophy (20 - 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was the decrease in the cerebral blood flow. We have classified brain atrophy into sulcal and cisternal enlargement type (type I), ventricular enlargement type (type II) and mixed type (type III) according to the clinical study using NMR-CT. Brain atrophy of type I progresses significantly in almost all of the geriatric disorders. This type of brain atrophy progresses significantly in heavy smokers and drinkers. Therefore this type of brain atrophy might be caused by the decline in the blood flow in anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Brain atrophy of type II was caused by the disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid circulation after cerebral bleeding and subarachnoid bleeding. Brain atrophy of type III was seen in vascular dementia or multi-infarct dementia which was caused by loss of brain matter after multiple infarction, and was seen also in dementia of Alzheimer type in which degeneration of nerve cells results in brain atrophy. NMR-CT can easily detect small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy. (J.P.N.)

  18. Head injury in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Makoto; Mori, Nobuhiko; Yokosuka, Reiko; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Imanaga, Hirohisa

    1981-01-01

    Findings of computerized tomography (CT) in 183 cases of head injury in children were investigated with special reference to CT findings of mild head injury. As was expected, CT findings of mild head injury fell within the normal range, in almost all cases. However, abnormal findings were noticed in 4 out of 34 cases (12%) in acute stage and 7 out of 76 cases (9%) in chronic stage. They were 3 cases of localized low density area in acute stage and 6 cases of mild cerebral atrophy in chronic stage, etc. There were some cases of mild head injury in which CT findings were normal while EEG examination revealed abnormality. Also in some cases, x-ray study demonstrated linear skull fracture which CT failed to show. These conventional techniques could be still remained as useful adjunct aid in diagnosis of head injury. CT findings of cases of cerebral contusion in their acute stage were divided as follows; normal, low density, small ventricle and ventricular and/or cisternal hemorrhage, frequency of incidence being 38, 17, 22, 11% respectively. These findings were invariably converted to cerebral atrophy from 10 days to 2 months after the impacts. In the cases with intracranial hematoma revealed by CT, only 32% of them showed clinical signs of Araki's type IV in their acute stage and 63% of them showed no neurological defects, that is Araki's type I and II. A case of extreme diffuse cerebral atrophy which followed acute subdural hematoma caused by tear of bridging veins without cortical contusion was presented. (author)

  19. Multifidus Muscle Changes After Back Injury Are Characterized by Structural Remodeling of Muscle, Adipose and Connective Tissue, but Not Muscle Atrophy: Molecular and Morphological Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Paul W; James, Gregory; Blomster, Linda; Hall, Leanne; Schmid, Annina; Shu, Cindy; Little, Chris; Melrose, James

    2015-07-15

    Longitudinal case-controlled animal study. To investigate putative cellular mechanisms to explain structural changes in muscle and adipose and connective tissues of the back muscles after intervertebral disc (IVD) injury. Structural back muscle changes are ubiquitous with back pain/injury and considered relevant for outcome, but their exact nature, time course, and cellular mechanisms remain elusive. We used an animal model that produces phenotypic back muscle changes after IVD injury to study these issues at the cellular/molecular level. Multifidus muscle was harvested from both sides of the spine at L1-L2 and L3-L4 IVDs in 27 castrated male sheep at 3 (n = 10) or 6 (n = 17) months after a surgical anterolateral IVD injury at both levels. Ten control sheep underwent no surgery (3 mo, n = 4; 6 mo, n = 6). Tissue was harvested at L4 for histological analysis of cross-sectional area of muscle and adipose and connective tissue (whole muscle), plus immunohistochemistry to identify proportion and cross-sectional area of individual muscle fiber types in the deepest fascicle. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction measured gene expression of typical cytokines/signaling molecules at L2. Contrary to predictions, there was no multifidus muscle atrophy (whole muscle or individual fiber). There was increased adipose and connective tissue (fibrotic proliferation) cross-sectional area and slow-to-fast muscle fiber transition at 6 but not 3 months. Within the multifidus muscle, increases in the expression of several cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β) and molecules that signal trophic/atrophic processes for the 3 tissue types (e.g., growth factor pathway [IGF-1, PI3k, Akt1, mTOR], potent tissue modifiers [calcineurin, PCG-1α, and myostatin]) were present. This study provides cellular evidence that refutes the presence of multifidus muscle atrophy accompanying IVD degeneration at this intermediate time point. Instead, adipose/connective tissue increased in

  20. Climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synaptic pathology in tremor and cerebellar degenerative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Wang, Jie; Sims, Peter A.; Pan, Ming-Kai; Liou, Jyun-you; Lee, Danielle; Tate, William J.; Kelly, Geoffrey C.; Louis, Elan D.; Faust, Phyllis L.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in climbing fiber-Purkinje cell (CF-PC) synaptic connections have been found in the essential tremor (ET) cerebellum, and these changes are correlated with tremor severity. Whether these postmortem changes are specific to ET remains to be investigated. We assessed CF-PC synaptic pathology in the postmortem cerebellum across a range of degenerative movement disorders [10 Parkinson’s disease (PD) cases, 10 multiple system atrophy (MSA) cases, 10 spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) cases, and 20 ET cases] and 25 controls. We observed differences in terms of CF pathological features across these disorders. Specifically, PD cases and ET cases both had more CFs extending into the parallel fiber (PF) territory, but ET cases had more complex branching and increased length of CFs in the PF territory along with decreased CF synaptic density compared to PD cases. MSA cases and SCA1 cases had the most severely reduced CF synaptic density and a marked paucity of CFs extending into the PF territory. Furthermore, CFs in a subset of MSA cases formed collateral branches parallel to the PC layer, a feature not seen in other diagnostic groups. Using unsupervised cluster analysis, the cases and controls could all be categorized into four clusters based on the CF pathology and features of PC pathology, including counts of PCs and their axonal torpedoes. ET cases and PD cases co-segregated into two clusters, whereas SCA1 cases and MSA cases formed another cluster, separate from the control cluster. Interestingly, the presence of resting tremor seemed to be the clinical feature that separated the cases into the two ET-PD clusters. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that these degenerative movement disorders seem to differ with respect to the pattern of CF synaptic pathology they exhibit. It remains to be determined how these differences contribute to the clinical presentations of these diseases. PMID:27704282

  1. Age-dependent modulation of synaptic plasticity and insulin mimetic effect of lipoic acid on a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Sancheti

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that entails impairments of memory, thinking and behavior and culminates into brain atrophy. Impaired glucose uptake (accumulating into energy deficits and synaptic plasticity have been shown to be affected in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. This study examines the ability of lipoic acid to increase brain glucose uptake and lead to improvements in synaptic plasticity on a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD that shows progression of pathology as a function of age; two age groups: 6 months (young and 12 months (old were used in this study. 3xTg-AD mice fed 0.23% w/v lipoic acid in drinking water for 4 weeks showed an insulin mimetic effect that consisted of increased brain glucose uptake, activation of the insulin receptor substrate and of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Lipoic acid supplementation led to important changes in synaptic function as shown by increased input/output (I/O and long term potentiation (LTP (measured by electrophysiology. Lipoic acid was more effective in stimulating an insulin-like effect and reversing the impaired synaptic plasticity in the old mice, wherein the impairment of insulin signaling and synaptic plasticity was more pronounced than those in young mice.

  2. Synaptic activity and bioenergy homeostasis: implications in brain trauma and neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha eKhatri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Powered by glucose metabolism, the brain is the most energy-demanding organ in our body, accounting for a quarter of total oxygen consumption. Adequate ATP production and regulation of the metabolic processes are essential for the maintenance of synaptic transmission and neuronal function. Glutamatergic synaptic activity utilizes the largest portion of bioenergy for synaptic events including neurotransmitter synthesis, vesicle recycling, and most importantly the postsynaptic activities leading to channel activation and rebalancing of ionic gradients. Bioenergy homeostasis is coupled with synaptic function via activities of the sodium pumps, glutamate transporters, glucose transport and mitochondria translocation. Energy insufficiency will be sensed by the AMP-activated dependent protein kinase (AMPK, a master metabolic regulator that stimulates the catalytic process to enhance energy production. A decline in energy supply and a disruption in bioenergy homeostasis play a critical role in multiple neuropathological conditions including ischemia, stroke and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease and traumatic brain injuries.

  3. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury.

  4. Cerebral perfusion changes in traumatic diffuse brain injury. IMP SPECT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Onuma, Takehide.

    1997-01-01

    Diffuse brain injury (DBI) is characterized by axonal degeneration and neuronal damage which cause diffuse brain atrophy. We have investigated the time course of abnormalities in cerebral perfusion distribution in cases of DBI by using Iodine-123-IMP SPECT, and the relationship to the appearance of diffuse brain atrophy. SPECT scans were performed on eight patients with diffuse brain injury due to closed cranial trauma in acute and chronic stages. All patients showed abnormalities in cerebral perfusion with decreases in perfusion, even in non-depicted regions on MRI, and the affected areas varied throughout the period of observation. Diffuse brain atrophy appeared in all patients. In some patients, diffuse brain atrophy was observed at or just after the time when the maximum number of lesions on SPECT were seen. The abnormalities in cerebral perfusion in cases of DBI might therefore be related to axonal degeneration and neuronal damage which causes diffuse brain atrophy. (author)

  5. Tuning synaptic transmission in the hippocampus by stress: The CRH system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncai eChen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To enhance survival, an organism needs to remember--and learn from--threatening or stressful events. This fact necessitates the presence of mechanisms by which stress can influence synaptic transmission in brain regions, such as hippocampus, that subserve learning and memory. A major focus of this series of monographs is on the role and actions of adrenal-derived hormones, corticosteroids, and of brain-derived neurotransmitters, on synaptic function in the stressed hippocampus. Here we focus on the contribution of hippocampus-intrinsic, stress-activated CRH-CRH receptor signaling to the function and structure of hippocampal synapses. CRH is expressed in interneurons of adult hippocampus, and is released from axon terminals during stress. The peptide exerts time- and dose-dependent effects on learning and memory via modulation of synaptic function and plasticity. Whereas physiological levels of CRH, acting over seconds to minutes, augment memory processes, exposure to presumed severe-stress levels of the peptide results in spine retraction and loss of synapses over more protracted time-frames. Loss of dendritic spines (and hence of synapses takes place through actin cytoskeleton collapse downstream of CRHR1 receptors that reside within excitatory synapses on spine heads. Chronic exposure to stress levels of CRH may promote dying-back (atrophy of spine-carrying dendrites. Thus, the acute effects of CRH may contribute to stress-induced adaptive mechanisms, whereas chronic or excessive exposure to the peptide may promote learning problems and premature cognitive decline.

  6. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Increases Synaptic Protein Levels via the MAPK/Erk Signaling Pathway and Nrf2/Trx Axis Following the Transplantation of Neural Stem Cells in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yu; Wang, Yuzi; Zhu, Jigao; Chu, Haiying; Kong, Li; Yin, Liangwei; Ma, Haiying

    2017-11-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in promoting the growth, differentiation, survival and synaptic stability of neurons. Presently, the transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is known to induce neural repair to some extent after injury or disease. In this study, to investigate whether NSCs genetically modified to encode the BDNF gene (BDNF/NSCs) would further enhance synaptogenesis, BDNF/NSCs or naive NSCs were directly engrafted into lesions in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Immunohistochemistry, western blotting and RT-PCR were performed to detect synaptic proteins, BDNF-TrkB and its downstream signaling pathways, at 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after transplantation. Our results showed that BDNF significantly increased the expression levels of the TrkB receptor gene and the phosphorylation of the TrkB protein in the lesions. The expression levels of Ras, phosphorylated Erk1/2 and postsynaptic density protein-95 were elevated in the BDNF/NSCs-transplanted groups compared with those in the NSCs-transplanted groups throughout the experimental period. Moreover, the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2/Thioredoxin (Nrf2/Trx) axis, which is a specific therapeutic target for the treatment of injury or cell death, was upregulated by BDNF overexpression. Therefore, we determined that the increased synaptic proteins level implicated in synaptogenesis might be associated with the activation of the MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathway and the upregulation of the antioxidant agent Trx modified by BDNF-TrkB following the BDNF/NSCs transplantation after TBI.

  7. Synaptic damage underlies EEG abnormalities in postanoxic encephalopathy: A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijter, B J; Hofmeijer, J; Meijer, H G E; van Putten, M J A M

    2017-09-01

    In postanoxic coma, EEG patterns indicate the severity of encephalopathy and typically evolve in time. We aim to improve the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these EEG abnormalities. We used a mean field model comprising excitatory and inhibitory neurons, local synaptic connections, and input from thalamic afferents. Anoxic damage is modeled as aggravated short-term synaptic depression, with gradual recovery over many hours. Additionally, excitatory neurotransmission is potentiated, scaling with the severity of anoxic encephalopathy. Simulations were compared with continuous EEG recordings of 155 comatose patients after cardiac arrest. The simulations agree well with six common categories of EEG rhythms in postanoxic encephalopathy, including typical transitions in time. Plausible results were only obtained if excitatory synapses were more severely affected by short-term synaptic depression than inhibitory synapses. In postanoxic encephalopathy, the evolution of EEG patterns presumably results from gradual improvement of complete synaptic failure, where excitatory synapses are more severely affected than inhibitory synapses. The range of EEG patterns depends on the excitation-inhibition imbalance, probably resulting from long-term potentiation of excitatory neurotransmission. Our study is the first to relate microscopic synaptic dynamics in anoxic brain injury to both typical EEG observations and their evolution in time. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain atrophy during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Takeda, Shumpei; Hatazawa, Jun

    1985-01-01

    Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT and following results were obtained. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34 -- 35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34 -- 35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multiinfarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34 -- 35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extents of brain atrophy (20 -- 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Some aged subjects had little or no atrophy of their brains, as seen in young subjects, and others had markedly shrunken brains associated with senility. From these results there must be pathological factors promoting brain atrophy with a great individual difference. We have studied the relation of intelligence to brain volume, and have ascertained that progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was decrease in the cerebral blood flow. MNR-CT can easily detected small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy, while X-CT can not. Therefore NMR-CT is very useful for detection of subtle changes in the brain. (J.P.N.)

  9. Computed tomographic myelography characteristics of spinal cord atrophy in juvenile muscular atrophy of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabuki, Norio; Mitomo, Masanori; Miura, Takashi; Hashimoto, Tsutomu; Kawai, Ryuji; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1991-01-01

    Although atrophy of the lower cervical and upper thoracic cord in juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper extremity has been reported, the atrophic patterns of the cord, especially in the transverse section, have not been studied extensively. The aim of this study is to clarify the atrophic patterns of the cord by CT myelography (CTM) and to discuss the pathogenesis of cord atrophy. Sixteen patients with juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper extremity were examined by CTM. Atrophy of the lower cervical and upper thoracic cord, consistent with the segmental weakness, was seen in all patients. Flattening of the ventral convexity was a characteristic atrophic pattern of the cord. Bilateral cord atrophy was commonly observed; 8/12 patients with unilateral clinical form and all 4 patients with bilateral form showed bilateral cord atrophy with dominance on the clinical side. There was no correlation between the degree of cord atrophy and duration of symptoms. Flattening of the ventral convexity, associated with purely motor disturbances, reflects selective atrophy of the anterior horns in the cord, which is attributable to chronic ischemia. Cord atrophy proved to precede clinical manifestations. The characteristic atrophy of the cord provides useful information to confirm the diagnosis without long-term observation. (author). 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Effect of rocuronium on the level and mode of pre-synaptic acetylcholine release by facial and somatic nerves, and changes following facial nerve injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jinghua; Xu, Jing; Xing, Yian; Chen, Lianhua; Li, Shitong

    2015-01-01

    Muscles innervated by the facial nerve show differential sensitivities to muscle relaxants than muscles innervated by somatic nerves. The evoked electromyography (EEMG) response is also proportionally reduced after facial nerve injury. This forms the theoretical basis for proper utilization of muscle relaxants to balance EEMG monitoring and immobility under general anesthesia. (1) To observe the relationships between the level and mode of acetylcholine (ACh) release and the duration of facial nerve injury, and the influence of rocuronium in an in vitro rabbit model. (2) To explore the pre-synaptic mechanisms of discrepant responses to a muscle relaxant. Quantal and non-quantal ACh release were measured by using intracellular microelectrode recording in the orbicularis oris 1 to 42 days after graded facial nerve injury and in the gastrocnemius with/without rocuronium. Quantal ACh release was significantly decreased by rocuronium in the orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius, but significantly more so in gastrocnemius. Quantal release was reduced after facial nerve injury, which was significantly correlated with the severity of nerve injury in the absence but not in the presence of rocuronium. Non-quantal ACh release was reduced after facial nerve injury, with many relationships observed depending on the extent of the injury. The extent of inhibition of non-quantal release by rocuronium correlated with the grade of facial nerve injury. These findings may explain why EEMG amplitude might be diminished after acute facial nerve injury but relatively preserved after chronic injury and differential responses in sensitivity to rocuronium.

  11. Lipomatous muscle atrophy caused by irradiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhomberg, W.; Hergan, K.

    1990-01-01

    As compared to other organs and tissues liable to sustain delayed injury from radiotherapy, the musculature seems to be a hard-wearing, radiation-resistant organ. Apart from the possibility of inducing Myodegeneratio cordis, muscles are merely threatened, as far as is known today, by possible fibrosis in the surrounding area. Certainly, extremely high doses of more than 100 Gy occasionally may trigger necrosis and atrophies in tissues. The article reports on a patient suffering from carcinoma of the bladder who developed muscle and tendon degeneration following telecobalt irradiation after a latency period of eight years, forcing him ultimately to quit work. (orig.) [de

  12. Childhood optic atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, A V; Repka, M X

    2000-02-01

    To determine the causes, and relative incidence of the common causes, of optic nerve atrophy in children under 10 years old and to compare prevalent aetiologies with those given in previous studies. The Wilmer Information System database was searched to identify all children, diagnosed between 1987 and 1997 with optic atrophy, who were under 10 years old at diagnosis. The medical records of these children were reviewed retrospectively A total of 272 children were identified, Complications from premature birth were the most frequent aetiology of optic atrophy (n = 44, 16%); 68% of these premature infants having a history of intraventricular haemorrhage. Tumour was the second most common aetiology (n = 40, 15%). The most frequent tumour was pilocytic astrocytoma (50%), followed by craniopharyngioma (17%). Hydrocephalus, unrelated to tumour, was the third most common aetiology (n = 26, 10%). In 114 cases (42%), the cause of optic atrophy became manifest in the perinatal period and/or could be attributed to adverse events in utero. A cause was not determined in 4% of cases. In the last decade, prematurity and hydrocephalus appear to have become important causes of optic atrophy in childhood. This trend is probably the result of improved survival of infants with extremely low birth weight.

  13. Modulation of Synaptic Plasticity by Exercise Training as a Basis for Ischemic Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jingjing; Yang, Xiaosu

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, rehabilitation of ischemic stroke draws more and more attention in the world, and has been linked to changes of synaptic plasticity. Exercise training improves motor function of ischemia as well as cognition which is associated with formation of learning and memory. The molecular basis of learning and memory might be synaptic plasticity. Research has therefore been conducted in an attempt to relate effects of exercise training to neuroprotection and neurogenesis adjacent to the ischemic injury brain. The present paper reviews the current literature addressing this question and discusses the possible mechanisms involved in modulation of synaptic plasticity by exercise training. This review shows the pathological process of synaptic dysfunction in ischemic roughly and then discusses the effects of exercise training on scaffold proteins and regulatory protein expression. The expression of scaffold proteins generally increased after training, but the effects on regulatory proteins were mixed. Moreover, the compositions of postsynaptic receptors were changed and the strength of synaptic transmission was enhanced after training. Finally, the recovery of cognition is critically associated with synaptic remodeling in an injured brain, and the remodeling occurs through a number of local regulations including mRNA translation, remodeling of cytoskeleton, and receptor trafficking into and out of the synapse. We do provide a comprehensive knowledge of synaptic plasticity enhancement obtained by exercise training in this review.

  14. Compensating for Thalamocortical Synaptic Loss in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal eAbuhassan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a thalamocortical network model which oscillates within the alpha frequency band (8-13 Hz as recorded in the wakeful relaxed state with closed eyes to study the neural causes of abnormal oscillatory activity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Incorporated within the model are various types of cortical excitatory and inhibitory neurons, recurrently connected to thalamic and reticular thalamic regions with the ratios and distances derived from the mammalian thalamocortical system. The model is utilized to study the impacts of four types of connectivity loss on the model’s spectral dynamics. The study focuses on investigating degeneration of corticocortical, thalamocortical, corticothalamic and corticoreticular couplings, with an emphasis on the influence of each modelled case on the spectral output of the model. Synaptic compensation has been included in each model to examine the interplay between synaptic deletion and compensation mechanisms, and the oscillatory activity of the network. The results of power spectra and event related desynchronisation/synchronisation (ERD/S analyses show that the dynamics of the thalamic and cortical oscillations are significantly influenced by corticocortical synaptic loss. Interestingly, the patterns of changes in thalamic spectral activity are correlated with those in the cortical model. Similarly, the thalamic oscillatory activity is diminished after partial corticothalamic denervation. The results suggest that thalamic atrophy is a secondary pathology to cortical shrinkage in Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, this study finds that the inhibition from neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus (RTN to thalamic relay (TCR neurons plays a key role in regulating thalamic oscillations; disinhibition disrupts thalamic oscillatory activity even though TCR neurons are more depolarized after being released from RTN inhibition. This study provides information that can be explored experimentally to

  15. Mechanisms of glycine release, which build up synaptic and extrasynaptic glycine levels: the role of synaptic and non-synaptic glycine transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsing, Laszlo G; Matyus, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Glycine is an amino acid neurotransmitter that is involved in both inhibitory and excitatory neurochemical transmission in the central nervous system. The role of glycine in excitatory neurotransmission is related to its coagonist action at glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. The glycine levels in the synaptic cleft rise many times higher during synaptic activation assuring that glycine spills over into the extrasynaptic space. Another possible origin of extrasynaptic glycine is the efflux of glycine occurring from astrocytes associated with glutamatergic synapses. The release of glycine from neuronal or glial origins exhibits several differences compared to that of biogenic amines or other amino acid neurotransmitters. These differences appear in an external Ca(2+)- and temperature-dependent manner, conferring unique characteristics on glycine as a neurotransmitter. Glycine transporter type-1 at synapses may exhibit neural and glial forms and plays a role in controlling synaptic glycine levels and the spill over rate of glycine from the synaptic cleft into the extrasynaptic biophase. Non-synaptic glycine transporter type-1 regulates extrasynaptic glycine concentrations, either increasing or decreasing them depending on the reverse or normal mode operation of the carrier molecule. While we can, at best, only estimate synaptic glycine levels at rest and during synaptic activation, glycine concentrations are readily measurable via brain microdialysis technique applied in the extrasynaptic space. The non-synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor may obtain glycine for activation following its spill over from highly active synapses or from its release mediated by the reverse operation of non-synaptic glycine transporter-1. The sensitivity of non-synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors to glutamate and glycine is many times higher than that of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors making the former type of receptor the primary target for drug action. Synaptic

  16. Boosted Regeneration and Reduced Denervated Muscle Atrophy by NeuroHeal in a Pre-clinical Model of Lumbar Root Avulsion with Delayed Reimplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo-Guitart, David; Forés, Joaquim; Navarro, Xavier; Casas, Caty

    2017-09-20

    The "gold standard" treatment of patients with spinal root injuries consists of delayed surgical reconnection of nerves. The sooner, the better, but problems such as injury-induced motor neuronal death and muscle atrophy due to long-term denervation mean that normal movement is not restored. Herein we describe a preclinical model of root avulsion with delayed reimplantation of lumbar roots that was used to establish a new adjuvant pharmacological treatment. Chronic treatment (up to 6 months) with NeuroHeal, a new combination drug therapy identified using a systems biology approach, exerted long-lasting neuroprotection, reduced gliosis and matrix proteoglycan content, accelerated nerve regeneration by activating the AKT pathway, promoted the formation of functional neuromuscular junctions, and reduced denervation-induced muscular atrophy. Thus, NeuroHeal is a promising treatment for spinal nerve root injuries and axonal regeneration after trauma.

  17. Computed tomography in alcoholic cerebellar atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubek, A; Lee, K [Hvidovre Hospital Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology; Municipal Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Neurology)

    1979-01-01

    This is a controlled CT evaluation of the infratentorial region in 41 male alcoholics under age 35. Criteria for the presence of atrophy are outlined. Twelve patients had cerebellar atrophy. Vermian atrophy was present in all. Atrophy of the cerebellar hemispheres was demonstrated in eight patients as well. The results are statistically significant when compared to an age-matched group of 40 non-alcoholic males among whom two cases of vermian atrophy were found. There were clinical signs of alcoholic cerebellar atrophy in one patient only. The disparity between the clinical and the radiological data are discussed with reference to previous pneumoencephalographic findings. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO.

  18. Consensus Definition for Atrophy Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration on OCT: Classification of Atrophy Report 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadda, Srinivas R; Guymer, Robyn; Holz, Frank G; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Curcio, Christine A; Bird, Alan C; Blodi, Barbara A; Bottoni, Ferdinando; Chakravarthy, Usha; Chew, Emily Y; Csaky, Karl; Danis, Ronald P; Fleckenstein, Monika; Freund, K Bailey; Grunwald, Juan; Hoyng, Carel B; Jaffe, Glenn J; Liakopoulos, Sandra; Monés, Jordi M; Pauleikhoff, Daniel; Rosenfeld, Philip J; Sarraf, David; Spaide, Richard F; Tadayoni, Ramin; Tufail, Adnan; Wolf, Sebastian; Staurenghi, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    To develop consensus terminology and criteria for defining atrophy based on OCT findings in the setting of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Consensus meeting. Panel of retina specialists, image reading center experts, retinal histologists, and optics engineers. As part of the Classification of Atrophy Meetings (CAM) program, an international group of experts surveyed the existing literature, performed a masked analysis of longitudinal multimodal imaging for a series of eyes with AMD, and reviewed the results of this analysis to define areas of agreement and disagreement. Through consensus discussions at 3 meetings over 12 months, a classification system based on OCT was proposed for atrophy secondary to AMD. Specific criteria were defined to establish the presence of atrophy. A consensus classification system for atrophy and OCT-based criteria to identify atrophy. OCT was proposed as the reference standard or base imaging method to diagnose and stage atrophy. Other methods, including fundus autofluorescence, near-infrared reflectance, and color imaging, provided complementary and confirmatory information. Recognizing that photoreceptor atrophy can occur without retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy and that atrophy can undergo an evolution of different stages, 4 terms and histologic candidates were proposed: complete RPE and outer retinal atrophy (cRORA), incomplete RPE and outer retinal atrophy, complete outer retinal atrophy, and incomplete outer retinal atrophy. Specific OCT criteria to diagnose cRORA were proposed: (1) a region of hypertransmission of at least 250 μm in diameter, (2) a zone of attenuation or disruption of the RPE of at least 250 μm in diameter, (3) evidence of overlying photoreceptor degeneration, and (4) absence of scrolled RPE or other signs of an RPE tear. A classification system and criteria for OCT-defined atrophy in the setting of AMD has been proposed based on an international consensus. This classification is a more complete

  19. Muscular atrophy in diabetic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Gadeberg, P C; Brock, B

    1997-01-01

    Diabetic patients with polyneuropathy develop motor dysfunction. To establish whether motor dysfunction is associated with muscular atrophy the ankle dorsal and plantar flexors of the non-dominant leg were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging in 8 patients with symptomatic neuropathy, in 8 non...... confirmed that the atrophy predominated distally. We conclude that muscular atrophy underlies motor weakness at the ankle in diabetic patients with polyneuropathy and that the atrophy is most pronounced in distal muscles of the lower leg indicating that a length dependent neuropathic process explains...

  20. Amyloid-β Homeostasis Bridges Inflammation, Synaptic Plasticity Deficits and Cognitive Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampanoni Bassi, Mario; Garofalo, Sara; Marfia, Girolama A; Gilio, Luana; Simonelli, Ilaria; Finardi, Annamaria; Furlan, Roberto; Sancesario, Giulia M; Di Giandomenico, Jonny; Storto, Marianna; Mori, Francesco; Centonze, Diego; Iezzi, Ennio

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are frequently observed in multiple sclerosis (MS), mainly involving processing speed and episodic memory. Both demyelination and gray matter atrophy can contribute to cognitive deficits in MS. In recent years, neuroinflammation is emerging as a new factor influencing clinical course in MS. Inflammatory cytokines induce synaptic dysfunction in MS. Synaptic plasticity occurring within hippocampal structures is considered as one of the basic physiological mechanisms of learning and memory. In experimental models of MS, hippocampal plasticity is profoundly altered by proinflammatory cytokines. Although mechanisms of inflammation-induced hippocampal pathology in MS are not completely understood, alteration of Amyloid-β (Aβ) metabolism is emerging as a key factor linking together inflammation, synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration in different neurological diseases. We explored the correlation between concentrations of Aβ 1-42 and the levels of some proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL1-ra, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interferon γ (IFNγ)) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 103 remitting MS patients. CSF levels of Aβ 1-42 were negatively correlated with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 and positively correlated with the anti-inflammatory molecules IL-10 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). Other correlations, although noticeable, were either borderline or not significant. Our data show that an imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines may lead to altered Aβ homeostasis, representing a key factor linking together inflammation, synaptic plasticity and cognitive dysfunction in MS. This could be relevant to identify novel therapeutic approaches to hinder the progression of cognitive dysfunction in MS.

  1. Amyloid-β Homeostasis Bridges Inflammation, Synaptic Plasticity Deficits and Cognitive Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Stampanoni Bassi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are frequently observed in multiple sclerosis (MS, mainly involving processing speed and episodic memory. Both demyelination and gray matter atrophy can contribute to cognitive deficits in MS. In recent years, neuroinflammation is emerging as a new factor influencing clinical course in MS. Inflammatory cytokines induce synaptic dysfunction in MS. Synaptic plasticity occurring within hippocampal structures is considered as one of the basic physiological mechanisms of learning and memory. In experimental models of MS, hippocampal plasticity is profoundly altered by proinflammatory cytokines. Although mechanisms of inflammation-induced hippocampal pathology in MS are not completely understood, alteration of Amyloid-β (Aβ metabolism is emerging as a key factor linking together inflammation, synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration in different neurological diseases. We explored the correlation between concentrations of Aβ1–42 and the levels of some proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL1-ra, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, interferon γ (IFNγ in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 103 remitting MS patients. CSF levels of Aβ1–42 were negatively correlated with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 and positively correlated with the anti-inflammatory molecules IL-10 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra. Other correlations, although noticeable, were either borderline or not significant. Our data show that an imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines may lead to altered Aβ homeostasis, representing a key factor linking together inflammation, synaptic plasticity and cognitive dysfunction in MS. This could be relevant to identify novel therapeutic approaches to hinder the progression of cognitive dysfunction in MS.

  2. Comparison between MRI and 3D-SSP in olivopontocerebellar atrophy and cortical cerebellar atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Hirotoshi; Kanda, Fumio; Hosaka, Kayo; Fujii, Masahiko; Chihara, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    We compared images of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) of SPECT with MRI images in spinocerebellar degeneration patients (13 olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and 7 cortical cerebellar atrophy (CCA)). We analyzed a brain blood flow pattern with an image of statistics by 123 I-IMP SPECT. In OPCA patients, a blood flow reduction was more remarkable in 3D-SSP than a degree of cerebellar atrophy in MRI. In patients with CCA, the cerebellum showed little blood flow reduction in 3D-SSP despite of apparent atrophy in MRI. Simultaneous examination both MRI and 3D-SSP might be useful for differential diagnosis of spinocerebellar degenerations. (author)

  3. Metabolic Turnover of Synaptic Proteins: Kinetics, Interdependencies and Implications for Synaptic Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laurie D.; Zuchman, Rina; Sorokina, Oksana; Müller, Anke; Dieterich, Daniela C.; Armstrong, J. Douglas; Ziv, Tamar; Ziv, Noam E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical synapses contain multitudes of proteins, which in common with all proteins, have finite lifetimes and therefore need to be continuously replaced. Given the huge numbers of synaptic connections typical neurons form, the demand to maintain the protein contents of these connections might be expected to place considerable metabolic demands on each neuron. Moreover, synaptic proteostasis might differ according to distance from global protein synthesis sites, the availability of distributed protein synthesis facilities, trafficking rates and synaptic protein dynamics. To date, the turnover kinetics of synaptic proteins have not been studied or analyzed systematically, and thus metabolic demands or the aforementioned relationships remain largely unknown. In the current study we used dynamic Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC), mass spectrometry (MS), Fluorescent Non–Canonical Amino acid Tagging (FUNCAT), quantitative immunohistochemistry and bioinformatics to systematically measure the metabolic half-lives of hundreds of synaptic proteins, examine how these depend on their pre/postsynaptic affiliation or their association with particular molecular complexes, and assess the metabolic load of synaptic proteostasis. We found that nearly all synaptic proteins identified here exhibited half-lifetimes in the range of 2–5 days. Unexpectedly, metabolic turnover rates were not significantly different for presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins, or for proteins for which mRNAs are consistently found in dendrites. Some functionally or structurally related proteins exhibited very similar turnover rates, indicating that their biogenesis and degradation might be coupled, a possibility further supported by bioinformatics-based analyses. The relatively low turnover rates measured here (∼0.7% of synaptic protein content per hour) are in good agreement with imaging-based studies of synaptic protein trafficking, yet indicate that the metabolic load

  4. Isolation of Synaptosomes, Synaptic Plasma Membranes, and Synaptic Junctional Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Mary L; Jiang, Lei; Michaelis, Elias K

    2017-01-01

    Isolation of synaptic nerve terminals or synaptosomes provides an opportunity to study the process of neurotransmission at many levels and with a variety of approaches. For example, structural features of the synaptic terminals and the organelles within them, such as synaptic vesicles and mitochondria, have been elucidated with electron microscopy. The postsynaptic membranes are joined to the presynaptic "active zone" of transmitter release through cell adhesion molecules and remain attached throughout the isolation of synaptosomes. These "post synaptic densities" or "PSDs" contain the receptors for the transmitters released from the nerve terminals and can easily be seen with electron microscopy. Biochemical and cell biological studies with synaptosomes have revealed which proteins and lipids are most actively involved in synaptic release of neurotransmitters. The functional properties of the nerve terminals, such as responses to depolarization and the uptake or release of signaling molecules, have also been characterized through the use of fluorescent dyes, tagged transmitters, and transporter substrates. In addition, isolated synaptosomes can serve as the starting material for the isolation of relatively pure synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) that are devoid of organelles from the internal environment of the nerve terminal, such as mitochondria and synaptic vesicles. The isolated SPMs can reseal and form vesicular structures in which transport of ions such as sodium and calcium, as well as solutes such as neurotransmitters can be studied. The PSDs also remain associated with the presynaptic membranes during isolation of SPM fractions, making it possible to isolate the synaptic junctional complexes (SJCs) devoid of the rest of the plasma membranes of the nerve terminals and postsynaptic membrane components. Isolated SJCs can be used to identify the proteins that constitute this highly specialized region of neurons. In this chapter, we describe the steps involved

  5. Confocal Synaptology: Synaptic Rearrangements in Neurodegenerative Disorders and upon Nervous System Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Vulovic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is a notable exception to the rule that the cell is the structural and functional unit of tissue systems and organs. The functional unit of the nervous system is the synapse, the contact between two nerve cells. As such, synapses are the foci of investigations of nervous system organization and function, as well as a potential readout for the progression of various disorders of the nervous system. In the past decade the development of antibodies specific to presynaptic terminals has enabled us to assess, at the optical, laser scanning microscopy level, these subcellular structures, and has provided a simple method for the quantification of various synapses. Indeed, excitatory (glutamatergic and inhibitory synapses can be visualized using antibodies against the respective vesicular transporters, and choline-acetyl transferase (ChAT immunoreactivity identifies cholinergic synapses throughout the central nervous system. Here we review the results of several studies in which these methods were used to estimate synaptic numbers as the structural equivalent of functional outcome measures in spinal cord and femoral nerve injuries, as well as in genetic mouse models of neurodegeneration, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The results implicate disease- and brain region-specific changes in specific types of synapses, which correlate well with the degree of functional deficit caused by the disease process. Additionally, results are reproducible between various studies and experimental paradigms, supporting the reliability of the method. To conclude, this quantitative approach enables fast and reliable estimation of the degree of the progression of neurodegenerative changes and can be used as a parameter of recovery in experimental models.

  6. Cerebellar atrophy in epileptic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneva, N.

    1991-01-01

    52 patients with epileptic seizures of different form, frequency and duration who had received long term treatment with anticonvulsive drugs were examined on Siretom 2000, a brain scanner of II generation. 6 standard incisions were made in all patients in the area of cerebellum, side ventricules and high convexity. Additional scanning with an incision width of 5 mm was made when pathological changes were detected. There were found 3 cases of cerebellar atrophy, 3 - cerebral atrophy, 1 - combined atrophy and 4 - with other changes. It was difficult to establish any relation between the rerebellar atrophy and the type of anticonvulsant used because treatment had usually been complex. 1 fig., 1 tab., 4 refs

  7. Analysis of synaptic growth and function in Drosophila with an extended larval stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel L; Ballard, Shannon L; Ganetzky, Barry

    2012-10-03

    The Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a powerful system for the genetic and molecular analysis of neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, and synaptic development. However, its use for studying age-dependent processes, such as maintenance of neuronal viability and synaptic stability, are temporally limited by the onset of pupariation and metamorphosis. Here we characterize larval NMJ growth, growth regulation, structure, and function in a developmental variant with an extended third instar (ETI). RNAi-knockdown of the prothoracicotropic hormone receptor, torso, in the ring gland of developing larvae leaves the timing of first and second instar molts largely unchanged, but triples duration of the third instar from 3 to 9.5 d (McBrayer et al., 2007; Rewitz et al., 2009). During this ETI period, NMJs undergo additional growth (adding >50 boutons/NMJ), and this growth remains under the control of the canonical regulators Highwire and the TGFβ/BMP pathway. NMJ growth during the ETI period occurs via addition of new branches, satellite boutons, and interstitial boutons, and continues even after muscle growth levels off. Throughout the ETI, organization of synapses and active zones remains normal, and synaptic transmission is unchanged. These results establish the ETI larval system as a viable model for studying motor neuron diseases and for investigating time-dependent effects of perturbations that impair mechanisms of neuroprotection, synaptic maintenance, and response to neural injury.

  8. Evaluation of hepatic atrophy after transcatheter arterial embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Lee, Mee Ran; Oh, Min Cheol; Park, Chul Min; Seol, Hae Young; Cha, In Ho

    1995-01-01

    Hepatic atrophy has been recognized as a complication of hepatic and biliary disease but we have often found it in follow up CT after transcatheter arterial embolization (TACE). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of hepatic atrophy after TACE. Of 53 patients who had TACE. We evaluated the relationship between the incidence of hepatic atrophy and the number of TACE, and also evaluated the average number of TACE in patients with hepatic atrophy. Of 20 patients who had received more than average number of TACE for development of hepatic atrophy (2 times with portal vein obstruction, 2.7 times without portal vein obstruction in this study), we evaluated the relationship between the lipiodol uptake pattern of tumor and the incidence of hepatic atrophy. There were 8 cases of hepatic atrophy (3 with portal vein obstruction, 5 without portal vein obstruction), average number for development of hepatic atrophy were 2.5 times. As the number of TACE were increased, the incidence of hepatic atrophy were also increased. Of 20 patients who received more than average number of TACE for development of hepatic atrophy, we noted 6 cases of hepatic atrophy in 11 patients with dense homogenous lipiodol uptake pattern of tumor and noted only 1 case of hepatic atrophy in 9 patient with inhomogenous lipiodol uptake pattern. Hepatic atrophy was one of the CT findings after TACE even without portal vein obstruction. Average number of TACE was 2.5 times and risk factors for development of hepatic atrophy were portal vein obstruction, increased number of TACE, and dense homogenous lipiodol uptake pattern of tumor

  9. Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzum, Duygu; Yu, Shimeng; Wong, H-S Philip

    2013-09-27

    In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented.

  10. Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzum, Duygu; Yu, Shimeng; Philip Wong, H-S

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented. (topical review)

  11. Agrin mutations lead to a congenital myasthenic syndrome with distal muscle weakness and atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Sophie; Chaouch, Amina; Torbergsen, Torberg; Bauché, Stéphanie; de Bruyckere, Elodie; Fontenille, Marie-Joséphine; Horn, Morten A; van Ghelue, Marijke; Løseth, Sissel; Issop, Yasmin; Cox, Daniel; Müller, Juliane S; Evangelista, Teresinha; Stålberg, Erik; Ioos, Christine; Barois, Annie; Brochier, Guy; Sternberg, Damien; Fournier, Emmanuel; Hantaï, Daniel; Abicht, Angela; Dusl, Marina; Laval, Steven H; Griffin, Helen; Eymard, Bruno; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2014-09-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of rare diseases resulting from impaired neuromuscular transmission. Their clinical hallmark is fatigable muscle weakness associated with a decremental muscle response to repetitive nerve stimulation and frequently related to postsynaptic defects. Distal myopathies form another clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of primary muscle disorders where weakness and atrophy are restricted to distal muscles, at least initially. In both congenital myasthenic syndromes and distal myopathies, a significant number of patients remain genetically undiagnosed. Here, we report five patients from three unrelated families with a strikingly homogenous clinical entity combining congenital myasthenia with distal muscle weakness and atrophy reminiscent of a distal myopathy. MRI and neurophysiological studies were compatible with mild myopathy restricted to distal limb muscles, but decrement (up to 72%) in response to 3 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation pointed towards a neuromuscular transmission defect. Post-exercise increment (up to 285%) was observed in the distal limb muscles in all cases suggesting presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural analyses of muscle end-plate regions showed synaptic remodelling with denervation-reinnervation events. We performed whole-exome sequencing in two kinships and Sanger sequencing in one isolated case and identified five new recessive mutations in the gene encoding agrin. This synaptic proteoglycan with critical function at the neuromuscular junction was previously found mutated in more typical forms of congenital myasthenic syndrome. In our patients, we found two missense mutations residing in the N-terminal agrin domain, which reduced acetylcholine receptors clustering activity of agrin in vitro. Our findings expand the spectrum of congenital myasthenic syndromes due to agrin mutations and show an unexpected

  12. Banach Synaptic Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulis, David J.; Pulmannov, Sylvia

    2018-04-01

    Using a representation theorem of Erik Alfsen, Frederic Schultz, and Erling Størmer for special JB-algebras, we prove that a synaptic algebra is norm complete (i.e., Banach) if and only if it is isomorphic to the self-adjoint part of a Rickart C∗-algebra. Also, we give conditions on a Banach synaptic algebra that are equivalent to the condition that it is isomorphic to the self-adjoint part of an AW∗-algebra. Moreover, we study some relationships between synaptic algebras and so-called generalized Hermitian algebras.

  13. Correlation of clinical course with MRI findings in olivo-pontocerebellar atrophy and late-cortical cerebellar atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konagaya, Masaaki; Morishita, Shinji; Konagaya, Yoko; Takayanagi, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Satoru

    1989-01-01

    We quantitatively analyzed 1.5 T MRI in 36 cases of sporadic spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and 30 control cases without intracranial lesions, using graphic analyzer. SCD consisted of 21 olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and 15 late cortical cerebellar atrophy (LCCA). There was negative correlation between vermian size and the duration of illness both in OPCA (r=0.8960, p<0.001) and LCCA (r=0.7756, p<0.01), but the progression rate in OPCA was three times greater than that in LCCA. LCCA was suggested the preclinical vermian atrophy by the statistical regression study. In OPCA, the duration of illness also revealed significant correlations with atrophy of ventral pons (r=0.8308, p<0.001) and also cerebellar hemisphere (medial hemiphere; r=0.7278, p<0.001. lateral hemisphere; r=0.6039, p<0.01). OPCA showed diffuse atrophy of cerebellar hemisphere, whereas LCCA showed medial dominant atrophy. OPCA demonstrated significant correlation between the fourth ventricle dilatation and the duration of illness (r=0.6005, p<0.01). A discriminant study significantly separated OPCA, LCCA and control each other by sizes of ventral pons and cerebellar vermis (p<0.001). In T2 weighted MRI, 10 cases out of 14 LCCA did not show hypointensity in dentate nucleus in spite of normal appearance in the other portions usually decreased intensity. The dentate nucleus of OPCA showed a significant atrophy. The insidence of putaminal hypointensity in OPCA was significantly greater than that of control group (ki-quare=6.476, p<0.05). There were no atrophies in red nucleus and tegmentum of midbrain, which indicated minimum involvement in cerebellar efferent system both in OPCA and LCCA. We concluded that the quantitative and qualitative analysis of high field MRI is useful in clinical discrimination between OPCA and LCCA. (author)

  14. Prognostic analysis of 216 cases with penetrating ocular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the factors of penetrating ocular injury, and to investigate the prognostic factors and treatment strategies. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 216 ocular trauma patients(221 eyes, in our hospital from November 2009 to November 2011, was completed. RESULTS: The eyeball atrophy inevitably occurred in 13 eye wounds more than 30mm. Retinal prolapse of the eyes, 78%(35/45completed vitrectomy, 33%(15/45were eyeball atrophy. The 51%(20/39of subchoroidal hemorrhage eyes were eyeball atrophy. Retinal prolapse and subchoroidal hemorrhage increased the risk of ocular atrophy(PPCONCLUSION: Serious ocular trauma prognosis related to many factors. The retina prolapse and the subchoroidal hemorrhage were important prognosis testify. A scleral buckling condensation surgery and vitrectomy have a therapeutic effect, and can improve visual function.

  15. Impaired Skin Barrier Due to Sebaceous Gland Atrophy in the Latent Stage of Radiation-Induced Skin Injury: Application of Non-Invasive Diagnostic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyosun Jang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced skin injury can take the form of serious cutaneous damage and have specific characteristics. Asymptomatic periods are classified as the latent stage. The skin barrier plays a critical role in the modulation of skin permeability and hydration and protects the body against a harsh external environment. However, an analysis on skin barrier dysfunction against radiation exposure in the latent stage has not been conducted. Thus, we investigated whether the skin barrier is impaired by irradiation in the latent stage and aimed to identify the molecules involved in skin barrier dysfunction. We analyzed skin barrier function and its components in SKH1 mice that received 20 and 40 Gy local irradiation. Increased transepidermal water loss and skin pH were observed in the latent stage of the irradiated skin. Skin barrier components, such as structural proteins and lipid synthesis enzymes in keratinocyte, increased in the irradiated group. Interestingly, we noted sebaceous gland atrophy and increased serine protease and inflammatory cytokines in the irradiated skin during the latent period. This finding indicates that the main factor of skin barrier dysfunction in the latent stage of radiation-induced skin injury is sebaceous gland deficiency, which could be an intervention target for skin barrier impairment.

  16. Cyclophilin D deficiency rescues Aβ-impaired PKA/CREB signaling and alleviates synaptic degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Heng; Guo, Lan; Wu, Xiaoping; Sosunov, Alexander A; McKhann, Guy M; Chen, John Xi; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2014-12-01

    The coexistence of neuronal mitochondrial pathology and synaptic dysfunction is an early pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cyclophilin D (CypD), an integral part of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), is involved in amyloid beta (Aβ)-instigated mitochondrial dysfunction. Blockade of CypD prevents Aβ-induced mitochondrial malfunction and the consequent cognitive impairments. Here, we showed the elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by antioxidants probucol or superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase blocks Aβ-mediated inactivation of protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP regulatory-element-binding (CREB) signal transduction pathway and loss of synapse, suggesting the detrimental effects of oxidative stress on neuronal PKA/CREB activity. Notably, neurons lacking CypD significantly attenuate Aβ-induced ROS. Consequently, CypD-deficient neurons are resistant to Aβ-disrupted PKA/CREB signaling by increased PKA activity, phosphorylation of PKA catalytic subunit (PKA C), and CREB. In parallel, lack of CypD protects neurons from Aβ-induced loss of synapses and synaptic dysfunction. Furthermore, compared to the mAPP mice, CypD-deficient mAPP mice reveal less inactivation of PKA-CREB activity and increased synaptic density, attenuate abnormalities in dendritic spine maturation, and improve spontaneous synaptic activity. These findings provide new insights into a mechanism in the crosstalk between the CypD-dependent mitochondrial oxidative stress and signaling cascade, leading to synaptic injury, functioning through the PKA/CREB signal transduction pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: optic atrophy type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nerve Atrophy Encyclopedia: Visual Acuity Test Health Topic: Color Blindness Health Topic: Optic Nerve Disorders Genetic and Rare ... Disease InfoSearch: Optic atrophy 1 Kids Health: What's Color Blindness? MalaCards: autosomal dominant optic atrophy, classic form Merck ...

  18. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  19. Deciphering resting microglial morphology and process motility from a synaptic prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines eHristovska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS, were traditionally believed to be set into action only in case of injury or disease. Accordingly, microglia were assumed to be inactive or resting in the healthy brain. However, recent studies revealed that microglia carry out active tissue sampling in the intact brain by extending and retracting their ramified processes while periodically contacting synapses. Microglial morphology and motility as well as the frequency and duration of physical contacts with synaptic elements were found to be modulated by neuronal activity, sensory experience and neurotransmission; however findings have not been straightforward. Microglial cells are the most morphologically plastic element of the CNS. This unique feature confers them the possibility to locally sense activity, and to respond adequately by establishing synaptic contacts to regulate synaptic inputs by the secretion of signaling molecules. Indeed, microglial cells can hold new roles as critical players in maintaining brain homeostasis and regulating synaptic number, maturation and plasticity. For this reason, a better characterization of microglial cells and cues mediating neuron-to-microglia communication under physiological conditions may help advance our understanding of the microglial behavior and its regulation in the healthy brain. This review highlights recent findings on the instructive role of neuronal activity on microglial motility and microglia-synapse interactions, focusing on the main transmitters involved in this communication and including newly described communication at the tripartite synapse.

  20. Synaptic transmission modulates while non-synaptic processes govern the transition from pre-ictal to seizure activity in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferys, John; Fox, John; Jiruska, Premysl; Kronberg, Greg; Miranda, Dolores; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Bikson, Marom

    2018-01-01

    It is well established that non-synaptic mechanisms can generate electrographic seizures after blockade of synaptic function. We investigated the interaction of intact synaptic activity with non-synaptic mechanisms in the isolated CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices using the 'elevated-K+' model of epilepsy. Elevated K+ ictal bursts share waveform features with other models of electrographic seizures, including non-synaptic models where chemical synaptic transmission is suppressed, such as t...

  1. Dynamic Control of Synaptic Adhesion and Organizing Molecules in Synaptic Plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudenko, Gabby (Texas-MED)

    2017-01-01

    Synapses play a critical role in establishing and maintaining neural circuits, permitting targeted information transfer throughout the brain. A large portfolio of synaptic adhesion/organizing molecules (SAMs) exists in the mammalian brain involved in synapse development and maintenance. SAMs bind protein partners, formingtrans-complexes spanning the synaptic cleft orcis-complexes attached to the same synaptic membrane. SAMs play key roles in cell adhesion and in organizing protein interaction networks; they can also provide mechanisms of recognition, generate scaffolds onto which partners can dock, and likely take part in signaling processes as well. SAMs are regulated through a portfolio of different mechanisms that affect their protein levels, precise localization, stability, and the availability of their partners at synapses. Interaction of SAMs with their partners can further be strengthened or weakened through alternative splicing, competing protein partners, ectodomain shedding, or astrocytically secreted factors. Given that numerous SAMs appear altered by synaptic activity, in vivo, these molecules may be used to dynamically scale up or scale down synaptic communication. Many SAMs, including neurexins, neuroligins, cadherins, and contactins, are now implicated in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder and studying their molecular mechanisms holds promise for developing novel therapeutics.

  2. Anti-skeletal muscle atrophy effect of Oenothera odorata root extract via reactive oxygen species-dependent signaling pathways in cellular and mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Hyeon; Kim, Wan-Joong; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Han-Sung; Gelinsky, Michael; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy can be defined as a decrease of muscle volume caused by injury or lack of use. This condition is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in various muscular disorders. We acquired 2D and 3D images using micro-computed tomography in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of sciatic-denervated mice. We confirmed that sciatic denervation-small animal model reduced muscle volume. However, the intraperitoneal injection of Oenothera odorata root extract (EVP) delayed muscle atrophy compared to a control group. We also investigated the mechanism of muscle atrophy's relationship with ROS. EVP suppressed expression of SOD1, and increased expression of HSP70, in both H2O2-treated C2C12 myoblasts and sciatic-denervated mice. Moreover, EVP regulated apoptotic signals, including caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, and ceramide. These results indicate that EVP has a positive effect on reducing the effect of ROS on muscle atrophy.

  3. Long-term global and regional brain volume changes following severe traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal study with clinical correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidaros, Annette; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller; Liptrot, Matthew George

    2009-01-01

    with percent brain volume change (%BVC) ranging between − 0.6% and − 9.4% (mean − 4.0%). %BVC correlated significantly with injury severity, functional status at both scans, and with 1-year outcome. Moreover, %BVC improved prediction of long-term functional status over and above what could be predicted using......Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in neurodegenerative changes that progress for months, perhaps even years post-injury. However, there is little information on the spatial distribution and the clinical significance of this late atrophy. In 24 patients who had sustained severe TBI we acquired 3D...... scan time point using SIENAX. Regional distribution of atrophy was evaluated using tensor-based morphometry (TBM). At the first scan time point, brain parenchymal volume was reduced by mean 8.4% in patients as compared to controls. During the scan interval, patients exhibited continued atrophy...

  4. Practical one-dimensional measurements of age-related brain atrophy are validated by 3-dimensional values and clinical outcomes: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, C. Michael; Cook, Albert J. II; Paparodis, Alaina M.; Huang, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    validity of these methods is also supported by their association with post-injury ICH. Intracranial 3-D software is not available on many CT scanners and can be cumbersome, when available. Simple 1-D measurements, using the study methodology, are a practical method to objectify the presence of age-related brain atrophy

  5. The inheritance of peripapillary atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Healey, Paul R.; Mitchell, Paul; Gilbert, Clare E.; Lee, Anne J.; Ge, Dongliang; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Timothy D.; Hammond, Christopher J.

    PURPOSE. To estimate the relative importance of genes and environment in peripapillary atrophy type beta (beta-PPA) in a classic twin study. METHODS. Female twin pairs (n = 506) aged 49 to 79 years were recruited from the St. Thomas' UK Adult Twin Registry. Peripapillary atrophy was identified from

  6. Brain injury impairs working memory and prefrontal circuit function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin James Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available More than 2.5 million Americans suffer a traumatic brain injury (TBI each year. Even mild to moderate traumatic brain injury causes long-lasting neurological effects. Despite its prevalence, no therapy currently exists to treat the underlying cause of cognitive impairment suffered by TBI patients. Following lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI, the most widely used experimental model of TBI, we investigated alterations in working memory and excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance in the prefrontal cortex. LFPI impaired working memory as assessed with a T-maze behavioral task. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials recorded in the prefrontal cortex were reduced in slices derived from brain-injured mice. Spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents onto layer 2/3 neurons were more frequent in slices derived from LFPI mice while inhibitory currents onto layer 2/3 neurons were smaller after LFPI. Additionally, an increase in action potential threshold and concomitant decrease in firing rate was observed in layer 2/3 neurons in slices from injured animals. Conversely, no differences in excitatory or inhibitory synaptic transmission onto layer 5 neurons were observed; however, layer 5 neurons demonstrated a decrease in input resistance and action potential duration after LFPI. These results demonstrate synaptic and intrinsic alterations in prefrontal circuitry that may underlie working memory impairment caused by TBI.

  7. Cerebral atrophy in Parkinson's disease - represented in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, H.; Schneider, E.; Hacker, H.; Fischer, P.A.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1979-01-01

    To clarify the importance of brain atrophy in relation to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, 173 patients were examined by computed tomography (CT). In 51.4% of the CT findings, brain atrophy was considered to be pathological. Statistically significant relations of age and sex were found with regard to the extent and localization of brain atrophy. Cortical atrophy also showed a significant dependence on duration of disease. Linear measurements at the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle lead us to assume that brain atrophy in Parkinson's patients is more prevalent than in normal patients within the scope of age involution. (orig.)

  8. Cerebral atrophy in Parkinson's disease - represented in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, H; Schneider, E; Hacker, H; Fischer, P A [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neurologie)

    1979-01-01

    To clarify the importance of brain atrophy in relation to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, 173 patients were examined by computed tomography (CT). In 51.4% of the CT findings, brain atrophy was considered to be pathological. Statistically significant relations of age and sex were found with regard to the extent and localization of brain atrophy. Cortical atrophy also showed a significant dependence on duration of disease. Linear measurements at the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle lead us to assume that brain atrophy in Parkinson's patients is more prevalent than in normal patients within the scope of age involution.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficulty breathing. Children with this type often have joint deformities (contractures) that impair movement. In severe cases, ... Proximal spinal muscular atrophy Washington University, St. Louis: Neuromuscular Disease Center: Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patient Support and ...

  10. Characterization and extraction of the synaptic apposition surface for synaptic geometry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Juan; Rodríguez, Angel; Rodríguez, José-Rodrigo; DeFelipe, Javier; Merchán-Pérez, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Geometrical features of chemical synapses are relevant to their function. Two critical components of the synaptic junction are the active zone (AZ) and the postsynaptic density (PSD), as they are related to the probability of synaptic release and the number of postsynaptic receptors, respectively. Morphological studies of these structures are greatly facilitated by the use of recent electron microscopy techniques, such as combined focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), and software tools that permit reconstruction of large numbers of synapses in three dimensions. Since the AZ and the PSD are in close apposition and have a similar surface area, they can be represented by a single surface—the synaptic apposition surface (SAS). We have developed an efficient computational technique to automatically extract this surface from synaptic junctions that have previously been three-dimensionally reconstructed from actual tissue samples imaged by automated FIB/SEM. Given its relationship with the release probability and the number of postsynaptic receptors, the surface area of the SAS is a functionally relevant measure of the size of a synapse that can complement other geometrical features like the volume of the reconstructed synaptic junction, the equivalent ellipsoid size and the Feret's diameter. PMID:23847474

  11. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  12. Follow-up CT myelography of severe cervical spinal cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Keiichi; Onoda, Kimio; Kawashima, Yasuhiro; Muto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yoichi

    1987-11-01

    There are many reports describing gross anatomical and microscopical findings of severely injured cervical cords in autopsy of the acute and chronic state, but no morphological findings of a severe cervical spinal cord injury in a chronic state by follow-up CT myelography have been found in the literature so far. The sagittal and transverse diameters of the cervical spinal cord and subarachnoid space of 9 out of 14 severe cervical spinal cord injury patients were measured with CT myelography within 7.5 years after the tranuma and their size compared with a control group which was made up of 29 patients with slight radiculopathy due to cervical spondylosis and whiplash injuries. Injured cord levels were C4 4 cases, C5 4 cases and C6 1 case. Remarkable spinal cord atrophy was recogniged in the sagittal diameter from C1 to C7 and in the transverse diameter below C4 and narrowing of the cervical subarachnoid space in the sagittal diameter from C2 to C5. The significance level was set at 1 - 5 %. From these fingings, we have concluded that atrophy appeared not only in the injured segment but also the whole cervical cord after the trauma. There was less cord atrophy in a good functional prognosis than in a poor prognosis.

  13. Follow-up CT myelography of severe cervical spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Keiichi; Onoda, Kimio; Kawashima, Yasuhiro; Muto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yoichi

    1987-01-01

    There are many reports describing gross anatomical and microscopical findings of severely injured cervical cords in autopsy of the acute and chronic state, but no morphological findings of a severe cervical spinal cord injury in a chronic state by follow-up CT myelography have been found in the literature so far. The sagittal and transverse diameters of the cervical spinal cord and subarachnoid space of 9 out of 14 severe cervical spinal cord injury patients were measured with CT myelography within 7.5 years after the tranuma and their size compared with a control group which was made up of 29 patients with slight radiculopathy due to cervical spondylosis and whiplash injuries. Injured cord levels were C4 4 cases, C5 4 cases and C6 1 case. Remarkable spinal cord atrophy was recogniged in the sagittal diameter from C1 to C7 and in the transverse diameter below C4 and narrowing of the cervical subarachnoid space in the sagittal diameter from C2 to C5. The significance level was set at 1 - 5 %. From these fingings, we have concluded that atrophy appeared not only in the injured segment but also the whole cervical cord after the trauma. There was less cord atrophy in a good functional prognosis than in a poor prognosis. (author)

  14. Spine Calcium Transients Induced by Synaptically-Evoked Action Potentials Can Predict Synapse Location and Establish Synaptic Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Rhiannon M.; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    CA1 pyramidal neurons receive hundreds of synaptic inputs at different distances from the soma. Distance-dependent synaptic scaling enables distal and proximal synapses to influence the somatic membrane equally, a phenomenon called “synaptic democracy”. How this is established is unclear. The backpropagating action potential (BAP) is hypothesised to provide distance-dependent information to synapses, allowing synaptic strengths to scale accordingly. Experimental measurements show that a BAP evoked by current injection at the soma causes calcium currents in the apical shaft whose amplitudes decay with distance from the soma. However, in vivo action potentials are not induced by somatic current injection but by synaptic inputs along the dendrites, which creates a different excitable state of the dendrites. Due to technical limitations, it is not possible to study experimentally whether distance information can also be provided by synaptically-evoked BAPs. Therefore we adapted a realistic morphological and electrophysiological model to measure BAP-induced voltage and calcium signals in spines after Schaffer collateral synapse stimulation. We show that peak calcium concentration is highly correlated with soma-synapse distance under a number of physiologically-realistic suprathreshold stimulation regimes and for a range of dendritic morphologies. Peak calcium levels also predicted the attenuation of the EPSP across the dendritic tree. Furthermore, we show that peak calcium can be used to set up a synaptic democracy in a homeostatic manner, whereby synapses regulate their synaptic strength on the basis of the difference between peak calcium and a uniform target value. We conclude that information derived from synaptically-generated BAPs can indicate synapse location and can subsequently be utilised to implement a synaptic democracy. PMID:22719238

  15. Non-invasive assessment of radiation injury with electrical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterman, K Sunshine; Hoopes, P Jack; De Lorenzo, Christine; Gladstone, David J; Paulsen, Keith D

    2004-01-01

    A detailed understanding of non-targeted normal tissue response is necessary for the optimization of radiation treatment plans in cancer therapy. In this study, we evaluate the ability of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to non-invasively determine and quantify the injury response in soft tissue after high dose rate (HDR) irradiation, which is characterized by large localized dose distributions possessing steep spatial gradients. The HDR after-loading technique was employed to irradiate small volumes of muscle tissue with single doses (26-52 Gy targeted 5 mm away from the source). Impedance measurements were performed on 29 rats at 1, 2 and 3 month post-irradiation, employing 31 frequencies in the 1 kHz to 1 MHz range. Over the first 3 months, conductivity increased by 48% and 26% following target doses of 52 Gy and 26 Gy 5 mm from the HDR source, respectively. Injury, assessed independently through a grid-based scoring method showed a quadratic dependence on distance from source. A significant injury (50% of cells atrophied, necrotic or degenerating) in 1.2% of the volume, accompanied by more diffuse injury (25% of cells atrophied, necrotic or degenerating) in 9% of the tissue produced a conductivity increase of 0.02 S m -1 (8% over a baseline of 0.24 S m -1 ). This was not statistically significant at p 0.01. Among treatment groups, injury differences in 22% of the volume led to statistically significant differences in conductivity of 0.07 S m -1 (23% difference in conductivity). Despite limitations, the success of EIS in detecting responses in a fraction of the tissue probed, during these early post-irradiation time-points, is encouraging. Electrical impedance spectroscopy may provide a useful metric of atrophy and the development of fibrosis secondary to radiation that could be further developed into a low-cost imaging method for radiotherapy monitoring and assessment

  16. Seronegative Intestinal Villous Atrophy: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Martins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is the most important cause of intestinal villous atrophy. Seronegative intestinal villous atrophy, including those that are nonresponsive to a gluten-free diet, is a diagnostic challenge. In these cases, before establishing the diagnosis of seronegative celiac disease, alternative etiologies of atrophic enteropathy should be considered. Recently, a new clinical entity responsible for seronegative villous atrophy was described—olmesartan-induced sprue-like enteropathy. Herein, we report two uncommon cases of atrophic enteropathy in patients with arterial hypertension under olmesartan, who presented with severe chronic diarrhea and significant involuntary weight loss. Further investigation revealed intestinal villous atrophy and intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Celiac disease and other causes of villous atrophy were ruled out. Drug-induced enteropathy was suspected and clinical improvement and histologic recovery were verified after olmesartan withdrawal. These cases highlight the importance for clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion for olmesartan as a precipitant of sprue-like enteropathy.

  17. Recovery of neuronal and network excitability after spinal cord injury and implications for spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Maria D'Amico

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The state of areflexia and muscle weakness that immediately follows a spinal cord injury is gradually replaced by the recovery of neuronal and network excitability, leading to both improvements in residual motor function and the development of spasticity. In this review we summarize recent animal and human studies that describe how motoneurons and their activation by sensory pathways become hyperexcitable to compensate for the reduction of descending and movement-induced sensory inputs and the eventual impact on the muscle. We discuss how replacing lost patterned activation of the spinal cord by activating synaptic inputs via assisted movements, pharmacology or electrical stimulation may help to recover lost spinal inhibition. This may lead to a reduction of uncontrolled activation of the spinal cord and thus, improve its controlled activation by synaptic inputs to ultimately normalize circuit function. Increasing the excitation of the spinal cord below an injury with spared descending and/or peripheral functional synaptic activation, instead of suppressing it pharmacologically, may provide the best avenue to improve residual motor function and manage spasticity after spinal cord injury.

  18. Synaptic consolidation across multiple timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorric Ziegler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The brain is bombarded with a continuous stream of sensory events, but retains only a small subset in memory. The selectivity of memory formation prevents our memory from being overloaded with irrelevant items that would rapidly bring the brain to its storage limit; moreover, selectivity also prevents overwriting previously formed memories with new ones. Memory formation in the hippocampus, as well as in other brain regions, is thought to be linked to changes in the synaptic connections between neurons. In this view, sensory events imprint traces at the level of synapses that reflect potential memory items. The question of memory selectivity can therefore be reformulated as follows: what are the reasons and conditions that some synaptic traces fade away whereas others are consolidated and persist? Experimentally, changes in synaptic strength induced by 'Hebbian' protocols fade away over a few hours (early long-term potentiation or e-LTP, unless these changes are consolidated. The experiments and conceptual theory of synaptic tagging and capture (STC provide a mechanistic explanation for the processes involved in consolidation. This theory suggests that the initial trace of synaptic plasticity sets a tag at the synapse, which then serves as a marker for potential consolidation of the changes in synaptic efficacy. The actual consolidation processes, transforming e-LTP into late LTP (l-LTP, require the capture of plasticity-related proteins (PRP. We translate the above conceptual model into a compact computational model that accounts for a wealth of in vitro data including experiments on cross-tagging, tag-resetting and depotentiation. A central ingredient is that synaptic traces are described with several variables that evolve on different time scales. Consolidation requires the transmission of information from a 'fast' synaptic trace to a 'slow' one through a 'write' process, including the formation of tags and the production of PRP for the

  19. Age-related infra-tentorial brain atrophy on CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitani, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Murata, Akihiro; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1985-01-01

    We had reported that the brain atrophy progressed significantly with advancing age using the two dimensional CT measurement by digitizer which was connected with personal computer. Using this method, we studied the age-related infra-tentrial brain atrophy in 67 normal subjects (14-90 years), and compared that with age-related supra-tentrial brain atrophy. There was a significant correlation between age and all indices [cranio-ventricular index (CVI), ventricular area index (VAI) and brain atrophy index (BAI)] in supratentrial brain. These indices did not correlated to the age in infra-tentrial brain (brainstem and cerebellum). Significant change of the brain atrophy occured above 60 years old was observed by BAI and VAI in supra-tentrial brain. There was a significant correlation between supra-tentrial brain atrophy index (BAI) and that of infratentrial brain. These results indicate that age-related brain atrophy might progress more slowly in brainstem and cerebellum than in cerebrum. (author)

  20. proBDNF Negatively Regulates Neuronal Remodeling, Synaptic Transmission, and Synaptic Plasticity in Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent plasticity shapes postnatal development of neural circuits, but the mechanisms that refine dendritic arbors, remodel spines, and impair synaptic activity are poorly understood. Mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF modulates neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP via TrkB activation. BDNF is initially translated as proBDNF, which binds p75NTR. In vitro, recombinant proBDNF modulates neuronal structure and alters hippocampal long-term plasticity, but the actions of endogenously expressed proBDNF are unclear. Therefore, we generated a cleavage-resistant probdnf knockin mouse. Our results demonstrate that proBDNF negatively regulates hippocampal dendritic complexity and spine density through p75NTR. Hippocampal slices from probdnf mice exhibit depressed synaptic transmission, impaired LTP, and enhanced long-term depression (LTD in area CA1. These results suggest that proBDNF acts in vivo as a biologically active factor that regulates hippocampal structure, synaptic transmission, and plasticity, effects that are distinct from those of mature BDNF.

  1. Synaptic remodeling, synaptic growth and the storage of long-term memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Craig H; Kandel, Eric R

    2008-01-01

    Synaptic remodeling and synaptic growth accompany various forms of long-term memory. Storage of the long-term memory for sensitization of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia has been extensively studied in this respect and is associated with the growth of new synapses by the sensory neurons onto their postsynaptic target neurons. Recent time-lapse imaging studies of living sensory-to-motor neuron synapses in culture have monitored both functional and structural changes simultaneously so as to follow remodeling and growth at the same specific synaptic connections continuously over time and to examine the functional contribution of these learning-related structural changes to the different time-dependent phases of memory storage. Insights provided by these studies suggest the synaptic differentiation and growth induced by learning in the mature nervous system are highly dynamic and often rapid processes that can recruit both molecules and mechanisms used for de novo synapse formation during development.

  2. Diacylglycerol kinases in the coordination of synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity is activity-dependent modification of the efficacy of synaptic transmission. Although detailed mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity are diverse and vary at different types of synapses, diacylglycerol (DAG-associated signaling has been considered as an important regulator of many forms of synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD. Recent evidence indicate that DAG kinases (DGKs, which phosphorylate DAG to phosphatidic acid to terminate DAG signaling, are important regulators of LTP and LTD, as supported by the results from mice lacking specific DGK isoforms. This review will summarize these studies and discuss how specific DGK isoforms distinctly regulate different forms of synaptic plasticity at pre- and postsynaptic sites. In addition, we propose a general role of DGKs as coordinators of synaptic plasticity that make local synaptic environments more permissive for synaptic plasticity by regulating DAG concentration and interacting with other synaptic proteins.

  3. Abnormal pain perception in patients with Multiple System Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory-Magne, F; Pellaprat, J; Harroch, E; Galitzsky, M; Rousseau, V; Pavy-Le Traon, A; Rascol, O; Gerdelat, A; Brefel-Courbon, C

    2018-03-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease or Multiple System Atrophy frequently experience painful sensations. The few studies investigating pain mechanisms in Multiple System Atrophy patients have reported contradictory results. In our study, we compared pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls and evaluated the effect of l-DOPA on pain thresholds. We assessed subjective and objective pain thresholds (using a thermotest and RIII reflex), and pain tolerance in OFF and ON conditions, clinical pain, motor and psychological evaluation. Pain was reported in 78.6% of Multiple System Atrophy patients and in 37.5% of Parkinson's disease patients. In the OFF condition, subjective and objective pain thresholds were significantly lower in Multiple System Atrophy patients than in healthy controls (43.8 °C ± 1.3 vs 45.7 °C ± 0.8; p = 0.0005 and 7.4 mA ± 3.8 vs 13.7 mA ± 2.8; p = 0.002, respectively). They were also significantly reduced in Multiple System Atrophy compared to Parkinson's disease patients. No significant difference was found in pain tolerance for the 3 groups and in the effect of l-DOPA on pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients. In the ON condition, pain tolerance tended to be reduced in Multiple System Atrophy versus Parkinson's disease patients (p = 0.05). Multiple System Atrophy patients had an increase in pain perception compared to Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls. The l-DOPA effect was similar for pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients, but tended to worsen pain tolerance in Multiple System Atrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Severe muscle atrophy due to spinal cord injury can be reversed in complete absence of peripheral nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Boncompagni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, a new efficient treatment has been developed to treat paralyzed skeletal muscle of patients affected by spinal cord injury (SCI. The capability of the functional electrical stimulation (FES to improve trophism and in some cases muscle function, are now well documented both in animals after experimental cord lesion, and in humans, generally after traumatic cord lesion. This new findings makes FES an important tool for the rehabilitation of SCI patients. FES stimulation has been proven to be an effective method used to retard muscle atrophy and improve recovery after reinnervation. Sophisticated FES devices have been developed for restoring function in the upper and lower extremities, the bladder and bowel, and the respiratory system of SCI patients. However, there are SCI cases, such as those affected by flaccid paralysis, in which the musculature is not treated with FES rehabilitation therapy. This is because conventional FES apparatuses are designed for direct stimulation of peripheral nerves that need small currents to be depolarized, and are not effective in patients that have lost their peripheral nerves, and, therefore, require higher currents for the direct depolarization of the muscle fibers. Lack of muscle treatment generates, as a secondary problem, a long series of alterations to tissues other than muscle, such as bones (osteoporosis, skin (pressure sores, decubital ulcers, etc., that are a direct consequence of inactivity and poor blood supply to the denervated areas. These complications represent an extremely serious problem for the general health of the injured individuals, who usually have a shorter than normal life span. In the hopes of changing this common belief, an innovative rehabilitation procedure, based on FES, has been developed with the aim of reversing long-lasting muscle atrophy in the muscles of the lower extremities of SCI patients affected by complete lesion of the conus cauda, i.e. that have no

  5. Ophthalmic manifestations of head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, L

    1992-02-01

    Head injuries are frequently associated with ophthalmic problems. The commonest problems seen in this series of 161 patients with head injury were problems with poor accommodation (16% of patients; 58% of these persisted), convergence (14% of patients; 35% of these persisted), pseudomyopia (19%; 55% persisted) and optic atrophy (26% of the patients; 78% of these were mild and easily missed on routine testing, and 22% were severe). Motility disorders were common, especially cranial nerve palsies. Other less frequent motility disturbances included apparent inferior oblique palsy, comitant esotropia, and exotropia which was often of the convergence insufficiency type.

  6. Enhanced pre-synaptic glutamate release in deep-dorsal horn contributes to calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 protein-mediated spinal sensitization and behavioral hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickenson Anthony H

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nerve injury-induced expression of the spinal calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit (Cavα2δ1 has been shown to mediate behavioral hypersensitivity through a yet identified mechanism. We examined if this neuroplasticity modulates behavioral hypersensitivity by regulating spinal glutamatergic neurotransmission in injury-free transgenic mice overexpressing the Cavα2δ1 proteins in neuronal tissues. The transgenic mice exhibited hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation (allodynia similar to the spinal nerve ligation injury model. Intrathecally delivered antagonists for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA and α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA/kainate receptors, but not for the metabotropic glutamate receptors, caused a dose-dependent allodynia reversal in the transgenic mice without changing the behavioral sensitivity in wild-type mice. This suggests that elevated spinal Cavα2δ1 mediates allodynia through a pathway involving activation of selective glutamate receptors. To determine if this is mediated by enhanced spinal neuronal excitability or pre-synaptic glutamate release in deep-dorsal horn, we examined wide-dynamic-range (WDR neuron excitability with extracellular recording and glutamate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents with whole-cell patch recording in deep-dorsal horn of the Cavα2δ1 transgenic mice. Our data indicated that overexpression of Cavα2δ1 in neuronal tissues led to increased frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory post synaptic currents mediated mainly by AMPA/kainate receptors at physiological membrane potentials, and also by NMDA receptors upon depolarization, without changing the excitability of WDR neurons to high intensity stimulation. Together, these findings support a mechanism of Cavα2δ1-mediated spinal sensitization in which elevated Cavα2δ1 causes increased pre-synaptic glutamate release that leads to reduced excitation thresholds of post-synaptic dorsal

  7. Enhanced pre-synaptic glutamate release in deep-dorsal horn contributes to calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 protein-mediated spinal sensitization and behavioral hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, David; Deng, Ping; Matthews, Elizabeth A; Kim, Doo-Sik; Feng, Guoping; Dickenson, Anthony H; Xu, Zao C; Luo, Z David

    2009-01-01

    Nerve injury-induced expression of the spinal calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit (Cavα2δ1) has been shown to mediate behavioral hypersensitivity through a yet identified mechanism. We examined if this neuroplasticity modulates behavioral hypersensitivity by regulating spinal glutamatergic neurotransmission in injury-free transgenic mice overexpressing the Cavα2δ1 proteins in neuronal tissues. The transgenic mice exhibited hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation (allodynia) similar to the spinal nerve ligation injury model. Intrathecally delivered antagonists for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptors, but not for the metabotropic glutamate receptors, caused a dose-dependent allodynia reversal in the transgenic mice without changing the behavioral sensitivity in wild-type mice. This suggests that elevated spinal Cavα2δ1 mediates allodynia through a pathway involving activation of selective glutamate receptors. To determine if this is mediated by enhanced spinal neuronal excitability or pre-synaptic glutamate release in deep-dorsal horn, we examined wide-dynamic-range (WDR) neuron excitability with extracellular recording and glutamate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents with whole-cell patch recording in deep-dorsal horn of the Cavα2δ1 transgenic mice. Our data indicated that overexpression of Cavα2δ1 in neuronal tissues led to increased frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory post synaptic currents mediated mainly by AMPA/kainate receptors at physiological membrane potentials, and also by NMDA receptors upon depolarization, without changing the excitability of WDR neurons to high intensity stimulation. Together, these findings support a mechanism of Cavα2δ1-mediated spinal sensitization in which elevated Cavα2δ1 causes increased pre-synaptic glutamate release that leads to reduced excitation thresholds of post-synaptic dorsal horn neurons to innocuous

  8. Hemifacial atrophy treated with autologous fat transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old male developed right hemifacial atrophy following marphea profunda. Facial asymmetry due to residual atrophy was treated with autologous fat harvested from buttocks with marked cosmetic improvement.

  9. Characterizing synaptic protein development in human visual cortex enables alignment of synaptic age with rat visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua G.A Pinto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although many potential neuroplasticity based therapies have been developed in the lab, few have translated into established clinical treatments for human neurologic or neuropsychiatric diseases. Animal models, especially of the visual system, have shaped our understanding of neuroplasticity by characterizing the mechanisms that promote neural changes and defining timing of the sensitive period. The lack of knowledge about development of synaptic plasticity mechanisms in human cortex, and about alignment of synaptic age between animals and humans, has limited translation of neuroplasticity therapies. In this study, we quantified expression of a set of highly conserved pre- and post-synaptic proteins (Synapsin, Synaptophysin, PSD-95, Gephyrin and found that synaptic development in human primary visual cortex continues into late childhood. Indeed, this is many years longer than suggested by neuroanatomical studies and points to a prolonged sensitive period for plasticity in human sensory cortex. In addition, during childhood we found waves of inter-individual variability that are different for the 4 proteins and include a stage during early development (<1 year when only Gephyrin has high inter-individual variability. We also found that pre- and post-synaptic protein balances develop quickly, suggesting that maturation of certain synaptic functions happens within the first year or two of life. A multidimensional analysis (principle component analysis showed that most of the variance was captured by the sum of the 4 synaptic proteins. We used that sum to compare development of human and rat visual cortex and identified a simple linear equation that provides robust alignment of synaptic age between humans and rats. Alignment of synaptic ages is important for age-appropriate targeting and effective translation of neuroplasticity therapies from the lab to the clinic.

  10. Pharmacological inhibition of myostatin protects against skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness after anterior cruciate ligament tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, Caroline Nw; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Grekin, Jeremy A; Khouri, Roger K; Russell, Alan J; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2017-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are among the most frequent knee injuries in sports medicine, with tear rates in the US up to 250,000 per year. Many patients who suffer from ACL tears have persistent atrophy and weakness even after considerable rehabilitation. Myostatin is a cytokine that directly induces muscle atrophy, and previous studies rodent models and patients have demonstrated an upregulation of myostatin after ACL tear. Using a preclinical rat model, our objective was to determine if the use of a bioneutralizing antibody against myostatin could prevent muscle atrophy and weakness after ACL tear. Rats underwent a surgically induced ACL tear and were treated with either a bioneutralizing antibody against myostatin (10B3, GlaxoSmithKline) or a sham antibody (E1-82.15, GlaxoSmithKline). Muscles were harvested at either 7 or 21 days after induction of a tear to measure changes in contractile function, fiber size, and genes involved in muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. These time points were selected to evaluate early and later changes in muscle structure and function. Compared to the sham antibody group, 7 days after ACL tear, myostatin inhibition reduced the expression of proteolytic genes and induced the expression of hypertrophy genes. These early changes in gene expression lead to a 22% increase in muscle fiber cross-sectional area and a 10% improvement in maximum isometric force production that were observed 21 days after ACL tear. Overall, myostatin inhibition lead to several favorable, although modest, changes in molecular biomarkers of muscle regeneration and reduced muscle atrophy and weakness following ACL tear. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2499-2505, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of tongue atrophy on midsagittal magnetic resonance images (MRIs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Akio; Oishi, Tomonari; Murai, Yoshiyuki; Tsukamoto, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Masato

    1992-01-01

    This study was undertaken mainly to establish the quantitative parameter to evaluate the tongue atrophy on midsagittal MRIs and to show the clinical usefulness of such quantitative evaluation. Midsagittal MRIs of the tongue of consecutive 103 patients were analyzed. They were classified into 67 patients showing normal size (group without atrophy), 11 patients showing atrophy (group with atrophy) and 25 patients showing unsatifactory MRIs with artifacts based on the routine evaluation. The patients in the group without atrophy did not show any pathologic processes to produce tongue atrophy on clinical findings. The area and perimeter of tongue and oral cavity, and the ratio of tongue area to oral cavity area and the ratio of tongue perimeter to oral cavity perimeter on midsagittal MRIs were obtained in each patient of groups with and without atrophy by using quantitative image analysis system. In the group without atrophy, regression analysis of the data on age was made and the 95% confidence interval of the data for age was obtained. No evidence that the tongue becomes atrophic with aging was obtained in the group without atrophy. Patients in the group with atrophy were best separated from those in the group without atrophy statistically when the ratio of tongue area to oral cavity area was regressed on age. Among 11 patients in the group with atrophy, 6 patients were not regarded as having tongue atrophy on clinical neurological examinations. Therefore, the evaluation of midsagittal MRIs is clinically useful. (author)

  12. Modulation of synaptic plasticity by stress hormone associates with plastic alteration of synaptic NMDA receptor in the adult hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiu Chung Tse

    Full Text Available Stress exerts a profound impact on learning and memory, in part, through the actions of adrenal corticosterone (CORT on synaptic plasticity, a cellular model of learning and memory. Increasing findings suggest that CORT exerts its impact on synaptic plasticity by altering the functional properties of glutamate receptors, which include changes in the motility and function of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid subtype of glutamate receptor (AMPAR that are responsible for the expression of synaptic plasticity. Here we provide evidence that CORT could also regulate synaptic plasticity by modulating the function of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs, which mediate the induction of synaptic plasticity. We found that stress level CORT applied to adult rat hippocampal slices potentiated evoked NMDAR-mediated synaptic responses within 30 min. Surprisingly, following this fast-onset change, we observed a slow-onset (>1 hour after termination of CORT exposure increase in synaptic expression of GluN2A-containing NMDARs. To investigate the consequences of the distinct fast- and slow-onset modulation of NMDARs for synaptic plasticity, we examined the formation of long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD within relevant time windows. Paralleling the increased NMDAR function, both LTP and LTD were facilitated during CORT treatment. However, 1-2 hours after CORT treatment when synaptic expression of GluN2A-containing NMDARs is increased, bidirectional plasticity was no longer facilitated. Our findings reveal the remarkable plasticity of NMDARs in the adult hippocampus in response to CORT. CORT-mediated slow-onset increase in GluN2A in hippocampal synapses could be a homeostatic mechanism to normalize synaptic plasticity following fast-onset stress-induced facilitation.

  13. Evaluation of both perfusion and atrophy in multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type using brain SPECT alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Kuji, Ichiei; Seto, Akira; Ito, Kimiteru; Kikuta, Daisuke; Yamada, Minoru; Shimano, Yasumasa; Sato, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Partial volume effects in atrophied areas should be taken into account when interpreting brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of neurodegenerative diseases. To evaluate both perfusion and atrophy using brain SPECT alone, we developed a new technique applying tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to SPECT. After linear spatial normalization of brain perfusion SPECT using 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) to a Talairach space, high-dimension-warping was done using an original 99m Tc-ECD template. Contraction map images calculated from Jacobian determinants and spatially normalized SPECT images using this high-dimension-warping were compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) between two groups of 16 multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C) patients and 73 age-matched normal controls. This comparison was also performed in conventionally warped SPECT images. SPM2 demonstrated statistically significant contraction indicating local atrophy and decreased perfusion in the whole cerebellum and pons of MSA-C patients as compared to normal controls. Higher significance for decreased perfusion in these areas was obtained in high-dimension-warping than in conventional warping, possibly due to sufficient spatial normalization to a 99m Tc-ECD template in high-dimensional warping of severely atrophied cerebellum and pons. In the present high-dimension-warping, modification of tracer activity remained within 3% of the original tracer distribution. The present new technique applying TBM to brain SPECT provides information on both perfusion and atrophy at the same time thereby enhancing the role of brain perfusion SPECT

  14. Evaluation of both perfusion and atrophy in multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type using brain SPECT alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuda Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial volume effects in atrophied areas should be taken into account when interpreting brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images of neurodegenerative diseases. To evaluate both perfusion and atrophy using brain SPECT alone, we developed a new technique applying tensor-based morphometry (TBM to SPECT. Methods After linear spatial normalization of brain perfusion SPECT using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD to a Talairach space, high-dimension-warping was done using an original 99mTc-ECD template. Contraction map images calculated from Jacobian determinants and spatially normalized SPECT images using this high-dimension-warping were compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2 between two groups of 16 multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C patients and 73 age-matched normal controls. This comparison was also performed in conventionally warped SPECT images. Results SPM2 demonstrated statistically significant contraction indicating local atrophy and decreased perfusion in the whole cerebellum and pons of MSA-C patients as compared to normal controls. Higher significance for decreased perfusion in these areas was obtained in high-dimension-warping than in conventional warping, possibly due to sufficient spatial normalization to a 99mTc-ECD template in high-dimensional warping of severely atrophied cerebellum and pons. In the present high-dimension-warping, modification of tracer activity remained within 3% of the original tracer distribution. Conclusions The present new technique applying TBM to brain SPECT provides information on both perfusion and atrophy at the same time thereby enhancing the role of brain perfusion SPECT

  15. Frontal parenchymal atrophy measures in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Laura; Zivadinov, Robert; Grop, Attilio; Zorzon, Marino

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measures of whole and regional brain atrophy correlate better with tests assessing the cognitive function than the absolute brain atrophy measures. The neuropsychological performances and disability have been assessed in 39 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). T1- and T2-lesion load (LL) of total brain and frontal lobes (FLs) were measured using a reproducible semiautomated technique. The whole brain volume and the regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of FLs were obtained using a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semiautomated and automated segmentation processes. Normalized measures of brain atrophy, i.e., brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) and regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF) of FLs, were calculated. The scan-rescan, inter- and intrarater coefficient of variation (COV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) have been estimated. The RBPF of FLs showed an acceptable level of reproducibility which ranged from 1.7% for intrarater variability to 3.2% for scan-rescan variability. The mean ICC was 0.88 (CI 0.82-0.93). The RBPF of FLs demonstrated stronger magnitudes of correlation with neuropsychological functioning, disability and quantitative MRI lesion measures than RBPV. These differences were statistically significant: PColor Word Interference test, Pcognitive functions, whereas BPAV did not. The correlation analysis results were supported by the results of multiple regression analysis which showed that only the normalized brain atrophy measures were associated with tests exploring the cognitive functions. These data suggest that RBPF is a reproducible and sensitive method for measuring frontal parenchymal atrophy. The normalized measures of whole and regional brain parenchymal atrophy should be preferred to absolute measures in future studies that correlate neuropsychological performances and brain atrophy measures

  16. MRI study of degenerative process in multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagishita, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Keizo

    1995-01-01

    The characteristic morphological changes of the brainstem and cerebellar regions of multiple system atrophy (MSA) were studied by MRI in varing subtypes, that is olivoponto cerebellar atrophy (OPCA: 23 cases), striatonigral degeneration (SND: 7 cases) and Shy-Drager's syndrome (SDS: 9 cases). OPCA was characterized by atrophy of the entire regions of the brainstem and the cerebellum. SND and SDS tended to show atrophy similar in type but lessin extent to OPCA. The common lesions in MSA were atrophy of the pontine base and cerebellum, and dilation of the fourth ventricle. Atrophy of the pontine base was more dominant in the inferior part than in the superior part, and cerebellar atrophy was more dominant in the superior part than in the inferior part, indicating that degeneration of the pontocerebellar pathway proceeds principally along fibers connecting the inferior part of the pons and the superior part of the cerebellum. Dilation of the fourth ventricle indicated atrophy of the middle cerebellar peduncle. In almost all the cases of OPCA and about a half the cases of SND and SDS, the pontine base and the middle cerebellar peduncle appeared as high signal intensity on T 2 weighted image and as low intensity on T 1 , suggesting degeneration and demyelination. In a few cases of OPCA, the dorsolateral part of the putamen were demonstrated as low signal intensity on T 2 weighted image. (author)

  17. Synaptic plasticity in drug reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Danny G; Egli, Regula E; Schramm, Nicole L; Matthews, Robert T

    2002-11-01

    Drug addiction is a major public health issue worldwide. The persistence of drug craving coupled with the known recruitment of learning and memory centers in the brain has led investigators to hypothesize that the alterations in glutamatergic synaptic efficacy brought on by synaptic plasticity may play key roles in the addiction process. Here we review the present literature, examining the properties of synaptic plasticity within drug reward circuitry, and the effects that drugs of abuse have on these forms of plasticity. Interestingly, multiple forms of synaptic plasticity can be induced at glutamatergic synapses within the dorsal striatum, its ventral extension the nucleus accumbens, and the ventral tegmental area, and at least some of these forms of plasticity are regulated by behaviorally meaningful administration of cocaine and/or amphetamine. Thus, the present data suggest that regulation of synaptic plasticity in reward circuits is a tractable candidate mechanism underlying aspects of addiction.

  18. Traumatic Brain Injury Severity, Neuropathophysiology, and Clinical Outcome: Insights from Multimodal Neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Irimia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe relationship between the acute clinical presentation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI, long-term changes in brain structure prompted by injury and chronic functional outcome is insufficiently understood. In this preliminary study, we investigate how acute Glasgow coma score (GCS and epileptic seizure occurrence after TBIs are statistically related to functional outcome (as quantified using the Glasgow Outcome Score and to the extent of cortical thinning observed 6 months after the traumatic event.MethodsUsing multivariate linear regression, the extent to which the acute GCS and epileptic seizure occurrence (predictor variables correlate with structural brain changes (relative cortical atrophy was examined in a group of 33 TBI patients. The statistical significance of the correlation between relative cortical atrophy and the Glasgow Outcome Score was also investigated.ResultsA statistically significant correlative relationship between cortical thinning and the predictor variables (acute GCS and seizure occurrence was identified in the study sample. Regions where the statistical model was found to have highest statistical reliability in predicting both gray matter atrophy and neurological outcome include the frontopolar, middle frontal, postcentral, paracentral, middle temporal, angular, and lingual gyri. In addition, relative atrophy and GOS were also found to be significantly correlated over large portions of the cortex.ConclusionThis study contributes to our understanding of the relationship between clinical descriptors of acute TBI, the extent of injury-related chronic brain changes and neurological outcome. This is partly because the brain areas where cortical thinning was found to be correlated with GCS and with seizure occurrence are implicated in executive control, sensory function, motor acuity, memory, and language, all of which may be affected by TBI. Thus, our quantification suggests the existence of a

  19. A Ca2+-based computational model for NDMA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity at individual post-synaptic spines in the hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Rackham

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Associative synaptic plasticity is synapse specific and requires coincident activity in presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons to activate NMDA receptors (NMDARs. The resultant Ca2+ influx is the critical trigger for the induction of synaptic plasticity. Given its centrality for the induction of synaptic plasticity, a model for NMDAR activation incorporating the timing of presynaptic glutamate release and postsynaptic depolarization by back-propagating action potentials could potentially predict the pre- and post-synaptic spike patterns required to induce synaptic plasticity. We have developed such a model by incorporating currently available data on the timecourse and amplitude of the postsynaptic membrane potential within individual spines. We couple this with data on the kinetics of synaptic NMDARs and then use the model to predict the continuous spine [Ca2+] in response to regular or irregular pre- and post-synaptic spike patterns. We then incorporate experimental data from synaptic plasticity induction protocols by regular activity patterns to couple the predicted local peak [Ca2+] to changes in synaptic strength. We find that our model accurately describes [Ca2+] in dendritic spines resulting from NMDAR activation during presynaptic and postsynaptic activity when compared to previous experimental observations. The model also replicates the experimentally determined plasticity outcome of regular and irregular spike patterns when applied to a single synapse. This model could therefore be used to predict the induction of synaptic plasticity under a variety of experimental conditions and spike patterns.

  20. Synaptic Effects of Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Asif

    Learning and sensory processing in the brain relies on the effective transmission of information across synapses. The strength and efficacy of synaptic transmission is modifiable through training and can be modulated with noninvasive electrical brain stimulation. Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), specifically, induces weak intensity and spatially diffuse electric fields in the brain. Despite being weak, electric fields modulate spiking probability and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. These effects critically depend on the direction of the electric field relative to the orientation of the neuron and on the level of endogenous synaptic activity. TES has been used to modulate a wide range of neuropsychiatric indications, for various rehabilitation applications, and cognitive performance in diverse tasks. How can a weak and diffuse electric field, which simultaneously polarizes neurons across the brain, have precise changes in brain function? Designing therapies to maximize desired outcomes and minimize undesired effects presents a challenging problem. A series of experiments and computational models are used to define the anatomical and functional factors leading to specificity of TES. Anatomical specificity derives from guiding current to targeted brain structures and taking advantage of the direction-sensitivity of neurons with respect to the electric field. Functional specificity originates from preferential modulation of neuronal networks that are already active. Diffuse electric fields may recruit connected brain networks involved in a training task and promote plasticity along active synaptic pathways. In vitro, electric fields boost endogenous synaptic plasticity and raise the ceiling for synaptic learning with repeated stimulation sessions. Synapses undergoing strong plasticity are preferentially modulated over weak synapses. Therefore, active circuits that are involved in a task could be more susceptible to stimulation than inactive circuits

  1. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G; Cooper, Janine M; Dzieciol, Anna M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-13

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition.

  2. Spinal motoneuron synaptic plasticity after axotomy in the absence of inducible nitric oxide synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanon Renata G

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Astrocytes play a major role in preserving and restoring structural and physiological integrity following injury to the nervous system. After peripheral axotomy, reactive gliosis propagates within adjacent spinal segments, influenced by the local synthesis of nitric oxide (NO. The present work investigated the importance of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity in acute and late glial responses after injury and in major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I expression and synaptic plasticity of inputs to lesioned alpha motoneurons. Methods In vivo analyses were carried out using C57BL/6J-iNOS knockout (iNOS-/- and C57BL/6J mice. Glial response after axotomy, glial MHC I expression, and the effects of axotomy on synaptic contacts were measured using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. For this purpose, 2-month-old animals were sacrificed and fixed one or two weeks after unilateral sciatic nerve transection, and spinal cord sections were incubated with antibodies against classical MHC I, GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein - an astroglial marker, Iba-1 (an ionized calcium binding adaptor protein and a microglial marker or synaptophysin (a presynaptic terminal marker. Western blotting analysis of MHC I and nNOS expression one week after lesion were also performed. The data were analyzed using a two-tailed Student's t test for parametric data or a two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test for nonparametric data. Results A statistical difference was shown with respect to astrogliosis between strains at the different time points studied. Also, MHC I expression by iNOS-/- microglial cells did not increase at one or two weeks after unilateral axotomy. There was a difference in synaptophysin expression reflecting synaptic elimination, in which iNOS-/- mice displayed a decreased number of the inputs to alpha motoneurons, in comparison to that of C57BL/6J. Conclusion The findings herein indicate that i

  3. MRI study of degenerative process in multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagishita, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Keizo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-02-01

    The characteristic morphological changes of the brainstem and cerebellar regions of multiple system atrophy (MSA) were studied by MRI in varing subtypes, that is olivoponto cerebellar atrophy (OPCA: 23 cases), striatonigral degeneration (SND: 7 cases) and Shy-Drager`s syndrome (SDS: 9 cases). OPCA was characterized by atrophy of the entire regions of the brainstem and the cerebellum. SND and SDS tended to show atrophy similar in type but lessin extent to OPCA. The common lesions in MSA were atrophy of the pontine base and cerebellum, and dilation of the fourth ventricle. Atrophy of the pontine base was more dominant in the inferior part than in the superior part, and cerebellar atrophy was more dominant in the superior part than in the inferior part, indicating that degeneration of the pontocerebellar pathway proceeds principally along fibers connecting the inferior part of the pons and the superior part of the cerebellum. Dilation of the fourth ventricle indicated atrophy of the middle cerebellar peduncle. In almost all the cases of OPCA and about a half the cases of SND and SDS, the pontine base and the middle cerebellar peduncle appeared as high signal intensity on T{sub 2} weighted image and as low intensity on T{sub 1}, suggesting degeneration and demyelination. In a few cases of OPCA, the dorsolateral part of the putamen were demonstrated as low signal intensity on T{sub 2} weighted image. (author).

  4. Longitudinal volumetric changes following traumatic brain injury: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbota, Kimberly D M; Sodhi, Aparna; Bendlin, Barbara B; McLaren, Donald G; Xu, Guofan; Rowley, Howard A; Johnson, Sterling C

    2012-11-01

    After traumatic injury, the brain undergoes a prolonged period of degenerative change that is paradoxically accompanied by cognitive recovery. The spatiotemporal pattern of atrophy and the specific relationships of atrophy to cognitive changes are ill understood. The present study used tensor-based morphometry and neuropsychological testing to examine brain volume loss in 17 traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and 13 controls over a 4-year period. Patients were scanned at 2 months, 1 year, and 4 years post-injury. High-dimensional warping procedures were used to create change maps of each subject's brain for each of the two intervals. TBI patients experienced volume loss in both cortical areas and white matter regions during the first interval. We also observed continuing volume loss in extensive regions of white matter during the second interval. Neuropsychological correlations indicated that cognitive tasks were associated with subsequent volume loss in task-relevant regions. The extensive volume loss in brain white matter observed well beyond the first year post-injury suggests that the injured brain remains malleable for an extended period, and the neuropsychological relationships suggest that this volume loss may be associated with subtle cognitive improvements.

  5. Flexible Proton-Gated Oxide Synaptic Transistors on Si Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Wan, Chang Jin; Gao, Ping Qi; Liu, Yang Hui; Xiao, Hui; Ye, Ji Chun; Wan, Qing

    2016-08-24

    Ion-conducting materials have received considerable attention for their applications in fuel cells, electrochemical devices, and sensors. Here, flexible indium zinc oxide (InZnO) synaptic transistors with multiple presynaptic inputs gated by proton-conducting phosphorosilicate glass-based electrolyte films are fabricated on ultrathin Si membranes. Transient characteristics of the proton gated InZnO synaptic transistors are investigated, indicating stable proton-gating behaviors. Short-term synaptic plasticities are mimicked on the proposed proton-gated synaptic transistors. Furthermore, synaptic integration regulations are mimicked on the proposed synaptic transistor networks. Spiking logic modulations are realized based on the transition between superlinear and sublinear synaptic integration. The multigates coupled flexible proton-gated oxide synaptic transistors may be interesting for neuroinspired platforms with sophisticated spatiotemporal information processing.

  6. Novel in vitro platform to investigate myotube atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Oelkrug, Christopher; Horn, Katharina; Makert, Gustavo R.; Schubert, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The electrical current exclusion (ECE) principle provides an alternative to common methods of cell diameter measurement and especially in atrophy and cancer associated cachexia research. C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated into myotubes and treated with 100 μM dexamethasone to induce atrophy in vitro. Subsequently, they were incubated for 24 h with media containing different concentrations of curcumin and/or branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in order to counteract atrophy. After treatment wi...

  7. Bilateral optical nerve atrophy secondary to lateral occipital lobe infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Junfeng; Wei, Shihui

    2013-06-01

    To report a phenomenon of optical nerve atrophy secondary to lateral occipital lobe infarction. Two successive patients with unilateral occipital lobe infarction who experienced bilateral optical nerve atrophy during the follow-up underwent cranial imaging, fundus photography, and campimetry. Each patient was diagnosed with occipital lobe infarction by cranial MRI. During the follow-up, a bilateral optic atrophy was revealed, and campimetry showed a right homonymous hemianopia of both eyes with concomitant macular division. Bilateral optic atrophy was related to occipital lobe infarction, and a possible explanation for the atrophy was transneuronal degeneration caused by occipital lobe infarction.

  8. Influence of Synaptic Depression on Memory Storage Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, Yosuke; Nagata, Kenji; Oizumi, Masafumi; Okada, Masato

    2011-08-01

    Synaptic efficacy between neurons is known to change within a short time scale dynamically. Neurophysiological experiments show that high-frequency presynaptic inputs decrease synaptic efficacy between neurons. This phenomenon is called synaptic depression, a short term synaptic plasticity. Many researchers have investigated how the synaptic depression affects the memory storage capacity. However, the noise has not been taken into consideration in their analysis. By introducing ``temperature'', which controls the level of the noise, into an update rule of neurons, we investigate the effects of synaptic depression on the memory storage capacity in the presence of the noise. We analytically compute the storage capacity by using a statistical mechanics technique called Self Consistent Signal to Noise Analysis (SCSNA). We find that the synaptic depression decreases the storage capacity in the case of finite temperature in contrast to the case of the low temperature limit, where the storage capacity does not change.

  9. Healthy brain connectivity predicts atrophy progression in non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Vilaplana, Eduard; Brown, Jesse A; Hubbard, H Isabel; Binney, Richard J; Attygalle, Suneth; Santos-Santos, Miguel A; Miller, Zachary A; Pakvasa, Mikhail; Henry, Maya L; Rosen, Howard J; Henry, Roland G; Rabinovici, Gil D; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-01

    Neurodegeneration has been hypothesized to follow predetermined large-scale networks through the trans-synaptic spread of toxic proteins from a syndrome-specific epicentre. To date, no longitudinal neuroimaging study has tested this hypothesis in vivo in frontotemporal dementia spectrum disorders. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that longitudinal progression of atrophy in non-fluent/agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia spreads over time from a syndrome-specific epicentre to additional regions, based on their connectivity to the epicentre in healthy control subjects. The syndrome-specific epicentre of the non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia was derived in a group of 10 mildly affected patients (clinical dementia rating equal to 0) using voxel-based morphometry. From this region, the inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis), we derived functional and structural connectivity maps in healthy controls (n = 30) using functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest and diffusion-weighted imaging tractography. Graph theory analysis was applied to derive functional network features. Atrophy progression was calculated using voxel-based morphometry longitudinal analysis on 34 non-fluent/agrammatic patients. Correlation analyses were performed to compare volume changes in patients with connectivity measures of the healthy functional and structural speech/language network. The default mode network was used as a control network. From the epicentre, the healthy functional connectivity network included the left supplementary motor area and the prefrontal, inferior parietal and temporal regions, which were connected through the aslant, superior longitudinal and arcuate fasciculi. Longitudinal grey and white matter changes were found in the left language-related regions and in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Functional connectivity strength in the healthy speech/language network, but not in the default network, correlated with

  10. Secreted factors as synaptic organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Venkatesh, Erin M; Umemori, Hisashi

    2010-07-01

    A critical step in synaptic development is the differentiation of presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments. This complex process is regulated by a variety of secreted factors that serve as synaptic organizers. Specifically, fibroblast growth factors, Wnts, neurotrophic factors and various other intercellular signaling molecules are proposed to regulate presynaptic and/or postsynaptic differentiation. Many of these factors appear to function at both the neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system, although the specific function of the molecules differs between the two. Here we review secreted molecules that organize the synaptic compartments and discuss how these molecules shape synaptic development, focusing on mammalian in vivo systems. Their critical role in shaping a functional neural circuit is underscored by their possible link to a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders both in animal models and by mutations identified in human patients. © The Authors (2010). Journal Compilation © Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. MPTP-meditated hippocampal dopamine deprivation modulates synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guoqi; Chen Ying; Huang Yuying; Li Qinglin; Behnisch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms including learning deficits are inducible by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Therefore, it is possible that MPTP may disturb hippocampal memory processing by modulation of dopamine (DA)- and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. We demonstrate here that intraperitoneal (i.p.) MPTP injection reduces the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) within 7 days. Subsequently, the TH expression level in SN and hippocampus and the amount of DA and its metabolite DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus decrease. DA depletion does not alter basal synaptic transmission and changes pair-pulse facilitation (PPF) of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) only at the 30 ms inter-pulse interval. In addition, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) is impaired whereas the duration of long-term depression (LTD) becomes prolonged. Since both LTP and LTD depend critically on activation of NMDA and DA receptors, we also tested the effect of DA depletion on NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. Seven days after MPTP injection, the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSPs are decreased by about 23%. Blocking the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSP does not mimic the MPTP-LTP. Only co-application of D1/D5 and NMDA receptor antagonists during tetanization resembled the time course of fEPSP potentiation as observed 7 days after i.p. MPTP injection. Together, our data demonstrate that MPTP-induced degeneration of DA neurons and the subsequent hippocampal DA depletion alter NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. - Highlights: → I.p. MPTP-injection mediates death of dopaminergic neurons. → I.p. MPTP-injection depletes DA and DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus. → I.p. MPTP-injection does not alter basal synaptic transmission. → Reduction of LTP and enhancement of LTD after i.p. MPTP-injection. → Attenuation of NMDA-receptors mediated

  12. Spontaneous Vesicle Recycling in the Synaptic Bouton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven eTruckenbrodt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The trigger for synaptic vesicle exocytosis is Ca2+, which enters the synaptic bouton following action potential stimulation. However, spontaneous release of neurotransmitter also occurs in the absence of stimulation in virtually all synaptic boutons. It has long been thought that this represents exocytosis driven by fluctuations in local Ca2+ levels. The vesicles responding to these fluctuations are thought to be the same ones that release upon stimulation, albeit potentially triggered by different Ca2+ sensors. This view has been challenged by several recent works, which have suggested that spontaneous release is driven by a separate pool of synaptic vesicles. Numerous articles appeared during the last few years in support of each of these hypotheses, and it has been challenging to bring them into accord. We speculate here on the origins of this controversy, and propose a solution that is related to developmental effects. Constitutive membrane traffic, needed for the biogenesis of vesicles and synapses, is responsible for high levels of spontaneous membrane fusion in young neurons, probably independent of Ca2+. The vesicles releasing spontaneously in such neurons are not related to other synaptic vesicle pools and may represent constitutively releasing vesicles (CRVs rather than bona fide synaptic vesicles. In mature neurons, constitutive traffic is much dampened, and the few remaining spontaneous release events probably represent bona fide spontaneously releasing synaptic vesicles (SRSVs responding to Ca2+ fluctuations, along with a handful of CRVs that participate in synaptic vesicle turnover.

  13. Active hippocampal networks undergo spontaneous synaptic modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Tsukamoto-Yasui

    Full Text Available The brain is self-writable; as the brain voluntarily adapts itself to a changing environment, the neural circuitry rearranges its functional connectivity by referring to its own activity. How the internal activity modifies synaptic weights is largely unknown, however. Here we report that spontaneous activity causes complex reorganization of synaptic connectivity without any external (or artificial stimuli. Under physiologically relevant ionic conditions, CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices displayed spontaneous spikes with bistable slow oscillations of membrane potential, alternating between the so-called UP and DOWN states. The generation of slow oscillations did not require fast synaptic transmission, but their patterns were coordinated by local circuit activity. In the course of generating spontaneous activity, individual neurons acquired bidirectional long-lasting synaptic modification. The spontaneous synaptic plasticity depended on a rise in intracellular calcium concentrations of postsynaptic cells, but not on NMDA receptor activity. The direction and amount of the plasticity varied depending on slow oscillation patterns and synapse locations, and thus, they were diverse in a network. Once this global synaptic refinement occurred, the same neurons now displayed different patterns of spontaneous activity, which in turn exhibited different levels of synaptic plasticity. Thus, active networks continuously update their internal states through ongoing synaptic plasticity. With computational simulations, we suggest that with this slow oscillation-induced plasticity, a recurrent network converges on a more specific state, compared to that with spike timing-dependent plasticity alone.

  14. Characterizing synaptic protein development in human visual cortex enables alignment of synaptic age with rat visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Joshua G. A.; Jones, David G.; Williams, C. Kate; Murphy, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Although many potential neuroplasticity based therapies have been developed in the lab, few have translated into established clinical treatments for human neurologic or neuropsychiatric diseases. Animal models, especially of the visual system, have shaped our understanding of neuroplasticity by characterizing the mechanisms that promote neural changes and defining timing of the sensitive period. The lack of knowledge about development of synaptic plasticity mechanisms in human cortex, and about alignment of synaptic age between animals and humans, has limited translation of neuroplasticity therapies. In this study, we quantified expression of a set of highly conserved pre- and post-synaptic proteins (Synapsin, Synaptophysin, PSD-95, Gephyrin) and found that synaptic development in human primary visual cortex (V1) continues into late childhood. Indeed, this is many years longer than suggested by neuroanatomical studies and points to a prolonged sensitive period for plasticity in human sensory cortex. In addition, during childhood we found waves of inter-individual variability that are different for the four proteins and include a stage during early development (visual cortex and identified a simple linear equation that provides robust alignment of synaptic age between humans and rats. Alignment of synaptic ages is important for age-appropriate targeting and effective translation of neuroplasticity therapies from the lab to the clinic. PMID:25729353

  15. Four cases with localized brain-stem lesion on CT scan following closed head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Naokatsu; Odaki, Masaru; Oka, Nobuo; Takase, Manabu; Ono, Junichi.

    1981-01-01

    Cases of primary brain-stem injury following closed head injury, verified by a CT scan, have been increasingly reported. However, most of them have other intracranial lesions in addition to the brain stem, resulting in a poor outcome. The CT scan of 200 cases with severe head injury-Araki's classification of types 3 and 4 - were analysed. Four cases out of them had localized brain-stem lesion without any other significant intracranial injury on a CT scan at the acute stage and had a better outcome than had previously been reported. In this analysis, these 4 cases were studied, and the CT findings, prognosis, and pathogenesis of the localized brain-stem injury were discussed. Follow-up CT of three cases, and taken one month or more later, showed diffuse cortical atrophy. This may indicate the presence of diffuse cerebral injury which could not be seen on CT scans at the acute stage. This atrophic change may also be related with the mechanism of posttraumatic conscious impairment and posttraumatic neurological deficits, such as mental symptoms and impairment of the higher cortical function. Shearing injury is a probable pathogenesis for this diffuse cortical injury. On the other hand, one case did not have any cortical atrophy on a follow-up CT scan. Therefore, this is a case with a localized primary brain-stem injury. Coup injury against the brain stem by a tentorial margin in a case with a small tentorial opening is a possible mechanism producing the localized brain-stem injury. (J.P.N.)

  16. Characterization of disuse skeletal muscle atrophy and the efficacy of a novel muscle atrophy countermeasure during spaceflight and simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea Marie

    Humans are an integral part of the engineered systems that will enable return to the Moon and eventually travel to Mars. Major advancements in countermeasure development addressing deleterious effects of microgravity and reduced gravity on the musculoskeletal system need to be made to ensure mission safety and success. The primary objectives of this dissertation are to advance the knowledge and understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy, and support development of novel countermeasures for disuse atrophy to enable healthy long-duration human spaceflight. Models simulating microgravity and actual spaceflight were used to examine the musculoskeletal adaptations during periods of unloading. Myostatin inhibition, a novel anti-atrophy drug therapy, and exercise were examined as a means of preventing and recovering from disuse atrophy. A combination of assays was used to quantify adaptation responses to unloading and examine efficacy of the countermeasures. Body and muscle masses were collected to analyze systemic changes due to treatments. Hindlimb strength and individual muscle forces were measured to demonstrate functional adaptations to treatments. Muscle fiber morphology and myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression was examined to identify adaptations at the cellular level. Protein synthesis signals insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), Akt, and p70s6 kinase; and the degradation signals Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 were examined to identify adaptations at the molecular level that ultimately lead to muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. A time course study provided a thorough characterization of the adaptation of skeletal muscle during unloading in C57BL/6 mice, and baseline data for comparison to and evaluation of subsequent studies. Time points defining the on-set and endpoints of disuse muscle atrophy were identified to enable characterization of rapid vs. long-term responses of skeletal muscle to hindlimb suspension. Unloading-induced atrophy primarily resulted from increased protein

  17. Early functional impairment of sensory-motor connectivity in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, George Z.; Blivis, Dvir; Liu, Wenfang; Drobac, Estelle; Crowder, Melissa E.; Kong, Lingling; Alvarez, Francisco J.; Sumner, Charlotte J.; O'Donovan, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY To define alterations of neuronal connectivity that occur during motor neuron degeneration, we characterized the function and structure of spinal circuitry in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) model mice. SMA motor neurons show reduced proprioceptive reflexes that correlate with decreased number and function of synapses on motor neuron somata and proximal dendrites. These abnormalities occur at an early stage of disease in motor neurons innervating proximal hindlimb muscles and medial motor neurons innervating axial muscles, but only at end-stage disease in motor neurons innervating distal hindlimb muscles. Motor neuron loss follows afferent synapse loss with the same temporal and topographical pattern. Trichostatin A, which improves motor behavior and survival of SMA mice, partially restores spinal reflexes illustrating the reversibility of these synaptic defects. De-afferentation of motor neurons is an early event in SMA and may be a primary cause of motor dysfunction that is amenable to therapeutic intervention. PMID:21315257

  18. An MRI study on the relations between muscle atrophy, shoulder function and glenohumeral deformity in shoulders of children with obstetric brachial plexus injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Doorn-Loogman Mirjam H

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial number of children with an obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL will develop internal rotation adduction contractures of the shoulder, posterior humeral head subluxations and glenohumeral deformities. Their active shoulder function is generally limited and a recent study showed that their shoulder muscles were atrophic. This study focuses on the role of shoulder muscles in glenohumeral deformation and function. Methods This is a prospective study on 24 children with unilateral OBPL, who had internal rotation contractures of the shoulder (mean age 3.3 years, range 14.7 months to 7.3 years. Using MR imaging from both shoulders the following parameters were assessed: glenoid form, glenoscapular angle, subluxation of the humeral head, thickness and segmental volume of the subscapularis, infraspinatus and deltoid muscles. Shoulder function was assessed measuring passive external rotation of the shoulder and using the Mallet score for active function. Statistical tests used are t-tests, Spearman's rho, Pearsons r and logistic regression. Results The affected shoulders showed significantly reduced muscle sizes, increased glenoid retroversion and posterior subluxation. Mean muscle size compared to the normal side was: subscapularis 51%, infraspinatus 61% and deltoid 76%. Glenoid form was related to infraspinatus muscle atrophy. Subluxation was related to both infraspinatus and subscapularis atrophy. There was no relation between atrophy of muscles and passive external rotation. Muscle atrophy was not related to the Mallet score or its dimensions. Conclusion Muscle atrophy was more severe in the subscapularis muscle than in infraspinatus and deltoid. As the muscle ratios are not related to passive external rotation nor to active function of the shoulder, there must be other muscle properties influencing shoulder function.

  19. Stochastic lattice model of synaptic membrane protein domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwei; Kahraman, Osman; Haselwandter, Christoph A

    2017-05-01

    Neurotransmitter receptor molecules, concentrated in synaptic membrane domains along with scaffolds and other kinds of proteins, are crucial for signal transmission across chemical synapses. In common with other membrane protein domains, synaptic domains are characterized by low protein copy numbers and protein crowding, with rapid stochastic turnover of individual molecules. We study here in detail a stochastic lattice model of the receptor-scaffold reaction-diffusion dynamics at synaptic domains that was found previously to capture, at the mean-field level, the self-assembly, stability, and characteristic size of synaptic domains observed in experiments. We show that our stochastic lattice model yields quantitative agreement with mean-field models of nonlinear diffusion in crowded membranes. Through a combination of analytic and numerical solutions of the master equation governing the reaction dynamics at synaptic domains, together with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we find substantial discrepancies between mean-field and stochastic models for the reaction dynamics at synaptic domains. Based on the reaction and diffusion properties of synaptic receptors and scaffolds suggested by previous experiments and mean-field calculations, we show that the stochastic reaction-diffusion dynamics of synaptic receptors and scaffolds provide a simple physical mechanism for collective fluctuations in synaptic domains, the molecular turnover observed at synaptic domains, key features of the observed single-molecule trajectories, and spatial heterogeneity in the effective rates at which receptors and scaffolds are recycled at the cell membrane. Our work sheds light on the physical mechanisms and principles linking the collective properties of membrane protein domains to the stochastic dynamics that rule their molecular components.

  20. Lumbosacral Plexus Injury and Brachial Plexus Injury Following Prolonged Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Lan Kao

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who developed right upper and lower limb paralysis with sensory deficit after sedative drug overdose with prolonged immobilization. Due to the initial motor and sensory deficit pattern, brachial plexus injury or C8/T1 radiculopathy was suspected. Subsequent nerve conduction study/electromyography proved the lesion level to be brachial plexus. Painful swelling of the right buttock was suggestive of gluteal compartment syndrome. Elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase and urinary occult blood indicated rhabdomyolysis. The patient received medical treatment and rehabilitation; 2 years after the injury, her right upper and lower limb function had recovered nearly completely. As it is easy to develop complications such as muscle atrophy and joint contracture during the paralytic period of brachial plexopathy and lumbosacral plexopathy, early intervention with rehabilitation is necessary to ensure that the future limb function of the patient can be recovered. Our patient had suspected gluteal compartment syndrome that developed after prolonged compression, with the complication of concomitant lumbosacral plexus injury and brachial plexus injury, which is rarely reported in the literature. A satisfactory outcome was achieved with nonsurgical management.

  1. Self-organised criticality via retro-synaptic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Urbina, Victor; Herrmann, J. Michael

    2016-12-01

    The brain is a complex system par excellence. In the last decade the observation of neuronal avalanches in neocortical circuits suggested the presence of self-organised criticality in brain networks. The occurrence of this type of dynamics implies several benefits to neural computation. However, the mechanisms that give rise to critical behaviour in these systems, and how they interact with other neuronal processes such as synaptic plasticity are not fully understood. In this paper, we present a long-term plasticity rule based on retro-synaptic signals that allows the system to reach a critical state in which clusters of activity are distributed as a power-law, among other observables. Our synaptic plasticity rule coexists with other synaptic mechanisms such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity, which implies that the resulting synaptic modulation captures not only the temporal correlations between spiking times of pre- and post-synaptic units, which has been suggested as requirement for learning and memory in neural systems, but also drives the system to a state of optimal neural information processing.

  2. Intention tremor after head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwadate, Yasuo; Saeki, Naokatsu; Namba, Hiroki; Odaki, Masaru; Oka, Nobuo.

    1989-01-01

    Eight cases of intention tremor as a late complication of head injury were investigated. The patients ranged in age from 3 to 24 years. All received severe head injuries and lapsed into coma immediately afterward (Glasgow Coma Scale scores ≤8). Six patients exhibited decerebration or decortication. Hemiparesis was present in six cases and oculomotor nerve palsy in four. In the chronic stage, all patients displayed some degree of impairment of higher cortical function and five had dysarthria and/or ataxia. Initial computed tomography (CT) scans within 3 hours after the injury were obtained in five cases, of which four showed a hemorrhagic lesion in the midbrain or its surroundings. Other CT findings were diffuse cerebral swelling (four cases), intraventricular hemorrhage (three), and multiple hemorrhagic lesions (two). In the chronic stage, generalized cortical atrophy or ventricular enlargement was noted in five cases. These clinical features and CT findings indicate diffuse brain damage as well as midbrain damage and may reflect shearing injury. (author)

  3. Spinal cord lesion by minor trauma as an early sign of Multiple System Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Tavares Brum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple System Atrophy (MSA is characterized clinically by parkinsonism, cerebellar, autonomic and corticospinal features of variable severity. When the presentation is only parkinsonism, the disease might be difficult to differentiate from Parkinson´s Disease (PD. We present a case of an 80-year-old man with previous diagnosis of PD. One year after diagnosis he had a whiplash cervical trauma due to a tricycle accident caused by a hole in the road. This low-energy trauma caused an unstable C4-C5 cervical fracture with spinal cord injury which required surgical decompression and stabilization. Neurological examination showed marked postural instability, no rest and postural tremor, finger tapping slowed on the right, spastic tetraparesis (ASIA D—predominantly on the left side—, brisk deep tendon reflexes in the upper and lower extremities and bilateral extensor plantar response. He also presented with vertical gaze restriction, mild hypometria in horizontal saccades, moderate dysphagia and dysphonia. As atypical parkinsonism was suspected he underwent an MRI which revealed conjunction of findings suggestive of parkinsonian-type multiple system atrophy (MSA. In our case we hypothesise that the loss of postural reflexes, as an early manifestation of MSA, did not allow the patient to have an effective reaction response to a low-energy trauma, resulting in a more severe injury. With this case report we speculate that the severe spinal lesions caused by minor accidents can be an early sign of postural instability, which may lead to clinical suspicion of neurodegenerative disorder manifested by postural reflexes impairment.

  4. Stereotyped Synaptic Connectivity Is Restored during Circuit Repair in the Adult Mammalian Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Corinne; Palanker, Daniel; Sher, Alexander

    2018-06-04

    Proper function of the central nervous system (CNS) depends on the specificity of synaptic connections between cells of various types. Cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the establishment and refinement of these connections during development are the subject of an active area of research [1-6]. However, it is unknown if the adult mammalian CNS can form new type-selective synapses following neural injury or disease. Here, we assess whether selective synaptic connections can be reestablished after circuit disruption in the adult mammalian retina. The stereotyped circuitry at the first synapse in the retina, as well as the relatively short distances new neurites must travel compared to other areas of the CNS, make the retina well suited to probing for synaptic specificity during circuit reassembly. Selective connections between short-wavelength sensitive cone photoreceptors (S-cones) and S-cone bipolar cells provides the foundation of the primordial blue-yellow vision, common to all mammals [7-18]. We take advantage of the ground squirrel retina, which has a one-to-one S-cone-to-S-cone-bipolar-cell connection, to test if this connectivity can be reestablished following local photoreceptor loss [8, 19]. We find that after in vivo selective photoreceptor ablation, deafferented S-cone bipolar cells expand their dendritic trees. The new dendrites randomly explore the proper synaptic layer, bypass medium-wavelength sensitive cone photoreceptors (M-cones), and selectively synapse with S-cones. However, non-connected dendrites are not pruned back to resemble unperturbed S-cone bipolar cells. We show, for the first time, that circuit repair in the adult mammalian retina can recreate stereotypic selective wiring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A neonatal mouse spinal cord injury model for assessing post-injury adaptive plasticity and human stem cell integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Boulland

    Full Text Available Despite limited regeneration capacity, partial injuries to the adult mammalian spinal cord can elicit variable degrees of functional recovery, mediated at least in part by reorganization of neuronal circuitry. Underlying mechanisms are believed to include synaptic plasticity and collateral sprouting of spared axons. Because plasticity is higher in young animals, we developed a spinal cord compression (SCC injury model in the neonatal mouse to gain insight into the potential for reorganization during early life. The model provides a platform for high-throughput assessment of functional synaptic connectivity that is also suitable for testing the functional integration of human stem and progenitor cell-derived neurons being considered for clinical cell replacement strategies. SCC was generated at T9-T11 and functional recovery was assessed using an integrated approach including video kinematics, histology, tract tracing, electrophysiology, and high-throughput optical recording of descending inputs to identified spinal neurons. Dramatic degeneration of axons and synaptic contacts was evident within 24 hours of SCC, and loss of neurons in the injured segment was evident for at least a month thereafter. Initial hindlimb paralysis was paralleled by a loss of descending inputs to lumbar motoneurons. Within 4 days of SCC and progressively thereafter, hindlimb motility began to be restored and descending inputs reappeared, but with examples of atypical synaptic connections indicating a reorganization of circuitry. One to two weeks after SCC, hindlimb motility approached sham control levels, and weight-bearing locomotion was virtually indistinguishable in SCC and sham control mice. Genetically labeled human fetal neural progenitor cells injected into the injured spinal cord survived for at least a month, integrated into the host tissue and began to differentiate morphologically. This integrative neonatal mouse model provides opportunities to explore early

  6. Brain atrophy and dementia from the aspect of CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuni, Michiko

    1979-01-01

    Two major causes of dementia in the elderly are reported to be the degeneration of brain and cerebrovascular diseases. Recently, CT findings of cerebrovascular diseases and brain atrophy have been noticed, because they rather clearly show these changes. The authors examined the view of atrophy frequently observed on the dementia in the elderly. The results obtained are as follows: 1) In accordance with the increase of age the appearance of the view of atrophy increased in frequency and that of extreme brain atrophy also increased. 2) As the age increased, the average value of the width of the 3rd ventricle tended to increase. 3) In the cases accompanied with the view of cerebrovascular diseases remarkable ventricular dilatation was frequently observed, and in the very old dilatations of cerebral sulci, central fissure and Sylvian fissure were observed of all cases. 4) Of the group of severe dementia the view of extreme brain atrophy was observed in the major. However, there was no significant difference on the lesion of atrophy between the cases. The results mentioned above include some exceptional points respectively, so further investigation will be necessary from the qualitative and quantitative points of view. (author)

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of the hemiplegic patient with brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, J; Taft, G; Kaplan, P

    1981-10-01

    Brachial plexus injury was observed as a complication in 5 of 12 hemiplegic patients admitted over a 5-week period to an inpatient unit of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. These patients exhibited unusual patterns of muscle atrophy and return of function in the impaired upper extremity. Occupational therapists may play an important part in the diagnosis and treatment of this complication of hemiplegia by promptly recognizing its subtle clinical signs and instituting appropriate therapy. Electromyography may be recommended to confirm this diagnosis. The treatment of choice is to maintain correct positioning of the limb both day and night, to use facilitation techniques for specific muscles in order to prevent atrophy, and to maintain passive range of motion as much as possible. Prevention of brachial plexus injury depends largely on the education of patient, family, and staff as to the potential hazards to a frail extremity that has no protective responses.

  8. Peripapillary retinal thermal coagulation following electrical injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjari Tandon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have presented the case report of a 20 year old boy who suffered an electric injury shock, following which he showed peripapillary retinal opacification and increased retinal thickening that subsequently progressed to retinal atrophy. The fluorescein angiogram revealed normal retinal circulation, thus indicating thermal damage to retina without any compromise to retinal circulation.

  9. Opposing effects of traumatic brain injury on excitatory synaptic function in the lateral amygdala in the absence and presence of preinjury stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rebecca C; Acheson, Shawn K; Qadri, Laura H; Dawson, Alina A; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wetsel, William C; Moore, Scott D; Laskowitz, Daniel T; Dawson, Hana N

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability among young adults and is highly prevalent among recently deployed military personnel. Survivors of TBI often experience cognitive and emotional deficits, suggesting that long-term effects of injury may disrupt neuronal function in critical brain regions, including the amygdala, which is involved in emotion and fear memory. Amygdala hyperexcitability has been reported in both TBI and posttraumatic stress disorder patients, yet little is known regarding the effects of combined stress and TBI on amygdala structure and function at the neuronal level. The present study seeks to determine how the long-term effects of preinjury foot-shock stress and TBI interact to influence synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA) of adult male C57BL/6J mice by using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology 2-3 months postinjury. In the absence of stress, TBI resulted in a significant increase in membrane excitability and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in LA pyramidal-like neurons. Foot-shock stress in the absence of TBI also resulted in increased sEPSC activity. In contrast, when preinjury stress and TBI occurred in combination, sEPSC activity was significantly decreased compared with either condition alone. There were no significant differences in inhibitory activity or total dendritic length among any of the treatment groups. These results demonstrate that stress and TBI may be contributing to amygdala hyperexcitability via different mechanisms and that these pathways may counterbalance each other with respect to long-term pathophysiology in the LA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Deformation-Based Atrophy Estimation for Alzheimer’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) - the most common form of dementia, is a term used for accelerated memory loss and cognitive abilities enough to severely hamper day-to-day activities. One of the most globally accepted markers for AD is atrophy, in mainly the brain parenchyma. The goal of the PhD project...... and a new way to estimate atrophy from a deformation field. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed solution but applying it on the publicly available Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging data (ADNI) initiative and compare to existing state-of-art atrophy estimation methods....

  11. Orphan disease: Cherubism, optic atrophy, and short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandham, Balaji; Ramachandran, Rajoo; Dhanapal, Vignesh; Subramanian, Ilanchezhian; Sai, Venkata

    2018-01-01

    A 12-year-old female presented with complaints of progressive visual impairment in both her eyes. On clinical examination, she was short for her age and her ophthalmoscopic examination revealed bilateral optic atrophy. Computed tomography of the patient revealed multiple expansile lytic lesions of mandible suggesting cherubism. The optic atrophy was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging, which additionally revealed bilateral retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts. This association of cherubism with optic atrophy and short stature was grouped as orphan disease by National Institutes of Health and only one case was reported in the literature so far.

  12. Botulinum Toxin and Muscle Atrophy: A Wanted or Unwanted Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Paul D; Couto, Rafael A; Isakov, Raymond; Yoo, Donald B; Azizzadeh, Babak; Guyuron, Bahman; Zins, James E

    2016-04-01

    While the facial rejuvenating effect of botulinum toxin type A is well known and widespread, its use in body and facial contouring is less common. We first describe its use for deliberate muscle volume reduction, and then document instances of unanticipated and undesirable muscle atrophy. Finally, we investigate the potential long-term adverse effects of botulinum toxin-induced muscle atrophy. Although the use of botulinum toxin type A in the cosmetic patient has been extensively studied, there are several questions yet to be addressed. Does prolonged botulinum toxin treatment increase its duration of action? What is the mechanism of muscle atrophy and what is the cause of its reversibility once treatment has stopped? We proceed to examine how prolonged chemodenervation with botulinum toxin can increase its duration of effect and potentially contribute to muscle atrophy. Instances of inadvertent botulinum toxin-induced atrophy are also described. These include the "hourglass deformity" secondary to botulinum toxin type A treatment for migraine headaches, and a patient with atrophy of multiple facial muscles from injections for hemifacial spasm. Numerous reports demonstrate that muscle atrophy after botulinum toxin type A treatment occurs and is both reversible and temporary, with current literature supporting the notion that repeated chemodenervation with botulinum toxin likely responsible for both therapeutic and incidental temporary muscle atrophy. Furthermore, duration of response may be increased with subsequent treatments, thus minimizing frequency of reinjection. Practitioners should be aware of the temporary and reversible effect of botulinum toxin-induced muscle atrophy and be prepared to reassure patients on this matter. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Lateral regulation of synaptic transmission by astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covelo, A; Araque, A

    2016-05-26

    Fifteen years ago the concept of the "tripartite synapse" was proposed to conceptualize the functional view that astrocytes are integral elements of synapses. The signaling exchange between astrocytes and neurons within the tripartite synapse results in the synaptic regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity through an autocrine form of communication. However, recent evidence indicates that the astrocyte synaptic regulation is not restricted to the active tripartite synapse but can be manifested through astrocyte signaling at synapses relatively distant from active synapses, a process termed lateral astrocyte synaptic regulation. This phenomenon resembles the classical heterosynaptic modulation but is mechanistically different because it involves astrocytes and its properties critically depend on the morphological and functional features of astrocytes. Therefore, the functional concept of the tripartite synapse as a fundamental unit must be expanded to include the interaction between tripartite synapses. Through lateral synaptic regulation, astrocytes serve as an active processing bridge for synaptic interaction and crosstalk between synapses with no direct neuronal connectivity, supporting the idea that neural network function results from the coordinated activity of astrocytes and neurons. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2C (SV2C) modulates dopamine release and is disrupted in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Amy R; Stout, Kristen A; Ozawa, Minagi; Lohr, Kelly M; Hoffman, Carlie A; Bernstein, Alison I; Li, Yingjie; Wang, Minzheng; Sgobio, Carmelo; Sastry, Namratha; Cai, Huaibin; Caudle, W Michael; Miller, Gary W

    2017-03-14

    Members of the synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2) family of proteins are involved in synaptic function throughout the brain. The ubiquitously expressed SV2A has been widely implicated in epilepsy, although SV2C with its restricted basal ganglia distribution is poorly characterized. SV2C is emerging as a potentially relevant protein in Parkinson disease (PD), because it is a genetic modifier of sensitivity to l-DOPA and of nicotine neuroprotection in PD. Here we identify SV2C as a mediator of dopamine homeostasis and report that disrupted expression of SV2C within the basal ganglia is a pathological feature of PD. Genetic deletion of SV2C leads to reduced dopamine release in the dorsal striatum as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, reduced striatal dopamine content, disrupted α-synuclein expression, deficits in motor function, and alterations in neurochemical effects of nicotine. Furthermore, SV2C expression is dramatically altered in postmortem brain tissue from PD cases but not in Alzheimer disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, or multiple system atrophy. This disruption was paralleled in mice overexpressing mutated α-synuclein. These data establish SV2C as a mediator of dopamine neuron function and suggest that SV2C disruption is a unique feature of PD that likely contributes to dopaminergic dysfunction.

  15. Accelerating regional atrophy rates in the progression from normal aging to Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluimer, Jasper D.; Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Scheltens, Philip; Karas, Giorgos B.; Barkhof, Frederik; Schijndel, Ronald van; Barnes, Josephine; Boyes, Richard G.; Cover, Keith S.; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; Fox, Nick C.; Vrenken, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    We investigated progression of atrophy in vivo, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We included 64 patients with AD, 44 with MCI and 34 controls with serial MRI examinations (interval 1.8 ± 0.7 years). A nonlinear registration algorithm (fluid) was used to calculate atrophy rates in six regions: frontal, medial temporal, temporal (extramedial), parietal, occipital lobes and insular cortex. In MCI, the highest atrophy rate was observed in the medial temporal lobe, comparable with AD. AD patients showed even higher atrophy rates in the extramedial temporal lobe. Additionally, atrophy rates in frontal, parietal and occipital lobes were increased. Cox proportional hazard models showed that all regional atrophy rates predicted conversion to AD. Hazard ratios varied between 2.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-6.2) for occipital atrophy and 15.8 (95% CI = 3.5-71.8) for medial temporal lobe atrophy. In conclusion, atrophy spreads through the brain with development of AD. MCI is marked by temporal lobe atrophy. In AD, atrophy rate in the extramedial temporal lobe was even higher. Moreover, atrophy rates also accelerated in parietal, frontal, insular and occipital lobes. Finally, in nondemented elderly, medial temporal lobe atrophy was most predictive of progression to AD, demonstrating the involvement of this region in the development of AD. (orig.)

  16. Brain atrophy during aging. Quantitative studies with X-CT and NMR-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamada, Kenji; Yamada, Susumu; Ono, Shuichi; Takeda, Shunpei; Hatazawa, Jun; Ito, Masatoshi; Kubota, Kazuo

    1985-12-01

    Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34-35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34-35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multi-infarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34-35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extent of brain atrophy (20 - 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was the decrease in the cerebral blood flow. We have classified brain atrophy into sulcal and cisternal enlargement type (type I), ventricular enlargement type (type II) and mixed type (type III) according to the clinical study using NMR-CT. Brain atrophy of type I progresses significantly in almost all of the geriatric disorders. This type of brain atrophy progresses significantly in heavy smokers and drinkers. Therefore this type of brain atrophy might be caused by the decline in the blood flow in anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Brain atrophy of type II was caused by the disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid circulation after cerebral bleeding and subarachnoid bleeding. Brain atrophy of type III was seen in vascular dementia or multi-infarct dementia which was caused by loss of brain matter after multiple infarction, and was seen also in dementia of Alzheimer type in which degeneration of nerve cells results in brain atrophy. NMR-CT can easily detect small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy. (J.P.N.).

  17. Minocycline Transiently Reduces Microglia/Macrophage Activation but Exacerbates Cognitive Deficits Following Repetitive Traumatic Brain Injury in the Neonatal Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Lauren A.; Huh, Jimmy W.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated microglial/macrophage-associated biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid of infant victims of abusive head trauma (AHT) suggest that these cells play a role in the pathophysiology of the injury. In a model of AHT in 11-day-old rats, 3 impacts (24 hours apart) resulted in spatial learning and memory deficits and increased brain microglial/macrophage reactivity, traumatic axonal injury, neuronal degeneration, and cortical and white-matter atrophy. The antibiotic minocycline has been effective in decreasing injury-induced microglial/macrophage activation while simultaneously attenuating cellular and functional deficits in models of neonatal hypoxic ischemia, but the potential for this compound to rescue deficits after impact-based trauma to the immature brain remains unexplored. Acute minocycline administration in this model of AHT decreased microglial/macrophage reactivity in the corpus callosum of brain-injured animals at 3 days postinjury, but this effect was lost by 7 days postinjury. Additionally, minocycline treatment had no effect on traumatic axonal injury, neurodegeneration, tissue atrophy, or spatial learning deficits. Interestingly, minocycline-treated animals demonstrated exacerbated injury-induced spatial memory deficits. These results contrast with previous findings in other models of brain injury and suggest that minocycline is ineffective in reducing microglial/macrophage activation and ameliorating injury-induced deficits following repetitive neonatal traumatic brain injury. PMID:26825312

  18. Attractor neural networks with resource-efficient synaptic connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlevan, Cengiz; Sengupta, Anirvan

    Memories are thought to be stored in the attractor states of recurrent neural networks. Here we explore how resource constraints interplay with memory storage function to shape synaptic connectivity of attractor networks. We propose that given a set of memories, in the form of population activity patterns, the neural circuit choses a synaptic connectivity configuration that minimizes a resource usage cost. We argue that the total synaptic weight (l1-norm) in the network measures the resource cost because synaptic weight is correlated with synaptic volume, which is a limited resource, and is proportional to neurotransmitter release and post-synaptic current, both of which cost energy. Using numerical simulations and replica theory, we characterize optimal connectivity profiles in resource-efficient attractor networks. Our theory explains several experimental observations on cortical connectivity profiles, 1) connectivity is sparse, because synapses are costly, 2) bidirectional connections are overrepresented and 3) are stronger, because attractor states need strong recurrence.

  19. Albumin infusion after reperfusion prevents gut ischemia-reperfusion-induced gut-associated lymphoid tissue atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezawa, Fumie; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Maeshima, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Koichi; Hara, Etsuko; Hiraide, Hoshio; Compher, Charlene W

    2006-01-01

    Our recent study clarified that gut ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) causes gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) mass atrophy, a possible mechanism for increased morbidity of infectious complications after severe surgical insults. Because albumin administration reportedly reduces hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury, we hypothesized that albumin treatment prevents GALT atrophy due to gut I/R. Male mice (n = 37) were randomized to albumin, normal saline, and sham groups. All groups underwent jugular vein catheter insertion. The albumin and normal saline groups underwent 75-minute occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. During gut ischemia, all mice received normal saline infusions at 1.0 mL/h. The albumin group was given 5% bovine serum albumin in normal saline at 1.0 mL/h for 60 minutes after reperfusion, whereas the normal saline group received 0.9% sodium chloride at 1.0 mL/h. The sham group underwent laparotomy only. Mice were killed on day 1 or 7, and the entire small intestine was harvested. GALT lymphocytes were isolated and counted. Their phenotypes (alphabetaTCR, gammadeltaTCR, CD4, CD8, B220) were determined by flow cytometry. On day 1, the gut I/R groups showed significantly lower total lymphocyte and B cell numbers in Peyer's patches and the lamina propria than the sham group. However, the albumin infusion partially but significantly restored these cell numbers. On day 7, there were no significant differences in any of the parameters measured among the 3 groups. Albumin infusion after a gut ischemic insult may maintain gut immunity by preventing GALT atrophy.

  20. Orphan disease: Cherubism, optic atrophy, and short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Jeevanandham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old female presented with complaints of progressive visual impairment in both her eyes. On clinical examination, she was short for her age and her ophthalmoscopic examination revealed bilateral optic atrophy. Computed tomography of the patient revealed multiple expansile lytic lesions of mandible suggesting cherubism. The optic atrophy was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging, which additionally revealed bilateral retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts. This association of cherubism with optic atrophy and short stature was grouped as orphan disease by National Institutes of Health and only one case was reported in the literature so far.

  1. Early and Degressive Putamen Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Krämer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Putamen atrophy and its long-term progress during disease course were recently shown in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Here we investigated retrospectively the time point of atrophy onset in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS. 68 patients with RRMS and 26 healthy controls (HC were admitted to 3T MRI in a cross-sectional study. We quantitatively analyzed the putamen volume of individual patients in relation to disease duration by correcting for age and intracranial volume (ICV. Patient’s relative putamen volume (RPV, expressed in percent of ICV, was significantly reduced compared to HC. Based on the correlation between RPV and age, we computed the age-corrected RPV deviation (ΔRPV from HC. Patients showed significantly negative ΔRPV. Interestingly, the age-corrected ΔRPV depended logarithmically on disease duration: Directly after first symptom manifestation, patients already showed a reduced RPV followed by a further degressive volumetric decline. This means that atrophy progression was stronger in the first than in later years of disease. Putamen atrophy starts directly after initial symptom manifestation or even years before, and progresses in a degressive manner. Due to its important role in neurological functions, early detection of putamen atrophy seems necessary. High-resolution structural MRI allows monitoring of disease course.

  2. Evaluating Alzheimer's disease progression using rate of regional hippocampal atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edit Frankó

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by neurofibrillary tangle and neuropil thread deposition, which ultimately results in neuronal loss. A large number of magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported a smaller hippocampus in AD patients as compared to healthy elderlies. Even though this difference is often interpreted as atrophy, it is only an indirect measurement. A more direct way of measuring the atrophy is to use repeated MRIs within the same individual. Even though several groups have used this appropriate approach, the pattern of hippocampal atrophy still remains unclear and difficult to relate to underlying pathophysiology. Here, in this longitudinal study, we aimed to map hippocampal atrophy rates in patients with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI and elderly controls. Data consisted of two MRI scans for each subject. The symmetric deformation field between the first and the second MRI was computed and mapped onto the three-dimensional hippocampal surface. The pattern of atrophy rate was similar in all three groups, but the rate was significantly higher in patients with AD than in control subjects. We also found higher atrophy rates in progressive MCI patients as compared to stable MCI, particularly in the antero-lateral portion of the right hippocampus. Importantly, the regions showing the highest atrophy rate correspond to those that were described to have the highest burden of tau deposition. Our results show that local hippocampal atrophy rate is a reliable biomarker of disease stage and progression and could also be considered as a method to objectively evaluate treatment effects.

  3. Predictive modeling of neuroanatomic structures for brain atrophy detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xintao; Guo, Lei; Nie, Jingxin; Li, Kaiming; Liu, Tianming

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we present an approach of predictive modeling of neuroanatomic structures for the detection of brain atrophy based on cross-sectional MRI image. The underlying premise of applying predictive modeling for atrophy detection is that brain atrophy is defined as significant deviation of part of the anatomy from what the remaining normal anatomy predicts for that part. The steps of predictive modeling are as follows. The central cortical surface under consideration is reconstructed from brain tissue map and Regions of Interests (ROI) on it are predicted from other reliable anatomies. The vertex pair-wise distance between the predicted vertex and the true one within the abnormal region is expected to be larger than that of the vertex in normal brain region. Change of white matter/gray matter ratio within a spherical region is used to identify the direction of vertex displacement. In this way, the severity of brain atrophy can be defined quantitatively by the displacements of those vertices. The proposed predictive modeling method has been evaluated by using both simulated atrophies and MRI images of Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Forebrain deletion of αGDI in adult mice worsens the pre-synaptic deficit at cortico-lateral amygdala synaptic connections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Bianchi

    Full Text Available The GDI1 gene encodes αGDI, which retrieves inactive GDP-bound RAB from membranes to form a cytosolic pool awaiting vesicular release. Mutations in GDI1 are responsible for X-linked Intellectual Disability. Characterization of the Gdi1-null mice has revealed alterations in the total number and distribution of hippocampal and cortical synaptic vesicles, hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity and specific short-term memory deficits in adult mice, which are possibly caused by alterations of different synaptic vesicle recycling pathways controlled by several RAB GTPases. However, interpretation of these studies is complicated by the complete ablation of Gdi1 in all cells in the brain throughout development. In this study, we generated conditionally gene-targeted mice in which the knockout of Gdi1 is restricted to the forebrain, hippocampus, cortex and amygdala and occurs only during postnatal development. Adult mutant mice reproduce the short-term memory deficit previously reported in Gdi1-null mice. Surprisingly, the delayed ablation of Gdi1 worsens the pre-synaptic phenotype at cortico-amygdala synaptic connections compared to Gdi1-null mice. These results suggest a pivotal role of αGDI via specific RAB GTPases acting specifically in forebrain regions at the pre-synaptic sites involved in memory formation.

  5. Synapse geometry and receptor dynamics modulate synaptic strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Freche

    Full Text Available Synaptic transmission relies on several processes, such as the location of a released vesicle, the number and type of receptors, trafficking between the postsynaptic density (PSD and extrasynaptic compartment, as well as the synapse organization. To study the impact of these parameters on excitatory synaptic transmission, we present a computational model for the fast AMPA-receptor mediated synaptic current. We show that in addition to the vesicular release probability, due to variations in their release locations and the AMPAR distribution, the postsynaptic current amplitude has a large variance, making a synapse an intrinsic unreliable device. We use our model to examine our experimental data recorded from CA1 mice hippocampal slices to study the differences between mEPSC and evoked EPSC variance. The synaptic current but not the coefficient of variation is maximal when the active zone where vesicles are released is apposed to the PSD. Moreover, we find that for certain type of synapses, receptor trafficking can affect the magnitude of synaptic depression. Finally, we demonstrate that perisynaptic microdomains located outside the PSD impacts synaptic transmission by regulating the number of desensitized receptors and their trafficking to the PSD. We conclude that geometrical modifications, reorganization of the PSD or perisynaptic microdomains modulate synaptic strength, as the mechanisms underlying long-term plasticity.

  6. Different atrophy-hypertrophy transcription pathways in muscles affected by severe and mild spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millino Caterina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with mutations of the survival motor neuron gene SMN and is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy caused by degeneration of spinal motor neurons. SMN has a role in neurons but its deficiency may have a direct effect on muscle tissue. Methods We applied microarray and quantitative real-time PCR to study at transcriptional level the effects of a defective SMN gene in skeletal muscles affected by the two forms of SMA: the most severe type I and the mild type III. Results The two forms of SMA generated distinct expression signatures: the SMA III muscle transcriptome is close to that found under normal conditions, whereas in SMA I there is strong alteration of gene expression. Genes implicated in signal transduction were up-regulated in SMA III whereas those of energy metabolism and muscle contraction were consistently down-regulated in SMA I. The expression pattern of gene networks involved in atrophy signaling was completed by qRT-PCR, showing that specific pathways are involved, namely IGF/PI3K/Akt, TNF-α/p38 MAPK and Ras/ERK pathways. Conclusion Our study suggests a different picture of atrophy pathways in each of the two forms of SMA. In particular, p38 may be the regulator of protein synthesis in SMA I. The SMA III profile appears as the result of the concurrent presence of atrophic and hypertrophic fibers. This more favorable condition might be due to the over-expression of MTOR that, given its role in the activation of protein synthesis, could lead to compensatory hypertrophy in SMA III muscle fibers.

  7. Traumatic intracranial hemorrhage correlates with preinjury brain atrophy, but not with antithrombotic agent use: a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Michael Dunham

    Full Text Available The impact of antithrombotic agents (warfarin, clopidogrel, ASA on traumatic brain injury outcomes is highly controversial. Although cerebral atrophy is speculated as a risk for acute intracranial hemorrhage, there is no objective literature evidence.This is a retrospective, consecutive investigation of patients with signs of external head trauma and age ≥60 years. Outcomes were correlated with antithrombotic-agent status, coagulation test results, admission neurologic function, and CT-based cerebral atrophy dimensions.Of 198 consecutive patients, 36% were antithrombotic-negative and 64% antithrombotic-positive. ASA patients had higher arachidonic acid inhibition (p = 0.04 and warfarin patients had higher INR (p<0.001, compared to antithrombotic-negative patients. Antithrombotic-positive intracranial hemorrhage rate (38.9% was similar to the antithrombotic-negative rate (31.9%; p = 0.3285. Coagulopathy was not present on the ten standard coagulation, thromboelastography, and platelet mapping tests with intracranial hemorrhage and results were similar to those without hemorrhage (p≥0.1354. Hemorrhagic-neurologic complication (intracranial hemorrhage progression, need for craniotomy, neurologic deterioration, or death rates were similar for antithrombotic-negative (6.9% and antithrombotic-positive (8.7%; p = 0.6574 patients. The hemorrhagic-neurologic complication rate was increased when admission major neurologic dysfunction was present (63.2% versus 2.2%; RR = 28.3; p<0.001. Age correlated inversely with brain parenchymal width (p<0.001 and positively with lateral ventricular width (p = 0.047 and cortical atrophy (p<0.001. Intracranial hemorrhage correlated with cortical atrophy (p<0.001 and ventricular width (p<0.001.Intracranial hemorrhage is not associated with antithrombotic agent use. Intracranial hemorrhage patients have no demonstrable coagulopathy. The association of preinjury brain atrophy with acute intracranial

  8. A case of hepatic atrophy by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson; Saitoh, Yoichi

    1994-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman was treated with 60 Co irradiation (total dose 6000 rads) focused on the right side porta hepatis under the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma in 1975. Seventeen years after the treatment, she was admitted to our institution because of dull pain at right hypochondriac region. Adominal CT demonstrated an extreme hepatic atrophy and tumor mass in the right lobe of the liver. In November, 1991 right trisegmentectomy was performed under the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Laparotomy revealed the extreme atrophy of the right lobe and associated hypertrophy of the left lobe of the liver. In this case radiation hepatitis occurred after irradiation to the liver and it was followed by the extreme hepatic atrophy as a long term effect of high dose irradiation on the liver. (author)

  9. Synaptic vesicle distribution by conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughamian, Armen J; Holzbaur, Erika L F

    2012-03-02

    The equal distribution of synaptic vesicles among synapses along the axon is critical for robust neurotransmission. Wong et al. show that the continuous circulation of synaptic vesicles throughout the axon driven by molecular motors ultimately yields this even distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Biochemical adaptations of antigravity muscle fibers to disuse atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Studies are presented in four parts of this report. The four parts include; (1) studies to gain information on the molecular basis of atrophy by antigravity muscle; (2) studies on the work capacity of antigravity muscles during atrophy and during recovery from atrophy; (3) studies on recovery of degenerated antigravity fibers after removal of hind-limb casts; and (4) studies on the atrophy and recovery of bone. The philosophy of these studies was to identify the time sequence of events in the soleus muscle of the rat following immobilization of the hind limbs, so that the length of the soleus muscle within the fixed limb is less than its resting length. In two separate studies, no decline in the weight of the soleus muscle could be detected during the first 72 hours of limb immobilization.

  11. Cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy correlated by xenon contrast CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Y.; Meyer, J.S.; Tanahashi, N.; Rogers, R.L.; Tachibana, H.; Kandula, P.; Dowell, R.E.; Mortel, K.F.

    1985-01-01

    Correlations between cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured during stable xenon contrast CT scanning and standard CT indices of brain atrophy were investigated in the patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type, multi-infarct dementia and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Compared to age-matched normal volunteers, significant correlations were found in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease between cortical and subcortical gray matter blood flow and brain atrophy estimated by the ventricular body ratio, and mild to moderate brain atrophy were correlated with stepwise CBF reductions. However, in patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia, brain atrophy was not associated with stepwise CBF reductions. Overall correlations between brain atrophy and reduced CBF were weak. Mild degrees of brain atrophy are not always associated with reduced CBF

  12. Effect of Oenothera odorata Root Extract on Microgravity and Disuse-Induced Muscle Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Hyeon; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Park, Ji-Hyung; Kabayama, Kazuya; Opitz, Joerg; Lee, Kwang Ho; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2015-01-01

    Muscle atrophy, a reduction of muscle mass, strength, and volume, results from reduced muscle use and plays a key role in various muscular diseases. In the microgravity environment of space especially, muscle atrophy is induced by muscle inactivity. Exposure to microgravity induces muscle atrophy through several biological effects, including associations with reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study used 3D-clinostat to investigate muscle atrophy caused by oxidative stress in vitro, and sciatic denervation was used to investigate muscle atrophy in vivo. We assessed the effect of Oenothera odorata root extract (EVP) on muscle atrophy. EVP helped recover cell viability in C2C12 myoblasts exposed to microgravity for 24 h and delayed muscle atrophy in sciatic denervated mice. However, the expressions of HSP70, SOD1, and ceramide in microgravity-exposed C2C12 myoblasts and in sciatic denervated mice were either decreased or completely inhibited. These results suggested that EVP can be expected to have a positive effect on muscle atrophy by disuse and microgravity. In addition, EVP helped characterize the antioxidant function in muscle atrophy.

  13. MRI of the spinocerebellar degeneration (multiple system atrophy, Holmes type, and Menzel-Joseph type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Eiichiro; Makino, Naoki.

    1991-01-01

    We have analyzed MRI in 33 patients with several forms of spinocerebellar degeneration; 17 with multiple system atrophy, 10 with Holmes type, and 6 with Menzel-Joseph type. The MRIs were obtained using a 1.5-T GEMR System. Patients with multiple system atrophy demonstrated: atrophy of the brain stem, particularly basis pontis; decreased signal intensity of the white matter of pons; atrophy of the white matter of cerebellum; atrophy and decreased signal intensity of the putamen, particularly along their lateral and posterior portions; and atrophy of the cerebrum. Patients with Holmes type showed: atrophy of the cerebellum; atrophy of the vermis more than hemispheres; and nuclei of the cerebellum with no decreased intensity on T 2 -weighted sequences. Patients with Menzel-Joseph type demonstrated moderate atrophy of the brain stem and mild atrophy of the white matter of cerebellum. MRI is a useful diagnostic tool in the management of the spinocerebellar degeneration. (author)

  14. Early Astrocytic Atrophy in the Entorhinal Cortex of a Triple Transgenic Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Yeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The EC (entorhinal cortex is fundamental for cognitive and mnesic functions. Thus damage to this area appears as a key element in the progression of AD (Alzheimer's disease, resulting in memory deficits arising from neuronal and synaptic alterations as well as glial malfunction. In this paper, we have performed an in-depth analysis of astroglial morphology in the EC by measuring the surface and volume of the GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein profiles in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD [3xTg-AD (triple transgenic mice of AD]. We found significant reduction in both the surface and volume of GFAP-labelled profiles in 3xTg-AD animals from very early ages (1 month when compared with non-Tg (non-transgenic controls (48 and 54%, reduction respectively, which was sustained for up to 12 months (33 and 45% reduction respectively. The appearance of Aβ (amyloid β-peptide depositions at 12 months of age did not trigger astroglial hypertrophy; nor did it result in the close association of astrocytes with senile plaques. Our results suggest that the AD progressive cognitive deterioration can be associated with an early reduction of astrocytic arborization and shrinkage of the astroglial domain, which may affect synaptic connectivity within the EC and between the EC and other brain regions. In addition, the EC seems to be particularly vulnerable to AD pathology because of the absence of evident astrogliosis in response to Aβ accumulation. Thus we can consider that targeting astroglial atrophy may represent a therapeutic strategy which might slow down the progression of AD.

  15. Reviewing the options for local estrogen treatment of vaginal atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindahl SH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarah H Lindahl Sutter East Bay Medical Foundation, SEBMF – Diablo Division, Castro Valley, CA, USA Background: Vaginal atrophy is a chronic condition with symptoms that include vaginal dryness, pain during sex, itching, irritation, burning, and discharge, as well as various urinary problems. Up to 45% of postmenopausal women may be affected, but it often remains underreported and undertreated. This article aims to review the current recommendations for treatment of vaginal atrophy, and current data on the effectiveness and safety of local vaginal estrogen therapies. Methods: Literature regarding vaginal atrophy (2007–2012 was retrieved from PubMed and summarized, with emphasis on data related to the treatment of vaginal atrophy with local vaginal estrogen therapy. Results: Published data support the effectiveness and endometrial safety of low-dose local estrogen therapies. These results further support the general recommendation by the North American Menopause Society that a progestogen is not needed for endometrial protection in patients using low-dose local vaginal estrogen. Benefits of long-term therapy for vaginal atrophy include sustained relief of symptoms as well as physiological improvements (eg, decreased vaginal pH and increased blood flow, epithelial thickness, secretions. Conclusion: Currently available local vaginal estrogen therapies are well tolerated and effective in relieving symptoms of vaginal atrophy. Recent data support the endometrial safety of low-dose regimens for up to 1 year. Keywords: menopause, estrogen, local estrogen therapy, vaginal atrophy

  16. CT findings of brain atrophy after chemotherapy in acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jun; Park, Seog Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University Medicine College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    A study was performed to evaluate the atrophic changes of the central nerve system after chemotherapy in the patients with acute leukemia. The computed tomographic findings and medical records of 20 proven acute leukemia patients under 35 years-old who developed various CNS symptoms and signs during and/or after 2 courses of chemotherapy were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. Age distribution was from 14 to 5 years (mean was 26 years). Male was 15. 2. Presenting clinical symptoms and signs were headache (16/20), nausea and vomiting (11/20) and loss of consciousness (5/20). 3. Brain atrophy was noted in 16 patients including cortical and subcortical atrophy 15 cases and subcortical atrophy 1 case. 4. Two cases of hemorrhage, one each of intracranial hematoma and chronic subdural hematoma were found in addition to brain atrophy. This showed that chemotherapeutic agents cause brain atrophy in a considerable number of the patients with symptomatic acute leukemia.

  17. Targeted inhibition of TGF-β results in an initial improvement but long-term deficit in force production after contraction-induced skeletal muscle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumucio, Jonathan P; Flood, Michael D; Phan, Anthony C; Brooks, Susan V; Mendias, Christopher L

    2013-08-15

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a proinflammatory cytokine that regulates the response of many tissues following injury. Previous studies in our lab have shown that treating muscles with TGF-β results in a dramatic accumulation of type I collagen, substantial fiber atrophy, and a marked decrease in force production. Because TGF-β promotes atrophy and fibrosis, our objective was to investigate whether the inhibition of TGF-β after injury would enhance the recovery of muscle following injury. We hypothesized that inhibiting TGF-β after contraction-induced injury would improve the functional recovery of muscles by preventing muscle fiber atrophy and weakness, and by limiting the accumulation of fibrotic scar tissue. To test this hypothesis, we induced an injury using a series of in situ lengthening contractions to extensor digitorum longus muscles of mice treated with either a bioneutralizing antibody against TGF-β or a sham antibody. Compared with controls, muscles from mice receiving TGF-β inhibitor showed a greater recovery in force 3 days and 7 days after injury but had a decrease in force compared with controls at the 21-day time point. The early enhancement in force in the TGF-β inhibitor group was associated with an initial improvement in tissue morphology, but, at 21 days, while the control group was fully recovered, the TGF-β inhibitor group displayed an irregular extracellular matrix and an increase in atrogin-1 gene expression. These results indicate that the inhibition of TGF-β promotes the early recovery of muscle function but is detrimental overall to full muscle recovery following moderate to severe muscle injuries.

  18. Abnormalities of fixation, saccade and pursuit in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Kaski, Diego; Yong, Keir X X; Paterson, Ross W; Slattery, Catherine F; Ryan, Natalie S; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-07-01

    The clinico-neuroradiological syndrome posterior cortical atrophy is the cardinal 'visual dementia' and most common atypical Alzheimer's disease phenotype, offering insights into mechanisms underlying clinical heterogeneity, pathological propagation and basic visual phenomena (e.g. visual crowding). Given the extensive attention paid to patients' (higher order) perceptual function, it is surprising that there have been no systematic analyses of basic oculomotor function in this population. Here 20 patients with posterior cortical atrophy, 17 patients with typical Alzheimer's disease and 22 healthy controls completed tests of fixation, saccade (including fixation/target gap and overlap conditions) and smooth pursuit eye movements using an infrared pupil-tracking system. Participants underwent detailed neuropsychological and neurological examinations, with a proportion also undertaking brain imaging and analysis of molecular pathology. In contrast to informal clinical evaluations of oculomotor dysfunction frequency (previous studies: 38%, current clinical examination: 33%), detailed eyetracking investigations revealed eye movement abnormalities in 80% of patients with posterior cortical atrophy (compared to 17% typical Alzheimer's disease, 5% controls). The greatest differences between posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease were seen in saccadic performance. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy made significantly shorter saccades especially for distant targets. They also exhibited a significant exacerbation of the normal gap/overlap effect, consistent with 'sticky fixation'. Time to reach saccadic targets was significantly associated with parietal and occipital cortical thickness measures. On fixation stability tasks, patients with typical Alzheimer's disease showed more square wave jerks whose frequency was associated with lower cerebellar grey matter volume, while patients with posterior cortical atrophy showed large saccadic intrusions

  19. Novel in vitro platform to investigate myotube atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkrug, Christopher; Horn, Katharina; Makert, Gustavo R; Schubert, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The electrical current exclusion (ECE) principle provides an alternative to common methods of cell diameter measurement and especially in atrophy and cancer associated cachexia research. C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated into myotubes and treated with 100 μM dexamethasone to induce atrophy in vitro. Subsequently, they were incubated for 24 h with media containing different concentrations of curcumin and/or branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in order to counteract atrophy. After treatment with curcumin, an increase in cell diameter was detectable; the highest increase with 13.9 ± 0.4% was seen with 10 μM curcumin. The combination of curcumin and BCAAs showed an increase of 13.4 ± 1.2 %. Cell diameter measurement via the ECE showed that curcumin, and curcumin in combination with BCAAs, were able to restore atrophic C2C12 myotubes. Therefore, the application of ECE in muscle atrophy and also cancer-associated cachexia research allows rapid screening of novel compounds in order to test their efficacy in vitro. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Oenothera odorata Root Extract on Microgravity and Disuse-Induced Muscle Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hyeon Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle atrophy, a reduction of muscle mass, strength, and volume, results from reduced muscle use and plays a key role in various muscular diseases. In the microgravity environment of space especially, muscle atrophy is induced by muscle inactivity. Exposure to microgravity induces muscle atrophy through several biological effects, including associations with reactive oxygen species (ROS. This study used 3D-clinostat to investigate muscle atrophy caused by oxidative stress in vitro, and sciatic denervation was used to investigate muscle atrophy in vivo. We assessed the effect of Oenothera odorata root extract (EVP on muscle atrophy. EVP helped recover cell viability in C2C12 myoblasts exposed to microgravity for 24 h and delayed muscle atrophy in sciatic denervated mice. However, the expressions of HSP70, SOD1, and ceramide in microgravity-exposed C2C12 myoblasts and in sciatic denervated mice were either decreased or completely inhibited. These results suggested that EVP can be expected to have a positive effect on muscle atrophy by disuse and microgravity. In addition, EVP helped characterize the antioxidant function in muscle atrophy.

  1. Astrocyte atrophy and immune dysfunction in self-harming macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kim M; Chiu, Kevin B; Sansing, Hope A; Inglis, Fiona M; Baker, Kate C; MacLean, Andrew G

    2013-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a complex condition that exhibits a spectrum of abnormal neuropsychological and locomotor behaviors. Mechanisms for neuropathogenesis could include irregular immune activation, host soluble factors, and astrocyte dysfunction. We examined the role of astrocytes as modulators of immune function in macaques with SIB. We measured changes in astrocyte morphology and function. Paraffin sections of frontal cortices from rhesus macaques identified with SIB were stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Morphologic features of astrocytes were determined using computer-assisted camera lucida. There was atrophy of white matter astrocyte cell bodies, decreased arbor length in both white and gray matter astrocytes, and decreased bifurcations and tips on astrocytes in animals with SIB. This was combined with a five-fold increase in the proportion of astrocytes immunopositive for TLR2. These results provide direct evidence that SIB induces immune activation of astrocytes concomitant with quantifiably different morphology.

  2. Astrocyte atrophy and immune dysfunction in self-harming macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-injurious behavior (SIB is a complex condition that exhibits a spectrum of abnormal neuropsychological and locomotor behaviors. Mechanisms for neuropathogenesis could include irregular immune activation, host soluble factors, and astrocyte dysfunction. METHODS: We examined the role of astrocytes as modulators of immune function in macaques with SIB. We measured changes in astrocyte morphology and function. Paraffin sections of frontal cortices from rhesus macaques identified with SIB were stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2. Morphologic features of astrocytes were determined using computer-assisted camera lucida. RESULTS: There was atrophy of white matter astrocyte cell bodies, decreased arbor length in both white and gray matter astrocytes, and decreased bifurcations and tips on astrocytes in animals with SIB. This was combined with a five-fold increase in the proportion of astrocytes immunopositive for TLR2. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide direct evidence that SIB induces immune activation of astrocytes concomitant with quantifiably different morphology.

  3. Experimental Implementation of a Biometric Laser Synaptic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Pisarchik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We fabricate a biometric laser fiber synaptic sensor to transmit information from one neuron cell to the other by an optical way. The optical synapse is constructed on the base of an erbium-doped fiber laser, whose pumped diode current is driven by a pre-synaptic FitzHugh–Nagumo electronic neuron, and the laser output controls a post-synaptic FitzHugh–Nagumo electronic neuron. The implemented laser synapse displays very rich dynamics, including fixed points, periodic orbits with different frequency-locking ratios and chaos. These regimes can be beneficial for efficient biorobotics, where behavioral flexibility subserved by synaptic connectivity is a challenge.

  4. Spinal Muscular Atrophy FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease), cystic fibrosis and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Approximately 1 in 50 Americans, or about 6 ... Pediatric Neuromuscular Clinical Research Network ( PNCR ) and the Muscular ... is the SMN2 gene? Muscle weakness and atrophy in SMA results from the ...

  5. Glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the mesocorticolimbic system in addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aile evan Huijstee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Addictive drugs remodel the brain’s reward circuitry, the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, by inducing widespread adaptations of glutamatergic synapses. This drug-induced synaptic plasticity is thought to contribute to both the development and the persistence of addiction. This review highlights the synaptic modifications that are induced by in vivo exposure to addictive drugs and describes how these drug-induced synaptic changes may contribute to the different components of addictive behaviour, such as compulsive drug use despite negative consequences and relapse. Initially, exposure to an addictive drug induces synaptic changes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA. This drug-induced synaptic potentiation in the VTA subsequently triggers synaptic changes in downstream areas of the mesocorticolimbic system, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc and the prefrontal cortex (PFC, with further drug exposure. These glutamatergic synaptic alterations are then thought to mediate many of the behavioural symptoms that characterize addiction. The later stages of glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the NAc and in particular in the PFC play a role in maintaining addiction and drive relapse to drug-taking induced by drug-associated cues. Remodelling of PFC glutamatergic circuits can persist into adulthood, causing a lasting vulnerability to relapse. We will discuss how these neurobiological changes produced by drugs of abuse may provide novel targets for potential treatment strategies for addiction.

  6. Glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the mesocorticolimbic system in addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huijstee, Aile N.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.

    2015-01-01

    Addictive drugs remodel the brain’s reward circuitry, the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system, by inducing widespread adaptations of glutamatergic synapses. This drug-induced synaptic plasticity is thought to contribute to both the development and the persistence of addiction. This review highlights the synaptic modifications that are induced by in vivo exposure to addictive drugs and describes how these drug-induced synaptic changes may contribute to the different components of addictive behavior, such as compulsive drug use despite negative consequences and relapse. Initially, exposure to an addictive drug induces synaptic changes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). This drug-induced synaptic potentiation in the VTA subsequently triggers synaptic changes in downstream areas of the mesocorticolimbic system, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), with further drug exposure. These glutamatergic synaptic alterations are then thought to mediate many of the behavioral symptoms that characterize addiction. The later stages of glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the NAc and in particular in the PFC play a role in maintaining addiction and drive relapse to drug-taking induced by drug-associated cues. Remodeling of PFC glutamatergic circuits can persist into adulthood, causing a lasting vulnerability to relapse. We will discuss how these neurobiological changes produced by drugs of abuse may provide novel targets for potential treatment strategies for addiction. PMID:25653591

  7. Molecular mechanisms of synaptic remodeling in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Pandey, Subhash C

    2015-08-05

    Alcohol use and alcohol addiction represent dysfunctional brain circuits resulting from neuroadaptive changes during protracted alcohol exposure and its withdrawal. Alcohol exerts a potent effect on synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine formation in specific brain regions, providing a neuroanatomical substrate for the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Epigenetics has recently emerged as a critical regulator of gene expression and synaptic plasticity-related events in the brain. Alcohol exposure and withdrawal induce changes in crucial epigenetic processes in the emotional brain circuitry (amygdala) that may be relevant to the negative affective state defined as the "dark side" of addiction. Here, we review the literature concerning synaptic plasticity and epigenetics, with a particular focus on molecular events related to dendritic remodeling during alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Targeting epigenetic processes that modulate synaptic plasticity may yield novel treatments for alcoholism. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. A novel method of quantifying brain atrophy associated with age-related hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jason Qian

    2017-01-01

    Audiometric evaluations and mini-mental state exams were obtained in 34 subjects over the age of 80 who have had brain MRIs in the past 6 years. CSF and parenchymal brain volumes (whole brain and by lobe were obtained through a novel, fully automated algorithm. Atrophy was calculated by taking the ratio of CSF to parenchyma. High frequency hearing loss was associated with disproportional temporal lobe atrophy relative to whole brain atrophy independent of age (r = 0.471, p = 0.005. Mental state was associated with frontoparietal atrophy but not to temporal lobe atrophy, which is consistent with known results. Our method demonstrates that hearing loss is associated with temporal lobe atrophy and generalized whole brain atrophy. Our algorithm is efficient, fully automated, and able to detect significant associations in a small cohort.

  9. A case of dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Sadanari; Komiya, Tadatoshi

    1988-01-01

    A clinical case of dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA) was reported. We established several aspects on the basis of MRI findings and a neuro-otological study. A 47-year-old woman had gait disturbance, involuntary movements, speech disturbance, and memory disturbance at the age of 42. She was admitted to the hospital because of worsening of the gait disturbance. Neurological examinations showed choreo-athetosis of the face, neck and upper extremities, mental disturbance, and scanning speech. However, she had neither ocular disturbance nor epilepsy or myoclonus. On the MRI-CT, an atrophy of midbrain and pontine tegmentum was observed. The neuro-otological study showed gaze nystagmus at the horizontal gaze, rebound nystagmus, hypometria of the saccade, saccadic pursuit, reduction of the optokinetic nystagmus, and increase in caloric nystagmus by means of visual input. A severe atrophy of the brainstem tegmentum and a mild atrophy of the cerebellar hemisphere and cerebral cortex are regarded as neuro-radiological features of DRPLA. Moreover, tegmental atrophy is related to ocular disturbance as a clinical feature. Various neuro-otological findings reveal many systems of ocular movements, i.e., a smooth pursuit system, a saccade system, and a vestibulo-ocular reflex system, involving flocculus. DRPLA can be clinically diagnosed by means of clinical features, MRI findings, and neuro-otological findings. A variety of neuro-otological abnormalities may indicate a progression of the ocular disturbance and a variety of lesions. (author)

  10. Environmental Enrichment Mitigates Deficits after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xixia; Qiu, Jianhua; Alcon, Sasha; Hashim, Jumana; Meehan, William P; Mannix, Rebekah

    2017-08-15

    Although environmental enrichment has been shown to improve functional and histologic outcomes in pre-clinical moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), there are a paucity of pre-clinical data regarding enrichment strategies in the setting of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI). Given the vast numbers of athletes and those in the military who sustain rmTBI, the mounting evidence of the long-term and progressive sequelae of rmTBI, and the lack of targeted therapies to mitigate these sequelae, successful enrichment interventions in rmTBI could have large public health significance. Here, we evaluated enrichment strategies in an established pre-clinical rmTBI model. Seventy-one male C57BL/6 mice were randomized to two different housing conditions, environmental enrichment (EE) or normal condition (NC), then subjected to rmTBI injury (seven injuries in 9 days) or sham injury (anesthesia only). Functional outcomes in all four groups (NC-TBI, EE-TBI, NC-sham, and EE-sham) were assessed by motor, exploratory/anxiety, and mnemonic behavioral tests. At the synaptic level, N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunit expression of phosphorylated glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), phosphorylated Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and calpain were evaluated by western blot. Compared to injured NC-TBI mice, EE-TBI mice had improved memory and decreased anxiety and exploratory activity post-injury. Treatment with enrichment also corresponded to normal NMDAR subunit expression, decreased GluR1 phosphorylation, decreased phosphorylated CaMKII, and normal calpain expression post-rmTBI. These data suggest that enrichment strategies may improve functional outcomes and mitigate synaptic changes post-rmTBI. Given that enrichment strategies are feasible in the clinical setting, particularly for athletes and soldiers for whom the risk of repetitive injury is greatest, these data suggest that clinical trials may be warranted.

  11. Synaptic Contacts Enhance Cell-to-Cell Tau Pathology Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Calafate

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of insoluble Tau protein aggregates and stereotypical propagation of Tau pathology through the brain are common hallmarks of tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Propagation of Tau pathology appears to occur along connected neurons, but whether synaptic contacts between neurons are facilitating propagation has not been demonstrated. Using quantitative in vitro models, we demonstrate that, in parallel to non-synaptic mechanisms, synapses, but not merely the close distance between the cells, enhance the propagation of Tau pathology between acceptor hippocampal neurons and Tau donor cells. Similarly, in an artificial neuronal network using microfluidic devices, synapses and synaptic activity are promoting neuronal Tau pathology propagation in parallel to the non-synaptic mechanisms. Our work indicates that the physical presence of synaptic contacts between neurons facilitate Tau pathology propagation. These findings can have implications for synaptic repair therapies, which may turn out to have adverse effects by promoting propagation of Tau pathology.

  12. Synaptic Contacts Enhance Cell-to-Cell Tau Pathology Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafate, Sara; Buist, Arjan; Miskiewicz, Katarzyna; Vijayan, Vinoy; Daneels, Guy; de Strooper, Bart; de Wit, Joris; Verstreken, Patrik; Moechars, Diederik

    2015-05-26

    Accumulation of insoluble Tau protein aggregates and stereotypical propagation of Tau pathology through the brain are common hallmarks of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Propagation of Tau pathology appears to occur along connected neurons, but whether synaptic contacts between neurons are facilitating propagation has not been demonstrated. Using quantitative in vitro models, we demonstrate that, in parallel to non-synaptic mechanisms, synapses, but not merely the close distance between the cells, enhance the propagation of Tau pathology between acceptor hippocampal neurons and Tau donor cells. Similarly, in an artificial neuronal network using microfluidic devices, synapses and synaptic activity are promoting neuronal Tau pathology propagation in parallel to the non-synaptic mechanisms. Our work indicates that the physical presence of synaptic contacts between neurons facilitate Tau pathology propagation. These findings can have implications for synaptic repair therapies, which may turn out to have adverse effects by promoting propagation of Tau pathology. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SYNAPTIC DEPRESSION IN DEEP NEURAL NETWORKS FOR SPEECH PROCESSING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhao; Li, Hanyu; Yang, Minda; Mesgarani, Nima

    2016-03-01

    A characteristic property of biological neurons is their ability to dynamically change the synaptic efficacy in response to variable input conditions. This mechanism, known as synaptic depression, significantly contributes to the formation of normalized representation of speech features. Synaptic depression also contributes to the robust performance of biological systems. In this paper, we describe how synaptic depression can be modeled and incorporated into deep neural network architectures to improve their generalization ability. We observed that when synaptic depression is added to the hidden layers of a neural network, it reduces the effect of changing background activity in the node activations. In addition, we show that when synaptic depression is included in a deep neural network trained for phoneme classification, the performance of the network improves under noisy conditions not included in the training phase. Our results suggest that more complete neuron models may further reduce the gap between the biological performance and artificial computing, resulting in networks that better generalize to novel signal conditions.

  14. Correlating learning and memory improvements to long-term potentiation in patients with brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingfu Peng; Qian Yu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Brain injury patients often exhibit learning and memory functional deficits.Long-term potentiation(LTP)is a representative index for studying learning and memory cellular models; the LTP index correlates to neural plasticity. OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to investigate correlations of learning and memory functions to LTP in brain injury patients,and to summarize the research advancements in mechanisms underlying brain functional improvements after rehabilitation intervention. RETRIEVAL STRATEGY:Using the terms "brain injuries,rehabilitation,learning and memory,long-term potentiation",manuscripts that were published from 2000-2007 were retrieved from the PubMed database.At the same time,manuscripts published from 2000-2007 were also retrieved from the Database of Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals with the same terms in the Chinese language.A total of 64 manuscripts were obtained and primarily screened.Inclusion criteria:studies on learning and memory,as well as LTP in brain injury patients,and studies focused on the effects of rehabilitation intervention on the two indices; studies that were recently published or in high-impact journals.Exclusion criteria:repetitive studies.LITERATURE EVALUATION:The included manuscripts primarily focused on correlations between learning and memory and LTP,the effects of brain injury on learning and memory,as well as LTP,and the effects of rehabilitation intervention on learning and memory after brain injury.The included 39 manuscripts were clinical,basic experimental,or review studies. DATA SYNTHESIS:Learning and memory closely correlates to LTP.The neurobiological basis of learning and memory is central nervous system plasticity,which involves neural networks,neural circuits,and synaptic connections,in particular,synaptic plasticity.LTP is considered to be an ideal model for studying synaptic plasticity,and it is also a classic model for studying neural plasticity of learning and memory.Brain injury

  15. Nicotinic mechanisms influencing synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andon Nicholas PLACZEK; Tao A ZHANG; John Anthony DANI

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed throughout the hippocampus, and nicotinic signaling plays an important role in neuronal function. In the context of learning and memory related behaviors associated with hippocampal function, a potentially significant feature of nAChR activity is the impact it has on synaptic plasticity. Synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons has long been considered a contributing cellular mechanism of learning and memory. These same kinds of cellular mechanisms are a factor in the development of nicotine addiction. Nicotinic signaling has been demonstrated by in vitro studies to affect synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons via multiple steps, and the signaling has also been shown to evoke synaptic plasticity in vivo. This review focuses on the nAChRs subtypes that contribute to hippocampal synaptic plasticity at the cellular and circuit level. It also considers nicotinic influences over long-term changes in the hippocampus that may contribute to addiction.

  16. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2010-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic ...

  17. Tensor-Based Morphometry Reveals Volumetric Deficits in Moderate=Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily L; Hua, Xue; Villalon-Reina, Julio; Moran, Lisa M; Kernan, Claudia; Babikian, Talin; Mink, Richard; Babbitt, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey; Giza, Christopher C; Thompson, Paul M; Asarnow, Robert F

    2016-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause widespread and prolonged brain degeneration. TBI can affect cognitive function and brain integrity for many years after injury, often with lasting effects in children, whose brains are still immature. Although TBI varies in how it affects different individuals, image analysis methods such as tensor-based morphometry (TBM) can reveal common areas of brain atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), secondary effects of the initial injury, which will differ between subjects. Here we studied 36 pediatric moderate to severe TBI (msTBI) participants in the post-acute phase (1-6 months post-injury) and 18 msTBI participants who returned for their chronic assessment, along with well-matched controls at both time-points. Participants completed a battery of cognitive tests that we used to create a global cognitive performance score. Using TBM, we created three-dimensional (3D) maps of individual and group differences in regional brain volumes. At both the post-acute and chronic time-points, the greatest group differences were expansion of the lateral ventricles and reduction of the lingual gyrus in the TBI group. We found a number of smaller clusters of volume reduction in the cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and fusiform gyrus, and throughout the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices. Additionally, we found extensive associations between our cognitive performance measure and regional brain volume. Our results indicate a pattern of atrophy still detectable 1-year post-injury, which may partially underlie the cognitive deficits frequently found in TBI.

  18. Computed tomography of skeletal muscles in childhood spinal progressive muscular atrophies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yumi; Osawa, Makiko; Sumida, Sawako; Shishikura, Keiko; Suzuki, Haruko; Fukuyama, Yukio; Kohno, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) scanning of skeletal muscles was performed in patients with type 1 and type 2 spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA) and Kugelberg-Welander disease (K-W) to delineate the characteristic CT features of each category. Marked muscular atrophy was observed in type 1 SPMA, and both muscular atrophy and intramuscular low density areas in type 2 SPMA, changes being more pronounced in older patients. In contrast, in K-W, muscular atrophy was slight, and intramuscular low density areas constituted the most prominent findings. These observations indicate that SPMA and K-W are each characterized by distinct CT findings. (author)

  19. Is the Supraspinatus Muscle Atrophy Truly Irreversible after Surgical Repair of Rotator Cuff Tears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seok Won; Kim, Sae Hoon; Tae, Suk-Kee; Yoon, Jong Pil; Choi, Jung-Ah

    2013-01-01

    Background Atrophy of rotator cuff muscles has been considered an irreversible phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether atrophy is truly irreversible after rotator cuff repair. Methods We measured supraspinatus muscle atrophy of 191 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative multidetector computed tomography images, taken at least 1 year after operation. The occupation ratio was calculated using Photoshop CS3 software. We compared the change between pre- and postoperative occupation ratios after modifying the preoperative occupation ratio. In addition, possible relationship between various clinical factors and the change of atrophy, and between the change of atrophy and cuff integrity after surgical repair were evaluated. Results The mean occupation ratio was significantly increased postoperatively from 0.44 ± 0.17 to 0.52 ± 0.17 (p < 0.001). Among 191 patients, 81 (42.4%) showed improvement of atrophy (more than a 10% increase in occupation ratio) and 33 (17.3%) worsening (more than a 10% decrease). Various clinical factors such as age tear size, or initial degree of atrophy did not affect the change of atrophy. However, the change of atrophy was related to repair integrity: cuff healing failure rate of 48.5% (16 of 33) in worsened atrophy; and 22.2% (18 of 81) in improved atrophy (p = 0.007). Conclusions The supraspinatus muscle atrophy as measured by occupation ratio could be improved postoperatively in case of successful cuff repair. PMID:23467404

  20. Can endurance exercise preconditioning prevention disuse muscle atrophy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Wiggs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that exercise training can provide a level of protection against disuse muscle atrophy. Endurance exercise training imposes oxidative, metabolic, and heat stress on skeletal muscle which activates a variety of cellular signaling pathways that ultimately leads to the increased expression of proteins that have been demonstrated to protect muscle from inactivity –induced atrophy. This review will highlight the effect of exercise-induced oxidative stress on endogenous enzymatic antioxidant capacity (i.e., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, the role of oxidative and metabolic stress on PGC1-α, and finally highlight the effect heat stress and HSP70 induction. Finally, this review will discuss the supporting scientific evidence that these proteins can attenuate muscle atrophy through exercise preconditioning.

  1. Neuro-inspired computing using resistive synaptic devices

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the recent breakthroughs in hardware implementation of neuro-inspired computing using resistive synaptic devices. The authors describe how two-terminal solid-state resistive memories can emulate synaptic weights in a neural network. Readers will benefit from state-of-the-art summaries of resistive synaptic devices, from the individual cell characteristics to the large-scale array integration. This book also discusses peripheral neuron circuits design challenges and design strategies. Finally, the authors describe the impact of device non-ideal properties (e.g. noise, variation, yield) and their impact on the learning performance at the system-level, using a device-algorithm co-design methodology. • Provides single-source reference to recent breakthroughs in resistive synaptic devices, not only at individual cell-level, but also at integrated array-level; • Includes detailed discussion of the peripheral circuits and array architecture design of the neuro-crossbar system; • Focuses on...

  2. Synaptic Correlates of Working Memory Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yuanyuan; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2017-01-18

    Psychological studies indicate that human ability to keep information in readily accessible working memory is limited to four items for most people. This extremely low capacity severely limits execution of many cognitive tasks, but its neuronal underpinnings remain unclear. Here we show that in the framework of synaptic theory of working memory, capacity can be analytically estimated to scale with characteristic time of short-term synaptic depression relative to synaptic current time constant. The number of items in working memory can be regulated by external excitation, enabling the system to be tuned to the desired load and to clear the working memory of currently held items to make room for new ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Depression as a Glial-Based Synaptic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eRial

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies combining pharmacological, behavioral, electrophysiological and molecular approaches indicate that depression results from maladaptive neuroplastic processing occurring in defined frontolimbic circuits responsible for emotional processing such as the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and ventral striatum. However, the exact mechanisms controlling synaptic plasticity that are disrupted to trigger depressive conditions have not been elucidated. Since glial cells (astrocytes and microglia tightly and dynamically interact with synapses, engaging a bi-directional communication critical for the processing of synaptic information, we now revisit the role of glial cells in the etiology of depression focusing on a dysfunction of the ‘quad-partite’ synapse. This interest is supported by the observations that depressive-like conditions are associated with a decreased density and hypofunction of astrocytes and with an increase microglia ‘activation’ in frontolimbic regions, which is expected to contribute for the synaptic dysfunction present in depression. Furthermore, the traditional culprits of depression (glucocorticoids, biogenic amines, BDNF affect glia functioning, whereas antidepressant treatments (SSRIs, electroshock, deep brain stimulation recover glia functioning. In this context of a quad-partite synapse, systems modulating glia-synapse bidirectional communication - such as the purinergic neuromodulation system operated by ATP and adenosine - emerge as promising candidates to re-normalize synaptic function by combining direct synaptic effects with an ability to also control astrocyte and microglia function. This proposed triple action of purines to control aberrant synaptic function illustrates the rationale to consider the interference with glia dysfunction as a mechanism of action driving the design of future pharmacological tools to manage depression.

  4. Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Different Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Gan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmission in complex animals depends on a choir of functionally distinct synapses releasing neurotransmitters in a highly coordinated manner. During synaptic signaling, vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane to release their contents. The rate of vesicle fusion is high and can exceed the rate at which synaptic vesicles can be re-supplied by distant sources. Thus, local compensatory endocytosis is needed to replenish the synaptic vesicle pools. Over the last four decades, various experimental methods and model systems have been used to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic vesicle cycle. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is thought to be the predominant mechanism for synaptic vesicle recycling. However, recent studies suggest significant contribution from other modes of endocytosis, including fast compensatory endocytosis, activity-dependent bulk endocytosis, ultrafast endocytosis, as well as kiss-and-run. Currently, it is not clear whether a universal model of vesicle recycling exist for all types of synapses. It is possible that each synapse type employs a particular mode of endocytosis. Alternatively, multiple modes of endocytosis operate at the same synapse, and the synapse toggles between different modes depending on its activity level. Here we compile review and research articles based on well-characterized model systems: frog neuromuscular junctions, C. elegans neuromuscular junctions, Drosophila neuromuscular junctions, lamprey reticulospinal giant axons, goldfish retinal ribbon synapses, the calyx of Held, and rodent hippocampal synapses. We will compare these systems in terms of their known modes and kinetics of synaptic vesicle endocytosis, as well as the underlying molecular machineries. We will also provide the future development of this field.

  5. Accelerating regional atrophy rates in the progression from normal aging to Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluimer, Jasper D. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Alzheimer Centre, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Karas, Giorgos B.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schijndel, Ronald van [VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Informatics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barnes, Josephine; Boyes, Richard G. [UCL, Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Cover, Keith S. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Olabarriaga, Silvia D. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fox, Nick C. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); UCL, Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Vrenken, Hugo [VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    We investigated progression of atrophy in vivo, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We included 64 patients with AD, 44 with MCI and 34 controls with serial MRI examinations (interval 1.8 {+-} 0.7 years). A nonlinear registration algorithm (fluid) was used to calculate atrophy rates in six regions: frontal, medial temporal, temporal (extramedial), parietal, occipital lobes and insular cortex. In MCI, the highest atrophy rate was observed in the medial temporal lobe, comparable with AD. AD patients showed even higher atrophy rates in the extramedial temporal lobe. Additionally, atrophy rates in frontal, parietal and occipital lobes were increased. Cox proportional hazard models showed that all regional atrophy rates predicted conversion to AD. Hazard ratios varied between 2.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-6.2) for occipital atrophy and 15.8 (95% CI = 3.5-71.8) for medial temporal lobe atrophy. In conclusion, atrophy spreads through the brain with development of AD. MCI is marked by temporal lobe atrophy. In AD, atrophy rate in the extramedial temporal lobe was even higher. Moreover, atrophy rates also accelerated in parietal, frontal, insular and occipital lobes. Finally, in nondemented elderly, medial temporal lobe atrophy was most predictive of progression to AD, demonstrating the involvement of this region in the development of AD. (orig.)

  6. Neuropsychological correlates of brain atrophy in Huntington's disease: a magnetic resonance imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkstein, S.E.; Brandt, J.; Bylsma, F.; Peyser, C.; Folstein, M.; Folstein, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging and a comprehensive cognitive evaluation were carried out in a series of 29 patients with mild to moderate Huntington's disease (HD). A factor analysis of the neuropsychological test scores provided three factors: A memory/speed-of-processing factor, a 'frontal' factor, and a response inhibition factor. The memory/speed factor correlated significantly with measures of caudate atrophy, frontal atrophy, and atrophy of the left (but not the right) sylvian cistern. There were no significant correlations between the 'frontal' or response inhibition factors and measures of cortical or subcortical brain atrophy. Our findings confirm that subcortical atrophy is significantly correlated with specific cognitive deficits in HD, and demonstrate that cortical atrophy also has important association with the cognitive deficits of patients with HD. (orig.)

  7. Benefits of Laser Therapy in Postmenopausal Vaginal Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brînzan, Daniela; Pǎiuşan, Lucian; Daşcǎu, Voicu; Furǎu, Gheorghe

    2011-08-01

    Maybe the worst aspect of menopause is the decline of the quality of the sexual life. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser therapy in comparison with topical application of estrogen preparations, for the treatment of vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions induced by menopause. A total of 50 menopausal patients were examined during a one year period. The methods used for objectifying vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions were history taking, local clinical exam and PAP smear. From this group, 40 patients had vaginal atrophy with sexual dysfunctions. They have been treated differently, being included in four groups: patients treated with local estrogens, patients treated with intravaginal laser therapy, patients treated with both laser therapy and estrogens, patients treated with estrogens and placebo laser therapy. Therapeutic benefit, improvement of vaginal atrophy and quality of sexual life, were objectified by anamnesis (questionnaire), local and general clinical examination and PAP smear. The best results have been obtained, by far, in the 3rd group, followed by the women treated only with laser. In conclusion, we can say that laser therapy is the best way for solving the sexual inconveniences of menopause.

  8. Role of the origin of glutamatergic synaptic inputs in controlling synaptic plasticity and its modulation by alcohol in mice nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Erwann Martin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that long-lasting changes of synaptic strength in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region involved in drug reward, mediate acute and chronic effects of alcohol. However, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol on synaptic plasticity is limited by the fact that the nucleus accumbens receives glutamatergic inputs from distinct brain regions (e.g. the prefrontal cortex, the amygdala and the hippocampus, each region providing different information (e.g. spatial, emotional and cognitive. Combining whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and the optogenetic technique, we examined synaptic plasticity, and its regulation by alcohol, at cortical, hippocampal and amygdala inputs in fresh slices of mouse tissue. We showed that the origin of synaptic inputs determines the basic properties of glutamatergic synaptic transmission, the expression of spike-timing dependent long-term depression (tLTD and long-term potentiation (tLTP and their regulation by alcohol. While we observed both tLTP and tLTD at amygadala and hippocampal synapses, we showed that cortical inputs only undergo tLTD. Functionally, we provide evidence that acute EtOH has little effects on higher order information coming from the prefrontal cortex (PFCx, while severely impacting the ability of emotional and contextual information to induce long-lasting changes of synaptic strength.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myoclonic epilepsy Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... boxes. Description Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME) is a neurological condition that causes ...

  10. Inducible satellite cell depletion attenuates skeletal muscle regrowth following a scald-burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Celeste C; McKenna, Colleen F; Cambias, Lauren A; Brightwell, Camille R; Prasai, Anesh; Wang, Ye; El Ayadi, Amina; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E; Fry, Christopher S

    2017-11-01

    Severe burns result in significant skeletal muscle cachexia that impedes recovery. Activity of satellite cells, skeletal muscle stem cells, is altered following a burn injury and likely hinders regrowth of muscle. Severe burn injury induces satellite cell proliferation and fusion into myofibres with greater activity in muscles proximal to the injury site. Conditional depletion of satellite cells attenuates recovery of myofibre area and volume following a scald burn injury in mice. Skeletal muscle regrowth following a burn injury requires satellite cell activity, underscoring the therapeutic potential of satellite cells in the prevention of prolonged frailty in burn survivors. Severe burns result in profound skeletal muscle atrophy; persistent muscle atrophy and weakness are major complications that hamper recovery from burn injury. Many factors contribute to the erosion of muscle mass following burn trauma, and we have previously shown concurrent activation and apoptosis of muscle satellite cells following a burn injury in paediatric patients. To determine the necessity of satellite cells during muscle recovery following a burn injury, we utilized a genetically modified mouse model (Pax7 CreER -DTA) that allows for the conditional depletion of satellite cells in skeletal muscle. Additionally, mice were provided 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine to determine satellite cell proliferation, activation and fusion. Juvenile satellite cell-wild-type (SC-WT) and satellite cell-depleted (SC-Dep) mice (8 weeks of age) were randomized to sham or burn injury consisting of a dorsal scald burn injury covering 30% of total body surface area. Both hindlimb and dorsal muscles were studied at 7, 14 and 21 days post-burn. SC-Dep mice had >93% depletion of satellite cells compared to SC-WT (P satellite cell proliferation and fusion. Depletion of satellite cells impaired post-burn recovery of both muscle fibre cross-sectional area and volume (P satellite cells in the aetiology of lean

  11. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, K.; Yamadori, A.; Constans, J.M.; Courtheoux, P.; Theron, J.; Viader, F.

    2000-01-01

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  12. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meguro, K.; Yamadori, A. [Section of Neuropsychology, Division of Disability Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, 980-8575 Sendai (Japan); Constans, J.M.; Courtheoux, P.; Theron, J. [MR Unit, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France); Viader, F. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France)

    2000-06-01

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  13. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of muscle atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bonaldo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic organ that is maintained by multiple pathways regulating cell and protein turnover. During muscle atrophy, proteolytic systems are activated, and contractile proteins and organelles are removed, resulting in the shrinkage of muscle fibers. Excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with poor prognosis in several diseases, including myopathies and muscular dystrophies, as well as in systemic disorders such as cancer, diabetes, sepsis and heart failure. Muscle loss also occurs during aging. In this paper, we review the key mechanisms that regulate the turnover of contractile proteins and organelles in muscle tissue, and discuss how impairments in these mechanisms can contribute to muscle atrophy. We also discuss how protein synthesis and degradation are coordinately regulated by signaling pathways that are influenced by mechanical stress, physical activity, and the availability of nutrients and growth factors. Understanding how these pathways regulate muscle mass will provide new therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of muscle atrophy in metabolic and neuromuscular diseases.

  14. Crossed cerebellar atrophy in cases with cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagishita, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Keizo; Iwabuchi, Sadamu.

    1989-01-01

    Crossed cerebellar atrophy (CCA) was investigated by X-ray CT to establish the incidence, mechanism, and the relation to cerebral lesions in 130 cases of unilateral supratentorial cerebrovascular diseases. The 130 cases consisted of 83 males and 47 females with cerebral infarction (65 cases) and cerebral hemorrhage (65 cases). The patients' average age was 57.6 years. Crossed cerebellar atrophy was demonstrated in 8 cases (6.2%), 6 of whom had massive cerebral infarction in the middle cerebral artery area (9.2% of the 65 cases of cerebral infarction. The six cases of CCA caused by cerebral infarction had lesions in the frontal and temporal lobes. Two had a cerebral hemorrhage in the putamen and in the thalamus, respectively, accounting for 3.1% of the 65 cases of cerebral hemorrhage. Of the 2 cases, one had putaminal hemorrhage, and the other had thalamic hemorrhage. Cerebrovascular stroke had occured in these patients with CCA more than 2 months previously. In 5 of the 8 cases of CCA, atrophy was present in the basis pedunculi and the basis pontis on the side of the cerebral lesion. However, neither dilation nor deformity of the fourth ventricle was present in any of the patients, suggesting that none of the CCA patients had atrophy of the dentate nucleus. The CCA patients had massive cerebral lesion in the frontal and temporal lobes or atrophy of the basis pedunculi and basis pontis, suggesting the presence of the transsynaptic degeneration of the cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathway. In the case of the thalamic hemorrhage, who had not hemorrhagic lesion in the frontal and temporal lobes, atrophy of the basis peduncli and basis pontis was not observed. Though dilation or deformity of the fourth ventricle is not observed in this case, presence of the degeneration of the dentate-rubro-thalamic pathway cannot be denied. CCA seems to be caused by both the transsynaptic degeneration of the cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathway and the dentate-rubro-thalamic pathway. (J.P.N.)

  15. Substance P immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord of the turtle Trachemys dorbigni following peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partata, W A; Krepsky, A M R; Xavier, L L; Marques, M; Achaval, M

    2003-04-01

    Immunoreactive substance P was investigated in turtle lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve transection. In control animals immunoreactive fibers were densest in synaptic field Ia, where the longest axons invaded synaptic field III. Positive neuronal bodies were identified in the lateral column of the dorsal horn and substance P immunoreactive varicosities were observed in the ventral horn, in close relationship with presumed motoneurons. Other varicosities appeared in the lateral and anterior funiculi. After axotomy, substance P immunoreactive fibers were reduced slightly on the side of the lesion, which was located in long fibers that invaded synaptic field III and in the varicosities of the lateral and anterior funiculus. The changes were observed at 7 days after axonal injury and persisted at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after the lesion. These findings show that turtles should be considered as a model to study the role of substance P in peripheral axonal injury, since the distribution and temporal changes of substance P were similar to those found in mammals.

  16. Substance P immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord of the turtle Trachemys dorbigni following peripheral nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Partata

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunoreactive substance P was investigated in turtle lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve transection. In control animals immunoreactive fibers were densest in synaptic field Ia, where the longest axons invaded synaptic field III. Positive neuronal bodies were identified in the lateral column of the dorsal horn and substance P immunoreactive varicosities were observed in the ventral horn, in close relationship with presumed motoneurons. Other varicosities appeared in the lateral and anterior funiculi. After axotomy, substance P immunoreactive fibers were reduced slightly on the side of the lesion, which was located in long fibers that invaded synaptic field III and in the varicosities of the lateral and anterior funiculus. The changes were observed at 7 days after axonal injury and persisted at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after the lesion. These findings show that turtles should be considered as a model to study the role of substance P in peripheral axonal injury, since the distribution and temporal changes of substance P were similar to those found in mammals.

  17. Alteration of synaptic connectivity of oligodendrocyte precursor cells following demyelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahel, Aurélia; Ortiz, Fernando C.; Kerninon, Christophe; Maldonado, Paloma P.; Angulo, María Cecilia; Nait-Oumesmar, Brahim

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are a major source of remyelinating oligodendrocytes in demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). While OPCs are innervated by unmyelinated axons in the normal brain, the fate of such synaptic contacts after demyelination is still unclear. By combining electrophysiology and immunostainings in different transgenic mice expressing fluorescent reporters, we studied the synaptic innervation of OPCs in the model of lysolecithin (LPC)-induced demyelination of corpus callosum. Synaptic innervation of reactivated OPCs in the lesion was revealed by the presence of AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic currents, VGluT1+ axon-OPC contacts in 3D confocal reconstructions and synaptic junctions observed by electron microscopy. Moreover, 3D confocal reconstructions of VGluT1 and NG2 immunolabeling showed the existence of glutamatergic axon-OPC contacts in post-mortem MS lesions. Interestingly, patch-clamp recordings in LPC-induced lesions demonstrated a drastic decrease in spontaneous synaptic activity of OPCs early after demyelination that was not caused by an impaired conduction of compound action potentials. A reduction in synaptic connectivity was confirmed by the lack of VGluT1+ axon-OPC contacts in virtually all rapidly proliferating OPCs stained with EdU (50-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine). At the end of the massive proliferation phase in lesions, the proportion of innervated OPCs rapidly recovers, although the frequency of spontaneous synaptic currents did not reach control levels. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that newly-generated OPCs do not receive synaptic inputs during their active proliferation after demyelination, but gain synapses during the remyelination process. Hence, glutamatergic synaptic inputs may contribute to inhibit OPC proliferation and might have a physiopathological relevance in demyelinating disorders. PMID:25852473

  18. [Histological changes of gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia after Helicobacter pylori eradication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yonggu; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Koo, Tai Yeon; Cho, Hyun Seok; Byun, Tae Jun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Lee, Hang Lak; Eun, Chang Soo; Lee, Oh Young; Han, Dong Soo; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Yoon, Byung Chul

    2007-11-01

    Long-term Helicobater pylori infection results in atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, and increases the risk of gastric cancer. However, it is still controversial that eradication of H. pylori improves atrophy or metaplasia. Therefore, we investigated histological changes after the H. pylori eradication in patients with atrophy or metaplasia. One hundred seven patients who received successful eradication of H. pylori infection in Hanyang University, Guri Hospital from March 2001 to April 2006, were enrolled. Antral biopsy was taken before the eradication to confirm the H. pylori infection and grade of atrophy or metaplasia by updated Sydney System. After a certain period of time, antral biopsy was repeatedly taken to confirm the eradication and investigate histological changes of atrophy or metaplasia. Mean age of the patients was 55.3+/-11.3, and average follow-up period was 28.7+/-13.9 months. Endoscopic diagnosis included gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, non-ulcer antral gastritis. Atrophy was observed in 41 of 91 and their average score was 0.73+/-0.92. After the eradication of H. pylori, atrophy was improved (0.38+/-0.70, p=0.025). However, metaplasia which was observed in 49 of 107, did not significantly improve during the follow-up period. Newly developed atrophy (7 of 38) or metaplasia (18 of 49) was observed in patients who without atrophy or metaplasia initially. Their average scores were slightly lower than those of cases with pre-existing atrophy or metaplasia without statistical significance. After the eradication of H. pylori infection, atrophic gastritis may be improved, but change of intestinal metaplasia is milder and may take longer duration for improvement.

  19. Synchronization of map-based neurons with memory and synaptic delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausedo-Solorio, J.M. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42074 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Pisarchik, A.N., E-mail: apisarch@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Centre for Biomedical Technology, Technical University of Madrid, Campus Montegancedo, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcon, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-06-13

    Synchronization of two synaptically coupled neurons with memory and synaptic delay is studied using the Rulkov map, one of the simplest neuron models which displays specific features inherent to bursting dynamics. We demonstrate a transition from lag to anticipated synchronization as the relationship between the memory duration and the synaptic delay time changes. The neuron maps synchronize either with anticipation, if the memory is longer than the synaptic delay time, or with lag otherwise. The mean anticipation time is equal to the difference between the memory and synaptic delay independently of the coupling strength. Frequency entrainment and phase-locking phenomena as well as a transition from regular spikes to chaos are demonstrated with respect to the coupling strength. - Highlights: • We study synchronization of neurons with memory and synaptic delay in the map model. • Neurons synchronize either with anticipation or with lag depending on delay time. • Mean anticipation time is equal to the difference between memory and synaptic delay. • Frequency entrainment and phase locking are studied with respect to the coupling.

  20. Progressive cerebral atrophy in neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warabi, Yoko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Isozaki, Eiji

    2015-12-01

    We report two cases of neuromyelitis optica patients with progressive cerebral atrophy. The patients exhibited characteristic clinical features, including elderly onset, secondary progressive tetraparesis and cognitive impairment, abnormally elevated CSF protein and myelin basic protein levels, and extremely highly elevated serum anti-AQP-4 antibody titer. Because neuromyelitis optica pathology cannot switch from an inflammatory phase to the degenerative phase until the terminal phase, neuromyelitis optica rarely appears as a secondary progressive clinical course caused by axonal degeneration. However, severe intrathecal inflammation and massive destruction of neuroglia could cause a secondary progressive clinical course associated with cerebral atrophy in neuromyelitis optica patients. © The Author(s), 2015.

  1. A pivotal role of GSK-3 in synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarrisa A Bradley

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 has many cellular functions. Recent evidence suggests that it plays a key role in certain types of synaptic plasticity, in particular a form of long-term depression (LTD that is induced by the synaptic activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors. In the present article we summarise what is currently known concerning the roles of GSK-3 in synaptic plasticity at both glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. We summarise its role in cognition and speculate on how alterations in the synaptic functioning of GSK-3 may be a major factor in certain neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. BDNF-induced local protein synthesis and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Graciano; Comprido, Diogo; Duarte, Carlos B

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important regulator of synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus and in other brain regions, playing a role in the formation of certain forms of memory. The effects of BDNF in LTP are mediated by TrkB (tropomyosin-related kinase B) receptors, which are known to be coupled to the activation of the Ras/ERK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) pathways. The role of BDNF in LTP is best studied in the hippocampus, where the neurotrophin acts at pre- and post-synaptic levels. Recent studies have shown that BDNF regulates the transport of mRNAs along dendrites and their translation at the synapse, by modulating the initiation and elongation phases of protein synthesis, and by acting on specific miRNAs. Furthermore, the effect of BDNF on transcription regulation may further contribute to long-term changes in the synaptic proteome. In this review we discuss the recent progress in understanding the mechanisms contributing to the short- and long-term regulation of the synaptic proteome by BDNF, and the role in synaptic plasticity, which is likely to influence learning and memory formation. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'BDNF Regulation of Synaptic Structure, Function, and Plasticity'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of voxel-based rCBF in patients with olivopontocerebellar atrophy of multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Woo [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy (OPCA) is one phenotype of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and is characterized neuropathologically by neuronal degeneration in the inferior olives, pons and cerebellar cortex. The diagnosis of OPCA requires clinical evaluation to exclude other diseases. And it's usually supported by atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem visualized on CT or MRI. But there are some reports that the disease can occur without demonstrable atrophy in these anatomic studies. There are only a few reports about perfusion SPECT imaging in patients with OPCA. The aim of this study was to describe voxel-based rCBF of OPCA in comparison of healthy volunteers. We studied 5 patients with OPCA (1 men, 4 women: age 50.4{+-}9.6y) and age matched 13 healthy volunteers (4 men, 9 women: age 54.9{+-}6.6y). All subjects injected 20mCi of Tc-99m HMPAO and scanning was initiated 20 min after injection. Images were analyzed using SPM (SPM99) with Matlab 5.3. On visual analysis, in 3 patients with OPCA, SPECT image showed significant hypoperfusion in the cerebellum. In another 2 patients, diffuse hypoperfusion was found in the both cerebro-cerebellar hemispheres, untypical perfusion pattern in OPCA. So there is existed limitation to diagnosis by only visual analysis. On SPM analysis, in OPCA patients significantly decreased perfusion was present in culmen, tonsil, tuber in Lt. cerebellum and declive, tonsil, pyramid and inf. Semi-lunar lobule in Rt. cerebellum, Rt. inf. frontal gyrus and Rt. temporal lobe (p<0.001, uncorrected). We also performed individual analysis with SPM. Two of 5 patients have additional hypoperfusion brain lesions. In one patient, decreased perfusion found in Lt. temporal, both occipital lobe, Lt. parahippocampal gyrus. In another patient, decreased perfusion found in both frontal and parietal lobe. This study is one of a few trials analysis with SPM for OPCA. We defined the specific location of decreased perfusion in patients with OPCA.

  4. Analysis of voxel-based rCBF in patients with olivopontocerebellar atrophy of multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Woo

    2004-01-01

    Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy (OPCA) is one phenotype of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and is characterized neuropathologically by neuronal degeneration in the inferior olives, pons and cerebellar cortex. The diagnosis of OPCA requires clinical evaluation to exclude other diseases. And it's usually supported by atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem visualized on CT or MRI. But there are some reports that the disease can occur without demonstrable atrophy in these anatomic studies. There are only a few reports about perfusion SPECT imaging in patients with OPCA. The aim of this study was to describe voxel-based rCBF of OPCA in comparison of healthy volunteers. We studied 5 patients with OPCA (1 men, 4 women: age 50.4±9.6y) and age matched 13 healthy volunteers (4 men, 9 women: age 54.9±6.6y). All subjects injected 20mCi of Tc-99m HMPAO and scanning was initiated 20 min after injection. Images were analyzed using SPM (SPM99) with Matlab 5.3. On visual analysis, in 3 patients with OPCA, SPECT image showed significant hypoperfusion in the cerebellum. In another 2 patients, diffuse hypoperfusion was found in the both cerebro-cerebellar hemispheres, untypical perfusion pattern in OPCA. So there is existed limitation to diagnosis by only visual analysis. On SPM analysis, in OPCA patients significantly decreased perfusion was present in culmen, tonsil, tuber in Lt. cerebellum and declive, tonsil, pyramid and inf. Semi-lunar lobule in Rt. cerebellum, Rt. inf. frontal gyrus and Rt. temporal lobe (p<0.001, uncorrected). We also performed individual analysis with SPM. Two of 5 patients have additional hypoperfusion brain lesions. In one patient, decreased perfusion found in Lt. temporal, both occipital lobe, Lt. parahippocampal gyrus. In another patient, decreased perfusion found in both frontal and parietal lobe. This study is one of a few trials analysis with SPM for OPCA. We defined the specific location of decreased perfusion in patients with OPCA

  5. A case of multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian type with stuttering- and palilalia-like dysfluencies and putaminal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yoshikazu; Umezaki, Toshiro; Uehara, Taira; Yamaguchi, Hiroo; Yamashita, Koji; Hiwatashi, Akio; Sawatsubashi, Motohiro; Adachi, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Yumi; Murakami, Daisuke; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Nakagawa, Takashi

    2017-11-14

    Both developmental and acquired stuttering are related to the function of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop, which includes the putamen. Here, we present a case of stuttering- and palilalia-like dysfluencies that manifested as an early symptom of multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian type (MSA-P) and bilateral atrophy of the putamen. The patient was a 72-year-old man with no history of developmental stuttering who presented with a stutter for consultation with our otorhinolaryngology department. The patient was diagnosed with MSA-P based on parkinsonism, autonomic dysfunction, and bilateral putaminal atrophy revealed by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment with levodopa improved both the motor functional deficits related to MSA-P and stuttering-like dysfluencies while reading; however, the palilalia-like dysfluencies were much less responsive to levodopa therapy. The patient died of aspiration pneumonia two years after his first consultation at our hospital. In conclusion, adult-onset stuttering- and palilalia-like dysfluencies warrant careful examination of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop, and especially the putamen, using neuroimaging techniques. Acquired stuttering may be related to deficits in dopaminergic function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Naltrexone treatment reverses astrocyte atrophy and immune dysfunction in self-harming macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kim M; Chiu, Kevin B; Didier, Peter J; Baker, Kate C; MacLean, Andrew G

    2015-11-01

    The role of glia in the development and treatment of behavioral abnormalities is understudied. Recent reports have observed glial activation in several disorders, including depression, autism spectrum disorders and self-injurious behaviors (SIB). In the current study, we examined SIB in the physiologically and anatomically relevant nonhuman primate (NHP) model. At the Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC), approximately 5% of singly housed macaques develop symptoms of SIB. We have previously demonstrated that naltrexone hydrochloride can be effective in reducing SIB. We have also demonstrated that the astrocytes of animals with SIB are distinctly atrophic and display heightened innate immune activation compared with control animals. We have added a third group of animals (five macaques identified with SIB and treated with oral naltrexone at a dose of 3.2mg/kg) to the previous cohort (six macaques with a history of SIB but not treated, and nine animals with no history of SIB) for this study. Gray and white matter astrocytes from frontal cortical tissue were examined following necropsy. Innate immune activation of astrocytes, which was increased in SIB animals, was markedly decreased in animals receiving naltrexone, as was atrophy of both grey and white matter astrocytes. This was concomitant with improved behavioral correlates. Preventing astrocyte activation in select areas of the brain to reduce injurious behavior is an innovative concept with implications for mental health studies. Differences in multiple areas of primate brain would help determine how self-injurious behavior develops. These studies suggest a stronger role for astrocytes in the cellular events associated with self-injurious behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Synaptic Plasticity and Spike Synchronisation in Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Rafael R.; Borges, Fernando S.; Lameu, Ewandson L.; Protachevicz, Paulo R.; Iarosz, Kelly C.; Caldas, Iberê L.; Viana, Ricardo L.; Macau, Elbert E. N.; Baptista, Murilo S.; Grebogi, Celso; Batista, Antonio M.

    2017-12-01

    Brain plasticity, also known as neuroplasticity, is a fundamental mechanism of neuronal adaptation in response to changes in the environment or due to brain injury. In this review, we show our results about the effects of synaptic plasticity on neuronal networks composed by Hodgkin-Huxley neurons. We show that the final topology of the evolved network depends crucially on the ratio between the strengths of the inhibitory and excitatory synapses. Excitation of the same order of inhibition revels an evolved network that presents the rich-club phenomenon, well known to exist in the brain. For initial networks with considerably larger inhibitory strengths, we observe the emergence of a complex evolved topology, where neurons sparsely connected to other neurons, also a typical topology of the brain. The presence of noise enhances the strength of both types of synapses, but if the initial network has synapses of both natures with similar strengths. Finally, we show how the synchronous behaviour of the evolved network will reflect its evolved topology.

  8. Orphan disease: Cherubism, optic atrophy, and short stature

    OpenAIRE

    Balaji Jeevanandham; Rajoo Ramachandran; Vignesh Dhanapal; Ilanchezhian Subramanian; Venkata Sai

    2018-01-01

    A 12-year-old female presented with complaints of progressive visual impairment in both her eyes. On clinical examination, she was short for her age and her ophthalmoscopic examination revealed bilateral optic atrophy. Computed tomography of the patient revealed multiple expansile lytic lesions of mandible suggesting cherubism. The optic atrophy was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging, which additionally revealed bilateral retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts. This association of cherubism wit...

  9. Brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis: therapeutic, cognitive and clinical impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS was always considered as a white matter inflammatory disease. Today, there is an important body of evidence that supports the hypothesis that gray matter involvement and the neurodegenerative mechanism are at least partially independent from inflammation. Gray matter atrophy develops faster than white matter atrophy, and predominates in the initial stages of the disease. The neurodegenerative mechanism creates permanent damage and correlates with physical and cognitive disability. In this review we describe the current available evidence regarding brain atrophy and its consequence in MS patients.

  10. PET measures of pre- and post-synaptic cardiac beta adrenergic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Jeanne M.; Stratton, John R.; Levy, Wayne; Poole, Jeanne E.; Shoner, Steven C.; Stuetzle, Werner; Caldwell, James H. E-mail: jcald@u.washington.edu

    2003-11-01

    Positron Emission Tomography was used to measure global and regional cardiac {beta}-adrenergic function in 19 normal subjects and 9 congestive heart failure patients. [{sup 11}C]-meta-hydroxyephedrine was used to image norepinephrine transporter function as an indicator of pre-synaptic function and [{sup 11}C]-CGP12177 was used to measure cell surface {beta}-receptor density as an indicator of post-synaptic function. Pre-synaptic, but not post-synaptic, function was significantly different between normals and CHF patients. Pre-synaptic function was well matched to post-synaptic function in the normal hearts but significantly different and poorly matched in the CHF patients studied. This imaging technique can help us understand regional sympathetic function in cardiac disease.

  11. Effects of early nerve repair on experimental brachial plexus injury in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Gráinne; McGrath, Aleksandra M; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikov, Lev N

    2018-03-01

    Obstetrical brachial plexus injury refers to injury observed at the time of delivery, which may lead to major functional impairment in the upper limb. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of early nerve repair following complete brachial plexus injury in neonatal rats was examined. Brachial plexus injury induced 90% loss of spinal motoneurons and 70% decrease in biceps muscle weight at 28 days after injury. Retrograde degeneration in spinal cord was associated with decreased density of dendritic branches and presynaptic boutons and increased density of astrocytes and macrophages/microglial cells. Early repair of the injured brachial plexus significantly delayed retrograde degeneration of spinal motoneurons and reduced the degree of macrophage/microglial reaction but had no effect on muscle atrophy. The results demonstrate that early nerve repair of neonatal brachial plexus injury could promote survival of injured motoneurons and attenuate neuroinflammation in spinal cord.

  12. Renal Atrophy Secondary to Chemoradiotherapy of Abdominal Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Gary Y.; May, Kilian Salerno; Iyer, Renuka V.; Chandrasekhar, Rameela M.A.; Wilding, Gregory E.; McCloskey, Susan A.; Khushalani, Nikhil I.; Yendamuri, Saikrishna S.; Gibbs, John F.; Fakih, Marwan; Thomas, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To identify factors predictive of renal atrophy after chemoradiotherapy of gastrointestinal malignancies. Methods and Materials: Patients who received chemotherapy and abdominal radiotherapy (RT) between 2002 and 2008 were identified for this study evaluating change in kidney size and function after RT. Imaging and biochemical data were obtained before and after RT in 6-month intervals. Kidney size was defined by craniocaudal measurement on CT images. The primarily irradiated kidney (PK) was defined as the kidney that received the greater mean kidney dose. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to predict risk for renal atrophy. Results: Of 130 patients, median age was 64 years, and 51.5% were male. Most primary disease sites were pancreas and periampullary tumors (77.7%). Median follow-up was 9.4 months. Creatinine clearance declined 20.89%, and size of the PK decreased 4.67% 1 year after completion of chemoradiation. Compensatory hypertrophy of the non-PK was not seen. Percentage volumes of the PK receiving ≥10 Gy (V 10 ), 15 Gy (V 15 ), and 20 Gy (V 20 ) were significantly associated with renal atrophy 1 year after RT (p = 0.0030, 0.0029, and 0.0028, respectively). Areas under the ROC curves for V 10 , V 15 , and V 20 to predict >5% decrease in PK size were 0.760, 0.760, and 0.762, respectively. Conclusions: Significant detriments in PK size and renal function were seen after abdominal RT. The V 10 , V 15 , and V 20 were predictive of risk for PK atrophy 1 year after RT. Analyses suggest the association of lower-dose renal irradiation with subsequent development of renal atrophy.

  13. A presynaptic role for PKA in synaptic tagging and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Alan Jung; Havekes, Robbert; Choi, Jennifer Hk; Luczak, Vince; Nie, Ting; Huang, Ted; Abel, Ted

    2014-10-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) and other signaling molecules are spatially restricted within neurons by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Although studies on compartmentalized PKA signaling have focused on postsynaptic mechanisms, presynaptically anchored PKA may contribute to synaptic plasticity and memory because PKA also regulates presynaptic transmitter release. Here, we examine this issue using genetic and pharmacological application of Ht31, a PKA anchoring disrupting peptide. At the hippocampal Schaffer collateral CA3-CA1 synapse, Ht31 treatment elicits a rapid decay of synaptic responses to repetitive stimuli, indicating a fast depletion of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. The interaction between PKA and proteins involved in producing this pool of synaptic vesicles is supported by biochemical assays showing that synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2), Rim1, and SNAP25 are components of a complex that interacts with cAMP. Moreover, acute treatment with Ht31 reduces the levels of SV2. Finally, experiments with transgenic mouse lines, which express Ht31 in excitatory neurons at the Schaffer collateral CA3-CA1 synapse, highlight a requirement for presynaptically anchored PKA in pathway-specific synaptic tagging and long-term contextual fear memory. These results suggest that a presynaptically compartmentalized PKA is critical for synaptic plasticity and memory by regulating the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ataxia-telangiectasia: the pattern of cerebellar atrophy on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavani, F.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Gatti, R.; Bingham, P.; Berry, G.T.; Sullivan, K.

    2003-01-01

    We describe MRI of the brain in 19 patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) and correlate the appearances with the degree of neurologic deficit. We examined 10 male and nine female patients; 17 were aged between 2 and 12 years (mean 8 years) but a woman and her brother were 35 and 38 years old, and had a variant of AT. Ataxia was the first recognized sign of the disease in every patient. We detected the following patterns of cerebellar atrophy: in the youngest patient, aged 2 years, the study was normal; in the five next youngest patients 3-7 years of age, the lateral cerebellum and superior vermis showed the earliest changes of atrophy; and all but one of the other patients had moderate to marked diffuse atrophy of vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. There were 12 patients aged 9 years and above; one, who was normal, was 9 years old. The five patients who at the time of examination were unable to walk all had diffuse atrophy involving both vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. (orig.)

  15. Tensor-Based Morphometry Reveals Volumetric Deficits in Moderate=Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Villalon-Reina, Julio; Moran, Lisa M.; Kernan, Claudia; Babikian, Talin; Mink, Richard; Babbitt, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey; Giza, Christopher C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Asarnow, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause widespread and prolonged brain degeneration. TBI can affect cognitive function and brain integrity for many years after injury, often with lasting effects in children, whose brains are still immature. Although TBI varies in how it affects different individuals, image analysis methods such as tensor-based morphometry (TBM) can reveal common areas of brain atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), secondary effects of the initial injury, which will differ between subjects. Here we studied 36 pediatric moderate to severe TBI (msTBI) participants in the post-acute phase (1–6 months post-injury) and 18 msTBI participants who returned for their chronic assessment, along with well-matched controls at both time-points. Participants completed a battery of cognitive tests that we used to create a global cognitive performance score. Using TBM, we created three-dimensional (3D) maps of individual and group differences in regional brain volumes. At both the post-acute and chronic time-points, the greatest group differences were expansion of the lateral ventricles and reduction of the lingual gyrus in the TBI group. We found a number of smaller clusters of volume reduction in the cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and fusiform gyrus, and throughout the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices. Additionally, we found extensive associations between our cognitive performance measure and regional brain volume. Our results indicate a pattern of atrophy still detectable 1-year post-injury, which may partially underlie the cognitive deficits frequently found in TBI. PMID:26393494

  16. Aspiration pneumonia induces muscle atrophy in the respiratory, skeletal, and swallowing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Riyo; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Ebihara, Satoru; Kobayashi, Makoto; Tsukita, Yoko; Nihei, Mayumi; Sugiura, Hisatoshi; Niu, Kaijun; Ebihara, Takae; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2018-05-22

    Repetition of the onset of aspiration pneumonia in aged patients is common and causes chronic inflammation. The inflammation induces proinflammatory cytokine production and atrophy in the muscles. The proinflammatory cytokines induce muscle proteolysis by activating calpains and caspase-3, followed by further degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Autophagy is another pathway of muscle atrophy. However, little is known about the relationship between aspiration pneumonia and muscle. For swallowing muscles, it is not clear whether they produce cytokines. The main objective of this study was to determine whether aspiration pneumonia induces muscle atrophy in the respiratory (the diaphragm), skeletal (the tibialis anterior, TA), and swallowing (the tongue) systems, and their possible mechanisms. We employed a mouse aspiration pneumonia model and computed tomography (CT) scans of aged pneumonia patients. To induce aspiration pneumonia, mice were inoculated with low dose pepsin and lipopolysaccharide solution intra-nasally 5 days a week. The diaphragm, TA, and tongue were isolated, and total RNA, proteins, and frozen sections were stored. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction determined the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, muscle E3 ubiquitin ligases, and autophagy related genes. Western blot analysis determined the activation of the muscle proteolysis pathway. Frozen sections determined the presence of muscle atrophy. CT scans were used to evaluate the muscle atrophy in aged aspiration pneumonia patients. The aspiration challenge enhanced the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the diaphragm, TA, and tongue. Among muscle proteolysis pathways, the aspiration challenge activated caspase-3 in all the three muscles examined, whereas calpains were activated in the diaphragm and the TA but not in the tongue. Activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system was detected in all the three muscles examined. The aspiration challenge

  17. Detection of brain atrophy due to ACTH or corticosteroid therapy with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Isamu; Takei, Tadao; Oota, Hideomi; Maekawa, Kihei.

    1981-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticosteroids seemed to cause brain atrophy in intants. We studied the atrophy which was caused by these drugs with computed tomography (CT). 1) Nine cases of infantile spasms examined before, during and after ACTH therepy with CT. Brain atrophy on CT was observed immediately after the completion of ACTH therapy. The brain atrophy receded slightly after several months. It was more marked in younger patients, in cases treated by hight doses of ACTH and in cases where brain atrophy had already been obserbed before ACTH therapy. 2) Twenty cases of infantile spasms or Lennox Gastaut syndrome were examined after ACTH therapy with CT. Brain atrophy was observed in twelve cases. Main features of brain atrophy were the enlargement of sylvian fissure and the widening of subarachnoid space at the frontal or temporal region. Mental retardation was observed in eighteen cases. 3) Two cases of nephrotic syndrome were treated with pulse therapy of prednisolone. CT was carried out before and after treatment. Atrophy of cerebrum was observed in these cases. 4) A case of infantile spasms treated with anticonvulsants without ACTH was studied by electroencephalography (EEG) and CT. The abnormal pattern of EEG was markedly corrected, while brain atrophy on CT was not observed after the therapy. Because of these observations the use of ACTH has to be reconsidered. ACTH should be the drug of second choice for the therapy of infantile spasms and should be used in case other anticonvulsants have no effect. ACTH should be used at lower dosages and for shorter periods of time. (author)

  18. Detection of brain atrophy due to ACTH or corticosteroid therapy with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, I.; Takei, T. (National Sagamihara Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan)); Oota, H.; Maekawa, K.

    1981-07-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticosteroids seemed to cause brain atrophy in infants. We studied the atrophy which was caused by these drugs with computed tomography (CT). 1) Nine cases of infantile spasms examined before, during and after ACTH therapy with CT. Brain atrophy on CT was observed immediately after the completion of ACTH therapy. The brain atrophy receded slightly after several months. It was more marked in younger patients, in cases treated by high doses of ACTH and in cases where brain atrophy had already been observed before ACTH therapy. 2) Twenty cases of infantile spasms or Lennox Gastaut syndrome were examined after ACTH therapy with CT. Brain atrophy was observed in twelve cases. Main features of brain atrophy were the enlargement of sylvian fissure and the widening of subarachnoid space at the frontal or temporal region. Mental retardation was observed in eighteen cases. 3) Two cases of nephrotic syndrome were treated with pulse therapy of prednisolone. CT was carried out before and after treatment. Atrophy of cerebrum was observed in these cases. 4) A case of infantile spasms treated with anticonvulsants without ACTH was studied by electroencephalography (EEG) and CT. The abnormal pattern of EEG was markedly corrected, while brain atrophy on CT was not observed after the therapy. Because of these observations the use of ACTH has to be reconsidered. ACTH should be the drug of second choice for the therapy of infantile spasms and should be used in case other anticonvulsants have no effect. ACTH should be used at lower dosages and for shorter periods of time.

  19. Preliminary study on computer automatic quantification of brain atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuanfu; Zhou Kangyuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the variability of normal brain volume with the sex and age, and put forward an objective standard for computer automatic quantification of brain atrophy. Methods: The cranial volume, brain volume and brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) of 487 cases of brain atrophy (310 males, 177 females) and 1901 cases of normal subjects (993 males, 908 females) were calculated with the newly developed algorithm of automatic quantification for brain atrophy. With the technique of polynomial curve fitting, the mathematical relationship of BPF with age in normal subjects was analyzed. Results: The cranial volume, brain volume and BPF of normal subjects were (1 271 322 ± 128 699) mm 3 , (1 211 725 ± 122 077) mm 3 and (95.3471 ± 2.3453)%, respectively, and those of atrophy subjects were (1 276 900 ± 125 180) mm 3 , (1 203 400 ± 117 760) mm 3 and BPF(91.8115 ± 2.3035)% respectively. The difference of BPF between the two groups was extremely significant (P 0.05). The expression P(x)=-0.0008x 2 + 0.0193x + 96.9999 could accurately describe the mathematical relationship between BPF and age in normal subject (lower limit of 95% CI y=-0.0008x 2 +0.0184x+95.1090). Conclusion: The lower limit of 95% confidence interval mathematical relationship between BPF and age could be used as an objective criteria for automatic quantification of brain atrophy with computer. (authors)

  20. Two Classes of Secreted Synaptic Organizers in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2018-02-10

    Research in the last two decades has identified many synaptic organizers in the central nervous system that directly regulate the assembly of pre- and/or postsynaptic molecules, such as synaptic vesicles, active zone proteins, and neurotransmitter receptors. They are classified into secreted factors and cell adhesion molecules, such as neurexins and neuroligins. Certain secreted factors are termed extracellular scaffolding proteins (ESPs) because they are components of the synaptic extracellular matrix and serve as a scaffold at the synaptic cleft. These include Lgi1, Cbln1, neuronal pentraxins, Hevin, thrombospondins, and glypicans. Diffusible secreted factors, such as Wnts, fibroblast growth factors, and semaphorins, tend to act from a distance. In contrast, ESPs remain at the synaptic cleft and often help synaptic adhesion and/or accumulation of postsynaptic receptors. Many fundamental questions remain about when, how, and why various synaptic organizers establish and modify the vast numbers of connections during development and throughout life.

  1. Liver atrophy after percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization occurs in two histological phases: Hepatocellular atrophy followed by apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwao, Yasuhito; Ojima, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Tatsushi; Kishi, Yoji; Nara, Satoshi; Esaki, Minoru; Shimada, Kazuaki; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Tanabe, Minoru; Kanai, Yae

    2017-11-18

    To clarify the histological changes associated with liver atrophy after percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization (PTPE) in pigs and humans. As a preliminary study, we performed pathological examinations of liver specimens from five pigs that had undergone PTPE in a time-dependent model of liver atrophy. In specimens from embolized lobes (EMB) and nonembolized lobes (controls), we measured the portal vein to central vein distance (PV-CV), the area and number of hepatocytes per lobule, and apoptotic activity using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay. Immunohistochemical reactivities were evaluated for light chain 3 (LC3) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) as autophagy markers and for glutamine synthetase and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) as metabolic zonation markers. Samples from ten human livers taken 20-36 d after PTPE were similarly examined. PV-CVs and lobule areas did not differ between EMB and controls at day 0, but were lower in EMB than in controls at weeks 2, 4, and 6 ( P ≤ 0.001). Hepatocyte numbers were not significantly reduced in EMB at day 0 and week 2 but were reduced at weeks 4 and 6 ( P ≤ 0.05). Apoptotic activity was higher in EMB than in controls at day 0 and week 4. LC3 and LAMP2 staining peaked in EMB at week 2, with no significant difference between EMB and controls at weeks 4 and 6. Glutamine synthetase and CYP2E1 zonation in EMB at weeks 2, 4, and 6 were narrower than those in controls. Human results were consistent with those of porcine specimens. The mechanism of liver atrophy after PTPE has two histological phases: Hepatocellular atrophy is likely caused by autophagy in the first 2 wk and apoptosis thereafter.

  2. Electric Dipole Theory of Chemical Synaptic Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ling Y.

    1968-01-01

    In this paper we propose that chemicals such as acetylcholine are electric dipoles which when oriented and arranged in a large array could produce an electric field strong enough to drive positive ions over the junction barrier of the post-synaptic membrane and thus initiate excitation or produce depolarization. This theory is able to explain a great number of facts such as cleft size, synaptic delay, nonregeneration, subthreshold integration, facilitation with repetition, and the calcium and magnesium effects. It also shows why and how acetylcholine could act as excitatory or inhibitory transmitters under different circumstances. Our conclusion is that the nature of synaptic transmission is essentially electrical, be it mediated by electrical or chemical transmitters. PMID:4296121

  3. Astroglial Metabolic Networks Sustain Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouach, Nathalie; Koulakoff, Annette; Abudara, Veronica; Willecke, Klaus; Giaume, Christian

    2008-12-01

    Astrocytes provide metabolic substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this function, as well as its role in synaptic transmission, remain unclear. Here, we show that the gap-junction subunit proteins connexin 43 and 30 allow intercellular trafficking of glucose and its metabolites through astroglial networks. This trafficking is regulated by glutamatergic synaptic activity mediated by AMPA receptors. In the absence of extracellular glucose, the delivery of glucose or lactate to astrocytes sustains glutamatergic synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity only when they are connected by gap junctions. These results indicate that astroglial gap junctions provide an activity-dependent intercellular pathway for the delivery of energetic metabolites from blood vessels to distal neurons.

  4. Astroglial metabolic networks sustain hippocampal synaptic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouach, Nathalie; Koulakoff, Annette; Abudara, Veronica; Willecke, Klaus; Giaume, Christian

    2008-12-05

    Astrocytes provide metabolic substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this function, as well as its role in synaptic transmission, remain unclear. Here, we show that the gap-junction subunit proteins connexin 43 and 30 allow intercellular trafficking of glucose and its metabolites through astroglial networks. This trafficking is regulated by glutamatergic synaptic activity mediated by AMPA receptors. In the absence of extracellular glucose, the delivery of glucose or lactate to astrocytes sustains glutamatergic synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity only when they are connected by gap junctions. These results indicate that astroglial gap junctions provide an activity-dependent intercellular pathway for the delivery of energetic metabolites from blood vessels to distal neurons.

  5. Characteristic MRI findings in multiple system atrophy: comparison of the three subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naka, H.; Ohshita, T.; Murata, Y.; Imon, Y.; Mimori, Y.; Nakamura, S. [Department of Internal Medicine, Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    We reviewed MRI findings in 29 patients with probable multiple system atrophy (MSA) to see whether there were common and or less common neuroradiological findings in the various clinical subtypes. We divided the patients into three clinical subtypes according to initial and predominant symptoms: 14 with olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), eight with the Shy-Drager syndrome (SDS) and seven with striatonigral degeneration (SND). The patients showed atrophy of the brain stem and cerebellum, high signal on T2-weighted images of the base of the pons and middle cerebellar peduncles, high and low signal on T2-weighted images of the putamen and atrophy of frontal and parietal lobes. The degree of atrophy of the middle cerebellar peduncle and cerebellum was greater in OPCA patients and a high-signal lateral rim to the putamen more frequent in SND. However, all findings were observed in all subtypes, and the degrees of atrophy of the putamen and pons and the frequency of high signal in the base of the pons were similar in the subtypes. We also found atrophy of the cerebral hemispheres, especially the frontal and parietal lobes, but its degree was not significantly different in the various subtypes. Our findings suggest that, although MSA can be divided clinically into three subtypes, most of the features on MRI are common and overlap in the subtypes, independently of the clinical presentation. (orig.)

  6. Synaptic transmission block by presynaptic injection of oligomeric amyloid beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Herman; Yu, Eunah; Pigino, Gustavo; Hernandez, Alejandro I.; Kim, Natalia; Moreira, Jorge E.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2009-01-01

    Early Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology is characterized by synaptic changes induced by degradation products of amyloid precursor protein (APP). The exact mechanisms of such modulation are unknown. Here, we report that nanomolar concentrations of intraaxonal oligomeric (o)Aβ42, but not oAβ40 or extracellular oAβ42, acutely inhibited synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse. Further characterization of this phenotype demonstrated that presynaptic calcium currents were unaffected. However, electron microscopy experiments revealed diminished docked synaptic vesicles in oAβ42-microinjected terminals, without affecting clathrin-coated vesicles. The molecular events of this modulation involved casein kinase 2 and the synaptic vesicle rapid endocytosis pathway. These findings open the possibility of a new therapeutic target aimed at ameliorating synaptic dysfunction in AD. PMID:19304802

  7. Spike Pattern Structure Influences Synaptic Efficacy Variability Under STDP and Synaptic Homeostasis. I: Spike Generating Models on Converging Motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zedong eBi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In neural systems, synaptic plasticity is usually driven by spike trains. Due to the inherent noises of neurons and synapses as well as the randomness of connection details, spike trains typically exhibit variability such as spatial randomness and temporal stochasticity, resulting in variability of synaptic changes under plasticity, which we call efficacy variability. How the variability of spike trains influences the efficacy variability of synapses remains unclear. In this paper, we try to understand this influence under pair-wise additive spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP when the mean strength of plastic synapses into a neuron is bounded (synaptic homeostasis. Specifically, we systematically study, analytically and numerically, how four aspects of statistical features, i.e. synchronous firing, burstiness/regularity, heterogeneity of rates and heterogeneity of cross-correlations, as well as their interactions influence the efficacy variability in converging motifs (simple networks in which one neuron receives from many other neurons. Neurons (including the post-synaptic neuron in a converging motif generate spikes according to statistical models with tunable parameters. In this way, we can explicitly control the statistics of the spike patterns, and investigate their influence onto the efficacy variability, without worrying about the feedback from synaptic changes onto the dynamics of the post-synaptic neuron. We separate efficacy variability into two parts: the drift part (DriftV induced by the heterogeneity of change rates of different synapses, and the diffusion part (DiffV induced by weight diffusion caused by stochasticity of spike trains. Our main findings are: (1 synchronous firing and burstiness tend to increase DiffV, (2 heterogeneity of rates induces DriftV when potentiation and depression in STDP are not balanced, and (3 heterogeneity of cross-correlations induces DriftV together with heterogeneity of rates. We anticipate our

  8. Phosphodiesterase Inhibition to Target the Synaptic Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Kelly R.; Plath, Niels; Svenstrup, Niels; Menniti, Frank S.

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a disease of synaptic dysfunction that ultimately proceeds to neuronal death. There is a wealth of evidence that indicates the final common mediator of this neurotoxic process is the formation and actions on synaptotoxic b-amyloid (Aβ). The premise in this review is that synaptic dysfunction may also be an initiating factor in for AD and promote synaptotoxic Aβ formation. This latter hypothesis is consistent with the fact that the most common risk factors for AD, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) allele status, age, education, and fitness, encompass suboptimal synaptic function. Thus, the synaptic dysfunction in AD may be both cause and effect, and remediating synaptic dysfunction in AD may have acute effects on the symptoms present at the initiation of therapy and also slow disease progression. The cyclic nucleotide (cAMP and cGMP) signaling systems are intimately involved in the regulation of synaptic homeostasis. The phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a superfamily of enzymes that critically regulate spatial and temporal aspects of cyclic nucleotide signaling through metabolic inactivation of cAMP and cGMP. Thus, targeting the PDEs to promote improved synaptic function, or 'synaptic resilience', may be an effective and facile approach to new symptomatic and disease modifying therapies for AD. There continues to be a significant drug discovery effort aimed at discovering PDE inhibitors to treat a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we review the current status of those efforts as they relate to potential new therapies for AD.

  9. Dominant optic atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenaers Guy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain. Epidemiology The prevalence of the disease varies from 1/10000 in Denmark due to a founder effect, to 1/30000 in the rest of the world. Clinical description DOA patients usually suffer of moderate visual loss, associated with central or paracentral visual field deficits and color vision defects. The severity of the disease is highly variable, the visual acuity ranging from normal to legal blindness. The ophthalmic examination discloses on fundoscopy isolated optic disc pallor or atrophy, related to the RGC death. About 20% of DOA patients harbour extraocular multi-systemic features, including neurosensory hearing loss, or less commonly chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, multiple sclerosis-like illness, spastic paraplegia or cataracts. Aetiology Two genes (OPA1, OPA3 encoding inner mitochondrial membrane proteins and three loci (OPA4, OPA5, OPA8 are currently known for DOA. Additional loci and genes (OPA2, OPA6 and OPA7 are responsible for X-linked or recessive optic atrophy. All OPA genes yet identified encode mitochondrial proteins embedded in the inner membrane and ubiquitously expressed, as are the proteins mutated in the Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. OPA1 mutations affect mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism, control of apoptosis, calcium clearance and maintenance of mitochondrial genome integrity. OPA3 mutations only affect the energy metabolism and the control of apoptosis. Diagnosis Patients are usually diagnosed during their early childhood, because of

  10. The yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy (yrRTA: a simple 2D/3D method for estimating deep gray matter atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eMenéndez-González

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite a strong correlation to outcome, the measurement of gray matter (GM atrophy is not being used in daily clinical practice as a prognostic factor and monitor the effect of treatments in Multiple Sclerosis (MS. This is mainly because the volumetric methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In addition, the meaning of raw results from volumetric studies on regions of interest are not always easy to understand. Thus, there is a huge need of a methodology suitable to be applied in daily clinical practice in order to estimate GM atrophy in a convenient and comprehensive way. Given the thalamus is the brain structure found to be more consistently implied in MS both in terms of extent of atrophy and in terms of prognostic value, we propose a solution based in this structure. In particular, we propose to compare the extent of thalamus atrophy (TA with the extent of unspecific, global brain atrophy, represented by ventricular enlargement. We name this ratio the yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy (yrRTA. In this report we aim to describe the concept of yrRTA and the guidelines for computing it under 2D and 3D approaches and explain the rationale behind this method. We have also conducted a very short crossectional retrospective study to proof the concept of yrRTA. However, we do not seek to describe here the validity of this parameter since these researches are being conducted currently and results will be addressed in future publications.

  11. The yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy (yrRTA): a simple 2D/3D method for estimating deep gray matter atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-González, Manuel; Salas-Pacheco, José M; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Despite a strong correlation to outcome, the measurement of gray matter (GM) atrophy is not being used in daily clinical practice as a prognostic factor and monitor the effect of treatments in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This is mainly because the volumetric methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In addition, the meanings of raw results from volumetric studies on regions of interest are not always easy to understand. Thus, there is a huge need of a methodology suitable to be applied in daily clinical practice in order to estimate GM atrophy in a convenient and comprehensive way. Given the thalamus is the brain structure found to be more consistently implied in MS both in terms of extent of atrophy and in terms of prognostic value, we propose a solution based in this structure. In particular, we propose to compare the extent of thalamus atrophy with the extent of unspecific, global brain atrophy, represented by ventricular enlargement. We name this ratio the "yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy" (yrRTA). In this report we aim to describe the concept of yrRTA and the guidelines for computing it under 2D and 3D approaches and explain the rationale behind this method. We have also conducted a very short crossectional retrospective study to proof the concept of yrRTA. However, we do not seek to describe here the validity of this parameter since these researches are being conducted currently and results will be addressed in future publications.

  12. Diffusion MRI and the Detection of Alterations Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-13

    vascular injury, disruption of water home- ostasis), changes in tissue composition (e.g., increased or decreased cellu- larity), and alterations in...related alterations Tissue environment Expected diffusion changes Major citations dMRI evidence Neurons cell loss necrosis and apoptosis atrophy...structure and signaling, vascular coupling, and waste removal, among others. Astrocytes are at least as numerous as neurons in the brain (Herculano-Houzel

  13. Corpus callosum atrophy in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have found atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear whether callosal atrophy is already present in the early stages of AD, and to what extent it may be associated with other structural changes in the brain......, such as age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) and progression of the disease....

  14. Clinical and MRI correlation in multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negoro, Kiyoshi; Morimatsu, Mitsunori (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-05-01

    By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we studied 11 patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA): 5 olivo-pontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), 2 Shy-Drager syndrome (SDS), and 4 striatonigral degeneration (SND). The diagnoses of OPCA, SDS and SND were clinically made. The MR images were performed on 1.5 tesla MRI unit (Siemens Asahi Medical, Magnetom H15), using a T[sub 2]-weighted spin echo (SE) sequence (TR: 2000-3000 ms, TE: 80-90 ms), a T[sub 1]-weighted SE sequence (TR: 550, TE: 15), and a proton density-weighted (PD) SE sequence (TR: 2000-3000, TE: 12-22). In the patients with OPCA, MRI revealed cerebellar and brainstem atrophy and degeneration of pontine transverse fibers more marked than in the patients with SDS and SND. T[sub 2]-weighted images showed low intensity in posterolateral putamina in one OPCA patient and all of SDS and SND patients. PD images demonstrated the abnormal slit-like high signals in posterolateral putamina in three SND. The degree of cerebellar ataxia was not well correlated with cerebellar and brainstem atrophy and degeneration of pontine transverse fibers. There was a positive correlation between the atrophy of cerebellum and brainstem and the duration of cerebellar ataxia. In most of the patients with Parkinsonism, MRI demonstrated abnormal low signals in putamina on T[sub 2]-weighted images. There were positive correlations between the abnormal low signals putamina and the duration and severity of Parkinsonism. Though abnormal low signals in lateral putamina may be seen in normal aging and other disorders on T[sub 2]-weighted images, it is useful to evaluate Parkinsonism in MSA. We believe that the abnormal slit-like high signals in posterolateral putamina in MSA may suggest loss of neurons and gliosis. (author).

  15. Deep gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis: a tensor based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guozhi; Datta, Sushmita; He, Renjie; Nelson, Flavia; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2009-07-15

    Tensor based morphometry (TBM) was applied to determine the atrophy of deep gray matter (DGM) structures in 88 relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. For group analysis of atrophy, an unbiased atlas was constructed from 20 normal brains. The MS brain images were co-registered with the unbiased atlas using a symmetric inverse consistent nonlinear registration. These studies demonstrate significant atrophy of thalamus, caudate nucleus, and putamen even at a modest clinical disability, as assessed by the expanded disability status score (EDSS). A significant correlation between atrophy and EDSS was observed for different DGM structures: (thalamus: r=-0.51, p=3.85 x 10(-7); caudate nucleus: r=-0.43, p=2.35 x 10(-5); putamen: r=-0.36, p=6.12 x 10(-6)). Atrophy of these structures also correlated with 1) T2 hyperintense lesion volumes (thalamus: r=-0.56, p=9.96 x 10(-9); caudate nucleus: r=-0.31, p=3.10 x 10(-3); putamen: r=-0.50, p=6.06 x 10(-7)), 2) T1 hypointense lesion volumes (thalamus: r=-0.61, p=2.29 x 10(-10); caudate nucleus: r=-0.35, p=9.51 x 10(-4); putamen: r=-0.43, p=3.51 x 10(-5)), and 3) normalized CSF volume (thalamus: r=-0.66, p=3.55 x 10(-12); caudate nucleus: r=-0.52, p=2.31 x 10(-7), and putamen: r=-0.66, r=2.13 x 10(-12)). More severe atrophy was observed mainly in thalamus at higher EDSS. These studies appear to suggest a link between the white matter damage and DGM atrophy in MS.

  16. Fronto-striatal atrophy in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia & Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime eBertoux

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD has only recently been associated with significant striatal atrophy, whereas the striatum appears to be relatively preserved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Considering the critical role the striatum has in cognition and behaviour, striatal degeneration, together with frontal atrophy, could be responsible of some characteristic symptoms in bvFTD and emerges therefore as promising novel diagnostic biomarker to distinguish bvFTD and AD. Previous studies have, however, only taken either cortical or striatal atrophy into account when comparing the two diseases. In this study, we establish for the first time a profile of fronto-striatal atrophy in 23 bvFTD and 29 AD patients at presentation, based on the structural connectivity of striatal and cortical regions. Patients are compared to 50 healthy controls by using a novel probabilistic connectivity atlas, which defines striatal regions by their cortical white matter connectivity, allowing us to explore the degeneration of the frontal and striatal regions that are functionally linked. Comparisons with controls revealed that bvFTD showed substantial fronto-striatal atrophy affecting the ventral as well as anterior and posterior dorso-lateral prefrontal cortices and the related striatal subregions. By contrast, AD showed few fronto-striatal atrophy, despite having significant posterior dorso-lateral prefrontal degeneration. Direct comparison between bvFTD and AD revealed significantly more atrophy in the ventral striatal-ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions in bvFTD. Consequently, deficits in ventral fronto-striatal regions emerge as promising novel and efficient diagnosis biomarker for bvFTD. Future investigations into the contributions of these fronto-striatal loops on bvFTD symptomology are needed to develop simple diagnostic and disease tracking algorithms.

  17. Myopic (HD-PTP, PTPN23) selectively regulates synaptic neuropeptide release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Dinara; Jha, Anupma; Deitcher, David L; Levitan, Edwin S

    2018-02-13

    Neurotransmission is mediated by synaptic exocytosis of neuropeptide-containing dense-core vesicles (DCVs) and small-molecule transmitter-containing small synaptic vesicles (SSVs). Exocytosis of both vesicle types depends on Ca 2+ and shared secretory proteins. Here, we show that increasing or decreasing expression of Myopic (mop, HD-PTP, PTPN23), a Bro1 domain-containing pseudophosphatase implicated in neuronal development and neuropeptide gene expression, increases synaptic neuropeptide stores at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). This occurs without altering DCV content or transport, but synaptic DCV number and age are increased. The effect on synaptic neuropeptide stores is accounted for by inhibition of activity-induced Ca 2+ -dependent neuropeptide release. cAMP-evoked Ca 2+ -independent synaptic neuropeptide release also requires optimal Myopic expression, showing that Myopic affects the DCV secretory machinery shared by cAMP and Ca 2+ pathways. Presynaptic Myopic is abundant at early endosomes, but interaction with the endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT III) protein (CHMP4/Shrub) that mediates Myopic's effect on neuron pruning is not required for control of neuropeptide release. Remarkably, in contrast to the effect on DCVs, Myopic does not affect release from SSVs. Therefore, Myopic selectively regulates synaptic DCV exocytosis that mediates peptidergic transmission at the NMJ.

  18. Brain atrophy at onset and physical disability in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS patients during the disease onset predicts long term disability. METHODS: MS patients with follow-up time of at least 7 years from disease onset and with baseline and second magnetic resonance 12 months later were included to measure brain atrophy. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS was categorized in three groups, EDSS=0, EDSS=1 and 2.5 and EDSS>2.5, and used as disability measure. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were included. Mean atrophy during the first year in patients that reached an EDSS≥3 was -0.76±0.45 %, in patients with an EDSS between 1 and 2.5 was -0.59±0.56, while in patients with an EDSS of 0 it was -0.38±0.42 (p=0.003. DISCUSSION: Brain atrophy rates during the first year of disease were predictive of disease progression in our population.

  19. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Regulates Activity-Dependent Membrane Trafficking and Trans-Synaptic Signaling Mediating Synaptic Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, James C.; Broadie, Kendal

    2018-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading monogenic cause of autism and intellectual disability. The disease arises through loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which normally exhibits peak expression levels in early-use critical periods, and is required for activity-dependent synaptic remodeling during this transient developmental window. FMRP canonically binds mRNA to repress protein translation, with targets that regulate cytoskeleton dynamics, membrane trafficking, and trans-synaptic signaling. We focus here on recent advances emerging in these three areas from the Drosophila disease model. In the well-characterized central brain mushroom body (MB) olfactory learning/memory circuit, FMRP is required for activity-dependent synaptic remodeling of projection neurons innervating the MB calyx, with function tightly restricted to an early-use critical period. FMRP loss is phenocopied by conditional removal of FMRP only during this critical period, and rescued by FMRP conditional expression only during this critical period. Consistent with FXS hyperexcitation, FMRP loss defects are phenocopied by heightened sensory experience and targeted optogenetic hyperexcitation during this critical period. FMRP binds mRNA encoding Drosophila ESCRTIII core component Shrub (human CHMP4 homolog) to restrict Shrub translation in an activity-dependent mechanism only during this same critical period. Shrub mediates endosomal membrane trafficking, and perturbing Shrub expression is known to interfere with neuronal process pruning. Consistently, FMRP loss and Shrub overexpression targeted to projection neurons similarly causes endosomal membrane trafficking defects within synaptic boutons, and genetic reduction of Shrub strikingly rescues Drosophila FXS model defects. In parallel work on the well-characterized giant fiber (GF) circuit, FMRP limits iontophoretic dye loading into central interneurons, demonstrating an FMRP role controlling core neuronal properties through the

  20. αA crystallin may protect against geographic atrophy-meta-analysis of cataract vs. cataract surgery for geographic atrophy and experimental studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cataract and geographic atrophy (GA, also called advanced "dry" age-related macular degeneration are the two major causes of visual impairment in the developed world. The association between cataract surgery and the development of GA was controversial in previous studies. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a meta-analysis by pooling the current evidence in literature and found that cataract is associated with an increased risk of geographic atrophy with a summary odds ratio (OR of 3.75 (95% CI: 95% CI: 1.84-7.62. However, cataract surgery is not associated with the risk of geographic atrophy (polled OR=3.23, 95% CI: 0.63-16.47. Further experiments were performed to analyze how the αA-crystallin, the major component of the lens, influences the development of GA in a mouse model. We found that theαA-crystallin mRNA and protein expression increased after oxidative stress induced by NaIO(3 in immunohistochemistry of retinal section and western blot of posterior eyecups. Both functional and histopathological evidence confirmed that GA is more severe in αA-crystallin knockout mice compared to wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, αA-crystallin may protect against geographic atrophy. This study provides a better understanding of the relationship between cataract, cataract surgery, and GA.

  1. Statistical mechanics of attractor neural network models with synaptic depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yasuhiko; Oizumi, Masafumi; Otsubo, Yosuke; Nagata, Kenji; Okada, Masato

    2009-01-01

    Synaptic depression is known to control gain for presynaptic inputs. Since cortical neurons receive thousands of presynaptic inputs, and their outputs are fed into thousands of other neurons, the synaptic depression should influence macroscopic properties of neural networks. We employ simple neural network models to explore the macroscopic effects of synaptic depression. Systems with the synaptic depression cannot be analyzed due to asymmetry of connections with the conventional equilibrium statistical-mechanical approach. Thus, we first propose a microscopic dynamical mean field theory. Next, we derive macroscopic steady state equations and discuss the stabilities of steady states for various types of neural network models.

  2. Atomoxetine Prevents Dexamethasone-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesinkey, Sean R.; Korrapati, Midhun C.; Rasbach, Kyle A.; Beeson, Craig C.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy remains a clinical problem in numerous pathologic conditions. β2-Adrenergic receptor agonists, such as formoterol, can induce mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) to prevent such atrophy. Additionally, atomoxetine, an FDA-approved norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was positive in a cellular assay for MB. We used a mouse model of dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy to investigate the potential role of atomoxetine and formoterol to prevent muscle mass loss. Mice were administered dexamethasone once daily in the presence or absence of formoterol (0.3 mg/kg), atomoxetine (0.1 mg/kg), or sterile saline. Animals were euthanized at 8, 16, and 24 hours or 8 days later. Gastrocnemius muscle weights, changes in mRNA and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 α (PGC-1α) isoforms, ATP synthase β, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 β subcomplex, 8, ND1, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), myostatin, muscle Ring-finger protein-1 (muscle atrophy), phosphorylated forkhead box protein O 3a (p-FoxO3a), Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and ribosomal protein S6 (rp-S6; muscle hypertrophy) in naive and muscle-atrophied mice were measured. Atomoxetine increased p-mTOR 24 hours after treatment in naïve mice, but did not change any other biomarkers. Formoterol robustly activated the PGC-1α-4-IGF1–Akt-mTOR-rp-S6 pathway and increased p-FoxO3a as early as 8 hours and repressed myostatin at 16 hours. In contrast to what was observed with acute treatment, chronic treatment (7 days) with atomoxetine increased p-Akt and p-FoxO3a, and sustained PGC-1α expression and skeletal muscle mass in dexamethasone-treated mice, in a manner comparable to formoterol. In conclusion, chronic treatment with a low dose of atomoxetine prevented dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle wasting and supports a potential role in preventing muscle atrophy. PMID:25292181

  3. Synaptic membrane rafts: traffic lights for local neurotrophin signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, Barbara; Minichiello, Liliana

    2013-10-18

    Lipid rafts, cholesterol and lipid rich microdomains, are believed to play important roles as platforms for the partitioning of transmembrane and synaptic proteins involved in synaptic signaling, plasticity, and maintenance. There is increasing evidence of a physical interaction between post-synaptic densities and post-synaptic lipid rafts. Localization of proteins within lipid rafts is highly regulated, and therefore lipid rafts may function as traffic lights modulating and fine-tuning neuronal signaling. The tyrosine kinase neurotrophin receptors (Trk) and the low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) are enriched in neuronal lipid rafts together with the intermediates of downstream signaling pathways, suggesting a possible role of rafts in neurotrophin signaling. Moreover, neurotrophins and their receptors are involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Cholesterol is an important component of lipid rafts and its depletion leads to gradual loss of synapses, underscoring the importance of lipid rafts for proper neuronal function. Here, we review and discuss the idea that translocation of neurotrophin receptors in synaptic rafts may account for the selectivity of their transduced signals.

  4. Synaptic membrane rafts: traffic lights for local neurotrophin signalling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eZonta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid rafts, cholesterol and lipid rich microdomains, are believed to play important roles as platforms for the partitioning of transmembrane and synaptic proteins involved in synaptic signalling, plasticity and maintenance. There is increasing evidence of a physical interaction between post-synaptic densities and post-synaptic lipid rafts. Localization of proteins within lipid rafts is highly regulated, and therefore lipid rafts may function as traffic lights modulating and fine-tuning neuronal signalling. The tyrosine kinase neurotrophin receptors (Trk and the low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR are enriched in neuronal lipid rafts together with the intermediates of downstream signalling pathways, suggesting a possible role of rafts in neurotrophin signalling. Moreover, neurotrophins and their receptors are involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Cholesterol is an important component of lipid rafts and its depletion leads to gradual loss of synapses, underscoring the importance of lipid rafts for proper neuronal function. Here, we review and discuss the idea that translocation of neurotrophin receptors in synaptic rafts may account for the selectivity of their transduced signals.

  5. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L. on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Kanter, Mehmet; Oguz, Serhat; Erboga, Mustafa

    2012-12-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury may occur after renal transplantation, thoracoabdominal aortic surgery, and renal artery interventions. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica L. (UD), in I/R induced renal injury. A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, UD alone, I/R and I/R + UD; each group contain 8 animals. A rat model of renal I/R injury was induced by 45-min occlusion of the bilateral renal pedicles and 24-h reperfusion. In the UD group, 3 days before I/R, UD (2 ml/kg/day intraperitoneal) was administered by gastric gavage. All animals were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion and kidney tissues samples were obtained for histopathological investigation in all groups. To date, no more histopathological changes on intestinal I/R injury in rats by UD treatment have been reported. Renal I/R caused severe histopathological injury including tubular damage, atrophy dilatation, loss of brush border and hydropic epithelial cell degenerations, renal corpuscle atrophy, glomerular shrinkage, markedly focal mononuclear cell infiltrations in the kidney. UD treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury and significantly lowered tubulointerstitial damage score than the I/R group. The number of PCNA and TUNEL positive cells in the control and UD alone groups was negligible. When kidney sections were PCNA and TUNEL stained, there was a clear increase in the number of positive cells in the I/R group rats in the renal cortical tissues. However, there is a significant reduction in the activity of PCNA and TUNEL in kidney tissue of renal injury induced by renal I/R with UD therapy. Our results suggest that administration of UD attenuates renal I/R injury. These results suggest that UD treatment has a protective effect against renal damage induced by renal I/R. This protective effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit I/R induced renal damage, apoptosis and cell proliferation.

  6. Dyke–Davidoff–Masson syndrome with crossed cerebellar atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay M. Khaladkar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dyke–Davidoff–Masson syndrome is a rare condition with classical, clinical and radiological changes – mental retardation, hemiparesis, facial asymmetry, seizures and cerebral hemiatrophy with calvarial changes. Contralateral cerebellar atrophy is rare and occurs if insult occurs after 1 month of age. We report a case of a 6-year-old female child presenting with right-sided hemiparesis, convulsions and left cerebral hemiatrophy with an old infarct in left middle cerebral artery (MCA territory, ipsilateral calvarial thickening and right (crossed cerebellar atrophy.

  7. Defective glycinergic synaptic transmission in zebrafish motility mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Hirata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs.

  8. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho) mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch-once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch-once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs. PMID:20161699

  9. CT features of olivopontocerebellar atrophy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.D.; Gururaj, A.K.; Jeans, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1992, 14 children were seen in whom a clinical diagnosis of olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) had been made. The majority of patients presented with cerebellar ataxia and hypotonia. Five children had a family history of a similar illness in first-degree relatives. All cases had undergone clinical and neurologic examinations, routine laboratory tests and cranial CT. CT features were graded to quantitative the degree of atrophy in each cerebellar hemisphere, vermis and brain stem. All patients had varying degrees of atrophic changes of cerebellum, brain stem and cerebrum. These CT features appear to be distinctive enough to enable the diagnosis of OPCA to be made. (orig.)

  10. Haptoglobin is required to prevent oxidative stress and muscle atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bertaggia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress (OS plays a major role on tissue function. Several catabolic or stress conditions exacerbate OS, inducing organ deterioration. Haptoglobin (Hp is a circulating acute phase protein, produced by liver and adipose tissue, and has an important anti-oxidant function. Hp is induced in pro-oxidative conditions such as systemic inflammation or obesity. The role of systemic factors that modulate oxidative stress inside muscle cells is still poorly investigated. RESULTS: We used Hp knockout mice (Hp-/- to determine the role of this protein and therefore, of systemic OS in maintenance of muscle mass and function. Absence of Hp caused muscle atrophy and weakness due to activation of an atrophy program. When animals were stressed by acute exercise or by high fat diet (HFD, OS, muscle atrophy and force drop were exacerbated in Hp-/-. Depending from the stress condition, autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome systems were differently induced. CONCLUSIONS: Hp is required to prevent OS and the activation of pathways leading to muscle atrophy and weakness in normal condition and upon metabolic challenges.

  11. Experience-Dependent Equilibration of AMPAR-Mediated Synaptic Transmission during the Critical Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Seok Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent synapse refinement is essential for functional optimization of neural circuits. However, how sensory experience sculpts excitatory synaptic transmission is poorly understood. Here, we show that despite substantial remodeling of synaptic connectivity, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission remains at equilibrium during the critical period in the mouse primary visual cortex. The maintenance of this equilibrium requires neurogranin (Ng, a postsynaptic calmodulin-binding protein important for synaptic plasticity. With normal visual experience, loss of Ng decreased AMPAR-positive synapse numbers, prevented AMPAR-silent synapse maturation, and increased spine elimination. Importantly, visual deprivation halted synapse loss caused by loss of Ng, revealing that Ng coordinates experience-dependent AMPAR-silent synapse conversion to AMPAR-active synapses and synapse elimination. Loss of Ng also led to sensitized long-term synaptic depression (LTD and impaired visually guided behavior. Our synaptic interrogation reveals that experience-dependent coordination of AMPAR-silent synapse conversion and synapse elimination hinges upon Ng-dependent mechanisms for constructive synaptic refinement during the critical period.

  12. Dominant inherited distal spinal muscular atrophy with atrophic and hypertrophic calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; Sie, O G; van Weerden, T W

    The clinical, electrophysiological, radiological and morphological data of 3 members of a family with autosomal dominant distal spinal muscular atrophy (DSMA) are reported. One patient has the clinical picture of peroneal muscular atrophy with atrophic calves. His father and sister suffer from

  13. Prevention of pectus excavatum for children with spinal muscular atrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, John R; Bianchi, Carlo

    2003-10-01

    To demonstrate the elimination of pectus excavatum and promotion of more normal lung growth and chest wall development by the use of high-span positive inspiratory pressure plus positive end-expiratory pressure (PIP+PEEP), patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 with paradoxical breathing were placed on high-span PIP+PEEP when sleeping from the point of diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy. Although the appearance of pectus excavatum is ubiquitous in untreated infants with spinal muscular atrophy type 1, after institution of high-span PIP+PEEP, pectus resolves and lungs and chest walls grow more normally. High-span PIP+PEEP is indicated for all infants diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy who demonstrate paradoxical breathing for the purpose of promoting more normal lung and chest development.

  14. Progressive contralateral hippocampal atrophy following surgery for medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Cameron A; Gross, Donald W; Wheatley, B Matt; Beaulieu, Christian; Sankar, Tejas

    2016-09-01

    Determine the extent and time course of volumetric changes in the contralateral hippocampus following surgery for medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Serial T1-weighted MRI brain scans were obtained in 26 TLE patients pre- and post-temporal lobe epilepsy surgery as well as in 12 control subjects of similar age. Patients underwent either anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) or selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH). Blinded, manual hippocampal volumetry (head, body, and tail) was performed in two groups: 1) two scan group [ATL (n=6); SAH (n=10)], imaged pre-surgery and on average at 5.4 years post-surgery; and 2) longitudinal group [ATL (n=8); SAH (n=2)] imaged pre-surgery and on post-operative day 1, 2, 3, 6, 60, 120 and a delayed time point (average 2.4 years). In the two scan group, there was atrophy by 12% of the unresected contralateral hippocampus (p<0.001), with atrophy being most pronounced (27%) in the hippocampal body (p<0.001) with no significant differences seen for the hippocampal head or tail. In the longitudinal group, significant atrophy was also observed for the whole hippocampus and the body with atrophy seen as early as post-operative day #1 which progressed significantly over the first post-operative week (1.3%/day and 3.0%./day, respectively) before stabilizing over the long-term to a 13% reduction in total volume. There was no significant difference in atrophy compared by surgical approach (ATL vs. SAH; p=0.94) or side (p=0.31); however, atrophy was significantly more pronounced in patients with ongoing post-operative seizures (hippocampal body, p=0.019; whole hippocampus, p=0.048). There were no detectable post-operative neuropsychological deficits attributable to contralateral hippocampal atrophy. Significant contralateral hippocampal atrophy occurs following TLE surgery, which begins immediately and progresses over the first post-operative week. The observation that seizure free patients had significantly less atrophy of the

  15. Spinal Cord Gray Matter Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, M-Ê; El Mendili, M M; Gros, C; Dupont, S M; Cohen-Adad, J; Pradat, P-F

    2018-01-01

    There is an emerging need for biomarkers to better categorize clinical phenotypes and predict progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study aimed to quantify cervical spinal gray matter atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and investigate its association with clinical disability at baseline and after 1 year. Twenty-nine patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 22 healthy controls were scanned with 3T MR imaging. Standard functional scale was recorded at the time of MR imaging and after 1 year. MR imaging data were processed automatically to measure the spinal cord, gray matter, and white matter cross-sectional areas. A statistical analysis assessed the difference in cross-sectional areas between patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and controls, correlations between spinal cord and gray matter atrophy to clinical disability at baseline and at 1 year, and prediction of clinical disability at 1 year. Gray matter atrophy was more sensitive to discriminate patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from controls ( P = .004) compared with spinal cord atrophy ( P = .02). Gray matter and spinal cord cross-sectional areas showed good correlations with clinical scores at baseline ( R = 0.56 for gray matter and R = 0.55 for spinal cord; P amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  16. Brain atrophy in Huntington's disease: A CT-scan study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkstein, S.E.; Folstein, S.E.; Brandt, J.; McDonnell, A.; Folstein, M.

    1989-01-01

    CT-scan measurements of cortical and subcortical atrophy were carried out in 34 patients with Huntington's disease (HD). While a significant correlation was observed between parameters of subcortical atrophy (bicaudate ratio, bifrontal ratio and third ventricular ratio) and duration of the disease, there was no significant correlation between these parameters and age. On the other hand, measurements of cortical atrophy (frontal fissure ratio and cortical sulci ratio) correlated significantly with age but not with duration of the disease. When a group of 24 HD patients were compared on CT-scan measurements with a group of 24 age-matched normal controls, significant differences were obtained for all the variables examined, but the bicaudate ratio showed the highest sensitivity and specificity. Even mildly affected patients, with duration of motor symptoms less than 3 years had higher bicaudate ratios than age-matched controls. (orig.)

  17. Recommendations for the management of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturdee, D W; Panay, N; Ulrich, Lian

    2010-01-01

    for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) over recent years that has suggested an increased risk of breast cancer, heart disease and stroke. But, regardless of whether these scares are justified, local treatment of vaginal atrophy is not associated with these possible risks of systemic HRT. Other reasons...... dryness can be helped by simple lubricants but the best and most logical treatment for urogenital atrophy is to use local estrogen. This is safe, effective and with few contraindications. It is hoped that these guidelines and recommendations, produced to coincide with World Menopause Day 2010, will help...

  18. Bilateral hippocampal atrophy in temporal lobe epilepsy: Effect of depressive symptoms and febrile seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegersh, Andrey; Avedissian, Christina; Shamim, Sadat; Dustin, Irene; Thompson, Paul M.; Theodore, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Purpose Neuroimaging studies suggest a history of febrile seizures, and depression, are associated with hippocampal volume reductions in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods We used radial atrophy mapping (RAM), a three-dimensional (3D) surface modeling tool, to measure hippocampal atrophy in 40 patients with unilateral TLE, with or without a history of febrile seizures and symptoms of depression. Multiple linear regression was used to single out the effects of covariates on local atrophy. Key Findings Subjects with a history of febrile seizures (n = 15) had atrophy in regions corresponding to the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus contralateral to seizure focus (CHC) compared to those without a history of febrile seizures (n = 25). Subjects with Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) score ≥14 (n = 11) had atrophy in the superoanterior portion of the CHC compared to subjects with BDI-II <14 (n = 29). Significance Contralateral hippocampal atrophy in TLE may be related to febrile seizures or depression. PMID:21269286

  19. Progressive Diaphragm Atrophy in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glau, Christie L; Conlon, Thomas W; Himebauch, Adam S; Yehya, Nadir; Weiss, Scott L; Berg, Robert A; Nishisaki, Akira

    2018-02-05

    Diaphragm atrophy is associated with delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation and increased mortality in critically ill adults. We sought to test for the presence of diaphragm atrophy in children with acute respiratory failure. Prospective, observational study. Single-center tertiary noncardiac PICU in a children's hospital. Invasively ventilated children with acute respiratory failure. Diaphragm thickness at end-expiration and end-inspiration were serially measured by ultrasound in 56 patients (median age, 17 mo; interquartile range, 5.5-52), first within 36 hours of intubation and last preceding extubation. The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 140 hours (interquartile range, 83-201). At initial measurement, thickness at end-expiration was 2.0 mm (interquartile range, 1.8-2.5) and thickness at end-inspiration was 2.5 mm (interquartile range, 2-2.8). The change in thickness at end-expiration during mechanical ventilation between first and last measurement was -13.8% (interquartile range, -27.4% to 0%), with a -3.4% daily atrophy rate (interquartile range, -5.6 to 0%). Thickening fraction = ([thickness at end-inspiration - thickness at end-expiration]/thickness at end-inspiration) throughout the course of mechanical ventilation was linearly correlated with spontaneous breathing fraction (beta coefficient, 9.4; 95% CI, 4.2-14.7; p = 0.001). For children with a period of spontaneous breathing fraction less than 0.5 during mechanical ventilation, those with exposure to a continuous neuromuscular blockade infusion (n = 15) had a significantly larger decrease in thickness at end-expiration compared with children with low spontaneous breathing fraction who were not exposed to a neuromuscular blockade infusion (n = 18) (-16.4%, [interquartile range, -28.4% to -7.0%] vs -7.3%; [interquartile range, -10.9% to -0%]; p = 0.036). Diaphragm atrophy is present in children on mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Diaphragm contractility, measured as

  20. Cell-specific gain modulation by synaptically released zinc in cortical circuits of audition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles T; Kumar, Manoj; Xiong, Shanshan; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2017-09-09

    In many excitatory synapses, mobile zinc is found within glutamatergic vesicles and is coreleased with glutamate. Ex vivo studies established that synaptically released (synaptic) zinc inhibits excitatory neurotransmission at lower frequencies of synaptic activity but enhances steady state synaptic responses during higher frequencies of activity. However, it remains unknown how synaptic zinc affects neuronal processing in vivo. Here, we imaged the sound-evoked neuronal activity of the primary auditory cortex in awake mice. We discovered that synaptic zinc enhanced the gain of sound-evoked responses in CaMKII-expressing principal neurons, but it reduced the gain of parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons. This modulation was sound intensity-dependent and, in part, NMDA receptor-independent. By establishing a previously unknown link between synaptic zinc and gain control of auditory cortical processing, our findings advance understanding about cortical synaptic mechanisms and create a new framework for approaching and interpreting the role of the auditory cortex in sound processing.

  1. Spatiotemporal discrimination in neural networks with short-term synaptic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlaer, Benjamin; Miller, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Cells in recurrently connected neural networks exhibit bistability, which allows for stimulus information to persist in a circuit even after stimulus offset, i.e. short-term memory. However, such a system does not have enough hysteresis to encode temporal information about the stimuli. The biophysically described phenomenon of synaptic depression decreases synaptic transmission strengths due to increased presynaptic activity. This short-term reduction in synaptic strengths can destabilize attractor states in excitatory recurrent neural networks, causing the network to move along stimulus dependent dynamical trajectories. Such a network can successfully separate amplitudes and durations of stimuli from the number of successive stimuli. Stimulus number, duration and intensity encoding in randomly connected attractor networks with synaptic depression. Front. Comput. Neurosci. 7:59., and so provides a strong candidate network for the encoding of spatiotemporal information. Here we explicitly demonstrate the capability of a recurrent neural network with short-term synaptic depression to discriminate between the temporal sequences in which spatial stimuli are presented.

  2. [Involvement of aquaporin-4 in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Gao, Jian-Feng

    2017-06-25

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is the predominant water channel in the central nervous system (CNS) and primarily expressed in astrocytes. Astrocytes have been generally believed to play important roles in regulating synaptic plasticity and information processing. However, the role of AQP-4 in regulating synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, cognitive function is only beginning to be investigated. It is well known that synaptic plasticity is the prime candidate for mediating of learning and memory. Long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD) are two forms of synaptic plasticity, and they share some but not all the properties and mechanisms. Hippocampus is a part of limbic system that is particularly important in regulation of learning and memory. This article is to review some research progresses of the function of AQP-4 in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, and propose the possible role of AQP-4 as a new target in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Distinct Subunit Domains Govern Synaptic Stability and Specificity of the Kainate Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Straub

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic communication between neurons requires the precise localization of neurotransmitter receptors to the correct synapse type. Kainate-type glutamate receptors restrict synaptic localization that is determined by the afferent presynaptic connection. The mechanisms that govern this input-specific synaptic localization remain unclear. Here, we examine how subunit composition and specific subunit domains contribute to synaptic localization of kainate receptors. The cytoplasmic domain of the GluK2 low-affinity subunit stabilizes kainate receptors at synapses. In contrast, the extracellular domain of the GluK4/5 high-affinity subunit synergistically controls the synaptic specificity of kainate receptors through interaction with C1q-like proteins. Thus, the input-specific synaptic localization of the native kainate receptor complex involves two mechanisms that underlie specificity and stabilization of the receptor at synapses.

  4. Synaptic excitation in spinal motoneurons alternates with synaptic inhibition and is balanced by outward rectification during rhythmic motor network activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzulaitis, Robertas; Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    channels. Intrinsic outward rectification facilitates spiking by focusing synaptic depolarization near threshold for action potentials. By direct recording of synaptic currents, we also show that motoneurons are activated by out-of-phase peaks in excitation and inhibition during network activity, whereas......Regular firing in spinal motoneurons of red-eared turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans, either sex) evoked by steady depolarization at rest is replaced by irregular firing during functional network activity. The transition caused by increased input conductance and synaptic fluctuations in membrane...... potential was suggested to originate from intense concurrent inhibition and excitation. We show that the conductance increase in motoneurons during functional network activity is mainly caused by intrinsic outward rectification near threshold for action potentials by activation of voltage and Ca2+ gated K...

  5. Synaptic heterogeneity and stimulus-induced modulation of depression in central synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J D; Milton, J G

    2001-08-01

    Short-term plasticity is a pervasive feature of synapses. Synapses exhibit many forms of plasticity operating over a range of time scales. We develop an optimization method that allows rapid characterization of synapses with multiple time scales of facilitation and depression. Investigation of paired neurons that are postsynaptic to the same identified interneuron in the buccal ganglion of Aplysia reveals that the responses of the two neurons differ in the magnitude of synaptic depression. Also, for single neurons, prolonged stimulation of the presynaptic neuron causes stimulus-induced increases in the early phase of synaptic depression. These observations can be described by a model that incorporates two availability factors, e.g., depletable vesicle pools or desensitizing receptor populations, with different time courses of recovery, and a single facilitation component. This model accurately predicts the responses to novel stimuli. The source of synaptic heterogeneity is identified with variations in the relative sizes of the two availability factors, and the stimulus-induced decrement in the early synaptic response is explained by a slowing of the recovery rate of one of the availability factors. The synaptic heterogeneity and stimulus-induced modifications in synaptic depression observed here emphasize that synaptic efficacy depends on both the individual properties of synapses and their past history.

  6. Synaptic release and extracellular actions of Zn2+ limit propagation of spreading depression and related events in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Isamu; Carlson, Andrew P; Sheline, Christian T; Shuttleworth, C William

    2012-02-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a consequence of a slowly propagating wave of neuronal and glial depolarization (spreading depolarization; SD). Massive release of glutamate contributes to SD propagation, and it was recently shown that Zn(2+) is also released from synaptic vesicles during SD. The present study examined consequences of extracellular Zn(2+) accumulation on the propagation of SD. SD mechanisms were studied first in murine brain slices, using focal KCl applications as stimuli and making electrical and optical recordings in hippocampal area CA1. Elevating extracellular Zn(2+) concentrations with exogenous ZnCl(2) reduced SD propagation rates. Selective chelation of endogenous Zn(2+) (using TPEN or CaEDTA) increased SD propagation rates, and these effects appeared due to chelation of Zn(2+) derived from synaptic vesicles. Thus, in tissues where synaptic Zn(2+) release was absent [knockout (KO) of vesicular Zn(2+) transporter ZnT-3], SD propagation rates were increased, and no additional increase was observed following chelation of endogenous Zn(2+) in these tissues. The role of synaptic Zn(2+) was then examined on CSD in vivo. ZnT-3 KO animals had higher susceptibility to CSD than wild-type controls as evidenced by significantly higher propagation rates and frequencies. Studies of candidate mechanisms excluded changes in neuronal excitability, presynaptic release, and GABA receptors but left open a possible contribution of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor inhibition. These results suggest the extracellular accumulation of synaptically released Zn(2+) can serve as an intrinsic inhibitor to limit SD events. The inhibitory action of extracellular Zn(2+) on SD may counteract to some extent the neurotoxic effects of intracellular Zn(2+) accumulation in acute brain injury models.

  7. Synaptic theory of Replicator-like melioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Loewenstein

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of Melioration, organisms in repeated choice settings shift their choice preference in favor of the alternative that provides the highest return. The goal of this paper is to explain how this learning behavior can emerge from microscopic changes in the efficacies of synapses, in the context of two-alternative repeated-choice experiment. I consider a large family of synaptic plasticity rules in which changes in synaptic efficacies are driven by the covariance between reward and neural activity. I construct a general framework that predicts the learning dynamics of any decision-making neural network that implements this synaptic plasticity rule and show that melioration naturally emerges in such networks. Moreover, the resultant learning dynamics follows the Replicator equation which is commonly used to phenomenologically describe changes in behavior in operant conditioning experiments. Several examples demonstrate how the learning rate of the network is affected by its properties and by the specifics of the plasticity rule. These results help bridge the gap between cellular physiology and learning behavior.

  8. Aging affects the transcriptional regulation of human skeletal muscle disuse atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte Arneboe; Frandsen, Ulrik; Jensen, Line

    2012-01-01

    Important insights concerning the molecular basis of skeletal muscle disuse-atrophy and aging related muscle loss have been obtained in cell culture and animal models, but these regulatory signaling pathways have not previously been studied in aging human muscle. In the present study, muscle...... atrophy was induced by immobilization in healthy old and young individuals to study the time-course and transcriptional factors underlying human skeletal muscle atrophy. The results reveal that irrespectively of age, mRNA expression levels of MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 increased in the very initial phase (2......-4 days) of human disuse-muscle atrophy along with a marked reduction in PGC-1α and PGC-1β (1-4 days) and a ∼10% decrease in myofiber size (4 days). Further, an age-specific decrease in Akt and S6 phosphorylation was observed in young muscle within the first days (1-4 days) of immobilization. In contrast...

  9. The diagnosis of thymoma and thymic atrophy in patients with myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sund, K.K.; Skeie, G.O.; Gilhus, N.E.; Aarli, J.A.; Varhaug, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have compared clinical, immunological and radiological data in 20 patients with myasthenia gravis and thymoma and in 21 patients with myasthenia gravis and thymic atrophy. The median age at onset was 54 years in the thymoma group and 63 years in the thymic atrophy group. The severity of the disease was similar in the two groups, and there was no significant difference in the concentration of acetylcholine receptor antibodies. CA antibodies were demonstrated in 17/20 thymoma patients and in 6/21 with thymic atrophy, while 19/20 thymoma patients had antibodies to titin, compared with 9/21 among those with thymic atrophy. The diagnosis and treatment of patients with myasthenia gravis is based upon an evaluation of clinical, immunological and radiological data. 28 refs., 2 tabs

  10. The relationship between tear severity, fatty infiltration, and muscle atrophy in the supraspinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Jeffrey J; Lansdown, Drew A; Cheung, Sunny; Feeley, Brian T; Ma, C Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy have been described as interrelated characteristic changes that occur within the muscles of the rotator cuff after cuff tears, and both are independently associated with poor outcomes after surgical repair. We hypothesize that fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy are two distinct processes independently associated with supraspinatus tears. A retrospective review of 377 patients who underwent shoulder magnetic resonance imaging at one institution was performed. Multivariate analysis was performed based on parameters including age, sex, rotator cuff tear severity, fatty infiltration grade, and muscle atrophy. A total of 116 patients (30.8%) had full-thickness tears of the supraspinatus, 153 (40.6%) had partial thickness tears, and 108 (28.7%) had no evidence of tear. With increasing tear severity, the prevalence of substantial fatty infiltration (grade ≥2) increased: 6.5% of patients with no tears vs 41.4% for complete tears (P tear severity: 36.1% of no tears vs 77.6% of complete tears (P muscle atrophy when taking into account sex, age, and tear severity. Fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy are independently associated processes. Fatty infiltration is also related to increasing age, muscle tear severity, and sex, whereas muscle atrophy is related to increasing age but not tear severity. In patients without rotator cuff tears, fatty infiltration and atrophy prevalence increased independently with increasing age. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vis, J.B. de; Zwanenburg, J.J.; Kleij, L.A. van der; Spijkerman, J.M.; Hendrikse, J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Biessels, G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Petersen, E.T. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hvidovre Hospital, Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre (Denmark)

    2016-05-15

    To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T{sub 2} of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T{sub 1}-weighted and CSF MRI were performed. The first echo data of the CSF MRI sequence was used to obtain intracranial volume, CSF partial volume was measured voxel-wise to obtain CSF volume (V{sub CSF}) and the T{sub 2} of CSF (T{sub 2,CSF}) was calculated. The correlation between V{sub CSF} / T{sub 2,CSF} and brain atrophy scores [global cortical atrophy (GCA) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA)] was evaluated. Relative total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular V{sub CSF} increased significantly with increased scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.83, 0.78 and 0.78 and R = 0.72, 0.62 and 0.86). Total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular T{sub 2} of the CSF increased significantly with higher scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.72, 0.70 and 0.49 and R = 0.60, 0.57 and 0.41). A fast, fully automated CSF MRI volumetric sequence is an alternative for qualitative atrophy scales. The T{sub 2} of the CSF is related to brain atrophy and could thus be a marker of neurodegenerative disease. (orig.)

  12. Fronto-striatal atrophy correlates of neuropsychiatric dysfunction in frontotemporal dementia (FTD and Alzheimer's disease (AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Seok Yi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Behavioural disturbances in frontotemporal dementia (FTD are thought to reflect mainly atrophy of cortical regions. Recent studies suggest that subcortical brain regions, in particular the striatum, are also significantly affected and this pathology might play a role in the generation of behavioural symptoms. Objective: To investigate prefrontal cortical and striatal atrophy contributions to behavioural symptoms in FTD. Methods: One hundred and eighty-two participants (87 FTD patients, 39 AD patients and 56 controls were included. Behavioural profiles were established using the Cambridge Behavioural Inventory Revised (CBI-R and Frontal System Behaviour Scale (FrSBe. Atrophy in prefrontal (VMPFC, DLPFC and striatal (caudate, putamen regions was established via a 5-point visual rating scale of the MRI scans. Behavioural scores were correlated with atrophy rating scores. Results: Behavioural and atrophy ratings demonstrated that patients were significantly impaired compared to controls, with bvFTD being most severely affected. Behavioural-anatomical correlations revealed that VMPFC atrophy was closely related to abnormal behaviour and motivation disturbances. Stereotypical behaviours were associated with both VMPFC and striatal atrophy. By contrast, disturbance of eating was found to be related to striatal atrophy only. Conclusion: Frontal and striatal atrophy contributed to the behavioural disturbances seen in FTD, with some behaviours related to frontal, striatal or combined fronto-striatal pathology. Consideration of striatal contributions to the generation of behavioural disturbances should be taken into account when assessing patients with potential FTD.

  13. Factors Influencing Short-term Synaptic Plasticity in the Avian Cochlear Nucleus Magnocellularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Tait Sanchez Quinones

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Defined as reduced neural responses during high rates of activity, synaptic depression is a form of short-term plasticity important for the temporal filtering of sound. In the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM, an auditory brainstem structure, mechanisms regulating short-term synaptic depression include pre-, post-, and extrasynaptic factors. Using varied paired-pulse stimulus intervals, we found that the time course of synaptic depression lasts up to four seconds at late-developing NM synapses. Synaptic depression was largely reliant on exogenous Ca 2+ -dependent probability of presynaptic neurotransmitter release, and to a lesser extent, on the desensitization of postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor (AMPA-R. Interestingly, although extrasynaptic glutamate clearance did not play a significant role in regulating synaptic depression, blocking glutamate clearance at early-developing synapses altered synaptic dynamics, changing responses from depression to facilitation. These results suggest a developmental shift in the relative reliance on pre-, post-, and extrasynaptic factors in regulating short-term synaptic plasticity in NM.

  14. Shank synaptic scaffold proteins: keys to understanding the pathogenesis of autism and other synaptic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Carlo; Vicidomini, Cinzia; Bigi, Ilaria; Mossa, Adele; Verpelli, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    Shank/ProSAP proteins are essential to synaptic formation, development, and function. Mutations in the family of SHANK genes are strongly associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, such as intellectual disability (ID), and schizophrenia. Thus, the term 'Shankopathies' identifies a number of neuronal diseases caused by alteration of Shank protein expression leading to abnormal synaptic development. With this review we want to summarize the major genetic, molecular, behavior and electrophysiological studies that provide new clues into the function of Shanks and pave the way for the discovery of new therapeutic drugs targeted to treat patients with SHANK mutations and also patients affected by other neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Shank/ProSAP proteins are essential to synaptic formation, development, and function. Mutations in the family of SHANK genes are strongly associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, such as intellectual disability (ID), and schizophrenia (SCZ). With this review we want to summarize the major genetic, molecular, behavior and electrophysiological studies that provide new clues into the function of Shanks and pave the way for the discovery of new therapeutic drugs targeted to treat patients with SHANK mutations. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Inhibition of interleukin-6 decreases atrogene expression and ameliorates tail suspension-induced skeletal muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakabe, Mitsutaka; Ota, Hidetaka; Iijima, Katsuya; Eto, Masato; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Akishita, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Background Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory cytokine. Whether systemic IL-6 affects atrogene expression and disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is unclear. Methods Tail-suspended mice were used as a disuse-induced muscle atrophy model. We administered anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and vitamin D to the mice and examined the effects on atrogene expression and muscle atrophy. Results Serum IL-6 levels were elevated in the mice. Inhibition of IL-6 receptor suppressed muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) expression and prevented muscle atrophy. HMB and vitamin D inhibited the serum IL-6 surge, downregulated the expression of MuRF1 and atrogin-1 in the soleus muscle, and ameliorated atrophy in the mice. Conclusion Systemic IL-6 affects MuRF1 expression and disuse-induced muscle atrophy. PMID:29351340

  16. Inhibition of interleukin-6 decreases atrogene expression and ameliorates tail suspension-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutaka Yakabe

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is an inflammatory cytokine. Whether systemic IL-6 affects atrogene expression and disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is unclear.Tail-suspended mice were used as a disuse-induced muscle atrophy model. We administered anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB and vitamin D to the mice and examined the effects on atrogene expression and muscle atrophy.Serum IL-6 levels were elevated in the mice. Inhibition of IL-6 receptor suppressed muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1 expression and prevented muscle atrophy. HMB and vitamin D inhibited the serum IL-6 surge, downregulated the expression of MuRF1 and atrogin-1 in the soleus muscle, and ameliorated atrophy in the mice.Systemic IL-6 affects MuRF1 expression and disuse-induced muscle atrophy.

  17. Synaptic vesicle dynamic changes in a model of fragile X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broek, Jantine A C; Lin, Zhanmin; de Gruiter, H Martijn; van 't Spijker, Heleen; Haasdijk, Elize D; Cox, David; Ozcan, Sureyya; van Cappellen, Gert W A; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B; Willemsen, Rob; de Zeeuw, Chris I; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a single-gene disorder that is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and the most frequent monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). FXS is caused by an expansion of trinucleotide repeats in the promoter region of the fragile X mental retardation gene (Fmr1). This leads to a lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which regulates translation of a wide range of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The extent of expression level alterations of synaptic proteins affected by FMRP loss and their consequences on synaptic dynamics in FXS has not been fully investigated. Here, we used an Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse model to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying FXS by monitoring protein expression changes using shotgun label-free liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS(E)) in brain tissue and synaptosome fractions. FXS-associated candidate proteins were validated using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in synaptosome fractions for targeted protein quantification. Furthermore, functional alterations in synaptic release and dynamics were evaluated using live-cell imaging, and interpretation of synaptic dynamics differences was investigated using electron microscopy. Key findings relate to altered levels of proteins involved in GABA-signalling, especially in the cerebellum. Further exploration using microscopy studies found reduced synaptic vesicle unloading of hippocampal neurons and increased vesicle unloading in cerebellar neurons, which suggests a general decrease of synaptic transmission. Our findings suggest that FMRP is a regulator of synaptic vesicle dynamics, which supports the role of FMRP in presynaptic functions. Taken together, these studies provide novel insights into the molecular changes associated with FXS.

  18. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles T; Radford, Robert J; Zastrow, Melissa L; Zhang, Daniel Y; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-05-19

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling.

  19. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles T.; Radford, Robert J.; Zastrow, Melissa L.; Zhang, Daniel Y.; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J.; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling. PMID:25947151

  20. Immune dysregulation and cognitive vulnerability in the aging brain: Interactions of microglia, IL-1β, BDNF and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Susan L

    2015-09-01

    Older individuals often experience declines in cognitive function after events (e.g. infection, or injury) that trigger activation of the immune system. This occurs at least in part because aging sensitizes the response of microglia (the brain's resident immune cells) to signals triggered by an immune challenge. In the aging brain, microglia respond to these signals by producing more pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukin-1beta or IL-1β) and producing them for longer than microglia in younger brains. This exaggerated inflammatory response can compromise processes critical for optimal cognitive functioning. Interleukin-1β is central to the inflammatory response and is a key mediator and modulator of an array of associated biological functions; thus its production and release is usually very tightly regulated. This review will focus on the impact of dysregulated production of IL-1β on hippocampus dependent-memory systems and associated synaptic plasticity processes. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) helps to protect neurons from damage caused by infection or injury, and it plays a critical role in many of the same memory and hippocampal plasticity processes compromised by dysregulated production of IL-1β. This suggests that an exaggerated brain inflammatory response, arising from aging and a secondary immune challenge, may erode the capacity to provide the BDNF needed for memory-related plasticity processes at hippocampal synapses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Neuroimmunology and Synaptic Function'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Brain atrophy and lesion load predict long term disability in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popescu, Veronica; Agosta, Federica; Hulst, Hanneke E

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether brain atrophy and lesion volumes predict subsequent 10 year clinical evolution in multiple sclerosis (MS).......To determine whether brain atrophy and lesion volumes predict subsequent 10 year clinical evolution in multiple sclerosis (MS)....

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vis, J B; Zwanenburg, J J; van der Kleij, L A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T2 of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. METHODS: Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T1-weighted and CSF MRI were......) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA)] was evaluated. RESULTS: Relative total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular VCSF increased significantly with increased scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.83, 0.78 and 0.78 and R = 0.72, 0.62 and 0.86). Total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular T2...... be a marker of neurodegenerative disease. KEY POINTS: • A 1:11 min CSF MRI volumetric sequence can evaluate brain atrophy. • CSF MRI provides accurate atrophy assessment without partial volume effects. • CSF MRI data can be processed quickly without user interaction. • The measured T 2 of the CSF is related...

  3. Leucine-rich repeat-containing synaptic adhesion molecules as organizers of synaptic specificity and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Anna; de Wit, Joris

    2018-04-09

    The brain harbors billions of neurons that form distinct neural circuits with exquisite specificity. Specific patterns of connectivity between distinct neuronal cell types permit the transfer and computation of information. The molecular correlates that give rise to synaptic specificity are incompletely understood. Recent studies indicate that cell-surface molecules are important determinants of cell type identity and suggest that these are essential players in the specification of synaptic connectivity. Leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing adhesion molecules in particular have emerged as key organizers of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Here, we discuss emerging evidence that LRR proteins regulate the assembly of specific connectivity patterns across neural circuits, and contribute to the diverse structural and functional properties of synapses, two key features that are critical for the proper formation and function of neural circuits.

  4. Long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, synchronous bursting and synaptic remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Kaufman

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neuromodulation plays key roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, network activity, arousal, and behavior. On longer time scales, cholinergic systems play essential roles in cortical development, maturation, and plasticity. Presumably, these processes are associated with substantial synaptic remodeling, yet to date, long-term relationships between cholinergic tone and synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. Here we used automated microscopy combined with multielectrode array recordings to study long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, excitatory synapse remodeling, and network activity characteristics in networks of cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array substrates. Experimental elevations of cholinergic tone led to the abrupt suppression of episodic synchronous bursting activity (but not of general activity, followed by a gradual growth of excitatory synapses over hours. Subsequent blockage of cholinergic receptors led to an immediate restoration of synchronous bursting and the gradual reversal of synaptic growth. Neither synaptic growth nor downsizing was governed by multiplicative scaling rules. Instead, these occurred in a subset of synapses, irrespective of initial synaptic size. Synaptic growth seemed to depend on intrinsic network activity, but not on the degree to which bursting was suppressed. Intriguingly, sustained elevations of cholinergic tone were associated with a gradual recovery of synchronous bursting but not with a reversal of synaptic growth. These findings show that cholinergic tone can strongly affect synaptic remodeling and synchronous bursting activity, but do not support a strict coupling between the two. Finally, the reemergence of synchronous bursting in the presence of elevated cholinergic tone indicates that the capacity of cholinergic neuromodulation to indefinitely suppress synchronous bursting might be inherently limited.

  5. Long-term Relationships between Cholinergic Tone, Synchronous Bursting and Synaptic Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Maya; Corner, Michael A.; Ziv, Noam E.

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic neuromodulation plays key roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, network activity, arousal, and behavior. On longer time scales, cholinergic systems play essential roles in cortical development, maturation, and plasticity. Presumably, these processes are associated with substantial synaptic remodeling, yet to date, long-term relationships between cholinergic tone and synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. Here we used automated microscopy combined with multielectrode array recordings to study long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, excitatory synapse remodeling, and network activity characteristics in networks of cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array substrates. Experimental elevations of cholinergic tone led to the abrupt suppression of episodic synchronous bursting activity (but not of general activity), followed by a gradual growth of excitatory synapses over hours. Subsequent blockage of cholinergic receptors led to an immediate restoration of synchronous bursting and the gradual reversal of synaptic growth. Neither synaptic growth nor downsizing was governed by multiplicative scaling rules. Instead, these occurred in a subset of synapses, irrespective of initial synaptic size. Synaptic growth seemed to depend on intrinsic network activity, but not on the degree to which bursting was suppressed. Intriguingly, sustained elevations of cholinergic tone were associated with a gradual recovery of synchronous bursting but not with a reversal of synaptic growth. These findings show that cholinergic tone can strongly affect synaptic remodeling and synchronous bursting activity, but do not support a strict coupling between the two. Finally, the reemergence of synchronous bursting in the presence of elevated cholinergic tone indicates that the capacity of cholinergic neuromodulation to indefinitely suppress synchronous bursting might be inherently limited. PMID:22911726

  6. Long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, synchronous bursting and synaptic remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Maya; Corner, Michael A; Ziv, Noam E

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic neuromodulation plays key roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, network activity, arousal, and behavior. On longer time scales, cholinergic systems play essential roles in cortical development, maturation, and plasticity. Presumably, these processes are associated with substantial synaptic remodeling, yet to date, long-term relationships between cholinergic tone and synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. Here we used automated microscopy combined with multielectrode array recordings to study long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, excitatory synapse remodeling, and network activity characteristics in networks of cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array substrates. Experimental elevations of cholinergic tone led to the abrupt suppression of episodic synchronous bursting activity (but not of general activity), followed by a gradual growth of excitatory synapses over hours. Subsequent blockage of cholinergic receptors led to an immediate restoration of synchronous bursting and the gradual reversal of synaptic growth. Neither synaptic growth nor downsizing was governed by multiplicative scaling rules. Instead, these occurred in a subset of synapses, irrespective of initial synaptic size. Synaptic growth seemed to depend on intrinsic network activity, but not on the degree to which bursting was suppressed. Intriguingly, sustained elevations of cholinergic tone were associated with a gradual recovery of synchronous bursting but not with a reversal of synaptic growth. These findings show that cholinergic tone can strongly affect synaptic remodeling and synchronous bursting activity, but do not support a strict coupling between the two. Finally, the reemergence of synchronous bursting in the presence of elevated cholinergic tone indicates that the capacity of cholinergic neuromodulation to indefinitely suppress synchronous bursting might be inherently limited.

  7. Drosophila-Cdh1 (Rap/Fzr) a regulatory subunit of APC/C is required for synaptic morphology, synaptic transmission and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Alexandria; Schatoff, Emma; Flores, Julian; Hua, Shao-Ying; Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang; Venkatesh, Tadmiri

    2013-11-01

    The assembly of functional synapses requires the orchestration of the synthesis and degradation of a multitude of proteins. Protein degradation and modification by the conserved ubiquitination pathway has emerged as a key cellular regulatory mechanism during nervous system development and function (Kwabe and Brose, 2011). The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase complex primarily characterized for its role in the regulation of mitosis (Peters, 2002). In recent years, a role for APC/C in nervous system development and function has been rapidly emerging (Stegmuller and Bonni, 2005; Li et al., 2008). In the mammalian central nervous system the activator subunit, APC/C-Cdh1, has been shown to be a regulator of axon growth and dendrite morphogenesis (Konishi et al., 2004). In the Drosophila peripheral nervous system (PNS), APC2, a ligase subunit of the APC/C complex has been shown to regulate synaptic bouton size and activity (van Roessel et al., 2004). To investigate the role of APC/C-Cdh1 at the synapse we examined loss-of-function mutants of Rap/Fzr (Retina aberrant in pattern/Fizzy related), a Drosophila homolog of the mammalian Cdh1 during the development of the larval neuromuscular junction in Drosophila. Our cell biological, ultrastructural, electrophysiological, and behavioral data showed that rap/fzr loss-of-function mutations lead to changes in synaptic structure and function as well as locomotion defects. Data presented here show changes in size and morphology of synaptic boutons, and, muscle tissue organization. Electrophysiological experiments show that loss-of-function mutants exhibit increased frequency of spontaneous miniature synaptic potentials, indicating a higher rate of spontaneous synaptic vesicle fusion events. In addition, larval locomotion and peristaltic movement were also impaired. These findings suggest a role for Drosophila APC/C-Cdh1 mediated ubiquitination in regulating synaptic morphology

  8. Global gray matter changes in posterior cortical atrophy: A serial imaging study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, M.; Barnes, J.; Ridgway, G.R.; Ryan, N.S.; Warrington, E.K.; Crutch, S.J.; Fox, N.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative condition predominantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Cross-sectional imaging studies have shown different atrophy patterns in PCA patients compared with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients,

  9. Statistical theory of synaptic connectivity in the neocortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Gina

    Learning and long-term memory rely on plasticity of neural circuits. In adult cerebral cortex plasticity can be mediated by modulation of existing synapses and structural reorganization of circuits through growth and retraction of dendritic spines. In the first part of this thesis, we describe a theoretical framework for the analysis of spine remodeling plasticity. New synaptic contacts appear in the neuropil where gaps between axonal and dendritic branches can be bridged by dendritic spines. Such sites are termed potential synapses. We derive expressions for the densities of potential synapses in the neuropil. We calculate the ratio of actual to potential synapses, called the connectivity fraction, and use it to find the number of structurally different circuits attainable with spine remodeling. These parameters are calculated in four systems: mouse occipital cortex, rat hippocampal area CA1, monkey primary visual (V1), and human temporal cortex. The neurogeometric results indicate that a dendritic spine can choose among an average of 4-7 potential targets in rodents, while in primates it can choose from 10-20 potential targets. The potential of the neuropil to undergo circuit remodeling is found to be highest in rat CA1 (4.9-6.0 nats/mum 3) and lowest in monkey V1 (0.9-1.0 nats/mum3). We evaluate the lower bound of neuron selectivity in the choice of synaptic partners and find that post-synaptic excitatory neurons in rodents make synaptic contacts with more than 21-30% of pre-synaptic axons encountered with new spine growth. Primate neurons appear to be more selective, making synaptic connections with more than 7-15% of encountered axons. Another plasticity mechanism is included in the second part of this work: long-term potentiation and depression of excitatory synaptic connections. Because synaptic strength is correlated with the size of the synapse, the former can be inferred from the distribution of spine head volumes. To this end we analyze and compare 166

  10. The Corticohippocampal Circuit, Synaptic Plasticity, and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Jayeeta; Siegelbaum, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity serves as a cellular substrate for information storage in the central nervous system. The entorhinal cortex (EC) and hippocampus are interconnected brain areas supporting basic cognitive functions important for the formation and retrieval of declarative memories. Here, we discuss how information flow in the EC–hippocampal loop is organized through circuit design. We highlight recently identified corticohippocampal and intrahippocampal connections and how these long-range and local microcircuits contribute to learning. This review also describes various forms of activity-dependent mechanisms that change the strength of corticohippocampal synaptic transmission. A key point to emerge from these studies is that patterned activity and interaction of coincident inputs gives rise to associational plasticity and long-term regulation of information flow. Finally, we offer insights about how learning-related synaptic plasticity within the corticohippocampal circuit during sensory experiences may enable adaptive behaviors for encoding spatial, episodic, social, and contextual memories. PMID:26525152

  11. Optogenetic Examination of Prefrontal-Amygdala Synaptic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda-Carvalho, Maithe; Wu, Wan-Chen; Cummings, Kirstie A; Clem, Roger L

    2017-03-15

    A brain network comprising the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala plays important roles in developmentally regulated cognitive and emotional processes. However, very little is known about the maturation of mPFC-amygdala circuitry. We conducted anatomical tracing of mPFC projections and optogenetic interrogation of their synaptic connections with neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) at neonatal to adult developmental stages in mice. Results indicate that mPFC-BLA projections exhibit delayed emergence relative to other mPFC pathways and establish synaptic transmission with BLA excitatory and inhibitory neurons in late infancy, events that coincide with a massive increase in overall synaptic drive. During subsequent adolescence, mPFC-BLA circuits are further modified by excitatory synaptic strengthening as well as a transient surge in feedforward inhibition. The latter was correlated with increased spontaneous inhibitory currents in excitatory neurons, suggesting that mPFC-BLA circuit maturation culminates in a period of exuberant GABAergic transmission. These findings establish a time course for the onset and refinement of mPFC-BLA transmission and point to potential sensitive periods in the development of this critical network. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Human mPFC-amygdala functional connectivity is developmentally regulated and figures prominently in numerous psychiatric disorders with a high incidence of adolescent onset. However, it remains unclear when synaptic connections between these structures emerge or how their properties change with age. Our work establishes developmental windows and cellular substrates for synapse maturation in this pathway involving both excitatory and inhibitory circuits. The engagement of these substrates by early life experience may support the ontogeny of fundamental behaviors but could also lead to inappropriate circuit refinement and psychopathology in adverse situations. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/372976-10$15.00/0.

  12. Synaptic control of motoneuronal excitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Funk, G D; Bayliss, D A

    2000-01-01

    important in understanding the transformation of neural activity to motor behavior. Here, we review recent studies on the control of motoneuronal excitability, focusing on synaptic and cellular properties. We first present a background description of motoneurons: their development, anatomical organization......, and membrane properties, both passive and active. We then describe the general anatomical organization of synaptic input to motoneurons, followed by a description of the major transmitter systems that affect motoneuronal excitability, including ligands, receptor distribution, pre- and postsynaptic actions...... and norepinephrine, and neuropeptides, as well as the glutamate and GABA acting at metabotropic receptors, modulate motoneuronal excitability through pre- and postsynaptic actions. Acting principally via second messenger systems, their actions converge on common effectors, e.g., leak K(+) current, cationic inward...

  13. Three-Dimensional Culture Model of Skeletal Muscle Tissue with Atrophy Induced by Dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazunori; Genma, Riho; Gotou, Yuuki; Nagasaka, Sumire; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-15

    Drug screening systems for muscle atrophy based on the contractile force of cultured skeletal muscle tissues are required for the development of preventive or therapeutic drugs for atrophy. This study aims to develop a muscle atrophy model by inducing atrophy in normal muscle tissues constructed on microdevices capable of measuring the contractile force and to verify if this model is suitable for drug screening using the contractile force as an index. Tissue engineered skeletal muscles containing striated myotubes were prepared on the microdevices for the study. The addition of 100 µM dexamethasone (Dex), which is used as a muscle atrophy inducer, for 24 h reduced the contractile force significantly. An increase in the expression of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 in the tissues treated with Dex was established. A decrease in the number of striated myotubes was also observed in the tissues treated with Dex. Treatment with 8 ng/mL Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-I) for 24 h significantly increased the contractile force of the Dex-induced atrophic tissues. The same treatment, though, had no impact on the force of the normal tissues. Thus, it is envisaged that the atrophic skeletal muscle tissues induced by Dex can be used for drug screening against atrophy.

  14. Consideration of the method of image diagnosis with respect to frontal lobe atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K.; Sugawara, K.; Narita, Y.; Namura, I.

    1996-12-01

    Proposes a segmentation method for a quantitative image diagnosis as a means of realizing an objective diagnosis of the frontal lobe atrophy. From the data obtained on the grade of membership, the fractal dimensions of the cerebral tissue [cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), gray matter, and white matter] and the contours are estimated. The mutual relationship between the degree of atrophy and the fractal dimension has been analyzed based on the estimated fractal dimensions. Using a sample of 42 male and female cases, ranging In age from 50's to 70's, it has been concluded that the frontal lobe atrophy can be quantified by regarding it as an expansion of CSF region on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Furthermore, when the process of frontal lobe atrophy is separated into early and advanced stages, the volumetric change of CSF and white matter in frontal lobe displays meaningful differences between the two stages, demonstrating that the fractal dimension of CSF rises with the progress of atrophy. Moreover, an interpolation method for three-dimensional (3-D) shape reconstruction of the region of diagnostic interest is proposed and 3-D shape visualization, with respect to the degree and form of atrophy, is performed on the basis of the estimated fractal dimension of the segmented cerebral tissue.

  15. Synaptic vesicle exocytosis in hippocampal synaptosomes correlates directly with total mitochondrial volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity in many regions of the central nervous system leads to the continuous adjustment of synaptic strength, which is essential for learning and memory. In this study, we show by visualizing synaptic vesicle release in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes that presynaptic mitochondria and specifically, their capacities for ATP production are essential determinants of synaptic vesicle exocytosis and its magnitude. Total internal reflection microscopy of FM1-43 loaded hippocampal synaptosomes showed that inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation reduces evoked synaptic release. This reduction was accompanied by a substantial drop in synaptosomal ATP levels. However, cytosolic calcium influx was not affected. Structural characterization of stimulated hippocampal synaptosomes revealed that higher total presynaptic mitochondrial volumes were consistently associated with higher levels of exocytosis. Thus, synaptic vesicle release is linked to the presynaptic ability to regenerate ATP, which itself is a utility of mitochondrial density and activity. PMID:22772899

  16. Glial processes at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction match synaptic growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deidre L Brink

    Full Text Available Glia are integral participants in synaptic physiology, remodeling and maturation from blowflies to humans, yet how glial structure is coordinated with synaptic growth is unknown. To investigate the dynamics of glial development at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ, we developed a live imaging system to establish the relationship between glia, neuronal boutons, and the muscle subsynaptic reticulum. Using this system we observed processes from two classes of peripheral glia present at the NMJ. Processes from the subperineurial glia formed a blood-nerve barrier around the axon proximal to the first bouton. Processes from the perineurial glial extended beyond the end of the blood-nerve barrier into the NMJ where they contacted synapses and extended across non-synaptic muscle. Growth of the glial processes was coordinated with NMJ growth and synaptic activity. Increasing synaptic size through elevated temperature or the highwire mutation increased the extent of glial processes at the NMJ and conversely blocking synaptic activity and size decreased the presence and size of glial processes. We found that elevated temperature was required during embryogenesis in order to increase glial expansion at the nmj. Therefore, in our live imaging system, glial processes at the NMJ are likely indirectly regulated by synaptic changes to ensure the coordinated growth of all components of the tripartite larval NMJ.

  17. Food strategies of renal atrophy based on Avicenna and conventional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Mahjour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kidneys have an important role in the body. Any damage to kidney role can damage many organs of the body. Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM or Iranian traditional medicine (ITM is an ancient temperamental medicine with many literatures about kidney diseases and Avicenna (980–1025 AD describes kidney diseases in details. This is a review study by searching of the most important clinical and pharmaceutical TPM textbooks such as The Canon of Medicine by Avicenna and scientific data banks using keywords such as “Hozal-e-Kolye”, renal atrophy, tubular atrophy, kidney, chronic kidney disease, and end stage renal disease. This paper found that “Hozal-e-Kolye” in TPM texts is the same tubular atrophy in conventional medicine due to some similar symptoms between them. Lifestyle modification and use of proposed foodstuffs can be considered as a complementary medicine in addition to conventional treatments to manage these patients. TPM scholars prescribed some foodstuffs such as camel milk, sheep's milk and Ficus carica for this disease as a complementary management. This study aimed to explain HK (the same tubular atrophy considering their similar symptoms and introduce some foodstuffs. It seems using of foodstuffs affecting tubular atrophy based on TPM literatures can has a role as a supplemental method in company with conventional medicine management.

  18. Skeletal muscle atrophy in bioengineered skeletal muscle: a new model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter H U; Vandenburgh, Herman H

    2013-10-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy has been well characterized in various animal models, and while certain pathways that lead to disuse atrophy and its associated functional deficits have been well studied, available drugs to counteract these deficiencies are limited. An ex vivo tissue-engineered skeletal muscle offers a unique opportunity to study skeletal muscle physiology in a controlled in vitro setting. Primary mouse myoblasts isolated from adult muscle were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) containing hundreds of aligned postmitotic muscle fibers expressing sarcomeric proteins. When electrically stimulated, BAMs generated measureable active forces within 2-3 days of formation. The maximum isometric tetanic force (Po) increased for ∼3 weeks to 2587±502 μN/BAM and was maintained at this level for greater than 80 days. When BAMs were reduced in length by 25% to 50%, muscle atrophy occurred in as little as 6 days. Length reduction resulted in significant decreases in Po (50.4%), mean myofiber cross-sectional area (21.7%), total protein synthesis rate (22.0%), and noncollagenous protein content (6.9%). No significant changes occurred in either the total metabolic activity or protein degradation rates. This study is the first in vitro demonstration that length reduction alone can induce skeletal muscle atrophy, and establishes a novel in vitro model for the study of skeletal muscle atrophy.

  19. Clinical evaluation of dose-volume-effect relationship in radiation injury of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Mari

    1990-01-01

    Radiation brain injury, including functional disturbances or morphological changes (brain atrophy, periventricular lucencies or ventricular dilatation), were studied by CT in patients with primary intracranial neoplasms who were followed-up for at least 5 months after receiving radiotherapy. Each of 33 patients with medulloblastoma, pinealregion tumor or malignant lymphoma received a total dose of 40-61 Gy by conventional fractionation using a whole brain irradiation field boosted by a localized field. Of these patients, 19 (58%) developed radiation brain injury. It was concluded that the volume-dose was one of the most important factors influencing the development of radiation brain injury. Age at the time of radiotherapy and time of follow-up after the treatment were also considered to be important factors. (author)

  20. A light-stimulated synaptic transistor with synaptic plasticity and memory functions based on InGaZnO_x–Al_2O_3 thin film structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H. K.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, P.; Zhang, Q.; Hu, S. G.; Liu, Y.; Lee, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a synaptic transistor based on the indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)–aluminum oxide (Al_2O_3) thin film structure, which uses ultraviolet (UV) light pulses as the pre-synaptic stimulus, has been demonstrated. The synaptic transistor exhibits the behavior of synaptic plasticity like the paired-pulse facilitation. In addition, it also shows the brain's memory behaviors including the transition from short-term memory to long-term memory and the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve. The synapse-like behavior and memory behaviors of the transistor are due to the trapping and detrapping processes of the holes, which are generated by the UV pulses, at the IGZO/Al_2O_3 interface and/or in the Al_2O_3 layer.

  1. Intense synaptic activity enhances temporal resolution in spinal motoneurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune W Berg

    Full Text Available In neurons, spike timing is determined by integration of synaptic potentials in delicate concert with intrinsic properties. Although the integration time is functionally crucial, it remains elusive during network activity. While mechanisms of rapid processing are well documented in sensory systems, agility in motor systems has received little attention. Here we analyze how intense synaptic activity affects integration time in spinal motoneurons during functional motor activity and report a 10-fold decrease. As a result, action potentials can only be predicted from the membrane potential within 10 ms of their occurrence and detected for less than 10 ms after their occurrence. Being shorter than the average inter-spike interval, the AHP has little effect on integration time and spike timing, which instead is entirely determined by fluctuations in membrane potential caused by the barrage of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic activity. By shortening the effective integration time, this intense synaptic input may serve to facilitate the generation of rapid changes in movements.

  2. Irregular persistent activity induced by synaptic excitatory feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Barbieri

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological experiments on monkeys have reported highly irregular persistent activity during the performance of an oculomotor delayed-response task. These experiments show that during the delay period the coefficient of variation (CV of interspike intervals (ISI of prefrontal neurons is above 1, on average, and larger than during the fixation period. In the present paper, we show that this feature can be reproduced in a network in which persistent activity is induced by excitatory feedback, provided that (i the post-spike reset is close enough to threshold , (ii synaptic efficacies are a non-linear function of the pre-synaptic firing rate. Non-linearity between presynaptic rate and effective synaptic strength is implemented by a standard short-term depression mechanism (STD. First, we consider the simplest possible network with excitatory feedback: a fully connected homogeneous network of excitatory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, using both numerical simulations and analytical techniques. The results are then confirmed in a network with selective excitatory neurons and inhibition. In both the cases there is a large range of values of the synaptic efficacies for which the statistics of firing of single cells is similar to experimental data.

  3. Motor unit firing during and after voluntary contractions of human thenar muscles weakened by spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, CK

    Spinal cord injury may change both the distribution and the strength of the synaptic input within a motoneuron pool and therefore alter force gradation. Here, we have studied the relative contributions of motor unit recruitment and rate modulation to force gradation during voluntary contractions of

  4. Hypoxic ischemia encephalopathy leading to external hydrocephalus and the cerebral atrophy: mechanism and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenglin; Mo Xiaorong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: It is a study of the mechanism and differential diagnosis of the infant external hydrocephalus and cerebral atrophy. Methods: In total 84 cases of neonatal hypoxic ischemia encephalopathy followed by infant external hydrocephalus were investigated, among which 26 patients gradually were found having developed cerebral atrophy in follow up. Results: Characteristic dilation of the frontal-parietal subarachnoid space and the adjacent cistern was noted on the CT images of the external hydrocephalus. CT revealed the enlarged ventricle besides the dilated subarachnoid space in the cases of cerebral atrophy, while these two entities were indistinguishable on CT in the early stage. Conclusion: Clinical manifestations make a major differential diagnosis of the external hydrocephalus and cerebral atrophy: tic and mild delayed development of locomotion over major presentation of external hydrocephalus, while cerebral atrophy is featured by remarkable dysnoesia and severe delayed development of locomotion. In addition, hemiplegia and increased muscular tension are presented in a few cases of cerebral atrophy

  5. Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghi, Arman; Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Prados, Ferran; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-06-01

    See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article.Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse-onset multiple

  6. Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-01-01

    Abstract See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article. Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse

  7. Robust short-term memory without synaptic learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Johnson

    Full Text Available Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can--as a gradual modification of synaptic weights--since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds. The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings.

  8. Robust short-term memory without synaptic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel; Marro, J; Torres, Joaquín J

    2013-01-01

    Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can--as a gradual modification of synaptic weights--since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds). The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings.

  9. Robust Short-Term Memory without Synaptic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel; Marro, J.; Torres, Joaquín J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can – as a gradual modification of synaptic weights – since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds). The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings. PMID:23349664

  10. Significance of frontal cortical atrophy in Parkinson's disease: computed tomographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Sang; Suh, Jung Ho; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Dong Ik [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-10-15

    Fifty-five patients with Parkinson's disease were evaluated clinically and with brain computed tomography (CT) in order to determine the incidence of frontal cortical and subcortical atrophy. Twenty cases of age-related healthy control group were also scanned. The CT criteria of frontal cortical atrophy that was used in this study were the maximum width of frontal hemispheric cortical sulci and width of anterior interhemispheric fissure between frontal lobes comparing with maximum width of hemispheric cortical sulci except frontal lobes. And the criteria of frontal subcortical atrophy were bifrontal index bicaudate index, and Evans index. The results are as follows: 1. Cortical atrophic changes in Parkinson's disease were more prominent in frontal lobe rather than other causes of cortical atrophy. 2. Frontal cortical and subcortical atrophic changes were also more prominent in Parkinson's disease rather than age-related control group. 3. Subcortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe were always associated with cortical atrophic changes. 4. Changes of basal ganglia were hardly seen in Parkinson's disease. 5. Cortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe must be the one of significant findings in Parkinson's disease.

  11. Significance of frontal cortical atrophy in Parkinson's disease: computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Sang; Suh, Jung Ho; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Dong Ik

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-five patients with Parkinson's disease were evaluated clinically and with brain computed tomography (CT) in order to determine the incidence of frontal cortical and subcortical atrophy. Twenty cases of age-related healthy control group were also scanned. The CT criteria of frontal cortical atrophy that was used in this study were the maximum width of frontal hemispheric cortical sulci and width of anterior interhemispheric fissure between frontal lobes comparing with maximum width of hemispheric cortical sulci except frontal lobes. And the criteria of frontal subcortical atrophy were bifrontal index bicaudate index, and Evans index. The results are as follows: 1. Cortical atrophic changes in Parkinson's disease were more prominent in frontal lobe rather than other causes of cortical atrophy. 2. Frontal cortical and subcortical atrophic changes were also more prominent in Parkinson's disease rather than age-related control group. 3. Subcortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe were always associated with cortical atrophic changes. 4. Changes of basal ganglia were hardly seen in Parkinson's disease. 5. Cortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe must be the one of significant findings in Parkinson's disease

  12. Brain injury with diabetes mellitus: evidence, mechanisms and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Sherifa A

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a risk for brain injury. Brain injury is associated with acute and chronic hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hypoglycaemic events in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia is a cause of cognitive deterioration, low intelligent quotient, neurodegeneration, brain aging, brain atrophy and dementia. Areas covered: The current review highlights the experimental, clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological evidence of brain injury induced by diabetes and its associated metabolic derangements. It also highlights the mechanisms of diabetes-induced brain injury. It seems that the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia-induced brain injury is complex and includes combination of vascular disease, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, reduction of neurotrophic factors, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activation, neurotransmitters' changes, impairment of brain repair processes, impairment of brain glymphatic system, accumulation of amyloid β and tau phosphorylation and neurodegeneration. The potentials for prevention and treatment are also discussed. Expert commentary: We summarize the risks and the possible mechanisms of DM-induced brain injury and recommend strategies for neuroprotection and neurorestoration. Recently, a number of drugs and substances [in addition to insulin and its mimics] have shown promising potentials against diabetes-induced brain injury. These include: antioxidants, neuroinflammation inhibitors, anti-apoptotics, neurotrophic factors, AChE inhibitors, mitochondrial function modifiers and cell based therapies.

  13. Progressive Neuronal Pathology and Synaptic Loss Induced by Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Rodriguez, Juan Jose; Spires-Jones, Tara; Pooler, Amy M; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso Maria; Bacskai, Brian J; Garcia-Alloza, Monica

    2017-07-01

    Age remains the main risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) although certain metabolic alterations, including prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D), may also increase this risk. In order to understand this relationship, we have studied an AD-prediabetes mouse model (APP/PS1) with severe hyperinsulinemia induced by long-term high fat diet (HFD), and an AD-T2D model, generated by crossing APP/PS1 and db/db mice (APP/PS1xdb/db). In both, prediabetic and diabetic AD mice, we have analyzed underlying neuronal pathology and synaptic loss. At 26 weeks of age, when both pathologies were clearly established, we observed severe brain atrophy in APP/PS1xdb/db animals as well as cortical thinning, accompanied by increased caspase activity. Reduced senile plaque burden and elevated soluble Aβ40 and 42 levels were observed in AD-T2D mice. Further assessment revealed a significant increase of neurite curvature in prediabetic-AD mice, and this effect was worsened in AD-T2D animals. Synaptic density loss, analyzed by array tomography, revealed a synergistic effect between T2D and AD, whereas an intermediate state was observed, once more, in prediabetic-AD mice. Altogether, our data suggest that early prediabetic hyperinsulinemia may exacerbate AD pathology, and that fully established T2D clearly worsens these effects. Therefore, it is feasible that early detection of prediabetic state and strict metabolic control could slow or delay progression of AD-associated neuropathological features.

  14. Precise synaptic efficacy alignment suggests potentiation dominated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eHartmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that parallel synapses from the same axonal branch onto the same dendritic branch have almost identical strength. It has been proposed that this alignment is only possible through learning rules that integrate activity over long time spans. However, learning mechanisms such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP are commonly assumed to be temporally local. Here, we propose that the combination of temporally local STDP and a multiplicative synaptic normalization mechanism is sufficient to explain the alignment of parallel synapses.To address this issue, we introduce three increasingly complex models: First, we model the idealized interaction of STDP and synaptic normalization in a single neuron as a simple stochastic process and derive analytically that the alignment effect can be described by a so-called Kesten process. From this we can derive that synaptic efficacy alignment requires potentiation-dominated learning regimes. We verify these conditions in a single-neuron model with independent spiking activities but more realistic synapses. As expected, we only observe synaptic efficacy alignment for long-term potentiation-biased STDP. Finally, we explore how well the findings transfer to recurrent neural networks where the learning mechanisms interact with the correlated activity of the network. We find that due to the self-reinforcing correlations in recurrent circuits under STDP, alignment occurs for both long-term potentiation- and depression-biased STDP, because the learning will be potentiation dominated in both cases due to the potentiating events induced by correlated activity. This is in line with recent results demonstrating a dominance of potentiation over depression during waking and normalization during sleep. This leads us to predict that individual spine pairs will be more similar in the morning than they are after sleep depriviation.In conclusion, we show that synaptic normalization in conjunction with

  15. Porencephaly in dogs and cats: relationships between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and hippocampal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Ai; Hanazono, Kiwamu; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Nakade, Tetsuya

    2015-07-01

    Porencephaly is the congenital cerebral defect and a rare malformation and described few MRI reports in veterinary medicine. MRI features of porencephaly are recognized the coexistence with the unilateral/bilateral hippocampal atrophy, caused by the seizure symptoms in human medicine. We studied 2 dogs and 1 cat with congenital porencephaly to characterize the clinical signs and MRI, and to discuss the associated MRI with hippocampal atrophy. The main clinical sign was the seizure symptoms, and all had hippocampal atrophy at the lesion side or the larger defect side. There is association between hippocampal atrophy or the cyst volume and the severe of clinical signs, and it is suggested that porencephaly coexists with hippocampal atrophy as well as humans in this study.

  16. Preparation of synaptic plasma membrane and postsynaptic density proteins using a discontinuous sucrose gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Marie Kristel; Milenkovic, Marija; Salahpour, Ali; Ramsey, Amy J

    2014-09-03

    Neuronal subcellular fractionation techniques allow the quantification of proteins that are trafficked to and from the synapse. As originally described in the late 1960's, proteins associated with the synaptic plasma membrane can be isolated by ultracentrifugation on a sucrose density gradient. Once synaptic membranes are isolated, the macromolecular complex known as the post-synaptic density can be subsequently isolated due to its detergent insolubility. The techniques used to isolate synaptic plasma membranes and post-synaptic density proteins remain essentially the same after 40 years, and are widely used in current neuroscience research. This article details the fractionation of proteins associated with the synaptic plasma membrane and post-synaptic density using a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Resulting protein preparations are suitable for western blotting or 2D DIGE analysis.

  17. Molecular events underlying skeletal muscle atrophy and the development of effective countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.; Criswell, D. S.

    1997-01-01

    Skeletal muscle adapts to loading; atrophying when exposed to unloading on Earth or in spaceflight. Significant atrophy (decreases in muscle fiber cross-section of 11-24%) in humans has been noted after only 5 days in space. Since muscle strength is determined both by muscle cross-section and synchronization of motor unit recruitment, a loss in muscle size weakens astronauts, which would increase risks to their safety if an emergency required maximal muscle force. Numerous countermeasures have been tested to prevent atrophy. Resistant exercise together with growth hormone and IGF-I are effective countermeasures to unloading as most atrophy is prevented in animal models. The loss of muscle protein is due to an early decrease in protein synthesis rate and a later increase in protein degradation. The initial decrease in protein synthesis is a result of decreased protein translation, caused by a prolongation in the elongation rate. A decrease in HSP70 by a sight increase in ATP may be the factors prolonging elongation rate. Increases in the activities of proteolytic enzymes and in ubiquitin contribute to the increased protein degradation rate in unloaded muscle. Numerous mRNA concentrations have been shown to be altered in unloaded muscles. Decreases in mRNAs for contractile proteins usually occur after the initial fall in protein synthesis rates. Much additional research is needed to determine the mechanism by which muscle senses the absence of gravity with an adaptive atrophy. The development of effective countermeasures to unloading atrophy will require more research.

  18. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  19. SPARC and GluA1-Containing AMPA Receptors Promote Neuronal Health Following CNS Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma V. Jones

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The proper formation and maintenance of functional synapses in the central nervous system (CNS requires communication between neurons and astrocytes and the ability of astrocytes to release neuromodulatory molecules. Previously, we described a novel role for the astrocyte-secreted matricellular protein SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine in regulating α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs and plasticity at developing synapses. SPARC is highly expressed by astrocytes and microglia during CNS development but its level is reduced in adulthood. Interestingly, SPARC has been shown to be upregulated in CNS injury and disease. However, the role of SPARC upregulation in these contexts is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic SPARC administration on glutamate receptors on mature hippocampal neuron cultures and following CNS injury. We found that SPARC treatment increased the number of GluA1-containing AMPARs at synapses and enhanced synaptic function. Furthermore, we determined that the increase in synaptic strength induced by SPARC could be inhibited by Philanthotoxin-433, a blocker of homomeric GluA1-containing AMPARs. We then investigated the effect of SPARC treatment on neuronal health in an injury context where SPARC expression is upregulated. We found that SPARC levels are increased in astrocytes and microglia following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in vivo and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD in vitro. Remarkably, chronic pre-treatment with SPARC prevented OGD-induced loss of synaptic GluA1. Furthermore, SPARC treatment reduced neuronal death through Philanthotoxin-433 sensitive GluA1 receptors. Taken together, this study suggests a novel role for SPARC and GluA1 in promoting neuronal health and recovery following CNS damage.

  20. Evaluation of supra- and infratentorial brain atrophy by computerized tomography in spinocerebellar degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroko; Asano, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Takatoshi; Hirao, Yoshitaka; Mizuno, Yasushi; Sobue, Itsuro

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of various parameters of supra- and infratentorial brain atrophy in computerized tomographs of 142 cases of spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and 100 age and sex matched controls was carried out in order to investigate whether these parameters would correspond to the subtypes of this disease and differing grades of various clinical manifestations. One supra- and all infratentorial parameters of SCD showed statistically significant atrophy with a risk of P < 0.005. Among the subtypes, OPCA had a more severely atrophied pons than LCCA (P < 0.005), Menzel (P < 0.05) and SSP (P < 0.01). There was a correlation between the distribution of symptoms like gait, speech, ataxia of extremities and ocular movement disorders, and distribution and degree of infratentorial atrophy with statistical significance (P < 0.05 ∼ P < 0.005). The degree of atrophy of the pons and the width of the IV ventricle were directly proportional to the duration of the illness in cases of less than 10 years, but not to those of over 10 years. Follow-up CT scan was done for 24 patients, 12 within 3 years, 12 after the lapse of 3 years. The latter group showed statistically significant atrophy between the 1st and 2nd scans in several parameters, but there was no significance between those of the former group. (author)

  1. Evaluation of supra- and infratentorial brain atrophy by computerized tomography in spinocerebellar degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Hiroko; Asano, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Takatoshi; Hirao, Yoshitaka; Mizuno, Yasushi; Sobue, Itsuro

    1986-08-01

    Measurement of various parameters of supra- and infratentorial brain atrophy in computerized tomographs of 142 cases of spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and 100 age and sex matched controls was carried out in order to investigate whether these parameters would correspond to the subtypes of this disease and differing grades of various clinical manifestations. One supra- and all infratentorial parameters of SCD showed statistically significant atrophy with a risk of P < 0.005. Among the subtypes, OPCA had a more severely atrophied pons than LCCA (P < 0.005), Menzel (P < 0.05) and SSP (P < 0.01). There was a correlation between the distribution of symptoms like gait, speech, ataxia of extremities and ocular movement disorders, and distribution and degree of infratentorial atrophy with statistical significance (P < 0.05 -- P < 0.005). The degree of atrophy of the pons and the width of the IV ventricle were directly proportional to the duration of the illness in cases of less than 10 years, but not to those of over 10 years. Follow-up CT scan was done for 24 patients, 12 within 3 years, 12 after the lapse of 3 years. The latter group showed statistically significant atrophy between the 1st and 2nd scans in several parameters, but there was no significance between those of the former group.

  2. Spike Train Auto-Structure Impacts Post-Synaptic Firing and Timing-Based Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Bertram; Castellano, Marta; Vicente, Raul; Pipa, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Cortical neurons are typically driven by several thousand synapses. The precise spatiotemporal pattern formed by these inputs can modulate the response of a post-synaptic cell. In this work, we explore how the temporal structure of pre-synaptic inhibitory and excitatory inputs impact the post-synaptic firing of a conductance-based integrate and fire neuron. Both the excitatory and inhibitory input was modeled by renewal gamma processes with varying shape factors for modeling regular and temporally random Poisson activity. We demonstrate that the temporal structure of mutually independent inputs affects the post-synaptic firing, while the strength of the effect depends on the firing rates of both the excitatory and inhibitory inputs. In a second step, we explore the effect of temporal structure of mutually independent inputs on a simple version of Hebbian learning, i.e., hard bound spike-timing-dependent plasticity. We explore both the equilibrium weight distribution and the speed of the transient weight dynamics for different mutually independent gamma processes. We find that both the equilibrium distribution of the synaptic weights and the speed of synaptic changes are modulated by the temporal structure of the input. Finally, we highlight that the sensitivity of both the post-synaptic firing as well as the spike-timing-dependent plasticity on the auto-structure of the input of a neuron could be used to modulate the learning rate of synaptic modification. PMID:22203800

  3. Parry-Romberg syndrome (progressive hemifacial atrophy) with spasmodic dysphonia--a rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugundhan, K; Selvakumar, C J; Gunasekaran, K; Thiruvarutchelvan, K; Sivakumar, S; Anguraj, M; Arun, S

    2014-04-01

    Parry-Romberg syndrome is a rare clinical entity characterised by progressive hemifacial atrophy with appearance of 'saber'. Various neurological and otorhinolaryngological disorders are associated with this syndrome. The association of Parry -Romberg syndrome with Spasmodic dysphonia has rarely been reported. A 37 year old female presented with progressive atrophy of tissues of left side of face for 10 years and change in voice for 1 year. On examination, wasting and atrophy of tissues including tongue was noted on left side of the face. ENT examination revealed adductor spasmodic dysphonia. We report the rare association of Parry -Romberg syndrome with spasmodic dysphonia.

  4. Brain stem and cerebellar atrophy in chronic progressive neuro-Behçet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoto, Masafumi; Hosoya, Takaaki; Toyoguchi, Yuuki; Oda, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Chronic progressive neuro-Behçet's disease (CPNBD) resembles multiple sclerosis (MS) on patient background and image findings, and therefore is difficult to diagnose. The purpose is to identify the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of CPNBD and to clarify the differences between the MRI findings of CPNBD and those of MS. Materials and methods: The subjects consist of a CPNBD group (n = 4; 1 male and 3 females; mean age, 51 y.o.), a MS group (n = 19; 3 males and 16 females; mean age, 45 y.o.) and a normal control group (n = 23; 10 males and 13 females; mean age, 45 y.o.). Brain stem atrophy, cerebellar atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy were retrospectively evaluated in each subjects. In middle sagittal brain MR images, the prepontine distance was measured as an indirect index of brain stem and cerebellar atrophy and the pontine and mesencephalic distance was measured as a direct index of brain stem atrophy. These indexes were statistically analyzed. Results: Brain stem atrophy, cerebellar atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy were seen in all CPNBD cases. Prepontine distance was significantly different between the CPNBD group and the MS group (p < 0.05), and between the CPNBD group and the normal control group (p < 0.001). Pontine and mesencephalic distance were significantly different between the CPNBD group and the MS group (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 respectively), and between the CPNBD group and the normal control group (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Chronic progressive neuro-Behçet's disease should be considered in patients with brain stem and cerebellar atrophy in addition to leukoencephalopathy similar to that seen in multiple sclerosis

  5. Regulation of synaptic structure by ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Anna E; Djakovic, Stevan N; Salehi, Afshin; Wilson, Scott M; Masliah, Eliezer; Patrick, Gentry N

    2009-06-17

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that is selectively and abundantly expressed in the brain, and its activity is required for normal synaptic function. Here, we show that UCH-L1 functions in maintaining normal synaptic structure in hippocampal neurons. We found that UCH-L1 activity is rapidly upregulated by NMDA receptor activation, which leads to an increase in the levels of free monomeric ubiquitin. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of UCH-L1 significantly reduces monomeric ubiquitin levels and causes dramatic alterations in synaptic protein distribution and spine morphology. Inhibition of UCH-L1 activity increases spine size while decreasing spine density. Furthermore, there is a concomitant increase in the size of presynaptic and postsynaptic protein clusters. Interestingly, however, ectopic expression of ubiquitin restores normal synaptic structure in UCH-L1-inhibited neurons. These findings point to a significant role of UCH-L1 in synaptic remodeling, most likely by modulating free monomeric ubiquitin levels in an activity-dependent manner.

  6. Synaptic integration of transplanted interneuron progenitor cells into native cortical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, MacKenzie A; Baraban, Scott C

    2016-08-01

    Interneuron-based cell transplantation is a powerful method to modify network function in a variety of neurological disorders, including epilepsy. Whether new interneurons integrate into native neural networks in a subtype-specific manner is not well understood, and the therapeutic mechanisms underlying interneuron-based cell therapy, including the role of synaptic inhibition, are debated. In this study, we tested subtype-specific integration of transplanted interneurons using acute cortical brain slices and visualized patch-clamp recordings to measure excitatory synaptic inputs, intrinsic properties, and inhibitory synaptic outputs. Fluorescently labeled progenitor cells from the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) were used for transplantation. At 5 wk after transplantation, MGE-derived parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons received excitatory synaptic inputs, exhibited mature interneuron firing properties, and made functional synaptic inhibitory connections to native pyramidal cells that were comparable to those of native PV+ interneurons. These findings demonstrate that MGE-derived PV+ interneurons functionally integrate into subtype-appropriate physiological niches within host networks following transplantation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Two-Dimensional Bumps in Piecewise Smooth Neural Fields with Synaptic Depression

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze radially symmetric bumps in a two-dimensional piecewise-smooth neural field model with synaptic depression. The continuum dynamics is described in terms of a nonlocal integrodifferential equation, in which the integral kernel represents the spatial distribution of synaptic weights between populations of neurons whose mean firing rate is taken to be a Heaviside function of local activity. Synaptic depression dynamically reduces the strength of synaptic weights in response to increases in activity. We show that in the case of a Mexican hat weight distribution, sufficiently strong synaptic depression can destabilize a stationary bump solution that would be stable in the absence of depression. Numerically it is found that the resulting instability leads to the formation of a traveling spot. The local stability of a bump is determined by solutions to a system of pseudolinear equations that take into account the sign of perturbations around the circular bump boundary. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  8. Notch Signaling Mediates Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in Cancer Cachexia Caused by Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Mu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia is mediated by the interaction between muscle stem cells and various tumor factors. Although Notch signaling has been known as a key regulator of both cancer development and muscle stem cell activity, the potential involvement of Notch signaling in cancer cachexia and concomitant muscle atrophy has yet to be elucidated. The murine K7M2 osteosarcoma cell line was used to generate an orthotopic model of sarcoma-associated cachexia, and the role of Notch signaling was evaluated. Skeletal muscle atrophy was observed in the sarcoma-bearing mice, and Notch signaling was highly active in both tumor tissues and the atrophic skeletal muscles. Systemic inhibition of Notch signaling reduced muscle atrophy. In vitro coculture of osteosarcoma cells with muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs isolated from normal mice resulted in decreased myogenic potential of MDSCs, while the application of Notch inhibitor was able to rescue this repressed myogenic potential. We further observed that Notch-activating factors reside in the exosomes of osteosarcoma cells, which activate Notch signaling in MDSCs and subsequently repress myogenesis. Our results revealed that signaling between tumor and muscle via the Notch pathway may play an important role in mediating the skeletal muscle atrophy seen in cancer cachexia.

  9. Neurosyphilis with dementia and bilateral hippocampal atrophy on brain magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrabian, S.; Raycheva, M.; Traykova, M.; Stankova, T.; Penev, L.; Georgieva-Kozarova, G.; Grigorova, O.; Traykov, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Background: This article reports a rare case of active neurosyphilis in a 33-years-old man with mild to moderate dementia and marked hippocampal atrophy, mimicking early onset Alzheimer's disease. Few number of cases described bilateral hippocampal atrophy mimicking Alzheimer's disease in neurosyphilis. Case presentation: The clinical feature is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and behavioral changes for the last 18 months. Neuropsychological examination revealed mild to moderate dementia (MMSE=16) with impaired memory, attention and executive dysfunction. Pyramidal, extrapyramidal signs, dysarthria and impairment in coordination were documented. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical atrophy with marked bilateral hippocampal atrophy. The diagnosis of active neurosyphilis was based on positive results of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test - Treponema Pallidum. Hemagglutination reactions in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis and elevated protein levels. High dose intravenous penicillin therapy was administered. During the follow up examination at 6 month, the clinical signs, and neuropsychological examinations, and cerebrospinal fluid samples showed improvement. Conclusion: This case underlines the importance of early diagnosis of neurosyphilis. The results suggest that neurosyphilis should be considered when magnetic resonance imaging results indicate mesiotemporal abnormalities and hippocampal atrophy. Neurosyphilis is a treatable condition and needs early aggressive antibiotic therapy

  10. Supplementation of Magnolol Attenuates Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in Bladder Cancer-Bearing Mice Undergoing Chemotherapy via Suppression of FoxO3 Activation and Induction of IGF-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Chen

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy, the most prominent phenotypic feature of cancer cachexia, is often observed in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Magnolol (M extracted from Magnolia officinalis exhibits several pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated whether magnolol supplementation protects against the development of cachexia symptoms in bladder cancer-bearing mice undergoing chemotherapy. Combined treatment of magnolol with chemotherapeutic drugs, such as gemcitabine and cisplatin (TGCM or gemcitabine (TGM, markedly attenuates the body weight loss and skeletal muscle atrophy compared with conventional chemotherapy (TGC. The antiatrophic effect of magnolol may be associated with inhibition of myostatin and activin A formation, as well as FoxO3 transcriptional activity resulting from Akt activation, thereby suppressing ubiquitin ligases MuRF-1 and MAFbx/atrogin-1 expression, as well as proteasomal enzyme activity. Notably, magnolol-induced insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 production and related protein synthesis may also contribute to its protective effects. The decreased food intake, and intestinal injury and dysfunction observed in the mice of TGC group were significantly improved in the TGCM and TGM groups. Moreover, the increased inflammatory responses evidenced by elevation of proinflammatory cytokine formation and NF-κB activation occurred in the atrophying muscle of TGC group were markedly inhibited in mice of combined treatment with magnolol. In summary, these findings support that magnolol is a promising chemopreventive supplement for preventing chemotherapy-induced skeletal muscle atrophy associated with cancer cachexia by suppressing muscle protein degradation, and inflammatory responses, as well as increasing IGF-1-mediated protein synthesis.

  11. Taurine Rescues Cisplatin-Induced Muscle Atrophy In Vitro: A Morphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Stacchiotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CisPt is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug whose side effects include muscle weakness and cachexia. Here we analysed CisPt-induced atrophy in C2C12 myotubes by a multidisciplinary morphological approach, focusing on the onset and progression of autophagy, a protective cellular process that, when excessively activated, may trigger protein hypercatabolism and atrophy in skeletal muscle. To visualize autophagy we used confocal and transmission electron microscopy at different times of treatment and doses of CisPt. Moreover we evaluated the effects of taurine, a cytoprotective beta-amino acid able to counteract oxidative stress, apoptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in different tissues and organs. Our microscopic results indicate that autophagy occurs very early in 50 μM CisPt challenged myotubes (4 h–8 h before overt atrophy but it persists even at 24 h, when several autophagic vesicles, damaged mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic blebbings engulf the sarcoplasm. Differently, 25 mM taurine pretreatment rescues the majority of myotubes size upon 50 μM CisPt at 24 h. Taurine appears to counteract atrophy by restoring regular microtubular apparatus and mitochondria and reducing the overload and the localization of autophagolysosomes. Such a promising taurine action in preventing atrophy needs further molecular and biochemical studies to best define its impact on muscle homeostasis and the maintenance of an adequate skeletal mass in vivo.

  12. Limited distal organelles and synaptic function in extensive monoaminergic innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Juan; Bulgari, Dinara; Deitcher, David L; Levitan, Edwin S

    2017-08-01

    Organelles such as neuropeptide-containing dense-core vesicles (DCVs) and mitochondria travel down axons to supply synaptic boutons. DCV distribution among en passant boutons in small axonal arbors is mediated by circulation with bidirectional capture. However, it is not known how organelles are distributed in extensive arbors associated with mammalian dopamine neuron vulnerability, and with volume transmission and neuromodulation by monoamines and neuropeptides. Therefore, we studied presynaptic organelle distribution in Drosophila octopamine neurons that innervate ∼20 muscles with ∼1500 boutons. Unlike in smaller arbors, distal boutons in these arbors contain fewer DCVs and mitochondria, although active zones are present. Absence of vesicle circulation is evident by proximal nascent DCV delivery, limited impact of retrograde transport and older distal DCVs. Traffic studies show that DCV axonal transport and synaptic capture are not scaled for extensive innervation, thus limiting distal delivery. Activity-induced synaptic endocytosis and synaptic neuropeptide release are also reduced distally. We propose that limits in organelle transport and synaptic capture compromise distal synapse maintenance and function in extensive axonal arbors, thereby affecting development, plasticity and vulnerability to neurodegenerative disease. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Assessment of vaginal atrophy: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M. A.; Limpens, J.; Roovers, J. P. W. R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an evidence-based definition of vaginal atrophy (VA) and present an overview of subjective and objective measurements of VA applicable in clinical practice and research. A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify studies

  14. Association between anti-endomysial antibody and total intestinal villous atrophy in children with coeliac disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgenc F

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence to suggest that detection of anti-gliadin antibody (AGA and anti-endomysial antibody (EmA can serve as sensitive markers of the degree of histological abnormalities in patients with coeliac disease. AIM: To evaluate the association between the presence of AGA and EmA and villous atrophy in intestinal biopsies of children with suspected coeliac disease. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Intestinal samples of 46 children with failure to thrive, chronic diarrhoea, malabsorption and short stature with either AGA and/or EmA positivity were evaluated, retrospectively. The diagnosis of coeliac disease was based on ESPGHAN criteria. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Patients with total villous atrophy who fulfilled the ESPGHAN criteria for the diagnosis of coeliac disease were diagnosed to have coeliac disease. Nine patients without villous atrophy were taken as negative controls for this study. AGA-IgA was measured both by immunoflourescence (IF and ELISA and EmA-IgA by IF while patients were on normal diet. Relationship between autoantibody positivity and intestinal total villous atrophy was evaluated. RESULTS: Overall positivity for AGA IgA was 85% (39/46 by IF+ELISA and EmA positivity was 85% (39/46 by IF within the study group. Histological examination revealed total villous atrophy with lymphocyte infiltration and crypt hyperplasia in 37 (80% patients. AGA IgA was positive in 14 (38% and 31 (84% of these children by ELISA and IF, respectively. EmA positivity was detected in 35/37 (95% cases with atrophy and 4/9 (44% without atrophy (p=0.002. Thirty out of 37 (81% patients with villous atrophy had both AGA IgA (IF and EmA positivity (p=0.186. All of the sixteen patients that had both positive AGA IgA (ELISA+IF and EmA had total villous atrophy (p=0.037. CONCLUSION: A significant association between total villous atrophy and EmA positivity has been documented in this study.

  15. Role of DHA in aging-related changes in mouse brain synaptic plasma membrane proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Vishaldeep K; Huang, Bill X; Desai, Abhishek; Kevala, Karl; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2016-05-01

    Aging has been related to diminished cognitive function, which could be a result of ineffective synaptic function. We have previously shown that synaptic plasma membrane proteins supporting synaptic integrity and neurotransmission were downregulated in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-deprived brains, suggesting an important role of DHA in synaptic function. In this study, we demonstrate aging-induced synaptic proteome changes and DHA-dependent mitigation of such changes using mass spectrometry-based protein quantitation combined with western blot or messenger RNA analysis. We found significant reduction of 15 synaptic plasma membrane proteins in aging brains including fodrin-α, synaptopodin, postsynaptic density protein 95, synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2B, synaptosomal-associated protein 25, synaptosomal-associated protein-α, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit epsilon-2 precursor, AMPA2, AP2, VGluT1, munc18-1, dynamin-1, vesicle-associated membrane protein 2, rab3A, and EAAT1, most of which are involved in synaptic transmission. Notably, the first 9 proteins were further reduced when brain DHA was depleted by diet, indicating that DHA plays an important role in sustaining these synaptic proteins downregulated during aging. Reduction of 2 of these proteins was reversed by raising the brain DHA level by supplementing aged animals with an omega-3 fatty acid sufficient diet for 2 months. The recognition memory compromised in DHA-depleted animals was also improved. Our results suggest a potential role of DHA in alleviating aging-associated cognitive decline by offsetting the loss of neurotransmission-regulating synaptic proteins involved in synaptic function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Prominent microglial activation in cortical white matter is selectively associated with cortical atrophy in primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Daniel T; Kim, Garam; Gefen, Tamar; Rademaker, Alfred; Weintraub, Sandra; Bigio, Eileen; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Rogalski, Emily; Geula, Changiz

    2018-04-21

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by selective language impairments associated with focal cortical atrophy favouring the language dominant hemisphere. PPA is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and significant accumulation of activated microglia. Activated microglia can initiate an inflammatory cascade that may contribute to neurodegeneration, but their quantitative distribution in cortical white matter and their relationship with cortical atrophy are unknown. We investigated white matter activated microglia and their association with grey matter atrophy in 10 PPA cases with either AD or FTLD-TDP pathology. Activated microglia were quantified with optical density measures of HLA-DR immunoreactivity in two regions with peak cortical atrophy, and one non-atrophied region within the language dominant hemisphere of each PPA case. Non-atrophied contralateral homologues of the language dominant regions were examined for hemispheric asymmetry. Qualitatively, greater densities of activated microglia were observed in cortical white matter when compared to grey matter. Quantitative analyses revealed significantly greater densities of activated microglia in the white matter of atrophied regions compared to non-atrophied regions in the language dominant hemisphere (p<0.05). Atrophied regions of the language dominant hemisphere also showed significantly more activated microglia compared to contralateral homologues (p<0.05). White matter activated microglia accumulate more in atrophied regions in the language dominant hemisphere of PPA. While microglial activation may constitute a response to neurodegenerative processes in white matter, the resultant inflammatory processes may also exacerbate disease progression and contribute to cortical atrophy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep and protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity: impacts of sleep loss and stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønli, Janne; Soulé, Jonathan; Bramham, Clive R.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has been ascribed a critical role in cognitive functioning. Several lines of evidence implicate sleep in the consolidation of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. Stress disrupts sleep while impairing synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. Here, we discuss evidence linking sleep to mechanisms of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity and synaptic scaling. We then consider how disruption of sleep by acute and chronic stress may impair these mechanisms and degrade sleep function. PMID:24478645

  18. Presynaptic protein synthesis required for NT-3-induced long-term synaptic modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotrophins elicit both acute and long-term modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity. Previously, we demonstrated that the long-term synaptic modulation requires the endocytosis of neurotrophin-receptor complex, the activation of PI3K and Akt, and mTOR mediated protein synthesis. However, it is unclear whether the long-term synaptic modulation by neurotrophins depends on protein synthesis in pre- or post-synaptic cells. Results Here we have developed an inducible protein translation blocker, in which the kinase domain of protein kinase R (PKR is fused with bacterial gyrase B domain (GyrB-PKR, which could be dimerized upon treatment with a cell permeable drug, coumermycin. By genetically targeting GyrB-PKR to specific cell types, we show that NT-3 induced long-term synaptic modulation requires presynaptic, but not postsynaptic protein synthesis. Conclusions Our results provide mechanistic insights into the cell-specific requirement for protein synthesis in the long-term synaptic modulation by neurotrophins. The GyrB-PKR system may be useful tool to study protein synthesis in a cell-specific manner.

  19. A Possible Link between Gastric Mucosal Atrophy and Gastric Cancer after Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomitsu Tahara

    Full Text Available The effect of H. pylori eradication in gastric cancer prevention can be attributed to the improvement of atrophic gastritis, which is a known risk of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer has also been diagnosed after long-term H. pylori eradication. This study aimed to clarify the association between gastric atrophy and gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication, including its clinicopathological features.A total of 55 consecutive patients with 64 early gastric cancers (EGCs diagnosed after H. pylori eradication were enrolled. The degree of endoscopic atrophy and the histological degrees of mononuclear cell infiltration, atrophy, and metaplasia in the corpus and adjacent mucosa of the EGCs were determined and scored.The majority of EGCs (63/64 were located within the endoscopically assessed atrophic mucosa or along the atrophic border. The adjacent mucosa of the EGCs presented significantly higher degrees of all histological parameters than in the corpus (mononuclear cell infiltration, 0.86+/-0.09 vs. 0.51+/-0.11, P = 0.016; atrophy, 1.77+/-0.13 vs. 0.65+/-0.14, P<0.0001; metaplasia, 1.68+/-0.13 vs. 0.48+/-0.1, P<0.0001. The degree of endoscopic atrophy improved in the patients with longer post-H. pylori eradication periods; however, this trend was not observed for the histological parameters, and high degrees of atrophy and metaplasia were observed in the adjacent mucosa of the EGCs compared with the corpus during all periods (all P<0.05. The histological degrees of atrophy and metaplasia in the adjacent mucosa were particularly higher in the patients who underwent eradication due to gastric ulcers.Severe gastric atrophy remained in the adjacent mucosa of the EGCs after H. pylori eradication, which may be linked to gastric carcinogenesis.

  20. Polymer-electrolyte-gated nanowire synaptic transistors for neuromorphic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Can; Sun, Jia; Gou, Guangyang; Kong, Ling-An; Qian, Chuan; Dai, Guozhang; Yang, Junliang; Guo, Guang-hua

    2017-09-01

    Polymer-electrolytes are formed by dissolving a salt in polymer instead of water, the conducting mechanism involves the segmental motion-assisted diffusion of ion in the polymer matrix. Here, we report on the fabrication of tin oxide (SnO2) nanowire synaptic transistors using polymer-electrolyte gating. A thin layer of poly(ethylene oxide) and lithium perchlorate (PEO/LiClO4) was deposited on top of the devices, which was used to boost device performances. A voltage spike applied on the in-plane gate attracts ions toward the polymer-electrolyte/SnO2 nanowire interface and the ions are gradually returned after the pulse is removed, which can induce a dynamic excitatory postsynaptic current in the nanowire channel. The SnO2 synaptic transistors exhibit the behavior of short-term plasticity like the paired-pulse facilitation and self-adaptation, which is related to the electric double-effect regulation. In addition, the synaptic logic functions and the logical function transformation are also discussed. Such single SnO2 nanowire-based synaptic transistors are of great importance for future neuromorphic devices.

  1. Estrogen's Place in the Family of Synaptic Modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramár, Enikö A; Chen, Lulu Y; Rex, Christopher S; Gall, Christine M; Lynch, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen, in addition to its genomic effects, triggers rapid synaptic changes in hippocampus and cortex. Here we summarize evidence that the acute actions of the steroid arise from actin signaling cascades centrally involved in long-term potentiation (LTP). A 10-min infusion of E2 reversibly increased fast EPSPs and promoted theta burst-induced LTP within adult hippocampal slices. The latter effect reflected a lowered threshold and an elevated ceiling for the potentiation effect. E2's actions on transmission and plasticity were completely blocked by latrunculin, a toxin that prevents actin polymerization. E2 also caused a reversible increase in spine concentrations of filamentous (F-) actin and markedly enhanced polymerization caused by theta burst stimulation (TBS). Estrogen activated the small GTPase RhoA, but not the related GTPase Rac, and phosphorylated (inactivated) synaptic cofilin, an actin severing protein targeted by RhoA. An inhibitor of RhoA kinase (ROCK) thoroughly suppressed the synaptic effects of E2. Collectively, these results indicate that E2 engages a RhoA >ROCK> cofilin> actin pathway also used by brain-derived neurotrophic factor and adenosine, and therefore belongs to a family of 'synaptic modulators' that regulate plasticity. Finally, we describe evidence that the acute signaling cascade is critical to the depression of LTP produced by ovariectomy.

  2. Carbocalcitonin treatment in Sudeck's atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuti, R.; Vattimo, A.; Martini, G.; Turchetti, V.; Righi, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The efficacy of new calcitonin, the amino analog of eel calcitonin (carboCT) on Sudeck's atrophy of the foot was investigated in 14 patients. CarboCT was administered at the dose of 40 Medical Research Council (MRC) units per day, and the duration of treatment was two to ten months. No adverse effects were noted. Bone pain and local edema decreased associated with improvement of motility. CarboCT induced a slight decrease in plasma calcium, plasma phosphate, and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion. An increase in cAMP/Cr ratio, an index of parathyroid function, was also observed (probably a manifestation of the hypocalcemic effect of calcitonin and secondary parathyroid stimulation). The whole body retention of 99mTc-MDP represents a valuable index of bone turnover, it decreased progressively and significantly on treatment. A dynamic study of local bone uptake of 99mTC-MDP was performed in eight patients. After carboCT therapy, statistically significant decreases in local blood flow, early uptake, and delayed uptake were appreciated in the involved foot. These findings lead to the conclusion that carboCT is effective in the treatment of Sudeck's atrophy

  3. Carbocalcitonin treatment in Sudeck's atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, R; Vattimo, A; Martini, G; Turchetti, V; Righi, G A

    1987-02-01

    The efficacy of new calcitonin, the amino analog of eel calcitonin (carboCT) on Sudeck's atrophy of the foot was investigated in 14 patients. CarboCT was administered at the dose of 40 Medical Research Council (MRC) units per day, and the duration of treatment was two to ten months. No adverse effects were noted. Bone pain and local edema decreased associated with improvement of motility. CarboCT induced a slight decrease in plasma calcium, plasma phosphate, and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion. An increase in cAMP/Cr ratio, an index of parathyroid function, was also observed (probably a manifestation of the hypocalcemic effect of calcitonin and secondary parathyroid stimulation). The whole body retention of 99mTc-MDP represents a valuable index of bone turnover, it decreased progressively and significantly on treatment. A dynamic study of local bone uptake of 99mTC-MDP was performed in eight patients. After carboCT therapy, statistically significant decreases in local blood flow, early uptake, and delayed uptake were appreciated in the involved foot. These findings lead to the conclusion that carboCT is effective in the treatment of Sudeck's atrophy.

  4. Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Andrew P

    2018-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset degenerative disorder of the neuromuscular system resulting in slowly progressive weakness and atrophy of the proximal limb and bulbar muscles. The disease is caused by the expansion of a CAG/glutamine tract in the amino-terminus of the androgen receptor. That SBMA exclusively affects males reflects the fact that critical pathogenic events are hormone-dependent. These include translocation of the polyglutamine androgen receptor from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and unfolding of the mutant protein. Studies of the pathology of SBMA subjects have revealed nuclear aggregates of the mutant androgen receptor, loss of lower motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord, and both neurogenic and myopathic changes in skeletal muscle. Mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis include toxicity in both lower motor neurons and skeletal muscle, where effects on transcription, intracellular transport, and mitochondrial function have been documented. Therapies to treat SBMA patients remain largely supportive, although experimental approaches targeting androgen action or promoting degradation of the mutant androgen receptor protein or the encoding RNA are under active study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acid-sensing ion channels: trafficking and synaptic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zha Xiang-ming

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extracellular acidification occurs in the brain with elevated neural activity, increased metabolism, and neuronal injury. This reduction in pH can have profound effects on brain function because pH regulates essentially every single biochemical reaction. Therefore, it is not surprising to see that Nature evolves a family of proteins, the acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs, to sense extracellular pH reduction. ASICs are proton-gated cation channels that are mainly expressed in the nervous system. In recent years, a growing body of literature has shown that acidosis, through activating ASICs, contributes to multiple diseases, including ischemia, multiple sclerosis, and seizures. In addition, ASICs play a key role in fear and anxiety related psychiatric disorders. Several recent reviews have summarized the importance and therapeutic potential of ASICs in neurological diseases, as well as the structure-function relationship of ASICs. However, there is little focused coverage on either the basic biology of ASICs or their contribution to neural plasticity. This review will center on these topics, with an emphasis on the synaptic role of ASICs and molecular mechanisms regulating the spatial distribution and function of these ion channels.

  6. Acid-sensing ion channels: trafficking and synaptic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Xiang-ming

    2013-01-02

    Extracellular acidification occurs in the brain with elevated neural activity, increased metabolism, and neuronal injury. This reduction in pH can have profound effects on brain function because pH regulates essentially every single biochemical reaction. Therefore, it is not surprising to see that Nature evolves a family of proteins, the acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), to sense extracellular pH reduction. ASICs are proton-gated cation channels that are mainly expressed in the nervous system. In recent years, a growing body of literature has shown that acidosis, through activating ASICs, contributes to multiple diseases, including ischemia, multiple sclerosis, and seizures. In addition, ASICs play a key role in fear and anxiety related psychiatric disorders. Several recent reviews have summarized the importance and therapeutic potential of ASICs in neurological diseases, as well as the structure-function relationship of ASICs. However, there is little focused coverage on either the basic biology of ASICs or their contribution to neural plasticity. This review will center on these topics, with an emphasis on the synaptic role of ASICs and molecular mechanisms regulating the spatial distribution and function of these ion channels.

  7. Spatiotemporal Propagation of the Cortical Atrophy: Population and Individual Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Koval

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Repeated failures in clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease (AD have raised a strong interest for the prodromal phase of the disease. A better understanding of the brain alterations during this early phase is crucial to diagnose patients sooner, to estimate an accurate disease stage, and to give a reliable prognosis. According to recent evidence, structural alterations in the brain are likely to be sensitive markers of the disease progression. Neuronal loss translates in specific spatiotemporal patterns of cortical atrophy, starting in the enthorinal cortex and spreading over other cortical regions according to specific propagation pathways. We developed a digital model of the cortical atrophy in the left hemisphere from prodromal to diseased phases, which is built on the temporal alignment and combination of several short-term observation data to reconstruct the long-term history of the disease. The model not only provides a description of the spatiotemporal patterns of cortical atrophy at the group level but also shows the variability of these patterns at the individual level in terms of difference in propagation pathways, speed of propagation, and age at propagation onset. Longitudinal MRI datasets of patients with mild cognitive impairments who converted to AD are used to reconstruct the cortical atrophy propagation across all disease stages. Each observation is considered as a signal spatially distributed on a network, such as the cortical mesh, each cortex location being associated to a node. We consider how the temporal profile of the signal varies across the network nodes. We introduce a statistical mixed-effect model to describe the evolution of the cortex alterations. To ensure a spatiotemporal smooth propagation of the alterations, we introduce a constrain on the propagation signal in the model such that neighboring nodes have similar profiles of the signal changes. Our generative model enables the reconstruction of personalized

  8. Intellectual enrichment lessens the effect of brain atrophy on learning and memory in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Wylie, Glenn R; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2010-06-15

    Learning and memory impairments are prevalent among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, such deficits are only weakly associated with MS disease severity (brain atrophy). The cognitive reserve hypothesis states that greater lifetime intellectual enrichment lessens the negative impact of brain disease on cognition, thereby helping to explain the incomplete relationship between brain disease and cognitive status in neurologic populations. The literature on cognitive reserve has focused mainly on Alzheimer disease. The current research examines whether greater intellectual enrichment lessens the negative effect of brain atrophy on learning and memory in patients with MS. Forty-four persons with MS completed neuropsychological measures of verbal learning and memory, and a vocabulary-based estimate of lifetime intellectual enrichment. Brain atrophy was estimated with third ventricle width measured from 3-T magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo MRIs. Hierarchical regression was used to predict learning and memory with brain atrophy, intellectual enrichment, and the interaction between brain atrophy and intellectual enrichment. Brain atrophy predicted worse learning and memory, and intellectual enrichment predicted better learning; however, these effects were moderated by interactions between brain atrophy and intellectual enrichment. Specifically, higher intellectual enrichment lessened the negative impact of brain atrophy on both learning and memory. These findings help to explain the incomplete relationship between multiple sclerosis disease severity and cognition, as the effect of disease on cognition is attenuated among patients with higher intellectual enrichment. As such, intellectual enrichment is supported as a protective factor against disease-related cognitive impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis.

  9. Duodenal Villous Atrophy in a TTG-Negative Patient Taking Olmesartan: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasha Kulai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used to treat hypertension, is associated with few adverse effects. Here, a case of severe sprue-like enteropathy and acute kidney injury is described in a 68-year-old male taking olmesartan for 3-4 years. He presented to hospital with a five-week history of diarrhea, vomiting, and a 20 lb weight loss. Anti-TTG was negative with a normal IgA. Biopsies of the distal duodenum and duodenal cap revealed marked blunting of the villi with near complete villous atrophy of the biopsies from the bulb. There was an increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes as well as neutrophils in the surface epithelium. The patient’s diarrhea improved upon discontinuation of olmesartan and he returned to his previous weight. Repeat endoscopy four months later demonstrated complete resolution of inflammatory change with normal villous architecture. Long-term olmesartan use is associated with severe sprue-like enteropathy. The mechanism of intestinal injury is unknown. Duodenal biopsy results may mimic other enteropathies such as celiac disease. Physicians should consider medications as potential etiologies of enteropathy.

  10. Bcl-xL-mediated remodeling of rod and cone synaptic mitochondria after postnatal lead exposure: electron microscopy, tomography and oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Guy A; Scott, Ray; Perez, Alex; Ellisman, Mark H; Johnson, Jerry E; Fox, Donald A

    2012-01-01

    and dark-adapted photoreceptor synaptic terminal QO(2). Bcl-xL partially blocked many of the lead-induced alterations relative to controls. However, spherules still had partially decreased abundance, whereas pedicles still had increased branching, increased crista segments per volume, and increased crista junction diameter. Moreover, photoreceptor and synaptic QO(2) were only partially recovered. These findings reveal cellular and compartmental specific differences in the structure and vulnerability of rod and cone inner segment and synaptic mitochondria to postnatal lead exposure. Spherule and pedicle mitochondria in lead-exposed mice displayed complex and distinguishing patterns of cristae and matrix damage and remodeling consistent with studies showing that synaptic mitochondria are more sensitive to Ca(2+) overload, oxidative stress, and ATP loss than non-synaptic mitochondria. The lead-induced decreases in QO(2) likely resulted from the decreased spherule cristae abundance and smaller cristae, perhaps due to Bax-mediated effects as they occurred in apoptotic rod inner segments. The increase in pedicle cristae abundance and CJ diameter could have resulted from increased Drp1-mediated fission, as small mitochondrial fragments were observed. The mechanisms of Bcl-xL-mediated remodeling might occur via interaction with formation of CJ protein 1 (Fcj1), whereas the partial protection of synaptic QO(2) might result from the enhanced efficiency of energy metabolism via Bcl-xL's direct interaction with the F1F0 ATP synthase and/or regulation of cellular redox status. These lead-induced alterations in photoreceptor synaptic terminal mitochondria likely underlie the persistent scotopic and mesopic deficits in lead-exposed children, workers, and experimental animals. Our findings stress the clinical and scientific importance of examining synaptic dysfunction following injury or disease during development, and developing therapeutic treatments that prevent synaptic

  11. Experimental study on irradiation injury of the kidneys, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Shinichi; Fuzikawa, Kiyozumi; Nishimori, Issei; Tsuda, Nobuo; Miyagawa, Naotaka

    1976-01-01

    In order to investigate irradiation injury of the kidney and effect of injured kidney on the whole body, especially cardiovascular changes, a single kidney was extracted from Wistar female rats and only the remained kidney was irradiated with a great amount of radiation in 4000 R dose experimentally. After seven weeks of irradiation, atrophy and involution of the highest region of the kidney were found. Histologically, fibrous proliferation of interstice accompanied with atrophy of the renal tubule, and slightly increased nuclei and lobulation of the glomerulus were recognized. After 15 weeks of irradiation, atrophy and involution of the whole kidney were found. Histologically, fibrous proliferation of interstice in the kidney accompanied with high degree atrophy of the renal tubule, marked increase and lobulation of mesangium ground substance of the glomerulus and mild hypertrophy of arteriole were recognized. Mild degeneration of myocardium was recognized. In the long-term cases passing 29 and 34 weeks after irradiation, blood pressure just before slaughter rose to 250 mmHg. The kidney showed malignant nephrosclerosis-like lesion, and panarteritis was found in the mesentery and peri-pancreatic artery. In the heart, hypertonic myocardosis was recognized. A rise of blood pressure which was observed in this experiment occurred in circulation degenerations resulted from the secondary hypertrophy of the blood vessels accompanied with fibrous proliferation of the interstice which appeared after degeneration of renal tubule. It was thought that panarteritis of cardiovascular system of the whole body, especially mesentery and peri-pancreatic artery, and fibrinoid degeneration of arteriole of the kidney were due to hypertension and angiopathic factors (non-vasopressor extracts from the injured kidney). (Tsunoda, M.)

  12. Aβ-Induced Synaptic Alterations Require the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Elizabeth M; Scudder, Samantha L; Goo, Marisa S; Patrick, Gentry N

    2016-02-03

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which patients experience progressive cognitive decline. A wealth of evidence suggests that this cognitive impairment results from synaptic dysfunction in affected brain regions caused by cleavage of amyloid precursor protein into the pathogenic peptide amyloid-β (Aβ). Specifically, it has been shown that Aβ decreases surface AMPARs, dendritic spine density, and synaptic strength, and also alters synaptic plasticity. The precise molecular mechanisms by which this occurs remain unclear. Here we demonstrate a role for ubiquitination in Aβ-induced synaptic dysfunction in cultured rat neurons. We find that Aβ promotes the ubiquitination of AMPARs, as well as the redistribution and recruitment of Nedd4-1, a HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase we previously demonstrated to target AMPARs for ubiquitination and degradation. Strikingly, we show that Nedd4-1 is required for Aβ-induced reductions in surface AMPARs, synaptic strength, and dendritic spine density. Our findings, therefore, indicate an important role for Nedd4-1 and ubiquitin in the synaptic alterations induced by Aβ. Synaptic changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) include surface AMPAR loss, which can weaken synapses. In a cell culture model of AD, we found that AMPAR loss correlates with increased AMPAR ubiquitination. In addition, the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-1, known to ubiquitinate AMPARs, is recruited to synapses in response to Aβ. Strikingly, reducing Nedd4-1 levels in this model prevented surface AMPAR loss and synaptic weakening. These findings suggest that, in AD, Nedd4-1 may ubiquitinate AMPARs to promote their internalization and weaken synaptic strength, similar to what occurs in Nedd4-1's established role in homeostatic synaptic scaling. This is the first demonstration of Aβ-mediated control of a ubiquitin ligase to regulate surface AMPAR expression. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/361590-06$15.00/0.

  13. Thymus Atrophy and Double-Positive Escape Are Common Features in Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Meis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ in which bone marrow-derived T-cell precursors undergo differentiation, leading to migration of positively selected thymocytes to the T-cell-dependent areas of secondary lymphoid organs. This organ can undergo atrophy, caused by several endogenous and exogenous factors such as ageing, hormone fluctuations, and infectious agents. This paper will focus on emerging data on the thymic atrophy caused by infectious agents. We present data on the dynamics of thymus lymphocytes during acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection, showing that the resulting thymus atrophy comprises the abnormal release of thymic-derived T cells and may have an impact on host immune response.

  14. Measurement of brain atrophy of aging using x-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shumpei; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1984-01-01

    We measured brain volume of 1,045 subjects with no brain damage using x-ray computed tomography and investigated brain atrophy of aging. Severity of brain atrophy was estimated by brain atrophy index (BAI): BAI (%)=100 (%)x(cerebrospinal fluid space volume/cranial cavity volume). Atrophy of the brain began with statistical significance in the forties in both sexes. In males 40-49 years of age the mean BAI was 1.0% greater (p<0.001) and the S.D. of BAI was 1.1% greater (p<0.001) than those in their thirties. In females of 40-49 years the mean BAI was 0.5% greater (p<0.001) than that in their thirties, but there was no statistical significance between the two S.D.'s of both decades. The BAI increased exponentially with the increasing age from thirties in both sexes. Correlation coefficients were 0.702 (p< 0.001, n=471) in males and 0.721 (p<0.001, n=480) in females. From the regression coefficients it was calculated that the BAI was doubled in 19.4 years in males and 17.4 years in females after thirties. (author)

  15. Motor neuronal repletion of the NMJ organizer, Agrin, modulates the severity of the spinal muscular atrophy disease phenotype in model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Ki; Caine, Charlotte; Awano, Tomoyuki; Herbst, Ruth; Monani, Umrao R

    2017-07-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common and often fatal neuromuscular disorder caused by low levels of the Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein. Amongst the earliest detectable consequences of SMN deficiency are profound defects of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). In model mice these synapses appear disorganized, fail to mature and are characterized by poorly arborized nerve terminals. Given one role of the SMN protein in orchestrating the assembly of spliceosomal snRNP particles and subsequently regulating the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs, a plausible link between SMN function and the distal neuromuscular SMA phenotype is an incorrectly spliced transcript or transcripts involved in establishing or maintaining NMJ structure. In this study, we explore the effects of one such transcript-Z+Agrin-known to be a critical organizer of the NMJ. We confirm that low SMN protein reduces motor neuronal levels of Z+Agrin. Repletion of this isoform of Agrin in the motor neurons of SMA model mice increases muscle fiber size, enhances the post-synaptic NMJ area, reduces the abnormal accumulation of intermediate filaments in nerve terminals of the neuromuscular synapse and improves the innervation of muscles. While these effects are independent of changes in SMN levels or increases in motor neuron numbers they nevertheless have a significant effect on the overall disease phenotype, enhancing mean survival in severely affected SMA model mice by ∼40%. We conclude that Agrin is an important target of the SMN protein and that mitigating NMJ defects may be one strategy in treating human spinal muscular atrophy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Synaptic contacts impaired by styrene-7,8-oxide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, P.; D'Aprile, A.; Nico, B.; Costa, G.L.; Assennato, G.

    2007-01-01

    Styrene-7,8-oxide (SO), a chemical compound widely used in industrial applications, is a potential hazard for humans, particularly in occupational settings. Neurobehavioral changes are consistently observed in occupationally exposed individuals and alterations of neurotransmitters associated with neuronal loss have been reported in animal models. Although the toxic effects of styrene have been extensively documented, the molecular mechanisms responsible for SO-induced neurotoxicity are still unclear. A possible dopamine-mediated effect of styrene neurotoxicity has been previously demonstrated, since styrene oxide alters dopamine neurotransmission in the brain. Thus, the present study hypothesizes that styrene neurotoxicity may involve synaptic contacts. Primary striatal neurons were exposed to styrene oxide at different concentrations (0.1-1 mM) for different time periods (8, 16, and 24 h) to evaluate the dose able to induce synaptic impairments. The expression of proteins crucial for synaptic transmission such as Synapsin, Synaptophysin, and RAC-1 were considered. The levels of Synaptophysin and RAC-1 decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, morphological alterations, observed at the ultrastructural level, primarily involved the pre-synaptic compartment. In SO-exposed cultures, the biochemical cascade of caspases was activated affecting the cytoskeleton components as their target. Thus the impairments in synaptic contacts observed in SO-exposed cultures might reflect a primarily morphological alteration of neuronal cytoskeleton. In addition, our data support the hypothesis developed by previous authors of reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiating events of SO cytotoxicity

  17. Differentiation of normal pressure hydrocephalus and cerebral atrophy by computed tomography and spinal infusion test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tans, J T.J. [Nijverheidsorganisatie TNO, The Hague (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology and Research Unit TNO for Clinical Neurophysiology

    1979-01-01

    The diagnostic value of computed tomography (CT) and spinal infusion test (SIT) was investigated in 27 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and 35 patients with cerebral atrophy. The most consistent CT finding of NPH was dilatation of the temporal horns, that of cerebral atrophy widening of the convexity sulci. However, 43% of patients with cerebral atrophy demonstrated no cortical atrophy. The SIT showed an excellent relation with isotope cisternography and continuous intracranial pressure recording. NPH and cerebral atrophy were correctly differentiated in 71% by CT and SIT. A normal SIT and a CT scan without the typical features of NPH exclude impairment of cerebrospinal fluid absorption. An abnormal SIT and a CT scan showing ventricular enlargement without dilatation of convexity sulci, require isotope cisternography and possibly intracranial pressure recording to determine the degree of the absorption deficit.

  18. Muscle morphometric effect of anterior cruciate ligament injury measured by computed tomography: aspects on using non-injured leg as control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are common, functionally disabling, and predispose to subsequent injuries and early onset of osteoarthritis in the knee. Injuries result in muscular atrophy and impaired muscular activation. To optimize surgical methods and rehabilitation strategies, knowledge of the effects of ACL injuries on muscles size and function is needed. Asymmetry due to limb dominance implies that the effect of ACL-injury might be different in right-sided and left-sided injuries which, should be taken in account when evaluating the effect of an injury. Evaluation of the effects of injuries is usually made with the contralateral leg as control. The aim of this study is to describe the effect of ACL-injuries on thigh muscle size and also to analyze feasibility of using contralateral limb as control. Methods Sixty-two patients scheduled to undergo ACL reconstruction were examined with computed tomography (CT). Muscle cross sectional area (CSA) was recorded for quadriceps, hamstrings, gracilis and sartorius 15 cm above the knee joint. Comparisons were made between the injured and non-injured side and between individuals separated by gender and side of injury. Comparisons were also made for patients with or without concomitant meniscal tear, for patients differing in time between injury and examinations and for patients with different level of physical activity after the injury. Results Quadriceps CSA was 5% smaller on the injured side. There was an indication that the muscles of the right thigh were generally bigger than those of the left thigh. The difference between the injured and the non-injured side was larger for right-sided injuries than for left-sided. There was also a greater difference in semimembranosus for women than for men. There were no differences related to meniscal injury, time since injury or physical activity. Conclusion The use of contralateral leg for evaluating the effect of ACL-injury is often the only available

  19. Combining the boundary shift integral and tensor-based morphometry for brain atrophy estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalkiewicz, Mateusz; Pai, Akshay; Leung, Kelvin K.; Sommer, Stefan; Darkner, Sune; Sørensen, Lauge; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads

    2016-03-01

    Brain atrophy from structural magnetic resonance images (MRIs) is widely used as an imaging surrogate marker for Alzheimers disease. Their utility has been limited due to the large degree of variance and subsequently high sample size estimates. The only consistent and reasonably powerful atrophy estimation methods has been the boundary shift integral (BSI). In this paper, we first propose a tensor-based morphometry (TBM) method to measure voxel-wise atrophy that we combine with BSI. The combined model decreases the sample size estimates significantly when compared to BSI and TBM alone.

  20. Potential hippocampal region atrophy in diabetes mellitus type 2. A voxel-based morphometry VSRAD study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Kazutoshi; Sugihara, Masaki; Wada, Akihiko

    2010-01-01

    Among diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients, the frequency of cognitive dysfunction is higher and the relative risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is approximately twice that of nondiabetics. Cognitive impairment symptoms of AD are induced by limbic system dysfunction, and an early-stage AD brain without dementia has the potential for atrophy in the hippocampal region. In this study, we estimated potential hippocampal region atrophy in DM2 and pursued the association between DM2 and cognitive impairment/AD. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed in 28 diabetics (14 men, 14 women; ages 59-79 years, mean 70.7 years) and 28 sex- and age- matched (±1 year) nondiabetics. Severity of gray matter loss in the hippocampal region and whole brain were investigated. Group analysis was performed using two-tailed unpaired t-test; significance was assumed with less than 1% (P<0.01) of the critical rate. There was a significant difference between diabetics and nondiabetics regarding the severity of hippocampal region atrophy and whole-brain atrophy. Only diabetics showed a positive correlation for severity of hippocampal region atrophy and whole-brain atrophy (rs=0.69, P<0.0001). Aged DM2 patients have the potential for hippocampal region atrophy, and its dysfunction can be related to the expression of a cognitive impairment that resembles AD. (author)

  1. A meta-analysis on progressive atrophy in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caciagli, Lorenzo; Bernasconi, Andrea; Wiebe, Samuel; Koepp, Matthias J.; Bernasconi, Neda

    2017-01-01

    Objective: It remains unclear whether drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with cumulative brain damage, with no expert consensus and no quantitative syntheses of the available evidence. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of MRI studies on progressive atrophy, searching PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases for cross-sectional and longitudinal quantitative MRI studies on drug-resistant TLE. Results: We screened 2,976 records and assessed eligibility of 248 full-text articles. Forty-two articles met the inclusion criteria for quantitative evaluation. We observed a predominance of cross-sectional studies, use of different clinical indices of progression, and high heterogeneity in age-control procedures. Meta-analysis of 18/1 cross-sectional/longitudinal studies on hippocampal atrophy (n = 979 patients) yielded a pooled effect size of r = −0.42 for ipsilateral atrophy related to epilepsy duration (95% confidence interval [CI] −0.51 to −0.32; p 80% of articles reported duration-related progression in extratemporal cortical and subcortical regions. Detailed analysis of study design features yielded low to moderate levels of evidence for progressive atrophy across studies, mainly due to dominance of cross-sectional over longitudinal investigations, use of diverse measures of seizure estimates, and absence of consistent age control procedures. Conclusions: While the neuroimaging literature is overall suggestive of progressive atrophy in drug-resistant TLE, published studies have employed rather weak designs to directly demonstrate it. Longitudinal multicohort studies are needed to unequivocally differentiate aging from disease progression. PMID:28687722

  2. Hyaluronate fragments reverse skin atrophy by a CD44-dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürkan Kaya

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skin atrophy is a common manifestation of aging and is frequently accompanied by ulceration and delayed wound healing. With an increasingly aging patient population, management of skin atrophy is becoming a major challenge in the clinic, particularly in light of the fact that there are no effective therapeutic options at present. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Atrophic skin displays a decreased hyaluronate (HA content and expression of the major cell-surface hyaluronate receptor, CD44. In an effort to develop a therapeutic strategy for skin atrophy, we addressed the effect of topical administration of defined-size HA fragments (HAF on skin trophicity. Treatment of primary keratinocyte cultures with intermediate-size HAF (HAFi; 50,000-400,000 Da but not with small-size HAF (HAFs; 400,000 Da induced wild-type (wt but not CD44-deficient (CD44-/- keratinocyte proliferation. Topical application of HAFi caused marked epidermal hyperplasia in wt but not in CD44-/- mice, and significant skin thickening in patients with age- or corticosteroid-related skin atrophy. The effect of HAFi on keratinocyte proliferation was abrogated by antibodies against heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF and its receptor, erbB1, which form a complex with a particular isoform of CD44 (CD44v3, and by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations provide a novel CD44-dependent mechanism for HA oligosaccharide-induced keratinocyte proliferation and suggest that topical HAFi application may provide an attractive therapeutic option in human skin atrophy.

  3. Levetiracetam reverses synaptic deficits produced by overexpression of SV2A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Nowack

    Full Text Available Levetiracetam is an FDA-approved drug used to treat epilepsy and other disorders of the nervous system. Although it is known that levetiracetam binds the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A, how drug binding affects synaptic functioning remains unknown. Here we report that levetiracetam reverses the effects of excess SV2A in autaptic hippocampal neurons. Expression of an SV2A-EGFP fusion protein produced a ∼1.5-fold increase in synaptic levels of SV2, and resulted in reduced synaptic release probability. The overexpression phenotype parallels that seen in neurons from SV2 knockout mice, which experience severe seizures. Overexpression of SV2A also increased synaptic levels of the calcium-sensor protein synaptotagmin, an SV2-binding protein whose stability and trafficking are regulated by SV2. Treatment with levetiracetam rescued normal neurotransmission and restored normal levels of SV2 and synaptotagmin at the synapse. These results indicate that changes in SV2 expression in either direction impact neurotransmission, and suggest that levetiracetam may modulate SV2 protein interactions.

  4. Hydrocolonotherapy ankle joints after injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Muchin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve efficiency of gydrokinesitherapy by means of specially designed devices and monolasts for patients after ankle joint injuries. Material & Methods: there are pedagogical methods, clinical and radiological methods, anthropometric measurements and goniometry were used. Results: the author's technique of hydrokinesitherapy with application hydrokinesimechanotherapy device in the program of physical rehabilitation which provides optimum conditions for the recovery process was developed. Conclusions: the specially designed hydrokinesomechanotherapeutic device and monolasts are allow strictly controlled movement in all planes of the ankle joint, which contributes to the acceleration of the recovery; the conducted anthropometric and goniometric studies were indicate more rapid elimination of edema, increase movement amplitude, carries opposition to the development of contractures and muscle atrophy.

  5. Management of Lower Extremity Long-bone Fractures in Spinal Cord Injury Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Leah M; Scully, Ryan D; Kappa, Jason E

    2017-09-01

    The AO classification system, used as a guide for modern fracture care and fixation, follows a basic philosophy of care that emphasizes early mobility and return to function. Lower extremity long-bone fractures in patients with spinal cord injury often are pathologic injuries that present unique challenges, to which the AO principles may not be entirely applicable. Optimal treatment achieves healing without affecting the functional level of the patient. These injuries often result from low-energy mechanisms in nonambulatory patients with osteopenic bone and a thin, insensate soft-tissue envelope. The complication rate can be high, and the outcomes can be catastrophic without proper care. Satisfactory results can be obtained through various methods of immobilization. Less frequently, internal fixation is applied. In certain cases, after discussion with the patient, amputation may be suitable. Prevention strategies aim to minimize bone loss and muscle atrophy.

  6. Disease-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, Scott K.; Lynch, Gordon S.; Murphy, Kate T.; Reid, Michael B.; Zijdewind, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Numerous health problems including acute critical illness, cancer, diseases associated with chronic inflammation, and neurological disorders often result in skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue. Disease-related muscle atrophy and fatigue is an important clinical problem because acquired skeletal

  7. Prevalence and pattern of gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy in older individuals using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Andrew S. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Long, Suzanne S.; Zoga, Adam C.; Read, Paul J.; Deely, Diane M.; Parker, Laurence; Morrison, William B. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy in older individuals using MRI. A retrospective MRI study of 185 individuals was performed. The inclusion criterion was age ≥50. Exclusion criteria were hip surgery, fracture, infection, tumor, or inadequate image quality. Greater trochanteric bursitis was graded none, mild, moderate, or severe. Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and iliopsoas tendinopathy was graded normal, tendinosis, low-grade partial tear, high-grade partial tear, or full thickness tear. Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fascia lata, and iliopsoas muscle atrophy was scored using a standard scale. Insertion site of tendinopathy and location of muscle atrophy were assessed. Descriptive and statistical analysis was performed. There was increasing greater trochanteric bursitis and gluteus medius and minimus tendinopathy and atrophy with advancing age with moderate to strong positive associations (p < 0.0001) for age and tendinopathy, age and atrophy, bursitis and tendinopathy, and tendinopathy and atrophy for the gluteus medius and minimus. There is a weak positive association (p < 0.0001) for age and tensor fascia lata atrophy, and no statistically significant association between age and tendinopathy or between age and atrophy for the iliopsoas. Fisher's exact tests were statistically significant (p < 0.0001) for insertion site of tendon pathology and location of muscle atrophy for the gluteus medius. Gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy increase with advancing age with progression of tendinosis to low-grade tendon tears to high-grade tendon tears. There is an associated progression in atrophy of these muscles, which may be important in fall-related hip fractures. (orig.)

  8. Prevalence and pattern of gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy in older individuals using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Andrew S.; Long, Suzanne S.; Zoga, Adam C.; Read, Paul J.; Deely, Diane M.; Parker, Laurence; Morrison, William B.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy in older individuals using MRI. A retrospective MRI study of 185 individuals was performed. The inclusion criterion was age ≥50. Exclusion criteria were hip surgery, fracture, infection, tumor, or inadequate image quality. Greater trochanteric bursitis was graded none, mild, moderate, or severe. Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and iliopsoas tendinopathy was graded normal, tendinosis, low-grade partial tear, high-grade partial tear, or full thickness tear. Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fascia lata, and iliopsoas muscle atrophy was scored using a standard scale. Insertion site of tendinopathy and location of muscle atrophy were assessed. Descriptive and statistical analysis was performed. There was increasing greater trochanteric bursitis and gluteus medius and minimus tendinopathy and atrophy with advancing age with moderate to strong positive associations (p < 0.0001) for age and tendinopathy, age and atrophy, bursitis and tendinopathy, and tendinopathy and atrophy for the gluteus medius and minimus. There is a weak positive association (p < 0.0001) for age and tensor fascia lata atrophy, and no statistically significant association between age and tendinopathy or between age and atrophy for the iliopsoas. Fisher's exact tests were statistically significant (p < 0.0001) for insertion site of tendon pathology and location of muscle atrophy for the gluteus medius. Gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy increase with advancing age with progression of tendinosis to low-grade tendon tears to high-grade tendon tears. There is an associated progression in atrophy of these muscles, which may be important in fall-related hip fractures. (orig.)

  9. Interleukin-17A Promotes Parietal Cell Atrophy by Inducing ApoptosisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Bockerstett

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Atrophic gastritis caused by chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa leads to the loss of gastric glandular cells, including acid-secreting parietal cells. Parietal cell atrophy in a setting of chronic inflammation induces spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia, a critical step in gastric carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which inflammation causes parietal cell atrophy and spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia are not well defined. We investigated the role of interleukin-17A (IL-17A in causing parietal cell atrophy. Methods: A mouse model of autoimmune atrophic gastritis was used to examine IL-17A production during early and late stages of disease. Organoids derived from corpus glands were used to determine the direct effects of IL-17A on gastric epithelial cells. Immunofluorescent staining was used to examine IL-17A receptors and the direct effect of signaling on parietal cells. Mice were infected with an IL-17A-producing adenovirus to determine the effects of IL-17A on parietal cells in vivo. Finally, IL-17A neutralizing antibodies were administered to mice with active atrophic gastritis to evaluate the effects on parietal cell atrophy and metaplasia. Results: Increased IL-17A correlated with disease severity in mice with chronic atrophic gastritis. IL-17A caused caspase-dependent gastric organoid degeneration, which could not be rescued with a necroptosis inhibitor. Parietal cells expressed IL-17A receptors and IL-17A treatment induced apoptosis in parietal cells. Overexpressing IL-17A in vivo induced caspase-3 activation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining in parietal cells. Finally, IL-17A neutralizing antibody decreased parietal cell atrophy and metaplasia in mice with chronic atrophic gastritis. Conclusions: These data identify IL-17A as a cytokine that promotes parietal cell apoptosis during atrophic gastritis, a

  10. Radiological and clinical evaluation of the delayed outcomes of the cranio-cerebral injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boguslawska-Staniaszczyk

    1995-01-01

    The CT images in 100 patients with recent cranio-cerebral injuries were compared to their clinical pictures, including EEG, neurological and psychological examinations, after one year. Mixed changes in the initial CT predicted to more frequent brain tissue scars, posthemorrhagic cavities, cortex atrophy and ventricle system dilatation. EEG appeared more useful method than CT for detection if brain focal lesion only in the patients with posttraumatic epilepsy. (author)

  11. Shining a light on posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Schott, Jonathan M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Boeve, Bradley F; Cappa, Stefano F; Dickerson, Bradford C; Dubois, Bruno; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Lehmann, Manja; Mendez, Mario F; Pijnenburg, Yolande; Ryan, Natalie S; Scheltens, Philip; Shakespeare, Tim; Tang-Wai, David F; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Bain, Lisa; Carrillo, Maria C; Fox, Nick C

    2013-07-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a clinicoradiologic syndrome characterized by progressive decline in visual processing skills, relatively intact memory and language in the early stages, and atrophy of posterior brain regions. Misdiagnosis of PCA is common, owing not only to its relative rarity and unusual and variable presentation, but also because patients frequently first seek the opinion of an ophthalmologist, who may note normal eye examinations by their usual tests but may not appreciate cortical brain dysfunction. Seeking to raise awareness of the disease, stimulate research, and promote collaboration, a multidisciplinary group of PCA research clinicians formed an international working party, which had its first face-to-face meeting on July 13, 2012 in Vancouver, Canada, prior to the Alzheimer's Association International Conference. Copyright © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolated and painless (? atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle: left handed versus right handed volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago D. Gonçalves Côelho

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The suprascapular nerve originates from the upper trunk of the brachial plexus or less frequently from the root of C5. It runs a short way and crosses the suprascapular notch. It innervates the supraspinatus muscle and the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Then, it crosses the lateral edge of the spine of the scapula passing through the spinoglenoid notch, and innervates the infraspinatus muscle. These are potential sites of injury to the suprascapular nerve. Three cases of suprascapular nerve entrapment causing an isolated infraspinatus muscle atrophy in volleyball players were studied. It is suggested the hypothesis that the nature of the smash, in which the athlete uses the arm violently, more than does in volleyball service or in the art of reception, is the key to the pathogenesis of the lesion in volleyball players.

  13. Congenital contractural arachnodactyly with neurogenic muscular atrophy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scola Rosana Herminia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 3-1/2-year-old girl with hypotonia, multiple joint contractures, hip luxation, arachnodactyly, adducted thumbs, dolichostenomelia, and abnormal external ears suggesting the diagnosis of congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA. The serum muscle enzimes were normal and the needle electromyography showed active and chronic denervation. The muscle biopsy demonstrated active and chronic denervation compatible with spinal muscular atrophy. Analysis of exons 7 and 8 of survival motor neuron gene through polymerase chain reaction did not show deletions. Neurogenic muscular atrophy is a new abnormality associated with CCA, suggesting that CCA is clinically heterogeneous.

  14. Atrophy of sacrospinal muscle groups in patients with chronic, diffusely radiating lumbar back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    After surgery necessitated by lumbar back pain syndromes, radiolucency verified by CT may appear in the sacrospinal muscle group on the operate side. This radiolucency represents muscular atrophy and is in its most severe form a result of the replacement of muscle tissue with adipose tissue. Such muscular atrophy appeared in the present series in 31 out of all 156 patients (19.9%) and in 29 out of 94 patients operated on because of radiating lumbar back pain (30.9%). The radiological appearance, extent, and HU values of this muscular atrophy are presented in detail. Only weak correlations with the multitude of clinical symptoms and signs were found in this retrospective study. The effects of irreversible muscular atrophy on the indications for surgery and physiotherapy are discussed.

  15. Synaptic dysfunction in amygdala in intellectual disorder models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aincy, Marianne; Meziane, Hamid; Herault, Yann; Humeau, Yann

    2018-06-08

    The amygdala is a part of the limbic circuit that has been extensively studied in terms of synaptic connectivity, plasticity and cellular organization since decades (Ehrlich et al., 2009; Ledoux, 2000; Maren, 2001). Amygdala sub-nuclei, including lateral, basolateral and central amygdala appear now as "hubs" providing in parallel and in series neuronal processing enabling the animal to elicit freezing or escaping behavior in response to external threats. In rodents, these behaviors are easily observed and quantified following associative fear conditioning. Thus, studies on amygdala circuit in association with threat/fear behavior became very popular in laboratories and are often used among other behavioral tests to evaluate learning abilities of mouse models for various neuropsychiatric conditions including genetically encoded intellectual disabilities (ID). Yet, more than 100 human X-linked genes - and several hundreds of autosomal genes - have been associated with ID in humans. These mutations introduced in mice can generate social deficits, anxiety dysregulations and fear learning impairments (McNaughton et al., 2008; Houbaert et al., 2013; Jayachandran et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2015). Noteworthy, a significant proportion of the coded ID gene products are synaptic proteins. It is postulated that the loss of function of these proteins could destabilize neuronal circuits by global changes of the balance between inhibitory and excitatory drives onto neurons. However, whereas amygdala related behavioral deficits are commonly observed in ID models, the role of most of these ID-genes in synaptic function and plasticity in the amygdala are only sparsely studied. We will here discuss some of the concepts that emerged from amygdala-targeted studies examining the role of syndromic and non-syndromic ID genes in fear-related behaviors and/or synaptic function. Along describing these cases, we will discuss how synaptic deficits observed in amygdala circuits could impact

  16. Statistical Modelling of Synaptic Vesicles Distribution and Analysing their Physical Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanmohammadi, Mahdieh

    transmission electron microscopy is used to acquire images from two experimental groups of rats: 1) rats subjected to a behavioral model of stress and 2) rats subjected to sham stress as the control group. The synaptic vesicle distribution and interactions are modeled by employing a point process approach......This Ph.D. thesis deals with mathematical and statistical modeling of synaptic vesicle distribution, shape, orientation and interactions. The first major part of this thesis treats the problem of determining the effect of stress on synaptic vesicle distribution and interactions. Serial section...... on differences of statistical measures in section and the same measures in between sections. Three-dimensional (3D) datasets are reconstructed by using image registration techniques and estimated thicknesses. We distinguish the effect of stress by estimating the synaptic vesicle densities and modeling...

  17. Quantitative analysis of immune cell subset infiltration of supraspinatus muscle after severe rotator cuff injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, J R; Tellier, L E; Ollukaren, M T; Temenoff, J S; Botchwey, E A

    2017-06-01

    Rotator cuff tears cause muscle degeneration that is characterized by myofiber atrophy, fatty infiltration, and fibrosis and is minimally responsive to current treatment options. The underlying pathogenesis of rotator cuff muscle degeneration remains to be elucidated, and increasing evidence implicates immune cell infiltration as a significant factor. Because immune cells are comprised of highly heterogeneous subpopulations that exert divergent effects on injured tissue, understanding trafficking and accumulation of immune subpopulations may hold the key to more effective therapies. The present study quantifies subpopulations of immune cells infiltrating the murine supraspinatus muscle after severe rotator cuff injury that includes tenotomy and denervation. Rotator cuff injury stimulates dramatic infiltration of mononuclear phagocytes, enriches mononuclear phagocytes in non-classical subpopulations, and enriches T lymphocytes in T H and T reg subpopulations. The combination of tenotomy plus denervation significantly increases mononuclear phagocyte infiltration, enriches macrophages in the non-classical subpopulation, and decreases T lymphocyte enrichment in T H cells compared to tenotomy alone. Depletion of circulating monocytes via liposomal clodronate accelerates supraspinatus atrophy after tenotomy and denervation. The study may aid rational design of immunologically smart therapies that harness immune cells to enhance outcomes after rotator cuff tears.

  18. [Evaluation of iatrogenic accessory nerve injury in forensic medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, E; Irányi, J

    1996-04-14

    The authors give a survey of the clinical and medical-legal characteristics of the accessory nerve injury. In the past two decades the conception of the successfulness of the surgical treatment of the accessory nerve injury became prevailing. About the medical-legal aspects of the iatrogenic injury of the nerve reported in connection of the reconstructive surgery chiefly also departments of neurosurgery, orthopedics and traumatology. In the case of the authors a 70 year old patient suffered 10 years ago a iatrogenic accessory nerve injury. The mild trapezius palsy recovered spontaneously practically with cosmetic disadvantage. In connection with the development of extreme dorso-lumbal scoliosis associated with torsion the trapezius atrophy worsened. Physical therapy was partly successful. But the patient became unfit for manual work. Their observations sustain the data of authors who established that in the case of accessory nerve injury not only the surgical but also conservative treatment is usually successful. In opposite to certain data of the literature the authors establish that the iatrogenic injuries of the accessory nerve may lead to significant lifelong disability. The diagnosis is not always made in time with consequent delay in repair. This may be regarded as an unfavorable issue during medical-legal discussions. The authors recommend in interest to prevent nerve injury in the posterior triangle of the neck to perform operation in special department.

  19. Deficits in memory and visuospatial learning correlate with regional hippocampal atrophy in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Giulia; Rocca, Maria A; Pagani, Elisabetta; Riccitelli, Gianna C; Colombo, Bruno; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus has a critical role in episodic memory and visuospatial learning and consolidation. We assessed the patterns of whole and regional hippocampal atrophy in a large group of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and their correlations with neuropsychological impairment. From 103 MS patients and 28 healthy controls (HC), brain dual-echo and high-resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired using a 3.0-Tesla scanner. All patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment of hippocampal-related cognitive functions, including Paired Associate Word Learning, Short Story, delayed recall of Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure and Paced Auditory Serial Attention tests. The hippocampi were manually segmented and volumes derived. Regional atrophy distribution was assessed using a radial mapping analysis. Correlations between hippocampal atrophy and clinical, neuropsychological and MRI metrics were also evaluated. Hippocampal volume was reduced in MS patients vs HC (p right and hippocampus). In MS patients, radial atrophy affected CA1 subfield and subiculum of posterior hippocampus, bilaterally. The dentate hilus (DG:H) of the right hippocampal head was also affected. Regional hippocampal atrophy correlated with brain T2 and T1 lesion volumes, while no correlation was found with disability. Damage to the CA1 and subiculum was significantly correlated to the performances at hippocampal-targeted neuropsychological tests. These results show that hippocampal subregions have a different vulnerability to MS-related damage, with a relative sparing of the head of the left hippocampus. The assessment of regional hippocampal atrophy may help explain deficits of specific cognitive functions in MS patients, including memory and visuospatial abilities.

  20. Feasibility of the Medial Temporal lobe Atrophy index (MTAi and derived methods for measuring atrophy of the medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eConejo Bayón

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the Medial Temporal-lobe Atrophy index (MTAi, 2D-Medial Temporal Atrophy (2D-MTA, yearly rate of MTA (yrRMTA and yearly rate of relative MTA (yrRMTA are simple protocols for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the MTL in relation to the global brain atrophy. Albeit preliminary studies showed interest of these methods in the diagnosis of AD, FTLD and correlation with cognitive impairment in PD, formal feasibility and validity studies remained pending. As a first step, we aimed to assess the feasibility. Mainly, we aimed to assess the reproducibility of measuring the areas needed to compute these indices. We also aimed to assess the efforts needed to start using these methods correctly. Methods: a series of 290 1.5T-MRI studies from 230 subjects ranging 65-85 years old who had been studied for cognitive impairment were used in this study. Six inexperienced tracers (IT plus one experienced tracer (ET traced the three areas needed to compute the indices. Finally, tracers underwent a short survey on their experience learning to compute the MTAi and experience of usage, including items relative to training time needed to understand and apply the MTAi, time to perform a study after training and overall satisfaction. Results: learning to trace the areas needed to compute the MTAi and derived methods is quick and easy. Results indicate very good intrarater ICC for the MTAi, good intrarater ICC for the 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA and also good interrater ICC for the MTAi, 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA.Conclusion: our data support that MTAi and derived methods (2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRTMA have good to very good intrarater and interrater reproducibility and may be easily implemented in clinical practice even if new users have no experience tracing the area of regions of interest.

  1. Hardwiring of fine synaptic layers in the zebrafish visual pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Michael R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal connections are often arranged in layers, which are divided into sublaminae harboring synapses with similar response properties. It is still debated how fine-grained synaptic layering is established during development. Here we investigated two stratified areas of the zebrafish visual pathway, the inner plexiform layer (IPL of the retina and the neuropil of the optic tectum, and determined if activity is required for their organization. Results The IPL of 5-day-old zebrafish larvae is composed of at least nine sublaminae, comprising the connections between different types of amacrine, bipolar, and ganglion cells (ACs, BCs, GCs. These sublaminae were distinguished by their expression of cell type-specific transgenic fluorescent reporters and immunohistochemical markers, including protein kinase Cβ (PKC, parvalbumin (Parv, zrf3, and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT. In the tectum, four retinal input layers abut a laminated array of neurites of tectal cells, which differentially express PKC and Parv. We investigated whether these patterns were affected by experimental disruptions of retinal activity in developing fish. Neither elimination of light inputs by dark rearing, nor a D, L-amino-phosphono-butyrate-induced reduction in the retinal response to light onset (but not offset altered IPL or tectal lamination. Moreover, thorough elimination of chemical synaptic transmission with Botulinum toxin B left laminar synaptic arrays intact. Conclusion Our results call into question a role for activity-dependent mechanisms – instructive light signals, balanced on and off BC activity, Hebbian plasticity, or a permissive role for synaptic transmission – in the synaptic stratification we examined. We propose that genetically encoded cues are sufficient to target groups of neurites to synaptic layers in this vertebrate visual system.

  2. A Voltage Mode Memristor Bridge Synaptic Circuit with Memristor Emulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Chua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A memristor bridge neural circuit which is able to perform signed synaptic weighting was proposed in our previous study, where the synaptic operation was verified via software simulation of the mathematical model of the HP memristor. This study is an extension of the previous work advancing toward the circuit implementation where the architecture of the memristor bridge synapse is built with memristor emulator circuits. In addition, a simple neural network which performs both synaptic weighting and summation is built by combining memristor emulators-based synapses and differential amplifier circuits. The feasibility of the memristor bridge neural circuit is verified via SPICE simulations.

  3. Network-based characterization of the synaptic proteome reveals that removal of epigenetic regulator Prmt8 restricts proteins associated with synaptic maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patrick Kia Ming; Goh, Wilson Wen Bin; Sng, Judy Chia Ghee

    2017-02-01

    The brain adapts to dynamic environmental conditions by altering its epigenetic state, thereby influencing neuronal transcriptional programs. An example of an epigenetic modification is protein methylation, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT). One member, Prmt8, is selectively expressed in the central nervous system during a crucial phase of early development, but little else is known regarding its function. We hypothesize Prmt8 plays a role in synaptic maturation during development. To evaluate this, we used a proteome-wide approach to characterize the synaptic proteome of Prmt8 knockout versus wild-type mice. Through comparative network-based analyses, proteins and functional clusters related to neurite development were identified to be differentially regulated between the two genotypes. One interesting protein that was differentially regulated was tenascin-R (TNR). Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated binding of PRMT8 to the tenascin-r (Tnr) promoter. TNR, a component of perineuronal nets, preserves structural integrity of synaptic connections within neuronal networks during the development of visual-somatosensory cortices. On closer inspection, Prmt8 removal increased net formation and decreased inhibitory parvalbumin-positive (PV+) puncta on pyramidal neurons, thereby hindering the maturation of circuits. Consequently, visual acuity of the knockout mice was reduced. Our results demonstrated Prmt8's involvement in synaptic maturation and its prospect as an epigenetic modulator of developmental neuroplasticity by regulating structural elements such as the perineuronal nets. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. Vesicular GABA Uptake Can Be Rate Limiting for Recovery of IPSCs from Synaptic Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manami Yamashita

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Synaptic efficacy plays crucial roles in neuronal circuit operation and synaptic plasticity. Presynaptic determinants of synaptic efficacy are neurotransmitter content in synaptic vesicles and the number of vesicles undergoing exocytosis at a time. Bursts of presynaptic firings depress synaptic efficacy, mainly due to depletion of releasable vesicles, whereas recovery from strong depression is initiated by endocytic vesicle retrieval followed by refilling of vesicles with neurotransmitter. We washed out presynaptic cytosolic GABA to induce a rundown of IPSCs at cerebellar inhibitory cell pairs in slices from rats and then allowed fast recovery by elevating GABA concentration using photo-uncaging. The time course of this recovery coincided with that of IPSCs from activity-dependent depression induced by a train of high-frequency stimulation. We conclude that vesicular GABA uptake can be a limiting step for the recovery of inhibitory neurotransmission from synaptic depression. : Recovery of inhibitory synaptic transmission from activity-dependent depression requires refilling of vesicles with GABA. Yamashita et al. find that vesicular uptake rate of GABA is a slow process, limiting the recovery rate of IPSCs from depression.

  5. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  6. Atrophy of sacrospinal muscle groups in patients with chronic, diffusely radiating lumbar back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laasonen, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    After surgery necessitated by lumbar back pain syndromes, radiolucency verified by CT may appear in the sacrospinal muscle group on the operate side. This radiolucency represents muscular atrophy and is in its most severe form a result of the replacement of muscle tissue with adipose tissue. Such muscular atrophy appeared in the present series in 31 out of all 156 patients (19.9%) and in 29 out of 94 patients operated on because of radiating lumbar back pain (30.9%). The radiological appearance, extent, and HU values of this muscular atrophy are presented in detail. Only weak correlations with the multitude of clinical symptoms and signs were found in this retrospective study. The effects of irreversible muscular atrophy on the indications for surgery and physiotherapy are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Synaptic Tagging, Evaluation of Memories, and the Distal Reward Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papper, Marc; Kempter, Richard; Leibold, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity exhibits distinct phases. The synaptic tagging hypothesis suggests an early phase in which synapses are prepared, or "tagged," for protein capture, and a late phase in which those proteins are integrated into the synapses to achieve memory consolidation. The synapse specificity of the tags is consistent with…

  8. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF HEAD INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward

  9. Schisandrae Fructus Supplementation Ameliorates Sciatic Neurectomy-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Wan Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the possible beneficial skeletal muscle preserving effects of ethanol extract of Schisandrae Fructus (EESF on sciatic neurectomy- (NTX- induced hindlimb muscle atrophy in mice. Here, calf muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral right sciatic NTX. In order to investigate whether administration of EESF prevents or improves sciatic NTX-induced muscle atrophy, EESF was administered orally. Our results indicated that EESF dose-dependently diminished the decreases in markers of muscle mass and activity levels, and the increases in markers of muscle damage and fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokines, and apoptotic events in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles are induced by NTX. Additionally, destruction of gastrocnemius antioxidant defense systems after NTX was dose-dependently protected by treatment with EESF. EESF also upregulated muscle-specific mRNAs involved in muscle protein synthesis but downregulated those involved in protein degradation. The overall effects of 500 mg/kg EESF were similar to those of 50 mg/kg oxymetholone, but it showed more favorable antioxidant effects. The present results suggested that EESF exerts a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by NTX, through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects related to muscle fiber protective effects and via an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.

  10. Atrophy of gray and white matters in the brain during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shumpei; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ito, Hisao.

    1984-01-01

    We studied atrophy of gray and white matter during aging in 57 males and 44 females with no neurological disturbances using x-ray computed tomography. The ages ranged from 12 to 80 years. Brain atrophy was expressed as brain volume index: 100% x [(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Atrophy of gray and white matter volume was expressed as gray and white matter volume indices: 100% x (apparent gray or white matter volume index in individual subjects)/(apparent gray or white matter volume index in normal subjects whose brain volume index was greater than 98%), where apparent gray and white matter volume indices were expressed as 100% x [(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Both the gray and white matter volume indices changed proportionally to the brain volume index (p<0.001). As the brain atrophy advanced, the gray matter volume index decreased more than the white matter volume index (P<0.001). Decrease in the gray and white matter volume indices was statistically significant only in seventies (P<0.002 for gray matter, P<0.05 for white matter). (author)

  11. Biomechanical implications of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy: a musculoskeletal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Vigotsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Muscle hypertrophy and atrophy occur frequently as a result of mechanical loading or unloading, with implications for clinical, general, and athletic populations. The effects of muscle hypertrophy and atrophy on force production and joint moments have been previously described. However, there is a paucity of research showing how hypertrophy and atrophy may affect moment arm (MA lengths. The purpose of this model was to describe the mathematical relationship between the anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA of a muscle and its MA length. In the model, the ACSAs of the biceps brachii and brachialis were altered to hypertrophy up to twice their original size and to atrophy to one-half of their original size. The change in MA length was found to be proportional to the arcsine of the square root of the change in ACSA. This change in MA length may be a small but important contributor to strength, especially in sports that require large joint moments at slow joint angular velocities, such as powerlifting. The paradoxical implications of the increase in MA are discussed, as physiological factors influencing muscle contraction velocity appear to favor a smaller MA length for high velocity movements but a larger muscle MA length for low velocity, high force movements.

  12. Leiomodin-3-deficient mice display nemaline myopathy with fast-myofiber atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Tian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nemaline myopathy (NM is one of the most common forms of congenital myopathy, and affects either fast myofibers, slow myofibers, or both. However, an animal model for congenital myopathy with fast-myofiber-specific atrophy is not available. Furthermore, mutations in the leiomodin-3 (LMOD3 gene have recently been identified in a group of individuals with NM. However, it is not clear how loss of LMOD3 leads to NM. Here, we report a mouse mutant in which the piggyBac (PB transposon is inserted into the Lmod3 gene and disrupts its expression. Lmod3PB/PB mice show severe muscle weakness and postnatal growth retardation. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies of the mutant skeletal muscles revealed the presence of nemaline bodies, a hallmark of NM, and disorganized sarcomeric structures. Interestingly, Lmod3 deficiency caused muscle atrophy specific to the fast fibers. Together, our results show that Lmod3 is required in the fast fibers for sarcomere integrity, and this study offers the first NM mouse model with muscle atrophy that is specific to fast fibers. This model could be a valuable resource for interrogating myopathy pathogenesis and developing therapeutics for NM as well as other pathophysiological conditions with preferential atrophy of fast fibers, including cancer cachexia and sarcopenia.

  13. Schisandrae Fructus Supplementation Ameliorates Sciatic Neurectomy-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Wan; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Sung Goo; Han, Min Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Cheol Min

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the possible beneficial skeletal muscle preserving effects of ethanol extract of Schisandrae Fructus (EESF) on sciatic neurectomy- (NTX-) induced hindlimb muscle atrophy in mice. Here, calf muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral right sciatic NTX. In order to investigate whether administration of EESF prevents or improves sciatic NTX-induced muscle atrophy, EESF was administered orally. Our results indicated that EESF dose-dependently diminished the decreases in markers of muscle mass and activity levels, and the increases in markers of muscle damage and fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokines, and apoptotic events in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles are induced by NTX. Additionally, destruction of gastrocnemius antioxidant defense systems after NTX was dose-dependently protected by treatment with EESF. EESF also upregulated muscle-specific mRNAs involved in muscle protein synthesis but downregulated those involved in protein degradation. The overall effects of 500 mg/kg EESF were similar to those of 50 mg/kg oxymetholone, but it showed more favorable antioxidant effects. The present results suggested that EESF exerts a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by NTX, through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects related to muscle fiber protective effects and via an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation. PMID:26064425

  14. A patient with posterior cortical atrophy possesses a novel mutation in the presenilin 1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia J Sitek

    Full Text Available Posterior cortical atrophy is a dementia syndrome with symptoms of cortical visual dysfunction, associated with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles predominantly affecting visual association cortex. Most patients diagnosed with posterior cortical atrophy will finally develop a typical Alzheimer's disease. However, there are a variety of neuropathological processes, which could lead towards a clinical presentation of posterior cortical atrophy. Mutations in the presenilin 1 gene, affecting the function of γ-secretase, are the most common genetic cause of familial, early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Here we present a patient with a clinical diagnosis of posterior cortical atrophy who harbors a novel Presenilin 1 mutation (I211M. In silico analysis predicts that the mutation could influence the interaction between presenilin 1 and presenilin1 enhancer-2 protein, a protein partner within the γ-secretase complex. These findings along with published literature support the inclusion of posterior cortical atrophy on the Alzheimer's disease spectrum.

  15. A Patient with Posterior Cortical Atrophy Possesses a Novel Mutation in the Presenilin 1 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Emilia J.; Narożańska, Ewa; Pepłońska, Beata; Filipek, Sławomir; Barczak, Anna; Styczyńska, Maria; Mlynarczyk, Krzysztof; Brockhuis, Bogna; Portelius, Erik; Religa, Dorota; Barcikowska, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy is a dementia syndrome with symptoms of cortical visual dysfunction, associated with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles predominantly affecting visual association cortex. Most patients diagnosed with posterior cortical atrophy will finally develop a typical Alzheimer's disease. However, there are a variety of neuropathological processes, which could lead towards a clinical presentation of posterior cortical atrophy. Mutations in the presenilin 1 gene, affecting the function of γ-secretase, are the most common genetic cause of familial, early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Here we present a patient with a clinical diagnosis of posterior cortical atrophy who harbors a novel Presenilin 1 mutation (I211M). In silico analysis predicts that the mutation could influence the interaction between presenilin 1 and presenilin1 enhancer-2 protein, a protein partner within the γ-secretase complex. These findings along with published literature support the inclusion of posterior cortical atrophy on the Alzheimer's disease spectrum. PMID:23593396

  16. p53 and ATF4 mediate distinct and additive pathways to skeletal muscle atrophy during limb immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Daniel K.; Ebert, Scott M.; Bongers, Kale S.; Dyle, Michael C.; Bullard, Steven A.; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Kunkel, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Immobilization causes skeletal muscle atrophy via complex signaling pathways that are not well understood. To better understand these pathways, we investigated the roles of p53 and ATF4, two transcription factors that mediate adaptations to a variety of cellular stresses. Using mouse models, we demonstrate that 3 days of muscle immobilization induces muscle atrophy and increases expression of p53 and ATF4. Furthermore, muscle fibers lacking p53 or ATF4 are partially resistant to immobilization-induced muscle atrophy, and forced expression of p53 or ATF4 induces muscle fiber atrophy in the absence of immobilization. Importantly, however, p53 and ATF4 do not require each other to promote atrophy, and coexpression of p53 and ATF4 induces more atrophy than either transcription factor alone. Moreover, muscle fibers lacking both p53 and ATF4 are more resistant to immobilization-induced atrophy than fibers lacking only p53 or ATF4. Interestingly, the independent and additive nature of the p53 and ATF4 pathways allows for combinatorial control of at least one downstream effector, p21. Using genome-wide mRNA expression arrays, we identified p21 mRNA as a skeletal muscle transcript that is highly induced in immobilized muscle via the combined actions of p53 and ATF4. Additionally, in mouse muscle, p21 induces atrophy in a manner that does not require immobilization, p53 or ATF4, and p21 is required for atrophy induced by immobilization, p53, and ATF4. Collectively, these results identify p53 and ATF4 as essential and complementary mediators of immobilization-induced muscle atrophy and discover p21 as a critical downstream effector of the p53 and ATF4 pathways. PMID:24895282

  17. Brief environmental enrichment elicits metaplasticity of hippocampal synaptic potentiation in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise eManahan-Vaughan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term environmental enrichment (EE elicits enduring effects on the adult brain, including altered synaptic plasticity. Synaptic plasticity may underlie memory formation and includes robust (>24h and weak (<2h forms of long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD. Most studies of the effect of EE on synaptic efficacy have examined the consequences of very prolonged EE-exposure. It is unclear whether brief exposure to EE can alter synaptic plasticity. Clarifying this issue could help develop strategies to address cognitive deficits arising from neglect in children or adults.We assessed whether short-term EE elicits alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and if social context may play a role. Adult mice were exposed to EE for 14 consecutive days. We found that robust late-LTP (>24h and short-term depression (<2h at Schaffer-collateral-CA1 synapses in freely behaving mice were unaltered, whereas early-LTP (E-LTP, <2h was significantly enhanced by EE. Effects were transient: E-LTP returned to control levels 1 week after cessation of EE. Six weeks later animals were re-exposed to EE for 14d. Under these conditions, E-LTP was facilitated into L-LTP (>24h, suggesting that metaplasticity was induced during the first EE experience and that EE-mediated modifications are cumulative. Effects were absent in mice that underwent solitary enrichment or were group-housed without EE. These data suggest that EE in naïve animals strengthens E-LTP, and also promotes L-LTP in animals that underwent EE in the past. This indicates that brief exposure to EE, particularly under social conditions can elicit lasting positive effects on synaptic strength that may have beneficial consequences for cognition that depends on synaptic plasticity.

  18. Cerebral atrophy as outcome measure in short-term phase 2 clinical trials in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elskamp, I.J. van den; Boden, B.; Barkhof, F. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dattola, V. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Messina, Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatric and Anaesthesiological Sciences, Messina (Italy); Knol, D.L. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Filippi, M. [Scientific Institute and University Ospedale San Raffaele, Neuroimaging Research Unit, Milan (Italy); Kappos, L. [University Hospital, University of Basel, Department of Neurology, Basel (Switzerland); Fazekas, F. [Medical University of Graz, Department of Neurology, Graz (Austria); Wagner, K. [Bayer-Schering Pharma, Berlin (Germany); Pohl, C. [Bayer-Schering Pharma, Berlin (Germany); University Hospital Bonn, Department of Neurology, Bonn (Germany); Sandbrink, R. [Bayer-Schering Pharma, Berlin (Germany); Heinrich-Heine-University Dusseldorf, Department of Neurology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Polman, C.H. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Uitdehaag, B.M.J. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    Cerebral atrophy is a compound measure of the neurodegenerative component of multiple sclerosis (MS) and a conceivable outcome measure for clinical trials monitoring the effect of neuroprotective agents. In this study, we evaluate the rate of cerebral atrophy in a 6-month period, investigate the predictive and explanatory value of other magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in relation to cerebral atrophy, and determine sample sizes for future short-term clinical trials using cerebral atrophy as primary outcome measure. One hundred thirty-five relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients underwent six monthly MRI scans from which the percentage brain volume change (PBVC) and the number and volume of gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing lesions, T2 lesions, and persistent black holes (PBH) were determined. By means of multiple linear regression analysis, the relationship between focal MRI variables and PBVC was assessed. Sample size calculations were performed for all patients and subgroups selected for enhancement or a high T2 lesion load at baseline. A significant atrophy occurred over 6 months (PBVC = -0.33%, SE = 0.061, p < 0.0001). The number of baseline T2 lesions (p = 0.024), the on-study Gd-enhancing lesion volume (p = 0.044), and the number of on-study PBHs (p = 0.003) were associated with an increased rate of atrophy. For a 50% decrease in rate of atrophy, the sample size calculations showed that approximately 283 patients per arm are required in an unselected sampled population and 185 patients per arm are required in a selected population. Within a 6-month period, significant atrophy can be detected and on-study associations of PBVC and PBHs emphasizes axonal loss to be a driving mechanism. Application as primary outcome measure in short-term clinical trials with feasible sample size requires a potent drug to obtain sufficient power. (orig.)

  19. Synaptic energy drives the information processing mechanisms in spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Laithy, Karim; Bogdan, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Flow of energy and free energy minimization underpins almost every aspect of naturally occurring physical mechanisms. Inspired by this fact this work establishes an energy-based framework that spans the multi-scale range of biological neural systems and integrates synaptic dynamic, synchronous spiking activity and neural states into one consistent working paradigm. Following a bottom-up approach, a hypothetical energy function is proposed for dynamic synaptic models based on the theoretical thermodynamic principles and the Hopfield networks. We show that a synapse exposes stable operating points in terms of its excitatory postsynaptic potential as a function of its synaptic strength. We postulate that synapses in a network operating at these stable points can drive this network to an internal state of synchronous firing. The presented analysis is related to the widely investigated temporal coherent activities (cell assemblies) over a certain range of time scales (binding-by-synchrony). This introduces a novel explanation of the observed (poly)synchronous activities within networks regarding the synaptic (coupling) functionality. On a network level the transitions from one firing scheme to the other express discrete sets of neural states. The neural states exist as long as the network sustains the internal synaptic energy.

  20. A neuromorphic implementation of multiple spike-timing synaptic plasticity rules for large-scale neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runchun Mark Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a neuromorphic implementation of multiple synaptic plasticity learning rules, which include both Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP and Spike Timing Dependent Delay Plasticity (STDDP. We present a fully digital implementation as well as a mixed-signal implementation, both of which use a novel dynamic-assignment time-multiplexing approach and support up to 2^26 (64M synaptic plasticity elements. Rather than implementing dedicated synapses for particular types of synaptic plasticity, we implemented a more generic synaptic plasticity adaptor array that is separate from the neurons in the neural network. Each adaptor performs synaptic plasticity according to the arrival times of the pre- and post-synaptic spikes assigned to it, and sends out a weighted and/or delayed pre-synaptic spike to the target synapse in the neural network. This strategy provides great flexibility for building complex large-scale neural networks, as a neural network can be configured for multiple synaptic plasticity rules without changing its structure. We validate the proposed neuromorphic implementations with measurement results and illustrate that the circuits are capable of performing both STDP and STDDP. We argue that it is practical to scale the work presented here up to 2^36 (64G synaptic adaptors on a current high-end FPGA platform.

  1. CT findings of cervical spondylosis associated with muscle atrophy in the upper extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Yasuyuki [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-11-01

    The shape, site and size of osteophytes in cervical spondylosis associated with muscle atrophy were studied by CT to know their relation with pathogenesis. Subjects were: muscle atrophy group (30 cases, 59.5-year-old in a mean, operation was performed on 26), spondylosis group (20, 60.0 year-old) and normal group (10, 60.2-year-old). Their cervical vertebral regions were subjected to the scout roentgenography, CT and myelography. Osteophytes were measured on the x-ray film copied from CT-monitoring image. In the muscle atrophy group, about the shape around vertebral foramen, the occipitofrontal diameter of vertebral canal was found larger than in spondylosis group. Osteophytes were often localized at the outer position of paramedian site, of which constriction was rather smaller. The shape of the vertebral arch was keen. Clinically, the muscle atrophy group was considered to be of myelosis under such conditions as having less affective lesion on spinal cord. (H.O.)

  2. Reduced modulation of scanpaths in response to task demands in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Pertzov, Yoni; Yong, Keir X X; Nicholas, Jennifer; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-02-01

    A difficulty in perceiving visual scenes is one of the most striking impairments experienced by patients with the clinico-radiological syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). However whilst a number of studies have investigated perception of relatively simple experimental stimuli in these individuals, little is known about multiple object and complex scene perception and the role of eye movements in posterior cortical atrophy. We embrace the distinction between high-level (top-down) and low-level (bottom-up) influences upon scanning eye movements when looking at scenes. This distinction was inspired by Yarbus (1967), who demonstrated how the location of our fixations is affected by task instructions and not only the stimulus' low level properties. We therefore examined how scanning patterns are influenced by task instructions and low-level visual properties in 7 patients with posterior cortical atrophy, 8 patients with typical Alzheimer's disease, and 19 healthy age-matched controls. Each participant viewed 10 scenes under four task conditions (encoding, recognition, search and description) whilst eye movements were recorded. The results reveal significant differences between groups in the impact of test instructions upon scanpaths. Across tasks without a search component, posterior cortical atrophy patients were significantly less consistent than typical Alzheimer's disease patients and controls in where they were looking. By contrast, when comparing search and non-search tasks, it was controls who exhibited lowest between-task similarity ratings, suggesting they were better able than posterior cortical atrophy or typical Alzheimer's disease patients to respond appropriately to high-level needs by looking at task-relevant regions of a scene. Posterior cortical atrophy patients had a significant tendency to fixate upon more low-level salient parts of the scenes than controls irrespective of the viewing task. The study provides a detailed characterisation of

  3. Cube propagation for focal brain atrophy estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru; Sørensen, Lauge; Darkner, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Precise and robust whole brain, ventricle, and hippocampal atrophy measurements are important as they serve as biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease. They are used as secondary outcomes in drug trials, and they correlate with the cognitive scores. When two successive scans are non-linearly aligned...

  4. Studies of cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shin

    1983-01-01

    Cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of 25 patients with Parkinson's disease were studied. The rCBF was measured with the intra-arterial Xe-133 injection method. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Sixty four % of Parkinson's disease patients showed ventricular dilation, and 76% of Parkinson's disease patients showed cortical atrophy on the CT scan, but we had to allow for the effects of the natural aging process on these results. 2) No correlation was recognized either between cerebral atrophy and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between cerebral atrophy and the duration of Parkinson's disease. 3) In Parkinson's disease patients, the mean rCBF was lower than that of normal control subjects. The difference was even more remarkable in older patients. Only 40% of Parkinson's disease patients showed hyperfrontal pattern. 4) There was no correlation either between the mean rCBF and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between the mean rCBF and the duration of Parkinson's disease. There was no significant difference between the mean rCBF of Parkinson's disease patients receiving levodopa and that of untreated patients. 5) The mean rCBF decreased in patients with cerebral atrophy on the CT scan. 6) Parkinson's disease patients with intellectual impairment showed cerebral atrophy and a remarkable decrease of the mean rCBF. 7) The effect of aging on cerebral atrophy on the CT scan had to be allowed for, but judging from the decrease of the mean rCBF, the cerebral cortex is evidently involved in Parkinson's disease. 8) The rCBF decline in Parkinson's disease patients may be related with the diminished cortical metabolic rate due to a remote effect of striatal dysfunction and a disturbance of mesocortical dopaminergic pathways. (J.P.N.)

  5. Studies of cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Shin [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo

    1983-04-01

    Cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of 25 patients with Parkinson's disease were studied. The rCBF was measured with the intra-arterial Xe-133 injection method. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Sixty four % of Parkinson's disease patients showed ventricular dilation, and 76% of Parkinson's disease patients showed cortical atrophy on the CT scan, but we had to allow for the effects of the natural aging process on these results. 2) No correlation was recognized either between cerebral atrophy and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between cerebral atrophy and the duration of Parkinson's disease. 3) In Parkinson's disease patients, the mean rCBF was lower than that of normal control subjects. The difference was even more remarkable in older patients. Only 40% of Parkinson's disease patients showed hyperfrontal pattern. 4) There was no correlation either between the mean rCBF and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between the mean rCBF and the duration of Parkinson's disease. There was no significant difference between the mean rCBF of Parkinson's disease patients receiving levodopa and that of untreated patients. 5) The mean rCBF decreased in patients with cerebral atrophy on the CT scan. 6) Parkinson's disease patients with intellectual impairment showed cerebral atrophy and a remarkable decrease of the mean rCBF. 7) The effect of aging on cerebral atrophy on the CT scan had to be allowed for, but judging from the decrease of the mean rCBF, the cerebral cortex is evidently involved in Parkinson's disease. 8) The rCBF decline in Parkinson's disease patients may be related with the diminished cortical metabolic rate due to a remote effect of striatal dysfunction and a disturbance of mesocortical dopaminergic pathways.

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy in senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Shoutai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Kitani, Mituhiro; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the reduction of cerebal blood flow and brain atrophy in SDAT, these were measured in 13 cases of senile dementia of Alzheimer type, and compared to 15 cases of multi-infarct Dementia, 39 cases of lacunar infarction without dementia (non-demented CVD group) and 69 cases of aged normal control. Brain atrophy was evaluated by two-dimensional method on CT film by digitizer and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by 133 Xe inhalation method. The degree of brain atrophy in SDAT was almost similar of that of MID. But it was more severe than that of non-demented group. MID showed the lowest rCBF among these groups. SDAT showed significantly lower rCBF than that of aged control, but rCBF in SDAT was equal to that of lacunar stroke without dementia. Focal reduction of cerebral blood flow in bilateral fronto-parietal and left occipital regions were observed in SDAT. Verbal intelligence score (Hasegawa's score) correlated with rCBF and brain atrophy index in MID, and a tendency of correlation between rCBF and brain atrophy in MID was also observed. However, there was no correlation among those indices in SDAT. These findings suggest that the loss of brain substance dose not correspond to the reduction of rCBF in SDAT and simultaneous measurement of rCBF and brain atrophy was useful to differ SDAT from MID. (author)

  7. Emergence of Functional Specificity in Balanced Networks with Synaptic Plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadra Sadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In rodent visual cortex, synaptic connections between orientation-selective neurons are unspecific at the time of eye opening, and become to some degree functionally specific only later during development. An explanation for this two-stage process was proposed in terms of Hebbian plasticity based on visual experience that would eventually enhance connections between neurons with similar response features. For this to work, however, two conditions must be satisfied: First, orientation selective neuronal responses must exist before specific recurrent synaptic connections can be established. Second, Hebbian learning must be compatible with the recurrent network dynamics contributing to orientation selectivity, and the resulting specific connectivity must remain stable for unspecific background activity. Previous studies have mainly focused on very simple models, where the receptive fields of neurons were essentially determined by feedforward mechanisms, and where the recurrent network was small, lacking the complex recurrent dynamics of large-scale networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Here we studied the emergence of functionally specific connectivity in large-scale recurrent networks with synaptic plasticity. Our results show that balanced random networks, which already exhibit highly selective responses at eye opening, can develop feature-specific connectivity if appropriate rules of synaptic plasticity are invoked within and between excitatory and inhibitory populations. If these conditions are met, the initial orientation selectivity guides the process of Hebbian learning and, as a result, functionally specific and a surplus of bidirectional connections emerge. Our results thus demonstrate the cooperation of synaptic plasticity and recurrent dynamics in large-scale functional networks with realistic receptive fields, highlight the role of inhibition as a critical element in this process, and paves the road for further computational

  8. Cerebral Cortex Regions Selectively Vulnerable to Radiation Dose-Dependent Atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, Tyler M.; Karunamuni, Roshan; Kaifi, Samar; Burkeen, Jeffrey; Connor, Michael [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Krishnan, Anitha Priya; White, Nathan S.; Farid, Nikdokht; Bartsch, Hauke [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Murzin, Vyacheslav [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Nguyen, Tanya T. [Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Brewer, James B. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); McDonald, Carrie R. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Dale, Anders M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A., E-mail: jhattangadi@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose and Objectives: Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. Methods and Materials: We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT. The study patients underwent high-resolution, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted; T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, FLAIR) before RT and 1 year afterward. Semiautomated software was used to segment anatomic regions of the cerebral cortex for each patient. Cortical thickness was measured for each region before RT and 1 year afterward. Two higher-order cortical regions of interest (ROIs) were tested for association between radiation dose and cortical thinning: entorhinal (memory) and inferior parietal (attention/memory). For comparison, 2 primary cortex ROIs were also tested: pericalcarine (vision) and paracentral lobule (somatosensory/motor). Linear mixed-effects analyses were used to test all other cortical regions for significant radiation dose-dependent thickness change. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05 using 2-tailed tests. Results: Cortical atrophy was significantly associated with radiation dose in the entorhinal (P=.01) and inferior parietal ROIs (P=.02). By contrast, no significant radiation dose-dependent effect was found in the primary cortex ROIs (pericalcarine and paracentral lobule). In the whole-cortex analysis, 9 regions showed significant radiation dose-dependent atrophy, including areas responsible for memory, attention, and executive function (P≤.002). Conclusions: Areas of cerebral cortex important for higher-order cognition may be most vulnerable to radiation-related atrophy. This is consistent with clinical observations

  9. Cerebral Cortex Regions Selectively Vulnerable to Radiation Dose-Dependent Atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, Tyler M.; Karunamuni, Roshan; Kaifi, Samar; Burkeen, Jeffrey; Connor, Michael; Krishnan, Anitha Priya; White, Nathan S.; Farid, Nikdokht; Bartsch, Hauke; Murzin, Vyacheslav; Nguyen, Tanya T.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Brewer, James B.; McDonald, Carrie R.; Dale, Anders M.; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose and Objectives: Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. Methods and Materials: We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT. The study patients underwent high-resolution, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted; T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, FLAIR) before RT and 1 year afterward. Semiautomated software was used to segment anatomic regions of the cerebral cortex for each patient. Cortical thickness was measured for each region before RT and 1 year afterward. Two higher-order cortical regions of interest (ROIs) were tested for association between radiation dose and cortical thinning: entorhinal (memory) and inferior parietal (attention/memory). For comparison, 2 primary cortex ROIs were also tested: pericalcarine (vision) and paracentral lobule (somatosensory/motor). Linear mixed-effects analyses were used to test all other cortical regions for significant radiation dose-dependent thickness change. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05 using 2-tailed tests. Results: Cortical atrophy was significantly associated with radiation dose in the entorhinal (P=.01) and inferior parietal ROIs (P=.02). By contrast, no significant radiation dose-dependent effect was found in the primary cortex ROIs (pericalcarine and paracentral lobule). In the whole-cortex analysis, 9 regions showed significant radiation dose-dependent atrophy, including areas responsible for memory, attention, and executive function (P≤.002). Conclusions: Areas of cerebral cortex important for higher-order cognition may be most vulnerable to radiation-related atrophy. This is consistent with clinical observations

  10. A novel cortical target to enhance hand motor output in humans with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jinyi; Federico, Paolo; Perez, Monica A

    2017-06-01

    A main goal of rehabilitation strategies in humans with spinal cord injury is to strengthen transmission in spared neural networks. Although neuromodulatory strategies have targeted different sites within the central nervous system to restore motor function following spinal cord injury, the role of cortical targets remain poorly understood. Here, we use 180 pairs of transcranial magnetic stimulation for ∼30 min over the hand representation of the motor cortex at an interstimulus interval mimicking the rhythmicity of descending late indirect (I) waves in corticospinal neurons (4.3 ms; I-wave protocol) or at an interstimulus interval in-between I-waves (3.5 ms; control protocol) on separate days in a randomized order. Late I-waves are thought to arise from trans-synaptic cortical inputs and have a crucial role in the recruitment of spinal motor neurons following spinal cord injury. Motor evoked potentials elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation, paired-pulse intracortical inhibition, spinal motor neuron excitability (F-waves), index finger abduction force and electromyographic activity as well as a hand dexterity task were measured before and after both protocols in 15 individuals with chronic incomplete cervical spinal cord injury and 17 uninjured participants. We found that motor evoked potentials size increased in spinal cord injury and uninjured participants after the I-wave but not the control protocol for ∼30 to 60 min after the stimulation. Intracortical inhibition decreased and F-wave amplitude and persistence increased after the I-wave but not the control protocol, suggesting that cortical and subcortical networks contributed to changes in corticospinal excitability. Importantly, hand motor output and hand dexterity increased in individuals with spinal cord injury after the I-wave protocol. These results provide the first evidence that late synaptic input to corticospinal neurons may represent a novel therapeutic target for improving motor function

  11. Synaptic activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through different recycling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ning; Jeyifous, Okunola; Munro, Charlotte; Montgomery, Johanna M; Green, William N

    2015-01-01

    Changes in glutamatergic synaptic strength in brain are dependent on AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) recycling, which is assumed to occur through a single local pathway. In this study, we present evidence that AMPAR recycling occurs through different pathways regulated by synaptic activity. Without synaptic stimulation, most AMPARs recycled in dynamin-independent endosomes containing the GTPase, Arf6. Few AMPARs recycled in dynamin-dependent endosomes labeled by transferrin receptors (TfRs). AMPAR recycling was blocked by alterations in the GTPase, TC10, which co-localized with Arf6 endosomes. TC10 mutants that reduced AMPAR recycling had no effect on increased AMPAR levels with long-term potentiation (LTP) and little effect on decreased AMPAR levels with long-term depression. However, internalized AMPAR levels in TfR-containing recycling endosomes increased after LTP, indicating increased AMPAR recycling through the dynamin-dependent pathway with synaptic plasticity. LTP-induced AMPAR endocytosis is inconsistent with local recycling as a source of increased surface receptors, suggesting AMPARs are trafficked from other sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06878.001 PMID:25970033

  12. Activity-dependent modulation of neural circuit synaptic connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Tessier

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In many nervous systems, the establishment of neural circuits is known to proceed via a two-stage process; 1 early, activity-independent wiring to produce a rough map characterized by excessive synaptic connections, and 2 subsequent, use-dependent pruning to eliminate inappropriate connections and reinforce maintained synapses. In invertebrates, however, evidence of the activity-dependent phase of synaptic refinement has been elusive, and the dogma has long been that invertebrate circuits are “hard-wired” in a purely activity-independent manner. This conclusion has been challenged recently through the use of new transgenic tools employed in the powerful Drosophila system, which have allowed unprecedented temporal control and single neuron imaging resolution. These recent studies reveal that activity-dependent mechanisms are indeed required to refine circuit maps in Drosophila during precise, restricted windows of late-phase development. Such mechanisms of circuit refinement may be key to understanding a number of human neurological diseases, including developmental disorders such as Fragile X syndrome (FXS and autism, which are hypothesized to result from defects in synaptic connectivity and activity-dependent circuit function. This review focuses on our current understanding of activity-dependent synaptic connectivity in Drosophila, primarily through analyzing the role of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP in the Drosophila FXS disease model. The particular emphasis of this review is on the expanding array of new genetically-encoded tools that are allowing cellular events and molecular players to be dissected with ever greater precision and detail.

  13. The Role of Co-chaperones in Synaptic Proteostasis and Neurodegenerative Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L. Gorenberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Synapses must be preserved throughout an organism's lifespan to allow for normal brain function and behavior. Synapse maintenance is challenging given the long distances between the termini and the cell body, reliance on axonal transport for delivery of newly synthesized presynaptic proteins, and high rates of synaptic vesicle exo- and endocytosis. Hence, synapses rely on efficient proteostasis mechanisms to preserve their structure and function. To this end, the synaptic compartment has specific chaperones to support its functions. Without proper synaptic chaperone activity, local proteostasis imbalances lead to neurotransmission deficits, dismantling of synapses, and neurodegeneration. In this review, we address the roles of four synaptic chaperones in the maintenance of the nerve terminal, as well as their genetic links to neurodegenerative disease. Three of these are Hsp40 co-chaperones (DNAJs: Cysteine String Protein alpha (CSPα; DNAJC5, auxilin (DNAJC6, and Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis 8 (RME-8; DNAJC13. These co-chaperones contain a conserved J domain through which they form a complex with heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70, enhancing the chaperone's ATPase activity. CSPα is a synaptic vesicle protein known to chaperone the t-SNARE SNAP-25 and the endocytic GTPase dynamin-1, thereby regulating synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis. Auxilin binds assembled clathrin cages, and through its interactions with Hsc70 leads to the uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles, a process necessary for the regeneration of synaptic vesicles. RME-8 is a co-chaperone on endosomes and may have a role in clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis on this organelle. These three co-chaperones maintain client function by preserving folding and assembly to prevent client aggregation, but they do not break down aggregates that have already formed. The fourth synaptic chaperone we will discuss is Heat shock protein 110 (Hsp110, which interacts with Hsc70, DNAJAs, and

  14. Evaluation on levator ani muscle injuries after vaginal delivery with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yi; Gong Shuigen; Zhang Weiguo; Chen Jinhua; Tan Yong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the MRI finding of female normal levator ani muscle and the levator ani muscle injuries and to evaluate the correlation between childbirth and levator ani muscle injuries. Methods: One hundred asymptomatic nulliparous women (control group) and 200 vaginally primiparous women (study group) were selected as the object of this study. Moreover, the study group was divided into two subgroups: group A (100 cases) with stress incontinence, group B (100 cases) without clinical symptoms. Multiplanar proton density magnetic resonance images were obtained at 0.5 cm intervals from these study individuals. All images were used to analyze the differentiation of MRI features between normal levator ani muscle and levator ani muscle injuries. Results: No levator ani injuries were identified in the control group. Fifty-four primiparous women (27%) had visible injuries in their levator ani muscles, 42 in group A and 12 in group B. Injuries were identified in the puborectalis muscle in 49 cases and in the iliococcygeus muscle in 5 cases(χ 2 =41.447, P<0.01). Within the puborectalis muscle, both unilateral and bilateral partial defects were usually found. Iliococcygeus injuries showed that the iliococcygeus muscle was atrophied in MR images. Conclusion: Vaginal delivery was an important cause of the levator ani muscle injuries which could result in pelvic floor dysfunction and pelvic organs prolapsed. MRI was an effective examination method of the levator ani muscle injuries. (authors)

  15. Synaptic scaling enables dynamically distinct short- and long-term memory formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Tetzlaff

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Memory storage in the brain relies on mechanisms acting on time scales from minutes, for long-term synaptic potentiation, to days, for memory consolidation. During such processes, neural circuits distinguish synapses relevant for forming a long-term storage, which are consolidated, from synapses of short-term storage, which fade. How time scale integration and synaptic differentiation is simultaneously achieved remains unclear. Here we show that synaptic scaling - a slow process usually associated with the maintenance of activity homeostasis - combined with synaptic plasticity may simultaneously achieve both, thereby providing a natural separation of short- from long-term storage. The interaction between plasticity and scaling provides also an explanation for an established paradox where memory consolidation critically depends on the exact order of learning and recall. These results indicate that scaling may be fundamental for stabilizing memories, providing a dynamic link between early and late memory formation processes.

  16. Synaptic scaling enables dynamically distinct short- and long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzlaff, Christian; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Tsodyks, Misha; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2013-10-01

    Memory storage in the brain relies on mechanisms acting on time scales from minutes, for long-term synaptic potentiation, to days, for memory consolidation. During such processes, neural circuits distinguish synapses relevant for forming a long-term storage, which are consolidated, from synapses of short-term storage, which fade. How time scale integration and synaptic differentiation is simultaneously achieved remains unclear. Here we show that synaptic scaling - a slow process usually associated with the maintenance of activity homeostasis - combined with synaptic plasticity may simultaneously achieve both, thereby providing a natural separation of short- from long-term storage. The interaction between plasticity and scaling provides also an explanation for an established paradox where memory consolidation critically depends on the exact order of learning and recall. These results indicate that scaling may be fundamental for stabilizing memories, providing a dynamic link between early and late memory formation processes.

  17. Isolated atrophy of the abductor digiti quinti in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Fernandes de Mello, Ricardo; Garcia Rondina, Ronaldo; Valim, Valeria; Santos Belisario, Stephano; Batista, Elton Francisco [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Department of Internal Medicine, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Burgomeister Lourenco, Rafael [HUCAM/UFES, Division of Medical Imaging, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Duque, Ruben Horst [HUCAM/UFES, Division of Rheumatology, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We aim to discuss the association of isolated atrophy of the abductor digiti quinti muscle in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as review the anatomy and imaging findings of this condition on MRI. A consecutive series of 55 patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis according to the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria were recruited. MRI of the clinically dominant feet was performed using a 1.5-T scanner. The study population was predominantly female (94.5%), and the age range was 31-79 years (mean 57.5 ± 11). A total of 55 ankles were examined by MRI, and 20 patients (36.3%), all females, showed abductor digiti quinti denervation signs. Seven patients demonstrated severe fatty atrophy of the abductor digiti quinti, corresponding to Goutallier grade 4, 2 patients showed moderate fatty atrophy (Goutallier grade 3), and the remaining 11 patients showed less than 50% fatty atrophy, corresponding to a Goutallier grade 2. Substantial agreement was found for both intra- and interobserver agreement regarding the Goutallier grading system. Prevalence of signs of abductor digiti quinti denervation on MRI was high in the studied population, suggesting that rheumatoid arthritis may be associated with inferior calcaneal nerve compression. (orig.)

  18. Isolated atrophy of the abductor digiti quinti in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Fernandes de Mello, Ricardo; Garcia Rondina, Ronaldo; Valim, Valeria; Santos Belisario, Stephano; Batista, Elton Francisco; Burgomeister Lourenco, Rafael; Duque, Ruben Horst

    2017-01-01

    We aim to discuss the association of isolated atrophy of the abductor digiti quinti muscle in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as review the anatomy and imaging findings of this condition on MRI. A consecutive series of 55 patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis according to the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria were recruited. MRI of the clinically dominant feet was performed using a 1.5-T scanner. The study population was predominantly female (94.5%), and the age range was 31-79 years (mean 57.5 ± 11). A total of 55 ankles were examined by MRI, and 20 patients (36.3%), all females, showed abductor digiti quinti denervation signs. Seven patients demonstrated severe fatty atrophy of the abductor digiti quinti, corresponding to Goutallier grade 4, 2 patients showed moderate fatty atrophy (Goutallier grade 3), and the remaining 11 patients showed less than 50% fatty atrophy, corresponding to a Goutallier grade 2. Substantial agreement was found for both intra- and interobserver agreement regarding the Goutallier grading system. Prevalence of signs of abductor digiti quinti denervation on MRI was high in the studied population, suggesting that rheumatoid arthritis may be associated with inferior calcaneal nerve compression. (orig.)

  19. Education amplifies brain atrophy effect on cognitive decline: implications for cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Dan; Gavett, Brandon; Fletcher, Evan; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; DeCarli, Charles; Reed, Bruce

    2018-08-01

    Level of education is often regarded as a proxy for cognitive reserve in older adults. This implies that brain degeneration has a smaller effect on cognitive decline in those with more education, but this has not been directly tested in previous research. We examined how education, quantitative magnetic resonance imaging-based measurement of brain degeneration, and their interaction affect cognitive decline in diverse older adults spanning the spectrum from normal cognition to dementia. Gray matter atrophy was strongly related to cognitive decline. While education was not related to cognitive decline, brain atrophy had a stronger effect on cognitive decline in those with more education. Importantly, high education was associated with slower decline in individuals with lesser atrophy but with faster decline in those with greater atrophy. This moderation effect was observed in Hispanics (who had high heterogeneity of education) but not in African-Americans or Caucasians. These results suggest that education is an indicator of cognitive reserve in individuals with low levels of brain degeneration, but the protective effect of higher education is rapidly depleted as brain degeneration progresses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Normalized regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivadinov, Robert; Locatelli, Laura; Stival, Barbara; Bratina, Alessio; Nasuelli, Davide; Zorzon, Marino; Grop, Attilio; Brnabic-Razmilic, Ozana

    2003-01-01

    There is still a controversy regarding the best regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) studies. The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlate better with the MRI-defined regional brain lesions than the absolute measurements of regional brain atrophy. We assessed 45 patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS (median disease duration 12 years), and measured T1-lesion load (LL) and T2-LL of frontal lobes and pons, using a reproducible semi-automated technique. The regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of frontal lobes and pons was obtained by use of a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semi-automated and automated segmentation processes. A normalized measurement, the regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF), was calculated as the ratio of RBPV to the total volume of the parenchyma and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons. The total regional brain volume fraction (TRBVF) was obtained after we had corrected for the total volume of the parenchyma and the CSF in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons for the total intracranial volume. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for RBPF of the pons was 1% for intra-observer reproducibility and 1.4% for inter-observer reproducibility. Generally, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlated with regional brain volumes and disability better than did the absolute measurements. RBPF and TRBVF correlated with T2-LL of the pons (r=-0.37, P=0.011, and r= -0.40, P=0.0005 respectively) and with T1-LL of the pons (r=-0.27, P=0.046, and r=-0.31, P=0.04, respectively), whereas RBPV did not (r=-0.18, P = NS). T1-LL of the frontal lobes was related to RBPF (r=-0.32, P=0.033) and TRBVF (r=-0.29, P=0.05), but not to RBPV (R=-0.27, P= NS). There was only a trend of correlation between T2-LL of the frontal lobes and

  1. Synaptic proteins and receptors defects in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling eChen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have found that hundreds of genetic variants, including common and rare variants, rare and de novo mutations, and common polymorphisms have contributed to the occurrence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. The mutations in a number of genes such as neurexin, neuroligin, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95, SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3, synapsin, gephyrin, cadherin (CDH and protocadherin (PCDH, thousand-and-one-amino acid 2 kinase (TAOK2, and contactin (CNTN, have been shown to play important roles in the development and function of synapses. In addition, synaptic receptors, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors and glutamate receptors, have also been associated with ASDs. This review will primarily focus on the defects of synaptic proteins and receptors associated with ASDs and their roles in the pathogenesis of ASDs via synaptic pathways.

  2. Synaptic model for spontaneous activity in developing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerchner, Alexander; Rinzel, J.

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous rhythmic activity occurs in many developing neural networks. The activity in these hyperexcitable networks is comprised of recurring "episodes" consisting of "cycles" of high activity that alternate with "silent phases" with little or no activity. We introduce a new model of synaptic...... dynamics that takes into account that only a fraction of the vesicles stored in a synaptic terminal is readily available for release. We show that our model can reproduce spontaneous rhythmic activity with the same general features as observed in experiments, including a positive correlation between...

  3. Clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of spinal muscular atrophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    Deletion;. Chromosome 5;. Mutations. Abstract Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by progressive hypotonia and muscular weakness because of progressive degeneration of alpha motor neuron from anterior horn cells in the spinal cord. It is inherited by an autosomal recessive pattern. The precise frequency of ...

  4. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreesen, JCFM; Bras, M; de Die-Smulders, C; Dumoulin, JCM; Cobben, JM; Evers, JLH; Smeets, HJM; Geraedts, JPM

    After Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common severe neuromuscular disease in childhood. Since 1995, homozygous deletions in exon 7 of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene have been described in >90-95% of SMA patients. However, the presence of a highly

  5. Learning Structure of Sensory Inputs with Synaptic Plasticity Leads to Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eChrol-Cannon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity is often explored as a form of unsupervised adaptationin cortical microcircuits to learn the structure of complex sensoryinputs and thereby improve performance of classification and prediction. The question of whether the specific structure of the input patterns is encoded in the structure of neural networks has been largely neglected. Existing studies that have analyzed input-specific structural adaptation have used simplified, synthetic inputs in contrast to complex and noisy patterns found in real-world sensory data.In this work, input-specific structural changes are analyzed forthree empirically derived models of plasticity applied to three temporal sensory classification tasks that include complex, real-world visual and auditory data. Two forms of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP and the Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM plasticity rule are used to adapt the recurrent network structure during the training process before performance is tested on the pattern recognition tasks.It is shown that synaptic adaptation is highly sensitive to specific classes of input pattern. However, plasticity does not improve the performance on sensory pattern recognition tasks, partly due to synaptic interference between consecutively presented input samples. The changes in synaptic strength produced by one stimulus are reversed by thepresentation of another, thus largely preventing input-specific synaptic changes from being retained in the structure of the network.To solve the problem of interference, we suggest that models of plasticitybe extended to restrict neural activity and synaptic modification to a subset of the neural circuit, which is increasingly found to be the casein experimental neuroscience.

  6. Additional corpus biopsy enhances the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in a background of gastritis with atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The best sites for biopsy-based tests to evaluate H. pylori infection in gastritis with atrophy are not well known. This study aimed to evaluate the site and sensitivity of biopsy-based tests in terms of degree of gastritis with atrophy. Methods One hundred and sixty-four (164) uninvestigated dyspepsia patients were enrolled. Biopsy-based tests (i.e., culture, histology Giemsa stain and rapid urease test) and non-invasive tests (anti-H. pylori IgG) were performed. The gold standard of H. pylori infection was defined according to previous criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive rate and negative predictive rate of biopsy-based tests at the gastric antrum and body were calculated in terms of degree of gastritis with atrophy. Results The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in the 164 patients was 63.4%. Gastritis with atrophy was significantly higher at the antrum than at the body (76% vs. 31%; pgastritis with atrophy increased regardless of biopsy site (for normal, mild, moderate, and severe gastritis with atrophy, the sensitivity of histology Giemsa stain was 100%, 100%, 88%, and 66%, respectively, and 100%, 97%, 91%, and 66%, respectively, for rapid urease test). In moderate to severe antrum or body gastritis with atrophy, additional corpus biopsy resulted in increased sensitivity to 16.67% compare to single antrum biopsy. Conclusions In moderate to severe gastritis with atrophy, biopsy-based test should include the corpus for avoiding false negative results. PMID:23272897

  7. Autofluorescence Lifetimes in Geographic Atrophy in Patients With Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Chantal; Wolf, Sebastian; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2016-05-01

    To investigate fluorescence lifetime characteristics in patients with geographic atrophy (GA) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration and to correlate the measurements with clinical data and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings. Patients with GA were imaged with a fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope. Retinal autofluorescence lifetimes were measured in a short and a long spectral channel (498-560 nm and 560-720 nm). Mean retinal fluorescence lifetimes were analyzed within GA and the surrounding retina, and data were correlated with best corrected visual acuity and OCT measurements. Fluorescence lifetime maps of 41 eyes of 41 patients (80 ± 7 years) with GA were analyzed. Mean lifetimes within areas of atrophy were prolonged by 624 ± 276 ps (+152%) in the short spectral channel and 418 ± 186 ps (+83%) in the long spectral channel compared to the surrounding tissue. Autofluorescence lifetime abnormalities in GA occurred with particular patterns, similar to those seen in fundus autofluorescence intensity images. Within the fovea short mean autofluorescence lifetimes were observed, presumably representing macular pigment. Short lifetimes were preserved even in the absence of foveal sparing but were decreased in patients with advanced retinal atrophy in OCT. Short lifetimes in the fovea correlated with better best corrected visual acuity in both spectral channels. This study established that autofluorescence lifetime changes in GA present with explicit patterns. We hypothesize that the short lifetimes seen within the atrophy may be used to estimate damage induced by atrophy and to monitor disease progression in the context of natural history or interventional therapeutic studies.

  8. Precuneus atrophy in early-onset Alzheimer's disease: a morphometric structural MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas, Giorgos; Scheltens, Philip; Jones, Bethany; Rombouts, Serge; Schijndel, Ronald van; Klein, Martin; Flier, Wiesje van der; Vrenken, Hugo; Barkhof, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) usually first presents in elderly patients, but may also develop at an earlier age. Patients with an early age at onset tend to present with complaints other than memory impairment, such as visuospatial problems or apraxia, which may reflect a different distribution of cortical involvement. In this study we set out to investigate whether age at onset in patients with AD determines the pattern of atrophy on cerebral MRI scans. We examined 55 patients with AD over a wide age range and analyzed their 3-D T1-weighted structural MRI scans in standard space using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Regression analysis was performed to estimate loss of grey matter as a function of age, corrected for mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores and sex. The VBM analyses identified multiple areas (including the temporal and parietal lobes), showing more atrophy with advancing age. By contrast, a younger age at onset was found to be associated with lower grey matter density in the precuneus. Regionalized volumetric analysis of this region confirmed the existence of disproportionate atrophy in the precuneus in patients with early-onset AD. Application of a multivariate model with precuneus grey matter density as input, showed that precuneal and hippocampal atrophy are independent from each other. Additionally, we found that a smaller precuneus is associated with impaired visuospatial functioning. Our findings support the notion that age at onset modulates the distribution of cortical involvement, and that disproportionate precuneus atrophy is more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset. (orig.)

  9. Common mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in vertebrates and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzman, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, the literature on learning-related synaptic plasticity in invertebrates has been dominated by models assuming plasticity is mediated by presynaptic changes, whereas the vertebrate literature has been dominated by models assuming it is mediated by postsynaptic changes. Here I will argue that this situation does not reflect a biological reality and that, in fact, invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems share a common set of mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. PMID:20152143

  10. Organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Chang Jin; Wan, Qing; Zhu, Li Qiang; Wan, Xiang; Shi, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The idea of building a brain-inspired cognitive system has been around for several decades. Recently, electric-double-layer transistors gated by ion conducting electrolytes were reported as the promising candidates for synaptic electronics and neuromorphic system. In this letter, indium-zinc-oxide transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose electrolyte films were experimentally demonstrated with synaptic plasticity including paired-pulse facilitation and spatiotemporal-correlated dynamic logic. More importantly, a model based on proton-related electric-double-layer modulation and stretched-exponential decay function was proposed, and the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimentally measured synaptic behaviors

  11. Organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Chang Jin; Wan, Qing, E-mail: wanqing@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wan, Xiang; Shi, Yi, E-mail: wanqing@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-01-25

    The idea of building a brain-inspired cognitive system has been around for several decades. Recently, electric-double-layer transistors gated by ion conducting electrolytes were reported as the promising candidates for synaptic electronics and neuromorphic system. In this letter, indium-zinc-oxide transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose electrolyte films were experimentally demonstrated with synaptic plasticity including paired-pulse facilitation and spatiotemporal-correlated dynamic logic. More importantly, a model based on proton-related electric-double-layer modulation and stretched-exponential decay function was proposed, and the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimentally measured synaptic behaviors.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakudo, Miyuki; Inoue, Yuichi; Fukuda, Teruo

    1988-01-01

    Forty-three MR examinations of 30 patients with spinal cord injuries were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate MR findings of the injured cord and to correlate them with the time interval from the day of spinal cord injury. There were 18 cysts, 8 ''myelomalacias'', 2 cord atrophies, one intramedullary hematoma and two transections. In one patient, ''myelomalacia'' became a cyst on the follow-up study. Large cysts of more than 6 vertebral segments were found in 7 patients, all of whom had had trauma more than 5 years prior to examination. Small cysts of less than half a vertebral height were seen in 5 patients, all of whom were studied 3 to 6 months after the injury. Intermediate cysts were seen in 7 patients who had sustained trauma more than a year before. In a majority (13/14 scans) of ''myelomalacia'', the time interval from injury until examination was only 2 weeks to 6 months. Of the 14 patients who showed post-traumatic progressive myelopathy, seven had large cysts. It is known that intramedullary hematoma becomes a cyst, and that post-traumatic myelomalacia probably results in a cyst in animal studies. Our clinical study seems to support a strong causal relation between myelomalacia and post-traumatic cysts. Since post-traumatic progressive myelopathy with a cyst is surgically treatable, follow-up MR imaging is preferable in cases with myelomalacia. (author)

  13. Advancing functional dysconnectivity and atrophy in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse A. Brown

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSP-S results from neurodegeneration within a network of brainstem, subcortical, frontal and parietal cortical brain regions. It is unclear how network dysfunction progresses and relates to longitudinal atrophy and clinical decline. In this study, we evaluated patients with PSP-S (n = 12 and healthy control subjects (n = 20 at baseline and 6 months later. Subjects underwent structural MRI and task-free functional MRI (tf-fMRI scans and clinical evaluations at both time points. At baseline, voxel based morphometry (VBM revealed that patients with mild-to-moderate clinical symptoms showed structural atrophy in subcortex and brainstem, prefrontal cortex (PFC; supplementary motor area, paracingulate, dorsal and ventral medial PFC, and parietal cortex (precuneus. Tf-fMRI functional connectivity (FC was examined in a rostral midbrain tegmentum (rMT-anchored intrinsic connectivity network that is compromised in PSP-S. In healthy controls, this network contained a medial parietal module, a prefrontal-paralimbic module, and a subcortical-brainstem module. Baseline FC deficits in PSP-S were most severe in rMT network integrative hubs in the prefrontal-paralimbic and subcortical-brainstem modules. Longitudinally, patients with PSP-S had declining intermodular FC between the subcortical-brainstem and parietal modules, while progressive atrophy was observed in subcortical-brainstem regions (midbrain, pallidum and posterior frontal (perirolandic cortex. This suggested that later-stage subcortical-posterior cortical change may follow an earlier-stage subcortical-anterior cortical disease process. Clinically, patients with more severe baseline impairment showed greater subsequent prefrontal-parietal cortical FC declines and posterior frontal atrophy rates, while patients with more rapid longitudinal clinical decline showed coupled prefrontal-paralimbic FC decline. VBM and FC can augment disease monitoring in PSP

  14. Cortical volumes and atrophy rates in FTD-3 CHMP2B mutation carriers and related non-carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon F; Østergaard, Lasse R; Rodell, Anders B

    2008-01-01

    with a mean interval of 16 months and surface based cortical segmentation we measured cortical thickness and volume, and quantified atrophy rates. Cortical thickness and atrophy rates were averaged within major lobes and focal effects were determined by parametric statistical maps. The volumetric atrophy...... in the frontal and occipital lobes, and in the left temporal lobe. Results indicated that cortical thickness has a higher sensitivity for detecting small changes than whole-brain volumetric measures. Comparing mutation carriers with non-carriers revealed increased atrophy rates in mutation carriers bilaterally...

  15. Mapping synaptic pathology within cerebral cortical circuits in subjects with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sweet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Converging lines of evidence indicate that schizophrenia is characterized by impairments of synaptic machinery within cerebral cortical circuits. Efforts to localize these alterations in brain tissue from subjects with schizophrenia have frequently been limited to the quantification of structures that are non-selectively identified (e.g. dendritic spines labeled in Golgi preparations, axon boutons labeled with synaptophysin, or to quantification of proteins using methods unable to resolve relevant cellular compartments. Multiple label fluorescence confocal microscopy represents a means to circumvent many of these limitations, by concurrently extracting information regarding the number, morphology, and relative protein content of synaptic structures. An important adaptation required for studies of human disease is coupling this approach to stereologic methods for systematic random sampling of relevant brain regions. In this review article we consider the application of multiple label fluorescence confocal microscopy to the mapping of synaptic alterations in subjects with schizophrenia and describe the application of a novel, readily automated, iterative intensity/morphological segmentation algorithm for the extraction of information regarding synaptic structure number, size, and relative protein level from tissue sections obtained using unbiased stereological principles of sampling. In this context, we provide examples of the examination of pre- and post-synaptic structures within excitatory and inhibitory circuits of the cerebral cortex.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kendall R.; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in significant disability due to cognitive deficits particularly in attention, learning and memory, and higher-order executive functions. The role of TBI in chronic neurodegeneration and the development of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and most recently chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is of particular importance. However, despite significant effort very few therapeutic options exist to prevent or reverse cognitive impairment following TBI. In this review, we present experimental evidence of the known secondary injury mechanisms which contribute to neuronal cell loss, axonal injury, and synaptic dysfunction and hence cognitive impairment both acutely and chronically following TBI. In particular we focus on the mechanisms linking TBI to the development of two forms of dementia: AD and CTE. We provide evidence of potential molecular mechanisms involved in modulating Aβ and Tau following TBI and provide evidence of the role of these mechanisms in AD pathology. Additionally we propose a mechanism by which Aβ generated as a direct result of TBI is capable of exacerbating secondary injury mechanisms thereby establishing a neurotoxic cascade that leads to chronic neurodegeneration. PMID:23847533

  17. Molecular mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kendall R; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in significant disability due to cognitive deficits particularly in attention, learning and memory, and higher-order executive functions. The role of TBI in chronic neurodegeneration and the development of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and most recently chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is of particular importance. However, despite significant effort very few therapeutic options exist to prevent or reverse cognitive impairment following TBI. In this review, we present experimental evidence of the known secondary injury mechanisms which contribute to neuron