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Sample records for injection practices explain

  1. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes.

  2. Strategies and challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Shankar, P Ravi; Kumar, Kc Vikash

    2013-01-01

    Injection is one of the important health care procedures used globally to administer drugs. Its unsafe use can transmit various blood borne pathogens. This article aims to review the history and status of injection practices, its importance, interventions and the challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries. The history of injections started with the discovery of syringe in the early nineteenth century. Safe injection practice in developed countries was initiated in the early twentieth century but has not received adequate attention in developing countries. The establishment of "Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN)" was an milestone towards safe injection practice globally. In developing countries, people perceive injection as a powerful healing tool and do not hesitate to pay more for injections. Unsafe disposal and reuse of contaminated syringe is common. Ensuring safe injection practice is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare system in developing countries. To address the problem, interventions with active involvement of a number of stakeholders is essential. A combination of educational, managerial and regulatory strategies is found to be effective and economically viable. Rational and safe use of injections can save many lives but unsafe practice threatens life. Safe injection practice is crucial in developing countries. Evidence based interventions, with honest commitment and participation from the service provider, recipient and community with aid of policy makers are required to ensure safe injection practice.

  3. Injection safety practices in a main referral hospital in northeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-25

    Mar 25, 2013 ... phlebotomist in 27 units/wards of the hospital. The study instruments were ... Key words: Injection waste management, safe injections practices, tertiary health care facility ..... Table 4: Indicators reflecting risk to the provider at.

  4. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Susan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%, HCV (6.5%, and HIV (2.6% infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500, the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85% of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60 reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60, 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53% of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe

  5. Forum for injection techniques, India: The first Indian recommendations for best practice in insulin injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the treatment of diabetes have led to an increase in the number of injectable therapies, such as human insulin, insulin analogues, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues. The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique, among many other factors. Good injection technique is vital in achieving glycemic control and thus preventing complications of diabetes. From the patients′ and health-care providers′ perspective, it is essential to have guidelines to understand injections and injection techniques. The abridged version of the First Indian Insulin Injection technique guidelines developed by the Forum for Injection Technique (FIT India presented here acknowledge good insulin injection techniques and provide evidence-based recommendations to assist diabetes care providers in improving their clinical practice.

  6. Translating the research in insulin injection technique: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel-Berzin, Rita; Cypress, Marjorie; Gibney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Glucose variability leading to suboptimal glycemic control is common among people using injection therapies. Advanced technology and new studies have identified important issues related to injection technique: needle length and gauge, body mass index, skin and subcutaneous tissue thickness, adequate resuspension of cloudy insulins, leakage, choice of injection site and rotation, pinching a skinfold, and lipohypertrophy. All these issues can affect pain and bruising, insulin absorption, and blood glucose levels. The purpose of this article is to review current and past research regarding insulin injection therapy and to provide practical, translational information regarding injection technique, teaching/learning techniques specific to insulin administration, and implications for diabetes self-management education and support. International injection recommendations for patients with diabetes have recently been published and have identified specific recommendations for health care professionals. This article provides an evidence-based translational and practical review of the research regarding injection technique and teaching/learning theory. Diabetes educators need to reevaluate how they provide instruction for the administration of insulin and other injectable medications. Research regarding skin and subcutaneous thickness reveals that shorter needles may be appropriate for the majority of patients regardless of body mass index. Periodic reassessment of injection technique, including suspension of cloudy insulins and inspection of injection sites for lipohypertrophy, is a critical aspect of the role of the diabetes educator. An injection checklist is provided as a guide for diabetes educators.

  7. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Injection Safety among Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    State University Teaching Hospital Healthcare Professionals ... Overall, the respondents had good (70.2%)knowledge, positive (87.2%) ... practice of injection safety and hospital waste. 10,12 management over the decade and their ..... occupational hazards of injection safety, the ... Organisation, Health Technology and.

  8. Individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices among young adult injection drug users in San Diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Fátima; Burgos, José Luis; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Teshale, Eyasu; Garfein, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices significantly increase the risk of hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs). We examined individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices in young adult IDUs in San Diego, California. Of 494 IDUs, 46.9% reported receptive syringe sharing and 68.8% sharing drug preparation paraphernalia in the last 3 months. Unsafe injection practices were associated with increased odds of having friends who injected drugs with used syringes, injecting with friends, sexual partners, and injecting heroin. Perceived high susceptibility to HIV and perceived barriers to obtaining sterile syringes were associated with increased odds of receptive syringe sharing, but not with sharing injection paraphernalia. Over half IDUs reported unsafe injection practices, and our results suggest that personal relationships might influence IDUs’ perceptions that dictate behavior. Integrated interventions addressing individual and socio-environmental factors are needed to promote safe injection practices in this population. PMID:24920342

  9. Forum for injection technique and therapy expert recommendations, India: The Indian recommendations for best practice in insulin injection technique, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Tandon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-care professionals in India frequently manage injection or infusion therapies in persons with diabetes (PWD. Patients taking insulin should know the importance of proper needle size, correct injection process, complication avoidance, and all other aspects of injection technique from the first visit onward. To assist health-care practitioners in their clinical practice, Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy Expert Recommendations, India, has updated the practical advice and made it more comprehensive evidence-based best practice information. Adherence to these updated recommendations, learning, and translating them into clinical practice should lead to effective therapies, improved outcomes, and lower costs for PWD.

  10. Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy Expert Recommendations, India: The Indian Recommendations for Best Practice in Insulin Injection Technique, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Nikhil; Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Baruah, Manash P; Chadha, Manoj; Chandalia, Hemraj B; Prasanna Kumar, K M; Madhu, S V; Mithal, Ambrish; Sahay, Rakesh; Shukla, Rishi; Sundaram, Annamalai; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G; Saboo, Banshi; Gupta, Vandita; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Kesavadev, Jothydev; Wangnoo, Subhash K

    2017-01-01

    Health-care professionals in India frequently manage injection or infusion therapies in persons with diabetes (PWD). Patients taking insulin should know the importance of proper needle size, correct injection process, complication avoidance, and all other aspects of injection technique from the first visit onward. To assist health-care practitioners in their clinical practice, Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy Expert Recommendations, India, has updated the practical advice and made it more comprehensive evidence-based best practice information. Adherence to these updated recommendations, learning, and translating them into clinical practice should lead to effective therapies, improved outcomes, and lower costs for PWD.

  11. Forum for Injection Technique (FIT, India: The Indian recommendations 2.0, for best practice in Insulin Injection Technique, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Tandon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As injectable therapies such as human insulin, insulin analogs, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are used to manage diabetes, correct injection technique is vital for the achievement of glycemic control. The forum for injection technique India acknowledged this need for the first time in India and worked to develop evidence-based recommendations on insulin injection technique, to assist healthcare practitioners in their clinical practice.

  12. Can Dust Injected by SNe Explain the NIR-MIR Excess in Young Massive Stellar Clusters?

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    Martínez-González, Sergio; Wünsch, Richard; Palouš, Jan

    2017-07-01

    We present a physically motivated model involving the different processes affecting supernova dust grains as they are incorporated into the thermalized medium within young massive star clusters. The model is used to explain the near- to mid-infrared (NIR-MIR) excess found in such clusters and usually modeled as a blackbody with temperature ˜ (400{--}1000) K. In our approach, dust grains are efficiently produced in the clumpy ejecta of core-collapse supernovae, shattered into small pieces (≲ 0.05 μm) as they are incorporated into the hot and dense ISM, heated via frequent collisions with electrons and the absorption of energetic photons. Grains with small sizes can more easily acquire the high temperatures (˜1000 K) required to produce an NIR-MIR excess with respect to the emission of foreground PAHs and starlight. However, the extreme conditions inside young massive clusters make it difficult for these small grains to have a persistent manifestation at NIR-MIR wavelengths as they are destroyed by efficient thermal sputtering. Nevertheless, the chances for a persistent manifestation are increased by taking into account that small grains become increasingly transparent to their impinging ions as their sizes decrease. For an individual SN event, we find that the NIR-MIR excess lasts longer if the time required to incorporate all the grains into the thermalized medium is also longer, and, in some cases, comparable to the characteristic interval between supernova explosions. Our models can successfully explain the near-infrared excesses found in the star clusters observed in M33 assuming a low heating efficiency and mass loading. In this scenario, the presence of the NIR-MIR excess is an indication of efficient dust production in SNe and its subsequent destruction.

  13. From conflict to resilience? Explaining recent changes in climate security discourse and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boas, I.J.C.; Rothe, Delf

    2016-01-01

    The recent rise of resilience thinking in climate security discourse and practice is examined and explained. Using the paradigmatic case of the United Kingdom, practitioners’ understandings of resilience are considered to show how these actors use a resilience lens to rearticulate earlier storylines

  14. From conflict to resilience? Explaining recent changes in climate security discourse and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boas, I.J.C.; Rothe, Delf

    2016-01-01

    The recent rise of resilience thinking in climate security discourse and practice is examined and explained. Using the paradigmatic case of the United Kingdom, practitioners’ understandings of resilience are considered to show how these actors use a resilience lens to rearticulate earlier storylines

  15. Cognitive Behavioral Theories Used to Explain Injection Risk Behavior among Injection Drug Users: A Review and Suggestions for the Integration of Cognitive and Environmental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karla Dawn; Unger, Jennifer B.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV and viral hepatitis, and risky injection behavior persists despite decades of intervention. Cognitive behavioral theories (CBTs) are commonly used to help understand risky injection behavior. The authors review findings from CBT-based studies of injection risk behavior among IDUs. An extensive…

  16. Maternal presence, childrearing practices, and children's response to an injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, M E; Endsley, R C

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of maternal presence or absence and childrearing practices on young children's response to an injection. One hundred thirty-eight mothers and their children, who were attending health screening clinic, were assigned to one of four groups in which mothers were either present or absent during an interview and an immunization. Mothers were asked to fill out a questionnaire about their childrearing practices. Child behavior was observed during both the interview and the immunization. Results indicated that while maternal presence was associated with the children behaving more distressed during the interview, maternal presence had no effect on child behavior during the immunization. Children whose mothers reported high levels of both control and warmth in their relationship (authoritative parents) were found to be significantly less distressed during the immunization than children of either the low-control, high-warmth (permissive), high-control, low-warmth (authoritarian) or low-control, low-warmth (nonresponsive) parent groups.

  17. Steroid injections in the upper extremity: experienced clinical opinion versus evidence-based practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Gary; Marshall, Astrid; Barron, O Alton; Catalano, Louis W; Glickel, Steven Z; Kuhn, Margaret

    2013-09-01

    A survey regarding upper-extremity steroid injection practices was distributed to all active members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) using SurveyMonkey. Response rates for the ASSH and ASES were 26% and 24%, respectively. The potency-adjusted dose of steroid injected for common hand and wrist injections ranged from 0.375 to 133.33 mg and for shoulder injections ranged from 0.375 to 250 mg. These ranges span 356-fold and 667-fold differences, respectively. Potency-adjusted doses differed significantly between steroid types for all injections evaluated in this study. American Society for Surgery of the Hand members gave significantly smaller doses of steroid for the glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joints than ASES members. Only 9% of respondents based injection practice on a scientific reference. Sixteen percent of ASSH and 31% of ASES respondents reported no specific rationale for their steroid injection practice; 78% of ASSH and 52% of ASES respondents attributed their rationale to some kind of instruction from their mentors or colleagues. Upper-extremity surgeons demonstrate substantial variability in their practice of steroid injections, with up to a 667-fold range in steroid dose. Experienced clinical opinion is the principal rationale for these injection practices; little rationale is based on formal scientific evidence.

  18. Aspiration in injections: should we continue or abandon the practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepah, Yasir; Samad, Lubna; Altaf, Arshad; Halim, Muhammad Sohail; Rajagopalan, Nithya; Javed Khan, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    Aspiration during any kind of injection is meant to ensure that the needle tip is at the desired location during this blind procedure. While aspiration appears to be a simple procedure, it has generated a lot of controversy concerning the perceived benefits and indications. Advocates and opponents of aspiration both make logically sound claims. However, due to scarcity of available data, there is no evidence that this procedure is truly beneficial or unwarranted. Keeping in view the huge number of injections given worldwide, it is important that we draw attention to key questions regarding aspiration that, up till now, remain unanswered. In this review, we have attempted to gather and present literature on aspiration both from published and non-published sources in order to provide not only an exhaustive review of the subject, but also a starting point for further studies on more specific areas requiring clarification. A literature review was conducted using the US National Institute of Health’s PubMed service (including Medline), Google Scholar and Scopus. Guidelines provided by the World Health Organization, Safe Injection Global Network, International Council of Nursing, Center for Disease Control, US Federal Drug Agency, UK National Health Services, British Medical Association, Europe Nursing and Midwifery Council, Public Health Agency Canada, Pakistan Medical Association and International Organization of Standardization recommendations 7886 parts 1-4 for sterile hypodermics were reviewed for relevant information. In addition, curricula of several medical/nursing schools from India, Nigeria and Pakistan, the US pharmacopeia Data from the WHO Program for International Drug Monitoring network in regard to adverse events as a result of not aspirating prior to injection delivery were reviewed. Curricula of selected major medical/nursing schools in India, Nigeria and Pakistan, national therapeutic formularies, product inserts of most commonly used drugs and other

  19. Injection safety practices in a main referral hospital in Northeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzama, G B; Bawa, S B; Ajinoma, Z; Saidu, M M; Umar, A S

    2014-01-01

    No adherence of safe injection policies remains a major challenge, and, worldwide, annually, it leads to 21 million new hepatitis B cases and 260,000 HIV infection cases. This descriptive observational survey was conducted to determine the level of adherence to universal precaution for safe injection practices in the hospital. The study units were selected using a simple random sampling of injection services provider/phlebotomist in 27 units/wards of the hospital. The study instruments were observation checklist and interviewer administered questionnaires. EPI info (version 3.5.2) software was used for data entry and generation of descriptive statistics was done with units of analysis (units/wards) on injection safety practices of health workers, availability of logistics and supplies, and disposal methods. Only 33.3% of the units (95% CI, 16-54) had non-sharps infectious healthcare waste of any type inside containers specific for non-sharps infectious waste and 17 (77.3%) of the observed therapeutic injections were prepared on a clean, dedicated table or tray, where contamination of the equipment with blood, body fluids, or dirty swabs was unlikely. Absence of recapping of needles was observed in 11 (50.0%) units giving therapeutic injections. Only 7.4% of units surveyed had separate waste containers for infectious non-sharps. This study depicts poor knowledge and a practice of injection safety, inadequate injection safety supplies, and non-compliance to injection safety policy and guidelines.

  20. Risk Factors Associated with Unsafe Injection Practices at the First Injection Episode among Intravenous Drug Users in France: Results from PrimInject, an Internet Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Guichard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. New drug use patterns may increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis infections. In France, new injection patterns among youths with diverse social backgrounds have emerged, which may explain the persistently high rates of hepatitis C virus infection. This study explores factors associated with injection risk behaviours at first injection among users who began injecting in the post-2000 era. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the Internet from October 2010 to March 2011, through an online questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression identified the independent correlates of needle sharing and equipment (cooker/cotton filter sharing. Results. Among the 262 respondents (mean age 25 years, 65% were male. Both risk behaviours were positively associated with initiation before 18 years of age (aOR 3.7 CI 95% 1.3–10.6 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3–7.0 and being injected by another person (aOR 3.1 CI 95% 1.0–9.9 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3–7.1. Initiation at a party was an independent correlate of equipment sharing (aOR 2.6 95% CI 1.0–6.8. Conclusions. Results suggest a need for innovative harm reduction programmes targeting a variety of settings and populations, including youths and diverse party scenes. Education of current injectors to protect both themselves and those they might initiate into injection is critically important.

  1. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.

    2014-01-01

    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured

  2. Practical aspects of steam injection processes: A handbook for independent operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.

    1992-10-01

    More than 80% of the total steam injection process operating costs are for the production of steam and the operation of surface and subsurface equipment. The proper design and operation of the surface equipment is of critical importance to the success of any steam injection operation. However, the published monographs on thermal recovery have attached very little importance to this aspect of thermal oil recovery; hence, a definite need exists for a comprehensive manual that places emphasis on steam injection field practices and problems. This handbook is an attempt to fulfill this need. This handbook explores the concept behind steam injection processes and discusses the information required to evaluate, design, and implement these processes in the field. The emphasis is on operational aspects and those factors that affect the technology and economics of oil recovery by steam. The first four chapters describe the screening criteria, engineering, and economics of steam injection operation as well as discussion of the steam injection fundamentals. The next four chapters begin by considering the treatment of the water used to generate steam and discuss in considerable detail the design, operation and problems of steam generations, distribution and steam quality determination. The subsurface aspects of steamflood operations are addressed in chapters 9 through 12. These include thermal well completion and cementing practices, insulated tubulars, and lifting equipment. The next two chapters are devoted to subsurface operational problems encountered with the use of steam. Briefly described in chapters 15 and 16 are the steam injection process surface production facilities, problems and practices. Chapter 17 discusses the importance of monitoring in a steam injection project. The environmental laws and issues of importance to steam injection operation are outlined in chapter 18.

  3. Practical aspects of steam injection processes: A handbook for independent operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.

    1992-10-01

    More than 80% of the total steam injection process operating costs are for the production of steam and the operation of surface and subsurface equipment. The proper design and operation of the surface equipment is of critical importance to the success of any steam injection operation. However, the published monographs on thermal recovery have attached very little importance to this aspect of thermal oil recovery; hence, a definite need exists for a comprehensive manual that places emphasis on steam injection field practices and problems. This handbook is an attempt to fulfill this need. This handbook explores the concept behind steam injection processes and discusses the information required to evaluate, design, and implement these processes in the field. The emphasis is on operational aspects and those factors that affect the technology and economics of oil recovery by steam. The first four chapters describe the screening criteria, engineering, and economics of steam injection operation as well as discussion of the steam injection fundamentals. The next four chapters begin by considering the treatment of the water used to generate steam and discuss in considerable detail the design, operation and problems of steam generations, distribution and steam quality determination. The subsurface aspects of steamflood operations are addressed in chapters 9 through 12. These include thermal well completion and cementing practices, insulated tubulars, and lifting equipment. The next two chapters are devoted to subsurface operational problems encountered with the use of steam. Briefly described in chapters 15 and 16 are the steam injection process surface production facilities, problems and practices. Chapter 17 discusses the importance of monitoring in a steam injection project. The environmental laws and issues of importance to steam injection operation are outlined in chapter 18.

  4. Drug injection practices among high-risk youths: The first shot of ketamine

    OpenAIRE

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Clatts, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Ketamine, a “club drug” commonly administered intranasally among youths for its disassociative properties, has emerged as a drug increasingly common among a new hidden population of injection drug users. Because of a scarcity of epidemiological data, little is known about ketamine injection practices, associated risk behaviors, or the demographic characteristics of ketamine injectors. Using an ethno-epidemiological methodology, we interviewed 40 young (

  5. "The first shot": the context of first injection of illicit drugs, ongoing injecting practices, and hepatitis C infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Maria de Lourdes Aguiar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The context of first drug injection and its association with ongoing injecting practices and HCV (hepatitis C virus infection were investigated. Injection drug users (IDUs (N = 606 were recruited in "drug scenes" (public places, bars in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, interviewed, and tested for HCV. Sharing of needles/syringes was more prevalent at the first injection (51.3% than at the baseline interview (36.8%. Those who shared syringes/needles at first injection were more likely to be currently engaged in direct/indirect sharing practices. Among young injectors (< 30 years, those reporting sharing of needles/ syringes at the first injection were about four times more likely to have been infected by HCV. Hepatitis C virus prevalence among active IDUs (n = 272 was 11%. Prison history and longer duration of drug injection were identified as independent predictors of HCV infection. To effectively curb HCV transmission among IDUs and minimize harms associated with risk behaviors, preventive strategies should target individuals initiating drug injection beginning with their very first injection and discourage the transition from non-injecting use to the self-injection of illicit drugs.

  6. "The first shot": the context of first injection of illicit drugs, ongoing injecting practices, and hepatitis C infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Aguiar Oliveira

    Full Text Available The context of first drug injection and its association with ongoing injecting practices and HCV (hepatitis C virus infection were investigated. Injection drug users (IDUs (N = 606 were recruited in "drug scenes" (public places, bars in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, interviewed, and tested for HCV. Sharing of needles/syringes was more prevalent at the first injection (51.3% than at the baseline interview (36.8%. Those who shared syringes/needles at first injection were more likely to be currently engaged in direct/indirect sharing practices. Among young injectors (< 30 years, those reporting sharing of needles/ syringes at the first injection were about four times more likely to have been infected by HCV. Hepatitis C virus prevalence among active IDUs (n = 272 was 11%. Prison history and longer duration of drug injection were identified as independent predictors of HCV infection. To effectively curb HCV transmission among IDUs and minimize harms associated with risk behaviors, preventive strategies should target individuals initiating drug injection beginning with their very first injection and discourage the transition from non-injecting use to the self-injection of illicit drugs.

  7. Learning in Virtual Worlds: Using Communities of Practice to Explain How People Learn from Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Martin; Carr, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Although there is interest in the educational potential of online multiplayer games and virtual worlds, there is still little evidence to explain specifically what and how people learn from these environments. This paper addresses this issue by exploring the experiences of couples that play "World of Warcraft" together. Learning outcomes were…

  8. Bullying Explains Only Part of LGBTQ-Heterosexual Risk Disparities: Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joseph P.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2012-01-01

    Students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) experience higher rates of victimization by bullying than do their heterosexual-identified peers. In this article, we investigate the extent to which this difference in rates of victimization can explain LGBTQ youths' greater rates of suicidal ideation, suicide…

  9. Explaining the Negative Correlation Between Values and Practices: A Note to the Hofstede-GLOBE Debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Hoorn, A.A.J. van

    2009-01-01

    This note provides an explanation for the presumably counterintuitive, negative correlations between values and practices reported by the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness project. We argue that such results are compatible with basic microeconomic insights

  10. Identifying context factors explaining physician's low performance in communication assessment: an explorative study in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, G.T.J.M.; Dulmen, S. van; Weel, C. van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Kramer, A.W.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Communication is a key competence for health care professionals. Analysis of registrar and GP communication performance in daily practice, however, suggests a suboptimal application of communication skills. The influence of context factors could reveal why communication perform

  11. Recommended management practices for operation and closure of shallow injection wells at DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act established the Underground Injection Control (UIC) program to ensure that underground injection of wastes does not endanger an underground source of drinking water. Under UIC regulations, an injection well is a hole in the ground, deeper than it is wide, that receives wastes or other fluid substances. Types of injection wells range from deep cased wells to shallow sumps, drywells, and drainfields. The report describes the five classes of UIC wells and summarizes relevant regulations for each class of wells and for the UIC program. The main focus of the report is Class IV and V shallow injection wells. Class IV wells are prohibited and should be closed when they are identified. Class V wells are generally authorized by rule, but EPA or a delegated state may require a permit for a Class V well. This report provides recommendations on sound operating and closure practices for shallow injection wells. In addition the report contains copies of several relevant EPA documents that provide additional information on well operation and closure. Another appendix contains information on the UIC programs in 21 states in which there are DOE facilities discharging to injection wells. The appendix includes the name of the responsible regulatory agency and contact person, a summary of differences between the state`s regulations and Federal regulations, and any closure guidelines for Class IV and V wells.

  12. Lifestyle Inequalities: Explaining Socioeconomic Differences in Preventive Practices of Clinically Overweight Women After Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Mélisa; Dumas, Alex; Binette, Rachelle; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2017-08-01

    Excess weight and menopause are two major factors increasing aging women's vulnerability to chronic diseases. However, social position and socioeconomic status have also been identified as major determinants influencing both health behaviors and the development of such diseases. This study focuses on the socioeconomic variations of behavioral risk factors of chronic diseases in aging women. By drawing on Bourdieu's sociocultural theory of practice, 40 semistructured interviews were conducted to investigate preventive health practices of clinically overweight, postmenopausal women from contrasting socioeconomic classes living in Canada. Findings emphasize class-based differences with respect to long-term health and preventive practices according to three major themes: priority to long-term time horizons, attention given to risk factors of diseases, and control over future health. Health care providers should strive to work in concert with all subgroups of women to better understand their values, worldviews, and needs to decrease health inequalities after menopause.

  13. Exploration of population and practice characteristics explaining differences between practices in the proportion of hospital admissions that are emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Chantelle Elizabeth; Baker, Richard

    2014-05-21

    Emergency (unscheduled) and elective (scheduled) use of secondary care varies between practices. Past studies have described factors associated with the number of emergency admissions; however, high quality care of chronic conditions, which might include increased specialist referrals, could be followed by reduced unscheduled care. We sought to characterise practices according to the proportion of total hospital admissions that were emergency admissions, and identify predictors of this proportion. The study included 229 general practices in Leicestershire, Northamptonshire and Rutland, England. Publicly available data were obtained on scheduled and unscheduled secondary care usage, and on practice and patient characteristics: age; gender; list size; observed prevalence, expected prevalence and the prevalence gap of coronary heart disease, hypertension and stroke; deprivation; headcount number of GPs per 1000 patients; total and clinical quality and outcomes framework (QOF) scores; ethnicity; proportion of patients seen within two days by a GP; proportion able to see their preferred GP. Using the proportion of admissions that were emergency admissions, seven categories of practices were created, and a regression analysis was undertaken to identify predictors of the proportion. In univariate analysis, practices with higher proportions of admissions that were emergencies tended to have fewer older patients, higher proportions of male patients, fewer white patients, greater levels of deprivation, smaller list sizes, lower recorded prevalence of coronary heart disease and stroke, a bigger gap between the expected and recorded levels of stroke, and lower proportions of total and clinical QOF points achieved. In the multivariate regression, higher deprivation, fewer white patients, more male patients, lower recorded prevalence of hypertension, more outpatient appointments, and smaller practice list size were associated with higher proportions of total admissions being

  14. Comparison of physiotherapy, manipulation, and corticosteroid injection for treating shoulder complaints in general practice : Randomised, single blind study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, Jan C.; Sobel, J.S.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Arendzen, J.H.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of physiotherapy, manipulation, and corticosteroid injection for treating patients with shoulder complaints in general practice. Design: Randomised, single blind study. Setting: Seven general practices in the Netherlands. Subjects: 198 patients with shoulder compla

  15. Comparison of physiotherapy, manipulation, and corticosteroid injection for treating shoulder complaints in general practice : Randomised, single blind study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, Jan C.; Sobel, J.S.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Arendzen, J.H.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of physiotherapy, manipulation, and corticosteroid injection for treating patients with shoulder complaints in general practice. Design: Randomised, single blind study. Setting: Seven general practices in the Netherlands. Subjects: 198 patients with shoulder

  16. Infectious disease, injection practices, and risky sexual behavior among anabolic steroid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Eric J; Yadao, Michael A; Shah, Bijal M; Lau, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are commonly misused to increase muscle size and strength, as well as improve physical appearance. Many AAS and certain PEDs are administered via injection and therefore pose a risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Further, AAS users may be more likely to take part in high-risk sexual behaviors than non-AAS users. This review explores the prevalence of infectious diseases as well as risky injection practices and sexual behaviors of AAS users in the current literature. A comprehensive MEDLINE search (1984-17 April 2015) for English language reports was performed on AAS users. Ten studies analyzed the prevalence of HIV infection, 6 studies analyzed HBV infection, and 6 studies analyzed HCV infection; 20 studies analyzed injection practices and 7 studies analyzed high-risk sexual behaviors of AAS users. HIV, HBV, HCV, and SSTIs have been associated with AAS users. In particular, HIV infection seems much higher among homosexual male AAS users. AAS users also take part in high-risk injection practices but to a much lower extent than intravenous drug users. AAS users are also more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors than the general population. Clinicians and health-policy leaders may utilize these findings to implement strategies to decrease the spread of infectious diseases.

  17. Study of status of safe injection practice and knowledge regarding injection safety among primary health care workers in Baglung district, western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyawali Sudesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe injection practices and injection overuse are widespread in developing countries harming the patient and inviting risks to the health care workers. In Nepal, there is a dearth of documented information about injection practices so the present study was carried out: a to determine whether the selected government health facilities satisfy the conditions for safe injections in terms of staff training, availability of sterile injectable equipment and their proper disposal after use and b to assess knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers in these health care facilities with regard to injection safety. Methodology A descriptive cross-sectional mixed type (qualitative and quantitative survey was carried out from 18th May to 16th June 2012. In-depth interviews with the in-charges were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Observation of the health facilities using a structured observation tool was done. The data were analysed manually by summarizing, tabulating and presenting in various formats. Results The in-charges (eight males, two females who participated in the study ranged in age from 30 to 50 years with a mean age of 37.8 years. Severe infection followed by pain was the most important cause for injection use with injection Gentamicin being most commonly prescribed. New single use (disposable injections and auto-disable syringes were used to inject curative drugs and vaccines respectively. Sufficient safety boxes were also supplied to dispose the used syringe. All health care workers had received full course of Hepatitis B vaccine and were knowledgeable about at least one pathogen transmitted through unsafe injection practices. Injection safety management policy and waste disposal guideline was not available for viewing in any of the facilities. The office staff who disposed the bio-medical wastes did so without taking any safety measures. Moreover, none of these staff had received any formal

  18. Can differences in the type, nature or amount of polysubstance use explain the increased risk of non-fatal overdose among psychologically distressed people who inject drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Kim S; McIlwraith, Fairlie; Dietze, Paul; Whittaker, Elizabeth; Burns, Lucy; Cogger, Shelley; Alati, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates whether the type, nature or amount of polysubstance use can explain the increased risk of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs with severe psychological distress. Data came from three years (2011-2013) of the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS), an annual sentinel sample of injecting drug users across Australia (n=2673). Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used on 14 drug types to construct five latent factors, each representing a type of polysubstance use. Tests of measurement invariance were carried out to determine if polysubstance use profiles differed between those with and without severe psychological distress. Next, we regressed non-fatal overdose on the polysubstance use factors with differences in the relationships tested between groups. Among those with severe psychological distress a polysubstance use profile characterised by heroin, oxycodone, crystal methamphetamine and cocaine use was associated with greater risk of non-fatal overdose. Among those without severe psychological distress, two polysubstance use profiles, largely characterised by opioid substitution therapies and prescription drugs, were protective against non-fatal overdose. The types of polysubstance use profiles did not differ between people who inject drugs with and without severe psychological distress. However, the nature of use of one particular polysubstance profile placed the former group at a strongly increased risk of non-fatal overdose, while the nature of polysubstance use involving opioid substitution therapies was protective only among the latter group. The findings identify polysubstance use profiles of importance to drug-related harms among individuals with psychological problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Agricultural Management Practices Explain Variation in Global Yield Gaps of Major Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, N. D.; Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The continued expansion and intensification of agriculture are key drivers of global environmental change. Meeting a doubling of food demand in the next half-century will further induce environmental change, requiring either large cropland expansion into carbon- and biodiversity-rich tropical forests or increasing yields on existing croplands. Closing the “yield gaps” between the most and least productive farmers on current agricultural lands is a necessary and major step towards preserving natural ecosystems and meeting future food demand. Here we use global climate, soils, and cropland datasets to quantify yield gaps for major crops using equal-area climate analogs. Consistent with previous studies, we find large yield gaps for many crops in Eastern Europe, tropical Africa, and parts of Mexico. To analyze the drivers of yield gaps, we collected sub-national agricultural management data and built a global dataset of fertilizer application rates for over 160 crops. We constructed empirical crop yield models for each climate analog using the global management information for 17 major crops. We find that our climate-specific models explain a substantial amount of the global variation in yields. These models could be widely applied to identify management changes needed to close yield gaps, analyze the environmental impacts of agricultural intensification, and identify climate change adaptation techniques.

  20. Reform-based science teaching: A mixed-methods approach to explaining variation in secondary science teacher practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetty, Lauren E.

    The purpose of this two-phase, sequential explanatory mixed-methods study was to understand and explain the variation seen in secondary science teachers' enactment of reform-based instructional practices. Utilizing teacher socialization theory, this mixed-methods analysis was conducted to determine the relative influence of secondary science teachers' characteristics, backgrounds and experiences across their teacher development to explain the range of teaching practices exhibited by graduates from three reform-oriented teacher preparation programs. Data for this study were obtained from the Investigating the Meaningfulness of Preservice Programs Across the Continuum of Teaching (IMPPACT) Project, a multi-university, longitudinal study funded by NSF. In the first quantitative phase of the study, data for the sample (N=120) were collected from three surveys from the IMPPACT Project database. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine the separate as well as the combined influence of factors such as teachers' personal and professional background characteristics, beliefs about reform-based science teaching, feelings of preparedness to teach science, school context, school culture and climate of professional learning, and influences of the policy environment on the teachers' use of reform-based instructional practices. Findings indicate three blocks of variables, professional background, beliefs/efficacy, and local school context added significant contribution to explaining nearly 38% of the variation in secondary science teachers' use of reform-based instructional practices. The five variables that significantly contributed to explaining variation in teachers' use of reform-based instructional practices in the full model were, university of teacher preparation, sense of preparation for teaching science, the quality of professional development, science content focused professional, and the perceived level of professional autonomy. Using the results

  1. The Social Media Paradox Explained: Comparing Political Parties’ Facebook Strategy Versus Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Kalsnes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Political parties’ interaction strategy and practice on Facebook is the topic of this article. Political parties and individual politicians can use social media to bypass media and communicate directly with voters through websites and particularly social media platforms such as Facebook. But previous research has demonstrated that interaction on social media is challenging for political parties. This study examines the disparity between interaction strategy and online responsiveness and finds that political parties identify three clear disadvantages when communicating with voters online: online reputation risk, negative media attention, and limited resources. In addition, the authenticity requirement many parties adhere to is creating a “social media interaction deadlock,” which is increasing the disparity between the parties’ expressed strategy and online performance. This study compares major and minor political parties’ interaction strategy during the 2013 national election in Norway and combines interviews of political communication directors with an innovative method to collect Facebook interaction data.

  2. Pharmacy practice and injection use in community pharmacies in Pokhara city, Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Adhikari, Kishor; Shankar, Pathiyil Ravi; K C, Vikash Kumar; Basnet, Suyog

    2014-04-28

    Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The 'Current Index of Medical Specialties' was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range of services including, but not limited to

  3. Pharmacy practice and injection use in community pharmacies in Pokhara city, Western Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. Methods A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Results Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The ‘Current Index of Medical Specialties’ was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Conclusions Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range

  4. Characterizing Students' Attempts to Explain Observations from Practical Work: Intermediate Phases of Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestad, Idar; Kolstø, Stein Dankert

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to characterize a group of students' preliminary oral explanations of a scientific phenomenon produced as part of their learning process. The students were encouraged to use their own wordings to test out their own interpretation of observations when conducting practical activities. They presented their explanations orally in the whole class after having discussed and written down an explanation in a small group. The data consists of transcribed video recordings of the presented explanations, observation notes, and interviews. A genre perspective was used to characterize the students' explanations together with analysis of the students use of scientific terms, gestures, and the language markers "sort of" and "like." Based on the analysis we argue to separate between event-focused explanations, where the students describe how objects move, and object-focused explanations, where the students describe object properties and interactions. The first type uses observable events and few scientific terms, while the latter contains object properties and tentative use of scientific terms. Both types are accompanied by an extensive use of language markers and gestures. A third category, term-focused explanations, is used when the students only provide superficial explanations by expressing scientific terms. Here, the students' use of language markers and gestures are low. The analyses shows how students' explanations can be understood as tentative attempts to build on their current understanding and observations while trying to reach out for a deeper and scientific way of identifying observations and building explanations and new ways of talking.

  5. Practice explains abolished behavioural adaptation after human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, H; Haasnoot, E; Bocanegra, B R; Berretty, E W; Hommel, B

    2015-04-08

    The role of mid-cingulate cortex (MCC), also referred to as dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, in regulating cognitive control is a topic of primary importance in cognitive neuroscience. Although many studies have shown that MCC responds to cognitive demands, lesion studies in humans are inconclusive concerning the causal role of the MCC in the adaptation to these demands. By elegantly combining single-cell recordings with behavioural methods, Sheth et al. [Sheth, S. et al. Human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex neurons mediate ongoing behavioural adaptation. Nature 488, 218-22 (2012).] recently were able to show that neurons in MCC encode cognitive demand. Importantly, this study also claimed that focal lesions of the MCC abolished behavioural adaptation to cognitive demands. Here we show that the absence of post-cingulotomy behavioural adaptation reported in this study may have been due to practice effects. We run a control condition where we tested subjects before and after a dummy treatment, which substituted cingulotomy with a filler task (presentation of a documentary). The results revealed abolished behavioural adaptation following the dummy treatment. Our findings suggest that future work using proper experimental designs is needed to advance the understanding of the causal role of the MCC in behavioural adaptation.

  6. Can Parenting Practices Explain the Differences in Beverage Intake According to Socio-Economic Status: The Toybox-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinket, An-Sofie; De Craemer, Marieke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Cardon, Greet; Androutsos, Odysseas; Koletzko, Berthold; Moreno, Luis A.; Socha, Piotr; Iotova, Violeta; Manios, Yannis; Van Lippevelde, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicated that preschoolers of lower socioeconomic status (SES) consume less healthy beverages than high SES preschoolers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between SES and plain water, soft drink and prepacked fruit juice (FJ) consumption in European preschoolers. Parents/caregivers of 3.5 to 5.5 years old (n = 6776) recruited through kindergartens in six European countries within the ToyBox-study completed questionnaires on socio-demographics, parenting practices and a food frequency questionnaire. Availability of sugared beverages and plain water, permissiveness towards sugared beverages and lack of self-efficacy showed a mediating effect on SES-differences in all three beverages. Rewarding with sugared beverages significantly mediated SES-differences for both plain water and prepacked FJ. Encouragement to drink plain water and awareness significantly mediated SES-differences for, respectively, plain water and prepacked FJ consumption. Avoiding negative modelling did not mediate any associations. Overall, lower SES preschoolers were more likely to be confronted with lower levels of favourable and higher levels of unfavourable parenting practices, which may lead to higher sugared beverage and lower plain water consumption. The current study highlights the importance of parenting practices in explaining the relation between SES and both healthy and unhealthy beverage consumption. PMID:27669290

  7. Can Parenting Practices Explain the Differences in Beverage Intake According to Socio-Economic Status: The Toybox-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Sofie Pinket

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicated that preschoolers of lower socioeconomic status (SES consume less healthy beverages than high SES preschoolers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between SES and plain water, soft drink and prepacked fruit juice (FJ consumption in European preschoolers. Parents/caregivers of 3.5 to 5.5 years old (n = 6776 recruited through kindergartens in six European countries within the ToyBox-study completed questionnaires on socio-demographics, parenting practices and a food frequency questionnaire. Availability of sugared beverages and plain water, permissiveness towards sugared beverages and lack of self-efficacy showed a mediating effect on SES-differences in all three beverages. Rewarding with sugared beverages significantly mediated SES-differences for both plain water and prepacked FJ. Encouragement to drink plain water and awareness significantly mediated SES-differences for, respectively, plain water and prepacked FJ consumption. Avoiding negative modelling did not mediate any associations. Overall, lower SES preschoolers were more likely to be confronted with lower levels of favourable and higher levels of unfavourable parenting practices, which may lead to higher sugared beverage and lower plain water consumption. The current study highlights the importance of parenting practices in explaining the relation between SES and both healthy and unhealthy beverage consumption.

  8. Practical statistics simply explained

    CERN Document Server

    Langley, Dr Russell A

    1971-01-01

    For those who need to know statistics but shy away from math, this book teaches how to extract truth and draw valid conclusions from numerical data using logic and the philosophy of statistics rather than complex formulae. Lucid discussion of averages and scatter, investigation design, more. Problems with solutions.

  9. Are joint and soft tissue injections painful? Results of a national French cross-sectional study of procedural pain in rheumatological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poncet Coralie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint, spinal and soft tissue injections are commonly performed by rheumatologists in their daily practice. Contrary to other procedures, e.g. performed in pediatric care, little is known about the frequency, the intensity and the management of procedural pain observed in osteo-articular injections in daily practice. Methods This observational, prospective, national study was carried out among a French national representative database of primary rheumatologists to evaluate the prevalence and intensity of pain caused by intra-and peri-articular injections, synovial fluid aspirations, soft tissue injections, and spinal injections. For each physician, data were collected over 1 month, for up to 40 consecutive patients (>18-years-old for whom a synovial fluid aspiration, an intra or peri-articular injection or a spinal injection were carried out during consultations. Statistical analysis was carried out in order to compare patients who had suffered from pain whilst undergoing the procedure to those who had not. Explanatory analyses were conducted by stepwise logistic regression with the characteristics of the patients to explain the existence of pain. Results Data were analysed for 8446 patients (64% female, mean age 62 ± 14 years recruited by 240 physicians. The predominant sites injected were the knee (45.5% and spine (19.1%. Over 80% of patients experienced procedural pain which was most common in the small joints (42% and spine (32% Pain was severe in 5.3% of patients, moderate in 26.6%, mild in 49.8%, and absent in 18.3%. Pain was significantly more intense in patients with severe pain linked to their underlying pathology and for procedures performed in small joints. Preventative or post-procedure analgesia was rarely given, only to 5.7% and 36.3% of patients, respectively. Preventative analgesia was more frequently prescribed in patients with more severe procedural pain. Conclusion Most patients undergoing intra-or peri

  10. Assessment of knowledge and practices on injection safety among service providers in east Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridevi Garapati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the Knowledge and Practices among service providers regarding injection safety and its safe disposal in East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Cross-Sectional study conducted in one year from March 2010 to February 2011 among health care providers at all levels that is Primary, Secondary and Tertiary levels of public sector selected randomly in the five revenue divisions of East Godavari District with sample size based on 4PQ/L2 formula found to be 300; Representing 30% doctors (90, 30% staff nurses (90, 30% MPHW (F (90 and 10% Lab-Technicians(30 and data is obtained by semi- structured questionnaire; Analyzed by using SPSS software version16.0.at p<0.05 significance level. Results: In the present study knowledge of various service providers was enquired into and practices were also observed in various aspects of injection safety. Knowledge on washing hands before giving injection was 45.6% but when it comes to practice it was observed only among 18.2%; Similarly knowledge on use of hub-cutter after giving injection was found to be 33.9% but when practice of using hub-cutter was observed, it was only 20.5%; Knowledge on safe disposal of used syringes was 53.8% but the practice was found to be poor (21.7%. Similarly Knowledge on use of color coded bags according to guidelines was 65.8% but when practice was observed it is poor (20.6%. All these differences were statistically significant with p<0.05.  Conclusion: In the present study Patient preference is the main indication for injection; Knowledge of universal precautions, use of needle destroyer after giving injection and correct method for final disposal of sharps was less; whereas Knowledge of complications of unsafe injections, diseases transmitted through needle stick injuries, importance of hepatitis B immunization and Post Exposure Prophylaxis was good. Unsafe practices like not washing hands, not wearing gloves, not cleaning the site of

  11. INJECTING DRUG USERS’ EXPERIENCES OF POLICING PRACTICES IN TWO MEXICAN-U.S. BORDER CITIES: PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cari L.; Firestone, Michelle; Ramos, Rebeca; Burris, Scott; Ramos, Maria Elena; Case, Patricia; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Fraga, Miguel Angel; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous research has identified the impact of law enforcement practices on the behaviors and health of injection drug users (IDUs). We undertook a qualitative study of IDUs’ experiences of policing practices in two Mexican cities on the U.S. border. Methods In 2004, two teams of Mexican interviewers conducted in-depth interviews with IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez (Cd. Juarez), Mexico who had injected drugs at least once in the prior month. Topics included types of drug used, injection settings, access to sterile needles and experiences with police. Field notes and transcribed interviews were analyzed to identify emergent themes. Results Among the 43 participants, most reported that it is common for IDUs to be arrested and detained for 36 hours for carrying sterile or used syringes. Most reported that they or someone they knew had been beaten by police. Interviews suggested 5 key themes relating to police influence on the risk environment: 1) impact of policing practices on accessibility of sterile syringes, 2) influence of police on choice of places to inject drugs (e.g., shooting galleries), 3) police violence, 4) police corruption, and 5) perceived changes in policing practices. Conclusion Findings suggest that some behavior of police officers in Tijuana and Cd. Juarez is inconsistent with legal norms and may be negatively influencing the risk of acquiring blood-borne infections among IDUs. Implementing a comprehensive and successful HIV prevention program among IDUs requires interventions to influence the knowledge, attitudes and practices of law enforcement officers. PMID:17997089

  12. Magma injection into a long-lived reservoir to explain geodetically measured uplift: Application to the 2007-2014 unrest episode at Laguna del Maule volcanic field, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mével, Hélène; Gregg, Patricia M.; Feigl, Kurt L.

    2016-08-01

    Moving beyond the widely used kinematic models for the deformation sources, we present a new dynamic model to describe the process of injecting magma into an existing magma reservoir. To validate this model, we derive an analytical solution and compare its results to those calculated using the Finite Element Method. A Newtonian fluid characterized by its viscosity, density, and overpressure (relative to the lithostatic value) flows through a vertical conduit, intruding into a reservoir embedded in an elastic domain, leading to an increase in reservoir pressure and time-dependent surface deformation. We apply our injection model to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from the ongoing unrest episode at Laguna del Maule (Chile) volcanic field that started in 2007. Using a grid search optimization, we minimize the misfit to the InSAR displacement data and vary the three parameters governing the analytical solution: the characteristic timescale τP for magma propagation, the maximum injection pressure, and the inflection time when the acceleration switches from positive to negative. For a spheroid with semimajor axis a = 6200 m, semiminor axis c = 100 m, located at a depth of 4.5 km in a purely elastic half-space, the best fit to the InSAR displacement data occurs for τP=9.5 years and an injection pressure rising up to 11.5 MPa for 2 years. The volume flow rate increased to 1.2 m3/s for 2 years and then decreased to 0.7 m3/s in 2014. In 7.3 years, at least 187 × 106 m3 of magma was injected.

  13. Cosmic Ray e +/(e- + e+), p-bar/p Ratios Explained by an Injection Model Based on 2 Gamma-ray Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamae, T.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Lee, S.-H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Giordano, F.; /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Grondin, M.-H.; /Bordeaux U.; Latronico, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; /Bordeaux U.; Sgro, C.; /INFN, Pisa; Tanaka, T.; Uchiyama, Y.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2010-12-16

    We present a model of cosmic ray (CR) injection into the Galactic space based on recent {gamma}-ray observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) and pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi) and atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (ACTs). Steady-state (SS) injection of nuclear particles and electrons (e{sup -}) from the Galactic ensemble of SNRs, and electrons and positrons (e{sup +}) from the Galactic ensemble of PWNe are assumed, with their spectra deduced from {gamma}-ray observations and recent evolution models. The ensembles of SNRs and PWNe are assumed to share the same spatial distributions and the secondary CR production in dense molecular clouds interacting with SNRs is incorporated in the model. Propagation of CRs to Earth is calculated using GALPROP with 2 source distributions and 2 Galaxy halo sizes. We show that this observation-based model reproduces the positron fraction e{sup +}/(e{sup -} + e{sup +}) and antiproton-to-proton ratio ({bar p}/p) reported by PAMELA reasonably well without calling for new sources. Significant discrepancy is found, however, between our model and the e{sup -} + e{sup +} spectrum measured by Fermi below {approx} 20 GeV. Important quantities for Galactic CRs, including their energy injection, average lifetime, and mean gas density along their typical propagation path are also presented.

  14. Study of prescribing practices of injections in outpatients of a rural tertiary care teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarna S. Rathod

    2013-12-01

    Results: The total number of injections prescribed in 744 prescriptions was 205. Most (71.70% of the patients receiving them were above 35 years of age. The most common complaint for which the injections were prescribed was musculoskeletal pain (45.36% followed by fever. About 155 (75.60% prescriptions contained injection diclofenac which was the most commonly used drug followed by injection paracetamol (11.21%. There was a high tendency of using brand names in prescriptions (89.30%. Conclusion: The study revealed high proportion of use of injectable drugs. There was overuse of analgesic injections like diclofenac, most of which were unnecessary and irrational. This leads to unnecessary burden on the institution in terms of efficiency, infrastructure, staff requirement and poor utilization of resources. There is a need to develop local guidelines for injection usage along with educational sessions for prescribing doctors. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 747-750

  15. Ability to Identify, Explain and Solve Problems in Everyday Tasks: Preliminary Validation of a Direct Video Measure of Practical Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Greenspan, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in the definitional literature on mental retardation emphasize the need to ground the concept of adaptive behavior in an expanded model of intelligence, which includes practical and social intelligence. Development of a direct measure of practical intelligence might increase the likelihood that an assessment of this domain…

  16. Cosmic Ray e^+/(e^- + e^+) and pbar/p Ratios Explained by an Injection Model Based on Gamma-ray Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kamae, T; Baldini, L; Giordano, F; Grondin, M -H; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Sgró, C; Tanaka, T; Uchiyama, Y

    2010-01-01

    We present a model of cosmic ray injection into the Galactic space based on recent gamma-ray observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) and pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Steady-state (SS) injection of nuclear particles and electrons (e^-) from the Galactic ensemble of SNRs, and electrons and positrons (e^+) from the Galactic ensemble of PWNe are assumed, with their spectra deduced from gamma-ray observations and recent evolution models. The ensembles of SNRs and PWNe are assumed to share the same spatial distributions and the secondary CR production in dense molecular clouds interacting with SNRs is incorporated in the model. Propagation of CRs to Earth is calculated using GALPROP with 2 source distributions and 2 Galaxy halo sizes. We show that this observation-based model reproduces the positron fraction e^+/(e^- + e^+) and antiproton-to-proton ratio reported by PAMELA reasonably well without calling for new sources. Significant discrepancy...

  17. Effect of corticosteroid injection for trochanter pain syndrome: design of a randomised clinical trial in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaar Jan AN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regional pain in the hip in adults is a common cause of a general practitioner visit. A considerable part of patients suffer from (greater trochanteric pain syndrome or trochanteric bursitis. Local corticosteroid injections is one of the treatment options. Although clear evidence is lacking, small observational studies suggest that this treatment is effective in the short-term follow-up. So far, there are no randomised controlled trials available evaluating the efficacy of injection therapy. This study will investigate the efficacy of local corticosteroid injections in the trochanter syndrome in the general practice, using a randomised controlled trial design. The cost effectiveness of the corticosteroid injection therapy will also be assessed. Secondly, the role of co-morbidity in relation to the efficacy of local corticosteroid injections will be investigated. Methods/Design This study is a pragmatic, open label randomised trial. A total of 150 patients (age 18–80 years visiting the general practitioner with complaints suggestive of trochanteric pain syndrome will be allocated to receive local corticosteroid injections or to receive usual care. Usual care consists of analgesics as needed. The randomisation is stratified for yes or no co-morbidity of low back pain, osteoarthritis of the hip, or both. The treatment will be evaluated by means of questionnaires at several time points within one year, with the 3 month and 1 year evaluation of pain and recovery as primary outcome. Analyses of primary and secondary outcomes will be made according to the intention-to-treat principle. Direct and indirect costs will be assessed by questionnaires. The cost effectiveness will be estimated using the following ratio: CE ratio = (cost of injection therapy minus cost of usual care/(effect of injection therapy minus effect of usual care. Discussion This study design is appropriate to estimate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the

  18. The role of organizational context and individual nurse characteristics in explaining variation in use of information technologies in evidence based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane; Haynes, Brian R; Estabrooks, Carole A; Kushniruk, André; Dubrowski, Adam; Bajnok, Irmajean; Hall, Linda McGillis; Li, Mingyang; Carryer, Jennifer; Jedras, Dawn; Bai, Yu Qing Chris

    2012-12-31

    There is growing awareness of the role of information technology in evidence-based practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of organizational context and nurse characteristics in explaining variation in nurses' use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) and mobile Tablet PCs for accessing evidence-based information. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) model provided the framework for studying the impact of providing nurses with PDA-supported, evidence-based practice resources, and for studying the organizational, technological, and human resource variables that impact nurses' use patterns. A survey design was used, involving baseline and follow-up questionnaires. The setting included 24 organizations representing three sectors: hospitals, long-term care (LTC) facilities, and community organizations (home care and public health). The sample consisted of 710 participants (response rate 58%) at Time 1, and 469 for whom both Time 1 and Time 2 follow-up data were obtained (response rate 66%). A hierarchical regression model (HLM) was used to evaluate the effect of predictors from all levels simultaneously. The Chi square result indicated PDA users reported using their device more frequently than Tablet PC users (p = 0.001). Frequency of device use was explained by 'breadth of device functions' and PDA versus Tablet PC. Frequency of Best Practice Guideline use was explained by 'willingness to implement research,' 'structural and electronic resources,' 'organizational slack time,' 'breadth of device functions' (positive effects), and 'slack staff' (negative effect). Frequency of Nursing Plus database use was explained by 'culture,' 'structural and electronic resources,' and 'breadth of device functions' (positive effects), and 'slack staff' (negative). 'Organizational culture' (positive), 'breadth of device functions' (positive), and 'slack staff '(negative) were associated with frequency of Lexi/PEPID drug

  19. Do Organisational Characteristics Explain The Differences Between Drivers of ICT Adoption in Rural and Urban General Practices in Australia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. MacGregor

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have compared general medical practices in rural locations with those in urban locations. Some of these studies have concentrated on the reasons why a GP might choose to work in a rural or urban setting. Others have examined the type of work required to be undertaken by medical professionals. Increasing use of information and communications technology (ICT in medical practices has led to some studies examining their use in rural as well as urban settings. However, little if any research has examined whether ICT adoption drivers differ between rural and urban GPs based on their organisational characteristics. This paper presents a study of 198 GPs (122 rural, 76 urban in Australia. The results show that organisational characteristics are associated with the importance of the drivers for ICT adoption and that these characteristics differ between rural and urban GPs. These findings have important practical and theoretical contributions because it shows that ICT adoption decisions must be contextualised and that it is unlikely that universal adoption drivers will apply to all general practices.

  20. Mechanisms which help explain implementation of evidence-based practice in residential aged care facilities: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masso, Malcolm; McCarthy, Grace; Kitson, Alison

    2014-07-01

    The context for the study was a nation-wide programme in Australia to implement evidence-based practice in residential aged care, in nine areas of practice, using a wide range of implementation strategies and involving 108 facilities. The study drew on the experiences of those involved in the programme to answer the question: what mechanisms influence the implementation of evidence-based practice in residential aged care and how do those mechanisms interact? The methodology used grounded theory from a critical realist perspective, informed by a conceptual framework that differentiates between the context, process and content of change. People were purposively sampled and invited to participate in semi-structured interviews, resulting in 44 interviews involving 51 people during 2009 and 2010. Participants had direct experience of implementation in 87 facilities, across nine areas of practice, in diverse locations. Sampling continued until data saturation was reached. The quality of the research was assessed using four criteria for judging trustworthiness: credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Data analysis resulted in the identification of four mechanisms that accounted for what took place and participants' experiences. The core category that provided the greatest understanding of the data was the mechanism On Common Ground, comprising several constructs that formed a 'common ground' for change to occur. The mechanism Learning by Connecting recognised the ability to connect new knowledge with existing practice and knowledge, and make connections between actions and outcomes. Reconciling Competing Priorities was an ongoing mechanism whereby new practices had to compete with an existing set of constantly shifting priorities. Strategies for reconciling priorities ranged from structured approaches such as care planning to more informal arrangements such as conversations during daily work. The mechanism Exercising Agency bridged the gap between

  1. Integrating social identity theory and the theory of planned behaviour to explain decisions to engage in sustainable agricultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Kelly S; Terry, Deborah J; Masser, Barbara M; Hogg, Michael A

    2008-03-01

    The present research integrates core aspects of social identity theory with the theory of planned behaviour to investigate factors influencing engagement in sustainable agricultural practices. Using a two-wave prospective design, two studies were conducted with samples of farmers (N = 609 and N = 259, respectively). At Time 1, a questionnaire survey assessed theory of planned behaviour variables in relation to engaging in riparian zone management (a sustainable agricultural practice). In addition, intergroup perceptions (i.e. relations between rural and urban groups), group norms and group identification were assessed. At Time 2, self-reported behaviour was measured. There was support for the integrated model across both studies. As predicted, past behaviour, attitudes and perceived behavioural control were significant predictors of intentions, and intentions significantly predicted self-reported behaviour. Group norms and intergroup perceptions were also significant predictors of intentions providing support for the inclusion of social identity concepts in the theory of planned behaviour. More supportive group norms were associated with higher intentions, especially for high-group identifiers. In contrast, more negative intergroup perceptions were associated with lower intentions and, unexpectedly, this effect only emerged for low-group identifiers. This suggests that in the context of decisions to engage in riparian zone management, an important sustainable agricultural practice, high identifiers are influenced predominantly by in-group rather than out-group considerations, whereas low identifiers may attend to cues from both the in-group and the out-group when making their decisions.

  2. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  3. Randomised controlled trial of local corticosteroid injections for de Quervain's tenosynovitis in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Veluthamaningal, Cyriac; Winters, Jan C.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Meyboom-deJong, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Background: De Quervain's tenosynovitis is a stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and leads to wrist pain and to impaired function of the wrist and hand. It can be treated by splinting, local corticosteroid injection and operation. In this study effectiveness of local

  4. Practice of promoting pulverized coal injection rate at no.4 blast furnace of China Steel Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, N.W.; Chang, C.T [China Steel Corp., Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2008-07-01

    In 2006, the China Steel Corporation (CSC) upgraded the injection system of its no.4 blast furnace to increase the pulverized coal (PC) rate which averaged 136 to 143 kg/thm. This paper described the scheduled shutdown of the furnace in May 2007 in order to modify it from a dilute phase injection system to a dense phase system using the technology of the Kuettner Company. Through proper burden distribution and operational parameter adjustments, the pulverized coal (PC) rate was increased to 178 kg/thm by November 2007, corresponding to a 65 t/hr injection rate with a productivity of 2.58 t/m{sup 3}/d. This paper described the challenges encountered following commissioning as well as the strategies of process control. The main differences between the existing and new injection system were that nitrogen was used to substitute compressed air as the conveying gas and the coal to gas ratio was increased from about 10 to 30 kg/kg. As a result, the transport method and the operation pressure had to be reassessed. This paper described the coal blend injection; screening facility for coal preparation; location of the distributor; and coal accumulation in the coal flow meter. The blast furnace adjustments included burden thickness control; burden distribution adjustment; improvement of raw material quality; and theoretical flame temperature adjustment. The upgrade project has proven to be very successful and has improved the competitiveness of CSC blast furnace no.4 significantly. Plans to upgrade the no.2 and no.3 blast furnaces are underway. Once completed, the operating cost and coke consumption of the blast furnaces will be reduced considerably. The modification to dense phase conveying system has shown that coal with high Hardgrove Index requires a higher driving force in the pneumatic dense phase transport and that coal mill equipped with a rotating classifier is recommended along with screens at the upstream of the feed tank. 3 refs., 6 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. The role of organizational context and individual nurse characteristics in explaining variation in use of information technologies in evidence based practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doran Diane

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing awareness of the role of information technology in evidence-based practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of organizational context and nurse characteristics in explaining variation in nurses’ use of personal digital assistants (PDAs and mobile Tablet PCs for accessing evidence-based information. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS model provided the framework for studying the impact of providing nurses with PDA-supported, evidence-based practice resources, and for studying the organizational, technological, and human resource variables that impact nurses’ use patterns. Methods A survey design was used, involving baseline and follow-up questionnaires. The setting included 24 organizations representing three sectors: hospitals, long-term care (LTC facilities, and community organizations (home care and public health. The sample consisted of 710 participants (response rate 58% at Time 1, and 469 for whom both Time 1 and Time 2 follow-up data were obtained (response rate 66%. A hierarchical regression model (HLM was used to evaluate the effect of predictors from all levels simultaneously. Results The Chi square result indicated PDA users reported using their device more frequently than Tablet PC users (p = 0.001. Frequency of device use was explained by ‘breadth of device functions’ and PDA versus Tablet PC. Frequency of Best Practice Guideline use was explained by ‘willingness to implement research,’ ‘structural and electronic resources,’ ‘organizational slack time,’ ‘breadth of device functions’ (positive effects, and ‘slack staff’ (negative effect. Frequency of Nursing Plus database use was explained by ‘culture,’ ‘structural and electronic resources,’ and ‘breadth of device functions’ (positive effects, and ‘slack staff’ (negative. ‘Organizational culture’ (positive, ‘breadth of device functions

  6. Use of primary corticosteroid injection in the management of plantar fasciopathy: is it time to challenge existing practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Paul; Beeson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Plantar fasciopathy (PF) is characterized by degeneration of the fascia at the calcaneal enthesis. It is a common cause of foot pain, accounting for 90% of clinical presentations of heel pathology. In 2009-2010, 9.3 million working days were lost in England due to musculoskeletal disorders, with 2.4 million of those attributable to lower-limb disorders, averaging 16.3 lost working days per case. Numerous studies have attempted to establish the short- and long-term clinical efficacy of corticosteroid injections in the management of PF. Earlier studies have not informed clinical practice. As the research base has developed, evidence has emerged supporting clinical efficacy. With diverse opinions surrounding the etiology and efficacy debate, there does not seem to be a consensus of opinion on a common treatment pathway. For example, in England, the National Institute for Clinical Health and Excellence does not publish strategic guidance for clinical practice. Herein, we review and evaluate core literature that examines the clinical efficacy of corticosteroid injection as a treatment for PF. Outcome measures were wide ranging but largely yielded results supportive of the short- and long-term benefits of this modality. The analysis also looked to establish, where possible, "proof of concept." This article provides evidence supporting the clinical efficacy of corticosteroid injections, in particular those guided by imaging technology. The evidence challenges existing orthodoxy, which marginalizes this treatment as a secondary option. This challenge is supported by recently revised guidelines published by the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons advocating corticosteroid injection as a primary treatment option.

  7. Practice of ultrasound-guided arthrocentesis and joint injection, including training and implementation, in Europe: results of a survey of experts and scientific societies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mandl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To document the practice and training opportunities of US-guided arthrocentesis and joint injection (UGAJ) among rheumatologists in the member countries of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR).

  8. SPSS explained

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Perry R; Brownlow, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    SPSS Explained provides the student with all that they need to undertake statistical analysis using SPSS. It combines a step-by-step approach to each procedure with easy to follow screenshots at each stage of the process. A number of other helpful features are provided: regular advice boxes with tips specific to each test explanations divided into 'essential' and 'advanced' sections to suit readers at different levels frequently asked questions at the end of each chapter. The first edition of this popular book has been fully updated for IBM SPSS version 21 and also includes: chapters that expl

  9. PDF Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Whitington, John

    2011-01-01

    An introduction to the PDF file format, threaded through with practical examples - deconstructing, creating and processing PDF files. After exploring how PDF is produced, and how it can be edited with tools from text editors to Ghostscript to PDFTK, readers will learn to deal with problems with PDF files and common error messages.

  10. Health-damaging policing practices among persons who inject drugs in Mexico: Are deported migrants at greater risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Miguel; Beletsky, Leo; Alamillo, Nathan; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2017-08-01

    Evidence-based public health and criminal justice policies aimed at addressing the structurally vulnerable population of persons who inject drugs (PWID) and who are involved in the immigrant enforcement and deportation system are lacking. Policing practices are critical structural determinants of HIV among PWID. PWID in Mexico who have been deported from the US are at elevated risk of HIV. From 2011 to 2013, 733 PWID were recruited to complete structured questionnaires, including past 6-month experiences with police. Eligible PWID were 18 years or older, had injected in the past month, and resided in Tijuana, Mexico with no intentions of moving. To determine if deportation status was associated with experiences of arrests and problematic policing practices, we conducted separate multivariate logistic regression models for independent policing variables. In multivariate analyses, deportation status was independently associated with higher odds of being arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.45; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.02-2.05), being asked for a bribe (AOR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.05-2.04), and being forced to leave a place of residence (AOR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.08-3.70) in the past 6 months. Results highlight a previously poorly understood elements of the US-deportation experience: migrants' experiences with law enforcement post-deportation and the role of deportation policies and practices as structural drivers of public health risk in destination countries. We provide policy recommendations for Mexico and the US based on our findings, which have potential application in other countries seeking to improve enforcement and related policing practices from a public health perspective. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Explain the Intention of Final-year Pharmacy Students to Undertake a Higher Degree in Pharmacy Practice Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephen R; Moles, Rebekah J; Krass, Ines; Kritikos, Vicki S

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesized student intention to undertake a higher degree in pharmacy practice research (PPR) would be increased by self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the social influence of faculty members. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 387 final-year pharmacy undergraduates enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to explore relationships between variables and intention. Results. Fit indices were good. The model explained 55% of the variation in intention. As hypothesized, faculty social influence increased self-efficacy and indirectly increased outcome expectancy and intention. Conclusion. To increase pharmacy students' orientation towards a career in PPR, faculty members could use their social influence by highlighting PPR in their teaching.

  12. Do maternal perceptions of child eating and feeding help to explain the disconnect between reported and observed feeding practices?: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi J; Skouteris, Helen; Hetherington, Marion M; Rodgers, Rachel F; Campbell, Karen J; Cox, Rachael

    2017-02-08

    Research demonstrates a mismatch between reported and observed maternal feeding practices. This mismatch may be explained by maternal cognitions, attitudes, and motivations relating to dyadic parent-child feeding interactions. These complex constructs may not be apparent during observations nor evidenced in self-report questionnaire. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to gain a more nuanced and contextualized understanding of (a) maternal perceptions of children's food intake control; (b) how parent-child mealtime interactions influence maternal feeding practices; and (c) ways in which mothers may promote healthy child eating and weight outcomes. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 23 mothers (M = 38.4 ± 3.7 years of age) of preschool-aged children (M = 3.8 ± 0.6 years of age, 19 were normal weight, 14 were girls), who had previously completed child feeding questionnaire and participated in two home-based mealtime observations, 12 months apart. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and themes extracted to create the database. Four major themes emerged: (a) Maternal confidence in children's ability to regulate food intake is variable; (b) Implementing strategies for nurturing healthy relationships with food beyond the dining table; (c) Fostering positive mealtime interactions is valued above the content of what children eat; and (d) Situation-specific practices and inconsistencies. Findings indicate that maternal feeding practices are shaped by both parent and child influences, and child feeding is mostly guided by controlling the family food environment, rather than by directly pressuring or restricting their child's eating. Results also highlighted the need for research to consider both parent and child influences on child feeding.

  13. Assessment of Knowledge and Practices regarding Injection Safety and Related Biomedical Waste Management amongst Interns in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Anita Shankar; Priyanka; Khandekar, Jyoti; Bachani, Damodar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries caused by needle sticks and sharps due to unsafe injection practices are the most common occupational hazard amongst health care personnel. The objectives of our study were to determine the existing knowledge and practices of interns and change in their level following an information education and communication (IEC) package regarding safe injection practices and related biomedical waste management and to determine the status of hepatitis B vaccination. We conducted a follow-up study among all (106) interns in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Delhi. A predesigned semistructured questionnaire was used. IEC package in the form of hands-on workshop and power point presentation was used. A highly significant (P effective in significantly improving the interns' knowledge regarding safe injection practices and biomedical waste management. Almost two-thirds of interns were immunised against hepatitis B before the intervention and this proportion rose significantly after the intervention.

  14. Report on best practice for improved μ-IM injection moulding simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Costa, Franco; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    Data analysis and simulations on micro-moulding experiments have been conducted. Micro moulding simulations have been executed taking into account actual processing conditions implementation in the software. Numerous aspects of the simulation set-up have been considered in order to improve the si....... However, the major role of heat transfer coefficient has been highlighted and simulated results in terms of flow length prediction improved. A best practice methodology for improved micro moulding simulations has been established....

  15. Report on best practice for improved μ-IM injection moulding simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Costa, Franco; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    Data analysis and simulations on micro-moulding experiments have been conducted. Micro moulding simulations have been executed taking into account actual processing conditions implementation in the software. Numerous aspects of the simulation set-up have been considered in order to improve the si....... However, the major role of heat transfer coefficient has been highlighted and simulated results in terms of flow length prediction improved. A best practice methodology for improved micro moulding simulations has been established....

  16. Pilot trial of an intervention aimed at modifying drug preparation practices among injection drug users in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Hector M; Finlinson, Henriette A; Negron, Juan; Sosa, Irmaly; Rios-Olivares, Eddy; Robles, Rafaela R

    2009-06-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) contaminate preparation materials with blood-borne pathogens by using syringes as measuring and dispensing devices. In collaboration with IDUs, we developed a preventive intervention consisting of four new preparation practices aimed at avoiding the use of syringes in the preparation, and reducing the contamination of the materials. This report describes the results of a pilot trial introducing the new practices to ascertain their adoption potential and their potential efficacy in reducing contamination. Participants comprised 37 active IDUs among whom the new practices were promoted during 16 weeks. In addition to self-reported behaviors, the study collected cookers and plastic caps from shooting galleries and tested them for the presence of blood residues. Adoption rates were: (1) cleaning of skin area with hand sanitizer--65.6%; (2) directly pouring water with a dropper into the cooker--56.3%; (3) drawing drug solution with a preparation syringe and syringe filter--34.4%; and, (4) backload rinsing syringes--53.1%. Rates of blood residues detected in cookers and plastic caps were 41.7% prior to the trial, 28.6% at week 8, 24.6% at week 14, and 12.0% at week 18. We believe the results of the pilot trial are compelling and suggest that this intervention merits further formal testing.

  17. Enduring Consequences From the War on Drugs: How Policing Practices Impact HIV Risk Among People Who Inject Drugs in Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flath, Natalie; Tobin, Karin; King, Kelly; Lee, Alexandra; Latkin, Carl

    2017-07-03

    Neighborhood-level characteristics, including police activity, are associated with HIV and Hepatitis C injection risk-behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, the pathways through which these neighborhood perceptions shape individual-level HIV risk behaviors are unclear. This study helps to explain perceived behaviors between perceived neighborhood police activity and HIV injection risk behavior (i.e., injection syringe/tool sharing in the previous 6 months). A sample of (n = 366) PWIDs who self-reported recent use were recruited using community-based outreach methods in Baltimore, Maryland. Neighborhood police perceptions were assessed by asking participants whether they would (1) be more likely to ask others to share injection tools in the context of heightened police activity and (2) be less likely to carry syringes with them due to fear of arrest. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to identify statistical relationships. Recent police encounters, frequency of heroin injection, and sociodemographic characteristics were controlled for in the model. Neighborhood police perceptions shaped injection-risk behavior. Half of the sample (49%) reported an aversion of carrying personal syringes, due to fear of arrest. Those who agreed they would be more likely to ask others to share injection equipment in the context of heightened police activity were more likely to share syringes (21% vs. 3%, p police activity (aPR: 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7, 3.0). This study sheds light on how police perceptions may influence injection risk behavior. While these relationships require further elucidation, this study suggests that public health interventions aiming to reduce HIV risk would benefit from improving community-police relationships.

  18. Drug use practices among people who inject drugs in a context of drug market changes: Challenges for optimal coverage of harm reduction programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Élise; Arruda, Nelson; Leclerc, Pascale; Morissette, Carole; Blanchette, Caty; Blouin, Karine; Alary, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Until the early 2000s, people who inject drugs (PWID) in Québec had mainly been injecting powder cocaine and heroin. Since then, ethnographic studies have shown that the drug market has diversified, with crack and prescription opioids (PO) becoming increasingly available. This could have led to changes in drug use practices among PWID. The objectives of our study were to examine annual trends in injection of different drugs, crack smoking and frequent injection (FI), as well as relationships between injected drugs and FI. PWID are participants in the ongoing Québec SurvUDI surveillance system. PWID (past 6 months) were recruited in 2 urban and 6 semi-urban/rural sites. Each visit included a structured interview addressing drug use behaviours. Analyses were carried out using GEE methods. For trend analyses (2003-2014) on drugs and FI (number of injections≥upper quartile, previous month), the first annual interview was selected for PWID with multiple participations per year. Analyses on associations between FI and types of injected drugs were based on all interviews (2004-2014). Crack/cocaine and heroin injection declined significantly, with prevalence ratios (PR) per year of 0.983 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.980-0.986] and 0.979 (95% CI: 0.969-0.990), while PO injection [PR=1.052 (1.045-1.059)], crack smoking [PR=1.006 (1.001-1.012)], and FI (≥120 injections, previous month) significantly increased [PR=1.015 (1.004-1.026)]. Compared to PWID who injected crack/cocaine±other drugs, the proportion of PWID reporting FI was higher among those who injected PO+heroin/speedball, crack/cocaine or other drugs (adjusted PR 2.29; 95% CI: 2.07-2.53) or PO only (aPR 1.72; 95%CI: 1.47-2.01). Changes that have occurred in the drug market are reflected in PWID's practices. The high frequency of injection observed among PO injectors is of particular concern. Drug market variations are a challenge for health authorities responsible for harm reduction programs. Copyright

  19. Knowledge and Self-Reported Practice of Insulin Injection Device Disposal among Diabetes Patients in Gondar Town, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Basazn Mekuria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Incorrect sharp disposal practices may expose the public to needle-stick injuries. The present study aimed at assessing the knowledge and practice of diabetic patients towards insulin injection device disposal in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was employed on insulin requiring diabetes patients who visited the diabetes clinic at Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH from February 1 to March 28, 2016. Frequencies, percentages, and ANOVA (analysis of variance and Student’s t-test were used to analyze variables. Results. About half of the participants (49.5% had poor knowledge towards safe insulin injection waste disposal. More than two-thirds (80.7% of respondents had poor practice and 64.3% of respondents did not put insulin needle and lancets into the household garbage. 31% of respondents threw sharps on street when they travel outside. Respondents living in urban areas had a higher mean of knowledge and practice score than those who live in rural area. Conclusions. This study revealed that knowledge and practice of diabetic patients were low towards safe insulin injection waste disposal in study area. Healthcare providers should also be aware of safe disposing system and counsel patients on appropriate disposal of used syringes.

  20. The wireless internet explained

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoton, John

    2001-01-01

    The Wireless Internet Explained covers the full spectrum of wireless technologies from a wide range of vendors, including initiatives by Microsoft and Compaq. The Wireless Internet Explained takes a practical look at wireless technology. Rhoton explains the concepts behind the physics, and provides an overview that clarifies the convoluted set of standards heaped together under the umbrella of wireless. It then expands on these technical foundations to give a panorama of the increasingly crowded landscape of wireless product offerings. When it comes to actual implementation the book gives abundant down-to-earth advice on topics ranging from the selection and deployment of mobile devices to the extremely sensitive subject of security.Written by an expert on Internet messaging, the author of Digital Press''s successful Programmer''s Guide to Internet Mail and X.400 and SMTP: Battle of the E-mail Protocols, The Wireless Internet Explained describes and evaluates the current state of the fast-growing and crucial...

  1. Model complexity and choice of model approaches for practical simulations of CO2 injection, migration, leakage and long-term fate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celia, Michael A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2016-12-30

    This report documents the accomplishments achieved during the project titled “Model complexity and choice of model approaches for practical simulations of CO2 injection,migration, leakage and long-term fate” funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. The objective of the project was to investigate modeling approaches of various levels of complexity relevant to geologic carbon storage (GCS) modeling with the goal to establish guidelines on choice of modeling approach.

  2. Gender differences in sexual and injection risk behavior among active young injection drug users in San Francisco (the UFO Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer L; Hahn, Judith A; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Lum, Paula J; Stein, Ellen S; Davidson, Peter J; Moss, Andrew R

    2003-03-01

    Female injection drug users (IDUs) represent a large proportion of persons infected with HIV in the United States, and women who inject drugs have a high incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of gender in injection risk behavior and the transmission of blood-borne virus. In 2000-2002, 844 young (<30 years old) IDUs were surveyed in San Francisco. We compared self-reported risk behavior between 584 males and 260 female participants from cross-sectional baseline data. We used logistic regression to determine whether demographic, structural, and relationship variables explained increased needle borrowing, drug preparation equipment sharing, and being injected by another IDU among females compared to males. Females were significantly younger than males and were more likely to engage in needle borrowing, ancillary equipment sharing, and being injected by someone else. Females were more likely than males to report recent sexual intercourse and to have IDU sex partners. Females and males were not different with respect to education, race/ethnicity, or housing status. In logistic regression models for borrowing a used needle and sharing drug preparation equipment, increased risk in females was explained by having an injection partner who was also a sexual partner. Injecting risk was greater in the young female compared to male IDUs despite equivalent frequency of injecting. Overlapping sexual and injection partnerships were a key factor in explaining increased injection risk in females. Females were more likely to be injected by another IDU even after adjusting for years injecting, being in a relationship with another IDU, and other potential confounders. Interventions to reduce sexual and injection practices that put women at risk of contracting hepatitis and HIV are needed.

  3. Effect of corticosteroid injection for trochanter pain syndrome: Design of a randomised clinical trial in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Brinks (Tineke); R.M. van Rijn (Rogier); A.M. Bohnen (Arthur); G.L.J. Slee (Gabriël); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); B.W. Koes (Bart); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Regional pain in the hip in adults is a common cause of a general practitioner visit. A considerable part of patients suffer from (greater) trochanteric pain syndrome or trochanteric bursitis. Local corticosteroid injections is one of the treatment options. Although clear

  4. Effect of corticosteroid injection for trochanter pain syndrome: Design of a randomised clinical trial in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Brinks (Tineke); R.M. van Rijn (Rogier); A.M. Bohnen (Arthur); G.L.J. Slee (Gabriël); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); B.W. Koes (Bart); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Regional pain in the hip in adults is a common cause of a general practitioner visit. A considerable part of patients suffer from (greater) trochanteric pain syndrome or trochanteric bursitis. Local corticosteroid injections is one of the treatment options. Although clear evi

  5. Adopting the Integrative Model of Behaviour Prediction to Explain Teachers' Willingness to Use ICT: A Perspective for Research on Teachers' ICT Usage in Pedagogical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijns, Karel; Vermeulen, Marjan; Kirschner, Paul A.; van Buuren, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) can enable, support, and reinforce the introduction of new pedagogical practices that comply with the educational demands of the twenty-first-century knowledge society. However, despite this potential and despite the delivering of skills-based professional development and the increase in the level of…

  6. Do Income Smoothing Practices Explain the Lower Earnings-Price Ratio of Japanese Firms Compared to Those of the U.S. Firms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Wijaya Kusuma

    2005-01-01

    Another results show that controlling for income smoothing does not eliminate the differences in the earnings-price ratios of the Japanese and U.S. firms. It is appropriate to conclude that although income smoothing plays a role in explaining the variations of earnings-price ratios across Japanese firms, it is not the only factor that contributes to the differences in the earnings-price ratios of Japanese and U.S. firms.  Other factors may play a role which are either country-specific (such as inflationary expectations, tax regimes or firm-specific (such as quality of earnings, real returns as suggested by Brown (1989. The overall results are consistent across samples.

  7. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Removal of Residual Elements in The Steel Ladle by a Combination of Top Slag and Deep Injection Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Street; K.S. Coley; G.A. Iron

    2001-08-31

    The objective of this work was to determine if tin could be removed from liquid steel by a combination of deep injection of calcium and a reducing top-slag practice. The work was carried out in three stages: injection of Ca wire into 35 Kg heats in an induction furnace under laboratory condition; a fundamental study of the solubility of Sn in the slag as a function of oxygen potential, temperature and slag composition; and, two full-scale plant trials. During the first stage, it was found that 7 to 50% of the Sn was removed from initial Sn contents of 0.1%, using 8 to 16 Kg of calcium per tonne of steel. The Sn solubility study suggested that low oxygen potential, high basicity of the slag and lower temperature would aid Sn removal by deep injection of Ca in the bath. However, two full-scale trials at the LMF station in Dofasco's plant showed virtually no Sn removal, mainly because of very low Ca consumption rates used (0.5 to 1.1 Kg/tonne vs. 8 to 16 Kg/tonne used during the induction furnace study in the laboratory). Based on the current price of Ca, addition of 8 to 16 Kg/tonne of steel to remove Sn is too cost prohibitive, and therefore, it is not worthwhile to pursue this process further, even though it may be technically feasible.

  8. Practice of ultrasound-guided arthrocentesis and joint injection, including training and implementation, in Europe: results of a survey of experts and scientific societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandl, Peter; Naredo, Esperanza; Conaghan, Philip G

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To document the practice and training opportunities of US-guided arthrocentesis and joint injection (UGAJ) among rheumatologists in the member countries of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR). Methods. An English-language questionnaire, containing questions on demographics......, clinical and practical aspects of UGAJ, training options in UGAJ for rheumatologists, UGAJ education in the rheumatology training curriculum and other structured education programmes in UGAJ was sent to three different groups: (i) all national rheumatology societies of EULAR; (ii) all national societies...... of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB); and (iii) 22 senior rheumatologists involved in EULAR musculoskeletal US training from 14 European countries, who were also asked to circulate the questionnaire among relevant colleagues. Results. Thirty-three (75%) of 44...

  9. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medroxyprogesterone intramuscular (into a muscle) injection and medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous (under the skin) injection are used to prevent pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which ...

  10. Pentamidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentamidine injection is used to treat pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis carinii. It is in ... Pentamidine injection comes as powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) ...

  11. Insights into fisheries management practices: using the theory of planned behavior to explain fish stocking among a sample of Swiss anglers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lindern, Eike; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Using inadequate management tools often threatens the natural environment. This study focuses on the example of Swiss recreational fishermen (hereafter called "anglers") as recreational fisheries management stakeholders. In recreational fisheries, fish stocking conducted by anglers has been identified as one important factor associated with declining fish catches. We therefore aimed to a) gain insights into why anglers want to maintain fish stocking and b) identify entry points for interventions to promote more pro-ecological management practices. Results (N = 349) showed that the majority of anglers think very uncritically about stocking and that they frequently engage in it. We conclude that outcome expectancies and beliefs about risks, in combination with a lack of stocking success controls are the main reasons that anglers retain stocking measures. We suggest that providing anglers with direct experience and feedback about stocking success is suitable to change their intentions regarding stocking and their actual stocking behavior, and thus, to promote more pro-ecological management methods. From a more general perspective, the results of this study are likely to help improve pro-ecological ecosystem management in other domains where problems similar to those in recreational fisheries management might exist.

  12. Insights into fisheries management practices: using the theory of planned behavior to explain fish stocking among a sample of Swiss anglers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike von Lindern

    Full Text Available Using inadequate management tools often threatens the natural environment. This study focuses on the example of Swiss recreational fishermen (hereafter called "anglers" as recreational fisheries management stakeholders. In recreational fisheries, fish stocking conducted by anglers has been identified as one important factor associated with declining fish catches. We therefore aimed to a gain insights into why anglers want to maintain fish stocking and b identify entry points for interventions to promote more pro-ecological management practices. Results (N = 349 showed that the majority of anglers think very uncritically about stocking and that they frequently engage in it. We conclude that outcome expectancies and beliefs about risks, in combination with a lack of stocking success controls are the main reasons that anglers retain stocking measures. We suggest that providing anglers with direct experience and feedback about stocking success is suitable to change their intentions regarding stocking and their actual stocking behavior, and thus, to promote more pro-ecological management methods. From a more general perspective, the results of this study are likely to help improve pro-ecological ecosystem management in other domains where problems similar to those in recreational fisheries management might exist.

  13. Performance Enhancement of Gas-Turbine Combustor by Active Control of Fuel Injection and Mixing Process - Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Practice Christian Oliver Paschereit* ALSTOM POWER Ltd, AAT-T4 5405 Baden, Switzerland Ephraim Gutmarkt University of Cincinnati, Aerospace Engineering...and Engineering Mechanics Dept. 797 Rhodes Hall, P.O. Box 210070, Cincinnati OH 45221-0070, USA Bruno Schuermansý ALSTOM POWER Ltd, AAT-T4 5405 Baden

  14. Theory versus practice, bacteriological efficiency versus personal habits: A bacteriological and user acceptability evaluation of filtering tools for people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauffret-Roustide, Marie; Chollet, Aude; Santos, Aurélie; Benoit, Thérèse; Péchiné, Séverine; Duplessy, Catherine; Bara, Jean-Louis; Lévi, Yves; Karolak, Sara; Néfau, Thomas

    2017-05-30

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are exposed to associated viral, bacterial and fungal risks. These risks can be reduced by filtration. Large disparities in the quality of filtration exist between the various available filters. This paper compares both performance and user acceptability of three filters for drug injection (cotton filters, Sterifilt(®) and wheel filters) by combining epidemiological and bacteriological analyses. A cross-sectional epidemiological study (ANRS-Coquelicot) using time-location sampling combined with the generalised weight sampling method was conducted among 985 PWID in France. Two filtration-based bacteriological studies of 0.20- and 0.45-μm wheel filters, Sterifilt filters and cotton filters were also conducted. The bacteriological study highlighted the value of using wheel filters with a porosity of less than 0.5 μm, as they limit the risk of bacterial and fungal infection. The results of this study clearly highlight a distinction between the efficiency of Sterifilt and wheel filters, the latter being more effective. Our epidemiological study highlighted that the use of cotton filters is widespread and routine, but is the subject of much criticism among PWID. Sterifilt is not widely used, and its adoption is slow. Finally, the wheel filter remains a largely untested tool. Low product retention and ease of use are the two most important factors for filters for PWID. Bacterial and fungal risk filtration is less important. It is essential to educate PWID about the benefits of wheel filters. [Jauffret-Roustide M, Chollet A, Santos A, Benoit T, Péchiné S, Duplessy C, Bara J-L, Lévi Y, Karolak S, Néfau T. Theory versus practice, bacteriological efficiency versus personal habits: A bacteriological and user acceptability evaluation of filtering tools for people who inject drugs. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Practical experience applied to the design of injection and sample manifolds to perform in-place surveillance tests according to ANSI/ASME N-510

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Wikoff, W.O.; Shaffer, L.L. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    At the current level of maturity and experience in the nuclear industry, regarding testing of air treatment systems, it is now possible to design and qualify injection and sample manifolds for most applications. While the qualification of sample manifolds is still in its infancy, injection manifolds have reached a mature stage that helps to eliminate the {open_quotes}hit or miss{close_quotes} type of design. During the design phase, manifolds can be adjusted to compensate for poor airflow distribution, laminar flow conditions, and to take advantage of any system attributes. Experience has shown that knowing the system attributes before the design phase begins is an essential element to a successful manifold design. The use of a spreadsheet type program commonly found on most personal computers can afford a greater flexibility and a reduction in time spent in the design phase. The experience gained from several generations of manifold design has culminated in a set of general design guidelines. Use of these guidelines, along with a good understanding of the type of testing (theoretical and practical), can result in a good manifold design requiring little or no field modification. The requirements for manifolds came about because of the use of multiple banks of components and unconventional housing inlet configurations. Multiple banks of adsorbers and pre and post HEPA`s required that each bank be tested to insure that each one does not exceed a specific allowable leakage criterion. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Plagiarism explainer for students

    OpenAIRE

    Barba, Lorena A

    2016-01-01

    A slide deck to serve as an explainer of plagiarism in academic settings, with a personal viewpoint. For my students.Also on SpeakerDeck:https://speakerdeck.com/labarba/plagiarism-explainer-for-students(The slide viewer on SpeakerDeck is much nicer.)

  17. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such ... if you are allergic to doripenem injection; other carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem/cilastatin (Primaxin) or meropenem ( ...

  18. Methotrexate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methotrexate injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat gestational trophoblastic tumors (a ... in bones) after surgery to remove the tumor. Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis ( ...

  19. Bendamustine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendamustine injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white ... injection. You should use birth control to prevent pregnancy in yourself or your partner during your treatment ...

  20. Caspofungin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspofungin injection is used in adults and children 3 months of age and older to treat yeast ... people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Caspofungin injection is in a class of antifungal medications ...

  1. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temozolomide is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Temozolomide is in a class of medications called alkylating ... Temozolomide injection comes as a powder to be added to fluid and injected over 90 minutes intravenously ( ...

  2. Pembrolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with ... who have a specific type of melanoma tumor. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain ...

  3. Lacosamide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants like lacosamide injection to treat various conditions during ...

  4. Midazolam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called benzodiazepines. It works by slowing activity in the brain ... breast-feeding.talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of receiving midazolam injection if you ...

  5. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  6. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  7. Etanercept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will be using the prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, tell your doctor if you or the person who will be injecting the medication for you are allergic to rubber or latex.tell your doctor and pharmacist what ...

  8. Cyclosporine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyclosporine injection is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by ... who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat people ...

  9. Estrogen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estradiol cypionate and estradiol valerate forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot ... should consider a different treatment. These forms of estrogen injection are also sometimes used to treat the ...

  10. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefotaxime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory ... skin, blood, bone, joint, and urinary tract infections. Cefotaxime injection may also be used before surgery, and ...

  11. Ustekinumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do not inject into an area where the skin is tender, bruised, red, or hard or where you have scars or stretch marks.Your doctor or pharmacist will ... injection.you should know that ustekinumab injection may decrease your ability ... new or changing skin lesions, minor infections (such as open cuts or ...

  12. Ranitidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranitidine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be mixed with another fluid and injected intravenously (into a vein) over 5 to 20 minutes. Ranitidine may also be injected into a muscle. It is usually given every 6 to 8 hours, but may also be given ...

  13. Computer jargon explained

    CERN Document Server

    Enticknap, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Computer Jargon Explained is a feature in Computer Weekly publications that discusses 68 of the most commonly used technical computing terms. The book explains what the terms mean and why the terms are important to computer professionals. The text also discusses how the terms relate to the trends and developments that are driving the information technology industry. Computer jargon irritates non-computer people and in turn causes problems for computer people. The technology and the industry are changing so rapidly; it is very hard even for professionals to keep updated. Computer people do not

  14. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...

  15. Injection MD

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Drosdal, L; Gianfelice, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Papaphilippou, Y; Vanbavinckhove, G

    2012-01-01

    This note summarizes the results obtained at injection during the 2nd MD block and the floating MD block in July. Highlights are presented for injection in the LHC with the Q20 SPS optics, influence of the supercycle and injection with 25 ns bunch spacing. Beams were successfully injected into the LHC using the Q20 optics [1, 3]. Small corrections were needed to steer the beam in the transfer lines. Dispersion measurements were conducted for both beams. The horizontal normalized dispersion in TI2 was a factor 2 smaller for Q20 with respect to Q26, for TI8 on the other hand the opposite was observed. The results for injection loss dependency on super cycle composition show only a small increase in losses for beam 2. The losses observed must therefore mainly come from other sources such as shot-by-shot stability or quality of scraping. For the injection with 25 ns bunch spacing bunches were injected for both beams. For B1 up to the maximum of 288 bunches. For B2 on the other only up to 144 bunches were injected...

  16. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  17. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  18. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Vujičić, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  19. Explaining "DSM" to Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") is useful for children and families for three practical reasons: (1) It provides a way to communicate about emotional and behavioral problems of youth in a common language; (2) Parents can get an Individual Education Plan (IEP) for a child if that process…

  20. Explaining "DSM" to Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") is useful for children and families for three practical reasons: (1) It provides a way to communicate about emotional and behavioral problems of youth in a common language; (2) Parents can get an Individual Education Plan (IEP) for a child if that process…

  1. Explaining embodied cognition results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoff, George

    2012-10-01

    From the late 1950s until 1975, cognition was understood mainly as disembodied symbol manipulation in cognitive psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and the nascent field of Cognitive Science. The idea of embodied cognition entered the field of Cognitive Linguistics at its beginning in 1975. Since then, cognitive linguists, working with neuroscientists, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists, have been developing a neural theory of thought and language (NTTL). Central to NTTL are the following ideas: (a) we think with our brains, that is, thought is physical and is carried out by functional neural circuitry; (b) what makes thought meaningful are the ways those neural circuits are connected to the body and characterize embodied experience; (c) so-called abstract ideas are embodied in this way as well, as is language. Experimental results in embodied cognition are seen not only as confirming NTTL but also explained via NTTL, mostly via the neural theory of conceptual metaphor. Left behind more than three decades ago is the old idea that cognition uses the abstract manipulation of disembodied symbols that are meaningless in themselves but that somehow constitute internal "representations of external reality" without serious mediation by the body and brain. This article uniquely explains the connections between embodied cognition results since that time and results from cognitive linguistics, experimental psychology, computational modeling, and neuroscience.

  2. Mepolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or do not go away: pain, redness, swelling, warmth, burning, or itching in the place mepolizumab was injected headache dry and itchy skin with or without red, scaly rashes back pain muscle spasms Some side ...

  3. Metoclopramide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and feeling of fullness that lasts long after meals. Metoclopramide injection is also used to prevent nausea ... tranylcypromine (Parnate); narcotic medications for pain; sedatives; sleeping pills; tetracycline (Bristacycline, Sumycin); tranquilizers. Your doctor may need ...

  4. Ramucirumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dose of ramucirumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse if you experience any of the following while you receive ramucirumab: uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body; back pain or spasms; chest pain and tightness; chills; flushing; ...

  5. Alemtuzumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemtuzumab injection is used to treat B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (a slowly developing cancer in which ... of white blood cell accumulate in the body). Alemtuzumab is in a class of medications called monoclonal ...

  6. Ferumoxytol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  7. Fludarabine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludarabine injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white ... a reliable method of birth control to prevent pregnancy during this time. Talk to your doctor for ...

  8. Insulin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or buttocks. Do not inject insulin into muscles, scars, or moles. Use a different site for each ... you are using insulin.Alcohol may cause a decrease in blood sugar. Ask your doctor about the ...

  9. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a person who was not in the hospital), skin infections, and infections of the abdomen (area between the ... that developed in people who were in a hospital or foot infections in people who have diabetes. Tigecycline injection is ...

  10. Golimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimumab injection is used alone or with other medications to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders ( ... did not help or could not be tolerated. Golimumab is in a class of medications called tumor ...

  11. Albiglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will develop tumors of the thyroid gland, including medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). ... symptoms or those listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, stop using albiglutide injection and call your doctor ...

  12. Dexamethasone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body tissues,) gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Dexamethasone injection is also used for diagnostic testing. ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  13. Hydrocortisone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Hydrocortisone injection is also used to treat certain ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  14. Methylprednisolone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Methylprednisolone injection is also used to treat certain ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  15. Glatiramer Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To inject glatiramer, follow these steps: Remove one blister pack from the carton of glatiramer syringes and place ... paper label and remove the syringe from the blister pack. Check your prefilled syringe to be sure it ...

  16. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are ...

  17. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... autoinjector in hot water, microwave, or place in sunlight.Before you use evolocumab injection, look at the ... chills pain or burning during urination muscle or back pain dizziness stomach pain Some side effects can be ...

  18. Cidofovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidofovir injection is used along with another medication (probenecid) to treat cytomegaloviral retinitis (CMV retinitis) in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Cidofovir is in a class of medications called antivirals. ...

  19. Brivaracetam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older. Brivaracetam in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants like brivaracetam injection to treat various conditions during ...

  20. Diphenhydramine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not to use diphenhydramine injection if you are breastfeeding because of the risk of harm to infants.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had asthma or other types of lung disease; glaucoma (a ...

  1. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valve, respiratory tract (including pneumonia), biliary tract, and urinary tract infections. Cefazolin injection also may be used before, during, ... to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website ( ...

  2. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin, blood, bone, joint, female genital tract, and urinary tract infections. Ceftazidime injection is in a class of medications ... to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website ( ...

  3. Fluconazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fungal infections of the eye, prostate (a male reproductive organ), skin and nails. Fluconazole injection is ... Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan); oral contraceptives (birth control pills); oral medication for diabetes such ...

  4. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available.Moxifloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause ... you are allergic to moxifloxacin, other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  5. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available. Levofloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ... severe reaction to levofloxacin; any other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  6. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available. Ciprofloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ... reaction to ciprofloxacin or any other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available in the ...

  7. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  8. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an arm or leg sudden changes in vision pain with eye movement Chloramphenicol injection may cause a condition called gray syndrome in premature and newborn infants. There have also been reports of gray ...

  9. Matlab for engineers explained

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    This book is written for students at bachelor and master programs and has four different purposes, which split the book into four parts: 1. To teach first or early year undergraduate engineering students basic knowledge in technical computations and programming using MATLAB. The first part starts from first principles and is therefore well suited both for readers with prior exposure to MATLAB but lacking a solid foundational knowledge of the capabilities of the system and readers not having any previous experience with MATLAB. The foundational knowledge gained from these interactive guided tours of the system will hopefully be sufficient for an effective utilization of MATLAB in the engineering profession, in education and in research. 2. To explain the foundations of more advanced use of MATLAB using the facilities added the last couple of years, such as extended data structures, object orientation and advanced graphics. 3. To give an introduction to the use of MATLAB in typical undergraduate courses in elec...

  10. Explaining wartime rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context.

  11. Explaining moral religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumard, Nicolas; Boyer, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Moralizing religions, unlike religions with morally indifferent gods or spirits, appeared only recently in some (but not all) large-scale human societies. A crucial feature of these new religions is their emphasis on proportionality (between deeds and supernatural rewards, between sins and penance, and in the formulation of the Golden Rule, according to which one should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself). Cognitive science models that account for many properties of religion can be extended to these religions. Recent models of evolved dispositions for fairness in cooperation suggest that proportionality-based morality is highly intuitive to human beings. The cultural success of moralizing movements, secular or religious, could be explained based on proportionality.

  12. Explaining Management Innovation Pervasiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Mie

    Management innovation is the introduction of new management practices, processes, techniques or organizational structures that significantly alter the way the work of management is performed. This paper examines a particular characteristic of management innovation: i.e. pervasiveness. Based...... on the behavioral theory of the firm, the determinants of firms’ adoption of pervasive management innovations are explored. I find that performance shortfalls have a direct positive effect on the pervasiveness of adopted innovations. Likewise, I find a direct effect of education level, richness of internal...

  13. Conference Interpreting Explained

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖孟姣

    2015-01-01

    This book written by Roderick Jones is easy to read for me.It gives me a bit confidence through reading a book and this time I know a bit about how to read a book quickly.After this,I will read more books about interpreting and translating for my further study.From my perspective,every part of this book consists of three parts,that is,the theory part,the examples part and the concluding part.Through reading this book,I know something about interpreting such as simultaneous interpreting techniques and some actual examples.Anyhow,I still need a lot of practice to improve my English capability.What I have written below is the main content of the fourth part in this book,and the feelings of my reading the book.

  14. Sarilumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the needle. Do not try to warm the medication by heating it in a microwave, placing it in warm water or in direct sunlight, or through any other method.Before injecting, check the prefilled syringe to be sure that the expiration date printed on the package has not passed. Look ...

  15. Enfuvirtide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inject enfuvirtide into any skin that has a tattoo, scar, bruise, mole, a burn site, or has ... Enfuvirtide may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: itching, swelling, pain, tingling, discomfort, ...

  16. Fluorouracil Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer. Treatment with fluorouracil injection may cause serious side effects. ... this medication.If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor ... (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/ ...

  17. Lanreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanreotide injection is used to treat people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features; joint pain; and other symptoms) who have not successfully, or cannot be treated ...

  18. Paliperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body slow movements or shuffling walk painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours cough, chills and/or other signs of infection Paliperidone injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.If you experience a ...

  19. Ziprasidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stiffness falling confusion sweating loss of consciousness painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours Ziprasidone injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while receiving this medication.If you experience a ...

  20. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control slow movements or shuffling walk falling painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours Risperidone extended-release injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while receiving this medication.If you experience a ...

  1. Physiotherapy alone or in combination with corticosteroid injection for acute lateral epicondylitis in general practice: A protocol for a randomised, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmedal Øystein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lateral epicondylitis is a painful condition responsible for loss of function and sick leave for long periods of time. In many countries, the treatment guidelines recommend a wait-and-see policy, reflecting that no conclusions on the best treatment can be drawn from the available research, published studies and meta-analyses. Methods/Design Randomized double blind controlled clinical trial in a primary care setting. While earlier trials have either compared corticosteroid injections to physical therapy or to naproxen orally, we will compare the clinical effect of physiotherapy alone or physiotherapy combined with corticosteroid injection in the initial treatment of acute tennis elbow. Patients seeing their general practitioner with lateral elbow pain of recent onset will be randomised to one of three interventions: 1: physiotherapy, corticosteroid injection and naproxen or 2: physiotherapy, placebo injection and naproxen or 3: wait and see treatment with naproxen alone. Treatment and assessments are done by two different doctors, and the contents of the injection is unknown to both the treating doctor and patient. The primary outcome measure is the patient's evaluation of improvement after 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Secondary outcome measures are pain, function and severity of main complaint, pain-free grip strength, maximal grip strength, pressure-pain threshold, the patient's satisfaction with the treatment and duration of sick leave. Conclusion This article describes a randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trial with a one year follow up to investigate the effects of adding steroid injections to physiotherapy in acute lateral epicondylitis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00826462

  2. Production practice of the coal injection with addition of carbon powder on Tangsteel blast furnace%唐钢高炉喷吹煤粉配加碳粉的生产实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少宁; 司新国; 黄亚玲; 胡金波; 高华

    2016-01-01

    对唐钢高炉喷吹煤粉中配加碳粉进行生产实践研究,研究表明喷吹煤粉中配加5%碳粉能够满足高炉喷吹条件,并且使混煤成本降低6.2元/t。根据高炉日常生产数据的比较分析,喷吹碳粉以后高炉能够稳定顺行,未对高炉日常生产造成不良的影响。%The production practice of the coal injection with addition of carbon powder on Tangsteel blast furnace was researched, the research indicated that coal injection with addition of 5% of the car-bon powder can meet the injection in the blast furnace conditions, and lower the mixed coal cost 6. 2 yuan/t. According to the daily production data of comparative analysis of blast furnace, carbon powder injection after the blast furnace can stabilize anterograde, without adverse effects on the daily produc-tion of blast furnace.

  3. 基于理论与实践一体化的注塑模设计教学改革%Teaching reform for injection mould design based on integration of theory and practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴俊; 龚正朋; 苗景国; 梅军

    2013-01-01

    The injection mould design process and post competence skills were analyzed, and the difference and relation between course training goal and professional training goal were stated. The feasible target, contents and measures of teaching reform were discussed. The curriculum integration of theory and practice for the injection mould design commonly used in mould enterprises was introduced. The good teaching effect was achieved with CAD secondary development software as practical teaching platform and with typical injec-tion mould teaching cases as the supporter.%对企业注塑模设计流程和岗位能力技能进行分析,阐述了课程培养目标与专业培养目标的区别和联系,论述了切实可行的教学改革目标、内容和措施,课程整合注塑模具设计理论与实践的有关内容,引入了模具企业普遍应用的设计方法,将CAD二次开发软件作为实践教学平台,以典型注塑模具案例作为教学载体,取得了较好的教学效果。

  4. Road design and environment : best practice on self-explaining and forgiving roads. Deliverable D3 of the RiPCORD-iSEREST project (Road Infrastructure Safety Protection - Core-Research and Development for Road Safety in Europe; Increasing safety and reliability of secondary roads for a sustainable Surface Transport).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matena, S. Louwerse, W. Schermers, G. Vaneerdewegh, P. Pokorny, P. Gaitanidou, L. Elvik, R. & Cardoso, J.

    2009-01-01

    Main objective of work-package 3 of Ripcord-lserest was to collect information on best practices concerning the design of self-explaining and forgiving roads. In order to gain an overview on existing practises on road categorisation and the layout of typical rural roads a questionnaire survey had

  5. Road design and environment : best practice on self-explaining and forgiving roads. Deliverable D3 of the RiPCORD-iSEREST project (Road Infrastructure Safety Protection - Core-Research and Development for Road Safety in Europe; Increasing safety and reliability of secondary roads for a sustainable Surface Transport).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matena, S. Louwerse, W. Schermers, G. Vaneerdewegh, P. Pokorny, P. Gaitanidou, L. Elvik, R. & Cardoso, J.

    2009-01-01

    Main objective of work-package 3 of Ripcord-lserest was to collect information on best practices concerning the design of self-explaining and forgiving roads. In order to gain an overview on existing practises on road categorisation and the layout of typical rural roads a questionnaire survey had be

  6. Subcutaneous (SQ) injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    SQ injections; Sub-Q injections; Diabetes subcutaneous injection; Insulin subcutaneous injection ... NIH. Giving a subcutaneous injection . Rockville, MD. National ... of Health and Human Services NIH publications; 2015. Available ...

  7. The Three Generations of Flow Injection Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Wang, Jianhua

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of the three generations of flow injection analysis, that is, FIA, sequential injection analysis (SIA), and bead injection-lab-on-valve (BI-LOV), are briefly outlined, their individual advantages and shortcomings are discussed, and selected practical applications are presented....

  8. Periodontal regeneration in swine after cell injection and cell sheet transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells following good manufacturing practice

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Periodontitis, one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in humans, results in the destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of cell injection and cell sheet transplantation on periodontal regeneration in a swine model. Methods In the present study, human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were transplanted into a swine model for periodontal regeneration. Twelve miniature pigs were used to generate periodontitis with bone d...

  9. Butorphanol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 08/31/2016]AUDIENCE: Pharmacy, Internal Medicine, Psychiatry, Neurology, Family PracticeISSUE: FDA review has found that the ... assisted therapy (MAT) drugs used to treat opioid addiction and dependence. FDA is also evaluating whether labeling ...

  10. A global health partnership's use of time-limited support to catalyze health practice change: the case of GAVI's Injection Safety Support.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Levin

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of a GAVI (Global Alliance of Vaccines and Immunization sponsored, time-limited Injection Safety (INS support. The support came in two forms: 1 in-kind, in the form of AD syringes and safety boxes, and 2 in cash, for those countries that already had a secure, multi-year source of AD syringes and safety boxes, but proposed to use INS support to strengthen their injection safety activities. In total, GAVI gave INS support for a three-year period to 58 countries: 46 with commodities and 12 with cash support. To identify variables that might be associated with financial sustainability, frequencies and cross-tabulations were run against various programmatic and socio-economic variables in the 58 countries. All but two of the 46 commodity-recipient countries were able to replace and sustain the use of AD syringes and safety boxes after the end of their GAVI INS support despite the fact that standard disposable syringes are less costly than ADs (10-15 percent differential. In addition, all 12 cash-recipient countries continued to use AD syringes and safety boxes in their immunization programs in the years following GAVI INS assistance. At the same time, countries were often not prepared for the increased waste management requirements associated with the use of the syringes, suggesting the importance of anticipating challenges with the introduction of new technologies. The sustained use of AD syringes in countries receiving injection safety support from GAVI, in a majority of cases through government financing, following the completion of three years of time-limited support, represents an early indication of how GHPs can contribute to improved health outcomes in immunization safety in the world's poorest countries in a sustainable way.

  11. A global health partnership's use of time-limited support to catalyze health practice change: the case of GAVI's Injection Safety Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Ann; Fang, Arnold; Hansen, Peter M; Pyle, David; Dia, Ousmane; Schwalbe, Nina

    2010-09-27

    This paper presents the findings of a study to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of a GAVI (Global Alliance of Vaccines and Immunization) sponsored, time-limited Injection Safety (INS) support. The support came in two forms: 1) in-kind, in the form of AD syringes and safety boxes, and 2) in cash, for those countries that already had a secure, multi-year source of AD syringes and safety boxes, but proposed to use INS support to strengthen their injection safety activities. In total, GAVI gave INS support for a three-year period to 58 countries: 46 with commodities and 12 with cash support. To identify variables that might be associated with financial sustainability, frequencies and cross-tabulations were run against various programmatic and socio-economic variables in the 58 countries. All but two of the 46 commodity-recipient countries were able to replace and sustain the use of AD syringes and safety boxes after the end of their GAVI INS support despite the fact that standard disposable syringes are less costly than ADs (10-15 percent differential). In addition, all 12 cash-recipient countries continued to use AD syringes and safety boxes in their immunization programs in the years following GAVI INS assistance. At the same time, countries were often not prepared for the increased waste management requirements associated with the use of the syringes, suggesting the importance of anticipating challenges with the introduction of new technologies. The sustained use of AD syringes in countries receiving injection safety support from GAVI, in a majority of cases through government financing, following the completion of three years of time-limited support, represents an early indication of how GHPs can contribute to improved health outcomes in immunization safety in the world's poorest countries in a sustainable way.

  12. Groin injecting among a community-recruited sample of people who inject drugs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Lianping; Hayashi, Kanna; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-16

    Use of the femoral vein for the injection of illicit drugs (i.e. groin injecting) has been linked to various health-related harms, including deep vein thrombosis. However, little is known about the prevalence of groin injecting and factors that predict this practice among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Thailand. We sought to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with groin injecting in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were derived from the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok between July and October 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with groin injecting in the last six months. Among 437 participants, 34.3% reported groin injecting in the last six months. In multivariate analyses, factors positively associated with groin injecting included: having higher than secondary education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00 - 2.56), weekly midazolam injection (AOR = 8.26; 95% CI: 5.04 - 14.06), and reports of having had drugs planted on oneself by police (AOR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.37 - 3.36). Over one-third of our sample of Thai PWID reported recent groin injecting. Frequent midazolam injection and higher education were found to be associated with groin injecting. That high intensity PWID were more likely to inject in the groin is concerning given the known negative consequences associated with the groin as a site of injection. Additionally, PWID who reported drug planting by police were more likely to inject in the groin, suggesting that reliance on law enforcement approaches may undermine safe injection practices in this setting. These findings highlight the need for evidence-based interventions to address the harms associated with groin injecting, including efforts to alert PWID to risks of groin injecting, the distribution of appropriate injecting equipment, and efforts to encourage use of other injecting sites.

  13. The Third Injection Technique Workshop In Athens (TITAN)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    The first Injection Technique workshop brought together endocrinologists and injection experts from around the world in Strasbourg in 1997. From its work came groundbreaking recommendations which advanced best practices in areas such as the use of a skin fold when injecting. The second Injection

  14. The Third Injection Technique Workshop In Athens (TITAN)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    2010-01-01

    The first Injection Technique workshop brought together endocrinologists and injection experts from around the world in Strasbourg in 1997. From its work came groundbreaking recommendations which advanced best practices in areas such as the use of a skin fold when injecting. The second Injection Tec

  15. Crystallizations, solid-state phase transformations and dissolution behavior explained by dispersive kinetic models based on a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of activation energies: theory, applications, and practical limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrdla, Peter J

    2009-08-20

    The potential applications of dispersive kinetic models range from solid-state conversions to gas-phase chemical physics and to microbiology. Here, the derivation and application of two such models, for use in solid-state applications, is presented. The models are based on the concept of a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of activation energies. The ability of the models to fit/explain an assortment of asymmetric, sigmoidal conversion-versus-time transients presented in the recent literature, as well as to provide physicochemical interpretations of the kinetics via the two fit parameters, alpha and beta, makes them a powerful tool for understanding nucleation/denucleation rate-limited processes that are involved in many phase transformations, dissolutions and crystallizations.

  16. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  17. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  18. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CT Angiography Video: Myelography Video: CT of the Heart Video: Radioiodine I-131 Therapy Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ...

  19. Explaining nascent entrepreneurship across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship r

  20. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I-131 Therapy Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript ... an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. To learn more about nuclear medicine, visit Radiology Info dot ...

  1. Explaining nascent entrepreneurship across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship r

  2. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  3. Explaining nascent entrepreneurship across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship

  4. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography (Virtual colonoscopy) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! ... colonography or, as it is more commonly known, virtual colonoscopy. Virtual colonoscopy is a diagnostic imaging test ...

  5. Explaining variation in nascent entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship r

  6. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  7. Ovum pick up, intracytoplasmic sperm injection and somatic cell nuclear transfer in cattle, buffalo and horses: from the research laboratory to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Cesare; Duchi, Roberto; Colleoni, Silvia; Lagutina, Irina; Lazzari, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques developed for cattle in the last 25 years, like ovum pick up (OPU), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and somatic cell nuclear transfer, have been transferred and adapted to buffalo and horses. The successful clinical applications of these techniques require both the clinical skills specific to each animal species and an experienced laboratory team to support the in vitro phase of the work. In cattle, OPU can be considered a consolidated technology that is rapidly outpacing conventional superovulation for embryo transfer. In buffalo, OPU represents the only possibility for embryo production to advance the implementation of embryo-based biotechnologies in that industry, although it is still mainly in the developmental phase. In the horse, OPU is now an established procedure for breeding from infertile and sporting mares throughout the year. It requires ICSI that in the horse, contrary to what happens in cattle and buffalo, is very efficient and the only option because conventional IVF does not work. Somatic cell nuclear transfer is destined to fill a very small niche for generating animals of extremely high commercial value. The efficiency is low, but because normal animals can be generated it is likely that advancing our knowledge in that field might improve the technology and reduce its cost.

  8. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kleeven, W

    2006-01-01

    The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.

  9. Explaining Variations in Implementation of EU Directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Versluis

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Uneven implementation of Community law across the European Union is common practice. Differences in implementation of EU directives differences in degree of domestic adjustment are, according to variables identified in the Europeanization literature, to be explained by variations in the degree of fit and the availability of mediating factors. The analysis of the implementation of the Seveso II and Safety Data Sheets Directives in the Netherlands, Germany, the United Kingdom and Spain shows, however, that these identified factors alone do not suffice to explain the observed differences. This article pleas for a closer look at the role of 'issue salience' as a complementary factor that constraints or stimulates the existing mediating factors in the Europeanization literature.

  10. Deliverable 4 of Changing Behaviour. Past 10 year of best and bad practices in demand management. A meta analysis of 27 case studies focusing on conditions explaining success and failure of demand-side management programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourik, R.M.; Backhaus, J.; Feenstra, C.F.J.; Breukers, S. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Heiskanen, E.; Rask, M.; Saastamoinen, M.; Johnson, M. [National Consumer Research Centre NCRC, Helsinki (Finland); Anttonen, M. [Helsinki School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland); Barabanova, Y.; Pariag, J. [Central European University CEU, Budapest (Hungary); Bauknecht, D.; Bern, M.R.; Brohmann, B.; Buerger, V. [Institute for Applied Ecology OEKO, Freiburg (Germany); Hodson, M.; Liang, V.; Marvin, S. [The SURF Centre, University of Salford, Manchester (United Kingdom); Jalas, M.; Rinne, S.; Salminnen, J. [Enespa Ltd. (Finland); Kallaste, T. [Stockholm Environment Institute SEI, Tallinn Centre SEI-T, Tallinn (Estonia); Kamenders, A. [Ekodoma Ltd, Riga (Latvia); Malamatenios, C.; Papandreou, V. [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources CRES, Pikermi Attiki (Greece); Maier, P.; Meinel, H. [Verbraucherzentrale Nordrhein-Westfalen e.V. VZ NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Robinson, S. [Manchester Knowledge Capital MKC, Manchester Enterprises ME, Manchester (United Kingdom); Valuntiene, I. [Cowi Baltic, Vilnius (Lithuania); Vadovics, E. [GreenDependent Sustainable Solutions Association, Magyarorszag (Hungary)

    2009-10-15

    Changing Behaviour is a project that aims to support change in energy use and energy services by applying social research on technological change to practical use. The focus is on the interaction between energy experts and energy users: How can these different groups learn to understand each other better. Demand-side programmes have exhibited a range of more and less successful results, but the reasons for success or failure are not fully understood. Deliverable 4 presents a meta-analysis of 27 case studies from various EU countries. It makes an in-depth analysis of causes for success and failure, with a special focus on the role of context, timing and actors.

  11. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to treat ... in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications ...

  12. Subcutaneous injection technique: an evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston-Tuck, Sherri

    2014-09-23

    Injections are routinely administered by nurses in acute care settings and in the community. Nurses require a thorough understanding of anatomy and physiology, pharmacological principles and equipment, and potential risks to the patient of injections. Nurses should also take an active approach to patient assessment before injecting medicines. This article, the first of two, provides an evidence-based review of injection administration, with particular reference to subcutaneous injections, and suggests a framework for best practice.

  13. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Therapy November 8 is the International Day of Radiology (IDoR) Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your ... Explains CT Colonography (Virtual colonoscopy) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hi, I’m Dr. Elliot ...

  14. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Therapy November 8 is the International Day of Radiology (IDoR) Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! I’m Dr. Ramji ...

  15. Does market competition explain fairness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  16. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allergic to iron dextran injection; any other iron injections such as ferric carboxymaltose (Injectafer), ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit);any other ...

  17. Subcutaneous injection-induced cellulites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kao-Chi; Huang, Po-Tsung; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan

    2017-06-01

    In the hospice ward where patients are in the terminal stages of cancer, it is common practice to give them a subcutaneous injection of pain relievers to reduce their pain and make them more comfortable. Most of these patients are elderly and have low blood pressure or poor veins, which often makes it difficult to inject them because of the calcification at previous injection sites. Thus, subcutaneous injections are a convenient way to maintain analgesia and patient comfort. Our patient, a 73-year-old aboriginal woman, was diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma and peritoneal carcinomatosis in March, 2004. While she was in the inpatient hospice ward, a subcutaneous injection site became infected and localized cellulitis developed. The patient's quality of life began to decline and her hospice stay was lengthened due to these complications. This case is offered as a reference case of subcutaneous injection complications encountered by elderly patients in hospice care. © Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by China Medical University.

  18. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  19. Flow Injection Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    2004-01-01

    This chapter provides an introduction to automated chemical analysis, which essentially can be divided into two groups: batch assays, where the solution is stationary while the container is moved through a number of stations where various unit operations performed; and continuous-flow procedures,......, but it permits thr execution of novel and unique analytical procedures which are difficult or even impossible by conventional means. The performance and applicability of FIA, SI and LOV are illustrated by a series of practical examples.......This chapter provides an introduction to automated chemical analysis, which essentially can be divided into two groups: batch assays, where the solution is stationary while the container is moved through a number of stations where various unit operations performed; and continuous-flow procedures......, where the system is stationary while the solution moves through a set of conduits in which all required manipulations are performed. Emphasis is placed on flow injection analysis (FIA) and its further developments, that is, sequential injection analysis (SIA) and the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach. Since...

  20. Explaining mirror-touch synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) is the conscious experience of tactile sensations induced by seeing someone else touched. This paper considers two different, although not mutually exclusive, theoretical explanations and, in the final section, considers the relation between MTS and other forms of synesthesia and also other kinds of vicarious perception (e.g., contagious yawning). The Threshold Theory explains MTS in terms of hyper-activity within a mirror system for touch and/or pain. This offers a good account for some of the evidence (e.g., from fMRI) but fails to explain the whole pattern (e.g., structural brain differences outside of this system; performance on some tests of social cognition). The Self-Other Theory explains MTS in terms of disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. This can be construed in terms of over-extension of the bodily self in to others, or as difficulties in the control of body-based self-other representations. In this account, MTS is a symptom of a broader cognitive profile. We suggest this meets the criteria for synesthesia, despite the proximal causal mechanisms remaining largely unknown, and that the tendency to localize vicarious sensory experiences distinguishes it from other kinds of seemingly related phenomena (e.g., non-localized affective responses to observing pain).

  1. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipuleucel-T injection is used to treat certain types of advanced prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T injection is in a class of medications called ... Sipuleucel-T injection comes as a suspension (liquid) to be injected over about 60 minutes into a vein ...

  2. Dependency injection with AngularJS

    CERN Document Server

    Knol, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on approach to using dependency injection and implementing test-driven development using AngularJS. Dependency Injection with AngularJS is aimed at developers who are aware of AngularJS but need to get started with using it in real life applications. Also, developers who want to get into test-driven development with AngularJS can use this book as practical guide. Even if you know about dependency injection, it can serve as a good reference on how it is used within AngularJS. Readers are expected to have some experience with JavaScript.

  3. Explaining errors in children's questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F

    2007-07-01

    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that, as predicted by some generativist theories [e.g. Santelmann, L., Berk, S., Austin, J., Somashekar, S. & Lust. B. (2002). Continuity and development in the acquisition of inversion in yes/no questions: dissociating movement and inflection, Journal of Child Language, 29, 813-842], questions with auxiliary DO attracted higher error rates than those with modal auxiliaries. However, in wh-questions, questions with modals and DO attracted equally high error rates, and these findings could not be explained in terms of problems forming questions with why or negated auxiliaries. It was concluded that the data might be better explained in terms of a constructivist account that suggests that entrenched item-based constructions may be protected from error in children's speech, and that errors occur when children resort to other operations to produce questions [e.g. Dabrowska, E. (2000). From formula to schema: the acquisition of English questions. Cognitive Liguistics, 11, 83-102; Rowland, C. F. & Pine, J. M. (2000). Subject-auxiliary inversion errors and wh-question acquisition: What children do know? Journal of Child Language, 27, 157-181; Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. However, further work on constructivist theory development is required to allow researchers to make predictions about the nature of these operations.

  4. Explaining the Evolution of Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive approach for analyzing the evolution of poverty using Mozambique as a case study. Bringing together data from disparate sources, we develop a novel “back-casting” framework that links a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to a micro-simulation poverty module....... This framework provides a new approach to explaining and decomposing the evolution of poverty, as well as to examining rigorously the coherence between poverty, economic growth, and inequality outcomes. Finally, various simple but useful and rarely-applied approaches to considering regional changes in poverty...

  5. Explaining immigrants’ moves into homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    , employment and family situation, and actual changes, but the importance of these factors differ from Danes. Different immigrant groups have a somewhat lower propensity to move into homeownership than Danes, which only to some extent can be explained by differences in income, education and employment. Living...... in social housing and in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods reduces the probability of moving into homeownership. But there are still some unexplained reasons for lower homeownership rate among immigrants. A probable hypothesis is that immigrants are more uncertain about their future employment and income. Some...

  6. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...... capitalism; the social power configuration underpinning the neoliberal order remains unaltered; no clear counter-project has surfaced; the European Commission has been (and remains) in a position to oppose radical changes; and finally, there are no signs of a wider paradigm shift in the EU's regulatory...

  7. Drag material change in hot runner injection molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋炳炎; 黄伯云

    2001-01-01

    Quick material change is often encountered for the different colors or kinds of polymer in hot runner injecting molding process. Time-costing and incompleteness of material change process often affects the quality and productivity of products. In the practical production, multi-injection or white material as the transition material is often adopted for quick material change. Based on the rheological behavior of the new and the previous plastic melt, the researches on the related problems were carried out. The concept of drag material change was originally presented. The physical and mathematical model on the simultaneous flow process of the new and the previous plastic melt in hot runner were built up, which can well explain the influence of the injection speed, pressure, viscosity difference, temperature and mold structure on the drag material change efficiency. When temperature in different position in the mold was increased and adjusted, the viscosity difference between the two kinds of melt can be controlled. Therefore the material change ability can be greatly improved during the whole material change process, getting rid of more and more difficult changing in the late stage.

  8. On Maximal Injectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.

  9. Explaining the harmonic sequence paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ulrich; Zimper, Alexander

    2012-05-01

    According to the harmonic sequence paradox, an expected utility decision maker's willingness to pay for a gamble whose expected payoffs evolve according to the harmonic series is finite if and only if his marginal utility of additional income becomes zero for rather low payoff levels. Since the assumption of zero marginal utility is implausible for finite payoff levels, expected utility theory - as well as its standard generalizations such as cumulative prospect theory - are apparently unable to explain a finite willingness to pay. This paper presents first an experimental study of the harmonic sequence paradox. Additionally, it demonstrates that the theoretical argument of the harmonic sequence paradox only applies to time-patient decision makers, whereas the paradox is easily avoided if time-impatience is introduced.

  10. What explains consciousness? Or…What consciousness explains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulany, Donelson E

    2014-01-01

    In this invited commentary I focus on the topic addressed in three papers: De Sousa's (2013[1617]) Toward an Integrative Theory of Consciousness, a monograph with Parts 1 & 2, as well as commentaries by Pereira (2013a[59]) and Hirstein (2013[42]). All three are impressively scholarly and can stand-and shout-on their own. But theory of consciousness? My aim is to slice that topic into the two fundamentally different kinds of theories of consciousness, say what appears to be an ideology, out of behaviourism into cognitivism, now also influencing the quest for an "explanation of consciousness" in cognitive neuroscience. I will then say what can be expected given what we know of the complexity of brain structure, the richness of a conscious "vocabulary", and current technological limits of brain imaging. This will then turn to the strategy for examining "what consciousness explains"-metatheory, theories, mappings, and a methodology of competitive support, a methodology especially important where there are competing commitments. There are also increasingly common identifications of methodological bias in, along with failures to replicate, studies reporting unconscious controls in decision, social priming-as there have been in perception, learning, problem solving, etc. The literature critique has provided evidence taken as reducing, and in some cases eliminating, a role for conscious controls-a position consistent with that ideology out of behaviourism into cognitivism. It is an ideological position that fails to recognize the fundamental distinction between theoretical and metaphysical assertions.

  11. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Combivir), a medication used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Epoetin alfa injection is also used before ... inject epoetin alfa, as directed by your doctor. Write down the date, time, dose of epoetin alfa ...

  12. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is used to treat Dupuytren's contracture (a painless thickening and tightening of tissue [cord] beneath ... of tissue can be felt upon examination. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is also used to treat Peyronie's ...

  13. Iron Sucrose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called iron ...

  14. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or ICSI, is a form of in vitro fertilization in which fertilization occurs outside of the ... laboratory dish. Within a few hours, a single sperm is injected through a fine needle into the ...

  15. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  16. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  17. Other Injectable Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... July 17, 2013 Last Edited: February 22, 2017 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: cg-infusion-sets,meds-bg-injectables,cg-injection-aids, In this section Treatment and Care Medication Insulin & ...

  18. Injection losses and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Dehning, B; Di Mauro, A; Drosdal, L; Emery, J; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Höfle, W; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Radaelli, S; Shaposhnilova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2012-01-01

    Injection losses are compared for 2010 and 2011 operation. Mitigation techniques which were put in place in 2010 to reduce losses at injection are described. Issues in 2011 operation, their potential improvements and the performance reach for 2012 are shown.

  19. Beam injection into RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  20. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  1. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  2. Paraplegia After Thoracic Epidural Steroid Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomba, Vivek; Kaveeshvar, Hirsh; Dwivedi, Samvid

    2016-09-01

    Epidural steroid injections are a common procedure performed by pain physicians. The American Society of Regional Anesthesia along with several other groups recently provided guidelines for performing epidural injections in the setting of anticoagulants. We present a case of a patient who developed an epidural hematoma and subsequent paraplegia despite strict adherence to these guidelines. Although new guidelines serve to direct practice, risks of devastating neurologic complications remain as evidenced by our case.

  3. Treatment of lipoma by injection lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Soni

    2011-05-01

    Injection lipolysis or lipodissolve is the practice of injecting phosphatidyl choline/ sodium deoxycholate (PDC/DC) compounds in the subcutaneous fat. Though this practice is being used extensively for nonsurgical contouring of body and dissolving localized collections of excess fat, it's use as a treatment modality for lipomas needs further evaluation. We present a case where this technique was used for treating a lipoma, with no recurrence after 9 months of follow up. Injection lipolysis as a treatment modality for lipomas needs to be evaluated for safety and efficacy in trials on larger population. This could prove to be a very valuable adjunct to the current practice of excision, if done by a trained person in a properly selected patient. Also the side effects and the controversies regarding this procedure have been discussed in detail in the present paper.

  4. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... be pregnant What medicines you are taking, including herbs, supplements, and other drugs you bought without a ...

  5. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Injecting Complications and the Role of the Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries participated in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The first results of this survey are published elsewhere in this issue. Herein we report that the most common complication of injecting insulin is lipohypertrophy (LH), which was self-reported by 29.0% of patients and found by physical examination in 30.8% by health care professionals (HCPs). Patients with LH consumed a mean of 10.1 IU more insulin daily than patients without LH. Glycated hemoglobin levels averaged 0.55% higher in patients with vs without LH. Lipohypertrophy was associated with higher rates of unexplained hypoglycemia and glycemic variability as well as more frequent diabetic ketoacidosis, incorrect rotation of injection sites, use of smaller injection zones, longer duration of insulin use, and reuse of pen needles (each P<.05). Routine inspection of injection sites by the HCP was associated with lower glycated hemoglobin levels, less LH, and more correct injection site rotation. Patients were also more likely to rotate correctly if they received injection instructions from their HCP in the past 6 months. Fewer than 40% of patients claimed to have gotten such instructions in the past 6 months, and 10% said that they have never received training on how to inject correctly despite injecting for a mean of nearly 9 years. Use of these data should stimulate renewed commitment to optimizing insulin injection practices.

  6. Underground Injection Control (UIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provide information on: individual injection well classes; regulations specific to each well class; technical guidance; compliance assistance; federal, state, and tribal/territory roles and responsibilities.

  7. Ferric Carboxymaltose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pharmacist if you are allergic to ferric carboxymaltose injection, ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron dextran (Dexferrum, Infed), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit); any other ...

  8. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  9. [Intra-articular injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Ch

    2015-09-01

    It is not unusual for a specialist or general practitioner to be presented with a pathology which necessitates the use of an intra-articular injection of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid or a local anaesthetic. It would seem to be interesting to update and to precise the techniques and methods of intraarticular injections which have appeared in recent international publications, when we know that 30 % of the injections given into the knee and so called "dry" are incorrect and, therefore, inefficient. The indication of an articular injection depends, firstly, on the diagnosis which should be done with great care; after which should be an objective analysis complete with secondary effects linked to both the injection and the product used. The conditions of asepsis, the choice of needles and quantities of the injection and even the ways of the injections should be reviewed in detail. The last studies clearly question the secondary effects of the cartilage degradations of the cortisone given as an intra-articular injection and shows its efficiency on the pain and inflammatory phenomonen in osteoarthritis. Studies on hyaluronic acid are often contradictory going from a modest result to an important pain relief but it is necessary to be aware that the objective criteria are difficult to interpret. The use of local anaesthetics in intra-articular is limited by the few indications in view of the major risk of aggravating the pre-existing lesions by the disappearing signs of pain.

  10. Injection of Deuterium Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Andersen, P.; Andersen, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Some details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated...

  11. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.P. Acthar Gel® ... Corticotropin repository injection comes as a long acting gel to inject under the skin or into a ... prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, or herbal products you are taking or plan to take. ...

  12. Separably injective Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Avilés, Antonio; Castillo, Jesús M F; González, Manuel; Moreno, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    This monograph contains a detailed exposition of the up-to-date theory of separably injective spaces: new and old results are put into perspective with concrete examples (such as l∞/c0 and C(K) spaces, where K is a finite height compact space or an F-space, ultrapowers of L∞ spaces and spaces of universal disposition). It is no exaggeration to say that the theory of separably injective Banach spaces is strikingly different from that of injective spaces. For instance, separably injective Banach spaces are not necessarily isometric to, or complemented subspaces of, spaces of continuous functions on a compact space. Moreover, in contrast to the scarcity of examples and general results concerning injective spaces, we know of many different types of separably injective spaces and there is a rich theory around them. The monograph is completed with a preparatory chapter on injective spaces, a chapter on higher cardinal versions of separable injectivity and a lively discussion of open problems and further lines o...

  13. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    effects of DME in high pressure injection have also been observed. DME has a higher compressibility than diesel fuel, resulting in larger pressure oscillations in the injection system during the injection process. The oscillations with DME also have a slower delay rate than those of diesel fuel......A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump...... in the same system. As a first attempt to simulate combustion of DME in Diesel engines, the results of the spray studies have been incorporated into a simplified spray combustion model. A turbulent jet structure was adjusted to fit the penetration rates of the observed sprays. The observed spray widths agreed...

  14. Harm reduction for injecting opiate users: an update and implications in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma-ja MEISE; Xi WANG; Marie-Luise SAUTER; Yan-ping BAO; Jie SHI; Zhi-min LIU; Lin LU

    2009-01-01

    The harm associated with high-risk injected opiate use and the threat of the HIV epidemic among injecting drug users has become a worldwide problem. Twenty years ago, in the face of a rapid increase in mortality rates among injecting drug users and the upcoming threat of HW, the first harm-reduction programs were implemented in the Western world. This paper is a literature review describing four forms of harm reduction currently in use in Europe, North America, and Australia. Each represents a reasonable counterapproach to the threat of increased prevalence of HIV among injecting drug users in transitional and developing countries. The paper attempts to explain the concepts behind the most commonly used types of harm reduction and provides a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of each and the reasons for their implementation. The main focus of the review is on the definition and the practical aspects of harm reduction; it includes a brief introduction of Chinese harm-reduction efforts and their implications.

  15. Optimizing reversible simulation of injective functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2012-01-01

    of the computation and uncomputation steps for a class of injective programs. A practical consequence is that the reversible simulation runs twice as fast as Bennett’s simulation. The proposed method is demonstrated by developing lossless encoders and decoders for run-length encoding and range coding. The range...

  16. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...... index of the nanostructured surfaces was estimated from atomic force micrographs and the theoretical reflectance was calculated using the transfer matrix method and effective medium theory. The measured reflectance shows good agreement with the theory of graded index antireflective nanostructures...

  17. ALICE Injected Beam Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE (point 2) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for ALICE are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the ALICE vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  18. LHCb Injected Beam Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb (point 8) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for LHCb are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the LHCb vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  19. Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

    2013-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed.

  20. Characteristics explaining performance in downhill mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidley, Joel B; MacGregor, Alexandra L; Martin, Caoimhe; Arthur, Calum A; Macdonald, Jamie H

    2015-03-01

    To identify physiological, psychological, and skill characteristics that explain performance in downhill (DH) mountain-bike racing. Four studies were used to (1) identify factors potentially contributing to DH performance (using an expert focus group), (2) develop and validate a measure of rider skill (using video analysis and expert judge evaluation), (3) evaluate whether physiological, psychological, and skill variables contribute to performance at a DH competition, and (4) test the specific contribution of aerobic capacity to DH performance. STUDY 1 identified aerobic capacity, handgrip endurance, anaerobic power, rider skill, and self-confidence as potentially important for DH. In study 2 the rider-skill measure displayed good interrater reliability. Study 3 found that rider skill and handgrip endurance were significantly related to DH ride time (β=-0.76 and -0.14, respectively; R2=.73), with exploratory analyses suggesting that DH ride time may also be influenced by self-confidence and aerobic capacity. Study 4 confirmed aerobic capacity as an important variable influencing DH performance (for a DH ride, mean oxygen uptake was 49±5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), and 90% of the ride was completed above the 1st ventilatory threshold). In order of importance, rider skill, handgrip endurance, self-confidence, and aerobic capacity were identified as variables influencing DH performance. Practically, this study provides a novel assessment of rider skill that could be used by coaches to monitor training and identify talent. Novel intervention targets to enhance DH performance were also identified, including self-confidence and aerobic capacity.

  1. Downsizing - explaining its persistence and managing the consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Organizational downsizing has been a popular management practice for years although its consequences are largely negative for both organizations and humans. Nevertheless, there is a lack of research considering the questions of why downsizing still persists although empirical evidence contradicts its effectiveness and what can be done to manage the negative consequences of layoffs. This dissertation addressed these research gaps and explored the role of individual cognition for explaining the...

  2. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injected into a muscle, it blocks the nerve signals that cause uncontrollable tightening and movements of the ... any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.if ...

  3. Amphotericin B Liposomal Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lining of the spinal cord and brain) and visceral leishmaniasis (a parasitic disease that usually affects spleen, ... complex injection: fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, flushing, back pain with or without chest tightness, chest pain, shortness ...

  4. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    To the right is the PS ring viewed along the direction of the protons. At the left the injection line coming from the 50 MeV Linac 1 (bottom) and going towards the 800 MeV booster, or deflected to the right to be injected directly into straight section 16. The drumlike element behind the (blue) dipole magnet is a 'debuncher' (a 200 MHz cavity). See photos 7409014X and 7409009.

  5. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  6. Explaining the Allocation of Regional Structural Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    What regional factors can explain the heterogeneity in Structural Funds distribution to European Union regions? Past studies have shown that aside from the level of economic development and rates of unemployment, other political, and economic factors systematically explain why certain European...

  7. The Analysis of two-months effects of muscle stretching. Immediately following injection of methyl prednisolon

    OpenAIRE

    L. Bidkoli; A.H. Yazdani; A.R.Moghtaderi; Sh. Mirshams,; M.R. Emad

    2008-01-01

    AbstractBackground and Purpose: Trigger points have been described as causing pain in clinical practice and are a common source of musculoskeletal pain. Trigger point injection can effectively inactivate the trigger points and provide symptomatic relief. Efficacy of injection in the treatment of trigger points depends strongly on the technique of trigger point injection. This study compares muscle stretching immediately after injection of methyl prednisolon vs. injection without stretching in...

  8. Residual stress distribution in injection molded parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Postawa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the results of the investigations of influence of the amorphous polystyrene (PSprocessing on the diversity of the internal stresses observed in the injection moulded piece.Design/methodology/approach: For the tests, the standardized mould piece designed for the investigations ofthe processing shrinkage of thermoplastics materials has been used. The samples have been prepared using theDesign of Experiment (DoE theory.The state of internal stresses has been analysed by means of photoelastic method (used stress viewer equipmenton the basis of the layout and size of the isochromatics (fields with the same colour, which determine the mouldpiece’s areas where the same value for the difference of main tensions. In the article the results of investigationsof influence of 5 chosen processing parameters such as injection temperature Tw, mould temperature Tf,clamping pressure pd, cooling time tch and the injection speed vw on the changes in isochromatics layout as adeterminant for diversity of internal stresses in injection moulded pieces have been presented.Findings: The performed investigations of the influence of injection conditions on the state of internal stressesreached for injection mould pieces were to determine the parameters of injection at which the achieved state ofthe stresses in the mould piece (described by the difference of main tensions will show the lowest values.Practical implications: Effects of examinations of influence of processing conditions on residual stress ininjection molded parts (presented in the article could find practical application in polymer industry, both smalland large enterprises.Originality/value: New approach to fast estimation of value of residual stresses were present in the paper.

  9. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; MacLennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Glidewell, Liz; Pitts, Nigel B; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Walker, Anne; Johnston, Marie

    2012-10-17

    In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays) of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM). We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT), a measure of Implementation Intentions (II), and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures) and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior) by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources) were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of the five surveys. For the predictor variables

  10. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. Methods These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM. We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT, a measure of Implementation Intentions (II, and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Results Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of

  11. Impact de l'utilisation des strategies d'injection multiple et de biodiesel sur un moteur diesel a rampe commune d'injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Etienne

    Using biodiesel/diesel fuel blends and multiple injection strategies in diesel engines have shown promising results in improving the trade-off relationship between nitrous oxides and particulate matters, but their effects are still not completely understood. In this context, this thesis focuses on the characterization of the multiple injection strategies and biodiesel impacts on pollutant emissions, performances and injection system behavior. To reach this goal, an experimental campaign on a diesel engine was performed and a model simulating the injection process was developed. The engine tests at low load with pilot injection allowed the reduction of NOx emissions up to 27% and those of PM up to 22.3% compared to single injection, provided that a precise tuning of the injection parameters was previously realized. This simultaneous reduction is explained by the reduction of the premixed combustion phase and injected fuel quantity during principal injection when a pilot injection is used. With triple injection for the tested engine load, the post-injection did not result in PM reduction since it contributes by itself to the PM production while the preinjection occurred too soon to burn conveniently and caused perturbations in the injection system as well. Using B20 blend in single injection caused a PM increase and a NOx reduction which might be explained by the poorer fuel atomization. However, pilot injection with B20 allowed to get a simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM, as observed with diesel. An injection simulation model was also developed and experimentally validated for different injection pressures as well as different energizing times and dwell times. When comparing the use of biodiesel with diesel, simulation showed that there was a critical energizing time for which both fuels yielded the same injection duration. For shorter energizing times, the biodiesel injection duration was shorter than for diesel, while longer energizing times presented the

  12. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  13. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  14. Health and safety risks associated with public injecting among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Leslie Tze Fung; Ti, Lianping; Hayashi, Kanna; Suwannawong, Paisan; Kaplan, Karyn; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The injection of illicit drugs in public spaces is known to pose significant health risks to people who inject drugs (IDU). However, to our knowledge this practice has not been explored in the Asian context. Therefore, we sought to characterise the prevalence of and factors associated with public injecting among a community-recruited sample of IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were derived from the Mitsampan Community Research Project between July and October 2011. Using multivariate logistic regression, this cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and correlates of public injecting within the past six months among 437 IDU participants. In total, 121 (27.7%) participants reported injecting drugs in a public space within the past six months. In multivariate analyses, public drug injection was independently associated with male gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.51, 95% confidence interval (CI)) 1.29-5.22], weekly heroin injection (AOR 2.19, 95% CI 1.27-3.77), assisted injection (AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.06-3.49), rushed injection (AOR 4.36, 95% CI 2.65-7.24), incarceration (AOR 2.27, 95% CI 1.01-5.04) and noticing police presence where drugs are bought or used (AOR 1.83, 95% CI 1.06-3.19). A substantial proportion of Thai IDU in our sample reported recent public drug injection. This behaviour was independently associated with a wide range of individual and contextual factors that pose significant health and safety risks to the IDU. These findings highlight the importance of addressing the broader social and physical risk environment surrounding IDU as a means of preventing negative health outcomes among this population. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I-131 Therapy Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography ( ... pictures of the major blood vessels throughout your body. It may be performed with or without contrast ...

  16. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  17. Design and validation of a simulator for equine joint injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Victoria; Sinclair, Charlotte; Bolt, David M; Lowe, John; Weller, Renate

    2013-01-01

    Joint injections are commonly used in equine practice for diagnosis and treatment of joint disorders. Performing joint injections is hence an essential skill for equine practitioners. However, opportunities for veterinary students to practice this skill are often scarce in veterinary curricula. The aim of this study was to design and validate an equine joint injection simulator. We hypothesized that the simulator will enhance student ability and confidence in performing joint injections. The simulator was constructed around an equine forelimb skeleton with soft tissues rebuilt using building foam and rubber bands. An electrical circuit including a buzzer, a battery, wire wool in the joints, and a hypodermic needle at the end of the cable was incorporated. If the students placed the needle into the joint correctly, instant auditory feedback was provided by the buzzer. To validate the simulator, 45 veterinary students were allocated to three groups: cadaver limb, textbook, or simulator. Students' ability to perform joint injections was tested and students' opinions were evaluated with a questionnaire. The proportion of students performing a metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint injection correctly was significantly higher in the cadaver (93%) and simulator (76%) groups compared to the textbook group (50%). There was no significant difference between groups for performing a distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint injection correctly. Students rated the learning experience with the cadaver and simulator group high and with the textbook group low. The joint injection simulator represents an affordable teaching aid that allows students to repeatedly practice this skill in their own time with immediate feedback.

  18. Policing behaviors, safe injection self-efficacy, and intervening on injection risks: Moderated mediation results from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Patterson, Thomas L; Abramovitz, Daniela; Vera, Alicia; Martinez, Gustavo; Staines, Hugo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    We aim to use conditional or moderated mediation to simultaneously test how and for whom an injection risk intervention was efficacious at reducing receptive needle sharing among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSWs-IDUs) in Mexico. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial. A total of 300 FSW-IDUs participated in Mujer Mas Segura in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and were randomized to an interactive injection risk intervention or a didactic injection risk intervention. We measured safe injection self-efficacy as the hypothesized mediator and policing behaviors (being arrested and syringe confiscation) as hypothesized moderators. In total, 213 women provided complete data for the current analyses. Conditional (moderated) mediation showed that the intervention affected receptive needle sharing through safe injection self-efficacy among women who experienced syringe confiscation. On average, police syringe confiscation was associated with lower safe injection self-efficacy (p = .04). Among those who experienced syringe confiscation, those who received the interactive (vs. didactic) intervention reported higher self-efficacy, which in turn predicted lower receptive needle sharing (p = .04). Whereas syringe confiscation by the police negatively affected safe injection self-efficacy and ultimately injection risk behavior, our interactive intervention helped to "buffer" this negative impact of police behavior on risky injection practices. The theory-based, active skills building elements included in the interactive condition, which were absent from the didactic condition, helped participants' self-efficacy for safer injection in the face of syringe confiscation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Energy optimization aspects by injection process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, A.; Ciortea, M.; Hutanu, C.; Farcas, V.

    2016-08-01

    In the proposed paper, the authors examine the energy aspects related to the injection moulding process technology in the automotive industry. Theoretical considerations have been validated by experimental measurements on the manufacturing process, for two types of injections moulding machines, hydraulic and electric. Practical measurements have been taken with professional equipment separately on each technological operation: lamination, compression, injection and expansion. For results traceability, the following parameters were, whenever possible, maintained: cycle time, product weight and the relative time. The aim of the investigations was to carry out a professional energy audit with accurate losses identification. Base on technological diagram for each production cycle, at the end of this contribution, some measure to reduce the energy consumption were proposed.

  20. [Abdomen pendulum and subcutaneous injections: the complications. Two case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhaim, T; Sinna, R; Garson, S; Boloorchi, A; Crozet, C; Robbe, M

    2007-06-01

    The authors present the complications due to subcutaneous injections on two patients suffering from morbid obesity with an abdomen pendulum. In the first case, injections of heparin of low molecular weight at curative dose, for treatment of a pulmonary embolism, have been complicated with a giant abdominal wall haematoma, the biggest ever reported. The initial treatment was insufficient so we had to practice a dermolipectomy to take off the haematoma of four litters. In the second case, insulin injections were complicated with cellulitis of the abdominal wall and a surgical treatment has been practiced in emergency. The first case reminds us the importance to change the sites of injections and to accommodate the dose, surgical treatment staying as simple as possible. The second case allows us to report a rare complication, not often published but known with obese patients. These two cases illustrate the importance of therapeutic education of the patient and the fact that a simple injection can be life threatening.

  1. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sperm must attach to the outside of the egg. Once attached, the sperm pushes through the outer layer to the inside ... in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help fertilize the egg. During ICSI, a single sperm is injected directly into the cytoplasm the egg. ...

  2. Water injection dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and

  3. Giving an insulin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an alcohol wipe on your injection site. The insulin needs to go into the fat layer under the skin. Pinch the skin and put the needle in at a 45º angle. If your tissues are thick enough, you may be able to ...

  4. Development and validation of a novel scale for measuring interpersonal factors underlying injection drug using behaviours among injecting partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Neilands, Torsten B; Andrew, Erin; Maher, Lisa; Page, Kimberly A; Hahn, Judith A

    2017-10-01

    People who inject drugs with sexual partners or close friends have high rates of syringe/ancillary equipment sharing and HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Although evidence suggests that interpersonal factors underlie these higher risk profiles, there is no quantitative measure of how interpersonal factors operate within injecting relationships. We aimed to develop and validate a quantitative scale to assess levels of injecting drug-related interpersonal factors associated with risky injecting behaviours within injecting partnerships. We conducted qualitative interviews with 45 people who inject drugs (PWID) who reported having injecting partners to inform item development, and tested these items in a quantitative study of 140 PWID from San Francisco, USA, to assess internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha) and validity (convergent, and discriminant validity). With results from the qualitative interview data, we developed the Interpersonal Dynamics in Injecting Partnerships (IDIP) scale with 54 final items for 5 subscales of injecting-related interpersonal factors. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 5 factors ("trust", "power", "risk perception", "intimacy", and "cooperation") with eigenvalues of 14.32, 6.18, 3.55, 2.46, and 2.14, explaining 57% of the variance, and indicating good internal reliability (alpha: 0.92-0.68). Strong convergent validity was observed in bivariate logistic regression models where higher levels of trust, intimacy, and cooperation within partnerships were positively associated with partners sharing needles and injecting equipment, whereas higher levels of power and risk perception were negatively associated with partners sharing needles and injecting equipment. These findings offer strong evidence that the IDIP scale provides a psychometrically sound measure of injecting drug-related interpersonal dynamics. This measurement tool has the potential to facilitate additional investigations into the individual and collective impact of

  5. Thai visitors' expectations and experiences of explainer interaction within a science museum context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamolpattana, Supara; Chen, Ganigar; Sonchaeng, Pichai; Wilkinson, Clare; Willey, Neil; Bultitude, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In Western literature, there is evidence that museum explainers offer significant potential for enhancing visitors' learning through influencing their knowledge, content, action, behaviour and attitudes. However, little research has focused on the role of explainers in other cultural contexts. This study explored interactions between visitors and museum explainers within the setting of Thailand. Two questionnaires were distributed to 600 visitors and 41 museum explainers. The results demonstrated both potential similarities and differences with Western contexts. Explainers appeared to prefer didactic approaches, focussing on factual knowledge rather than encouraging deep learning. Two-way communication, however, appeared to be enhanced by the use of a 'pseudo-sibling relationship' by explainers. Traditional Thai social reserve was reduced through such approaches, with visitors taking on active learning roles. These findings have implications for training museum explainers in non-Western cultures, as well as museum communication practice more generally. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Thai visitors’ expectations and experiences of explainer interaction within a science museum context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ganigar; Sonchaeng, Pichai; Wilkinson, Clare; Willey, Neil; Bultitude, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In Western literature, there is evidence that museum explainers offer significant potential for enhancing visitors’ learning through influencing their knowledge, content, action, behaviour and attitudes. However, little research has focused on the role of explainers in other cultural contexts. This study explored interactions between visitors and museum explainers within the setting of Thailand. Two questionnaires were distributed to 600 visitors and 41 museum explainers. The results demonstrated both potential similarities and differences with Western contexts. Explainers appeared to prefer didactic approaches, focussing on factual knowledge rather than encouraging deep learning. Two-way communication, however, appeared to be enhanced by the use of a ‘pseudo-sibling relationship’ by explainers. Traditional Thai social reserve was reduced through such approaches, with visitors taking on active learning roles. These findings have implications for training museum explainers in non-Western cultures, as well as museum communication practice more generally. PMID:24751689

  7. Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Khatkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key conditions for achieving the desirable result during botulinum toxin therapy for muscular dystonia, spasticity, and other diseases accompanied by spasm, pain, and autonomic dysfunction (dystonias, spasticity, etc. is the proper administration of the agent into the muscles directly involved in the pathological process. The exact entry of botulinum toxin into the target muscles is essential for successful and safe treatment because its injection into a normal muscle may cause side effects. The most common errors are the incorrect depth and incorrect direction of a needle on insertion. Therefore, the exact injection of the agent particularly into the shallow and deep muscles is a difficult task even for an experienced specialist and requires the use of controlling methods.The European Consensus on Botulinum Toxin Therapy points out that various injection techniques are needed for the better identification of necessary muscles. However, there are currently no reports on the clear advantage of any technique. In our country, injections using palpation and anatomical landmarks have been widely used in routine practice so far; electromyographic monitoring and electrostimulation have been less frequently applied. In recent years, the new method ultrasound-guided injection has continued to grow more popular. This effective, accessible, and easy-to-use method makes it possible to manage a real-time injection process and to ensure the exact entry of the agent into the muscle. This paper is dedicated to a comparative analysis of different injection methods and to a description of the ultrasound-guided technique and its advantages over others. 

  8. Explaining NDVI trends in northern Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Fensholt, Rasmus; Fog, Bjarne;

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown a ‘greening of the Sahel’ on the basis of analysis of time series of satellite images and this has shown to be, at least partly, explained by changes in rainfall. In northern Burkina Faso, an area stands out as anomalous in such analysis, since it is characterized by a dis......Many studies have shown a ‘greening of the Sahel’ on the basis of analysis of time series of satellite images and this has shown to be, at least partly, explained by changes in rainfall. In northern Burkina Faso, an area stands out as anomalous in such analysis, since it is characterized...... by a distinct spatial pattern and strongly dominated by negative trends in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The aim of the paper is to explain this distinct pattern. When studied over the period 2000–2012, using NDVI data from the MODIS sensor the spatial pattern of NDVI trends indicates that non...

  9. Impact of injection speed and volume on perceived pain during subcutaneous injections into the abdomen and thigh: a single-centre, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, T; Nosek, L; Dellweg, S; Zijlstra, E; Præstmark, K A; Kildegaard, J; Nielsen, G; Sparre, T

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess pain associated with subcutaneous injection into the abdomen and thigh of different combinations of injection speeds and volumes. The study was a single-centre, one-visit, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial in 82 adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes receiving daily injections of insulin or glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists. Participants received 17 subcutaneous injections (12 in abdomen, 5 in thigh) of saline at different injection speeds (150, 300 and 450 µl/s), with different volumes (400, 800, 1200 and 1600 µl), and two needle insertions without any injection. Pain was evaluated on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) (0 mm no pain, 100 mm worst pain) and on a yes/no scale for pain acceptability. Injection speed had no impact on injection pain (p = 0.833). Injection of larger volumes caused significantly more pain [VAS least square mean differences 1600 vs. 400 µl, 7 · 2 mm (95% confidence interval - CI; 4.6-9.7; p Injection speed had no effect on injection pain, whereas higher injection volumes caused more pain. The results of this study may be of value for guiding patients to use the appropriate injection site and technique to reduce their injection pain. Furthermore, these findings may have important implications for the development of new injection devices and drug formulations for clinical practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  11. SPS injection kicker magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    One of the first-generation SPS injection kicker magnets, view of the complete tank. First proton beam from the PS was injected into the SPS in 1976, at a beam momentum of 10 GeV/c. These kickers served until the end of 1979 and were replaced at the beginning of 1980 by stronger ones, in preparation for the SPS as a proton-antiproton collider. For this, transfer momentum from the PS to the SPS was raised to 26 GeV/c, so as to avoid acceleration of the dense p and pbar bunches through SPS transition energy. Bearded Roland Tröhler is at the left, Giacomo Busetta smiles at the right. See also 7502073X, 7502074X and Annual Report 1975, 162.

  12. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Looking against the direction of protons in the main ring (left): the beam coming from the linac 1 either goes to the booster (on the right) or is deflected towards the PS to be directly injected into section 26 (facing the camera). Also shown the start of the TT2 line, ejected from straight section 16 to go towards the ISR passing over the beam line from the linac. (see Photo Archive 7409009)

  13. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  14. Injection-induced earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  15. Research of the fulfillment of medical staffs’ explaining obligation to the cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毓倩; 李航

    2015-01-01

    It’s always a dilemma between medical staffs’ explaining obligation and patients’ informed consent right,especially right for cancer patients.In recent years,as the cancer incidence has increased and showed younger trend,how to fulfill explaining obligation to cancer patient has become a topic worth studying.This article emphasizes particularly on the concrete measures of how to fulfill explaining obligation to cancer patients,in the hope that cancer patients can be treated with dignity,medical staffs’ lawful rights can be protected and medical disputes caused during this progress can be properly solved through the practice of medical staffs’ scientific explaining.

  16. Explaining the Sex Difference in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Anne B.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Peterson, Robin L.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Males are diagnosed with dyslexia more frequently than females, even in epidemiological samples. This may be explained by greater variance in males' reading performance. Methods: We expand on previous research by rigorously testing the variance difference theory, and testing for mediation of the sex difference by cognitive correlates.…

  17. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Therapy November 8 is the International Day of Radiology (IDoR) Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your ... Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello, I’m Dr. Elliot ...

  18. Measuring and explaining house price developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses ways of measuring and explaining the development of house prices. The goal of the research underpinning this dissertation was to develop a methodological framework for studying these developments. This framework relates, first, to correcting for changes in the composition of swe

  19. Measuring and explaining house price developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses ways of measuring and explaining the development of house prices. The goal of the research underpinning this dissertation was to develop a methodological framework for studying these developments. This framework relates, first, to correcting for changes in the composition of dwe

  20. Factors Explaining Faculty Technology Use and Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonghong; Meyer, Katrina A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines factors related to technology use in teaching by university faculty. An EFA analysis of multiple questions of technology use in the classroom found two factors: one loaded with Web use and the second with email use. Therefore, three research questions were asked: What factors explain faculty use of the Web or email? Are these…

  1. Students Explain the Value of CTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the winning essays of the Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest are presented. In the two winning essays, the authors describe how to explain the value of career and technical education (CTE) to a new student. Shi Meicheng, Secondary Winner, states that CTE has provided her with a toolbox for success while Ginnie Bushong,…

  2. Differentiated Success: Combining Theories to Explain Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn; Larkin, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the value of different paradigms to explain dispositions towards mathematics among primary school students from different social backgrounds. As part of a larger project designed to elicit students' thinking and attitudes towards mathematics, we seek to develop an explanatory model for the socially-differentiated outcomes in…

  3. A theoretical framework for explaining agent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    To understand emergent processes in multi-agent-based simulations it is important to study the global processes in a simulation as well as the processes on the agent level. The behavior of individual agents is easier to understand when they are able to explain their own behavior. In this paper, a

  4. Explaining Autism: Its Discursive and Neuroanatomical Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, John W., Jr.; Rascon, Dana

    This paper reviews the existing empirical research on autism in the context of the semiotic theories of Charles S. Peirce. His ideas of the generalized logic of relations are seen as explaining the unusual associations (or lack thereof) in autism. Concepts of "indices" or signs singling out distinct objects, and "adinity" or…

  5. Explaining High Abilities of Nobel Laureates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavinina, Larisa

    2004-01-01

    Although the Nobel Prize is associated with a rare, superior degree of intellectually creative achievement, high abilities of Nobel laureates are far from well explained. This paper argues that Nobel laureates' high abilities are determined in part by their extracognitive abilities, that is, specific feelings, preferences, beliefs and intuitive…

  6. Explaining quality of life with crisis theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, M.A.G.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the premises of crisis theory. we expected cancer patients in-crisis to report a poorer quality of life (QL) and cancer patients post-crisis to report a similar level of overall QL in comparison to healthy individuals. To explain these hypothesized findings, we expected the coping resources

  7. A theoretical framework for explaining agent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    To understand emergent processes in multi-agent-based simulations it is important to study the global processes in a simulation as well as the processes on the agent level. The behavior of individual agents is easier to understand when they are able to explain their own behavior. In this paper, a th

  8. Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007678.htm Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint To use the sharing features on ... painful. It can be injected into a joint, tendon, or bursa. Description Your health care provider inserts ...

  9. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond ... to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications ...

  10. Injection treatments for patellar tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Objective Injection treatments are increasingly used as treatment for patellar tendinopathy. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the different injection treatments, their rationales and the effectiveness of treating patellar tendinopathy. Methods A computerised search of the Medline,

  11. Human Resource Management Practices and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    We survey, organize, and discuss the literature on the role of organizational practices for explaining innovation outcomes. We discuss how individual practices influence innovation, and how the clustering of specific practices matters for innovation outcomes. Relatedly, we discuss various possibl...

  12. A cadaveric study on sacroiliac joint injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu-Cong; Li, Yi-Kai; Yu, Cheng-Fu; Yang, Xian-Wen; Chen, Run-Qi

    2015-02-01

    The scope of this study was to explore the possibility as well as the feasibility of sacroiliac joint injection following simple X-ray clip location. For the cadaveric study, 10 fixed sacroiliac joint (SIJ) sectional specimens, 4 dried cadaveric pelvises and 21 embalmed adult cadaveric pelvises were dissected, followed by an injection of contrast agent into the joint. The irrigation of the agent was observed through CT scanning. For the radiologic study, 188 CT scans of ankylosing spondylitis patients (143 male, 45 female) were collected from 2010 to 2012, in Nanfang Hospital. What was measured was (1) Distance between the posterior midline and sagittal synovium; (2) Length of the sagittal synovium; (3) Distance between the midpoint of the sagittal synovium and posterior superior iliac spine; and (4) Distance between the superficial skin vertical to the sagittal synovium point were measured. For the practice-based study: 20 patients (17 males and 3 females) with early ankylosing spondylitis, from Nanfang Hospital affiliated with Southern Medical University were recruited, and sacroiliac joint unguided injections were done on the basis of the cadaveric and radiologic study. Only the inferior 1/3(rd) portion parallel to the posterior midline could be injected into since the superior 2/3(rd) portion were filled with interosseous ligaments. Thirteen of the 20 patients received successful injections as identified by CT scan using the contrast agent. Sacroiliac joint injection following simple X-ray clip location is possible and feasible if the operation is performed by trained physicians familiar with the sacroiliac joint and its surrounding anatomic structures.

  13. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  14. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI) technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method. PMID:28326222

  15. Explaining Underrepresentation: A Theory of Precluded Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Plaut, Victoria C

    2010-10-01

    What processes best explain women's underrepresentation in science, math, and engineering fields in the U.S.? Do they also explain men's underrepresentation in the humanities? Two survey studies across two U.S. West Coast universities (N = 62; N = 614) addressed these questions in the context of two fields: one male-dominated (computer science) and the other female-dominated (English). Among a set of social predictors-including perceived similarity to the people in the field, social identity threats, and expectations of success-the best mediator of women's lower interest in computer science and men's lower interest in English was perceived similarity. Thus, changing students' social perceptions of how they relate to those in the field may help to diversify academic fields.

  16. Explaining British Policy on the Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Howarth

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Four overlapping analytical frameworks focusing upon domestic British politics are applied to explain the detailed development of the policy on the euro maintained by the Conservative Government then Party in opposition and the Labour Party opposition and then Government: intra-party politics; inter-party politics; public opinion and the nature of British democracy; and neo-pluralism (competing economic and other interests. This article posits that British government - and in particular Labour Government - reluctance to hold a referendum on euro membership and actively push a pro-euro policy can be best explained in terms of ideologically infused intra- (rather than inter- party politics and the realities of pluralist politics, while explanations rooted in an analysis of public opinion are less helpful.

  17. Explaining money creation by commercial banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Educators and economists concerned with monetary reform face the extraordinary challenge of explaining to the public and its elected representatives not only what a reformed system would look like, but also how the current system works. Centrally, the point that in a modern economy money is largely...... created by commercial banks, as explained by the Bank of England recently (McLeay, Radia & Thomas, 2014b), is often met with incredulity: “What do you mean, created?” This paper introduces five easy-to-grasp analogies that educators and reformers may use to convey key money-creation concepts to a lay...... audience. The analogies offered include (1) money as patches in an expandable patchwork quilt that covers a nation’s real assets, (2) the money supply as water in a bathtub with a faucet and a drain, (3) money understood as debt in a model economy run by schoolchildren, (4) the misleading concept of a bank...

  18. Children's Theories and the Drive to Explain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitzgebel, Eric

    Debate has been growing in developmental psychology over how much the cognitive development of children is like theory change in science. Useful debate on this topic requires a clear understanding of what it would be for a child to have a theory. I argue that existing accounts of theories within philosophy of science and developmental psychology either are less precise than is ideal for the task or cannot capture everyday theorizing of the sort that children, if they theorize, must do. I then propose an account of theories that ties theories and explanation very closely together, treating theories primarily as products of a drive to explain. I clarify some of the positions people have taken regarding the theory theory of development, and I conclude by proposing that psychologists interested in the ''theory theory'' look for patterns of affect and arousal in development that would accompany the existence of a drive to explain.

  19. Explaining money creation by commercial banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Educators and economists concerned with monetary reform face the extraordinary challenge of explaining to the public and its elected representatives not only what a reformed system would look like, but also how the current system works. Centrally, the point that in a modern economy money is largely...... created by commercial banks, as explained by the Bank of England recently (McLeay, Radia & Thomas, 2014b), is often met with incredulity: “What do you mean, created?” This paper introduces five easy-to-grasp analogies that educators and reformers may use to convey key money-creation concepts to a lay...... audience. The analogies offered include (1) money as patches in an expandable patchwork quilt that covers a nation’s real assets, (2) the money supply as water in a bathtub with a faucet and a drain, (3) money understood as debt in a model economy run by schoolchildren, (4) the misleading concept of a bank...

  20. Student-to-student local anesthesia injections in dental education: moral, ethical, and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Morton; Orr, Daniel L; Starley, Eric D; Jensen, Dayne R

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a survey-based study conducted to determine U.S. dental schools' institutional protocols regarding the practice of students' administering local anesthetic injections to fellow students as part of their process of learning this skill. The majority of schools ask students to practice local anesthetic injections on each other without obtaining informed consent.

  1. "Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Georgia"

    OpenAIRE

    Khitarishvili, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...

  2. Explaining the Value of Transactional Lawyering

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarcz, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    This article attempts, empirically, to explain the value that lawyers add when acting as counsel to parties in business transactions. Contrary to existing scholarship, which is based mostly on theory, this article shows that transactional lawyers add value primarily by reducing regulatory costs, thereby challenging the reigning models of transactional lawyers as "transaction cost engineers" and "reputational intermediaries." This new model not only helps inform contract theory but also reveal...

  3. Explaining temporal patterns in street robbery

    OpenAIRE

    Tompson, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with explaining spatio-temporal patterns in street robbery through the lens of environmental criminology. The research question ‘what makes a place criminogenic for street robbery at some times and not others?’ is used to frame seven hypotheses. These centre on some of the features of the natural and built environment that can be considered criminogenic (i.e. crime producing). Specifically, the hypotheses test the time-varying influence of darkness, weather conditions...

  4. Does land abundance explain African institutions?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The land abundance view of African history uses sparse population to explain pre-colonial land tenure and slavery. I document the geographic forcing variables that predict land rights, slavery, and population density in a cross section of global societies. I discuss whether these correlations support theories of land rights and slavery, including the land abundance view. I show that pre-colonial institutions predict institutional outcomes in Africa in the present, including land transactions,...

  5. Explaining personality pay gaps in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, Alita; Nicoletti, Cheti

    2009-01-01

    Using the British Household Panel Survey we examine how the Big Five personality traits - openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism - affect wages. We estimate mean and quantile pay gaps between people with low and high levels of each of the Big Five, and decompose these pay gaps in the part explained by differences in workers’ characteristics and in the residual unexplained part. We find that openness to experience is the most relevant personal...

  6. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  7. SQL Injection Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nystrom, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut introduces you to how SQL injection vulnerabilities work, what makes applications vulnerable, and how to protect them. It helps you find your vulnerabilities with analysis and testing tools and describes simple approaches for fixing them in the most popular web-programming languages. This Short Cut also helps you protect your live applications by describing how to monitor for and block attacks before your data is stolen. Hacking is an increasingly criminal enterprise, and web applications are an attractive path to identity theft. If the applications you build, manage, or guar

  8. MKI UFOs at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Drosdal, L; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

    2011-01-01

    During the MD, the production mechanism of UFOs at the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) was studied. This was done by pulsing the MKIs on a gap in the circulating beam, which led to an increased number of UFOs. In total 43 UFO type beam loss patterns at the MKIs were observed during the MD. The MD showed that pulsing the MKIs directly induces UFO type beam loss patterns. From the temporal characteristics of the loss profile, estimations about the dynamics of the UFOs are made.

  9. Numerical Investigation into the Impact of CO2-Water-Rock Interactions on CO2 Injectivity at the Shenhua CCS Demonstration Project, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 100,000 t/year demonstration project for carbon dioxide (CO2 capture and storage in the deep saline formations of the Ordos Basin, China, has been successfully completed. Field observations suggested that the injectivity increased nearly tenfold after CO2 injection commenced without substantial pressure build-up. In order to evaluate whether this unique phenomenon could be attributed to geochemical changes, reactive transport modeling was conducted to investigate CO2-water-rock interactions and changes in porosity and permeability induced by CO2 injection. The results indicated that using porosity-permeability relationships that include tortuosity, grain size, and percolation porosity, other than typical Kozeny-Carman porosity-permeability relationship, it is possible to explain the considerable injectivity increase as a consequence of mineral dissolution. These models might be justified in terms of selective dissolution along flow paths and by dissolution or migration of plugging fines. In terms of geochemical changes, dolomite dissolution is the largest source of porosity increase. Formation physical properties such as temperature, pressure, and brine salinity were found to have modest effects on mineral dissolution and precipitation. Results from this study could have practical implications for a successful CO2 injection and enhanced oil/gas/geothermal production in low-permeability formations, potentially providing a new basis for screening of storage sites and reservoirs.

  10. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berteau C

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cecile Berteau,1 Orchidée Filipe-Santos,1 Tao Wang,2 Humberto E Rojas,2 Corinne Granger,1 Florence Schwarzenbach1 1Becton-Dickinson Medical Pharmaceutical Systems, Le Pont de Claix, France; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Aim: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC injection pain tolerance. Methods: The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s. All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain. The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results: Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003. Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm than medium (VAS =16.6 mm or low (VAS =22.1 mm viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002. Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89. Slow (0.02 mL/s or fast (0.30 mL/s injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79. In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High

  11. On L-injective Covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德旭

    2004-01-01

    We use the class of L-injective modules to define L-injective covers, and provide the characterizations of L-injective covers by the properties of kernels of homomorphisms. We prove that the right L-noetherian right L-hereditary ring is just such that every right R-module has an L-injective cover which is monic. We also use kernels of homomorphisms to investigate L-simple L-injective covers and give some constructions ofL-simple L-iniective covers.

  12. [Puntino and the injections of Popeye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, C; Giuntoli, A; Scannella, D; Seguini, M; Bagna, R; Fabris, C

    2000-01-01

    Subcutaneous injection of active principles must be performed through a short and thin needle and an insuline syringe (because of the few quantity of drug to administrate). In our Centre, to prevent preterm chronic anemia wc practice subcutaneous therapy with recombinant human erythropoietin. 300 UI three times a week, to all the newborns weighing < 1500 g at birth. Injections to the newborns are performed in correspondence of their gluteal and deltoid muscles, and in the outer part of their thigh. To prevent atrophy, it is important to change every time the site of Injection. For this goal, we have created the shape of a newborn, nained Puntino, and we have located 24 points on it. Each point has received a number between 0 and 23. During the treatment we have followed the guide of Puntino to locate each time the correct site of injection. Thanks to Puntino's aid, there were no cases of skin adverse reaction and atrophy, even in newborns weighing < 1000 g.

  13. Epidemiology of Injection Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Nelson; Bruneau, Julie; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2016-01-01

    After more than 30 years of research, numerous studies have shown that injection drug use is associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes such as drug overdoses, drug-related suicidal behaviours, comorbid psychiatric disorders, bloodborne pathogens and other infectious diseases, and traumas. This review explores new trends and prominent issues associated with injection drug use. The dynamic nature of injection drug use is underlined by examining its recent trends and changing patterns in Canada and other “high-income countries.” Three research topics that could further contribute to the development of comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies aimed at people who inject drugs are also discussed: risk behaviours associated with the injection of prescription opioids, binge injection drug use, and mental health problems as determinants of injection risk behaviours. PMID:27254088

  14. Evaluation of Injection Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide Using an Integrated Injection Well and Geologic Formation Numerical Simulation Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, J.; Park, S.; Kim, J.; SNU CO2 GEO-SEQ TEAM

    2011-12-01

    fluid pressure and temperature at the well bottom are the most important factors in evaluating the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide because they determine the fluid pressure difference and the kinematic viscosity of carbon dioxide at the well bottom. In summary, the numerical simulation results reveal that the fluid pressure and temperature at the well bottom can be simply predicted with an assumption of the vertical variations of hydrostatic fluid pressure and isenthalpic or adiabatic temperature in the injection well, and they provide significant and practical implications for evaluation of the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide. Therefore, it is expected that the integrated injection well and geologic formation numerical simulation scheme, which is applied in this study, can be utilized as reasonable and practical guidelines when more quantitative evaluation of the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide is required. This work was supported by a grant funded by the Korea Research Council for Industrial Science and Technology (ISTK), Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Republic of Korea.

  15. Technical tips for collagenase injection treatment for Dupuytren contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Roy A; Hentz, Vincent R

    2014-06-01

    We describe technical tips for injecting collagenase into Dupuytren cords based on experience acquired during the prerelease Food and Drug Administration clinical trials and with subsequent clinical practice. These tips include techniques for extracting the reconstituted enzyme efficiently from the vial, injecting the cord(s) with increased safety to the tendons, and anesthetizing the hand before manipulation. The tips are intended to supplement but by no means replace the manufacturer's prescribing information and training video.

  16. Digital subtraction angiography and intraarterial contrast medium injection for coronary examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobio, R.; Kallmeyer, C.; Castello, J.

    1985-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is an established method of vasography, most extensively used as i.v. DSA. Intraarterial injection, however, applying selective or non-selective contrast medium injection, seems to be at least as important a technique although it has not yet met with corresponding interest. The article explains advantages of the technique for angiographic examinations, in particular of coronary angiography.

  17. INJECTION PROFILE MODIFICATION IN A HOT, DEEP MINNELUSA WATER INJECTION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2001-09-01

    As oil fields in the United States age, production enhancements and modifications will be needed to increase production from deeper and hotter oil reservoirs. New techniques and products must be tested in these areas before industry will adapt them as common practice. The Minnelusa fields of northeastern Wyoming are relatively small, deep, hot fields that have been developed in the past ten to twenty years. As part of the development, operators have established waterfloods early in the life of the fields to maximize cumulative oil production. However, channeling between injectors and producers does occur and can lead to excessive water production and bypassed oil left in the reservoir. The project evaluated the use of a recently developed, high-temperature polymer to modify the injection profiles in a waterflood project in a high-temperature reservoir. The field is the Hawk Point field in Campbell County, Wyoming. The field was discovered in 1986 and initially consisted of eight producing wells with an average depth of 11,500 feet and a temperature of 260 F (127 C). The polymer system was designed to plug the higher permeable channels and fractures to provide better conformance, i.e. sweep efficiency, for the waterflood. The project used a multi-well system to evaluate the treatment. Injection profile logging was used to evaluate the injection wells both before and after the polymer treatment. The treatment program was conducted in January 2000 with a treatment of the four injection wells. The treatment sizes varied between 500 bbl and 3,918 bbl at a maximum allowable pressure of 1,700 psig. Injection in three of the wells was conducted as planned. However, the injection in the fourth well was limited to 574 bbl instead of the planned 3,750 bbl because of a rapid increase in injection pressure, even at lower than planned injection rates. Following completion of polymer placement, the injection system was not started for approximately one week to permit the gel to

  18. Quantum reality explains mystical powers of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mensky

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mystical powers of consciousness, including the direct vision of truth and management a reality, are believed to exist. Various directions of spiritual knowledge, including world religions, deal with these phenomena. Many people are persuaded that mystical events cannot be explained by scientific methods, that they contradict to science. Suggested by the present author Quantum Concept of Consciousness, or Extended Everett Concept, proves that mystical powers have their origin from what is known in quantum mechanics as quantum reality, and therefore are inherent part of science. Therefore, the “mystical” aspect in the sphere of consciousness is a common part of science and spiritual knowledge.

  19. Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution.

  20. Chromosome congression explained by nanoscale electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, L John; Shain, Daniel H

    2014-02-24

    Nanoscale electrostatic microtubule disassembly forces between positively charged molecules in kinetochores and negative charges on plus ends of microtubules have been implicated in poleward chromosome motions and may also contribute to antipoleward chromosome movements. We propose that chromosome congression can be understood in terms of antipoleward nanoscale electrostatic microtubule assembly forces between negatively charged microtubule plus ends and like-charged chromosome arms, acting in conjunction with poleward microtubule disassembly forces. Several other aspects of post-attachment prometaphase chromosome motions, as well as metaphase oscillations, are consistently explained within this framework.

  1. SOME THEORETICAL MODELS EXPLAINING ADVERTISING EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Magdalena SOMEŞFĂLEAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Persuade clients is still the main focus of the companies, using a set of methods and techniques designed to influence their behavior, in order to obtain better results (profits over a longer period of time. Since the late nineteenth - early twentieth century, the american E.St.Elmo Lewis, considered a pioneer in advertising and sales, developed the first theory, AIDA model, later used by marketers and advertisers to develop a marketing communications strategy. Later studies have developed other models that are the main subject of this research, which explains how and why persuasive communication works, to understand why some approaches are effective and others are not.

  2. The micro-social risk environment for injection drug use: An event specific analysis of dyadic, situational, and network predictors of injection risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulis, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the risk environment for drug use by examining injection risk behavior during specific injection episodes. By leveraging multiple observations of injection episodes of participants, the study attempts to move beyond global assessment of environmental variables to simultaneously model within (i.e., event level) as well as between (i.e., individual level) predictors of injection risk. Furthermore, gender is also explored as a potential moderator of the relationship between the association of specific partner characteristics (e.g., having an injection partner who is also a sexual partner) and injection risk behavior. Data is used from the Sexual Acquisition of Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Study (SATHCAP). Multilevel structural equation modeling is utilized to predict within and between variations in underlying injection risk behavior as measured using four indicators of injection risk. Results indicated that a number of partner level characteristics (i.e., being emotionally close with the partner, sexual partnership, being a first time partner) and one social situational (i.e., the number of non-injectors present at the injection episode) characteristic predicted event level injection risk behavior. However, the impact of partner characteristics also appears to be moderated by gender of the participants. More specifically, sharing a sexual partnership with an injection partner was more strongly associated with injection risk among females as compared to males and females indicated higher levels of risk when injecting with other females while the partner's gender showed no significant association with risk for male injectors. These results suggest that people who inject drug do report varying levels of risk during different injection episodes and this variation can be explained by partner and situational characteristics. Improved understanding of the social processes surrounding injection episodes is required to further refine harm

  3. The Seasons Explained by Refutational Modeling Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frede, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the principles and investigation of a small-group laboratory activity based on refutational modeling to teach the concept of seasons to preservice elementary teachers. The results show that these teachers improved significantly when they had to refute their initial misconceptions practically. (Contains 8 figures and 1 table.)

  4. Explaining Variation in Child Labor Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Andrew; Bardasi, Elena; Beegle, Kathleen; Serneels, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Child labor statistics are critical for assessing the extent and nature of child labor activities in developing countries. In practice, widespread variation exists in how child labor is measured. Questionnaire modules vary across countries and within countries over time along several dimensions, including respondent type and the structure of the questionnaire. Little is known about the eff...

  5. Explaining the Development of False Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

    2002-01-01

    Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

  6. Developmental systems theory: what does it explain, and how does it explain it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Paul E; Tabery, James

    2013-01-01

    We examine developmental systems theory (DST) with two questions in mind: What does DST explain? How does DST explain it? To answer these questions, we start by reviewing major contributions to the origins of DST: the introduction of the idea of a "developmental system", the idea of probabilistic epigenesis, the attention to the role of information in the developmental system, and finally the explicit identification of a DST. We then consider what DST is not, contrasting it with two approaches that have been foils for DST: behavioral genetics and nativist cognitive psychology. Third, we distill out two core concepts that have defined DSTthroughout its history: epigenesis and developmental dynamics. Finally, we turn to how DST explains, arguing that it explains by elucidating mechanisms.

  7. Drawing Between Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallace, Jamie

    The fusion of art making and research enables the artist's practice to be understood as a unique form of enquiry.  Notions such as 'material thinking' go some way to explain complex creative phenomena normally shrouded within the peculiarities of individual practice. But, are such notions useful...... is that the reflexive personal interaction of art practice adopted within professional inquiry can offer new inspirations, new creative contradictions and ways of thinking...

  8. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteau, Cecile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Wang, Tao; Rojas, Humberto E; Granger, Corinne; Schwarzenbach, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC) injection pain tolerance. The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8-10, and 15-20 cP) combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s). All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain). The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003). Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm) than medium (VAS =16.6 mm) or low (VAS =22.1 mm) viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002). Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89). Slow (0.02 mL/s) or fast (0.30 mL/s) injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79). In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15-20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain.

  9. Ditch the pinch: bilateral exposure injuries during subcutaneous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    Subcutaneous injection into an elevated skin fold poses a risk of "bilateral exposure" injury whereby the needle pierces the opposite side of a skin fold and subsequently enters the tissue of the health care worker (HCW). Retrospective review was conducted examining the Exposure Prevention Information Network (EPINet) needlestick surveillance data. Data from 2,402 injuries occurring during subcutaneous injection were included for analysis. Descriptive data, statistical comparisons, and a logistic regression model reporting relative risk are provided. Eighty-five bilateral exposure injuries were identified between 2000 and 2009, representing 3.5% (n/N=85/2,402) of all injection-related percutaneous injuries. 65.4% Of the variance in bilateral exposure injury occurrence is explained through examination of the following: (1) manual elevation ("pinching") subcutaneous tissue prior to injection; (2) thin/emaciated patient; (3) injection of insulin; (4) injection of heparin; (5) injection of enoxaparin (Lovenox); (6) if a safety device was used; and (7) whether the health care worker was wearing gloves at the time of the injury (χ(2)7 = 424.2; P<.01). Manual tissue elevation should be avoided to minimize the risk of bilateral exposure injuries. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosted regression tree (BRT) models were developed to quantify the nonlinear relationships between landscape variables and nutrient concentrations in a mesoscale mixed land cover watershed during base-flow conditions. Factors that affect instream biological components, based on the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), were also analyzed. Seasonal BRT models at two spatial scales (watershed and riparian buffered area [RBA]) for nitrite-nitrate (NO2-NO3), total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and total phosphorus (TP) and annual models for the IBI score were developed. Two primary factors — location within the watershed (i.e., geographic position, stream order, and distance to a downstream confluence) and percentage of urban land cover (both scales) — emerged as important predictor variables. Latitude and longitude interacted with other factors to explain the variability in summer NO2-NO3 concentrations and IBI scores. BRT results also suggested that location might be associated with indicators of sources (e.g., land cover), runoff potential (e.g., soil and topographic factors), and processes not easily represented by spatial data indicators. Runoff indicators (e.g., Hydrological Soil Group D and Topographic Wetness Indices) explained a substantial portion of the variability in nutrient concentrations as did point sources for TP in the summer months. The results from our BRT approach can help prioritize areas for nutrient management in mixed-use and heavily impacted watershed

  11. Perceived discrimination and injecting risk among people who inject drugs attending Needle and Syringe Programmes in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hannah; Brener, Loren; Mao, Limin; Treloar, Carla

    2014-11-01

    Previous research indicates that stigma and discrimination have negative consequences for both healthcare delivery and for health outcomes of people who inject drugs (PWID). Also important but not as well researched is the association between perceived discrimination and increased engagement in risky behaviours. This research aimed to explore whether perceived discrimination from workers in Needle and Syringe programmes (NSPs) is associated with increased engagement in injecting risk practices such as the sharing of injecting equipment. Convenience sampling was used across eight NSP sites within Western Sydney, Australia. All clients who attended one of the NSPs were eligible to participate. A total of 236 clients completed the survey. Perceived discrimination from NSP staff was found to be significantly associated with some injecting risk practices. Respondents who reported greater perceived discrimination from NSP staff were significantly more likely to report being injected by someone else after they had injected themselves (OR 1.2, 95%CI 1.1-1.3) and reusing a needle or syringe (OR 1.1, 95%CI 1.0-1.3) in the last month. Although clients reported perceiving more discrimination from general health workers than from NSP workers (12.8 vs. 10.2, t=7.739, df=226, pjudgemental, their clients may still have a heightened sensitivity to discrimination which can then have consequences for on-going engagement in risk practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Practice changing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Buch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Based on a concrete practice-based study we discuss how such studies can be an important integrated part of critical participatory action research that spur change from inside a professional practice. We also discuss our roles as researchers (and union activists). We see and explore the potential...... in initiating changes within a practice tradition. To make local changes in the practices is to change the world. The majority of practice-based studies are analyzing different kinds of practices, but only few studies have engaged in doing action research in a practice tradition. Our paper explores how practice......-based studies of professions can become of significance means to promote positive changes starting within the practices. In the paper, we will discuss this research strategy and our roles as researchers inspired by Kemmis et al (2014, 2014) and Eikeland & Nicolini (2011). We will draw upon a practice-based case...

  13. Higher risk of incident hepatitis C virus among young women who inject drugs compared with young men in association with sexual relationships: a prospective analysis from the UFO Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Daniel; Hahn, Judith A; Fuller Lewis, Crystal; Evans, Jennifer; Briceño, Alya; Morris, Meghan D; Lum, Paula J; Page, Kimberly

    2014-05-29

    Female injection drug users (IDUs) may report differences in injection behaviours that put them at greater risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Few studies have examined these in association with HCV incidence. Longitudinal data from a cohort of 417 HCV-uninfected IDU aged 30 or younger were analysed. Cox proportional hazards was used to model female sex as a predictor of new HCV infection. General estimating equation (GEE) analysis was used to model female sex as a predictor of HCV-associated risk behaviour prospectively. Women were significantly more likely than men to become infected with HCV during study follow-up (HR 1.4, p<0.05), and were also more likely than men to report high-risk injecting behaviours, especially in the context of sexual and injecting relationships. Sex differences in injecting behaviours appeared to explain the relationship between sex and HCV infection. Young women's riskier injection practices lead to their higher rates of HCV infection. Further study on the impact of intimate partnership on women's risk behaviour is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Not in the vein: 'missed hits', subcutaneous and intramuscular injections and associated harms among people who inject psychoactive drugs in Bristol, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, V D; Parry, J V; Ncube, F; Hickman, M

    2016-02-01

    The extent of intentional or accidental subcutaneous and intramuscular injections and the factors associated with these have rarely been studied among people who inject drugs, yet these may play an important role in the acquisition bacterial infections. This study describes the extent of these, and in particular the factors and harms associated with accidental subcutaneous and intramuscular injections (i.e. 'missed hits'). People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent driven sampling. Weighted data was examined using bivariate analyses and logistic regression. The participants mean age was 33 years (31% aged under 30-years), 28% were women, and the mean time since first injection was 12 years (N=329). During the preceding three months, 97% had injected heroin, 71% crack-cocaine, and 16% amphetamines; 36% injected daily. Overall, 99% (325) reported that they aimed to inject intravenously; only three aimed to inject subcutaneously and one intramuscularly. Of those that aimed to inject intravenously, 56% (181) reported ever missing a vein (for 51 this occurred more than four times month on average). Factors associated with 'missed hits' suggested that these were the consequence of poor vascular access, injection technique and/or hygiene. 'Missed hits' were twice as common among those reporting sores/open wounds, abscesses, or redness, swelling and tenderness at injection sites. Intentional subcutaneous and intramuscular injections are rare in this sample. 'Missed hits' are common and appear to be associated with poor injection practice. Interventions are required to reduce risk through improving injecting practice and hygiene. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Explaining the discrepancy between forced fold amplitude and sill thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggett, Murray; Jones, Stephen M.; Reston, Timothy; Magee, Craig; Jackson, Christopher AL

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the behaviour of Earth's surface in response to movement and emplacement of magma underground is important because it assists calculation of subsurface magma volumes, and could feed into eruption forecasting. Studies of seismic reflection data have observed that the amplitude of a forced fold above an igneous sill is usually smaller than the thickness of the sill itself. This observation implies that fold amplitude alone provides only a lower bound for magma volume, and an understanding of the mechanism(s) behind the fold amplitude/sill thickness discrepancy is also required to obtain a true estimate of magma volume. Mechanisms suggested to explain the discrepancy include problems with seismic imaging and varying strain behaviour of the host rock. Here we examine the extent to which host-rock compaction can explain the fold amplitude/sill thickness discrepancy. This mechanism operates in cases where a sill is injected into the upper few kilometres of sedimentary rock that contain significant porosity. Accumulation of sediment after sill intrusion reduces the amplitude of the forced fold by compaction, but the sill itself undergoes little compaction since its starting porosity is almost zero. We compiled a database of good-quality 2D and 3D seismic observations where sill thickness has been measured independently of forced fold geometry. We then backstripped the post-intrusion sedimentary section to reconstruct the amplitude of the forced fold at the time of intrusion. We used the standard compaction model in which porosity decays exponentially below the sediment surface. In all examples we studied, post-sill-emplacement compaction can explain all of the fold amplitude/sill thickness discrepancy, subject to uncertainty in compaction model parameters. This result leads directly to an improved method of predicting magma volume from fold amplitude, including how uncertainty in compaction parameters maps onto uncertainty in magma volume. Our work implies

  16. Pythagoras Triples Explained via Central Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luis Teia

    2015-01-01

    Very much like today, the Old Babylonians (20th to 16th centuries BC) had the need to understand and use what is now called the Pythagoras' theorem x[superscript 2] + y[superscript 2] = z[superscript 2]. They applied it in very practical problems such as to determine how the height of a cane leaning against a wall changes with its inclination. In…

  17. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  18. Age and disability: explaining the wage differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Brenda; Munley, Margaret

    2009-07-01

    This paper estimates the level of explained and unexplained factors that contribute to the wage gap between workers with and without disabilities, providing benchmark estimates for Ireland. It separates out the confounding impact of productivity differences between disabled and non-disabled, by comparing wage differentials across three groups, disabled with limitations, disabled without limitations and non-disabled. Furthermore, data are analysed for the years 1995-2001 and two sub-samples pre and post 1998 allow us to decompose wage differentials before and after the Employment Equality Act 1998. Results are comparable to those of the UK and the unexplained component (upper bound of discrimination) is lower once we control for productivity differences. The lower bound level depends on the contribution of unobserved effects and the validity of the selection component in the decomposition model.

  19. Explaining the democratic anchorage of governance networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skelcher, Chris; Klijn, Erik-Hans; Kübler, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Advances in understanding the democratic anchorage of governance networks require carefully designed and contextually grounded empirical analysis that take into account contextual factors. The article uses a conjectural framework to study the impact of the national democratic milieu...... on the relationship between network governance and representative institutions in four European countries: the United Kingdom, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Denmark. The article shows that the distinction between majoritarian and consensus democracy as well as the varying strength of voluntary associations...... are important contextual factors that help explain cross-national differences in the relationship between governance networks and representative institutions. We conclude that a context of weak associationalism in majoritarian democracies facilitates the instrumentalization of networks by government actors...

  20. Jumping Jupiter can explain Mercury's orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Roig, Fernando; DeSouza, Sandro Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The orbit of Mercury has large values of eccentricity and inclination that cannot be easily explained if this planet formed on a circular and coplanar orbit. Here, we study the evolution of Mercury's orbit during the instability related to the migration of the giant planets in the framework of the jumping Jupiter model. We found that some instability models are able to produce the correct values of Mercury's eccentricity and inclination, provided that relativistic effects are included in the precession of Mercury's perihelion. The orbital excitation is driven by the fast change of the normal oscillation modes of the system corresponding to the perihelion precession of Jupiter (for the eccentricity), and the nodal regression of Uranus (for the inclination).

  1. The Salpeter Slope of the IMF Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Oey, M S

    2012-01-01

    If we accept a paradigm that star formation is a self-similar, hierarchical process, then the Salpeter slope of the IMF for high-mass stars can be simply and elegantly explained as follows. If the instrinsic IMF at the smallest scales follows a simple -2 power-law slope, then the steepening to the -2.35 Salpeter value results when the most massive stars cannot form in the lowest-mass clumps of a cluster. It is stressed that this steepening MUST occur if clusters form hierarchically from clumps, and the lowest-mass clumps can form stars. This model is consistent with a variety of observations as well as theoretical simulations.

  2. Explaining variation in Down's syndrome screening uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crombag, Neeltje M T H; Vellinga, Ynke E; Kluijfhout, Sandra A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The offer of prenatal Down's syndrome screening is part of routine antenatal care in most of Europe; however screening uptake varies significantly across countries. Although a decision to accept or reject screening is a personal choice, it is unlikely that the widely differing uptake...... rates across countries can be explained by variation in individual values alone.The aim of this study was to compare Down's syndrome screening policies and programmes in the Netherlands, where uptake is relatively low ( 90% respectively....... RESULTS: There were many similarities in the demographics, healthcare systems, government abortion legislation and Down's syndrome screening policy across the studied countries. However, the additional cost for Down's syndrome screening over and above standard antenatal care in the Netherlands...

  3. Explaining Today's Physics Through History and Biography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, David

    2014-03-01

    Quantum computers, string theory, holographic universes - to the general audience, today's physics can be as mystifying as it is fascinating. But modern ideas evolved from an earlier phase of physics - Newtonian mechanics, simple cause and effect - that is in principle easier for the non-expert to grasp. I have found that writing about physics from a historical and biographical perspective is an effective way to convey modern thinking by explaining where it comes from - it is a way of carrying the reader from concepts that make intuitive sense to ideas that seem, on first encounter, utterly bizarre. Smuggling explanations into stories satisfies the reader's desire for narrative - bearing in mind that narrative can include the evolution of ideas as well as tales about intriguing and original people.

  4. What optimization principle explains the zebrafish vasculature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shyr-Shea; Baek, Kyung In; Hsiai, Tzung; Roper, Marcus

    2016-11-01

    Many multicellular organisms depend on biological transport networks; from the veins of leaves to the animal circulatory system, to redistribute nutrients internally. Since natural selection rewards efficiency, those networks are thought to minimize the cost of maintaining the flow inside. But optimizing these costs creates tradeoffs with other functions, e.g. mixing or uniform distribution of nutrients. We develop an extended Lagrange multiplier approach that allows the optimization of general network functionals. We also follow the real zebrafish vasculature and blood flows during organism development. Taken together, our work shows that the challenge of uniform oxygen perfusion, and not transport efficiency, explain zebrafish vascular organization. Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (T32-GM008185).

  5. Mating ecology explains patterns of genome elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andy; Ross, Laura

    2014-12-01

    Genome elimination - whereby an individual discards chromosomes inherited from one parent, and transmits only those inherited from the other parent - is found across thousands of animal species. It is more common in association with inbreeding, under male heterogamety, in males, and in the form of paternal genome elimination. However, the reasons for this broad pattern remain unclear. We develop a mathematical model to determine how degree of inbreeding, sex determination, genomic location, pattern of gene expression and parental origin of the eliminated genome interact to determine the fate of genome-elimination alleles. We find that: inbreeding promotes paternal genome elimination in the heterogametic sex; this may incur population extinction under female heterogamety, owing to eradication of males; and extinction is averted under male heterogamety, owing to countervailing sex-ratio selection. Thus, we explain the observed pattern of genome elimination. Our results highlight the interaction between mating system, sex-ratio selection and intragenomic conflict.

  6. Can molecular cell biology explain chromosome motions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitotic chromosome motions have recently been correlated with electrostatic forces, but a lingering "molecular cell biology" paradigm persists, proposing binding and release proteins or molecular geometries for force generation. Results Pole-facing kinetochore plates manifest positive charges and interact with negatively charged microtubule ends providing the motive force for poleward chromosome motions by classical electrostatics. This conceptual scheme explains dynamic tracking/coupling of kinetochores to microtubules and the simultaneous depolymerization of kinetochore microtubules as poleward force is generated. Conclusion We question here why cells would prefer complex molecular mechanisms to move chromosomes when direct electrostatic interactions between known bound charge distributions can accomplish the same task much more simply.

  7. COMPARITIVE STUDY OF LOCAL STEROID INJECTION VERSUS AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD INJECTION THERAPY FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF LATERAL EPICONDYLITI S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partap

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : Local corticosteroid infiltration is a common practice of treatment for lateral epicondylitis. In recent studies no statistically significant or clinically relevant results in favour of corticosteroid injections were found. The injection of autologous blood has been reported to be effective for both intermediate and long - term outcomes. It is hypothesized that blood contains growth factors, which induce the healing cascade. METHODS : A total of 50 patients were included in this prospective randomized study. Patients were divided in 2 groups of 25 patients each. Group I received 2 ml local corticosteroid +1 ml 2% lignocaine, Group II received 2 ml autologous blood drawn from ipsilateral upper limb vein +1 ml 2% lignocaine, and at the lateral epicondyle. Outcome was measured using a pain score (VAS . Follow - up was continued for tota l of six months. RESULTS : The corticosteroid injection group showed a statistically significant decrease in pain compared with autologous blood injection group at six weeks follow up. At final six - month follow - up, autologous blood injection group showed st atistically significant decrease in pain compared with corticosteroid injection group. CONCLUSIONS : Autologous blood injection is efficient compared with corticosteroid injection, with less side - effects and minimum recurrence rate in long term.

  8. Training science centre Explainers. The Techniquest experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Johnson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniquest was established in 1986, and in 1995 moved to its current premises at Cardiff Bay, South Wales. This was the first purpose-built science centre in the UK. It receives around 200,000 visitors every year to its exhibition, and to its programmes for schools and public audiences in the theatre, laboratory, discovery room and planetarium. The author joined the Techniquest project in 1985, became a staff member in 1990 and was the Chief Executive from 1997 until his retirement in 2004. Techniquest has three “out-stations” in Wales, and is responsible for the supply and maintenance of exhibits to the Look Out Discovery Centre in Bracknell, England. There is a Techniquest gallery at the Lisbon Pavilhão do Conhecimento - Ciência Viva, and a traveling exhibition, SciQuest, in South Africa which was also supplied by Techniquest. All these centres rely on the effective intervention of “Explainers” (at Techniquest we call them “Helpers” to provide the best possible experience for visitors. At its most demanding, the tasks of an Explainer are varied and intensive, yet there may be times when the duties are mundane or even dull. When you rely on people to act as both hosts and housekeepers, to provide both support and stimulus, and to be both welcoming and watchful, you are asking a great deal. This article raises some of the issues concerned with the recruitment and retention of Explainers, their training and management, and the way in which their role is recognized and valued by the science centre as a whole.

  9. Explaining evolution via constrained persistent perfect phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Carrieri, Anna Paola; Della Vedova, Gianluca; Trucco, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The perfect phylogeny is an often used model in phylogenetics since it provides an efficient basic procedure for representing the evolution of genomic binary characters in several frameworks, such as for example in haplotype inference. The model, which is conceptually the simplest, is based on the infinite sites assumption, that is no character can mutate more than once in the whole tree. A main open problem regarding the model is finding generalizations that retain the computational tractability of the original model but are more flexible in modeling biological data when the infinite site assumption is violated because of e.g. back mutations. A special case of back mutations that has been considered in the study of the evolution of protein domains (where a domain is acquired and then lost) is persistency, that is the fact that a character is allowed to return back to the ancestral state. In this model characters can be gained and lost at most once. In this paper we consider the computational problem of explaining binary data by the Persistent Perfect Phylogeny model (referred as PPP) and for this purpose we investigate the problem of reconstructing an evolution where some constraints are imposed on the paths of the tree. We define a natural generalization of the PPP problem obtained by requiring that for some pairs (character, species), neither the species nor any of its ancestors can have the character. In other words, some characters cannot be persistent for some species. This new problem is called Constrained PPP (CPPP). Based on a graph formulation of the CPPP problem, we are able to provide a polynomial time solution for the CPPP problem for matrices whose conflict graph has no edges. Using this result, we develop a parameterized algorithm for solving the CPPP problem where the parameter is the number of characters. A preliminary experimental analysis shows that the constrained persistent perfect phylogeny model allows to explain efficiently data that do not

  10. Aftershock Statistics explained from Geometric Reductionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    The decay of aftershocks has recently been shown to follow a stretched exponential function instead of the Omori law (Mignan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 2015). This triggers a complete re-investigation of aftershock statistics in Southern California and a new physical interpretation of these results: (1) After verifying the stretched exponential behavior of aftershocks in time, I show that aftershocks follow a pure exponential in space. I then (re)demonstrate that K(M) = exp(α(M-mmin-ΔmB)) with K the aftershock production by mainshock magnitude M, α the Gutenberg-Richter distribution slope and ΔmB Båth's parameter. Based on these observations, I propose the Recursive Aftershock Stretched Exponential (RASE) model. (2) I investigate the origin of aftershocks using geometric reductionism made possible by the Non-Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory postulate, which states that spatial density switches from δb0 for background seismicity to δbp for activated events (such as foreshocks, induced seismicity and here aftershocks) when the static stress field σ(r) exceeds the threshold σ(rA*) ∝ Δσ* with r the distance to source. The postulate explains the exponential spatial distribution (assuming that aftershocks fill a noisy fractal network within rA*) and aftershock production (assuming a constant stress drop) with K(M) = δbp.V(M), V being the volume of a rounded cuboid centred on the fault of length l ∝ exp(αM), and with radius rA*. Finally the observed stretching factor β ≈ 0.4 is explained topologically from the fractal dimension D ≈ 1.5.

  11. Supersonic Jet Noise Reduction Using Flapping Injection and Pulsed Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafsteinsson, Haukur; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Cuppoletti, Daniel; Gutmark, Ephraim; Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology Team; Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinatti Team; Swedish Defence Material Administration, Sweden Team

    2013-11-01

    Aircraft are in general noisy and there is a high demand for reducing their noise levels. The jet exhaust is in most cases the main noise source of the aircraft, especially for low bypass ratio jet engines. Fluidic injection affecting the shear layer close to the nozzle exit is a promising noise reduction technique as it can be turned of while not needed and thus the negative effect on the engine performance will be minimized. In the presented work, LES is used to compare steady-state mass flow injection with steady-state mass flow flapping jet injection. The work is a direct continuation of a previous LES study on pulsed injection which showed that the pulsed injection induced pressure pulses in the jet which caused increased tonal noise in the downstream directions. The injection system considered in the presented work consists of eight evenly distributed injectors at the nozzle exit plane with a 90° injection angle relative to the flow direction. Flapping jet injection is believed to minimize the creation of these pressure pulses since it provides steady-state mass flow. This work is funded by Swedish Defense Material Administration (FMV).

  12. Ventrogluteal Site Injections in the Mental Health Setting: A Comprehensive Educational Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Helen

    Adoption of the ventrogluteal site for intramuscular injections has been limited in mental health settings despite its decreased risk of sciatic nerve injury and its promotion as best practice among student nurses. At a center for addiction and mental health in Toronto, Canada, registered practical nurses followed a competency checklist in a simulation setting and then observed and administered supervised ventrogluteal injections in clinical settings. This article describes the comprehensive educational program and its outcomes in practice.

  13. Rapid injection of rocuronium reduces withdrawal movement on injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Cheol; Jang, Young Ho; Kim, Jin Mo; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2009-09-01

    To test whether rapid injection of rocuronium reduces withdrawal movement on injection. Randomized, prospective trial. Operating room in a university hospital. 150 ASA physical status I and II patients aged 18 to 60 years, undergoing general anesthesia. Patients were randomized to three groups. After undergoing anesthesia induction with thiopental sodium, then 5 seconds later receiving a rubber tourniquet applied to the mid-forearm to stop intravenous (IV) flow by gravity, the pretreatment drug was injected. The tourniquet was held for 15 seconds then released, and 1.0 mg/kg of 1% rocuronium was injected IV. Group C patients (n = 50) were pretreated with 0.1 mL/kg of 0.9% NaCl and then injected with rocuronium slowly within 10 seconds. Group L patients (n = 50) were pretreated with 0.1 mL/kg of preservative-free 1% lidocaine and then injected with rocuronium slowly within 10 seconds. Group R patients (n = 50) were pretreated with 0.1 mL/kg of 0.9% NaCl and then rapidly injected with rocuronium within approximately one second (as quickly as possible). After injection of the patient with the study drug, a single anesthesiologist with no knowledge of the study protocol graded each patient's response as follows: 0 = no response; 1 = mild movement limited to the wrist only; 2 = moderate movement involving the elbow and shoulder; and 3 = severe movement involving more than one extremity. Group C had the most intense and frequent withdrawal response. The frequency and intensity of withdrawal movement was significantly less in Groups L and R than Group C. No significant difference in withdrawal response between Groups L and R was noted. Withdrawal response can be significantly reduced for rocuronium injection without lidocaine pretreatment, simply through rapid injection.

  14. MR epidurography: distribution of injectate at caudal epidural injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Darra T. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); St Paul' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Moynagh, Michael R.; Eustace, Stephen [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7 (Ireland); Poynton, Ashley; Chan, Vikki O. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland)

    2014-08-02

    To (a) evaluate the feasibility of MR epidurography (MRE) and (b) assess the distribution of injectate using two different volumes at caudal epidural steroid injection. Twenty patients who were referred with symptomatic low back pain for caudal epidural steroid injection were assigned to have either 10 ml (9/20) or 20 ml (11/20) of injectate administered. Gadolinium was included in the injection. The patients proceeded to MRI where sagittal and coronal T1-weighted fat-saturated sequences were acquired and reviewed in the mid-sagittal and right and left parasagittal views at the level of the exit foramina. Gadolinium was observed at or above the L3/4 disc level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %), compared with only five of nine patients who received 10 ml (56 %). Injectate was seen to the L4 nerve root level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %) but only four out of nine patients who received 10 ml (44 %), not even reaching the L5 nerve root level in four further of these nine patients (44 %). Overall, there was a trend to visualize gadolinium at higher levels of the epidural space with higher volumes injected. Firstly, MR epidurography is a safe technique that allows excellent visualization of the distribution of gadolinium in the epidural space following injection via the caudal hiatus. Secondly, a volume of 10 ml is unlikely to treat L5/S1 disease in almost half of patients at caudal epidural steroid injection and at least 20 ml of injectate is likely required for any medication to reach the desired level. (orig.)

  15. Prime injections and quasipolarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Alberto Agustín-Aquino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $p$ be a prime number. Consider the injection\\[ \\iota:\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\to\\mathbb{Z}/pn\\mathbb{Z}:x\\mapsto px, \\]and the elements $e^{u}.v:=(u,v\\in \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$ and$e^{w}.r:=(w,r\\in \\mathbb{Z}/pn \\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/pn\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$. Suppose that $e^{u}.v\\in\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$ is seen as an automorphism of $\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}$defined by $e^{u}.v(x=vx+u$; then $e^{u}.v$ is a \\emph{quasipolarity} if it is an involution without fixed points.In this brief note we give an explicit formula for the number of quasipolarities of $\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}$ interms of the prime decomposition of $n$, and we prove sufficient conditions such that $(e^{w}.r\\circ \\iota=\\iota\\circ (e^{u}.v$, where $e^{w}.r$ and $e^{u}.v$ are quasipolarities.

  16. Methodology for the Randomised Injecting Opioid Treatment Trial (RIOTT: evaluating injectable methadone and injectable heroin treatment versus optimised oral methadone treatment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byford Sarah

    2006-09-01

    negative for markers of illicit heroin in months 4 to 6. Secondary outcomes include measures of other drug use, injecting practices, health and psychosocial functioning, criminal activity, patient satisfaction and incremental cost effectiveness. The study aims to recruit 150 subjects, with 50 patients per group, and is to be conducted in supervised injecting clinics across England.

  17. Scientists Explain Catalysis Neutralizing Car's Tail Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The neutralization of the car's tail gas is a problem of practical importance in the eyes of both experimental and theoretical physicists. Recently, a group of CAS scientists join hands with the Queen's University of Belfast in the UK to make advances in exploring the process of CO oxidation in a bid to reduce the air pollution caused by the car's exhaust gas. The work has been supported by the "National 973Program" and the CAS Foundation for Overseas Studies. On March 4,its result was published by the Internet edition of the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

  18. Injection treatments for patellar tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Objective Injection treatments are increasingly used as treatment for patellar tendinopathy. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the different injection treatments, their rationales and the effectiveness of treating patellar tendinopathy. Methods A computerised search of the Medline, Em

  19. Interferon Alfa-2b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon alfa-2b injection is used to treat a number of conditions.Interferon alfa-2b injection is used alone or in ... Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; a slow-growing blood cancer). Interferon alfa-2b is in a class of medications ...

  20. Towards spin injection into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, S.P.

    2007-08-15

    Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

  1. Injection treatments for patellar tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Objective Injection treatments are increasingly used as treatment for patellar tendinopathy. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the different injection treatments, their rationales and the effectiveness of treating patellar tendinopathy. Methods A computerised search of the Medline, Em

  2. Ocean currents help explain population genetic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Crow; Selkoe, Kimberly A.; Watson, James; Siegel, David A.; Zacherl, Danielle C.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Management and conservation can be greatly informed by considering explicitly how environmental factors influence population genetic structure. Using simulated larval dispersal estimates based on ocean current observations, we demonstrate how explicit consideration of frequency of exchange of larvae among sites via ocean advection can fundamentally change the interpretation of empirical population genetic structuring as compared with conventional spatial genetic analyses. Both frequency of larval exchange and empirical genetic difference were uncorrelated with Euclidean distance between sites. When transformed into relative oceanographic distances and integrated into a genetic isolation-by-distance framework, however, the frequency of larval exchange explained nearly 50 per cent of the variance in empirical genetic differences among sites over scales of tens of kilometres. Explanatory power was strongest when we considered effects of multiple generations of larval dispersal via intermediary locations on the long-term probability of exchange between sites. Our results uncover meaningful spatial patterning to population genetic structuring that corresponds with ocean circulation. This study advances our ability to interpret population structure from complex genetic data characteristic of high gene flow species, validates recent advances in oceanographic approaches for assessing larval dispersal and represents a novel approach to characterize population connectivity at small spatial scales germane to conservation and fisheries management. PMID:20133354

  3. Dissipative dark matter explains rotation curves

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, R

    2015-01-01

    Dissipative dark matter, where dark matter particles interact with a massless (or very light) boson, is studied. Such dark matter can arise in simple hidden sector gauge models, including those featuring an unbroken $U(1)'$ gauge symmetry, leading to a dark photon. Previous work has shown that such models can not only explain the LSS and CMB, but potentially also dark matter phenomena on small scales, such as the inferred cored structure of dark matter halos. In this picture, dark matter halos of disk galaxies not only cool via dissipative interactions but are also heated via ordinary supernovae (facilitated by an assumed photon - dark photon kinetic mixing interaction). This interaction between the dark matter halo and ordinary baryons, a very special feature of these types of models, plays a critical role in governing the physical properties of the dark matter halo. Here, we further study the implications of this type of dissipative dark matter for disk galaxies. Building on earlier work, we develop a simpl...

  4. Proposed Pathophysiologic Framework to Explain Some ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper proposes a pathophysiologic framework to explain the well-established epidemiological association between exposure to ambient air particle pollution and premature cardiovascular mortality, and offers insights into public health solutions that extend beyond regularory environmental protections to actions that can be taken by individuals, public health officials, healthcare professionals, city and regional planners, local and state governmental officials and all those who possess the capacity to improve cardiovascular health within the popula­tion.The foundation of the framework rests on the contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk factors acting alone and in concert with long-term exposures to air pollutants to create a conditional susceptibility for clinical vascular events, such as myocardial ischemia and infarction; stroke and lethal ventricular arrhythmias. The conceprual framework focuses on the fact that short-term exposures to ambient air particulate matter (PM) are associated with vascular thrombosis (acute coronary syndrome. stroke, deep venous thrombosis. and pulmonary embolism ) and electrical dysfunction (ventricular arrhythmia); and that individuals having prevalent heart disease are at greatest risk. Moreover, exposure is concomitant with changes in autonomic nervous system balance, systemic in­flammation, and prothrombotic/anti-thrombotic and profibrinolytic-antifibrinolytic balance.Thus, a comprehensive solution to the problem o

  5. Explaining Global Secularity: Existential Security or Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude M. J. Braun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available At the time of data analysis for this report there were 193 countries in the world. Various institutions – the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the CIA, the World Values Survey, Gallup, and many others – have performed sophisticated statistical analyses on cross-national data. The present investigation demonstrates that valid and reliable data concerning religiosity and secularity exist for most countries and that these data are comparable. Cross-national data relating to social, political, economic and cultural aspects of life were tested for correlation with religiosity/secularity. In contrast to the most widely accepted general account of secularity, the Existential Security Framework (ESF; Norris & Inglehart, 2004, secularity was not most highly related to material security, though these were highly related. Rather, secularity was most strongly related to the degree of formal education attained. Material security explained no significant variance beyond education. Thus, religion’s primary function in the world today is being replaced, not so much by the pseudo-materialistic supplication for better living conditions as posited by the ESF, but by contemporary education – extensive knowledge of contemporary cultures, philosophy, modes of thought or processes of reasoning.

  6. Birdsong dialect patterns explained using magnetic domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, James; Kenney, Steven

    2016-06-01

    The songs and calls of many bird species, like human speech, form distinct regional dialects. We suggest that the process of dialect formation is analogous to the physical process of magnetic domain formation. We take the coastal breeding grounds of the Puget Sound white crowned sparrow as an example. Previous field studies suggest that birds of this species learn multiple songs early in life, and when establishing a territory for the first time, retain one of these dialects in order to match the majority of their neighbors. We introduce a simple lattice model of the process, showing that this matching behavior can produce single dialect domains provided the death rate of adult birds is sufficiently low. We relate death rate to thermodynamic temperature in magnetic materials, and calculate the critical death rate by analogy with the Ising model. Using parameters consistent with the known behavior of these birds we show that coastal dialect domain shapes may be explained by viewing them as low-temperature "stripe states."

  7. Motor learning cannot explain stuttering adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatagiri, Horabail S; Nataraja, Nuggehalli P; Deepthi, M

    2013-08-01

    When persons who stutter (PWS) read a text repeatedly, there is a progressive reduction in stutter frequency over the course of three to five readings. Recently, this phenomenon has been attributed by some researchers to motor learning-the acquisition of relatively permanent motor skills that facilitate fluency through practice in producing words. The current study tested this explanation. 23 PWS read prose passages five times in succession. The number of 'new' and 'old' stutters during repeated readings (words stuttered in the current reading but spoken fluently in the previous reading and words stuttered also in the previous reading) were analyzed. If motor learning facilitated fluency during repeated readings in PWS, words read fluently in a reading should not be stuttered in a later reading in significant numbers. Contrary to this prediction, there was no statistical difference in the number of new words stuttered across five readings. A plausible alternative explanation, which requires further study to verify, is offered.

  8. Art education: teaching dilemmas explained via History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Dozza Subtil

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on the situation of arts teaching in the 5th to 8th grades in mainstream elementary education. The study was carried out in public schools in a city in the state of Paraná in 2004. The data was collected by means of questionnaires. Among the problems identified, primary is; the lack of specific teacher training and the lack of a conception about artistic work and, as a result, a visible constraint in their educational practice. The paper presents a historical retrospective of the teaching of arts in Brazilian education in order to understand how the educational policies are implemented. The understanding of art as an activity, polyvalence and free expression demonstrate remains of the 5.692/71 Law in the context investigated.

  9. Self injection of foreign materials into the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, U; Freeman, A; Kirkham, A; Ralph, D J; Minhas, S; Muneer, A

    2017-02-01

    Injection of the subcutaneous tissues of the penis for enlargement of penile girth has been practised for many years by laypeople and medical practitioners alike. However, with recognition of the complications, the practice has died out. We report a series of five patients who presented having injected foreign materials into the subcutaneous tissues of their penises, including paraffin and mineral oils. Our patients had a variable time course of presentation ranging from 1 day following injection to over 26 years. Self-injection of the subcutaneous tissues of the penis is an unusual presentation for a penile mass but should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with a long latent period to presentation or with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging and histological appearances.

  10. Practice changing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Buch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Based on a concrete practice-based study we discuss how such studies can be an important integrated part of critical participatory action research that spur change from inside a professional practice. We also discuss our roles as researchers (and union activists). We see and explore the potential...... makes work intelligible. This provides possibilities for action and change. We claim that the practice-based studies can become an integrated part of doing critical action research, and we investigate and reflect upon our stewardship of the practices we engaged in....... in initiating changes within a practice tradition. To make local changes in the practices is to change the world. The majority of practice-based studies are analyzing different kinds of practices, but only few studies have engaged in doing action research in a practice tradition. Our paper explores how practice...... study about the practices of a study administration unit in a university college in Denmark. The study includes ten weeks of participation observation study and five qualitative interviews, both in the central part and in three local study administrations. Managerial initiated organizational change...

  11. National Utilization Patterns of Steroid Injection and Operative Intervention for Treatment of Common Hand Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Erika D.; Swiatek, Peter R.; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To conduct a population-level analysis of practice trends and probability of surgery based on the number of steroid injections for common hand conditions. Methods Patients at least 18 years old receiving injection or surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), trigger finger (TF), or De Quervain tenovaginitis (DQ) were identified for inclusion using the 2009–2013 Truven MarketScan databases. The number of injections performed was counted, and time between injection and operation was calculated for patients receiving both treatments. A multivariable logistic regression model was created to evaluate the odds of undergoing surgery based on the number of injections performed, controlling for patient age, sex, comorbidities, and insurance type. Results The study sample included 251,030 patients who underwent steroid injection or operative release for CTS (n=129,917), TF (n=102,778), and DQ (n=18,335). The majority of CTS patients were managed with immediate surgery (71%), whereas most patients with TF and DQ were managed initially with injection (74% and 84%, respectively). Among patients receiving both an injection and an operation, a single injection was the most common practice prior to surgery (69%, 58%, and 67% of patients with CTS, TF, and DQ, respectively). Multiple injections for DQ and TF were associated with relatively low predicted probability of surgery (17% and 26%, respectively, after 2 injections). However, the predicted probability of surgery after two injections was higher in patients with CTS (44%). Conclusions Given the associated probability of surgery after multiple injections for the three hand conditions examined, the practice of repeat injections should be critically examined to determine whether underuse or overuse is present and whether efficiency and resource utilization can be improved upon. Level of Evidence Level II (retrospective prognostic study) PMID:26774548

  12. Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1979-02-14

    The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

  13. Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed

  14. Punishments and Prizes for Explaining Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Some few gifted scientists, the late Carl Sagan being an iconic example, are superbly skilled at communicating science clearly and compellingly to non-scientists. Most scientists, however, have serious shortcomings as communicators. The common failings include being verbose, addicted to jargon, caveat- obsessed and focused on details. In addition, it is far easier for a scientist to scoff at the scientific illiteracy of modern society than to work at understanding the viewpoints and concerns of journalists, policymakers and the public. Obstacles await even those scientists with the desire and the talent to communicate science well. Peer pressure and career disincentives can act as powerful deterrents, discouraging especially younger scientists from spending time on non-traditional activities. Scientists often lack mentors and role models to help them develop skills in science communication. Journalists also face real difficulties in getting science stories approved by editors and other gatekeepers. Climate change science brings its own problems in communication. The science itself is unusually wide- ranging and complex. The contentious policies and politics of dealing with global warming are difficult to disentangle from the science. Misinformation and disinformation about climate change are widespread. Intimidation and censorship of scientists by some employers is a serious problem. Polls show that global warming ranks low on the public's list of important issues. Despite all the obstacles, communicating climate change science well is critically important today. It is an art that can be learned and that brings its own rewards and satisfactions. Academic institutions and research funding agencies increasingly value outreach by scientists, and they provide resources to facilitate it. Society needs scientists who can clearly and authoritatively explain the science of global warming and its implications, while remaining objective and policy-neutral. This need will

  15. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    of surrogate alcohol (i.e., nonbeverage) are more influential in explaining why people purchase counterfeit alcohol. Further research on these 2 factors is needed to more fully understand the purchase and consumption of counterfeit alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Explaining G20 and BRICS Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the internal and external factors influencing the compliance performance of the Group of 20 (G20 and the BRICS. The authors start with an overview of the G20 and BRICS compliance patterns using comparative data onthe number of commitments made by the two institutions, the level of institutional compliance, and distribution of commitments and compliance across issue areas. G20 compliance is traced since the leaders’ first 2008 summit in Washington. The BRICS compliance performance record includes data since the third stand alone summit in Sanya in 2011.The study then takes stock of compliance catalysts embedded in the summits’ discourse: priority placements, numerical targets, timelines, self-accountability pledges and mandates to implement and/or monitor implementation. The authors review trends in the use of catalysts in different years and issue areas and identify commonalities and differences.The analysis then turns to external causes of compliance and focuses on demand for collective actions and members’ collective power to respond and deliver on their pledges. Here the study explores whether the self-accountability mechanisms created by the institutions in response to the demand for effectiveness and legitimacy facilitate compliance.The article concludes by highlighting catalysts, causes of compliance and their combinations with the greatest power to encourage implementation, explaining trends in G20 and BRICS compliance performance. The data sets on G20 and BRICS differ in terms of scale. The G20 data set contains 1,511 commitments of which 114 have been monitored, and the BRICS data set contains 231 commitments of which 23 have been monitored.

  17. Safety of immunization injections in Africa: not simply a problem of logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicko, M; Oni, A Q; Ganivet, S; Kone, S; Pierre, L; Jacquet, B

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, the WHO Regional Office for Africa launched a logistics project to address the four main areas of immunization logistics: the cold chain, transport, vaccine supply and quality, and the safety of injections in the countries of the region. The impact of this logistic approach on immunization injection safety was evaluated through surveys of injection procedures and an analysis of the injection materials (e.g. sterilizable or disposable syringes) chosen by the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) and those actually seen to be used. Re-use of injection materials without sterilization, accidental needle-stick injuries among health care workers, and injection-related abscesses in patients were common in countries in the WHO African Region. Few health centres used time-steam saturation-temperature (TST) indicators to check the quality of sterilization and, in many centres, the injection equipment was boiled instead of being steam sterilized. Facilities for the proper disposal of used materials were rarely present. Although the official EPI choice was to use sterilizable equipment, use of a combination of sterilizable and disposable equipment was observed in the field. Unsafe injection practices in these countries were generally due to a failure to integrate nursing practices and public awareness with injection safety issues, and an absence of the influence of EPI managers on health care service delivery. Holistic rather than logistic approaches should be adopted to achieve safe injections in immunization, in the broader context of promoting safe vaccines and safety of all injections.

  18. Pregnancy and Sexual Health among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of…

  19. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Marcic

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped withmulti-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changinghydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individualinjection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paperallows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injectionrates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today knownmeasuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate indiesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possibledifferences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformationalmeasuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation ofmembrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. Thepressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For eachhole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into whichfuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. Duringmeasurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain anoverpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into thegraduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.Themembrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane andforming the full Wheatstone’s bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shapeand temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  20. LHC injection and dump protection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Rossi, A; Wollmann, D

    2010-01-01

    The machine protection against fast failures including injection or dump kickers relies on fixed and movable devices. Results will be shown from the low-intensity beam commissioning of the moveable injection protection devices in the SPS to LHC transfer lines and downstream of the LHC injection kickers, and of the LHC dump protection elements in IR6. This paper is almost exclusively focussing on the issues arising during the 2009 commissioning. The implications of these results and a commissioning status report with the planning for 2010 will be addressed.

  1. Explaining the Variation in Adoption Rates of the Information Content of Environmental Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallan, Even

    2015-01-01

    , to information content (individual content categories). Perceived attributes of the information content itself and innovation adoption theory are used for the first time to explain reason for the reporting practice, and are considered fruitful tools to predict consistent variations in adoption rates among...

  2. Differential experiences of Mexican policing by people who inject drugs residing in Tijuana and San Diego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Emily F; Werb, Dan; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Cuevas Mota, Jazmine; Garfein, Richard S; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Wagner, Karla D

    2017-03-01

    Research among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in the USA and Mexico has identified a range of adverse health impacts associated with policing of PWIDs. We employed a mixed methods design to investigate how PWIDs from San Diego and Mexico experienced policing in Tijuana, and how these interactions affect PWIDs behavior, stratifying by country of origin. In 2012-2014, 575 PWIDs in San Diego, 102 of whom had used drugs in Mexico in the past six months, were enrolled in the STAHR-II study, with qualitative interviews conducted with a subsample of 20 who had recently injected drugs in Mexico. During this period, 735 PWIDs in Tijuana were also enrolled in the El Cuete-IV study, with qualitative interviews conducted with a subsample of 20 recently stopped by police. We calculated descriptive statistics for quantitative variables and conducted thematic analysis of qualitative transcripts. Integration of these data involved comparing frequencies across cohorts and using qualitative themes to explain and explore findings. Sixty-one percent of San Diego-based participants had been recently stopped by law enforcement officers (LEOs) in Mexico; 53% reported it was somewhat or very likely that they would be arrested while in Mexico because they look like a drug user. Ninety percent of Tijuana-based participants had been recently stopped by LEOs; 84% reported it was somewhat or very likely they could get arrested because they look like a drug user. Participants in both cohorts described bribery and targeting by LEOs in Mexico. However, most San Diego-based participants described compliance with bribery as a safeguard against arrest and detention, with mistreatment being rare. Tijuana-based participants described being routinely targeted by LEOs, were frequently detained, and reported instances of sexual and physical violence. Tijuana-based participants described modifying how, where, and with whom they injected drugs in response; and experienced feelings of stress, anxiety, and

  3. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.

    2017-08-08

    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  4. Energy Injections in Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y. B.; Wu, X. F.; Huang, Y. F.; Xu, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we will introduce some special events, such as GRBs 081029, 100814A and 111209A. Unexpected features, such as multiple X-ray flares and significant optical rebrightenings, are observed in their afterglow light curves, unveiling the late-time activities of the central engines. Here, we will summarize our previous numerical results of these three bursts by using the energy injection model. Especially, we will focus on GRB 100814A, with an early-time shallow decay phase and a late-time significant rebrightening in its optical afterglow light curve. To explain the complex multi-band afterglow emission of GRB 100814A, we invoke a magnetar with spin evolution as its central engine. We argue that the optical shallow decay phase and the X-ray plateau are due to energy injection from t he magnetar in its early spin-down stage, while the significant optical rebrightening observed at late time naturally comes from the spin-up process of the magnetar, which is caused by subsequent fall back accretion.

  5. Epidural steroid injection for lumbar disc herniation in NFL athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krych, Aaron J; Richman, Daniel; Drakos, Mark; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie; Cammisa, Frank; Warren, Russell F

    2012-02-01

    To our knowledge, there is no published information on the efficacy of epidural steroid injections for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation in an athletic population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of epidural corticosteroid injection for treatment of lumbar disc herniation in a group of National Football League (NFL) players. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all NFL players who underwent an epidural steroid injection at our institution for incapacitating pain secondary to an acute lumbar disc herniation (confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging) from 2003 to 2010. Our primary outcome was success of the injection, defined as return to play. The secondary outcome of the study was to evaluate risk factors for failure of this treatment approach. Seventeen players had a total of 37 injections for 27 distinct lumbar disc herniation episodes from 2003 to 2010. The success rate of returning an athlete to play for a given episode of disc herniation was 89% (24 of 27 episodes) with an average loss of 2.8 practices (range = 0-12) and 0.6 games (range = 0-2) after the injection. Four players required a repeat injection for the same episode. Three of these four players ultimately failed conservative management and required surgical intervention. Risk factors for failing injection therapy included sequestration of the disc herniation on magnetic resonance imaging (P = 0.01) and weakness on physical examination (P = 0.002). There were no complications reported. In this highly selective group of professional athletes, our results suggest that epidural steroid injections are a safe and effective therapeutic option in the treatment of symptomatic lumbar disc herniation.

  6. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lower legs hoarseness difficulty breathing or swallowing redness, warmth, swelling, pain, or infection in the place where you injected the medication that does not heal within a few days red or bloody stools or diarrhea stomach pain slow ...

  7. Beam Injection in Recirculator SALO

    CERN Document Server

    Guk, Ivan S; Dovbnya, Anatoly N; Kononenko, Stanislav; Peev, Fedor; Tarasenko, Alexander; Van der Wiel, Marnix

    2005-01-01

    Possible antetypes of injectors for electron recirculator SALO,* intended for nuclear-physical research, are analyzed. The plan injection of beams in recirculator is offered. Expected parameters of beams are designed.

  8. Infliximab, Infliximab-dyyb Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infliximab and infliximab-dyyb injection are used to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders (conditions in which the immune system ... has not improved when treated with other medications. Infliximab may also be used to relieve symptoms of ...

  9. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people with ... with severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  10. [Comparison of a safety evaluation between paclitaxel injection NK and Taxol®].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daigo; Tsubota, Yu; Sueoka, Noriko; Yokoi, Takashi; Inoue, Kentaro; Ohira, Masumi; Muranaka, Tatsuya

    2013-07-01

    Paclitaxel injection NK(NK)is a generic product containing the same amount of ingredients as a Taxol®Injection. We examined the safety of NK in clinical practice compared to the original drug. Our results suggested that for the cancer patient, most safety profiles between NK and the original drug are similar. However, patients who received Taxol®Injection had significantly more grade 2 neuropathy compared to those who received NK(p<0. 01).

  11. Favorable Vocal Fold Wound Healing Induced by Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Seung Hoon; Jeong, Han-Sin; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Koh, Eun-Ha; Lee, Seon Uk; Jin, Sung Min; Kim, Dong Hoon; Sohn, Jin Hee; Lee, Sang Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To introduce a new injection material for vocal fold diseases, which could be readily translated to clinical practice, we investigated the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection on the injured vocal fold in terms of histological recovery. Methods Blood samples were drawn from New Zealand White rabbits and PRP was isolated through centrifugation and separation of the samples. Using a CO2 laser, we made a linear wound in the 24 vocal fold sides of 12 rabbits and inject...

  12. Explaining the Birth of the Martian Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    led to the formation of large clumps, which eventually agglomerated to form Phobos and Deimos.The authors find that Phobos and Deimos most likely formed in the outer regions of the accretion disk that was created by a large impact with Mars. [Adapted from Ronnet et al. 2016]In the study conducted by Ronnet, Vernazza, and collaborators, the authors investigated the composition and texture of the dust that would have crystallized in an impact-generated accretion disk making up Marss moons. They find that Phobos and Deimos could not have formed out of the extremely hot, magma-filled inner regions of such a disk, because this would have resulted in different compositions than we observe.Phobos and Deimos could have formed, however, in the very outer part of an impact-generated accretion disk, where the hot gas condensed directly into small solid grains instead of passing through the magma phase. Accretion of such tiny grains would naturally explain the similarity in physical properties we observe between Marss moons and some main-belt asteroids and yet this picture is also consistent with the moons current orbital parameters.The authors argue that the formation of the Martian moons from the outer regions of an impact-generated accretion disk is therefore a plausible scenario, neatly reconciling the observed physical properties of Phobos and Diemos with their orbital properties.CitationT. Ronnet et al 2016 ApJ 828 109. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/828/2/109

  13. Sustainable logistics in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Fitria, Irza

    2011-01-01

    Improved logistical performance is one of the tools to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions from freight transport. The production company and transportation company should find the practice to decrease the emissions from their activity in distributions of goods. In this thesis, the sustainable logistics in practice in focal company (Ekornes) is studied. The potential improvement in relation to sustainable transportation principle is explained. Through qualitative method research, the theory r...

  14. Injectable Drug Eluting Elastomeric Polymer: A Novel Submucosal Injection Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Richard T.; Palmer, Michael; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Abell, Thomas L.; Yang, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Background Biodegradable hydrogels can deliver therapeutic payloads with great potentials in endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) to yield improvements in efficacy and foster mucosal regeneration. Objective To assess the efficacy of an injectable drug eluting elastomeric polymer (iDEEP) as a submucosal injection material. Design Comparative study among 3 different solutions using material characterization tests, ex vivo and in vivo porcine models. Setting Academic hospital. Interventions 30 gastric submucosal cushions were achieved with saline (0.9%), sodium hyaluronate (0.4%), and iDEEP (n = 10) in ex vivo porcine stomachs. Four porcine gastric submucosal cushions were then performed in vivo using iDEEP. Main outcome measurements Maximum injection pressure, Rebamipide release rate, submucosal elevation duration, and assessment of in vivo efficacy by en bloc resection. Results No significant difference in injection pressures between iDEEP (28.9 ± 0.3 PSI) and sodium hyaluronate (29.5 ± 0.4 PSI, P > .05) was observed. iDEEP gels displayed a controlled release of Rebamipide up to 2 weeks in vitro. The elevation height of iDEEP (5.7 ± 0.5 mm) was higher than saline (2.8 ± 0.2 mm, P < .01) and SH (4.2 ± 0.2 mm, P < .05). All EMR procedures were successfully performed after injection of iDEEP, and a large gel cushion was noted after the resection procedure. Limitations Benchtop, ex vivo, and non-survival pig study. Conclusions A novel injection solution was evaluated for endoscopic resection. These results suggest that iDEEP may provide a significant step towards the realization of an ideal EMR and ESD injection material. PMID:22301346

  15. Intravenous injections in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombash Lampe, Sara E; Kaspar, Brian K; Foust, Kevin D

    2014-11-11

    Intravenous injection is a clinically applicable manner to deliver therapeutics. For adult rodents and larger animals, intravenous injections are technically feasible and routine. However, some mouse models can have early onset of disease with a rapid progression that makes administration of potential therapies difficult. The temporal (or facial) vein is just anterior to the ear bud in mice and is clearly visible for the first two days after birth on either side of the head using a dissecting microscope. During this window, the temporal vein can be injected with volumes up to 50 μl. The injection is safe and well tolerated by both the pups and the dams. A typical injection procedure is completed within 1-2 min, after which the pup is returned to the home cage. By the third postnatal day the vein is difficult to visualize and the injection procedure becomes technically unreliable. This technique has been used for delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, which in turn can provide almost body-wide, stable transgene expression for the life of the animal depending on the viral serotype chosen.

  16. Combined Case of Blood-Injury-Injection Phobia and Social Phobia: Behavior Therapy Management and Effectiveness through Tilt Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Ferenidou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of behavior therapy based mainly on real-life exposure situations as well as applied tension was examined for a combined case of blood-injury-injection (BII phobia and social anxiety disorder. Treatment involved 28 behavior therapy sessions, while applied tension technique was also described and practiced. The specific contribution of social skills techniques, fantasy, and real-life situations exposure was examined in a single case design. The subject was a 39-year-old male with anxiety symptoms when confronting an audience, as well as symptoms of the autonomic nervous system (bradycardia and syncope, which were better explained by BII. All self-report measures regarding fear, social phobia, and anxiety were reduced after behavior therapy and remained maintained at followup, while BII decreased further after applied tension techniques. The contribution of behavior therapy to the overall outcome of the case is considered significant for many reasons that are discussed in the pape.

  17. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal guid

  18. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    Aim: Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal

  19. Development and Assessment of Self-explaining Skills in College Chemistry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalta-Cerdas, Adrian

    chemical phenomena and apply the underlying chemistry concepts in the resolution of novel problems without direct intervention of an instructor. This work supports the incorporation of self-explaining activities in the repertoire of teaching practices of both experienced and novice instructors for general chemistry courses.

  20. Entropy Injection as a Global Feedback Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, S P; Benson, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Both preheating of the intergalactic medium and radiative cooling of low entropy gas have been proposed to explain the deviation from self-similarity in the cluster L_x-T_x relation and the observed entropy floor in these systems. However, severe overcooling of gas in groups is necessary for radiative cooling alone to explain the observations. Non-gravitational entropy injection must therefore still be important in these systems. We point out that on scales of groups and below, gas heated to the required entropy floor cannot cool in a Hubble time, regardless of its subsequent adiabatic compression. Preheating therefore shuts off the gas supply to galaxies, and should be an important global feedback mechanism for galaxy formation. Constraints on global gas cooling can be placed from the joint evolution of the comoving star formation rate and neutral gas density. Preheating at high redshift can be ruled out; however the data does not rule out passive gas consumption without inflow since z~2. Since for preheated...

  1. Expert Consensus Group report on the use of apomorphine in the treatment of Parkinson's disease - Clinical practice recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenkwalder, Claudia; Chaudhuri, K Ray; García Ruiz, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    practice. This document outlines best-practice recommendations for selecting appropriate candidates for apomorphine intermittent injection (the pen-injection formulation) or apomorphine continuous infusion (the pump formulation), for initiating patients onto therapy and for managing their ongoing treatment...

  2. Are intravenous injections of contrast media really less nephrotoxic than intra-arterial injections?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, Ulf [University of Lund, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Trelleborg (Sweden); Almen, Torsten [Skaane University Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences/Medical Radiology, University of Lund, Malmoe (Sweden); Jacobsson, Bo [University of Gothenburg and the Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The Queen Silvia Children' s Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Aspelin, Peter [Karolinska Institute and University Hospital, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    We oppose the opinion that the intra-arterial administration of iodine-based contrast media (CM) appears to pose a greater risk of contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN) than intravenous administration since (1) in intra-arterial coronary procedures and most other intra-arterial angiographic examinations, CM injections are also intravenous relative to the kidneys, (2) there is a lack of comparative trials studying the risk of CIN between intra-arterial and intravenous procedures with matched risk factors and CM doses, (3) a bias selection of patients with fewer risk factors may explain the seemingly lower rate of CIN after CT in comparison with coronary interventions, (4) the rate of CIN following intra-arterial coronary procedures may also be exaggerated owing to other causes of acute kidney failure, such as haemodynamic instability and microembolisation, (5) roughly the same gram-iodine/GFR ratio ({approx}1:1) as a limit of relatively safe CM doses has preliminarily been found for both intravenous CT and intra-arterial coronary procedures and (6) the substantially higher injected intravenous CM dose rate during CT relative to an intra-arterial coronary procedure might actually pose a higher risk of CIN following CT. Key Points circle Most intra-arterial injections of contrast media are intravenous relative to the kidneys. circle No evidence that intravenous CM injections should be less nephrotoxic than intra-arterial. circle Considerably higher dose rates of CM are used for CT relative to intra-arterial procedures. circle Higher dose rates may pose higher nephrotoxic risk for intravenous based CT studies. (orig.)

  3. Injection safety for immunisation--Andhra Pradesh experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipilyawar, Satish B; Rao, R Gopal Krishna

    2005-04-01

    Injection safety is one component of a major immunisation project being implemented in partnership with Government of Andhra Pradesh and PATH, an international NGO. Prior to the project wrong and dangerous injection giving practices were present among the staff which needed immediate attention. It was decided to introduce auto disable syringes along with safety boxes with high quality training to staff and make all these available to all districts along with hepatitis B introduction in the routine immunisation. The State of Andhra Pradesh became the first to implement 'bundling' concept in the immunisation project. Implementation was planned to be done in a phased manner to cover all the 23 districts over a five-year period. For routine immunisation sessions, smaller locally produced boxes may be more acceptable. The Government of India made a decision on 21st July, 2004 on implementing injection safety. Injection safety and proper disposal of used needles and syringes can be successfully advocated if medical associations, paediatric associations, key governmental bodies and international agencies come together. PATH established a group and holds the secretariat for the India injection safety coalition on similar basis as the Safe Injection Global Network of WHO (SIGN). Description of AP system for safe disposal of needles and syringes using manual needle-cutters and plastics recycling has been depicted in this article.

  4. DNS Pharming through PHP Injection: Attack Scenario and Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Rishi Sahu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in technology, Internet has provided set of tools and technologies which has enabled web programmers to develop effective websites. PHP is most widely used server side scripting language and more than twenty million of web sites are designed through PHP. It has used as a core script in Web Content Management System (WCMS, such as Joomla, WordPress, Drupal, SilverStripe etc. PHP has also security flaws due to the certain vulnerabilities such as PHP injection, remote file inclusion and unauthorized file creation. PHP injection is a variant of code injection attacks in which PHP script may be exploited to execute remote commands. The contribution of this paper is twofold: First, it presents a unifying view of PHP injection vulnerability, which causes alteration in the 'hosts file'; Second, It introduces an investigation process against alteration in 'hosts file' through PHP injection. This attack has been introduced as a type of DNS pharming. In this investigation process a chain of evidence has been created and an algebraic signature has been developed to detect explained attack.

  5. Can aerobic exercise alleviate flu-like symptoms following interferon beta-1a injections in patients with multiple sclerosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeskov-Christensen, Martin; Kjølhede, Tue; Stenager, Egon

    2016-01-01

    IFNß-1a injections in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise can alleviate FLS following IFNß-1a injections in PwMS, and secondarily to examine whether or not fluctuations in circulating cytokines provide a mechanism that can explain a potential...

  6. Bilateral breast necrosis due to local injection of fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Emin; Karagulle, Erdal; Koksal, Hande; Togan, Turhan; Erinanc, Ozgur Hilal; Dogru, Osman; Moray, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The breast is as aesthetically important as it is physiologically. Physicians and women have practiced various methods for breast aesthetics and augmentation. We report a female veterinarian who injected fish oil into her breast, which led to inflammation and necrosis of breast tissue. When all medical therapies failed, bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy was performed. We did not find a case in the literature where fish oil had been used for breast augmentation. However, we did find that many agents have been injected for breast augmentation, the results of which were tragic, just as the case presented herein.

  7. Testing a fall risk model for injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Barbara; Templin, Thomas N; Goldberg, Allon

    2012-01-01

    Fall risk is a critical component of clinical assessment and has not been examined for persons who have injected illicit drugs and are aging. The aim of this study was to test and develop the Fall Risk Model for Injection Drug Users by examining the relationships among injection drug use, chronic venous insufficiency, lower extremity impairments (i.e., decreased ankle range of motion, reduced calf muscle endurance, and leg pain), age and other covariates, and the Tinetti balance and gait total score as a measure of fall risk. A cross-sectional comparative design was used with four crossed factors. Standardized instruments were used to assess the variables. Moderated multiple regression with linear and quadratic trends in age was used to examine the nature of the relationship between the Tinetti balance and gait total and age and the potential moderating role of injection drug use. A prespecified series of models was tested. Participants (n = 713) were men (46.9%) and women with a mean age of 46.26 years and primarily African American (61.7%) in methadone treatment centers. The fall risk of a 48-year-old leg injector was comparable with the fall risk of a 69-year-old who had not injected drugs. Variables were added to the model sequentially, resulting in some lost significance of some when they were explained by subsequent variables. Final significant variables in the model were employment status, number of comorbidities, ankle range of motion, leg pain, and calf muscle endurance. Fall risk was associated with route of drug use. Lower extremity impairments accounted for the effects of injection drug use and chronic venous insufficiency on risk for falls. Further understanding of fall risk in injection users is necessary as they age, attempt to work, and participate in activities.

  8. Evidence for bacteriophage T7 tail extension during DNA injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakala Kevin W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electron micrographs of bacteriophage T7 reveal a tail shorter than needed to reach host cytoplasm during infection-initiating injection of a T7 DNA molecule through the tail and cell envelope. However, recent data indicate that internal T7 proteins are injected before the DNA molecule is injected. Thus, bacteriophage/host adsorption potentially causes internal proteins to become external and lengthen the tail for DNA injection. But, the proposed adsorption-induced tail lengthening has never been visualized. Findings In the present study, electron microscopy of particles in T7 lysates reveals a needle-like capsid extension that attaches partially emptied bacteriophage T7 capsids to non-capsid vesicles and sometimes enters an attached vesicle. This extension is 40–55 nm long, 1.7–2.4× longer than the T7 tail and likely to be the proposed lengthened tail. The extension is 8–11 nm in diameter, thinner than most of the tail, with an axial hole 3–4 nm in diameter. Though the bound vesicles are not identified by microscopy, these vesicles resemble the major vesicles in T7 lysates, found to be E. coli outer membrane vesicles by non-denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by mass spectrometry. Conclusion The observed lengthened tail is long enough to reach host cytoplasm during DNA injection. Its channel is wide enough to be a conduit for DNA injection and narrow enough to clamp DNA during a previously observed stalling/re-starting of injection. However, its outer diameter is too large to explain formation by passing of an intact assembly through any known capsid hole unless the hole is widened.

  9. Do you get it? User-evaluated explainable BDI agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekens, J.; Harbers, M.; Hindriks, K.; Bosch, K. van den; Jonker, C.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we focus on explaining to humans the behavior of autonomous agents, i.e., explainable agents. Explainable agents are useful for many reasons including scenario-based training (e.g. disaster training), tutor and pedagogical systems, agent development and debugging, gaming, and interacti

  10. Computational design of mould sprue for injection moulding thermoplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar Lakkanna

    2016-01-01

    as an inexpensive preventive cliché to moulders. Its adaption ease to practice manifests a hope of injection moulding extremely alluring polymers. Therefore, we concluded that appreciating injectant׳s polymeric character to design exclusive sprue bush offers a definite a priori advantage.

  11. Comparison of lidocaine injection, botulinum toxin injection, and dry needling to trigger points in myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanli, A; Kaya, A; Ardicoglu, O; Ozgocmen, S; Zengin, F Ozkurt; Bayik, Y

    2005-10-01

    in the dry needle group. Depression and anxiety scores significantly improved only in the BTX-A-injected group. Injection is more practical and rapid, since it causes less disturbance than dry needling and is more cost effective than BTX-A injection, and seems the treatment of choice in MPS. On the other hand, BTX-A could be selectively used in MPS patients resistant to conventional treatments.

  12. Effect of injection timing and injection pressure on the performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    single cylinder diesel engine fitted with conventional mechanical fuel ... on Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) facilities where the biodiesel can be ... Keywords: Diesel engine, Ester of Honge Oil (EHO), Common Rail Direct ..... emission of EHO was higher than those of the diesel under the same operating conditions.

  13. On Simple-Injective Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.K. Nicholson; Jae Keol Park; M.F. Yousif

    2002-01-01

    A ring R is called right simple-injective if every R-linear map from a right ideal of R to R with simple image can be extended to R. It is shown that a right simple-injective ring R is quasi-Frobenius if R is right Goldie with essential right socle, or R is left perfect and the right annihilator of k ∈ R is finitely generated whenever kR or Rk is simple. This extends a result of Bjork.

  14. SPECTRAL VARIABILITY AND TRANSIENT INJECTION OF RELATIVISTIC ELECTRONS FOR BL LAC OBJECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI DONG-CHENG; XIE GUANG-ZHONG; CHEN LUO-EN

    2000-01-01

    The spectral hardening with increasing intensity in optical range for four BL Lac objects have been found by analyzing our observed data. Making use of the synchrotron loss of transient injection of relativistic electrons, we succeeded in explaining the phenomenon of the spectral hardening in the outburst phase. The value of magnetic intensity and the limit condition of the transient injection of relativistic electrons seem to be reasonable.

  15. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R., E-mail: russell.young@gwh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Harding, J. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Coventry, Coventry (United Kingdom); Kingsly, A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Bristol Institue of Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bradley, M. [Department of Radiology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  16. Could the WHO model list of essential medicines do more for the safe and appropriate use of injections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logez, Sophie M D; Hutin, Yvan J F; Holloway, Kathleen; Gray, Robin; Hogerzeil, Hans V

    2004-10-01

    A national drug policy addressing the safe and appropriate use of injections is an important element to prevent overuse and unsafe use of injections. Because the World Health Organization World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines is a keystone of national drug policies, the authors examined the way it addresses injection practices. They reviewed the 11th World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines to collect information on (1) injectable medicines, (2) diluents, and (3) the recommendations regarding the procurement of injection devices. Of 306 active ingredients on the list, 135 (44%) are mentioned in injectable form. Of these, 41 (30%) need diluents for reconstitution. The list does not mention the need to procure appropriate diluents, injection devices, and safety boxes in quantities that match the quantities of injectable medicines. In addition, the list provides limited information that can be used to forecast the needs of injection devices to administer the injectable medicines that are included in the list. Future revisions of the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines should attempt to reduce the number of injectable formulations on the basis of evidence. In addition, the list should specify that when injectable medicines are being supplied, diluents, single-use syringes, and safety boxes should be supplied. The volume of syringes needed for administration should be specified for each injectable medication on the list to facilitate the forecasting of the needs of injection devices.

  17. Sulfide remediation by pulsed injection of nitrate into a low temperature Canadian heavy oil reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voordouw, Gerrit; Grigoryan, Aleksandr A; Lambo, Adewale; Lin, Shiping; Park, Hyung Soo; Jack, Thomas R; Coombe, Dennis; Clay, Bill; Zhang, Frank; Ertmoed, Ryan; Miner, Kirk; Arensdorf, Joseph J

    2009-12-15

    Sulfide formation by oil field sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can be diminished by the injection of nitrate, stimulating the growth of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB). We monitored the field-wide injection of nitrate into a low temperature (approximately 30 degrees C) oil reservoir in western Canada by determining aqueous concentrations of sulfide, sulfate, nitrate, and nitrite, as well as the activities of NRB in water samples from 3 water plants, 2 injection wells, and 15 production wells over 2 years. The injection water had a low sulfate concentration (approximately 1 mM). Nitrate (2.4 mM, 150 ppm) was added at the water plants. Its subsequent distribution to the injection wells gave losses of 5-15% in the pipeline system, indicating that most was injected. Continuous nitrate injection lowered the total aqueous sulfide output of the production wells by 70% in the first five weeks, followed by recovery. Batchwise treatment of a limited section of the reservoir with high nitrate eliminated sulfide from one production well with nitrate breakthrough. Subsequent, field-wide treatment with week-long pulses of 14 mM nitrate gave breakthrough at an additional production well. However, this trend was reversed when injection with a constant dose of 2.4 mM (150 ppm) was resumed. The results are explained by assuming growth of SRB near the injection wellbore due to sulfate limitation. Injection of a constant nitrate dose inhibits these SRB initially. However, because of the constant, low temperature of the reservoir, SRB eventually grow back in a zone further removed from the injection wellbore. The resulting zonation (NRB closest to and SRB further away from the injection wellbore) can be broken by batch-wise increases in the concentration of injected nitrate, allowing it to re-enter the SRB-dominated zone.

  18. Fibrin gel-immobilized primary osteoblasts in calcium phosphate bone cement: in vivo evaluation with regard to application as injectable biological bone substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneser, U; Voogd, A; Ohnolz, J; Buettner, O; Stangenberg, L; Zhang, Y H; Stark, G B; Schaefer, D J

    2005-01-01

    Osteogenic injectable bone substitutes may be useful for many applications. We developed a novel injectable bone substitute based on osteoblast-fibrin glue suspension and calcium phosphate bone cement (BC). Human osteoblasts were isolated from trabecular bone samples and cultured under standard conditions. Osteoblasts were suspended in fibrinogen solution (FS). BC was cured with thrombin solution. 8 x 4 mm injectable bone discs were prepared using silicon molds and a custom-made applicator device. Discs containing BC, BC/FS, or BC/FS/osteoblasts were implanted subcutaneously into athymic nude mice. After 3, 9 and 24 weeks, specimens were explanted and subjected to morphologic and biomechanical evaluation. In vitro fibrin gel-embedded osteoblasts displayed a differentiated phenotype as evidenced by alkaline phosphatase, collagen type 1 and von Kossa stains. A proportion of osteoblasts appeared morphologically intact over a 3-day in vitro period following application into the BC. BC/FS and BC/FS/osteoblast discs were sparsely infiltrated with vascularized connective tissue. There was no bone formation in implants from all groups. However, positive von Kossa staining only in BC/FS/osteoblast groups suggests engraftment of at least some of the transplanted cells. Biomechanical evaluation demonstrated initial stability of the composites. Young's modulus and maximal load did not differ significantly in the BC/FS and BC/FS/osteoblast groups. The practicability of osteoblast-containing injectable bone could be demonstrated. The dense microstructure and the suboptimal initial vascularization of the composites may explain the lack of bone formation. Modifications with regard to enhanced osteoblast survival are mandatory for a possible application as injectable osteogenic bone replacement system.

  19. XQuery Injection Attack and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭玉森

    2014-01-01

    As a database that allows data to be stored in XML format, XML database suffers from some similar attacks as traditional relational database does. These attacks include injection attack by XQuey function in application software. These include BaseX, eXist and MarkLogic. In order to defeat these attacks, countermeasures are proposed.

  20. Do hostile attributions and negative affect explain the association between authoritarian beliefs and harsh parenting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L; Irwin, Lauren M; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J; Rutledge, Ericka; Davila, America L

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined the associations between authoritarian parenting beliefs, attributions of hostile intent, negative affect, and harsh parenting practices. General population parents (N=183; 31.1% fathers) completed self-report measures of authoritarian parenting beliefs and read vignettes describing children engaging in transgressions. Following each vignette, parents indicated the extent to which they would attribute hostile intent to the child, feel negative affect, and respond with harsh parenting practices (e.g., yelling, hitting). As hypothesized, parents who subscribed to higher levels of authoritarian beliefs attributed more hostile intent to the child and expected to feel more negative affect in response to the transgressions. In turn, higher levels of hostile attributions and negative affect were associated with increased likelihood of harsh parenting practices. Results from a path analysis revealed that the association between authoritarian parenting beliefs and harsh parenting practices was fully explained by attributions of hostile intent and negative affect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Hmong Cultural Repertoire: Explaining Cultural Variation Within an Ethnic Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Hein

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on 382 Hmong in Laos and the United States reveal threetypes of cultural expertise: performing spiritual-medicalhealing; conducting life cycle rituals; and creating arts andcrafts. Only 31 percent of this sample engage in one or moreof the practices in this cultural repertoire. A mere 10percent of the sample account for 54 percent of the 247cultural practices. This pattern reveals the paradoxicalrelationship between ethnicity and culture. While all ethnicgroups have a culture, there is considerable variation amongmembers in their use of the group's cultural repertoire. Thispaper uses regression analysis to explain why some Hmong havemore cultural practices than others. The results suggest thatmales have greater access to the Hmong cultural repertoiredue their positions of authority in Laos, but that maternalcultural practices promote use of the repertoire by theirchildren regardless of leadership status.

  2. An enhancement of plasma density by neutral gas injection observed in SEPAC Spacelab-1 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S.; Kawashima, N.; Kuriki, K.; Yanagisawa, M.; Obayashi, T.; Kubota, S.; Roberts, W. T.; Reasoner, D. L.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Williamson, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    An enhancement of plasma density observed during a neutral gas injection in Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators by the Space Shuttle/Spacelab-1 is presented. When a plume of nitrogen gas was injected from the orbiter into space, a large amount of plasma was detected by an onboard plasma probe. The observed density often increased beyond the background plasma density and was strongly dependent on the attitude of the orbiter with respect to the velocity vector. This effect has been explained by a collisional interaction between the injected gas molecules and the ionospheric ions relatively drifting at the orbital speed.

  3. Investigation and Comparison Effects of Fluid Injection Type in Thrust Vector Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Heidari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of some liquid side injection from nozzle wall into exhaust gas of combustion chamber are studied. The side injection against main flow is as elliptical solid thing that change the symmetric of flow field on nozzle wall and causes some different pressure distribution on wall, and finally causes thrust vector deviation. Flows interaction causes some physical phenomena as bow shock wave in front of injection region. This paper explain the effects of this wave and variation velocity & pressure distribution at different cross sections of flow field and comparison results of air and other liquid fluid in thrust vector control system. The results are compared with experimental data and have well agreement with them. The results show that Freon is one of best injection liquid for this type of thrust vector control. Performance of Injection is optimum in relative position 35 to 40% nozzle divergence length.

  4. Inverse I-V Injection Characteristics of ZnO Nanoparticle-Based Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Paul; Vogel, Stefan; Bonrad, Klaus; von Seggern, Heinz

    2016-08-10

    Simple Al/ZnO(NP)/Au diodes produced by spin coating of ZnO nanoparticle dispersions (ZnO(NP)) on Al/Al2O3 and Au substrates and subsequent Au deposition have been investigated to understand electron injection properties of more complex devices, incorporating ZnO(NP) as injection layer. Inverse I-V characteristics have been observed compared to conventional Al/ZnO(SP)/Au diodes produced by reactive ion sputtering of ZnO. SEM micrographs reveal that the void-containing contact of ZnO(NP) with the bottom Al electrode and the rough morphology of the top Au electrode are likely to be responsible for the observed injection and ejection probabilities of electrons. A simple tunneling model, incorporating the voids, explains the strongly reduced injection currents from Al whereas the top electrode fabricated by vapor deposition of Au onto the nanoparticle topology adopts the inverse ZnO(NP) morphology leading to enlarged injection areas combined with Au-tip landscapes. These tips in contrast to the smooth sputtered ZnO(SP) lead to electric field enhancement and strongly increased injection of electrons in reverse direction. The injected charge piles up at the barrier generated by voids between ZnO(NP) and the bottom electrode forcing a change in the barrier shape and therefore allowing for higher ejection rates. Both effects in combination explain the inverse I-V characteristic of nanoparticle based diodes.

  5. Diabetes-Related Goals, Practices, and Beliefs of Practicing Pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Rodney A.; Pichert, James W.

    1982-01-01

    Practicing pediatricians were surveyed to assess their need for diabetes education programs. Pediatricians generally have fewer than five diabetic patients, see them less than every four months, prescribe single daily insulin injections, and do not include diatetic services in the treatment program. No adequate rationale for continuing education…

  6. Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities’ influence on patients’ health-related behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Steven J. Hoffman; Tan, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Celebrities can have substantial influence as medical advisors. However, their impact on public health is equivocal: depending on the advice’s validity and applicability, celebrity engagements can benefit or hinder efforts to educate patients on evidence-based practices and improve their health literacy. This meta-narrative analysis synthesizes multiple disciplinary insights explaining the influence celebrities have on people’s health-related behaviors. Methods: Systematic searche...

  7. Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities’ influence on patients’ health-related behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Steven J. Hoffman; Tan, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background Celebrities can have substantial influence as medical advisors. However, their impact on public health is equivocal: depending on the advice’s validity and applicability, celebrity engagements can benefit or hinder efforts to educate patients on evidence-based practices and improve their health literacy. This meta-narrative analysis synthesizes multiple disciplinary insights explaining the influence celebrities have on people’s health-related behaviors. Methods Systematic searches ...

  8. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Zink

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds. The conformal cooling channels are placed along the geometry of the injection-molded product, and thus they can extract more heat and heat removal is more uniform than in the case of conventional cooling systems. In the case of copper mold inserts, cooling channels are made by drilling and heat removal is facilitated by the high thermal conductivity coefficient of copper, which is several times that of steel. Designing optimal cooling systems is a complex process; a proper design requires injection molding simulations, but the accuracy of calculations depends on how precise the input parameters and boundary conditions are. In this study, three cooling circuit designs and three mold materials (Ampcoloy 940, 1.2311 (P20 steel, and MS1 steel were used and compared using numerical methods. The effect of different mold designs and materials on cooling efficiency were examined using calculated and measured results. The simulation model was adjusted to the measurement results by considering the joint gap between the mold inserts.

  9. Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jeffrey M [Idaho Falls, ID; Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-11-15

    Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

  10. How to explain central sensitization to patients with 'unexplained' chronic musculoskeletal pain : Practice guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, Jo; van Wilgen, C. Paul; Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; van Ittersum, Miriam; Meeus, Mira

    2011-01-01

    Central sensitization provides an evidence-based explanation for many cases of 'unexplained' chronic musculoskeletal pain. Prior to commencing rehabilitation in such cases, it is crucial to change maladaptive illness perceptions, to alter maladaptive pain cognitions and to reconceptualise pain. This

  11. Practice explains abolished behavioural adaptation after human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lesions

    OpenAIRE

    van Steenbergen, H.; E. Haasnoot; Bocanegra, B.R.; Berretty, E.W.; Hommel, B.

    2015-01-01

    The role of mid-cingulate cortex (MCC), also referred to as dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, in regulating cognitive control is a topic of primary importance in cognitive neuroscience. Although many studies have shown that MCC responds to cognitive demands, lesion studies in humans are inconclusive concerning the causal role of the MCC in the adaptation to these demands. By elegantly combining single-cell recordings with behavioural methods, Sheth et al. [Sheth, S. et al. Human dorsal anteri...

  12. The Social Media Paradox Explained: Comparing Political Parties’ Facebook Strategy Versus Practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalsnes, Bente

    2016-01-01

    .... Political parties and individual politicians can use social media to bypass media and communicate directly with voters through websites and particularly social media platforms such as Facebook...

  13. How to explain central sensitization to patients with 'unexplained' chronic musculoskeletal pain : Practice guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, Jo; van Wilgen, C. Paul; Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; van Ittersum, Miriam; Meeus, Mira

    2011-01-01

    Central sensitization provides an evidence-based explanation for many cases of 'unexplained' chronic musculoskeletal pain. Prior to commencing rehabilitation in such cases, it is crucial to change maladaptive illness perceptions, to alter maladaptive pain cognitions and to reconceptualise pain. This

  14. EU Aid Conditionality in ACP Countries: Explaining Inconsistency in EU Sanctions Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Del Biondo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The EU is often criticised for using negative conditionality only in poor, strategically less important countries in the ACP region. However, whether and why there is inconsistency within the group of ACP countries has not been properly investigated. Therefore, this article investigates the reasons for the EU’s non-application of Article 96 of the Cotonou Agreement in five countries that can be considered typical cases where negative conditionality is generally imposed, namely countries that experienced flawed elections over the last ten years: Ethiopia, Rwanda, Nigeria, Kenya and Chad. On the one hand, the study confirms previous findings that security interests tend to trump the EU’s efforts to promote democratisation. On the other hand, the article adds that democratisation might not only conflict with the EU’s interests, but also with its objective to promote development and poverty reduction.

  15. Effect of relative injectate pressures on the efficacy of lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection in patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Hong; Lee, Sang Ho

    2014-03-01

    Transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESIs) are often used to treat lumbar foraminal stenosis. Injectate pressure (of contrast) was monitored during fluoroscopically guided TFESI to assess the effect on short-term pain reduction. A total of 40 patients underwent single-level lumbar TFESI for unilateral lumbar radicular pain ascribed to foraminal stenosis. Relative injectate pressure of contrast epidurography during TFESI was recorded and compared with pre- and postprocedural pain levels using the Roland 5-point pain scoring method. Pain relief achieved after TFESI revealed no statistically significant correlation with injectate pressure (mean 13.0 cm H2 O). Mean pressures in patients with and without demonstrable pain reduction were 12.9 and 13.2 cm H2 O, respectively. Secondary outcomes were not measured, and no mid- or long-term follow-up was conducted. In this setting, relative injectate pressures had no significant effect on immediate outcomes of TFESI. © 2013 The Authors Pain Practice © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  16. 77 FR 26755 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for... final decision allows the continued underground injection by Diamond Shamrock, of the specific...

  17. 78 FR 76294 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for... underground injection by Mosaic, of the specific restricted hazardous wastes identified in this exemption...

  18. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations...

  19. Inadvertent intrathecal injection of atracurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Zirak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report relates how tracurium was given by mistake, intrathecally, during spinal anesthesia, to a 38-year-old woman, who was a candidate for abdominal hysterectomy. When no analgesia was observed, the mistake in giving the injection was understood. She was evaluated postoperatively by train of four ratio, measuring her breathing rate, eye opening, and protruding of tongue at one, two, twenty-four, and forty-eight hours, and then at one and two weeks, with the final evaluation the following month. The patient had normal timings during the operation and postoperation periods, and no abnormal findings were observed through the first month. This finding was contrary to several studies, which described adverse reactions due to accidental intrathecal injection of neuromuscular blocking drugs.

  20. INJECTION BOTULINUM IN PARALYTIC STRABISMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kishore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection to the antagonist muscle in paralytic strabismus. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of botulinum toxin a injection into the antagonist muscle in cases of paralytic strabismus to alleviate diplopia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a tertiary eye care hospital based prospective interventional study in the department of Orthoptics over a period from October 2011 to October 2013. 36 patients with paralytic strabismus of recent onset within 3 months, with chief complaint of double vision were included. RESULTS: The study data analysis of 36 patients of paralytic strabismus of recent onset (within 3 months with chief complaints of double vision showed a ge wise distribution as 3(8.33% in 0 - 20 years, 16(44.44% in 21 - 40 years, 16(44.44% in 41 - 60 years, 1(2.78% > 60 years. g ender wise 26(72.22% males, 10 (27.28% females, a etiology wise 15(41.67% were diabetic, 4(11.11% were traumatic, 11(30.56% were Id iopathic, 2(5.56% were due to CSOM and 4(11.11% due to Diabetes and Hypertension. All patients were treated with botulinum toxin injection to the antagonist nonoperatic muscle and were followed at an interval of 1 week, 1 month and 3 months. Thorough cli nical examination and Diplopia charting were done before and after treatment. CONCLUSION: Injection botulinum into the antagonist muscle during the first three months after the onset allows the patients to enjoy and appreciate fusion in primary gaze without necessity for head turn, Prevents contracture of antagonist muscle. Thus botulinum toxin is useful in the treatment of acute paretic loss of ocular muscle function when surgical treatment of the ocular muscles is not yet possible but the patient is obviously disturbed by diplopia or forced head posture. The procedure is simple, safe and effective method.

  1. Good for the group? Explaining apparent group-level selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Egas, M.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that group selection can explain adaptive trait evolution is still controversial. Recent empirical work proposes evidence for group-level adaptation in a social spider, but the findings can also be explained from an individual-level perspective. The challenge remains to identify situations

  2. Explaining Interaction Effects within and across Levels of Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulf; Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Many manuscripts submitted to the Journal of International Business Studies propose an interaction effect in their models in an effort to explain the complexity and contingency of relationships across borders. In this article, we provide guidance on how best to explain the interaction effects...

  3. Explaining and Communicating Science Using Student-Created Blended Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy; Shepherd, Alyce

    2013-01-01

    Students engage with science content when they are asked to explain and communicate their knowledge to others. In particular, encouraging students to create various digital media forms such as videos, podcasts, vodcasts, screencasts, digital stories and animations to explain science is usually engaging, especially if they have ownership of the…

  4. Radial lean direct injection burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  5. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  6. Explaining ethnic disparities in preterm birth in Argentina and Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Pawluk, Mariela; Nyarko, Kwame A; López-Camelo, Jorge S

    2016-11-22

    Little is understood about racial/ethnic disparities in infant health in South America. We quantified the extent to which the disparity in preterm birth (PTB; Ecuador are explained by household socio-economic, demographic, healthcare use, and geographic location indicators. The samples included 5199 infants born between 2000 and 2011 from Argentina and 1579 infants born between 2001 and 2011 from Ecuador. An Oaxaca-Blinder type decomposition model adapted to binary outcomes was estimated to explain the disparity in PTB risk across groups of variables and specific variables. Maternal use of prenatal care services significantly explained the PTB disparity, by nearly 57% and 30% in Argentina and Ecuador, respectively. Household socio-economic status explained an additional 26% of the PTB disparity in Argentina. Differences in maternal use of prenatal care may partly explain ethnic disparities in PTB in Argentina and Ecuador. Improving access to prenatal care may reduce ethnic disparities in PTB risk in these countries.

  7. Helpful tips for performing musculoskeletal injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, John P

    2010-01-01

    Injections are valuable procedures for managing musculoskeletal conditions commonly encountered by family physicians. Corticosteroid injections into articular, periarticular, or soft tissue structures relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and improve mobility. Injections can provide diagnostic information and are commonly used for postoperative pain control. Local anesthetics may be injected with corticosteroids to provide additional, rapid pain relief. Steroid injection is the preferred and definitive treatment for de Quervain tenosynovitis and trochanteric bursitis. Steroid injections can also be helpful in controlling pain during physical rehabilitation from rotator cuff syndrome and lateral epicondylitis. Intra-articular steroid injection provides pain relief in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. There is little systematic evidence to guide medication selection for therapeutic injections. The medication used and the frequency of injection should be guided by the goal of the injection (i.e., diagnostic or therapeutic), the underlying musculoskeletal diagnosis, and clinical experience. Complications from steroid injections are rare, but physicians should understand the potential risks and counsel patients appropriately. Patients with diabetes who receive periarticular or soft tissue steroid injections should closely monitor their blood glucose for two weeks following injection.

  8. Musculoskeletal injections: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mark B; Beutler, Anthony I; O'Connor, Francis G

    2008-10-15

    Injections are valuable procedures for managing musculoskeletal conditions commonly encountered by family physicians. Corticosteroid injections into articular, periarticular, or soft tissue structures relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and improve mobility. Injections can provide diagnostic information and are commonly used for postoperative pain control. Local anesthetics may be injected with corticosteroids to provide additional, rapid pain relief. Steroid injection is the preferred and definitive treatment for de Quervain tenosynovitis and trochanteric bursitis. Steroid injections can also be helpful in controlling pain during physical rehabilitation from rotator cuff syndrome and lateral epicondylitis. Intra-articular steroid injection provides pain relief in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. There is little systematic evidence to guide medication selection for therapeutic injections. The medication used and the frequency of injection should be guided by the goal of the injection (i.e., diagnostic or therapeutic), the underlying musculoskeletal diagnosis, and clinical experience. Complications from steroid injections are rare, but physicians should understand the potential risks and counsel patients appropriately. Patients with diabetes who receive periarticular or soft tissue steroid injections should closely monitor their blood glucose for two weeks following injection.

  9. Practical applications of phosphors

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, William M; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Drawn from the second edition of the best-selling Phosphor Handbook, Practical Applications of Phosphors outlines methods for the production of various phosphors and discusses a broad spectrum of applications. Beginning with methods for synthesis and related technologies, the book sets the stage by classifying and then explaining practical phosphors according to usage. It describes the operating principle and structure of phosphor devices and the phosphor characteristics required for a given device, then covers the manufacturing processes and characteristics of phosphors. The book discusses research and development currently under way on phosphors with potential for practical usage and touches briefly on phosphors that have played a historical role, but are no longer of practical use. It provides a comprehensive treatment of applications including lamps and cathode-ray tubes, x-ray and ionizing radiation, and for vacuum fluorescent and field emission displays and covers inorganic and organic electroluminescen...

  10. Modeling frictional melt injection to constrain coseismic physical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, William J.; Resor, Phillip G.

    2017-07-01

    shape of injection veins can be coupled with modeling to provide an independent estimate of minimum melt temperature. Finally, the large aspect ratio observed for all three populations of injection veins may be best explained by a large reduction in stiffness associated with coseismic damage, as injection vein growth is likely to far exceed the lifetime of dynamic stresses at any location along a fault.

  11. Effect of High Coal Injection on Low Silicon Ironmaking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yong-long; XU Nan-ping; WU Shi-ying

    2003-01-01

    The effects of different coal ratios and reaction temperatures on silicon content in hot metal were studied under the condition of high powder coal injection (PCI) ratio in laboratory. The samples of coke taken from tuyere were analyzed by chemical methods. According to the remnant silicon dioxide in different samples, the effect of PCI ratio on silicon content in hot metal was studied in tuyere area. The results can not only certify the traditional theory, but also explain the relation between high PCI ratio and low silicon.

  12. Corticosteroid Injections for Common Musculoskeletal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Zoë J; Voss, Tyler T; Hatch, Jacquelynn; Frimodig, Adam

    2015-10-15

    Family physicians considering corticosteroid injections as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for musculoskeletal diagnoses will find few high-quality studies to assist with evidence-based decision making. Most studies of corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis, tendinopathy, bursitis, or neuropathy include only small numbers of patients and have inconsistent long-term follow-up. Corticosteroid injections for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis result in short-term improvements in pain and range of motion. For subacromial impingement syndrome, corticosteroid injections provide short-term pain relief and improvement in function. In medial and lateral epicondylitis, corticosteroid injections offer only short-term improvement of symptoms and have a high rate of symptom recurrence. Corticosteroid injections for carpal tunnel syndrome may help patients avoid or delay surgery. Trigger finger and de Quervain tenosynovitis may be treated effectively with corticosteroid injections. Patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis may have short-term symptom relief with corticosteroid injections.

  13. Challenges of titanium metal injection moulding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benson, JM

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available . With the increased availability of higher quality titanium powder, metal injection moulding offers an attractive method for producing small, intricate components at a reasonable cost. This paper will present an overview of the metal injection moulding process...

  14. The effect of injection duration and injection site on pain and bruising of subcutaneous injection of heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghaznein, Tayebe; Azimi, Amir Vahedian; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari

    2014-04-01

    To determine and compare the effects of four methods of subcutaneous heparin injection on pain and bruising in abdomen and thighs. Subcutaneous heparin injection is a common nursing clinical intervention. Nurses frequently inject heparin subcutaneously and this action often results in some complications such as bruising, haematoma, pain and induration in the injection site. There are also some other factors inducing complications associated with heparin injection, including the injection site and the injection duration. A quasi-experimental within-subject design. This study was conducted on 90 patients with COPD hospitalised in two ICU wards at two teaching hospitals in urban areas of Iran. They were administered heparin subcutaneously, 4000 units every 12 hours. Each patient received four injections in their abdomen and thighs, using four different methods. The number and size of bruising at the injection site were measured through a flexible millimetre ruler, 48 hours after each injection. The severity of pain was measured through pain visual analogue scale immediately after each injection. Collected data were analysed by descriptive and analytical statistics using spss 11.5 software. In the method 15 seconds injection duration and waiting for 5 seconds before withdrawing the needle, the number of bruising was significantly lower and size of bruising was significantly smaller, but no significant difference was found in the severity of pain. However, in other methods, the severity of pain in thighs was significantly higher than in abdomen, but no statistically significant difference was reported between the size and number of bruising in abdomen and thighs. The method 15 seconds injection duration and waiting for 5 seconds before withdrawing the needle is recommended to be used for subcutaneous heparin injection by clinical nurses. As to the results, the severity of pain in abdomen was lower than in thighs. This study proposed a suitable method for subcutaneous

  15. Gaining from explaining: Learning improves from explaining to fictitious others on video, not from writing to them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerheide, Vincent; Deijkers, Lian; Loyens, Sofie M M; Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether studying a text with an "explanation intention" and then actually explaining it to (fictitious) other students in writing, would yield the same benefits as previously found for explaining on video. Experiment 1 had participants first studying a text either with t

  16. Assessment: Examining Practice in Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaway, Luke; Edwards, Corina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop knowledge about the nature of student assessment practice in entrepreneurship education. Design/methodology/approach: This paper introduces general assessment practice issues and highlights key considerations. It explains prior research on assessment practice in entrepreneurship education and argues…

  17. Exploring the explaining quality of physics online explanatory videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Peters, Cord H.

    2016-11-01

    Explaining skills are among the most important skills educators possess. Those skills have also been researched in recent years. During the same period, another medium has additionally emerged and become a popular source of information for learners: online explanatory videos, chiefly from the online video sharing website YouTube. Their content and explaining quality remain to this day mostly unmonitored, as well is their educational impact in formal contexts such as schools or universities. In this study, a framework for explaining quality, which has emerged from surveying explaining skills in expert-novice face-to-face dialogues, was used to explore the explaining quality of such videos (36 YouTube explanatory videos on Kepler’s laws and 15 videos on Newton’s third law). The framework consists of 45 categories derived from physics education research that deal with explanation techniques. YouTube provides its own ‘quality measures’ based on surface features including ‘likes’, views, and comments for each video. The question is whether or not these measures provide valid information for educators and students if they have to decide which video to use. We compared the explaining quality with those measures. Our results suggest that there is a correlation between explaining quality and only one of these measures: the number of content-related comments.

  18. Injection Drug Use and Hepatitis C as Risk Factors for Mortality in HIV-Infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Margaret T; Justice, Amy C; Birnie, Kate

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals with a history of transmission through injection drug use (IDU) have poorer survival than other risk groups. The extent to which higher rates of hepatitis C (HCV) infection in IDU explain survival differences is unclear. METHODS: Adults who started antiretrovi...

  19. Injectivity Errors in Simulation of Foam EOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeftink, T.N.; Latooij, C.A.; Rossen, W.R.

    2013-01-01

    Injectivity is a key factor in the economics of foam EOR processes. Poor injectivity of lowmobility foam slows the production of oil and allows more time for gravity segregation of injected gas. The conventional Peaceman equation, when applied in a large grid block, makes two substantial errors in e

  20. Injectivity errors in simulation of foam EOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeftink, T.N.; Latooij, C.A.; Rossen, W.R.

    2014-01-01

    Injectivity is a key factor in the economics of foam enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Poor injectivity of low-mobility foam slows the production of oil and allows more time for gravity segregation of injected gas. The conventional Peaceman equation (1978), when applied in a large grid block, m

  1. Leaders as Corporate Responsibility Spokesperson: How Leaders Explain Liabilites Via Corporate Web Sites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Öksüz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal the corporate social responsibility (CSR understandings of corporations from the leaders’ perspective and discuss how leaders define and explain CSR practices their organizations executed as spokesperson via social media channels of their organizations.  In this context, a content analysis aiming to display the ideas of Turkey’s top 250 corporations’ leaders (CEO, chairman of the board, general manager designated by Istanbul Chamber of Industry in 2013. The leader messages about different dimensions of CSR and CSR practices that are partaking in corporate web sites were examined. According to the results of the analysis, it is found that the leaders act as responsible leaders, and also the spokesperson of their corporations. In addition it is found out that responsible leaders included multiplexed information on different dimensions and various practices of CSR in their social media messages.

  2. Material flow data for numerical simulation of powder injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretek, I.; Holzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    The powder injection molding (PIM) process is a cost efficient and important net-shape manufacturing process that is not completely understood. For the application of simulation programs for the powder injection molding process, apart from suitable physical models, exact material data and in particular knowledge of the flow behavior are essential in order to get precise numerical results. The flow processes of highly filled polymers are complex. Occurring effects are very hard to separate, like shear flow with yield stress, wall slip, elastic effects, etc. Furthermore, the occurrence of phase separation due to the multi-phase composition of compounds is quite probable. In this work, the flow behavior of a 316L stainless steel feedstock for powder injection molding was investigated. Additionally, the influence of pre-shearing on the flow behavior of PIM-feedstocks under practical conditions was examined and evaluated by a special PIM injection molding machine rheometer. In order to have a better understanding of key factors of PIM during the injection step, 3D non-isothermal numerical simulations were conducted with a commercial injection molding simulation software using experimental feedstock properties. The simulation results were compared with the experimental results. The mold filling studies amply illustrate the effect of mold temperature on the filling behavior during the mold filling stage. Moreover, the rheological measurements showed that at low shear rates no zero shear viscosity was observed, but instead the viscosity further increased strongly. This flow behavior could be described with the Cross-WLF approach with Herschel-Bulkley extension very well.

  3. Optical Injection Locking of a VCSEL in an OEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute

    2009-01-01

    Optical injection locking has been demonstrated to be effective as a means of stabilizing the wavelength of light emitted by a vertical-cavity surface- emitting laser (VCSEL) that is an active element in the frequency-control loop of an opto-electronic oscillator (OEO) designed to implement an atomic clock based on an electromagnetically- induced-transparency resonance. This particular optical-injection- locking scheme is expected to enable the development of small, low-power, high-stability atomic clocks that would be suitable for use in applications involving precise navigation and/or communication. In one essential aspect of operation of an OEO of the type described above, a microwave modulation signal is coupled into the VCSEL. Heretofore, it has been well known that the wavelength of light emitted by a VCSEL depends on its temperature and drive current, necessitating thorough stabilization of these operational parameters. Recently, it was discovered that the wavelength also depends on the microwave power coupled into the VCSEL. Inasmuch as the microwave power circulating in the frequency-control loop is a dynamic frequency-control variable (and, hence, cannot be stabilized), there arises a need for another means of stabilizing the wavelength. The present optical-injection-locking scheme satisfies the need for a means to stabilize the wavelength against microwave- power fluctuations. It is also expected to afford stabilization against temperature and current fluctuations. In an experiment performed to demonstrate this scheme, wavelength locking was observed when about 200 W of the output power of a commercial tunable diode laser was injected into a commercial VCSEL, designed to operate in the wavelength range of 795+/-3 nm, that was generating about 200 microW of optical power. (The use of relatively high injection power levels is a usual practice in injection locking of VCSELs.)

  4. Pharmacy and clinic partnerships to expand access to injectable contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastersky Maderas, Nicole J; Landau, Sharon Cohen

    2007-01-01

    To explore the potential of pharmacist-administered contraceptive injections and feasibility and acceptability among patients, pharmacists, and clinicians. Throughout California, 27 pharmacists practicing in 26 community independent and chain pharmacies partnered with 19 clinics/physician offices. In spring 2003, Pharmacy Access Partnership launched a 2-year demonstration program in which established users of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (e.g., Depo-Provera-Pfizer) hormonal contraception at participating clinics were given the option of returning to their regular clinic for reinjection or going to a participating pharmacist trained in injection technique and contraceptive management. Program feasibility and acceptability by patients, pharmacists, and clinicians were evaluated to offer insights into the potential of pharmacistadministered depot medroxyprogesterone injections. Intake forms collected during pharmacy reinjection visits, data from interviews with pharmacists and clinicians, and evaluations with patients. To determine whether contraceptive reinjection at a pharmacy is feasible and acceptable for patients, pharmacists, and clinicians and to determine the characteristics of women most likely to use the service. A total of 69 women received 143 depot medroxyprogesterone injections during the project. Patients were ethnically and racially diverse and spanned a wide age range (19-45 years). Women 20 years of age or older used pharmacists' services more frequently than did younger patients, perhaps because they were more familiar with the injections and they more often worked, therefore needing the expanded hours offered by the community pharmacy setting. Experiences of two pharmacies with successful programs are described. The pharmacy option for reinjection is most viable for women who can comfortably manage their injection cycle, prefer not to have to schedule a clinic appointment quarterly, and do not require the ongoing attention and appointment

  5. Editorial Commentary: Big Data Suggest That Because of a Significant Increased Risk of Postoperative Infection, Steroid Injection Is Not Recommended After Ankle Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-02-01

    A recent study addressing infection rate after intra-articular steroid injection during ankle arthroscopy gives pause to this practice, with an odds ratio of 2.2 in the entire population that was injected with a steroid simultaneously with ankle arthroscopy compared with patients who did not receive an ankle injection. Big data, used in the study upon which the Editor comments here, suggest that because of a significant increased risk of postoperative infection, steroid injection is not recommended after ankle arthroscopy.

  6. Investigation of Amourphous Deposits and Potential Corrosion Mechanisms in Offshore Water Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eroini, Violette; Oehler, Mike Christian; Graver, Britt Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    , composed of both organic and inorganic compounds, has caused concerns within operating assets due to the detrimental effect on production and injection, in addition to challenges with intervention and integrity. The variety of deposits and poor understanding of their nature has led to confusion......Increasing incidence of amorphous deposits in both production and water injection systems has caused considerable problems for offshore oil fields. Amorphous deposits, which are a widely recognized, but often poorly explained phenomenon, are typically comprised of both organic (biological...... or hydrocarbons) and inorganic material, but with compositions that vary considerably. One recurrent form of deposits, found in offshore water injection flowlines and wells, consisting mainly of magnetite as the corrosion product, was further investigated with the objectives of explaining its formation...

  7. Changing cocaine use practices: neo-liberalism, HIV-AIDS, and death in an Argentine shantytown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epele, María E

    2003-07-01

    Cocaine consuming patterns are changing among young drug users who live in "The Villa," a shantytown located in Greater Buenos Aires. After years of drug injection dominance, cocaine snorting became the preferred drug consuming practice while deep and fast structural and cultural transformations have been taken place as part of the neoliberal program implemented in Argentina during the 1990s and the final economic default in 2001-2002. In this article, I analyze how drug users understand and explain these changing practices, including the following aspects: deteriorating economic conditions, the transformations of survival strategies, moral codes, social network organization, violence regulating mechanisms, criminal activity, and police repression. Based on an ethnographic study carried out during the last eight months in "The Villa," I suggest that intense and generalized cocaine injection in shantytowns has logistic, organizational, and structural requirements that cocaine snorting does not have. Particularly, I explore two main aspects associated with these changing cocaine consumption practices: the consequences of the many Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths, which occurred among older drug injectors, and the progressive social fragmentation tied to the extreme economic deprivation, deepened social exclusion, and growing everyday violence.

  8. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  9. Injected radiotracer techniques in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. M.

    1984-08-01

    Radioactive tracers which have several advantages over conventional tracers made significant contributions to the development of the injected tracer method in hydrology. A review of the nuclear and the physico-chemical characteristics of the possible radiotracer compounds leads us to conclude that the most effective groundwater tracers are tritiated water (HTO),82Br- and58Co or60Co as a hexacyanocobaltate complex. A discussion of the various case studies in India and abroad covering the three groups of applications mentioned helps us to conclude that well established radiotracer methods with associated interpretational techniques are available for many short range studies in surface and subsurface hydrology.

  10. Stress May Explain Digestive Issues in Kids with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stress May Explain Digestive Issues in Kids With Autism Elevated stress hormone levels linked to stomach problems ... Jan. 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many children with autism suffer from gastrointestinal problems, such as belly pain ...

  11. Genes May Explain Why Kids with Autism Avoid Eye Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167182.html Genes May Explain Why Kids With Autism Avoid Eye ... Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). "Understanding how genes influence social behaviors will help researchers identify new ...

  12. Interaction of processes may explain induced seismicity after shut-in in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Silvia; Carrera, Jesus; Vilarrasa, Victor

    2015-04-01

    potential mechanism is due to the slip stress transfer. Once failure conditions are reached along a fault or fracture, shear slip is activated and seismic waves propagate. It is well-known that this slip movement affects the stress field in the neighborhood of the slipped fault or fracture. We analyzed the rotation of the stress tensor due to the slip stress transfer and applied it to the thermo-hydro-mechanic simulation results. Results show that the interaction of these different processes may explain post-injection seismicity on not favorably oriented faults.

  13. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  14. Explaining the under representation of women in top management positions

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So Won

    2007-01-01

    The number of women who have reached top management positions in the corporate world is significantly lower than their male counterparts. Three perspectives intend to explain the under representation of women in management positions. First, the person centered perspective analyses the individual in relation to the requirements for management positions; and explains that women's lack of managerial traits, competence and career aspirations are the main reasons for their slow advancement. The or...

  15. The Analysis of two-months effects of muscle stretching. Immediately following injection of methyl prednisolon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bidkoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Trigger points have been described as causing pain in clinical practice and are a common source of musculoskeletal pain. Trigger point injection can effectively inactivate the trigger points and provide symptomatic relief. Efficacy of injection in the treatment of trigger points depends strongly on the technique of trigger point injection. This study compares muscle stretching immediately after injection of methyl prednisolon vs. injection without stretching in the treatment of trigger points.Materials and Methods: Patients with trigger point pain in the gluteal muscles were recruited using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria from Shiraz Medical School Clinic. Subjects under went two office visits and two phone follow-ups. All patients received injection of lidocaine and methyl prednisolon. In group A, injection was without stretching. In group B, stretching of muscle was done immediately after injection. Evaluation measure tools were 0-10 NRS, VAS and BPI.Results: In respect to VAS, there was a significant statistical difference between both groups one month following injection. In respect to NRS, there was a significant statistical difference between both groups 1 month and 2 months after injection. However, there was no significant statistical difference between both groups in all measurement aspect of BPI, except mood.Conclusion: Muscle stretching immediately after injection was more effective up to two months, than without muscle stretching in the symptomatic treatment of gluteal trigger points.Key words: Trigger points, Stretching, InjectionJ Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(64: 29-36 (Persian

  16. Motivation and Dispositions: Alternative Approaches to Explain the Performance of Critical Thinking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Valenzuela

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Critical thinking depends on the mastery degrees of some skills and on the will to activate them when reasoning. Traditionally, this second aspect has been focused from a disposition approach (Facione, 1990. However, this perspective demonstrates problems in theoretical as in practical level to explain and to develop critical thinking. For this, it is proposed to approach the problem from the Motivation perspective (Eccles and Wigfield, 2002. In this context, our research deals with the evaluation of the convenience to choose one perspective or another to explain the performance of critical thinking, both theoretically and in its predictive capacity. Thus, along with theoretically analyze the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches and it was compared measures of dispositions (CCTDI, motivation (EMPC and critical thinking (CCTST in a sample of Spanish university students. The results show that the variability in critical thinking performance is better explained by the motivation than by dispositional approach. Finally, the theoretical and practical convenience of motivational approach in this matter is discussed.

  17. Suprathermal Electrons in the Solar Corona: Can Nonlocal Transport Explain Heliospheric Charge States?

    CERN Document Server

    Cranmer, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    There have been several ideas proposed to explain how the Sun's corona is heated and how the solar wind is accelerated. Some models assume that open magnetic field lines are heated by Alfven waves driven by photospheric motions and dissipated after undergoing a turbulent cascade. Other models posit that much of the solar wind's mass and energy is injected via magnetic reconnection from closed coronal loops. The latter idea is motivated by observations of reconnecting jets and also by similarities of ion composition between closed loops and the slow wind. Wave/turbulence models have also succeeded in reproducing observed trends in ion composition signatures versus wind speed. However, the absolute values of the charge-state ratios predicted by those models tended to be too low in comparison with observations. This letter refines these predictions by taking better account of weak Coulomb collisions for coronal electrons, whose thermodynamic properties determine the ion charge states in the low corona. A perturb...

  18. Experimental Investigations of Micro Air Injection to Control Rotating Stall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoqun Nie; Zhiting Tong; Shaojuan Geng; Junqiang Zhu; Weiguang Huang

    2007-01-01

    Steady discrete micro air injection at the tip region in front of the first compressor rotor has been proved to be an effective method to delay the inception of rotating stall in a low speed axial compressor. Considering the practical application a new type of micro injector was designed and described in this paper, which was imbedded in the casing and could be moved along the chord. In order to verify its feasibility to other cases, such as high subsonic axial compressor or centrifugal compressor, some other cases have been studied. Experimental results of the same low speed axial compressor showed that the new injector could possess many other advantages besides successfully stabilizing the compressor. Experiments performed on a high subsonic axial compressor confirmed the effectiveness of micro air injection when the relative velocity at the blade tip is high subsonic. Meanwhile in order to explore its feasibility in centrifugal compressor, a similar micro injector was designed and tested on a low speed centrifugal compressor with vaned diffuser. The injected mass flow was a bit larger than that used in axial compressors and the results showed micro injection could also delay the onset of rotating stall in the centrifugal compressor.

  19. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  20. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, A.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  1. Injections given in healthcare settings as a major source of acute hepatitis B in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutin, Y J; Harpaz, R; Drobeniuc, J; Melnic, A; Ray, C; Favorov, M; Iarovoi, P; Shapiro, C N; Woodruff, B A

    1999-08-01

    Two case-control studies were conducted between January 1994 and August 1995 to determine the relative importance of injections and other exposures as a source of acute hepatitis B in Moldova among adults (aged 15 years) and children (aged 2-15 years). Results showed that injections in various health care settings were associated with acute hepatitis B and showed a higher proportion among adults compared with children. Contact with an HBsAg-positive person was also associated with illnesses; however, there was no statistically significant association between acute hepatitis B and other exposures. The risk of HBV transmission following percutaneous exposure is high (at least 30%). Calculation of the population attributable to risk suggests that injections associated with acute hepatitis B cases occurred in adults (52%) and children (21%). Adverse effects of injections may not be apparent in causing chronic infections. Transmission of blood-borne pathogens through unsafe injection practices is a problem increasingly identified worldwide.

  2. REDUCING THE REJECTION RATE OF ENGINES MANUFACTURING DUE TO INJECTION TIMING VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. P.SIVASHANKARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The white paper is on HINO 6 cylinder engine and the aim is to reduce the rejection rate of engines during testing due to the problems occur in valve timing and injection timing. The concept of Six Sigma is mainly practiced as a design to eliminate the production defects by improving the process of manufacturing. In the observation, the injection timing mark (spill mark is not perfectly done and also the imperfection in flywheel marking machine locator pin increases engine rejection. The aim is to eliminate the engines getting rejected during engine test due to problems arising in the injection timing and valve timing. As there are a lot of problems arising in the test bed where the engine is tested, few of which are related to injection timing and valve timing. These problems mainly arise due to changes in the valve and injection timing variation.

  3. Bioengineering of injectable encapsulated aggregates of pluripotent stem cells for therapy of myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuting; Xu, Zhaobin; Wang, Hai; Reese, Benjamin E.; Gushchina, Liubov V.; Jiang, Meng; Agarwal, Pranay; Xu, Jiangsheng; Zhang, Mingjun; Shen, Rulong; Liu, Zhenguo; Weisleder, Noah; He, Xiaoming

    2016-10-01

    It is difficult to achieve minimally invasive injectable cell delivery while maintaining high cell retention and animal survival for in vivo stem cell therapy of myocardial infarction. Here we show that pluripotent stem cell aggregates pre-differentiated into the early cardiac lineage and encapsulated in a biocompatible and biodegradable micromatrix, are suitable for injectable delivery. This method significantly improves the survival of the injected cells by more than six-fold compared with the conventional practice of injecting single cells, and effectively prevents teratoma formation. Moreover, this method significantly enhances cardiac function and survival of animals after myocardial infarction, as a result of a localized immunosuppression effect of the micromatrix and the in situ cardiac regeneration by the injected cells.

  4. Numerical study of rotating detonation engine with an array of injection holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, S.; Han, X.; Liu, Y.; Wang, J.

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to adopt the method of injection via an array of holes in three-dimensional numerical simulations of a rotating detonation engine (RDE). The calculation is based on the Euler equations coupled with a one-step Arrhenius chemistry model. A pre-mixed stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture is used. The present study uses a more practical fuel injection method in RDE simulations, injection via an array of holes, which is different from the previous conventional simulations where a relatively simple full injection method is usually adopted. The computational results capture some important experimental observations and a transient period after initiation. These phenomena are usually absent in conventional RDE simulations due to the use of an idealistic injection approximation. The results are compared with those obtained from other numerical studies and experiments with RDEs.

  5. The LHC injection kicker magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Ducimetière, Laurent; Barnes, M J; Wait, G D

    2003-01-01

    Proton beams will be injected into LHC at 450 GeV by two kicker magnet systems, producing magnetic field pulses of approximately 900 ns rise time and up to 7.86 s flat top duration. One of the stringent design requirements of these systems is a flat top ripple of less than ± 0.5%. Both injection systems are composed of 4 travelling wave kicker magnets of 2.7 m length each, powered by pulse forming networks (PFN's). To achieve the required kick strength of 1.2 Tm, a low characteristic impedance has been chosen and ceramic plate capacitors are used to obtain 5 Omega. Conductive stripes in the aperture of the magnets limit the beam impedance and screen the ferrite. The electrical circuit has been designed with the help of PSpice computer modelling. A full size magnet prototype has been built and tested up to 60 kV with the magnet under ultra high vacuum (UHV). The pulse shape has been precision measured at a voltage of 15 kV. After reviewing the performance requirements the paper presents the magnet...

  6. Safer injections following a new national medicine policy in the public sector, Burkina Faso 1995 – 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuault Jérôme

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The common failure of health systems to ensure adequate and sufficient supplies of injection devices may have a negative impact on injection safety. We conducted an assessment in April 2001 to determine to which extent an increase in safe injection practices between 1995 and 2000 was related to the increased access to injection devices because of a new essential medicine policy in Burkina Faso. Methods We reviewed outcomes of the new medicine policy implemented in1995. In April 2001, a retrospective programme review assessed the situation between 1995 and 2000. We visited 52 health care facilities where injections had been observed during a 2000 injection safety assessment and their adjacent operational public pharmaceutical depots. Data collection included structured observations of available injection devices and an estimation of the proportion of prescriptions including at least one injection. We interviewed wholesaler managers at national and regional levels on supply of injection devices to public health facilities. Results Fifty of 52 (96% health care facilities were equipped with a pharmaceutical depot selling syringes and needles, 37 (74% of which had been established between 1995 and 2000. Of 50 pharmaceutical depots, 96% had single-use 5 ml syringes available. At all facilities, patients were buying syringes and needles out of the depot for their injections prescribed at the dispensary. While injection devices were available in greater quantities, the proportion of prescriptions including at least one injection remained stable between 1995 (26.5 % and 2000 (23.8 %. Conclusion The implementation of pharmaceutical depots next to public health care facilities increased geographical access to essential medicines and basic supplies, among which syringes and needles, contributing substantially to safer injection practices in the absence of increased use of therapeutic injections.

  7. Fluorescent blue lights, injecting drug use and related health risk in public conveniences: findings from a qualitative study of micro-injecting environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Stephen; Coomber, Ross

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents findings relating to injecting drug users' experiences and opinions of public toilets illuminated with fluorescent blue lights and presents an empirical assessment of the intended deterrent effect of such installations. Data analysis identified that blue lights deterred less than half the sample interviewed. Furthermore over half (18/31) of the sample were prepared to inject in conditions specifically designed to deter injecting practice. Of these, 11 respondents were completely undeterred and 7 individuals were only partially deterred by blue light environments. These findings are discussed within the interpretative frameworks of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of habitus and symbolic violence. The authors conclude that fluorescent blue lights contribute towards the development of situated resistance by injecting drug users within a public injecting habitus; a resistance that produces and reproduces drug-related harm and is a behaviour that opposes the symbolic violence of harm reduction intervention. The paper concludes with suggestions for theory-driven practical intervention that may seek to disrupt the harmful elements of the public injecting habitus. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: A New Serial Injection Technique to Minimize Cement Leak

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Study Design This is a prospective cohort study. Purpose This study discusses a new technique for injecting cement in the affected vertebrae. Overview of Literature Since introduction of vertebroplasty to clinical practice, the cement leak is considered the most frequent and hazardous complication. In literature, the cement extravasation occurred in 26%-97% of the cases. Methods A hundred and twenty-three patients underwent vertebroplasty using the serial injection technique. The package of t...

  9. Photoinduced charge injection from excited triplet hypocrellin B into TiO2 colloid in ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN, Jian-Quan; SHEN, Tao; ZHANG, Man-Hua; LI, Wen; SONG, Ai-Min

    2000-01-01

    Photosensitization of TiO2 colloid by hypocrellin B (HB), a natural photodynamic pigment with extremely high plhotosta bility, has been studied by surface enhanced Raman spec troscorpy (SERS), laser flash photolysis and electron param agnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. The photosensitization of TiO2 occurred practically from the excited triplet dye and the electron injection rate constant is 1.3 × 106 s-1. The influ ences of donor and acceptor on the eleciron injection were in vestigated.

  10. Transverse field-induced nucleation pad switching modes during domain wall injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M. T.; Fry, P. W.; Schrefl, T.; Gibbs, M. R. J.; Allwood, D. A.; Im, M.-Y.; Fischer, P.

    2010-03-12

    We have used magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy (M-TXM) to image in-field magnetization configurations of patterned Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} domain wall 'injection pads' and attached planar nanowires. Comparison with micromagnetic simulations suggests that the evolution of magnetic domains in rectangular injection pads depends on the relative orientation of closure domains in the remanent state. The magnetization reversal pathway is also altered by the inclusion of transverse magnetic fields. These different modes explain previous results of domain wall injection into nanowires. Even more striking was the observation of domain walls injecting halfway across the width of wider (>400 nm wide) wires but over wire lengths of several micrometers. These extended Neel walls can interact with adjacent nanowires and cause a switching in the side of the wire undergoing reversal as the domain wall continues to expand.

  11. Modelling Framework and Assistive Device for Peripheral Intravenous Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Kin F.; Robinson, Martin P.; Gilbert, Mathew A.; Pelah, Adar

    2016-02-01

    Intravenous access for blood sampling or drug administration that requires peripheral venepuncture is perhaps the most common invasive procedure practiced in hospitals, clinics and general practice surgeries.We describe an idealised mathematical framework for modelling the dynamics of the peripheral venepuncture process. Basic assumptions of the model are confirmed through motion analysis of needle trajectories during venepuncture, taken from video recordings of a skilled practitioner injecting into a practice kit. The framework is also applied to the design and construction of a proposed device for accurate needle guidance during venepuncture administration, assessed as consistent and repeatable in application and does not lead to over puncture. The study provides insights into the ubiquitous peripheral venepuncture process and may contribute to applications in training and in the design of new devices, including for use in robotic automation.

  12. Why do females use botulinum toxin injections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Botulinum toxin (BT use for enhancing the facial features has become a commonly accepted form of aesthetic intervention. This study conducted a self-report survey of female BT users in order to explore the motivating factors in its use (cost-benefit analysis. Settings and Design: This is a cross-sectional exploratory pilot study. Materials and Methods: Self-report questionnaires were administered to 41 consecutive clients attending an independent medical practice for BT injections for cosmetic purposes. All the participants were females and represented a range of age groups from the 20s to above 60s. Items in the nonstandardized questionnaire elicited questions relating to the reasons for and against BT use. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis was used rather than inferential statistics, and involved ranking the responses according to the most likely reasons for using BT and disadvantages of its use. Results: In general, the primary motivating factor for BT use was to improve self-esteem, and the greatest disadvantage involved financial costs associated with the procedure. Conclusions: The main findings of this study suggest that females who use BT for aesthetic purposes are motivated by personal psychological gains (intrapersonal attributes rather than social gains (interpersonal factors. In other words, they do not believe that having BT will equate to being treated any better by other people but would rather provide them with confidence and satisfaction regarding their self-image.

  13. Formulation and evaluation of saquinavir injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahar M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS pandemic is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. With the development of antiretroviral therapy, the count of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected people may decrease to a certain extent. Presently available formulations for this disease are found not to be very useful due to poor bioavailability, leading to poor efficacy, various side effects and high cost. In the present investigation, it was proposed to formulate the aqueous injection of saquinavir, which should definitely be more effective, economical, safe and with the least side effects as compared to its existing dosage forms, e.g., hard and soft gelatin capsule. The solubilization of saquinavir (antiHIV drug, practically insoluble in water, by means of physiologically active hydrotropes and cosolvents has been investigated. The results indicate that enhancement in solubility of saquinavir in the presence of hydrotrope at low concentration is due to weak ionic interaction. At higher concentrations (>0.4 M, complexation is found to be the probable mechanism for solubility enhancement by nicotinamide but nature of complex formed is not clear; whereas for ascorbic acid, self-association is the probable mechanism at these concentrations. Using these two approaches, various formulations of saquinavir were developed, and haemolysis study and dilution study of these formulations were carried out. Formulation containing nicotinamide as hydrotrope showed promising results.

  14. Environmental safety of underground injection of oil field brines in Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, R.M.

    1986-09-01

    Louisiana contains almost 4000 brine injection wells that dispose an estimated 1 billion bbl of brine each year, making underground injection that state's most widely practiced method of oil field brine disposal. Louisiana has had no known contamination of a public water supply from underground brine injection; however, the magnitude of this activity presents a potential for contamination if proper disposal practices are not followed. Following the earliest discovery of oil, the petroleum industry has been improving methods to protect ground-water aquifers from underground injection. Although economic incentives spurred the earliest use of underground injection, the technology has progressed to become a method providing environmental safety to ground-water aquifers. Complex reservoir modeling, developed for use in secondary and enhanced recovery techniques, has been applied to simulate pressure effects and vertical migration potential for underground injection reservoirs. Conventional well designs that allow monitoring of well conditions have replaced older, unreliable designs. Improvements in wireline logging make it possible to test the isolation of injected brines from vertical movement along the well bore.

  15. A prospective cohort study of the feasibility and acceptability of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate administered subcutaneously through self-injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover, Jane; Namagembe, Allen; Tumusiime, Justine; Lim, Jeanette; Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Mbonye, Anthony K

    2017-03-01

    Evidence on contraceptive self-injection from the United States and similar settings is promising, and the practice may increase access. There are no published studies on the feasibility of contraceptive self-injection in sub-Saharan Africa to date. The purpose of this study was to assess feasibility of subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate self-injection in Uganda, with specific objectives to (a) measure the proportion of participants who self-injected competently, (b) measure the proportion who self-injected on time 3 months after training (defined conservatively as within 7 days of their reinjection date) and (c) assess acceptability. In this prospective cohort study, 380 18-45-year-old participants completed self-injection training by licensed study nurses, guided by a client instruction booklet, and practiced injection on prosthetics until achieving competence. Nurses supervised participants' self-injection and evaluated injection technique using an observation checklist. Those judged competent were given a Sayana® Press unit, instruction booklet and reinjection calendar for self-injection at home 3 months later. Participants completed an interview before and after self-injection. Nurses visited participants at home following reinjection dates; during the follow-up visit, participants demonstrated self-injection on a prosthetic, injection technique was reevaluated, and a postreinjection interview was completed. Of 368 participants followed up 3 months posttraining, 88% [95% confidence interval (CI)=84-91] demonstrated injection competence, and 95% (95% CI=92-97) reinjected on time, while 87% (95% CI=84-90) were both on time and competent. Nearly all (98%) expressed a desire to continue. Self-injection is feasible and highly acceptable among most study participants in Uganda. The first research results on contraceptive self-injection in sub-Saharan Africa indicate initial feasibility and acceptability of the practice 3 months after women received one

  16. Coordinative practices in the building process an ethnographic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Lars Rune

    2012-01-01

    Presents the principles of practice-oriented research in the CSCW and HCI domains, explaining and examining the ideas and motivations behind basing technology design on ethnography. Illustrated with real examples reporting on cooperative practices.

  17. Dialectics and practical wisdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Dialectics is essentially the method or logos in which categories of forms are combined to explain things.Dialectics was developed because reason faces difficulties in grasping the sensible world.Practical wisdom is knowledge about some things or certain person or persons because of its variable objects.But it is not entirely specific or only about a particular thing and without universality in any sense.As one kind of dialectics,it combines various elements to accord with the right logos,similar to the way in which various forms are combined in theory.Therefore practical wisdom as a combination or polymerization of elements can be regarded as another kind of logic,namely practical logic or dialectics.

  18. Seismogenic response to fluid injection operations in Oklahoma and California: Implications for crustal stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, T.; Aminzadeh, F.

    2015-12-01

    The seismogenic response to induced pressure changes provides insight into the proximity to failure of faults close to injection sites. Here, we examine possible seismicity rate changes in response to wastewater disposal and enhanced oil recovery operations in hydrocarbon basins in California and Oklahoma. We test whether a statistically significant rate increase exists within these areas and determine the corresponding timing and location based on nonparametric modeling of background seismicity rates. Annual injection volumes increased monotonically since ~2001 in California and ~1998 in Oklahoma. While OK experienced a recent surge in seismic activity which exceeded the 95% confidence limit of a stationary Poisson process in ~2010, seismicity in CA showed no increase in background rates between 1980 and 2014. A systematic analysis of frequency-magnitude-distributions (FMDs) of likely induced earthquakes in OK indicates that FMDs are depleted in large-magnitude events. Seismicity in CA hydrocarbon basins, on the other hand, shows Gutenberg-Richter type FMDs and b~1. Moreover, the earthquakes and injection operations occur preferably in distinct areas in CA whereas in OK earthquakes occur closer to injection wells than expected from a random uniform process. To test whether injection operations may be responsible for the strongly different seismicity characteristics in CA and OK, we compare overall well density, wellhead pressures, peak and cumulative rates as well as injection depths. We find that average injection rates, pressures and volumes are comparable between CA and OK and that injection occurs on average 0.5 km deeper in CA than in OK. Thus, the here tested operational parameters can not easily explain the vastly different seismogenic response to injection operations in CA and OK, and may only be of secondary importance for the resulting earthquake activity. The potential to induce earthquakes by fluid injection operations is likely controlled by the

  19. Fault Injection Techniques and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Mei-Chen; Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1997-01-01

    Dependability evaluation involves the study of failures and errors. The destructive nature of a crash and long error latency make it difficult to identify the causes of failures in the operational environment. It is particularly hard to recreate a failure scenario for a large, complex system. To identify and understand potential failures, we use an experiment-based approach for studying the dependability of a system. Such an approach is applied not only during the conception and design phases, but also during the prototype and operational phases. To take an experiment-based approach, we must first understand a system's architecture, structure, and behavior. Specifically, we need to know its tolerance for faults and failures, including its built-in detection and recovery mechanisms, and we need specific instruments and tools to inject faults, create failures or errors, and monitor their effects.

  20. Prompt enhancement of the Earth's outer radiation belt due to substorm electron injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. L.; Zhang, J.-C.; Reeves, G. D.; Su, Z. P.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.; Wygant, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    We present multipoint simultaneous observations of the near-Earth magnetotail and outer radiation belt during the substorm electron injection event on 16 August 2013. Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms A in the near-Earth magnetotail observed flux-enhanced electrons of 300 keV during the magnetic field dipolarization. Geosynchronous orbit satellites also observed the intensive electron injections. Located in the outer radiation belt, RBSP-A observed enhancements of MeV electrons accompanied by substorm dipolarization. The phase space density (PSD) of MeV electrons at L* 5.4 increased by 1 order of magnitude in 1 h, resulting in a local PSD peak of MeV electrons, which was caused by the direct effect of substorm injections. Enhanced MeV electrons in the heart of the outer radiation belt were also detected within 2 h, which may be associated with intensive substorm electron injections and subsequent local acceleration by chorus waves. Multipoint observations have shown that substorm electron injections not only can be the external source of MeV electrons at the outer edge of the outer radiation belt (L* 5.4) but also can provide the intensive seed populations in the outer radiation belt. These initial higher-energy electrons from injection can reach relativistic energy much faster. The observations also provide evidence that enhanced substorm electron injections can explain rapid enhancements of MeV electrons in the outer radiation belt.