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Sample records for injection nebulization inductively

  1. Interfacing capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry by direct injection nebulization for selenium speciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, Lars; Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.

    2001-01-01

    A demountable direct injection high efficiency nebulizer operating at low sample uptake rates was developed and used for coupling of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). When the nebulizer was used for continuous sample introduction, detection...

  2. A comparison of continuous pneumatic nebulization and flow injection-direct injection nebulization for sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.

    1995-08-01

    Dilute nitric acid blanks and solutions containing Ni, Cd, Pb, and U (including two laboratory waste samples) were analyzed eighteen times over a two-month period using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two different sample introduction techniques were employed: flow injection-direct injection nebulization (FI-DIN) and continuous pneumatic nebulization (CPN). Using comparable instrumental measurement procedures, FI-DIN analyses were 33% faster and generated 52% less waste than CPN analyses. Instrumental limits of detection obtained with FI-DIN and CPN were comparable but not equivalent (except in the case of Pb) because of nebulizer-related differences in sensitivity (i.e., signal per unit analyte concentration) and background. Substantial and statistically significant differences were found between FI-DIN and CPN Ni determinations, and in the case of the laboratory waste samples, there were also small but statistically significant differences between Cd determinations. These small (2 to 3%) differences were not related to polyatomic ion interference (e.g., 95 Mo 16 O + ), but in light of the time savings and waste reduction to be realized, they should not preclude the use of FI-DIN in place of CPN for determination of Cd, Pb, U and chemically

  3. Comparison of the samples injection systems with ultrasonic nebulizer and with pneumatic nebulizer for the metal determination in water by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Sergio R; Pismante, Paola A

    2005-01-01

    The natural waters, depending on their use, must fulfill the exigencies and requirements that fix national and international norms. These establish conditions with respect to the concentration levels that must be some metals. In this work the development of inductively coupled plasma emission optical spectrometry with ultrasonic injection system is presented. The determination of aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, strontium and vanadium, at levels of ultra-trace in water samples is studied by this technique. The wavelengths that represented better sensitivity and minors spectral interferences, were selected from the Literature specialized in the analysis of this type of material. Also the conditions of work for the ultrasonic nebulization: temperature, pressure, flow speed of argon, and flow speed of sample was determined. The greater sensitivity of the injection system by ultrasonic nebulization forehead to the injection system by pneumatic nebulization, is verified when comparing the spectral intensity of the selected wavelengths. Also the limits of detection and quantification was obtained by both systems. The validity of the results obtained in this method is verified applying the test of Fisher, who determines the degree of homogeneity of the variances, and the test of Student, to determine the trazability obtained with these values. For these studies, the certified material of reference TM-24.2 of National Water Research Institute Environment Canada (NWRI), was used. The positive answer to the criteria of evaluation E and Z-Score, obtained by this technique, allows to verify that it fulfills the exigencies to be used in the determination of metals at the required levels (au)

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION - INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with direct injection nebulization (DIN) was used to evaluate novel impinger solution compositions capable of capturing elemental mercury (Hgo) in EPA Method 5 type sampling. An iodine based impinger solutoin proved to be ver...

  5. Measurement of elemental speciation by liquid chromatography -- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) with the direct injection nebulizer (DIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shum, Sam [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This thesis is divided into 4 parts: elemental speciation, speciation of mercury and lead compounds by microbore column LC-ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization, spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer, and elemental speciation by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with detection by ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization.

  6. High efficiency nebulization for helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorabchi, Kaveh; McCormick, Ryan; Levine, Jonathan A.; Liu Huiying; Nam, S.-H.; Montaser, Akbar

    2006-01-01

    A pneumatically-driven, high efficiency nebulizer is explored for helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The aerosol characteristics and analyte transport efficiencies of the high efficiency nebulizer for nebulization with helium are measured and compared to the results obtained with argon. Analytical performance indices of the helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are evaluated in terms of detection limits and precision. The helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection limits obtained with the high efficiency nebulizer at 200 μL/min are higher than those achieved with the ultrasonic nebulizer consuming 2 mL/min solution, however, precision is generally better with high efficiency nebulizer (1-4% vs. 3-8% with ultrasonic nebulizer). Detection limits with the high efficiency nebulizer at 200 μL/min solution uptake rate approach those using ultrasonic nebulizer upon efficient desolvation with a heated spray chamber followed by a Peltier-cooled multipass condenser

  7. Elemental speciation via high-performance liquid chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic detection: application of a direct injection nebulizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFreniere, K.E; Fassel, V.A.; Eckels, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of a direct injection nebulizer (DIN) interfaced to a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP-AES) detection for simultaneous multielement speciation. The limits of detection (LODs) obtained with the DIN interface in the HPLC mode were found to be comparable to those obtained by continuous-flow sample introduction into the ICP, or inferior by up to only a factor of 4. In addition, the DIN allowed for the direct injection into the ICP of a variety of common HPLC solvents (up to 100% methanol, acetonitrile, methyl isobutyl ketone, pyridine, and water). The HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES system was compared to other HPLC-atomic spectroscopic detection techniques and was found to offer substantial improvement over the alternative on-line, detection methods in terms of LODs. Representative applications of the HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES system to the elemental speciation of coal process streams, shale oil, solvent refined coal, and crude oil are presented

  8. Development of iodine based impinger solutions for the efficient capture of Hg{sup 0} using direct injection nebulization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrick, E.; Lee, T.G.; Biswas, P.; Zhuang, Y. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (USA). National Exposure Research Laboratory

    2001-09-15

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with direct injection nebulization (DIN) was used to evaluate novel impinger solution compositions capable of capturing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in EPA Method 5 type sampling. An iodine based impinger solution proved to be very efficient for Hg{sup 0} capture and was amenable to direct analysis by DIN-ICP/MS. Hg{sup 0} capture efficiency using aqueous iodine (I{sub 3}{sup -}) was comparable to Hg{sup 0} capture using acidified potassium permanganate impinger solutions which were analyzed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) with greater than 98% capture of Hg{sup 0} in the oxidizing impinger. Using DIN-ICP/MS, it was demonstrated for the first time that iodine can be generated just prior to impinger sampling for efficiently oxidizing Hg{sup 0} and retailing it in solution as HgI{sub 4}{sup 2-}. Due to the increased interest in Hg speciation from combustion sources and the potential for using DIN-ICP/MS for multiple metals analyses, an impinger sampling train for gaseous Hg speciation and multiple metals analyses using DIN-ICP/MS analyses is presented. The unique feature of such a sampling train is that each impinger solution in the series is amenable to direct analysis by DIN-ICP/MS. A bituminous coal was combusted in a bench scale coal system, and gaseous Hg species (oxidized and elemental) were determined using the proposed impinger train. The DIN-ICP/Ms instrumental detection limit was 0.003 ppb, and MDLs ranged from 0.007 to 0.116 {mu}g/L (ppb) in a variety of impinger solutions used for Hg capture. 33 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. FI/SI on-line solvent extraction/back extraction preconcentration coupled to direct injection nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for determination of copper and lead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2002-01-01

    An automated sequential injection on-line preconcentration procedure for determination of trace levels of copper and lead via solvent extraction/back extraction coupled to ICP-MS is described. In citrate buffer of pH 3, neutral complexes between the analytes and the chelating reagent, ammonium...... loop, the content of which is subsequently introduced into the ICP-MS, via a direct injection high efficiency nebulizer (DIHEN), for quantification. Enrichment factors of 29.6 (Cu) and 23.3 (Pb), detection limits of 17 ng/l (Cu) and 11 ng/l (Pb), along with a sampling frequency of 13 s/h were obtained...

  10. Coupling sequential injection on-line preconcentration using a PTFE beads packed column to direct injection nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2002-01-01

    An automated sequential injection on-line preconcentration procedure for trace metals by using a PTFE bead-packed microcolumn coupled to ICP-MS is described, and used for simultaneous analyses of cadmium and lead. In dilute nitric acid (0.5%, v/v), neutral complexes between the analytes...

  11. Multielement detection limits and sample nebulization efficiencies of an improved ultrasonic nebulizer and a conventional pneumatic nebulizer in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, K.W.; Haas, W.J. Jr.; Fassel, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Two important aspects of the analytical performance of a newly developed ultrasonic nebulizer and a specially designed pneumatic nebulizer have been compared for use in inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The ultrasonic nebulizer, when combined with a conventional aerosol desolvation apparatus, provided an order of magnitude or more improvement in simultaneous multielement detection limits as compared to those obtained when the pneumatic nebulizer was used either with or without desolvation. Application of a novel method for direct measurement of the overall efficiency of nebulization to the two systems showed that an approximately tenfold greater rate of sample delivery to the plasma torch was primarily responsible for the superior detection limits afforded by the ultrasonic nebulizer. A unique feature of the ultrasonic nebulizer described is the protection against chemical attack which is achieved by completely enclosing the transducer in an acoustically coupled borosilicate glass cylinder. Direct sample introduction, convenient sample change, and rapid cleanout are other important characteristics of the system which make it an attractive alternate to pneumatic nebulizer systems

  12. A comparison of sputum induction methods: ultrasonic vs compressed-air nebulizer and hypertonic vs isotonic saline inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, L C; Eg, K P; Puspanathan, P; Tang, S P; Yip, K S; Vijayasingham, P; Thayaparan, T; Kumar, S

    2004-03-01

    Airway inflammation can be demonstrated by the modem method of sputum induction using ultrasonic nebulizer and hypertonic saline. We studied whether compressed-air nebulizer and isotonic saline which are commonly available and cost less, are as effective in inducing sputum in normal adult subjects as the above mentioned tools. Sixteen subjects underwent weekly sputum induction in the following manner: ultrasonic nebulizer (Medix Sonix 2000, Clement Clarke, UK) using hypertonic saline, ultrasonic nebulizer using isotonic saline, compressed-air nebulizer (BestNeb, Taiwan) using hypertonic saline, and compressed-air nebulizer using isotonic saline. Overall, the use of an ultrasonic nebulizer and hypertonic saline yielded significantly higher total sputum cell counts and a higher percentage of cell viability than compressed-air nebulizers and isotonic saline. With the latter, there was a trend towards squamous cell contaminations. The proportion of various sputum cell types was not significantly different between the groups, and the reproducibility in sputum macrophages and neutrophils was high (Intraclass correlation coefficient, r [95%CI]: 0.65 [0.30-0.91] and 0.58 [0.22-0.89], p compressed-air nebulizers and isotonic saline. We conclude that in normal subjects, although both nebulizers and saline types can induce sputum with reproducible cellular profile, ultrasonic nebulizers and hypertonic saline are more effective but less well tolerated.

  13. ULTRASONIC NEBULIZATION AND ARSENIC VALENCE STATE CONSIDERATIONS PRIOR TO DETERMINATION VIA INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) was utilized as a sample introduction device for an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in an attempt to increase the sensitivity for As. The USN produced a valence state response difference for As. The As response was suppressed approximate...

  14. Comparison of direct injection nebulizer and desolvating microconcentric nebulizer for analysis of chlorine-, bromine- and iodine-containing compounds by reversed phase HPLC with ICP-MS detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B.P.; Gammelgaard, Bente; Hansen, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    the direct injection nebulizer at flow rates of 25 and 50 mul min(-1), the influence of 0-50% methanol and 0-25% acetonitrile on the sensitivity was studied. For chlorine and bromine, the relative sensitivity decreased with increasing amounts of organic solvent. For iodine, the relative sensitivity reached...... structure. Many chlorine-, bromine-, and iodine-containing compounds were partially lost in the desolvating unit. For those chlorine- and iodine-containing compounds that were not lost, the sensitivity was independent of methanol concentration in the solvent when a 0-100% methanol gradient was applied......With the purpose of finding ways to combine micro-bore reversed phase HPLC with ICP-MS detection for analysis of drug substances containing chlorine, bromine and iodine, the suitability of a direct injection nebulizer and an Aridus desolvating microconcentric nebulizer was compared. Using...

  15. Simultaneous electrothermal vaporization and nebulizer sample introduction system for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnquist, Isaac J.; Kreschollek, Thomas E.; Holcombe, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The novel analytical application of the combination of an inline electrothermal vaporization (ETV) and nebulization source for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been studied. Wet plasma conditions are sustained during ETV introduction by 200 mL/min gas flow through the nebulizer, which is merged with the ETV transport line at the torch. The use of a wet plasma with ETV introduction avoided the need to change power settings and torch positions that normally accompany a change from wet to dry plasma operating conditions. This inline-ETV source is shown to have good detection limits for a variety of elements in both HNO 3 and HCl matrices. Using the inline-ETV source, improved limits of detection (LOD) were obtained for elements typically suppressed by polyatomic interferences using a nebulizer. Specifically, improved LODs for 51 V and 53 Cr suffering from Cl interferences ( 51 ClO + and 53 ClO + respectively) in a 1% HCl matrix were obtained using the inline-ETV source. LODs were improved by factors of 65 and 22 for 51 V and 53 Cr, respectively, using the inline-ETV source compared to a conventional concentric glass nebulizer. For elements without polyatomic interferences, LODs from the inline-ETV were comparable to conventional dry plasma ETV-ICP time-of-flight mass spectrometry results. Lastly, the inline-ETV source offers a simple means of changing from nebulizer introduction to inline-ETV introduction without extinguishing the plasma. This permits, for example, the use of the time-resolved ETV-ICP-MS signals to distinguish between an analyte ion and polyatomic isobar.

  16. Development of a direct hydride generation nebulizer for the determination of selenium by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, Nereida; Murillo, Miguel; Montiel, Edie; Diaz, Dorfe

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a new direct hydride generation nebulizer system for determination of hydride forming elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. This system was designed and optimized to obtain the highest sensitivity. Several experimental designs were used for these purposes. To optimize the individual parameters of the system, and to study the interaction between these parameters for both direct hydride generation nebulizers, a central composite orthogonal design with eight factors was set up. Significant behavioral differences were observed in the two direct hydride generation nebulizers studied. Finally, a 70 μm gas orifice nebulizer exhibits a better detection limit than the 120 μm nebulizer. Generally, for determination of selenium, this new direct hydride generation nebulizer system exhibits a linear dynamic range and detection limit (3σb) of 3 orders of magnitude and 0.2 μg l -1 for selenium, respectively. This new hydride generator is much simpler system that conventional hydride generation systems, which does not need to be changed to work in normal mode with the inductively coupled plasma, since this system may be used for hydride forming elements and those that do not form them. It produces a rapid response with low memory effect. It reduces the interference level of Ni, Co and Cu to 600, 500 and 5 mg l -1 , respectively. The accuracy of the system was verified by the determination of selenium in several standard reference materials of ambient, food and clinical sample matrices. No statistically significant differences (95 confidence level) were obtained between our method and the reference values

  17. Experimental induction of malignant catarrhal fever in pigs with ovine herpesvirus 2 by intranasal nebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Brooking, Angela; Cunha, Cristina W; Highland, Margaret A; O'Toole, Donal; Knowles, Donald P; Taus, Naomi S

    2012-10-12

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a frequently fatal herpesviral disease primarily of ruminant species, has been sporadically reported in pigs. All cases of naturally occurring porcine MCF reported to date have been linked to ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Macavirus carried by sheep. Experimental induction of MCF by aerosolization of the virus in nasal secretions collected from infected sheep has been successful in bison, cattle and rabbits. The goals of this study were to determine the susceptibility of pigs to MCF following experimental intranasal inoculation of OvHV-2, and to characterize the disease. Twelve pigs in four groups were nebulized with 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), or 10(8) DNA copies of OvHV-2 from sheep nasal secretions. Three control pigs were nebulized with nasal secretions from uninfected sheep. Three additional pigs were inoculated intravenously with 10(7) DNA copies of OvHV-2 to evaluate this route of infection with cell-free virus. Seven of twelve intranasally challenged pigs became infected with OvHV-2. Five of these seven, all in higher dose groups, developed MCF. Lesions resembled those reported in natural cases of porcine MCF. The most striking and consistent histological lesions were in trachea, lung, kidney and brain. These comprised mucopurulent tracheitis, interstitial pneumonia, necrotizing arteritis-periarteritis, and nonpurulent meningoencephalitis. No infection was established in the intravenously challenged or control groups. The study showed that MCF can be experimentally induced in pigs by aerosol challenge using sheep nasal secretions containing OvHV-2. Domestic pigs are a natural clinically susceptible host for sheep-associated MCF. They represent a useful, cost-effective model for MCF research. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Parallel path nebulizer: Critical parameters for use with microseparation techniques combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanes, Enrique G.; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    Four different, low flow parallel path Mira Mist CE nebulizers were evaluated and compared in support of an ongoing project related to the use of microseparation techniques interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the quantification of cobalamin species (Vitamin B12). For the characterization of the different Mira Mist CE nebulizers, the nebulizer orientation as well as the effect of methanol on analytical response was the focus of the study. The position of the gas outlet on the nebulizer which consistently provided the maximum signal was when it was rotated to the 11 o'clock position when the nebulizer is viewed end-on. With this orientation the increased signal may be explained by the fact that the cone angle of the aerosol is such that the largest percentage of the aerosol is directed to the center of the spray chamber and consequently into the plasma. To characterize the nebulizer's performance, the signal response of a multielement solution containing elements with a variety of ionization potentials was used. The selection of elements with varying ionization energies and degrees of ionization was essential for a better understanding of observed increases in signal enhancement when methanol was used. Two different phenomena contribute to signal enhancement when using methanol: the first is improved transport efficiency and the second is the 'carbon enhancement effect'. The net result was that as much as a 30-fold increase in signal was observed for As and Mg when using a make-up solution of 20% methanol at a 15 μL/min flow rate which is equivalent to a net volume of 3 μL/min of pure methanol

  19. Determination of low cadmium concentrations in wine by on-line preconcentration in a knotted reactor coupled to an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer with ultrasonic nebulization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, R.F. [Inst. de Investigaciones Mineras, Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina); Wuilloud, R.G.; Salonia, J.A. [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, National University of San Luis (Argentina); Olsina, R.A.; Martinez, L.D. [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, National University of San Luis (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)

    2001-12-01

    An on-line cadmium preconcentration and determination system implemented with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) associated to flow injection (FI) with ultrasonic nebulization system (USN) was studied. The cadmium was retained as the cadmium-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol, Cd-(5-Br-PADAP), complex, at pH 9.5. The cadmium complex was removed from the knotted reactor (KR) with 3.0 mol/L nitric acid. A total enhancement factor of 216 was obtained with respect to ICP-OES using pneumatic nebulization (12 for USN and 18 for KR) with a preconcentration time of 60 s. The value of the detection limit for the preconcentration of 5 mL of sample solution was 5 ng/L. The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 5 {mu}g/L Cd level was 2.9% relative standard deviation (RSD), calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for cadmium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 1000 {mu}g/L. The method was successfully applied to the determination of cadmium in wine samples. (orig.)

  20. Effect of nebulizer/spray chamber interfaces on simultaneous, axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for the direct determination of As and Se species separated by ion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettar, Raquel T.; Smichowski, Patricia; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Farias, Silvia; Batistoni, Daniel A.

    2005-01-01

    Different nebulizer/expansion chamber combinations were evaluated to assess their performance for sample introduction in the direct coupling with an axial view inductively coupled plasma multielement spectrometer for on-line determination of As and Se species previously separated by ion exchange-high performance liquid chromatography. The column effluents were injected into the plasma without prior derivatization. The instrument operation software was adapted for data acquisition and processing to allow multi-wavelength recording of the transient chromatographic peaks. After optimization of the chromatographic operating conditions, separation of mixtures of inorganic As and Se species, and of inorganic and two organic As species (monomethylarsonic and dimethylarsinic acids), was achieved with excellent resolution. Species discrimination from mixtures of As and Se oxyanions was further improved by the simultaneous element detection at specific analytical wavelengths. Three nebulizers and three spray chambers, employed in seven combinations, were tested as interfaces. Concentric nebulizers associated to a glass cyclonic chamber appear most suitable regarding sensitivity and signal to noise ratio. Measured element detection limits (3 σ) were around 10 ng ml -1 for all the species considered, making the method a viable alternative to similar procedures that employ volatile hydride generation previous to sample injection into the plasma. Analytical recoveries both for inorganic and organic species ranged between 92 and 107%. The method was demonstrated to be apt for the analysis of surface waters potentially subjected to natural contamination with arsenic

  1. Application of slurry nebulization to trace elemental analysis of some biological samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, T.; Sakashita, A.; Iwata, H.; Ishibashi, Y.; Gunji, N.

    1991-01-01

    The application of slurry nebulization/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to trace elemental analysis of biological samples has been investigated. Three standard samples of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were dispersed in 1% aqueous Triton X-100 solution by grinding with a planetary micronizing mill. The resulting slurries were nebulized into an ICP without any additional treatments. The 1% (m/v) slurry of the NIST bovine liver showed no significant influence on cone blockage and signal suppression/enhancement. Detection limit, precision and accuracy were discussed for the determination of 24 elements of interest in bovine liver, rice flour and pine needles. Detection limits ranged from 0.0001 μg g -1 for U to 0.52 μg g -1 for Zn at the effective integrating time of 10 s. For high mass elements, low blank values were obtained, yielding excellent limits ( -1 ). Acceptable accuracy and precision were obtained for most of the elements in the NIST bovine liver and rice flour, even for the volatile elements, such as As, Se and Br. However, relatively poor accuracy was obtained for the analysis of pine needles. (orig.)

  2. Direct solution introduction using conventional nebulizers with a short torch for plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, Craig S.; Montaser, Akbar

    2006-01-01

    A new torch, a shortened version of a standard demountable torch, is proposed for facilitating direct injection of liquid samples into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer using conventional and micro-pneumatic nebulizers. The proposed arrangement reduces the cost of the direct injector nebulizer by a factor of 5, typically from $2000 to $400, although a different torch is required. The analytical performance of the high efficiency nebulizer-short torch arrangement is compared to that obtained with the direct injection high efficiency nebulizer interfaced to the conventional torch. Optimum operating conditions for the high efficiency nebulizer-short torch arrangement are generally similar to those of the direct injection high efficiency nebulizer: high RF power (1500 W), low nebulizer gas flow rates (0.09 L/min) and low solution uptake rates (5-85 μL/min). Sensitivity with the high efficiency nebulizer-short torch system at 85 μL/min is improved by a factor of 2.4 on average compared to the direct injection high efficiency nebulizer, while precision values (%RSD) and detection limits are generally comparable or slightly degraded (on average by a factor of 1.7), respectively. Sensitivity is also better at lower solution uptake rates (5 μL/min) by factors ranging from 2 ( 82 Se) to 7 ( 59 Co) compared to the direct injection high efficiency nebulizer. Additionally, the %RSD values are better at 5 μL/min, ranging from 3.5% to 6.0% for the high efficiency nebulizer-short torch combination compared to 4.7 to 9.1% for the direct injection high efficiency nebulizer. The utility of the high efficiency nebulizer-short torch arrangement is demonstrated through the microscale flow injection analysis of Cr-DNA adducts and the analysis of four certified reference materials (Lyphochek urine metals control, SRM 1515: Apple Leaves, SRM 1570a: Spinach Leaves, SRM 1577b: Bovine Liver). Peak to peak precision values (N = 3) for the microscale flow injection analysis

  3. Analytical evaluation of nebulizers for the introduction of acetic acid extracts aiming at the determination of trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Jefferson S. de; Maranhao, Tatiane de A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Oliveira, Fernando J.S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Gerencia de Meio Ambiente, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frescura, Vera L.A.; Curtius, Adilson J. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G., E-mail: daniel.borges@ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Most of the official procedures aiming at classification of solid waste toxicity take into account metal solubility and bioavailability by means of extraction experiments using acetic acid solutions. Hence, the aim of this work was to investigate and optimize conditions to suppress the effect of acetic acid on the determination of trace elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The performance of four nebulizers (cross-flow (CFN), ultrasonic (USN), Meinhard (MN) and MicroMist (MMN)) were compared as to their efficiency in minimizing spectral and non-spectral effects on the determination of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Se, with the ultimate goal to analyze acetic acid extracts obtained from solid waste residues. Operating conditions (desolvation temperatures for USN, RF power and nebulizer gas flow rates) were optimized individually for each nebulizer and for all analytes maintained in 0.14 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} solutions and in solutions prepared with acetic acid and acetic acid + NaOH, adjusted to pH 2.88 and 4.93, respectively. Pronounced non-spectral interferences for {sup 75}As and {sup 82}Se were observed in the presence of acetic acid for CF and MN, although to a less extent also for MMN and USN. Signal increase for blank solutions measured at m/z 208 ({sup 208}Pb) for CFN and MN, 107 ({sup 107}Ag) for USN and MN coupled to a cyclonic chamber and, m/z 82 ({sup 82}Se) for USN was observed, indicating an increased risk of spectral interference upon an increase in the concentration of acetic acid. Signal increase at specific m/z ratios, however, was not significant when the MMN was used, with the exception of m/z 52 ({sup 52}Cr) in acetic acid solutions, arising from the formation of {sup 40}Ar{sup 12}C{sup +}. This same effect was noticed for all nebulizers, although at noticeably different intensities. A signal stability study was performed, demonstrating that variations in the analytical signal were within a 20% range for all analytes

  4. Determination of trace elements in biological samples treated with formic acid by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a microconcentric nebulizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormen, Luciano; Gil, Raul A.; Frescura, Vera L.A.; Dante Martinez, Luis; Curtius, Adilson J.

    2010-01-01

    A simple and fast method for the determination of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ga, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V and Zn in biological samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after sample solubilization with formic acid and introduction by a microconcentric nebulizer, is proposed. The sample is mixed with formic acid, kept at 90 o C for one hour and then diluted with nitric acid aqueous solution to a 50% v/v formic acid and 1% v/v nitric acid final concentrations. The final sample solution flow rate for introduction into the plasma was 30 μL min -1 . The optimized and adopted nebulizer gas flow rate was 0.7 L min -1 and RF power was 800 W. These conditions are very different than those normally used when a conventional nebulizer is employed. Rodhium was used as internal standard. External calibration against aqueous standard solutions, without formic acid, could be used for quantification, except for As, Se and Zn. However, external calibration with 50% formic acid allows the determination of all analytes with high accuracy and it is recommended. The detection limits were between 0.0005 (Tl) and 0.22 mg kg -1 (Fe) and the precision expressed by the relative standard deviations (RSD) were between 0.2% (Sr) and 3.5% (Ga). Accuracy was validated by the analysis of four certified reference biological materials of animal tissues, comparing the results by linear regressions and by the t-test at a 95% confidence level. The recommended procedure avoids plasma instability and carbon deposit on the cones.

  5. Microcolumn high pressure liquid chromatography with a glass-frit nebulizer interface for plasma emission detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.; Nisamaneepong, W.; Caruso, J.

    1985-01-01

    Microcolumn high pressure liquid chromatography (micro-HPLC) is rapidly gaining recognition as a practical separation tool for organometallic compounds. The use of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) as a detector for micro-HPLC is studied. Several miniaturized glass-frit nebulizers are investigated as interfaces between the output of the microbore column and the ICP torch. Their performance with aqueous and methanolic solutions is evaluated by direct nebulization and flow injection analysis. The most efficient of these nebulizers is used in the micro-HPLC/ICP study of some Cd, Pb, and Zn organometallic compounds. Detection limits of 1.92 ng of Pb for tetramethyllead and 5.01 ng of Pb for tetraethyllead are obtained and compared with regular HPLC/ICP of these same compounds. Approximately equivalent detection limits were obtained when using a microwave induced plasma as an alternate plasma source

  6. Synthetic signal injection using inductive coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marro, Kenneth I.; Lee, Donghoon; Shankland, Eric G.; Mathis, Clinton M.; Hayes, Cecil E.; Amara, Catherine E.; Kushmerick, Martin J.

    2008-09-01

    Conversion of MR signals into units of metabolite concentration requires a very high level of diligence to account for the numerous parameters and transformations that affect the proportionality between the quantity of excited nuclei in the acquisition volume and the integrated area of the corresponding peak in the spectrum. We describe a method that eases this burden with respect to the transformations that occur during and following data acquisition. The conceptual approach is similar to the ERETIC method, which uses a pre-calibrated, artificial reference signal as a calibration factor to accomplish the conversion. The distinguishing feature of our method is that the artificial signal is introduced strictly via induction, rather than radiation. We tested a prototype probe that includes a second RF coil rigidly positioned close to the receive coil so that there was constant mutual inductance between them. The artificial signal was transmitted through the second RF coil and acquired by the receive coil in parallel with the real signal. Our results demonstrate that the calibration factor is immune to changes in sample resistance. This is a key advantage because it removes the cumbersome requirement that coil loading conditions be the same for the calibration sample as for experimental samples. The method should be adaptable to human studies and could allow more practical and accurate quantification of metabolite content.

  7. Investigations on the use of pneumatic cross-flow nebulizers with dual solution loading including the correction of matrix effects in elemental determinations by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Mathieu; Broekaert, Jose A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The use of a so-called trihedral and a T-shaped cross-flow pneumatic nebulizer with dual solution loading for inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry has been studied. By these devices analyte clouds from two solutions can be mixed during the aerosol generation step. For both nebulizers the correction of matrix effects using internal standardization and standard addition calibration in an on-line way was investigated and compared to elemental determinations using a conventional cross-flow nebulizer and calibration with synthetic standard solutions without matrix matching. A significant improvement of accuracy, both for calibration with internal standardization and standard addition, was obtained in the case of four synthetic solutions containing each 40 mmol L -1 Na, K, Rb and Ba as matrix elements and 300 μg L -1 Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb as analytes. Calibration by standard addition in the case of dual solution loading has been shown to be very useful in the determination of elements at minor and trace levels in steel and alumina reference materials. The results of analysis for minor concentrations of Cr, Cu and Ni in steel as well as for Ca, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Si and Zn in alumina powder certified reference materials subsequent to sample dissolution were found to be in good agreement with the certificates. Limits of detection were found to be only slightly above those for a conventional cross-flow nebulizer and a precision better than 3% was realized with both novel nebulizers

  8. Flow injection analysis in inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosias, Maria F.G.G.

    1995-10-01

    The main features of flow injection analysis (FIA) as contribution to the inductively coupled plasma (Icp) spectrometry are described. A systematic review of researches using the combined FIA-Icp and the benefits of this association are presented. Flow systems were proposed to perform on-line Icp solution management for multielemental determination by atomic emission spectrometry (Icp-AES) or mass spectrometry. The inclusion of on-line ion exchangers in flow systems for matrix separation and/or analyte preconcentration are presented. Together with those applications the new advent of instruments with facilities for multielement detection on flow injection signals are described. (author). 75 refs., 19 figs

  9. Comparison of two setups for induction heating in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    To eliminate defects and improve the quality of molded parts, increasing the mold temperature is one of the applicable solutions. A high mold temperature can increase the path flow of the polymer inside the cavity allowing reduction of the number of injection points, reduction of part thickness......, and moulding of smaller and more complex geometries. The last two aspects are very important in micro injection molding. In this paper, a new embedded induction heating system is proposed and validated and two different coil setups were tested and compared. An experimental investigation was performed based...

  10. Apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, K.W.; Haas, W.J. Jr.; Fassel, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved apparatus is described for ultrasonic nebulization of liquid samples or suspensions in which the piezoelectric transducer is protected from chemical attack and erosion. The transducer is protected by being bonded to the inner surface of a glass plate which forms one end wall of a first hollow body provided with apparatus for circulating a fluid for cooling and stabilizing the transducer. The glass plate, which is one-half wavelength in thickness to provide an acoustically coupled outer nebulizing surface, seals an opening in a second hollow body which encloses an aerosol mixing chamber. The second body includes apparatus for delivering the sample solution to the nebulizing surface, a gas inlet for providing a flow of carrier gas for transporting the aerosol of the nebulized sample and an aerosol outlet

  11. Characterization methods of nano-patterned surfaces generated by induction heating assisted injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Ravn, Christian; Menotti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    An induction heating-assisted injection molding (IHAIM) process developed by the authors is used to replicate surfaces containing random nano-patterns. The injection molding setup is developed so that an induction heating system rapidly heats the cavity wall at rates of up to 10◦C/s. In order...

  12. Nebulized therapy. SEPAR year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveira, Casilda; Muñoz, Ana; Domenech, Adolfo

    2014-12-01

    Inhaled drugs are deposited directly in the respiratory tract. They therefore achieve higher concentrations with faster onset of action and fewer side effects than when used systemically. Nebulized drugs are mainly recommended for patients that require high doses of bronchodilators, when they need to inhale drugs that only exist in this form (antibiotics or dornase alfa) or when they are unable to use other inhalation devices. Technological development in recent years has led to new devices that optimize pulmonary deposits and reduce the time needed for treatment. In this review we focus solely on drugs currently used, or under investigation, for nebulization in adult patients; basically bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, antibiotics, antifungals, mucolytics and others such as anticoagulants, prostanoids and lidocaine. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Temperature Dependence and Magnetic Properties of Injection Molding Tool Materials Used in Induction Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the heating phase of an induction heated injection molding tool precisely, the temperature-dependent magnetic properties, B–H curves, and the hysteresis loss are necessary for the molding tool materials. Hence, injection molding tool steels, core materials among other materials have...

  14. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of an induction heated injection molding tool with flow visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Tosello, Guido; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2016-01-01

    , comparison of the induction heating and filling of the cavity is compared and validated with simulations. Two polymer materials ABS and HVPC were utilized during the injection molding experiments carried out in this work. A nonlinear electromagnetic model was employed to establish an effective linear......Using elevated mold temperature is known to have a positive influence of final injection molded parts. Induction heating is a method that allow obtaining a rapid thermal cycle, so the overall molding cycle time is not increased. In the present research work, an integrated multi-turn induction...... heating coil has been developed and assembled into an injection molding tool provided with a glass window, so the effect of induction heating can directly be captured by a high speed camera. In addition, thermocouples and pressure sensors are also installed, and together with the high speed videos...

  15. A new nebulization device with exchangeable aerosol generation mode as a useful tool to investigate sample introduction processes in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotti, Marco; Lagomarsino, Cristina; Frache, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    A new sample introduction device has been designed in order to differentiate between the effects of the aerosol production and its following desolvation on analytical performances of an inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometer. This research tool allows to easily switch between the pneumatic and ultrasonic aerosol generation mode and to use a joint desolvation chamber. In this way, a real comparison between aerosol production systems may be attained and the influence of aerosol generation process on analytical figures clearly distinguished from that of the desolvation process. In this work, the separate effects of the aerosol generation and desolvation processes on analytical sensitivity and tolerance towards matrix effects have been investigated. Concerning sensitivity, it was found that both the processes play an important role in determining emission intensities, being the increase in sensitivity due to desolvation higher than that due to the improved aerosol generation efficiency. Concerning the matrix effects, a predominant role of the desolvation system was found, while the influence of the aerosol generation mode was much less important. For nitric acid, the decreasing effect was mitigated by the presence of a desolvation system, due to partial removal of the acid. On the contrary, the depressive effect of sulfuric acid was enhanced by the presence of a desolvation system, due to degradation of the solvent removal efficiency and to further decrease in the analyte transport rate caused by clustering phenomena. Concerning the interferences due to sodium and calcium, a depressive effect was observed, which is enhanced by desolvation

  16. Initial verification of an induction heating set-up for injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    Molding of thin and long parts by injection molding leads to special requirements for the mold in order to ensure proper filling and acceptable cycle time. This paper investigates the applicability of embedded induction heating for the improvement of the filling of thin long parts. The object...... selected for the investigation is a thin spiral. For the complete molding of the component, elevated mold temperatures are required. For this propose a new injection molding set-up was developed, which allows rapid heating of the cavity wall by an induction heating system. The temperature was measured...

  17. An axisymmetrical non-linear finite element model for induction heating in injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Menotti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the heating and cooling phase of an induction heated injection molding tool accurately, the temperature dependent magnetic properties, namely the non-linear B-H curves, need to be accounted for in an induction heating simulation. Hence, a finite element model has been developed......, including the non-linear temperature dependent magnetic data described by a three-parameter modified Frohlich equation fitted to the magnetic saturation curve, and solved with an iterative procedure. The numerical calculations are compared with experiments conducted with two types of induction coils, built...... in to the injection molding tool. The model shows very good agreement with the experimental temperature measurements. It is also shown that the non-linearity can be used without the temperature dependency in some cases, and a proposed method is presented of how to estimate an effective linear permeability to use...

  18. Micro Injection Molding of Thin Walled Geometries with Induction Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    To eliminate defects and improve the quality of molded parts, increasing the mold temperature is one of the applicable solutions. A high mold temperature can increase the path flow of the polymer inside the cavity allowing reduction of the number of injection points, reduction of part thickness...... and moulding of smaller and more complex geometries. The last two aspects are very important in micro injection molding. In this paper a new embedded induction heating system is proposed and validated. An experimental investigation was performed based on a test geometry integrating different aspect ratios...... of small structures. ABS was used as material and different combinations of injection velocity, pressure and mold temperature were tested. The replicated test objects were measured by means of an optical CMM machine. On the basis of the experimental investigation the efficacy of the embedded induction...

  19. COPD -- how to use a nebulizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000699.htm COPD - how to use a nebulizer To use the ... page, please enable JavaScript. A nebulizer turns your COPD medicine into a mist. It is easier to ...

  20. Induction Heating System Applied to Injection Moulding of Micro and Nano Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano

    The present Ph.D. thesis contains a study concerning induction heating system applied to injection moulding of micro and nano structures. The overall process chain was considered and investigated during the project including part design, simulation, conventional and non-conventional tooling...... part. In fact one of the main problems in micro injection moulding is the premature freezing of the polymer flow inside the cavity and often is not possible to obtain a full replica of the nano/micro structures embed on the surfaces. Some other defects that can be avoided with the use of an additional...

  1. Numerical modeling of magnetic induction and heating in injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    the temperatures as close as possible to the cavity surface, by means of an integrated induction heating system in the injection molding tool, to improve the fluidity of the polymer melt hereby ensuring that the polymer melt will continue to flow until the mold cavity is completely filled. The presented work uses......Injection molding of parts with special requirements or features such as micro- or nanostructures on the surface, a good surface finish, or long and thin features results in the need of a specialized technique to ensure proper filling and acceptable cycle time. The aim of this study is to increase...

  2. Effects of electric field and magnetic induction on spin injection into organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.M.; Ren, J.F.; Yuan, X.B.; Dou, Z.T.; Hu, G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Spin-polarized injection and transport into ferromagnetic/organic semiconductor structure are studied theoretically in the presence of the external electric field and magnetic induction. Based on the spin-drift-diffusion theory and Ohm's law, we obtain the charge current polarization, which takes into account the special carriers of organic semiconductors. From the calculation, it is found that the current spin polarization is enhanced by several orders of magnitude by tuning the magnetic induction and electric fields. To get an apparent current spin polarization, the effects of spin-depended interfacial resistances and the special carriers in the organic semiconductor, which are polarons and bipolarons, are also discussed. -- Research highlights: → Current polarization in ferromagnetic/organic semiconductor structure is obtained. → Calculations are based on spin-drift-diffusion theory and Ohm's law. → Current polarization is enhanced by tuning magnetic induction and electric fields. → Effects of interfacial resistances and the special carriers are also discussed.

  3. Nebulized magnesium sulphate versus nebulized salbutamol in acute bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Abdelnabi

    2012-07-01

    Conclusion: The use of MgSO4 by nebulization in patients with acute asthma attacks results in improvement of clinical condition, increase in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, reduction in heart rate (HR, reduction in respiratory rate (RR and improvement in oxygen saturation (SO2. The increase in PEFR (bronchodilatory effect was significantly less than that achieved in patients receiving the usual treatment with Short acting β2 agonists, e.g. salbutamol, when either agents were used alone.

  4. EVALUATION OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY (DIN-ICP/MS) ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently there are no EPA reference sampling methods that have been promulgated for measuring stack emissions of Hg from coal combustion sources, however, EPA Method 29 is most commonly applied. The draft ASTM Ontario Hydro Method for measuring oxidized, elemental, particulate-b...

  5. Electrostatic charge characteristics of jet nebulized aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Philip Chi Lip; Trietsch, Sebastiaan J; Kumon, Michiko; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2010-06-01

    Liquid droplets can be spontaneously charged in the absence of applied electric fields by spraying. It has been shown by computational simulation that charges may influence particle deposition in the airways. The electrostatic properties of jet nebulized aerosols and their potential effects on lung deposition have hardly been studied. A modified electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) was employed to characterize the aerosol charges generated from jet nebulized commercial products. The charge and size measurements were conducted at 50% RH and 22 degrees C with a modified ELPI. Ventolin, Bricanyl, and Atrovent were nebulized using PARI LC Plus jet nebulizers coupled to a DeVilbiss Pulmo-Aide compressor. The aerosols were sampled in 30-sec durations. The drug deposits on the impactor stages were assayed chemically using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The charges of nebulized deionized water, isotonic saline, and the three commercial products diluted with saline were also measured to analyze the contributions of the major nebule ingredients on charging. No mass assays were performed on these runs. All three commercial nebules generated net negative charges. The magnitude of the charges reduced over the period of nebulization. Ventolin and Bricanyl yielded similar charge profiles. Highly variable charges were produced from deionized water. On the other hand, nebulized saline reproducibly generated net positive charges. Diluted commercial nebules showed charge polarity inversion. The charge profiles of diluted salbutamol and terbutaline solutions resembled those of saline, while the charges from diluted ipratropium solutions fluctuated near neutrality. The charge profiles were shown to be influenced by the concentration and physicochemical properties of the drugs, as well as the history of nebulization. The drugs may have unique isoelectric concentrations in saline at which the nebulized droplets would carry near-zero charges. According to results from

  6. Improvement of replication fidelity in injection moulding of nano structures using an induction heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    In today’s industry, applications involving surface pattering with sub-μm scale structures have shown a high interest. The replication of these structures by injection molding leads to special requirements for the mold in order to ensure proper replication and an acceptable cycle time. A tool ins...... quantitatively characterized by atomic force microscopy comparing the measurement in the nickel insert with the corresponding polymer nano-features. The experimental results show that the use of the induction heating system is an efficient way to improve the pattern replication....

  7. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, V.A.; Jarboe, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    The Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive drive (HIT-SI) [P. E. Sieck, W. T. Hamp, V. A. Izzo, T. R. Jarboe, B. A. Nelson, R. G. O'Neill, A. J. Redd, and R. J. Smith, IEEE Conference Record-Abstracts. 31st IEEE International Conference On Plasma Science (IEEE Catalog No. 04CH37537), 2004, p. 160] is a spheromak driven by steady inductive helicity injection (SIHI) and consists of the toroidally symmetric spheromak confinement region and two nonsymmetric helicity injectors. The three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic code NIMROD [A. H. Glasser, C. R. Sovinec, R. A. Nebel, T. A. Gianakon, S. J. Plimpton, M. S. Chu, and D. D. Schnack, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion, 41, A747 (1999)] is used to simulate HIT-SI operation, but the code's toroidally symmetric boundary requires a creative treatment of the injectors. Sustained HIT-SI operation is simulated with nonaxisymmetric boundary conditions. In driven simulations at low Lundquist number S no n=0 fields are generated as a result of relaxation of the predominantly n=1 injector fields until the injectors are quickly shut off. At S=500, an n=0 component arises due to relaxation during sustainment. As S is increased further, the ratio of n=0 (equilibrium) fields to n=1 (injector) fields increases. The effects of a thin insulating boundary layer on the plasma decay time are also discussed

  8. Protein and synthetic polymer injection for induction of obstructive hydrocephalus in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Bigio Marc R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop a simple and inexpensive animal model of induced obstructive hydrocephalus with minimal tissue inflammation, as an alternative to kaolin injection. Materials Two-hundred and two male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 3 weeks received intracisternal injections of kaolin (25% suspension, Matrigel, type 1 collagen from rat tail, fibrin glue (Tisseel, n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA, or ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx-18 and Onyx-34. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess ventricle size. Animals were euthanized at 2, 5, 10 and 14 days post-injection for histological analysis. Results Kaolin was associated with 10% mortality and successful induction of hydrocephalus in 97% of survivors (ventricle area proportion 0.168 ± 0.018. Rapidly hardening agents (fibrin glue, NBCA, vinyl polymer had high mortality rates and low success rates in survivors. Only Matrigel had relatively low mortality (17% and moderate success rate (20%. An inflammatory response with macrophages and some lymphocytes was associated with kaolin. There was negligible inflammation associated with Matrigel. A severe inflammatory response with giant cell formation was associated with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer. Conclusion Kaolin predictably produces moderate to severe hydrocephalus with a mild chronic inflammatory reaction and fibrosis of the leptomeninges. Other synthetic polymers and biopolymers tested are unreliable and cause different types of inflammation.

  9. Interface inductive currents and carrier injection in hybrid perovskite single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Alexander; Pospisil, Jan; Krajcovic, Jozef; Weiter, Martin; Guerrero, Antonio; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà

    2017-10-01

    Interfaces between the absorbing perovskite and transporting layers are gaining attention as the key locus that governs solar cell operation and long term performance. The interplay of ionic and electronic processes, along with the asymmetrical architecture of any solar cell, makes the interpretation of electrical measurements always inconclusive. A strategy to progress in relating electric responses, operating mechanisms, and device architecture relies upon simplifying the probing structure. Macroscopic CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals with symmetrical contacts are tested by means of long-time current transient and impedance spectroscopy. It is observed that interfaces govern carrier injection to (and extraction from) perovskite layers through an inductive (negative capacitance) mechanism with a response time in the range of ˜ 1 - 100 s under dark conditions and inert atmosphere. Current transient exhibits a slow recovering after the occurrence of an undershoot, signaling a complex carrier dynamics which involves changes in surface state occupancy.

  10. Filterless preconcentration, flow injection analysis and detection by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    The influence of interferences in the analysis of elements by inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) may be significantly diminished by utilising a protocol of flow-injection analysis (FIA). The method is based on filterless preconcentration of metallic elements at the walls...... of a knotted reactor that was made of nylon tubings. In the load mode, the preconcentration was accomplished by precipitation of metallic species in alkaline-buffered carriers onto the inner walls of the hydrofilic tube. After a preconcen-tration period of 40-120 seconds using sample volumes of 4-10 m...... of 10-30 were obtained in the analysis of aluminium, of chromium and of iron, which resulted in detection limits (3) down to 20 g/L at a sampling frequency of 50 per hour. The preconcentration protocol improves the selectivity thus allowing direct determination of the elements in saline media. Anionic...

  11. Immune tolerance induction using fetal directed placental injection in rodent models: a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Takahashi

    Full Text Available Induction of the immune response is a major problem in replacement therapies for inherited protein deficiencies. Tolerance created in utero can facilitate postnatal treatment. In this study, we aimed to induce immune tolerance towards a foreign protein with early gestational cell transplantation into the chorionic villi under ultrasound guidance in the murine model.Pregnant C57BL/6 (B6 mice on day 10 of gestation were anesthetized and imaged by high resolution ultrasound. Murine embryos and their placenta were positioned to get a clear view in B-mode with power mode of the labyrinth, which is the equivalent of chorionic villi in the human. Bone marrow cells (BMCs from B6-Green Fluorescence Protein (B6GFP transgenic mice were injected into the fetal side of the placenta which includes the labyrinth with glass microcapillary pipettes. Each fetal mouse received 2 x 105 viable GFP-BMCs. After birth, we evaluated the humoral and cell-mediated immune response against GFP.Bone marrow transfer into fetal side of placenta efficiently distributed donor cells to the fetal mice. The survival rate of this procedure was 13.5%(5 out of 37. Successful engraftment of the B6-GFP donor skin grafts was observed in all recipient (5 out of 5 mice 6 weeks after birth. Induction of anti-GFP antibodies was completely inhibited. Cytotoxic immune reactivity of thymic cells against cells harboring GFP was suppressed by ELISPOT assay.In this study, we utilized early gestational placental injection targeting the murine fetus, to transfer donor cells carrying a foreign protein into the fetal circulation. This approach is sufficient to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune tolerance against the foreign protein.

  12. Linear induction accelerators made from pulse-line cavities with external pulse injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, I.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of linear induction accelerator have been reported previously. In one, unidirectional voltage pulses are generated outside the accelerator and injected into the accelerator cavity modules, which contain ferromagnetic material to reduce energy losses in the form of currents induced, in parallel with the beam, in the cavity structure. In the other type, the accelerator cavity modules are themselves pulse-forming lines with energy storage and switches; parallel current losses are made zero by the use of circuits that generate bidirectional acceleration waveforms with a zero voltage-time integral. In a third type of design described here, the cavities are externally driven, and 100% efficient coupling of energy to the beam is obtained by designing the external pulse generators to produce bidirectional voltage waveforms with zero voltage-time integral. A design for such a pulse generator is described that is itself one hundred percent efficient and which is well suited to existing pulse power techniques. Two accelerator cavity designs are described that can couple the pulse from such a generator to the beam; one of these designs provides voltage doubling. Comparison is made between the accelerating gradients that can be obtained with this and the preceding types of induction accelerator

  13. Design of an Inductive Adder for the FCC injection kicker pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woog, D.; Barnes, M. J.; Ducimetière, L.; Holma, J.; Kramer, T.

    2017-07-01

    The injection system for a 100 TeV centre-of-mass collider is an important part of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study. Due to issues with conventional kicker systems, such as self-triggering and long term availability of thyratrons and limitations of HV-cables, innovative design changes are planned for the FCC injection kicker pulse generator. An inductive adder (IA) based on semiconductor (SC) switches is a promising technology for kicker systems. Its modular design, and the possibility of an active ripple suppression are significant advantages. Since the IA is a complex device, with multiple components whose characteristics are important, a detailed design study and construction of a prototype is necessary. This paper summarizes the system requirements and constraints, and describes the main components and design challenges of the prototype IA. It outlines the results from simulations and measurements on different magnetic core materials as well as on SC switches. The paper concludes on the design choices and progress for the prototype to be built at CERN.

  14. Nebulized hypertonic saline via positive expiratory pressure versus via jet nebulizer in patients with severe cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2011-06-01

    Nebulized hypertonic saline is a highly effective therapy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet 10% of patients are intolerant of hypertonic saline administered via jet nebulizer. Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) nebulizers splint open the airways and offers a more controlled rate of nebulization.

  15. Chemical breakdown of radioaerosols during nebulization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldman, D.L.; Weber, D.A.; Oberdrster, G.; Drago, S.R.; Utell, M.S.; Hyde, R.W.; Morrow, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnostic utility of radioaerosols for lung ventilation and lung permeability procedures requires a strong, stable coordinate covalent bond between a radionuclide and a ligand. The stability of the radiopharmaceutical before and after nebulization and hence its molecular size, are an absolute prerequisite for the method to be reproducible. To examine the possible effects of aerosolization on radiopharmaceuticals used for pulmonary imaging, the authors examined the radiochemical purity of Tc-99m DTPA following ultrasonic nebulization, jet nebulization (Dautrebande D-31), and inhalation with subsequent appearance in plasma and urine of dogs. Paper and liquid chromatographic methods were applied to determine radiochemical purity. Chromatographic assays showed a binding efficiency of less than 50% for ultrasonicly aerosolized Tc-99m DTPA. Cooling of the ultrasonic coupling fluid increased the binding efficiency to greater than 95% following nebulization and inhalation. Jet nebulization did not affect the radiochemical purity of the radiopharmaceutical. Ultrasonic nebulization will partially destroy the Tc-99m DTPA complex; cooling the ultrasonic connecting fluid and constant aerosol monitoring are required for consistent, reproducible results

  16. Experimental demonstration of tokamak inductive flux saving by transient coaxial helicity injection on national spherical torus experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Mueller, D.; Bell, M. G.; Gerhardt, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Roquemore, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Discharges initiated by transient coaxial helicity injection in National Spherical Torus Experiment have attained peak toroidal plasma currents up to 300 kA. When induction from the central solenoid is then applied, these discharges develop up to 300 kA additional current compared to discharges initiated by induction only. CHI initiated discharges in NSTX have achieved 1 MA of plasma current using only 258 mWb of solenoid flux whereas standard induction-only discharges require about 50% more solenoid flux to reach 1 MA. In addition, the CHI-initiated discharge has lower plasma density and a low normalized internal plasma inductance of 0.35, as needed for achieving advanced scenarios in NSTX.

  17. Anaesthetic induction with alfaxalone in the ball python (Python regius): dose response and effect of injection site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lauren E; Williams, Catherine Ja; Bertelsen, Mads F; Wang, Tobias

    2018-05-01

    To characterise the minimum dose of intramuscular alfaxalone required to facilitate intubation for mechanical ventilation, and to investigate the impact of cranial versus caudal injection on anaesthetic depth. Randomised crossover study. Six healthy juvenile ball pythons (Python regius). Three dosages (10, 20 and 30 mg kg -1 ) of alfaxalone were administered to each python in a caudal location with a minimum 2 weeks washout. Induction and recovery were monitored by assessing muscle tone, righting reflex, response to a noxious stimulus and the ability to intubate. A subsequent experiment assessed the influence of injection site by comparing administration of 20 mg kg -1 alfaxalone in a cranial location (1 cm cranial to the heart) with the caudal site. Respiration rate was monitored throughout, and when intubation was possible, snakes were mechanically ventilated. Regardless of dose and injection site, maximum effect was reached within 10.0 ± 2.7 minutes. When administered at the caudal injection site, intubation was only successful after a dosage of 30 mg kg- 1 , which is higher than in previous reports for other reptiles. However, intubation was possible in all cases after 7.2 ± 1.6 minutes upon cranial administration of 20 mg kg -1 , and anaesthetic duration was significantly lengthened (p pythons, and may serve as a useful induction agent prior to provision of volatile anaesthetics. The same dosage injected in the cranial site led to deeper anaesthesia than when injected caudally, suggesting that shunting to the liver and first-pass metabolism of alfaxalone occur when injected caudally, via the renal portal system. Copyright © 2018 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interfacing sequential injection on-line preconcentration using a renewable micro-column incorporated in a ‘lab-on-valve’ system with direct injection nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2001-01-01

    the sampling frequency is 12 h-1. The precisions are 2.9% (0.8 mug l-1 Ni) and 1.7% (0.8 mug l-1 Bi), respectively. The procedure is validated by determination of nickel and bismuth in a certified reference material (CRM 320, River Sediment), and the recoveries are measured by spiking two human urine samples....

  19. 21 CFR 868.5640 - Medicinal nonventilatory nebulizer (atomizer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medicinal nonventilatory nebulizer (atomizer). 868... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5640 Medicinal nonventilatory nebulizer (atomizer). (a) Identification. A medicinal nonventilatory nebulizer (atomizer) is a...

  20. Induction of hypocalcemia by intracerebroventricular injection of calcitonin: evidence for control of blood calcium by the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltzman, D; Tannenbaum, G S

    1987-07-21

    Calcitonin (CT), when administered peripherally, is a potent hypocalcemic agent. This peptide can also exert a variety of profound effects through brain receptors after central injection. We examined the capacity of CT to alter plasma calcium of freely moving conscious rats after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection. A dose-dependent decrease in plasma calcium was seen after administration of 25 ng, 250 ng or 2500 ng of salmon calcitonin (sCT). The extent and duration of hypocalcemia after central injection was equal to, or greater than, that seen after giving the same doses of peptide intravenously (i.v.). Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), when administered centrally at a 50-fold molar excess, produced only a transient decrease in plasma calcium. No increase in plasma levels of sCT could be detected by RIA after i.c.v. injection, although measurable levels were obtained by i.v. injection. Centrally administered sCT did not appear to produce hypocalcemia by enhancing the release of endogenous rat CT. In contrast to the rise in rat immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (PTH) seen after i.v. injection of sCT, no significant elevation occurred after central administration of the peptide despite induction of comparable levels of hypocalcemia. Consequently, reduced PTH release may contribute to the central hypocalcemic action of CT. The results indicate that peptides acting through the brain CT receptor may modulate peripheral blood calcium.

  1. Access to high beta advanced inductive plasmas at low injected torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, W.M.; Grierson, B.A.; Okabayashi, M.; Politzer, P.A.; Buttery, R.J.; Ferron, J.R.; Garofalo, A.M.; Jackson, G.L.; Kinsey, J.E.; La Haye, R.J.; Luce, T.C.; Petty, C.C.; Welander, A.S.; Holcomb, C.T.; Lanctot, M.J.; Hanson, J.M.; Turco, F.; In, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D demonstrate that advanced inductive (AI) discharges with high equivalent normalized fusion gain can be accessed and sustained with very low amounts (∼1 N m) of externally injected torque, a level of torque that is anticipated to drive a similar amount of rotation as the beams on ITER, via simple consideration of the scaling of the moment of inertia and confinement time. The AI regime is typically characterized by high confinement, and high β N , allowing the possibility for high performance, high gain operation at reduced plasma current. Discharges achieved β N ∼ 3.1 with H 98(y,2) ∼ 1 at q 95 ∼ 4, and are sustained for the maximum duration of the counter neutral beams (NBs). In addition, plasmas using zero net NB torque from the startup all the way through to the high β N phase have been created. AI discharges are found to become increasingly susceptible to m/n = 2/1 neoclassical tearing modes as the torque is decreased, which if left unmitigated, generally slow and lock, terminating the high performance phase of the discharge. Access is not notably different whether one ramps the torque down at high β N , or ramps β N up at low torque. The use of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive proved to be an effective method of avoiding such modes, enabling stable operation at high beta and low torque, a portion of phase space that has otherwise been inaccessible. Thermal confinement is significantly reduced at low rotation, a result that is reproduced using the TGLF transport model. Although it is thought that stiffness is increased in regions of low magnetic shear, in these AI plasmas, the reduced confinement occurs at radii outside the low shear, and in fact, higher temperature gradients can be found in the low shear region at low rotation. Momentum transport is also larger at low rotation, but a significant intrinsic torque is measured that is consistent with a previous scaling considering the role of the

  2. Access to high beta advanced inductive plasmas at low injected torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, W. M.; Politzer, P. A.; Buttery, R. J.; Holcomb, C. T.; Ferron, J. R.; Garofalo, A. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Hanson, J. M.; In, Y.; Jackson, G. L.; Kinsey, J. E.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Luce, T. C.; Okabayashi, M.; Petty, C. C.; Turco, F.; Welander, A. S.

    2013-09-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D demonstrate that advanced inductive (AI) discharges with high equivalent normalized fusion gain can be accessed and sustained with very low amounts (∼1 N m) of externally injected torque, a level of torque that is anticipated to drive a similar amount of rotation as the beams on ITER, via simple consideration of the scaling of the moment of inertia and confinement time. The AI regime is typically characterized by high confinement, and high βN, allowing the possibility for high performance, high gain operation at reduced plasma current. Discharges achieved βN ∼ 3.1 with H98(y,2) ∼ 1 at q95 ∼ 4, and are sustained for the maximum duration of the counter neutral beams (NBs). In addition, plasmas using zero net NB torque from the startup all the way through to the high βN phase have been created. AI discharges are found to become increasingly susceptible to m/n = 2/1 neoclassical tearing modes as the torque is decreased, which if left unmitigated, generally slow and lock, terminating the high performance phase of the discharge. Access is not notably different whether one ramps the torque down at high βN, or ramps βN up at low torque. The use of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive proved to be an effective method of avoiding such modes, enabling stable operation at high beta and low torque, a portion of phase space that has otherwise been inaccessible. Thermal confinement is significantly reduced at low rotation, a result that is reproduced using the TGLF transport model. Although it is thought that stiffness is increased in regions of low magnetic shear, in these AI plasmas, the reduced confinement occurs at radii outside the low shear, and in fact, higher temperature gradients can be found in the low shear region at low rotation. Momentum transport is also larger at low rotation, but a significant intrinsic torque is measured that is consistent with a previous scaling considering the role of the turbulent

  3. Impact of constant and breath-synchronized nebulization on inhaled mass of nebulized budesonide in infants and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikander, K; Bisgaard, H

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the output of a breath-synchronized jet nebulizer to a conventional constant output nebulizer over a fixed period of time in terms of inhaled mass of budesonide, i.e., the amount of budesonide deposited on a filter interposed between the nebulizer and t...... resulted in reduced waste of drug during expiration....

  4. The function profile of compressed-air and ultrasonic nebulizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Lin; Lin, Yung-Zen; Wu, Wei-Fong; Huang, Fu-Yuan

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the detailed function of two kinds of nebulizers commonly used in clinical asthma treatment, compressed-air and ultrasonic, this study was conducted. At the beginning, various flow rates were adjusted, paired with different volumes of solutions in the container. The changes of temperature, pH, and osmolality during the course of nebulization were examined. Normal saline, terbutaline, and fenoterol solutions were used as the nebulized solutions. The study was performed in an environment in ambient temperature around 20 degrees C and relative humidity around 70%. The results showed a minimal 6 L/min flow rate was required to nebulize the solution when using the compressed-air nebulizer. The dead volume was about 0.8 ml for compressed-air and 8.5 ml for the ultrasonic nebulizer. When using the compressed-air nebulizer, the temperature, both in the solution and at the mouthpiece site, dropped gradually. On the contrary, the temperatures at both sites increased a little bit when using the ultrasonic nebulizer. The pH values of pure terbutaline and fenoterol nebulized solutions were acidic (3.58 and 3.00 respectively). The osmolality of terbutaline and fenoterol nebulized solutions were isotonic. The osmolality increased gradually during the course of nebulization, to a greater extent in the compressed-air nebulizer. In conclusion, both types of nebulizers have their special features. The ultrasonic nebulizer displays less extent in change of temperature and osmolality during nebulization and is expected to be a better device in treating asthmatic patients in terms of lesser effect on cooling and changing the osmolality of airway mucosa.

  5. Residual gravimetric method to measure nebulizer output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecellio None, Laurent; Grimbert, Daniel; Bordenave, Joelle; Benoit, Guy; Furet, Yves; Fauroux, Brigitte; Boissinot, Eric; De Monte, Michele; Lemarié, Etienne; Diot, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a residual gravimetric method based on weighing dry filters to measure the aerosol output of nebulizers. This residual gravimetric method was compared to assay methods based on spectrophotometric measurement of terbutaline (Bricanyl, Astra Zeneca, France), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement of tobramycin (Tobi, Chiron, U.S.A.), and electrochemical measurements of NaF (as defined by the European standard). Two breath-enhanced jet nebulizers, one standard jet nebulizer, and one ultrasonic nebulizer were tested. Output produced by the residual gravimetric method was calculated by weighing the filters both before and after aerosol collection and by filter drying corrected by the proportion of drug contained in total solute mass. Output produced by the electrochemical, spectrophotometric, and HPLC methods was determined after assaying the drug extraction filter. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the residual gravimetric method (x axis) and assay methods (y axis) in terms of drug mass output (y = 1.00 x -0.02, r(2) = 0.99, n = 27). We conclude that a residual gravimetric method based on dry filters, when validated for a particular agent, is an accurate way of measuring aerosol output.

  6. NIMROD simulations and physics assessment of possible designs for a next generation Steady Inductive Helicity Injection HIT device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, James; Morgan, Kyle; Grubb, Isaac; Jarboe, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    The Helicity Injected Torus - Steady Inductive 3 (HIT-SI3) experiment forms and maintains spheromaks via Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (SIHI) using discrete injectors that inject magnetic helicity via a non-axisymmetric perturbation and drive toroidally symmetric current. Newer designs for larger SIHI-driven spheromaks incorporate a set of injectors connected to a single external manifold to allow more freedom for the toroidal structure of the applied perturbation. Simulations have been carried out using the NIMROD code to assess the effectiveness of various imposed mode structures and injector schema in driving current via Imposed Dynamo Current Drive (IDCD). The results are presented here for varying flux conserver shapes on a device approximately 1.5 times larger than the current HIT-SI3 experiment. The imposed mode structures and spectra of simulated spheromaks are analyzed in order to examine magnetic structure and stability and determine an optimal regime for IDCD sustainment in a large device. The development of scaling laws for manifold operation is also presented, and simulation results are analyzed and assessed as part of the development path for the large scale device.

  7. Estimation of the quantification uncertainty from flow injection and liquid chromatography transient signals in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborda, Francisco; Medrano, Jesus; Castillo, Juan R.

    2004-01-01

    The quality of the quantitative results obtained from transient signals in high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS) and flow injection-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICPMS) was investigated under multielement conditions. Quantification methods were based on multiple-point calibration by simple and weighted linear regression, and double-point calibration (measurement of the baseline and one standard). An uncertainty model, which includes the main sources of uncertainty from FI-ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS (signal measurement, sample flow rate and injection volume), was developed to estimate peak area uncertainties and statistical weights used in weighted linear regression. The behaviour of the ICPMS instrument was characterized in order to be considered in the model, concluding that the instrument works as a concentration detector when it is used to monitorize transient signals from flow injection or chromatographic separations. Proper quantification by the three calibration methods was achieved when compared to reference materials, although the double-point calibration allowed to obtain results of the same quality as the multiple-point calibration, shortening the calibration time. Relative expanded uncertainties ranged from 10-20% for concentrations around the LOQ to 5% for concentrations higher than 100 times the LOQ

  8. Simulation of injector dynamics during steady inductive helicity injection current drive in the HIT-SI experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, C., E-mail: hansec@uw.edu [PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Marklin, G. [PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Victor, B. [HIT-SI Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Akcay, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Jarboe, T. [HIT-SI Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    We present simulations of inductive helicity injection in the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive helicity injection (HIT-SI) device that treats the entire plasma volume in a single dynamic MHD model. A new fully 3D numerical tool, the PSI-center TETrahedral mesh code, was developed that provides the geometric flexibility required for this investigation. Implementation of a zero-β Hall MHD model using PSI-TET will be presented including formulation of a new self-consistent magnetic boundary condition for the wall of the HIT-SI device. Results from simulations of HIT-SI are presented focusing on injector dynamics that are investigated numerically for the first time. Asymmetries in the plasma loading between the two helicity injectors and progression of field reversal in each injector are observed. Analysis indicates cross-coupling between injectors through confinement volume structures. Injector impedance is found to scale with toroidal current at fixed density, consistent with experimental observation. Comparison to experimental data with an injector drive frequency of 14.5 kHz shows good agreement with magnetic diagnostics. Global mode structures from Bi-Orthogonal decomposition agree well with experimental data for the first four modes.

  9. Influence of the matrix composition in the Emission spectroscopic analysis of solutions with continuous nebulization of the sample and excitation of the spectrum in a high-frequency inductively coupled plasma discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zil'bershtein, K.I.; Kartasheva, M.A.; Mushkovich, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    Numerous investigations have shown that the emission spectroscopic analysis of solutions with the use of a high-frequency inductively coupled plasma discharge is characterized by the absence of an influence or the presence of a small influence of the matrix elements on the amplitudes of the analytical signals of the elements being determined and, consequently, on the results of an analysis. The influences of the first type include the influences of easily ionized elements, which, as we know, are very significant in spectroscopic analysis with the use of traditional sources for the excitation of the spectra (arcs, sparks, and flames). The influences of the second type include, in particular, the influences associated with changes in the viscosity and surface tension of the solutions as the concentration of the matrix elements in the solutions is increased. In order to obtain correct results from an analysis in the case of spectral interference, special methods for treating the spectra are used for the purpose of taking into account the background and the instances of superposition and establishing the true (''pure'') intensity of the analytical lines. Results are shown of the Determination of impurities in aqueous solutions of sodium Molybate Single Crystals (the concentration of Na 2 Mo 2 O 7 in the solution was 1 mg/ml). When the solutions being analyzed are diluted to a concentration of Na 2 Mo 2 O 7 equal to 1 mg/ml, good agreement between the results of the determination of vanadium (and other impurities) obtained with the use of reference solutions not containing the matrix elements and the results obtained with the use of reference solutions containing the matrix elements in the same concentrations as in the solutions being analyzed (1mg/ml) was guaranteed

  10. A self-organized plasma with induction, reconnection, and injection techniques: the SPIRIT concept for field reversed configuration research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masaaki; JI, Hantao; Gerhardt, Stefan P.; Belova, Elena V.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Mikkelsen, David R.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive research concept, known as SPIRIT, is described for the investigation of the formation, stability, and sustainment of oblate field reversed configurations (FRCs). This concept, whose name stands for Self-organized Plasma with Induction, Reconnection, and Injection Techniques (SPIRIT), allows for the study of FRC stability properties on time scales much longer than the energy confinement time. Counter-helicity merging of inductively formed spheromaks is utilized to form large-flux FRCs. These FRCs are sustained by neutral beam injection with the initial aid of compact ohmic solenoids. Stability to n=1 tilt/shift modes is provided by plasma shaping and conducting shells. Stability to n ≥ 2 co-interchange modes is achieved by a distribution of high-energy non-thermal ions provided by the neutral beam. The combination of plasma shaping, conducting shells, current sustainment, and the non-thermal beam component are expected to lead to a configuration with stability to all global MHD modes, a regime recently discovered through hybrid-MHD simulation using the HYM code. An experimental test of the concept, utilizing the existing Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) facility, is described. Initial experiments in MRX have confirmed the viability of the SPIRIT concept, and calculations indicate that the confinement of high-energy ions in MRX should be sufficient to test the SPIRIT concept. (author)

  11. Feedback mechanism for smart nozzles and nebulizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser, Akbar [Potomac, MD; Jorabchi, Kaveh [Arlington, VA; Kahen, Kaveh [Kleinburg, CA

    2009-01-27

    Nozzles and nebulizers able to produce aerosol with optimum and reproducible quality based on feedback information obtained using laser imaging techniques. Two laser-based imaging techniques based on particle image velocimetry (PTV) and optical patternation map and contrast size and velocity distributions for indirect and direct pneumatic nebulizations in plasma spectrometry. Two pulses from thin laser sheet with known time difference illuminate droplets flow field. Charge coupled device (CCL)) captures scattering of laser light from droplets, providing two instantaneous particle images. Pointwise cross-correlation of corresponding images yields two-dimensional velocity map of aerosol velocity field. For droplet size distribution studies, solution is doped with fluorescent dye and both laser induced florescence (LIF) and Mie scattering images are captured simultaneously by two CCDs with the same field of view. Ratio of LIF/Mie images provides relative droplet size information, then scaled by point calibration method via phase Doppler particle analyzer.

  12. Pneumatically Modulated Liquid Delivery System for Nebulizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    passing a high-velocity sheath gas over the orifice of a liquid filled capillary. Due to the Venturi effect , liquid is pulled from the capillary orifice... pump , or through self-aspiration. Each nebulizer is calibrated to a specific gas flow for self-aspiration, eliminating the need for an external pump ...the components in a single box. Flow rates with less than 0.5% relative standard deviation are possible, and results are compared with a syringe pump

  13. Flow injection electrochemical hydride generation inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of hydride forming elements and its application to the analysis of fresh water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bings, Nicolas H.; Stefanka, Zsolt; Mallada, Sergio Rodriguez

    2003-01-01

    A flow injection (FI) method was developed using electrochemical hydride generation (EcHG) as a sample introduction system, coupled to an inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ICP-TOFMS) for rapid and simultaneous determination of six elements forming hydrides (As, Bi, Ge, Hg, Sb and Se). A novel low volume electrolysis cell, especially suited for FI experiments was designed and the conditions for simultaneous electrochemical hydride generation (EcHG; electrolyte concentrations and flow rates, electrolysis voltage and current) as well as the ICP-TOFMS operational parameters (carrier gas flow rate, modulation pulse width (MPW)) for the simultaneous determination of 12 isotopes were optimized. The compromise operation parameters of the electrolysis were found to be 1.4 and 3 ml min -1 for the anolyte and catholyte flow rates, respectively, using 2 M sulphuric acid. An optimum electrolysis current of 0.7 A (16 V) and an argon carrier gas flow rate of 0.91 l min -1 were chosen. A modulation pulse width of 5 μs, which influences the sensitivity through the amount of ions being collected by the MS per single analytical cycle, provided optimum results for the detection of transient signals. The achieved detection limits were compared with those obtained by using FI in combination with conventional nebulization (FI-ICP-TOFMS); values for chemical hydride generation (FI-CHG-ICP-TOFMS) were taken from the literature. By using a 200 μl sample loop absolute detection limits (3σ) in the range of 10-160 pg for As, Bi, Ge, Hg, Sb and 1.1 ng for Se and a precision of 4-8% for seven replicate injections of 20-100 ng ml -1 multielemental sample solutions were achieved. The analysis of a standard reference material (SRM) 1643d (NIST, 'Trace Elements in Water') showed good agreement with the certified values for As and Sb. Se showed a drastic difference, which is probably due to the presence of hydride-inactive Se species in the sample. Recoveries better than

  14. Induction of mammary tumors in rat by intraperitoneal injection of NMU: histopathology and estral cycle influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, E S; Andrade, N; Martin, G; Melito, G; Cricco, G; Mohamad, N; Davio, C; Caro, R; Bergoc, R M

    1994-11-11

    In order to obtain an experimental model we induced mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats. The carcinogen N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at doses of 50 mg/kg body weight when animals were 50, 80 and 110 days old. Tumor sizes were measured with a caliper and their growth parameters and histopathological properties were tested. For 100 rats, 88.4% of developed lesions were ductal carcinomas, histologically classified as 52.8% cribiform variety, 30.6% solid carcinoma. Metastases in liver, spleen and lung were present. Other primary tumors were detected with low incidence. The influence of the rat estrous cycle during the first exposure to intraperitoneal NMU injection was studied. The latency period in estrus, proestrus and diestrus was 82 +/- 15, 77 +/- 18 and 79 +/- 18 days, respectively. Tumor incidence was significantly higher in estrus (95.2%) than proestrus (71.4%) or diestrus (77.4), (P rats.

  15. Very-low-speed variable-structure control of sensorless induction machine drives without signal injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lascu, Christian; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    A sensorless induction machine drive is presented, in which the principles of variable-structure control and direct torque control (DTC) are combined to ensure high-performance operation in the steady state and under transient conditions. The drive employs a new torque and flux controller......, the "linear and variable-structure control", which realizes accurate and robust control in a wide speed range. Conventional DTC transient merits are preserved, while the steady-state behavior is significantly improved. The full-order state observer is a sliding-mode one, which does not require the rotor speed...

  16. Sodium bicarbonate in-duct injection with sodium sulfate recovery for SO2/NOx control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.; Darmstaedter, E.

    1991-01-01

    Dry sodium injection with sodium bicarbonate has been used commercially at industrial sites since the mid 1980's. In the past three years, five full scale commercial demonstrations have been completed on electric utility coal fired units. Up to 75% SO 2 removal with 0-40% NO x removal has been achieved on units equipped with ESPs. Recent slip stream studies have proven up to 90% SO 2 removal and 25% NO x removal when injection is ahead of a baghouse. If dry sodium bicarbonate sorbent injection technology is used prior to a retrofitted baghouse, but after an existing ESP the sodium sulfate by-product/flyash mixture in the baghouse is over 90% Na 2 SO 4 . Simple filtration and crystallization will yield a high value 99% + pure Na 2 SO 4 for sale. In this application, no liquid discharge occurs and potentially no solids discharge, since flyash recovered from the filter is either recycled to the boiler with the coal stream or reinjected into the boiler. EPA IAPCS model Version 4 is modified to project costs for this SO 2 /NO x removal technology when couples with Na 2 SO 4 recovery. In this paper an example is used to show hardware requirements, consumables accountability, by-product recovery rates, capital costs and levelized costs

  17. Combined discrete nebulization and microextraction process for molybdenum determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oviedo, Jenny A.; Jesus, Amanda M.D. de; Fialho, Lucimar L.; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R.

    2014-01-01

    Simple and sensitive procedures for the extraction/preconcentration of molybdenum based on vortex-assisted solidified floating organic drop microextraction (VA-SFODME) and cloud point combined with flame absorption atomic spectrometry (FAAS) and discrete nebulization were developed. The influence of the discrete nebulization on the sensitivity of the molybdenum preconcentration processes was studied. An injection volume of 200 μ resulted in a lower relative standard deviation with both preconcentration procedures. Enrichment factors of 31 and 67 and limits of detection of 25 and 5 μ L -1 were obtained for cloud point and VA-SFODME, respectively. The developed procedures were applied to the determination of Mo in mineral water and multivitamin samples. (author)

  18. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan G. Aćimović

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1-2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM, significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water- or non-injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2 and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control.

  19. Non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by Alfven waves in low aspects ratio Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C.; Komoshvili, K.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of radio frequency (RF) current drive via helicity injection in low aspect ratio tokamaks was carried out. A current-carrying cylindrical plasma surrounded by a helical sheet-current antenna and situated inside a perfectly conducting shell was considered. Toroidal features of low aspect ratio tokamaks were simulated by incorporation of the following effects: (i) arbitrarily small aspect ratio, R o /a ≡ 1/ε (ii) strongly sheared equilibrium magnetic field; and (iii) relatively large poloidal component of the equilibrium magnetic field. The study concentrates on the Alfven continuum, i.e. the case in which the wave frequency satisfies the condition {ω Alf (r)} min ≤ω≥{ω Alf (r)} max , where ω Alf (r)≡ω[n(r),B o (o)] is an eigenfrequency of the shear Alfven wave (SAW). Thus, using low-p, ideal magneto-hydrodynamics, the wave equation with correct boundary (matching) conditions was solved, the RF field components were found and subsequently, current drive , power deposition and efficiency were computed. The results of our investigation clearly demonstrate the possibility of generation of RF-driven currents via helicity injection by Alfven waves in low aspect ratio tokamaks, in the SAW mode. A special algorithm was developed which enables the selection of the antenna parameters providing optimal current drive efficiency. (authors)

  20. Induction of osteoarthritis by injecting monosodium iodoacetate into the patellofemoral joint of an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ikufumi; Matsuzaki, Taro; Kuroki, Hiroshi; Hoso, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the histopathological changes in the patellofemoral joint using a rat model of osteoarthritis that was induced using monosodium iodoacetate, and to establish a novel model of patellofemoral osteoarthritis in a rat model using histopathological analysis. Sixty male rats were used. Osteoarthritis was induced through a single intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate in both knee joints. Animals were equally divided into two experimental groups based on the monosodium iodoacetate dose: 0.2 mg and 1.0 mg. Histopathological changes in the articular cartilage of the patellofemoral joint and the infrapatellar fat pad were examined at 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks after the monosodium iodoacetate injection. In the 1.0-mg group, the representative histopathological findings of osteoarthritis were observed in the articular cartilage of the patellofemoral joint over time. Additionally, the Osteoarthritis Research Society International scores of the patellofemoral joint increased over time. The synovitis scores of the infrapatellar fat pad in both groups were highest at 3 days, and then the values decreased over time. The fibrosis score of the infrapatellar fat pad in the 1.0-mg group increased with time, whereas the fibrosis score in the 0.2-mg group remained low. Representative histopathological findings of osteoarthritis were observed in the articular cartilage of the patellofemoral joint in a rat model of osteoarthritis induced using monosodium iodoacetate. With appropriate selection, this model may be regarded as an ideal patellofemoral osteoarthritis model.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of nebulized terbinafine in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lee C; Cox, Sherry K; Souza, Marcy J

    2012-09-01

    Aspergillosis is one of the most difficult diseases to treat successfully in avian species. Terbinafine hydrochloride offers numerous potential benefits over traditionally used antifungals for treatment of this disease. Adding nebulized antifungals to treatment strategies is thought to improve clinical outcomes in lung diseases. To determine plasma concentrations of terbinafine after nebulization, 6 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were randomly divided into 2 groups of 3. Each bird was nebulized for 15 minutes with 1 of 2 terbinafine solutions, one made with a crushed tablet and the second with raw drug powder. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at multiple time points up to 720 minutes after completing nebulization. Plasma and nebulization solutions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The terbinafine concentration of the solution made with a crushed tablet (0.87 +/- 0.05 mg/mL) was significantly lower than was that made with raw powder (1.02 +/- 0.09 mg/mL). Plasma concentrations of terbinafine did not differ significantly between birds in the 2 groups. Plasma terbinafine concentrations in birds were maintained above in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations for approximately 1 hour in birds nebulized with the crushed tablet solution and 4 hours in birds nebulized with the raw powder solution. Higher concentrations of solution, longer nebulization periods, or more frequent administration are likely needed to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations of terbinafine for clinically relevant periods in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  2. Induction of generalized Shwartzman reaction (GSR) in irradiated rabbits by a single injection of endotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronowski, T.; Uchanska-Dudzinska, B.; Teisseyre, E.; Kopec, M.

    1976-01-01

    Rabbits were prepared to GSR by either a single dose 30 μg/kg of Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin or by a single whole-body exposure to 850 R of x ray. After 24 hrs provocative dose of endotoxin 50 μg/kg was injected. Histological examinations of kidneys revealed that GSR occurred with equal frequency in both groups of rabbits but was more severe in the animals prepared by irradiation. Protamine gelation test detected soluble fibrin complexes in plasma in about 50% of rabbits 24 hrs after either of the preparatory procedures and virtually in 100% after the provocative endotoxin dose. During the preparatory phase of GSR the irradiation induced a profound decrease in blood lymphocyte count and in the weight of thymus and spleen. It is postulated that early postexposure lysis of lymphatic cells participates in mechanisms leading to thrombotic phenomena after irradiation

  3. Induced tolerance to nebulized colistin after severe reaction to the drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Ortega, J; Manteiga, E; Abad-Schilling, C; Juretzcke, M A; Sánchez-Rubio, J; Kindelan, C

    2007-01-01

    Daily nebulized colistin therapy has been used as maintenance therapy for patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and in treatment protocols aimed at eradicating early P aeruginosa infection. Colistin-induced nephrotoxicity and mild neurotoxic effects have been described but hypersensitivity reactions are rare. However, bronchial constriction has been reported associated with the inhalation of the antibiotic. We report the case of a 63-year-old man who had been diagnosed with bronchiectasis and bronchopleural fistula and who developed severe bronchospasm when using nebulized colistin. A skin prick test (80 mg/mL) with colistin was performed and was negative. An intradermal test was not performed due to its possible irritant effect. As our patient suffered from a tobramycin-resistant P aeruginosa infection, we started a procedure to induce tolerance to 80 mg colistin (8 mg, 16 mg, 24 mg, 32 mg, 40 mg, 80 mg) nebulized in 30-minutes-intervals. No changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second values were observed and the patient continues on treatment twice daily after the tolerance induction with no new episodes of bronchospasm. We report the first successful procedure to induce tolerance to colistin after escalating doses of inhaled colistin.

  4. Nebulized corticosteroids in the management of acute exacerbation of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaude G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbations in chronic onstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are common and systemic steroids play an important role in the management of these cases along with the bronchodilators. Nebulized budesonide is being used in the acute attacks of bronchial asthma either in children or in adults. But the role of nebulized steroids in acute exacerbation of COPD is not much studied in the literature. In this clinical review we have evaluated the role of nebulized corticosteroids in the management of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD. Through Medline, Pubmed and Embase we analyzed the various studies that has been done to study the role of nebulized corticosteroids in the management of acute exacerbation of COPD. The key words used for the search criteria were: acute exacerbation, COPD, nebulized corticosteroids, budesonide, fluticasone. Only eight studies were found which had evaluated the role of nebulized corticosteroids in acute exacerbations of COPD. All these studies had used nebulized budesonide in AECOPD in different dosages, and had been compared with both either parental or oral steroids, and standard bronchodilator therapy. All the studies had found the clinical efficacy of nebulized budesonide to be of similar extent to that of either parental or oral steroids in AECOPD. Side effects profile of nebulized budesonide was minimal and acceptable as compared to systemic steroids. Nebulized budesonide may be an alternative to parental/oral prednisolone in the treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD but further studies should be done to evaluate its long-term impact on clinical outcomes after an initial episode of COPD exacerbation.

  5. Short and long term bystander effect induction by fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas, Rafinesque, 1820) injected with environmentally relevant whole body doses of 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Richard W.; Seymour, Colin B.; Mothersill, Carmel E.

    2013-01-01

    Bystander effect induction by fathead minnows injected with environmentally relevant doses of 226 Ra was investigated. Twenty four h and 6 months after injection with a single dose of 21, 210 or 2100 μBq, fin tissue samples emitted a pro-apoptotic signal, which reduced the clonogenic survival of an apoptosis sensitive reporter cell line. Twenty four h and 10 weeks after injection explants from non-injected bystander fish, swum with the injected fish, also emitted a pro-apoptotic signal. However 6 months after injection the bystander fish to 21 and 210 μBq injected fish emitted an anti-apoptotic signal. This demonstrates that extremely low dose irradiation can have effects outside of the irradiated fish. This has implications for population and ecosystem responses to contamination. -- Highlights: • Non-injected fish, swum with injected fish, gave the same response for up to 10 weeks. • After 6 months this response by non-injected fish changed to an anti-apoptotic signal. • This shows that 226 Ra contamination can have effects outside of the irradiated fish

  6. Flow injection on-line dilution for multi-element determination in human urine with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2001-01-01

    A simple flow injection on-line dilution procedure with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the determination of copper, zinc, arsenic, lead, selenium, nickel and molybdenum in human urine. Matrix effects were minimized by employing a dilution factor...

  7. Immunological and physical properties of allergen solutions. Effects of nebulization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, L; Poulsen, L K; Heinig, J H

    1991-01-01

    activity was measured by IgG4 RAST inhibition technique and allergen quality was analysed by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE). The distribution of particle sizes of aerosols of different allergen solutions was determined by a TSI Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. A significant difference (P less than 0.......05) in allergen activity was found between the AD and H2O diluents before and after using a Sandoz nebulizer and a Wright nebulizer equipped with a small chamber. This suggested greater allergen activity in AD-diluted solutions, and the pattern was repeated with the other two nebulizers, but was not statistically...

  8. Effect of Biodiesel Fuel Injection Timing and Venture for Gaseous Fuel Induction on the Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Dual Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Bhovi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Advancing or retarding pilot fuel injection timing in a diesel engine provided with either conventional mechanical fuel injection (CMFIS or high pressure injection as in common rail fuel injection (CRDI systems can significantly affect its performance and tail pipe emissions. Performance of diesel engine when fueled with various biofuels as well as gaseous fuels tends to vary with subsequent changes in pilot fuel injection timings. Biodiesel derived from rubber seed oil called Rubber Seed Oil Methyl Ester (RuOME and hydrogen (H2 and hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas called (HCNG both being renewable fuels when used in diesel engines modified to operate in dual fuel mode can provide complete replacement for fossil diesel. In the present study, effect of injection timings and venture design for gas mixing on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of dual fuel engine fitted with both CMFIS and CRDI injection systems and operated on RuOME and HCNG/hydrogen has been investigated. Results showed that high pressure CRDI assisted injection of RuOME with optimized mixing chamber (carburetor for hydrogen induction in dual fuel engine performed improved compared to that with CMFIS. In addition, for the same fuel combinations, CRDI resulted in lower biodiesel consumption, lower carbon monoxide (BSCO and hydrocarbon (BSHC emissions and increased NOx emissions than CMFIS operation.

  9. Nebulized antibiotics in mechanically ventilated patients: roadmap and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulakou, G; Siakallis, G; Tsiodras, S; Arfaras-Melainis, A; Dimopoulos, G

    2017-03-01

    Nebulized antibiotics use has become common practice in the therapeutics of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients. There is an increasing interest in their use for respiratory infections in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients in order to a) overcome pharmacokinetic issues in the lung compartment with traditional systemic antibiotic use and b) prevent the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Areas covered: The beneficial effects of antibiotic nebulization in MV patients e.g. increasing efficacy, reduced toxicity and prevention of resistance are described. Physicochemical parameters of optimal lung deposition, characteristics of currently available nebulizers, practical aspects of the procedure, including drug preparation and adjustments of ventilator and circuit parameter are presented. Antibiotics used in nebulized route, along with efficacy in various clinical indications and safety issues are reviewed. Expert commentary: The safety of nebulization of antibiotics has been proven in numerous studies; efficacy as adjunctive treatment to intravenous regimens or as monotherapy has been demonstrated in ventilator-associated pneumonia or ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis due to MDR or susceptible pathogens. However, due to the heterogeneity of studies, multiple meta-analyses fail to demonstrate a clear effect. Clarification of indications, standardization of technique and implementation of clinical practice guidelines, based on new large-scale trials will lead to the optimal use of nebulized antibiotics.

  10. On-line complexation/cloud point preconcentration for the sensitive determination of dysprosium in urine by flow injection inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Claudia; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, Maria F.; Olsina, Roberto A.; Martinez, Luis D.

    2003-01-01

    An on-line dysprosium preconcentration and determination system based on the hyphenation of cloud point extraction (CPE) to flow injection analysis (FIA) associated with ICP-OES was studied. For the preconcentration of dysprosium, a Dy(III)-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol complex was formed on-line at pH 9.22 in the presence of nonionic micelles of PONPE-7.5. The micellar system containing the complex was thermostated at 30 C in order to promote phase separation, and the surfactant-rich phase was retained in a microcolumn packed with cotton at pH 9.2. The surfactant-rich phase was eluted with 4 mol L -1 nitric acid at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min -1 , directly in the nebulizer of the plasma. An enhancement factor of 50 was obtained for the preconcentration of 50 mL of sample solution. The detection limit value for the preconcentration of 50 mL of aqueous solution of Dy was 0.03 μg L -1 . The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 2.0 μg L -1 Dy level was 2.2% relative standard deviation (RSD), calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for dysprosium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9994 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 100 μg L -1 . The method was successfully applied to the determination of dysprosium in urine. (orig.)

  11. Resistivity effects in non-inductive RF current drive via helicity injection by Alfven waves: the case of conventional and small aspect ratio Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruma, C.; Cuperman, S.; Komoshvili, K.

    1996-01-01

    Supplementary non-inductive current drive and heating are necessary to bring Tokamak plasmas into the ignition regime. The resonant excitation of shear Alfven waves (SAW) - in the continuum range (CR) or/and in the discrete global Alfven eigenmode spectrum (GAE's) - represents one potential, suitable method for this purpose. Within the framework of ideal MHD, the current drive (CD) via helicity injection in Tokamak plasmas has been considered by Cuperman et al (1996) and Komoshvili et al. (1996). This work is concerned with the investigation of the non-ideal resistive MHD effects on both the excitation of SAW's (CR's and GAE's) and the generation of non-inductive current drive via helicity injection in Tokamak plasmas. The research covers Tokamak aspect ratios ranging between large value cases (R/a = 10) and the very tight value case (R/ a = 1.2). (authors)

  12. A new method for measuring aerosol nebulizers output using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatnash, A.A.; Connolly, C.K.; Chandler, S.T.

    1998-01-01

    Reproducibility and comparability of bronchial challenge tests depends critically on accurate assessment of nebulizers output. Evaporation during nebulization means that simple weighing is inaccurate, overestimating the delivered dose of active ingredient. We wanted to quantify this effect in the context of intermittent nebulization, using a dosimeter as used in bronchial provocation tests. Output of three types of nebulizers, from the MEFAR dosimeter, was measured by radioactive tracer, using a standard solution of technetium-99m-pertechnetate (1.5 kBq x mL -1 ) in 4 mL of normal saline. The aerosol was impacted by suction onto a micro filter, and the radioactivity measured. Nebulizers were weighed before and after nebulization. Ratio of nebulized volume calculated from the radioactivity on the filter, to the total volume loss by weight, was expressed as nebulized ratio. The effect on output of two concentrations of methacholine, two tracers of different weights, and change in temperature, were assessed. Nebulized ratio varied between 44.1-71.6%. Results were more consistent within the same type of nebulizer than between different makes. Neither changes in molar concentration nor molecular weight affected nebulizer output or nebulized ratio. Mean nebulized ratio was 58.5%, showing that calibration by weighing, overestimates the delivered dose by a factor of approximately two. Measuring radioactivity eluted from a micro filter, onto which nebulized output had been impacted proved to be a satisfactory method of calibration. (au)

  13. Exploiting flow injection and sequential injection for trace metal determinations in conjunction with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    and selectivity. Either in order to separate/preconcentrate the analyte material, or because of the presence of potentially interfering matrix constituents. Such pretreatments are advantageously performed in flow injection (FI) or sequential injection (SI) manifolds, where all appropriate unit operations can...

  14. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a twin quadrupole instrument using laser ablation sample introduction and monodisperse dried microparticulate injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Lloyd A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-10-17

    The focus of this dissertation is the use of a twin quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for the simultaneous detection of two m/z values. The twin quadrupole ICP-MS is used with laser ablation sample introduction in both the steady state (10 Hz) and single pulse modes. Steady state signals are highly correlated and the majority of flicker noise cancels when the ratio is calculated. Using a copper sample, the isotope ratio 63Cu+/65Cu+ is measured with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.26%. Transient signals for single laser pulses are also obtained. Copper isotope ratio measurements for several laser pulses are measured with an RSD of 0.85%. Laser ablation (LA) is used with steel samples to assess the ability of the twin quadrupole ICP-MS to eliminate flicker noise of minor components of steel samples. Isotopic and internal standard ratios are measured in the first part of this work. The isotope ratio 52Cr+/53Cr+ (Cr present at 1.31 %) can be measured with an RSD of 0.06 % to 0.1 %. For internal standard elements, RSDs improve from 1.9 % in the Cr+ signal to 0.12% for the ratio of 51V+ to 52Cr+. In the second part of this work, one mass spectrometer is scanned while the second channel measures an individual m/z value. When the ratio of these two signals is calculated, the peak shapes in the mass spectrum are improved significantly. Pulses of analyte and matrix ions from individual drops are measured simultaneously using the twin quadrupole ICP-MS with monodisperse dried microparticulate injection (MDMI). At modest Pb concentrations (500 ppm), a shoulder on the leading edge of the Li+ signal becomes apparent. Space charge effects are consistent with the disturbances seen.

  15. Anti-Tuberculosis Bacteriophage D29 Delivery with a Vibrating Mesh Nebulizer, Jet Nebulizer, and Soft Mist Inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigy, Nicholas B; Chang, Rachel Y; Leung, Sharon S Y; Harrison, Melissa; Petrova, Zaritza; Pope, Welkin H; Hatfull, Graham F; Britton, Warwick J; Chan, Hak-Kim; Sauvageau, Dominic; Finlay, Warren H; Vehring, Reinhard

    2017-10-01

    To compare titer reduction and delivery rate of active anti-tuberculosis bacteriophage (phage) D29 with three inhalation devices. Phage D29 lysate was amplified to a titer of 11.8 ± 0.3 log 10 (pfu/mL) and diluted 1:100 in isotonic saline. Filters captured the aerosolized saline D29 preparation emitted from three types of inhalation devices: 1) vibrating mesh nebulizer; 2) jet nebulizer; 3) soft mist inhaler. Full-plate plaque assays, performed in triplicate at multiple dilution levels with the surrogate host Mycobacterium smegmatis, were used to quantify phage titer. Respective titer reductions for the vibrating mesh nebulizer, jet nebulizer, and soft mist inhaler were 0.4 ± 0.1, 3.7 ± 0.1, and 0.6 ± 0.3 log 10 (pfu/mL). Active phage delivery rate was significantly greater (p pfu/min) than for the jet nebulizer (5.4x10 4  ± 1.3x10 4 pfu/min). The soft mist inhaler delivered 4.6x10 6  ± 2.0x10 6 pfu per 11.6 ± 1.6 μL ex-actuator dose. Delivering active phage requires a prudent choice of inhalation device. The jet nebulizer was not a good choice for aerosolizing phage D29 under the tested conditions, due to substantial titer reduction likely occurring during droplet production. The vibrating mesh nebulizer is recommended for animal inhalation studies requiring large amounts of D29 aerosol, whereas the soft mist inhaler may be useful for self-administration of D29 aerosol.

  16. Microbiological evaluation of ultrasonic nebulization for disinfecting dental impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Marcio Jose; Rafael, Renata Santos; Camilotti, Veridiana; Menolli, Rafael Andrade; Sicoli, Eliseu Augusto; Teixeira, Nancielli; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho

    2013-07-01

    Disinfecting dental impressions is necessary to decrease the risk of cross-contamination in dental offices. Ultrasonic nebulization has been mentioned as a microbicidal technique that can be used to disinfect contaminated dental impressions. This study compared the microbicidal effect of 2% glutaraldehyde and 0.2% peracetic acid for the disinfection of dental impressions made with vinyl polysiloxane, using 2 disinfection methods: immersion and ultrasonic nebulization. Bactericial efficacy was examined using Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus atrophaeus as indicators. Thirty impressions were obtained and distributed randomly in 5 groups (n = 6). Group 1 was immersed in 2% glutaraldehyde immersion for 10 minutes, Group 2 was immersed in 0.2% peracetic acid for 10 minutes, Group 3 underwent ultrasonic nebulization for 10 minutes in 2% glutaraldehyde solution, Group 4 underwent ultrasonic nebulization for 10 minutes in 0.2% peracetic acid solution, and Group 5 was a control group that received no disinfectant. Both solutions experienced a 100% reduction in microorganisms following ultrasonic nebulization, as did peracetic acid following immersion; however, immersion in glutaraldehyde demonstrated lower values of reduction in B atrophaeus group, with a statistically significant difference compared with the other experimental groups.

  17. Jet and ultrasonic nebulization of single chain urokinase plasminogen activator (scu-PA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Anna-Marie; Bendstrup, E; Jensen, J.I.

    2000-01-01

    locally by nebulization in a recombinant zymogen form as single chain urokinase plasminogen activator (scu-PA). We aimed to characterize the particle size distribution, drug output, and enzymatic activity of scu-PA after nebulization with a Ventstream jet nebulizer (Medic-Aid, Bognor Regis, UK) and a Syst...

  18. Nebulized naloxone gently and effectively reverses methadone intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycyk, Mark B; Szyszko, Amy L; Aks, Steven E

    2003-02-01

    A 46-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Department with lethargy and respiratory depression after ingesting methadone. Initial oxygen saturation of 61% on room air did not improve with supplemental oxygenation. As venous access was initially unobtainable, naloxone was administered by nebulizer. Within 5 min oxygen saturation was 100% and mental status was normal. The patient did not develop severe withdrawal symptoms. Naloxone hydrochloride has been administered by various routes to treat opioid toxicity. Our report describes the successful use of nebulized naloxone for methadone toxicity.

  19. Bead Injection Extraction Chromatography using High-capacity Lab-on-Valve as a Front End to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Urine Radiobioassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2013-01-01

    A novel bead injection (BI) extraction chromatographic microflow system exploiting high-capacity lab-on-valve (LOV) platform coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection is developed for rapid and automated determination of plutonium in human urine. A microconduit (1 m......L) incorporated within the LOV processing unit is loaded on-line with a metered amount of disposable extraction chromatographic resin (up to 330 mg of TEVA) through programmable beads transport. Selective capture and purification of plutonium onto the resin beads is then performed by pressure driven flow after...

  20. Reduction of plasma density in the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance experiment by using a helicon pre-ionization source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossack, Aaron C.; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Victor, Brian S.; Firman, Taylor; Prager, James R.; Ziemba, Timothy; Wrobel, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    A helicon based pre-ionization source has been developed and installed on the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance (HIT-SI) spheromak. The source initiates plasma breakdown by injecting impurity-free, unmagnetized plasma into the HIT-SI confinement volume. Typical helium spheromaks have electron density reduced from (2–3) × 10 19 m −3 to 1 × 10 19 m −3 . Deuterium spheromak formation is possible with density as low as 2 × 10 18 m −3 . The source also enables HIT-SI to be operated with only one helicity injector at injector frequencies above 14.5 kHz. A theory explaining the physical mechanism driving the reduction of breakdown density is presented

  1. Reduction of plasma density in the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance experiment by using a helicon pre-ionization source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossack, Aaron C.; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Victor, Brian S. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Firman, Taylor; Prager, James R.; Ziemba, Timothy [Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc., 119 W. Denny Way, Suite 210, Seattle, Washington 98119 (United States); Wrobel, Jonathan S. [979B West Moorhead Circle, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    A helicon based pre-ionization source has been developed and installed on the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance (HIT-SI) spheromak. The source initiates plasma breakdown by injecting impurity-free, unmagnetized plasma into the HIT-SI confinement volume. Typical helium spheromaks have electron density reduced from (2–3) × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. Deuterium spheromak formation is possible with density as low as 2 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3}. The source also enables HIT-SI to be operated with only one helicity injector at injector frequencies above 14.5 kHz. A theory explaining the physical mechanism driving the reduction of breakdown density is presented.

  2. Induction treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in an elderly patient with intramarrow injection/administration of cytarabine. Second case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Anwarul

    2017-09-01

    We show for the second time that intramarrow injection/administration of chemotherapeutic agents such as cytarabine (Ara-C) can be used safely and effectively and is associated with no toxicity, promising antileukemic activity and possible improved survival.

  3. Simulation-based design of a microfabricated pneumatic electrospray nebulizer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Járvás, G.; Grym, Jakub; Foret, František; Guttman, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2015), s. 386-392 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : CFD * microfabrication * modeling * electrospray * nebulizer Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.482, year: 2015

  4. Simulation-based design of a microfabricated pneumatic electrospray nebulizer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Járvás, G.; Grym, Jakub; Foret, František; Guttman, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2015), s. 386-392 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : CFD * microfabrication * modeling * electrospray * nebulizer Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 2.482, year: 2015

  5. Efficacy of nebulized furosemide in children with moderate attack of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of nebulized furosemide in children with moderate attack of asthma. M Alshehri, T Almegamesi, A Alfrayh. Abstract. No Abstract. West African Journal of Medicine Vol. 24(3) 2005: 246-251. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Determination of uranium isotopic composition and 236U content of soil samples and hot particles using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, S F; Becker, J S

    2001-07-01

    As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) the environment was contaminated with spent nuclear fuel. The 236U isotope was used in this study to monitor the spent uranium from nuclear fallout in soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl NPP. Nuclear track radiography was applied for the identification and extraction of hot radioactive particles from soil samples. A rapid and sensitive analytical procedure was developed for uranium isotopic ratio measurement in environmental samples based on double-focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DF-ICP-MS) with a MicroMist nebulizer and a direct injection high-efficiency nebulizer (DIHEN). The performance of the DF-ICP-MS with a quartz DIHEN and plasma shielded torch was studied. Overall detection efficiencies of 4 x 10(-4) and 10(-3) counts per atom were achieved for 238U in DF-ICP-QMS with the MicroMist nebulizer and DIHEN, respectively. The rate of formation of uranium hydride ions UH+/U+ was 1.2 x 10(-4) and 1.4 x 10(-4), respectively. The precision of short-term measurements of uranium isotopic ratios (n = 5) in 1 microg L(-1) NBS U-020 standard solution was 0.11% (238U/235U) and 1.4% (236U/238U) using a MicroMist nebulizer and 0.25% (235U/238U) and 1.9% (236U/P38U) using a DIHEN. The isotopic composition of all investigated Chernobyl soil samples differed from those of natural uranium; i.e. in these samples the 236U/238U ratio ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-3). Results obtained with ICP-MS, alpha- and gamma-spectrometry showed differences in the migration properties of spent uranium, plutonium, and americium. The isotopic ratio of uranium was also measured in hot particles extracted from soil samples.

  7. Determination of uranium isotopic composition and 236U content of soil samples and hot particles using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Becker, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) the environment was contaminated with spent nuclear fuel. The 236 U isotope was used in this study to monitor the spent uranium from nuclear fallout in soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl NPP. Nuclear track radiography was applied for the identification and extraction of hot radioactive particles from soil samples. A rapid and sensitive analytical procedure was developed for uranium isotopic ratio measurement in environmental samples based on double-focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DF-ICP-MS) with a MicroMist nebulizer and a direct injection high-efficiency nebulizer (DIHEN). The performance of the DF-ICP-MS with a quartz DIHEN and plasma shielded torch was studied. Overall detection efficiencies of 4 x 10 -4 and 10 -3 counts per atom were achieved for 238 U in DF-ICP-QMS with the MicroMist nebulizer and DIHEN, respectively. The rate of formation of uranium hydride ions UH + /U + was 1.2 x 10 -4 and 1.4 x 10 -4 , respectively. The precision of short-term measurements of uranium isotopic ratios (n = 5) in 1 μg L -1 NBS U-020 standard solution was 0.11% ( 238 U/ 235 U) and 1.4% ( 236 U/ 238 U) using a MicroMist nebulizer and 0.25% ( 235 U/ 238 U) and 1.9% ( 236 U/ 238 U) using a DIHEN. The isotopic composition of all investigated Chernobyl soil samples differed from those of natural uranium; i.e. in these samples the 236 U/ 238 U ratio ranged from 10 -5 to 10 -3 . Results obtained with ICP-MS, α- and γ-spectrometry showed differences in the migration properties of spent uranium, plutonium, and americium. The isotopic ratio of uranium was also measured in hot particles extracted from soil samples. (orig.)

  8. Induction of the 'ASIA' syndrome in NZB/NZWF1 mice after injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, N; Luisetto, R; Del Prete, D; Ghirardello, A; Ceol, M; Rizzo, S; Iaccarino, L; Gatto, M; Valente, M L; Punzi, L; Doria, A

    2012-02-01

    Adjuvants, commonly used in vaccines, may be responsible for inducing autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases, both in humans and mice. The so-called 'ASIA' (Autoimmune/inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants) syndrome has been recently described, which is caused by the exposure to a component reproducing the effect of adjuvants. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in NZB/NZWF1 mice, a lupus-prone murine model. We injected 10 NZB/NZWF1 mice with CFA/PBS and 10 with PBS, three times, 3 weeks apart, and followed-up until natural death. CFA-injected mice developed both anti-double-stranded DNA and proteinuria earlier and at higher levels than the control group. Proteinuria-free survival rate and survival rate were significantly lower in CFA-treated mice than in the control mice (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively). Histological analyses showed a more severe glomerulonephritis in CFA-injected mice compared with the control mice. In addition, lymphoid hyperplasia in spleen and lungs, myocarditis, and vasculitis were observed in the former, but not in the latter group. In conclusion, the injection of CFA in NZB/NZWF1 mice accelerated autoimmune manifestations resembling 'ASIA' syndrome in humans.

  9. Optimization of nebulized delivery of linezolid, daptomycin, and vancomycin aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarogoulidis P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Paul Zarogoulidis,1 Ioannis Kioumis,1 Sofia Lampaki,1 John Organtzis,1 Konstantinos Porpodis,1 Dionysios Spyratos,1 Georgia Pitsiou,1 Dimitris Petridis,2 Athanasia Pataka,1 Haidong Huang,3 Qiang Li,3 Lonny Yarmus,4 Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,5 Nikolaos Pezirkianidis,6 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis1 1Pulmonary Department-Oncology Unit, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Food Technology, School of Food Technology and Nutrition, Alexander Technological Educational Institute, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Department of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Hospital, II Military University Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5II Medical Department, “Coburg” Regional Hospital, Coburg, Germany; 6Surgery Department, Private Cabinet, Serres, Greece Background: At this time, several antibiotics have been investigated as possibilities for aerosol administration, but local therapy has been found to be more efficient in several diseases. Materials and methods: The drugs linezolid (Zyvox, vancomycin (Voncon, and daptomycin (Cubicin were tested with three jet nebulizers with seven different residual cups and different loadings. Moreover, three ultrasound nebulizers were again tested with these drugs, with different loadings and mouthpiece attachments. Results: When drugs are combined with particular cup designs, they significantly lower the droplet size to 1.60 and 1.80 µm, which represents the best combination of Zyvox and cup G and Cubicin and cup D, respectively. Cup design D is suggested as the most effective cup for lowering the droplet size (2.30 µm when considering a higher loading level (8 mL. Conclusion: Modification of current drugs from dry powder to solution is possible, and the residual cup design plays the most important role in droplet size production when the

  10. Rapid induction of dopamine sensitization in the nucleus accumbens shell induced by a single injection of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Bryan F; Bryan, Myranda A; Popov, Pavlo; Robinson, Terry E; Aragona, Brandon J

    2017-05-01

    Repeated intermittent exposure to cocaine results in the neurochemical sensitization of dopamine (DA) transmission within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Indeed, the excitability of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is enhanced within hours of initial psychostimulant exposure. However, it is not known if this is accompanied by a comparably rapid change in the ability of cocaine to increase extracellular DA concentrations in the ventral striatum. To address this question we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in awake-behaving rats to measure DA responses in the NAc shell following an initial intravenous cocaine injection, and then again 2-h later. Both injections quickly elevated DA levels in the NAc shell, but the second cocaine infusion produced a greater effect than the first, indicating sensitization. This suggests that a single injection of cocaine induces sensitization-related plasticity very rapidly within the mesolimbic DA system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Induction on the Performance of Rubber Seed Oil Methy Ester Fuelled Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDi Dual Fuel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Bhovi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable fuels are in biodegradable nature and they tender good energy security and foreign exchange savings. In addition they address environmental concerns and socio-economic issues. The present work presents the experimental investigations carried out on the utilization of such renewable fuel combinations for diesel engine applications. For this a single-cylinder four-stroke water cooled direct injection (DI compression ignition (CI engine provided with CMFIS (Conventional Mechanical Fuel Injection System was rightfully converted to operate with CRDi injection systems enabling high pressure injection of Rubber seed oil methyl ester (RuOME in the dual fuel mode with induction of varied gas flow rates of hydrogen and hydrogen enriched CNG (HCNG gas combinations. Experimental investigations showed a considerable improvement in dual fuel engine performance with acceptable brake thermal efficiency and reduced emissions of smoke, hydrocarbon (HC, carbon monoxide (CO and slightly increased nitric oxide (NOx emission levels for increased hydrogen and HCNG flow rates. Further CRDi facilitated dual fuel engine showed improved engine performance compared to CMFIS as the former enabled high pressure (900 bar injection of the RuOME and closer to TDC (Top Dead Centre as well. Combustion parameters such as ignition delay, combustion duration, pressure-crank angle and heat release rates were analyzed and compared with baseline data generated. Combustion analysis showed that the rapid rate of burning of hydrogen and HCNG along with air mixtures increased due to presence of hydrogen in total and in partial combination with CNG which further resulted into higher cylinder pressures and energy release rates. However, sustained research that can provide feasible engine technology operating on such fuels in dual fuel operation can pave the way for continued fossil fuel usage.

  12. Method for the quantification of vanadyl porphyrins in fractions of crude oils by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Flow Injection-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandekoken, Flávia G.; Duyck, Christiane B.; Fonseca, Teresa C. O.; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D.

    2016-05-01

    High performance liquid chromatography hyphenated by flow injection to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-FI-ICP-MS) was used to investigate V linked to porphyrins present in fractions of crude oil. First, the crude oil sample was submitted to fractionation by preparative liquid chromatography with UV detection, at the porphyrin Soret band wavelength (400 nm). The obtained porphyrin fractions were then separated in a 250 mm single column, in the HPLC, and eluted with different mobile phases (methanol or methanol:toluene (80:20; v:v)). The quantification of V-porphyrins in the fractions eluted from HPLC was carried out by online measuring the 51V isotope in the ICP-MS, against vanadyl octaethylporphine standard solutions (VO-OEP), prepared in the same solvent as the mobile phase, and injected post-column directly into the plasma. A 20 μg L- 1 Ge in methanol was used as internal standard for minimizing non-spectral interference, such as short-term variations due to injection. The mathematical treatment of the signal based on Fast Fourier Transform smoothing algorithm was employed to improve the precision. The concentrations of V as V-porphyrins were between 2.7 and 11 mg kg- 1 in the fractions, which were close to the total concentration of V in the porphyrin fractions of the studied crude oil.

  13. Relative radiosensitivity of bone tumor induction among beagles as a function of age at injection of 239Pu or 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Jee, W.S.S.; Miller, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison was made of the response to induction of skeletal malignancy from exposure of beagles to monomeric 239 Pu or to 226 Ra as juveniles (3 mo of age), young adults (1.5 y of age), or mature adults (5 y of age). This indicated that of these age groups, animals injected as young adults are most sensitive per Gy of average skeletal dose evaluated at 1 y before death. Dogs exposed either as juveniles or as mature adults appeared to be less sensitive. Relative radiosensitivities (RRS) of juvenile and mature beagles ranged between about 0.3 and 0.7 that of dogs injected as young adults. Mean values of RRS for both radionuclides were about 0.5, but RRS values derived from dogs given monomeric 239 Pu appeared to be most reliable and were 0.27 ± 0.09 for dogs injected as juveniles and 0.41 ± 0.13 for animals exposed as mature adults

  14. Comparative study of injection into a pneumatic nebuliser and tungsten coil electrothermal vaporisation for the determination of rare earth elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, K.

    1988-01-01

    Injection into a pneumatic nebuliser and vaporisation using a tungsten coil electrothermal vaporisation system, with a 3-kW argon-nitrogen inductively coupled plasma (ICP), are compared for the determination of the rare earth elements. The sampling efficiency and thus also the absolute power of detection of the tungsten coil ICP optical emission spectrometric (ICP-OES) technique are better by two orders of magnitude, than the injection technique. The absolute detection limits for the rare earth elements are at the pg level; for the refractory rare earth elements (Er, La, Lu and Y), they are lower than those obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas for the other rare earth elements (Eu, Sc, Tm and Yb), the detection limits are comparable. With injection of samples into a pneumatic nebuliser and ICP-OES, matrix effects are low and absolute amounts of the order of mg of the rare earth matrix can be tolerated, giving relative detection limits down to 1 μg g -1 . The amount of rare earth matrix that can be tolerated with the tungsten-coil atomiser is two orders of magnitude lower. Thus the relatively detection limits of the two methods are of the same order, although the matrix effects are considerably higher with the tungsten coil. (author)

  15. Inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectrometry: trace elements in oil matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Charlie Albert [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1977-12-01

    The simultaneous determination of up to 20 trace elements in various oil matrices by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry is reported. The oil matrices investigated were lubricating oils (for wear metals), fuel oil, centrifuged coal liquefaction product, crude soybean oil, and commercial edible oils. The samples were diluted with appropriate organic solvents and injected into the plasma as an aerosol generated by a pneumatic nebulization technique. Detection limits of the 28 elements studied ranged from 0.0006 to 9 μg/g with the majority falling in the 0.01 to 0.1 μg/g range. Analytical calibration curves were linear over at least two orders of magnitude and for some elements this linearity extended over 4.5 orders of magnitude. Relevant data on precision and accuracy are included. Because metals often occur as particles in lubricating oil and coal liquefaction products, the effect of particles on the analytical results was examined. Wear metal particles in used oil did not appear to affect the analytical results. However, incomplete recovery relative to organometallic reference solutions was obtained for iron particles with a nominal mean diameter of 3.0 μm suspended in oil. It was shown that the following factors contributed to incomplete recovery for the particles: settling of the suspended particles in the flask, a difference in nebulization efficiency between particle suspensions and organometallic solutions, and indications of incomplete vaporization of the larger particles in the plasma.

  16. THE FUZZY LOGIC BASED POWER INJECTION INTO ROTOR CIRCUIT FOR INSTANTANEOUS HIGH TORQUE AND SPEED CONTROL IN INDUCTION MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami KESLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The power flow of the rotor circuit is controlled by different methods in induction machines used for producing high torque in applications involved great power and constant output power with constant frequency in wind turbines. The voltage with slip frequency can be applied on rotor windings to produce controlled high torque and obtain optimal power factor and speed control. In this study, firstly, the dynamic effects of the voltage applying on rotor windings through the rings in slip-ring induction machines are researched and undesirable aspects of the method are exposed with simulations supported by experiments. Afterwards, a fuzzy logic based inverter model on rotor side is proposed with a view to improving the dynamic effects, controlling high torque producing and adjusting machine speed in instantaneous forced conditions. For the simulation model of the system in which the stator side is directly connected to the grid in steady state operation, a C/C++ algorithm is developed and the results obtained for different load conditions are discussed.

  17. Study of non-inductive current drive using high energy neutral beam injection on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Toshihiro

    2004-01-01

    The negative ion based neutral beam (N-NB) current drive was experimentally studied. The N-NB driven current density was determined over a wide range of electron temperatures by using the motional Stark effect spectroscopy. Theoretical prediction of the NB current drive increasing with beam energy and electron temperature was validated. A record value of NB current drive efficiency 1.55 x 10 19 Am -2 W -1 was achieved simultaneously with high confinement and high beta at at a plasma current of 1.5 MA under a fully non-inductively current driven condition. The experimental validation of NB current drive theory for MHD quiescent plasmas gives greater confidence in predicting the NB current drive in future reactors. However, it was also found that MHD instabilities caused a degradation of NB current drive. A beam-driven instability expelled N-NB fast ions carrying non-inductive current from the central region. The lost N-NB driven current was estimated to be 7% of the total N-NB driven current. For the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM), comparisons of the measured neutron yield and fast ion pressure profile with transport code calculations revealed that the loss of fast ions increases with the NTM activity and that fast ions at higher energies suffer larger transport than at lower energies. (author)

  18. Inductively Coupled Plasma: Fundamental Particle Investigations with Laser Ablation and Applications in Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan Joe Saetveit

    2008-01-01

    Particle size effects and elemental fractionation in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are investigated with nanosecond and femtosecond laser ablation, differential mobility analysis, and magnetic sector ICP-MS. Laser pulse width was found to have a significant influence on the LA particle size distribution and the elemental composition of the aerosol and thus fractionation. Emission from individual particles from solution nebulization, glass, and a pressed powder pellet are observed with high speed digital photography. The presence of intact particles in an ICP is shown to be a likely source of fractionation. A technique for the online detection of stimulated elemental release from neural tissue using magnetic sector ICP-MS is described. Detection limits of 1 (micro)g L -1 or better were found for P, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in a 60 (micro)L injection in a physiological saline matrix

  19. Spectral dependence efficiency and localization of non-inductive current-drive via helicity injection by global Alfven waves in Tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoshvili, K.; Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C.

    1996-01-01

    The non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by Global Alfven eigenmode (GAE) waves is studied. For illustration, the first radial mode of the discrete resonant GAE spectrum is considered. The following aspects are given special attention: spectral analysis, radial dependence and efficiency - all these as functions of the characteristics of the waves launched by an external, concentric antenna (i.e, wave frequency and poloidal and toroidal wave numbers). The results reveal the following conclusions. Generation of GAE waves. In the range of poloidal wave numbers -3 0 for m = -l, -2, -3 and -20 10; I-BAR < 0 for m = +1, +2, +3 and n < 10. (iv) The efficiency of the current drive, η = absolute I-BAR/absolute P-BAR, increases in the cases m = -1, -2, -3 with absolute m and absolute 1/n. (v) Detailed information on the relative direction and radial (core) localization of the current drive is obtained. (authors)

  20. Rapid Determination of Plutonium Isotopes in Environmental Samples Using Sequential Injection Extraction Chromatography and Detection by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an automated method for the rapid determination of 239Pu and 240Pu in various environmental samples. The analytical method involves the in-line separation of Pu isotopes using extraction chromatography (TEVA) implemented in a sequential injection (SI) network followed...... by detection of isolated analytes with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method has been devised for the determination of Pu isotopes at environmentally relevant concentrations, whereby it has been successfully applied to the analyses of large volumes/amounts of samples, for example......, 100−200 g of soil and sediment, 20 g of seaweed, and 200 L of seawater following analyte preconcentration. The investigation of the separation capability of the assembled SI system revealed that up to 200 g of soil or sediment can be treated using a column containing about 0.70 g of TEVA resin...

  1. Protein stability in pulmonary drug delivery via nebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Sebastian P; Winter, Gerhard; Friess, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Protein inhalation is a delivery route which offers high potential for direct local lung application of proteins. Liquid formulations are usually available in early stages of biopharmaceutical development and nebulizers are the device of choice for atomization avoiding additional process steps like drying and enabling fast progression to clinical trials. While some proteins were proven to remain stable throughout aerosolization e.g. DNase, many biopharmaceuticals are more susceptible towards the stresses encountered during nebulization. The main reason for protein instability is unfolding and aggregation at the air-liquid interface, a problem which is of particular challenge in the case of ultrasound and jet nebulizers due to recirculation of much of the generated droplets. Surfactants are an important formulation component to protect the sensitive biomolecules. A second important challenge is warming of ultrasound and vibrating mesh devices, which can be overcome by overfilling, precooled solutions or cooling of the reservoir. Ultimately, formulation development has to go hand in hand with device evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by Alfven waves in low-aspect-ratio tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C.; Komoshvili, K. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences

    1996-08-01

    A theoretical investigation of radio-frequency (RF) current drive via helicity injection in low aspect ratio tokamaks is carried out. A current-carrying cylindrical plasma surrounded by a helical sheet-current antenna and situated inside a perfectly conducting shell is considered. Toroidal features of low-aspect-ratio tokamaks are simulated by incorporating the following effects: (i) arbitrarily small aspect ratio, R{sub O}/a ``identical to`` 1/{epsilon}; (ii) strongly sheared equilibrium magnetic field; and (iii) relatively large poloidal component of the equilibrium magnetic field. This study concentrates on the Alfven continuum, i.e. the case in which the wave frequency satisfies the condition {l_brace}{omega}{sub Alf}({tau}){r_brace}{sub min}{r_brace} {<=} {omega} {<=} {l_brace}{omega}{sub Alf}({tau}){r_brace}{sub max}, where {omega}{sub Alf}({tau}) ``identical to`` {omega}{sub Alf}[n({tau}), B{sub O}({tau})] is an eigenfrequency of the shear Alfven wave (SAW). Thus, using low-{beta} magnetohydrodynamics, the wave equation with correct boundary (matching) conditions is solved, the RF field components are found, and subsequently current drive, power deposition and efficiency are computed. The results of our investigation clearly demonstrate the possibility of generation of RF-driven currents via helicity injection by Alfven waves in low-aspect-ratio tokamaks, in the SAW mode. A special algorithm is developed that enables one to select the antenna parameters providing optimal current drive efficiency. (Author).

  3. Spatially and time-resolved element-specific in situ corrosion investigations with an online hyphenated microcapillary flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homazava, N.; Ulrich, A.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    2008-01-01

    A novel technique for in situ spatial, time-resolved element-specific investigations of corrosion processes is developed. The technique is based on an online hyphenation of a specially designed microflow-capillary set-up to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using flow injection sample introduction. Detailed aspects of the method development, optimization of the sample microflow introduction and flow injection characteristics for the localized corrosion analysis are described. Moreover, specific challenges of the ICP-MS analysis as applied to the analysis of corrosion sample probes, e.g. high matrix load and limited sample volume, are discussed. The efficiency of the developed technique is proved by corrosion susceptibility analysis of a commercial Al alloy. Results of the corrosion experiments of the aluminum alloy AA 6111 are presented to demonstrate the influence of various factors such as exposure time and pH value of the corrosive medium on the element-specific dissolution rates of the alloy. This novel technique provides new aspects in corrosion science and sheds new light on corrosion mechanisms

  4. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by flow injection-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICPMS) determination of 14 lanthanides from ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, K.; Karunasagar, D.; Arunachalam, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method for the sensitive determination of REEs at a few parts per billion in groundwater by flow injection-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICPMS). In the developed method, methanol (500 μl) and chloroform (200μl) were used as the disperser and extractant respectively. The REEs were complexed with 4-(2-pyridylazo resorcinol) (PAR) at a pH of 7. Acetate ion was added as an auxiliary ligand for neutralization of the charge on the lanthanide-PAR complex. The disperser (MeOH) - extraction solvent (CHCl 3 ) mixture was rapidly injected using a disposable syringe, thereby forming a cloudy solution. The lanthanide-PAR complex was extracted into the fine droplets of the chloroform dispersed in the aqueous phase. The solution was centrifuged and the aqueous layer at the top was discarded. The REEs were back extracted from the chloroform layer with nitric acid for determination by ICPMS. Important parameters for complex formation and extraction, such as volume of extraction/disperser solvent, extraction time, pH and concentration of the chelating agent and the auxiliary ligand are being optimized using ICP-MS. The optimization is being carried out at 5 μg L -1 concentration level of REE in the initial water sample. Preliminary studies have shown an extraction recovery of 80-85% for all the 14 lanthanide elements and these will be presented

  5. The role of osmolality in saline fluid nebulization after tracheostomy: time for changing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zunjia; Wu, Chao; Cui, Feifei; Zhang, Haiying; Mei, Binbin; Shen, Meifen

    2016-12-09

    Saline fluid nebulization is highly recommend to combat the complications following tracheostomy, yet the understandings on the role of osmolality in saline solution for nebulization remain unclear. To investigate the biological changes in the early stage after tracheostomy, to verify the efficacy of saline fluid nebulization and explore the potential role of osmolality of saline nebulization after tracheostomy. Sprague-Dawley rats undergone tracheostomy were taken for study model, the sputum viscosity was detected by rotational viscometer, the expressions of TNF-α, AQP4 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were assessed by western blot analysis, and the histological changes in endothelium were evaluated by HE staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Study results revealed that tracheostomy gave rise to the increase of sputum viscosity, TNF-α and AQP4 expression, mucosa and cilia damage, yet the saline fluid nebulization could significantly decrease the changes of those indicators, besides, the hypertonic, isotonic and hypertonic saline nebulization produced different efficacy. Osmolality plays an important role in the saline fluid nebulization after tracheostomy, and 3% saline fluid nebulization seems to be more beneficial, further studies on the role of osmolality in saline fluid nebulization are warranted.

  6. Determination of iodine at ppt level in a nitric acid medium by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry: influence of the chemical forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlois, B.

    2001-01-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP/SFMS) was used to determine several chemical forms of iodine, at ppt level, in a nitric acid media. Ascorbic acid was added as a reducing agent in order to maintain iodine as iodide. In a preliminary approach, the influence of the chemical form was studied by comparing inorganic iodine (NaI) and organic iodine (CH3I). Different signal responses were observed. With a conventional sample introduction system, sensitivities obtained for iodo-methane could differ by a factor of 5. This was not caused by a problem of atomization or by a change in the ionization efficiency of the iodo-compound into the plasma. The low volatilization temperature of iodo-methane (315.5 K) seemed to be the main explanation of this phenomena. Actually, nebulization resulted in the volatilization of a 2% nitric acid solution containing iodo-methane. As a result, the transport efficiency of iodo-methane between the nebulizer and the torch was approaching 100%. A Direct Injection High Efficiency Nebulizer (DIHEN) allowed us to minimize the behavior difference between the two iodine species, but the sensitivity ratio was inverted and still differed by 20 - 40%. Moreover, the association of a guard electrode and the direct injection system was studied in order to apply these equipments to the determination of iodine. This association allowed us to improve the sensitivity by a factor of 10 and to minimize memory effects, when compared with a conventional system. Further studies indicated that signal responses obtained with different iodine-containing species, except for iodo-methane, were found to be similar. (author)

  7. In vitro evaluation of aerosol delivery by different nebulization modes in pediatric and adult mechanical ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gwo-Hwa; Lin, Hui-Ling; Fink, James B; Chen, Yen-Hey; Wang, Wei-Jhen; Chiu, Yu-Chun; Kao, Yu-Yao; Liu, Chia-Jung

    2014-10-01

    Aerosol delivery through mechanical ventilation is influenced by the type of aerosol generator, pattern of nebulization, and a patient's breathing pattern. This study compares the efficiency of pneumatic nebulization modes provided by a ventilator with adult and pediatric in vitro lung models. Three pneumatic nebulization modes (inspiratory intermittent [IIM], continuous [CM], and expiratory intermittent [EIM]) provided by the Galileo Gold ventilator delivered medical aerosol to collection filters distal to an endotracheal tube with adult and pediatric test lungs. A unit dose of 5 mg/2.5 mL albuterol was diluted into 4 mL with distilled water and added to a jet nebulizer. The nebulizer was placed proximal to the ventilator, 15 cm from the inlet of the heated humidifier chamber with a T-piece and corrugated aerosol tubing and powered by gas from the ventilator in each of the 3 modes. Time for nebulization was recorded in minutes. Albuterol samples collected in the inhalation filter, nebulizer, T-piece, and corrugated tubing were eluted with distilled water and analyzed with a spectrophotometer. The inhaled drug, as a percentage of total dose in both lung models, was 5.1-7.5%, without statistical significance among the 3 modes. Median nebulization times for IIM, CM, and EIM were 38.9, 14.3, and 17.7 min, respectively, and nebulization time for the 3 modes significantly differed (P ventilator was not dependent on nebulization mode during simulated pediatric and adult conventional mechanical ventilation. Use of expiratory intermittent mode and continuous nebulization should be considered to reduce treatment time. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  8. History of aerosol therapy: liquid nebulization to MDIs to DPIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paula J

    2005-09-01

    Inhaled therapies have been used since ancient times and may have had their origins with the smoking of datura preparations in India 4,000 years ago. In the late 18th and in the 19th century, earthenware inhalers were popular for the inhalation of air drawn through infusions of plants and other ingredients. Atomizers and nebulizers were developed in the mid-1800s in France and were thought to be an outgrowth of the perfume industry as well as a response to the fashion of inhaling thermal waters at spas. Around the turn of the 20th century, combustible powders and cigarettes containing stramonium were popular for asthma and other lung complaints. Following the discovery of the utility of epinephrine for treating asthma, hand-bulb nebulizers were developed, as well as early compressor nebulizers. The marketing of the first pressurized metered-dose inhaler for epinephrine and isoproterenol, by Riker Laboratories in 1956, was a milestone in the development of inhaled drugs. There have been remarkable advances in the technology of devices and formulations for inhaled drugs in the past 50 years. These have been influenced greatly by scientific developments in several areas: theoretical modeling and indirect measures of lung deposition, particle sizing techniques and in vitro deposition studies, scintigraphic deposition studies, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which banned chlorofluorocarbon propellants. We are now in an era of rapid technologic progress in inhaled drug delivery and applications of aerosol science, with the use of the aerosolized route for drugs for systemic therapy and for gene replacement therapy, use of aerosolized antimicrobials and immunosuppressants, and interest in specific targeting of inhaled drugs.

  9. Nebulized hyaluronan ameliorates lung inflammation in cystic fibrosis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavina, Manuela; Luciani, Alessandro; Villella, Valeria R; Esposito, Speranza; Ferrari, Eleonora; Bressani, Ilaria; Casale, Alida; Bruscia, Emanuela M; Maiuri, Luigi; Raia, Valeria

    2013-08-01

    Chronic lung inflammation with increased susceptibility to bacterial infections cause much of the morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common severe, autosomal recessively inherited disease in the Caucasian population. Exogenous inhaled hyaluronan (HA) can exert a protective effect against injury and beneficial effects of HA have been shown in experimental models of chronic respiratory diseases. Our objective was to examine whether exogenous administration of nebulized HA might interfere with lung inflammation in CF. F508del homozygous mice (Cftr(F508del) ) and transgenic mice overexpressing the ENaC channel β-subunit (Scnn1b-Tg) were treated with nebulized HA (0.5 mg/mouse/day for 7 days). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels, and macrophage infiltration were assessed on lung tissues. IB3-1 and CFBE41o-epithelial cell lines were cultured with HA (24 hr, 100 µg/ml) and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Tissue Transglutaminase (TG2) SUMOylation and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) and phospho-p42/p44 levels were measured by dichlorodihydrofluorescein assay, or fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy or immunoblots. Nebulized HA reduced TNFα expression (P < 0.005); TNFα, MIP-2, and MPO protein levels (P < 0.05); MPO activity (P < 0.05); and CD68+ cells counts (P < 0.005) in lung tissues of Cftr(F508del) and Scnn1b-Tg mice, compared with saline-treated mice. HA reduced ROS, TG2 SUMOylation, TG2 activity, phospho-p42-44, and increased PPARγ protein in both IB3-1 and CFBE41o cells (P < 0.05). Nebulized HA is effective in controlling inflammation in vivo in mice CF airways and in vitro in human airway epithelial cells. We provide the proof of concept for the use of inhaled HA as a potential anti-inflammatory drug in CF therapy. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Magnetic core-shell nanoparticles for drug delivery by nebulization

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Verma, Navin Kumar

    2013-01-23

    AbstractBackgroundAerosolized therapeutics hold great potential for effective treatment of various diseases including lung cancer. In this context, there is an urgent need to develop novel nanocarriers suitable for drug delivery by nebulization. To address this need, we synthesized and characterized a biocompatible drug delivery vehicle following surface coating of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with a polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). The polymeric shell of these engineered nanoparticles was loaded with a potential anti-cancer drug quercetin and their suitability for targeting lung cancer cells via nebulization was evaluated.ResultsAverage particle size of the developed MNPs and PLGA-MNPs as measured by electron microscopy was 9.6 and 53.2 nm, whereas their hydrodynamic swelling as determined using dynamic light scattering was 54.3 nm and 293.4 nm respectively. Utilizing a series of standardized biological tests incorporating a cell-based automated image acquisition and analysis procedure in combination with real-time impedance sensing, we confirmed that the developed MNP-based nanocarrier system was biocompatible, as no cytotoxicity was observed when up to 100 mug\\/ml PLGA-MNP was applied to the cultured human lung epithelial cells. Moreover, the PLGA-MNP preparation was well-tolerated in vivo in mice when applied intranasally as measured by glutathione and IL-6 secretion assays after 1, 4, or 7 days post-treatment. To imitate aerosol formation for drug delivery to the lungs, we applied quercitin loaded PLGA-MNPs to the human lung carcinoma cell line A549 following a single round of nebulization. The drug-loaded PLGA-MNPs significantly reduced the number of viable A549 cells, which was comparable when applied either by nebulization or by direct pipetting.ConclusionWe have developed a magnetic core-shell nanoparticle-based nanocarrier system and evaluated the feasibility of its drug delivery capability via aerosol administration. This study has

  11. New Form of Hypertonic Solution for Nebulization Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Simonova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucolytic, expectorative and antitussive drugs are traditionally used in acute or chronic respiratory episodes affected by acute respiratory infections. Today, preference is given to drugs in a form of solutions for nebulization therapy. The article presents data on the new dosage form of 7% inhalation hypertonic solution in combination with hyaluronic acid used in mucostasis therapy for chronic respiratory diseases. The information on the properties and the favorable effect of hyaluronic acid is provided. We discuss the evidence base of inhalation of the hypertonic solution in combination with hyaluronic acid in cystic fibrosis.

  12. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Ni [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Shiuh-Jen, E-mail: sjjiang@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Ling [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Sahayam, A.C. [National Centre for Compositional Characterisation of Materials (CCCM), Hyderabad (India)

    2015-02-20

    Highlights: • Determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions in a single run. • Accurate analysis using isotope dilution and standard addition methods. • Vapor generation ICP-MS yielded superior detection limits compared to ETV-ICP-MS. • No sample dissolution increased sample through put. • Analysis of GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material for accuracy. - Abstract: A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions using flow injection (FI) vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 2% m/v lotion, 2% m/v thiourea, 0.05% m/v L-cysteine, 0.5 μg mL{sup −1} Co(II), 0.1% m/v Triton X-100 and 1.2% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the analytes in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, an isotope dilution method and a standard addition method were used for the determination. This method has been validated by the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material. The method was also applied for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in three cosmetic lotion samples obtained locally. The analysis results of the reference material agreed with the certified value and/or ETV-ICP-MS results. The detection limit estimated from the standard addition curve was 0.025, 0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.03 ng g{sup −1} for Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi, respectively, in original cosmetic lotion sample.

  13. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Ni; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Chen, Yen-Ling; Sahayam, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions in a single run. • Accurate analysis using isotope dilution and standard addition methods. • Vapor generation ICP-MS yielded superior detection limits compared to ETV-ICP-MS. • No sample dissolution increased sample through put. • Analysis of GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material for accuracy. - Abstract: A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions using flow injection (FI) vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 2% m/v lotion, 2% m/v thiourea, 0.05% m/v L-cysteine, 0.5 μg mL −1 Co(II), 0.1% m/v Triton X-100 and 1.2% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the analytes in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, an isotope dilution method and a standard addition method were used for the determination. This method has been validated by the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material. The method was also applied for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in three cosmetic lotion samples obtained locally. The analysis results of the reference material agreed with the certified value and/or ETV-ICP-MS results. The detection limit estimated from the standard addition curve was 0.025, 0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.03 ng g −1 for Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi, respectively, in original cosmetic lotion sample

  14. Surfactant nebulization versus instillation during high frequency ventilation in surfactant-deficient rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto

    Surfactant nebulization improves lung function at low alveolar doses of surfactant. However, efficiency of nebulization is low, and lung deposition seems to depend on lung aeration. High frequency ventilation (HFV) has been shown to improve lung aeration. We hypothesize that the combination of HFV

  15. Disposition of nebulized pentamidine measured using the direct radiolabel 123I-iodopentamidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Doherty, M.J.; Nunan, T.O.; Bateman, N.T.; Thomas, S.H.L.; Page, C.J.; Blower, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The pulmonary deposition of nebulized pentamidine (300 mg, Respirgard II nebulizer) was measured in seven human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men using a new radiopharmaceutical, 123 I-iodopentamidine. Mean total pulmonary deposition was 15.3 mg or 5.1% of the initial nebulizer dose. Further studies in two of the patients showed that at 24h, 87% of deposited 123 I was retained in the lungs. Small amounts of activity (expressed as a percentage of the initial nebulizer activity) were also detected over the thyroid (0.4%), bladder (1%) and gut (0.7%). The ratio of 123 I activity to pentamidine concentration was similar in the nebulizer solution and urine. These results suggest that 123 I-pentamidine may be sufficiently stable in vivo to be used to study the biodistribution of inhaled and parenteral pentamidine in humans. (author)

  16. Baby bottle steam sterilizers for disinfecting home nebulizers inoculated with non-tuberculous mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, D; Callan, D A; Lamprea, C; Murray, T S

    2016-03-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTMb), present in environmental water sources, can contribute to respiratory infection in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Contaminated nebulizers are a potential source of respiratory infection. Treatment with baby bottle steam sterilizers disinfects home nebulizers inoculated with bacterial pathogens but whether this method works for disinfection of NTMb is unclear. Baby bottle steam sterilization was compared with vigorous water washing for disinfecting home nebulizers inoculated with NTMb mixed with cystic fibrosis sputum. No NTMb was recovered from any nebulizers after steam treatment whereas viable NTMb grew after water washing, demonstrating that steam sterilization effectively disinfects NTMb-inoculated nebulizers. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Baby bottle steam sterilizers disinfect home nebulizers inoculated with bacterial respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Dana; Callan, Deborah A; Farrel, Patricia A; Egan, Marie E; Murray, Thomas S

    2013-09-01

    Contaminated nebulizers are a potential source of bacterial infection but no single method is universally accepted for disinfection. We hypothesized that baby-bottle steam sterilizers effectively disinfect home nebulizers. Home nebulizers were inoculated with the common CF respiratory pathogens methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia cepacia, Haemophilus influenzae, mucoid and non mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The nebulizers were swabbed for bacterial growth, treated with either the AVENT (Philips), the NUK Quick & Ready (Gerber) or DRY-POD (Camera Baby) baby bottle steam sterilizer and reswabbed for bacterial growth. All steam sterilizers were effective at disinfecting all home nebulizers. Viable bacteria were not recovered from any inoculated site after steam treatment, under any conditions tested. Steam treatment is an effective disinfection method. Additional studies are needed to confirm whether these results are applicable to the clinical setting. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Dead Volume on the Efficiency and the Cost to Deliver Medications in Cystic Fibrosis with Four Disposable Nebulizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L Ho

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the factors that affect nebulizer efficiency and to compare the relative cost effectiveness of nebulized medications used in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF, delivered by four types of disposable jet nebulizers that are widely used in hospitals.

  19. Determination of technetium-99, thorium-230 and uranium-234 in soils by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using flow injection preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenbach, Mark; Grohs, James; Mamich, Stephen; Kroft, Marilyn; Denoyer, E.R.

    1994-01-01

    A new method is described for the determination of 99 Tc, 230 Th, and 234 U at ultra-trace levels in soils. The method used flow injection (FI) for on-line preconcentration of 99 Tc, 230 Th and 234 U prior to detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The FI-ICP-MS method results in greater sensitivity and freedom from interferences compared with direct aspiration into an ICP mass spectrometer. Detection limits are improved by approximately a factor of 10. The FI-ICP-MS method is also faster, less labour intensive and generates less laboratory waste than traditional radiochemical methods. The accuracy of the method was tested for 99 Tc by comparison to liquid scintillation counting and for 230 Th and 234 U by analysis of a US Department of Energy reference soil. Detection limits in the soil for 99 Tc, 230 Th and 234 U were 11 mBq g -1 (0.02 ng g -1 ), 3.7 mBq g -1 (0.005 ng g -1 ) and 0.74 mBq g -1 (0.003 ng g -1 ), respectively. Sample preparation, analysis protocol, and method validation are described. (Author)

  20. A retrospective analysis of nebulized versus intravenous fentanyl for renal colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamoglu, Melih; Aygun, Ali; Bekar, Omer; Erdem, Erkan; Cicek, Mustafa; Tatli, Ozgur; Karaca, Yunus; Sahin, Aynur; Turkmen, Suha; Turedi, Suleyman

    2017-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of nebulized fentanyl used for analgesia in renal colic. This research was planned as a randomized, blinded study in which prospectively collected data were analyzed retrospectively to compare nebulized and intravenous (iv) fentanyl therapies. Patients with renal colic with 'moderate' or worse pain on a four-point verbal pain score (VPS) or with pain of 20mm or above on a 100-mm visual analogue score (VAS) at time of presentation were randomized into iv fentanyl (n=62) or nebulized fentanyl (n=53) study groups. Decreases in VAS and VPS scores at 15 and 30min compared to baseline, rescue analgesia requirements and side-effects between the groups were compared. Both iv fentanyl and nebulized fentanyl provided effective analgesia in renal colic patients at the end of 30min. However, iv fentanyl provided more rapid and more effective analgesia than nebulized fentanyl. Patients receiving iv fentanyl had lower rescue analgesia requirements than those receiving nebulized fentanyl (37.1% vs 54.7%), although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.058). In addition, side-effects were more common in the iv fentanyl group compared to the nebulized fentanyl group (22.1% vs 9.4%), although the difference was also not significant (p=0.058). Nebulized fentanyl provides effective analgesia in patients with renal colic. However, iv fentanyl exhibits more rapid and more powerful analgesic effects than nebulized fentanyl. Nonetheless, due to its ease of use and few potential risks and side-effects the nebulized form can be used as an alternative in renal colic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect that an educational program for cystic fibrosis patients and caregivers has on the contamination of home nebulizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Della Zuana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the pathogens found in home nebulizers and in respiratory samples of cystic fibrosis (CF patients, and to evaluate the effect that a standardized instruction regarding cleaning and disinfection of nebulizers has on the frequency of nebulizer contamination. METHODS: We included 40 CF patients (22 males, all of whom used the same model of nebulizer. The median patient age was 11.2 ± 3.74 years. We collected samples from the nebulizer mouthpiece and cup, using a sterile swab moistened with sterile saline. Respiratory samples were collected by asking patients to expectorate into a sterile container or with oropharyngeal swabs after cough stimulation. Cultures were performed on selective media, and bacteria were identified by classical biochemical tests. Patients received oral and written instructions regarding the cleaning and disinfection of nebulizers. All determinations were repeated an average of two months later. RESULTS: Contamination of the nebulizer (any part was detected in 23 cases (57.5%. The nebulizer mouthpiece and cup were found to be contaminated in 16 (40.0% and 19 (47.5%, respectively. After the standardized instruction had been given, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of contaminated nebulizers (43.5%. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample of CF patients, nebulizer contamination was common, indicating the need for improvement in patient practices regarding the cleaning and disinfection of their nebulizers. A one-time educational intervention could have a significant positive impact.

  2. CFD simulation of aerosol delivery to a human lung via surface acoustic wave nebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Morteza; Pourmehran, Oveis; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid; Inthavong, Kiao; Yeo, Leslie; Tu, Jiyuan

    2017-12-01

    Administration of drug in the form of particles through inhalation is generally preferable in the treatment of respiratory disorders. Conventional inhalation therapy devices such as inhalers and nebulizers, nevertheless, suffer from low delivery efficiencies, wherein only a small fraction of the inhaled drug reaches the lower respiratory tract. This is primarily because these devices are not able to produce a sufficiently fine drug mist that has aerodynamic diameters on the order of a few microns. This study employs computational fluid dynamics to investigate the transport and deposition of the drug particles produced by a new aerosolization technique driven by surface acoustic waves (SAWs) into an in silico lung model geometrically reconstructed using computed tomography scanning. The particles generated by the SAW are released in different locations in a spacer chamber attached to a lung model extending from the mouth to the 6th generation of the lung bronchial tree. An Eulerian approach is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations that govern the airflow within the respiratory tract, and a Lagrangian approach is adopted to track the particles, which are assumed to be spherical and inert. Due to the complexity of the lung geometry, the airflow patterns vary as it penetrates deeper into the lung. High inertia particles tend to deposit at locations where the geometry experiences a significant reduction in cross section. Our findings, nevertheless, show that the injection location can influence the delivery efficiency: Injection points close to the spacer centerline result in deeper penetration into the lung. Additionally, we found that the ratio of drug particles entering the right lung is significantly higher than the left lung, independent of the injection location. This is in good agreement with this fact that the most of airflow enters to the right lobes.

  3. Spectral dependence, efficiency and localization of non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by global Alfven waves in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komoshvili, K.; Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences

    1997-04-01

    A systematic study of non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by global Alfven eigenmode (GAE) waves is carried out. For illustration, the first radial mode of the discrete resonant GAE spectrum is considered. The following aspects are given special attention: spectral analysis, radial dependence and efficiency - all of these functions of the characteristics of the waves launched by an external, concentric antenna (i.e. wave frequency and poloidal and toroidal wavenumbers). The tokamak plasma is simulated by a current-carrying cylindrical plasma column surrounded by a helical sheet current and situated inside a perfectly conducting shell, with incorporation of equilibrium (simulated) toroidal field, magnetic shear and a relatively large poloidal magnetic field component. Within the framework of low-{beta} MHD model equations and for typical tokamak physical parameters, the following basic results are obtained: (1) in the range of poloidal wavenumbers -3{<=} m {<=} 3 and toroidal wavenumbers -20{<=} n {<=}20, resonant GAE peaks below the Alfven continuum are found; (2) the power absorption (P), current drive (I) and corresponding frequency of the GAE modes depend strongly on the sets of (m,n) values considered; (3) the `net` current drive is positive (i.e. flows in the direction of the equilibrium current j{sub 0z} for m = -1, -2, -3 and -20 {<=} n {<=} -1 as well as for m +1, +2, +3 and n > 10); (4) in the cases m = -1, -2, -3, the efficiency of current drive, I/P, increases with /m/ and I/n/; (5) the radial localization of the current drive in each of the cases considered is determined and tabulated. (Author).

  4. Spectral dependence, efficiency and localization of non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by global Alfven waves in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoshvili, K.; Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C.

    1997-01-01

    A systematic study of non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by global Alfven eigenmode (GAE) waves is carried out. For illustration, the first radial mode of the discrete resonant GAE spectrum is considered. The following aspects are given special attention: spectral analysis, radial dependence and efficiency - all of these functions of the characteristics of the waves launched by an external, concentric antenna (i.e. wave frequency and poloidal and toroidal wavenumbers). The tokamak plasma is simulated by a current-carrying cylindrical plasma column surrounded by a helical sheet current and situated inside a perfectly conducting shell, with incorporation of equilibrium (simulated) toroidal field, magnetic shear and a relatively large poloidal magnetic field component. Within the framework of low-β MHD model equations and for typical tokamak physical parameters, the following basic results are obtained: (1) in the range of poloidal wavenumbers -3≤ m ≤ 3 and toroidal wavenumbers -20≤ n ≤20, resonant GAE peaks below the Alfven continuum are found; (2) the power absorption (P), current drive (I) and corresponding frequency of the GAE modes depend strongly on the sets of (m,n) values considered; (3) the 'net' current drive is positive (i.e. flows in the direction of the equilibrium current j 0z for m = -1, -2, -3 and -20 ≤ n ≤ -1 as well as for m +1, +2, +3 and n > 10; (4) in the cases m = -1, -2, -3, the efficiency of current drive, I/P, increases with /m/ and I/n/; (5) the radial localization of the current drive in each of the cases considered is determined and tabulated. (Author)

  5. Investigations of the inductively coupled plasma source for analyzing NURE water samples at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, C.T.; Bieniewski, T.M.; Cox, L.E.; Steinhaus, D.W.

    1977-03-01

    A 3.4-meter direct-reading spectrograph is being used with an inductively coupled plasma source for the simultaneous determination of Ag, Bi, Cd, Cu, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sn, and W in water samples. We have attached a small digital computer to the system in order to obtain intensity data on each element once a second. After the intensities during a run on a sample have stabilized, the computer records the intensity data and outputs the average concentration for each element. To approach the published detection limits, a peristaltic pump must be used to force the water sample into the usual cross-flow nebulizer. We have studied several different nebulizer designs with the goal of improving efficiency and hence sensitivity. One design, the fritted-disk nebulizer, has an efficiency over 60 percent, as compared with the 5 percent efficiency of the original nebulizer

  6. Lactic acidosis and diastolic hypotension after intermittent albuterol nebulization in a pediatric patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehila A. Saadia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of 13-year-old female with intermittent asthma who developed lactic acidosis and diastolic hypotension after receiving intermittent albuterol nebulizer treatment. She presented to the emergency department (ED with sudden onset of shortness of breath and chest pain. She received two albuterol nebulizer treatments at home without symptomatic relief. She was treated in the ED with intermittent albuterol nebulization for a total of 22.5 mg over the next 5 hours. A decrease in diastolic blood pressure from 60 mmHg to 40 mmHg was noted after the treatment. Blood lactate level was 5.9 mmol/L. She recovered from it and was discharged to home but she had recurrence of shortness of breath and presented to the ED two days later. She was treated with albuterol nebulization for a total of 17.5 mg over the next two and half hours and developed diastolic hypotension again, as low as 30 mm Hg. After discontinuation of albuterol nebulization, her BP normalized. Cardiopulmonary and metabolic side effects of continuous albuterol therapy have been reported in the recent medical literature. Our patient, however, developed these adverse effects on intermittent albuterol nebulizer treatment. It is important for the pediatrician to recognize the adverse effects of β2-agonist therapy to avoid carrying out extensive workup for hypotension and hyperlactatemia prolonging hospital stay.

  7. Peritoneal Nebulization of Ropivacaine during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Dose Finding and Pharmacokinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Allegri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intraperitoneal nebulization of ropivacaine reduces postoperative pain and morphine consumption after laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of different doses and dose-related absorption of ropivacaine when nebulized in the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. Patients were randomized to receive 50, 100, or 150 mg of ropivacaine 1% by peritoneal nebulization through a nebulizer. Morphine consumption, pain intensity in the abdomen, wound and shoulder, time to unassisted ambulation, discharge time, and adverse effects were collected during the first 48 hours after surgery. The pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography. Results. Nebulization of 50 mg of ropivacaine had the same effect of 100 or 150 mg in terms of postoperative morphine consumption, shoulder pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting, activity resumption, and hospital discharge timing (>0.05. Plasma concentrations did not reach toxic levels in any patient, and no significant differences were observed between groups (P>0.05. Conclusions. There is no enhancement in analgesic efficacy with higher doses of nebulized ropivacaine during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. When administered with a microvibration-based aerosol humidification system, the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine is constant and maintains an adequate safety profile for each dosage tested.

  8. Toward modern inhalational bacteriophage therapy: nebulization of bacteriophages of Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshahi, Laleh; Seed, Kimberley D; Dennis, Jonathan J; Finlay, Warren H

    2008-12-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections have renewed interest in finding substitute methods of treatment. The purpose of the present in vitro study was to investigate the possibility of respiratory delivery of a Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) bacteriophage by nebulized aerosol administration. Bacteriophages in isotonic saline were aerosolized with Pari LC star and eFlow nebulizers, at titers with mean value (standard deviation) of 2.15 x 10(8) (1.63 x 10(8)) plaque-forming unit (PFU)/mL in 2.5-mL nebulizer fills. The breathing pattern of an adult was simulated using a pulmonary waveform generator. During breath simulation, the size distributions of the nebulized aerosol were measured using phase doppler anemometry (PDA). Efficiency of nebulizer delivery was subsequently determined by collection of aerosol on low resistance filters and measurement of bacteriophage titers. These filter titers were used as input data to a mathematical lung deposition model to predict regional deposition of bacteriophages in the lung and initial bacteriophage titers in the liquid surface layer of each conducting airway generation. The results suggest that BCC bacteriophages can be nebulized successfully within a reasonable delivery time and predicted titers in the lung indicate that this method may hold potential for treatment of bacterial lung infections common among cystic fibrosis patients.

  9. Short torch design for direct liquid sample introduction using conventional and micro-nebulizers for plasma spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser, Akbar [Potomac, MD; Westphal, Craig S [Landenberg, PA; Kahen, Kaveh [Montgomery Village, MD; Rutkowski, William F [Arlington, VA

    2008-01-08

    An apparatus and method for providing direct liquid sample introduction using a nebulizer are provided. The apparatus and method include a short torch having an inner tube and an outer tube, and an elongated adapter having a cavity for receiving the nebulizer and positioning a nozzle tip of the nebulizer a predetermined distance from a tip of the outer tube of the short torch. The predetermined distance is preferably about 2-5 mm.

  10. Determination of iodine at ppt level in a nitric acid medium by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry: influence of the chemical forms; Etude de la determination de traces d'iode en solution par spectrometrie de masse a secteur magnetique utilisant un plasma a couplage inductif comme source d'ionisation: influence de la forme chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, B

    2001-07-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP/SFMS) was used to determine several chemical forms of iodine, at ppt level, in a nitric acid media. Ascorbic acid was added as a reducing agent in order to maintain iodine as iodide. In a preliminary approach, the influence of the chemical form was studied by comparing inorganic iodine (NaI) and organic iodine (CH3I). Different signal responses were observed. With a conventional sample introduction system, sensitivities obtained for iodo-methane could differ by a factor of 5. This was not caused by a problem of atomization or by a change in the ionization efficiency of the iodo-compound into the plasma. The low volatilization temperature of iodo-methane (315.5 K) seemed to be the main explanation of this phenomena. Actually, nebulization resulted in the volatilization of a 2% nitric acid solution containing iodo-methane. As a result, the transport efficiency of iodo-methane between the nebulizer and the torch was approaching 100%. A Direct Injection High Efficiency Nebulizer (DIHEN) allowed us to minimize the behavior difference between the two iodine species, but the sensitivity ratio was inverted and still differed by 20 - 40%. Moreover, the association of a guard electrode and the direct injection system was studied in order to apply these equipments to the determination of iodine. This association allowed us to improve the sensitivity by a factor of 10 and to minimize memory effects, when compared with a conventional system. Further studies indicated that signal responses obtained with different iodine-containing species, except for iodo-methane, were found to be similar. (author)

  11. In situ calibration of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission and mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braymen, Steven D.

    1996-06-11

    A method and apparatus for in situ addition calibration of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer or mass spectrometer using a precision gas metering valve to introduce a volatile calibration gas of an element of interest directly into an aerosol particle stream. The present situ calibration technique is suitable for various remote, on-site sampling systems such as laser ablation or nebulization.

  12. Minimizing variability of cascade impaction measurements in inhalers and nebulizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonam, Matthew; Christopher, David; Cipolla, David; Donovan, Brent; Goodwin, David; Holmes, Susan; Lyapustina, Svetlana; Mitchell, Jolyon; Nichols, Steve; Pettersson, Gunilla; Quale, Chris; Rao, Nagaraja; Singh, Dilraj; Tougas, Terrence; Van Oort, Mike; Walther, Bernd; Wyka, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to catalogue in a systematic way the available information about factors that may influence the outcome and variability of cascade impactor (CI) measurements of pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation, such as those obtained from metered dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs) or products for nebulization; and to suggest ways to minimize the influence of such factors. To accomplish this task, the authors constructed a cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagram for a CI measurement and considered the influence of each root cause based on industry experience and thorough literature review. The results illustrate the intricate network of underlying causes of CI variability, with the potential for several multi-way statistical interactions. It was also found that significantly more quantitative information exists about impactor-related causes than about operator-derived influences, the contribution of drug assay methodology and product-related causes, suggesting a need for further research in those areas. The understanding and awareness of all these factors should aid in the development of optimized CI methods and appropriate quality control measures for aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of pharmaceutical aerosols, in line with the current regulatory initiatives involving quality-by-design (QbD).

  13. Surface acoustic wave nebulization facilitating lipid mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung Hwan; Huang, Yue; Edgar, J Scott; Ting, Ying S; Heron, Scott R; Kao, Yuchieh; Li, Yanyan; Masselon, Christophe D; Ernst, Robert K; Goodlett, David R

    2012-08-07

    Surface acoustic wave nebulization (SAWN) is a novel method to transfer nonvolatile analytes directly from the aqueous phase to the gas phase for mass spectrometric analysis. The lower ion energetics of SAWN and its planar nature make it appealing for analytically challenging lipid samples. This challenge is a result of their amphipathic nature, labile nature, and tendency to form aggregates, which readily precipitate clogging capillaries used for electrospray ionization (ESI). Here, we report the use of SAWN to characterize the complex glycolipid, lipid A, which serves as the membrane anchor component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and has a pronounced tendency to clog nano-ESI capillaries. We also show that unlike ESI SAWN is capable of ionizing labile phospholipids without fragmentation. Lastly, we compare the ease of use of SAWN to the more conventional infusion-based ESI methods and demonstrate the ability to generate higher order tandem mass spectral data of lipid A for automated structure assignment using our previously reported hierarchical tandem mass spectrometry (HiTMS) algorithm. The ease of generating SAWN-MS(n) data combined with HiTMS interpretation offers the potential for high throughput lipid A structure analysis.

  14. Determination of uranium isotopic composition and {sup 236}U content of soil samples and hot particles using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, S.F. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk (Belarus); Becker, J.S. [Central Department for Analytical Chemistry, Research Centre Juelich (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) the environment was contaminated with spent nuclear fuel. The {sup 236}U isotope was used in this study to monitor the spent uranium from nuclear fallout in soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl NPP. Nuclear track radiography was applied for the identification and extraction of hot radioactive particles from soil samples. A rapid and sensitive analytical procedure was developed for uranium isotopic ratio measurement in environmental samples based on double-focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DF-ICP-MS) with a MicroMist nebulizer and a direct injection high-efficiency nebulizer (DIHEN). The performance of the DF-ICP-MS with a quartz DIHEN and plasma shielded torch was studied. Overall detection efficiencies of 4 x 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3} counts per atom were achieved for {sup 238}U in DF-ICP-QMS with the MicroMist nebulizer and DIHEN, respectively. The rate of formation of uranium hydride ions UH{sup +}/U{sup +} was 1.2 x 10{sup -4} and 1.4 x 10{sup -4}, respectively. The precision of short-term measurements of uranium isotopic ratios (n = 5) in 1 {mu}g L{sup -1} NBS U-020 standard solution was 0.11% ({sup 238}U/{sup 235}U) and 1.4% ({sup 236}U/{sup 238}U) using a MicroMist nebulizer and 0.25% ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U) and 1.9% ({sup 236}U/{sup 238}U) using a DIHEN. The isotopic composition of all investigated Chernobyl soil samples differed from those of natural uranium; i.e. in these samples the {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratio ranged from 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -3}. Results obtained with ICP-MS, {alpha}- and {gamma}-spectrometry showed differences in the migration properties of spent uranium, plutonium, and americium. The isotopic ratio of uranium was also measured in hot particles extracted from soil samples. (orig.)

  15. Key considerations on nebulization of antimicrobial agents to mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rello, J; Rouby, J J; Sole-Lleonart, C; Chastre, J; Blot, S; Luyt, C E; Riera, J; Vos, M C; Monsel, A; Dhanani, J; Roberts, J A

    2017-09-01

    Nebulized antibiotics have an established role in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Their potential benefit to treat respiratory infections in mechanically ventilated patients is receiving increasing interest. In this consensus statement of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, the body of evidence of the therapeutic utility of aerosolized antibiotics in mechanically ventilated patients was reviewed and resulted in the following recommendations: Vibrating-mesh nebulizers should be preferred to jet or ultrasonic nebulizers. To decrease turbulence and limit circuit and tracheobronchial deposition, we recommend: (a) the use of specifically designed respiratory circuits avoiding sharp angles and characterized by smooth inner surfaces, (b) the use of specific ventilator settings during nebulization including use of a volume controlled mode using constant inspiratory flow, tidal volume 8 mL/kg, respiratory frequency 12 to 15 bpm, inspiratory:expiratory ratio 50%, inspiratory pause 20% and positive end-expiratory pressure 5 to 10 cm H 2 O and (c) the administration of a short-acting sedative agent if coordination between the patient and the ventilator is not obtained, to avoid patient's flow triggering and episodes of peak decelerating inspiratory flow. A filter should be inserted on the expiratory limb to protect the ventilator flow device and changed between each nebulization to avoid expiratory flow obstruction. A heat and moisture exchanger and/or conventional heated humidifier should be stopped during the nebulization period to avoid a massive loss of aerosolized particles through trapping and condensation. If these technical requirements are not followed, there is a high risk of treatment failure and adverse events in mechanically ventilated patients receiving nebulized antibiotics for pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. Determination of trace elements in seawater by air-flow injection/ICP-MS with chelating resin preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyue-Hyung; Ohshima, Mitsuko; Motomizu, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    Multielement determination of major to trace metals in a deep seawater malt was accomplished by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) together with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Major elements, such as Na, K, Mg, and Ca, were measured by ICP-AES and normal continuos nebulization ICP-MS after sample dilution by 10 3 -10 6 fold. Fifteen trace elements in the concentrated metal solutions pretreated with cation-exchange resin or chelating resin could be simultaneously determined by air-flow injection/ICP-mass spectrometry (AFI/ICP-MS). Since the injection volume for AFI/ICP-MS was 25 μl, final samples volumes less than 500 μl were enough for several replicate measurements. Three different preconcentration methods assisted with AFI/ICP-MS were examined and could be successfully applied to a deep seawater malt. The analytical results of rate earth elements (REEs) and Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb obtained by AFI/ICP-MS coupled with disk filtration method using iminodiacetate (IDA)-type chelating resin were favorably agreed with the data obtained by AFI/ICP-MS coupled with column preconcentration method using chitosan-based chelating resin. (author)

  17. Combined discrete nebulization and microextraction process for molybdenum determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS); Avaliacao da combinacao da nebulizacao discreta e processos de microextracao aplicados a determinacao de molibdenio por espectrometria de absorcao atomica com chama (FAAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oviedo, Jenny A.; Jesus, Amanda M.D. de; Fialho, Lucimar L.; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R., E-mail: erpf@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-04-15

    Simple and sensitive procedures for the extraction/preconcentration of molybdenum based on vortex-assisted solidified floating organic drop microextraction (VA-SFODME) and cloud point combined with flame absorption atomic spectrometry (FAAS) and discrete nebulization were developed. The influence of the discrete nebulization on the sensitivity of the molybdenum preconcentration processes was studied. An injection volume of 200 μ resulted in a lower relative standard deviation with both preconcentration procedures. Enrichment factors of 31 and 67 and limits of detection of 25 and 5 μ L{sup -1} were obtained for cloud point and VA-SFODME, respectively. The developed procedures were applied to the determination of Mo in mineral water and multivitamin samples. (author)

  18. The efficacy of nebulized magnesium sulfate alone and in combination with salbutamol in acute asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarhan HA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hatem A Sarhan,1 Omar H EL-Garhy,1 Mohamed A Ali,2 Nouran A Youssef1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt Objective: Evaluation of the efficacy of nebulized magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 alone and in combination with salbutamol in acute asthma.Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted in Chest and Emergency Departments. Thirty patients of acute attack of bronchial asthma were randomized into three groups: MgSO4 nebulization (group A, salbutamol nebulization (group B, and their combination (group C. All patients were monitored before and after nebulization (each 20 minutes for peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR, blood pressure, pulsus paradoxus, oxygen saturation, clinical examination, and Fischl index.Results: A highly significant improvement in PEFR, PEFR percentage, and Fischl index and significant decrease in RR and HR was observed in all groups. A similar improvement in PEFR was observed in group A and group B (P=0.389. The difference in peak expiratory flow (PEF improvement was insignificant between group B and group C (P=0.101, while there was a significant differ­ence between group A and group C (P=0.014 in favor of group C.Conclusion: Nebulized MgSO4 alone or combined with salbutamol has a clinically significant bronchodilator effect in acute asthma and leads to clinical improvement, increase in PEFR, reduction in HR, and reduction in RR. The response to nebulized MgSO4 alone (PEFR improvement 54±35.6 L/min, P=0.001 is comparable (P=0.389 to that of nebulized salbutamol (PEFR improvement 67.0±41.9 L/min, P=0.001 and is significantly less than (P=0.014 that of nebulized combination (PEFR improvement 92.0±26.9 L/min, P=0.000. Keywords: nebulized magnesium sulfate, salbutamol, acute asthma, peak expiratory flow rate, Fischl index

  19. Pharmacokinetics of nebulized and subcutaneously implanted terbinafine in cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, L P; Allender, M C; Archer, G; Leister, K; Rzadkowska, M; Boers, K; Souza, M; Cox, S

    2017-10-01

    Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the causative agent of snake fungal disease, is proposed as a serious threat to the conservation of several snake populations. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of terbinafine administered through nebulization and a sustained subcutaneous implant as potential treatments of Ophidiomyces in reptiles. Seven adult cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus) were used in single-dose trials. Each snake was nebulized with terbinafine (2 mg/ml) for 30 min and had blood collected before nebulization and up to 12 hr after nebulization. Following a 5-month washout, the same snakes were administered a subcutaneous implant containing 24.5 mg terbinafine; blood was collected at baseline, 1 day postimplant placement, and then once weekly for 9 weeks. Plasma for both studies was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mean plasma concentrations of nebulized terbinafine peaked between 0.5 and 4 hr. The subcutaneously implanted terbinafine reached therapeutic concentrations on day 1 and maintained therapeutic for over 6 weeks. These methods and doses are recommended as potential treatment options for snake fungal disease in reptiles. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Pharmacokinetics, induction of anaesthesia and safety characteristics of propofol 6% SAZN vs propofol 1% SAZN and Diprivan-10 after bolus injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knibbe, C. A.; Voortman, H. J.; Aarts, L. P.; Kuks, P. F.; Lange, R.; Langemeijer, H. J.; Danhof, M.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: In order to avoid the potential for elevated serum lipid levels as a consequence of long term sedation with propofol, a formulation of propofol 6% in Lipofundin(R) MCT/LCT 10% (Propofol 6% SAZN) has been developed. The pharmacokinetics, induction of anaesthesia and safety characteristics of

  1. ICP-MS nebulizer performance for analysis of SRS high salt simulated radioactive waste tank solutions (number-sign 3053)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks at the Savannah River Site are high in salt content. The cross-flow nebulizer provided the most stable signal for all salt matrices with the smallest signal loss/suppression due to this matrix. The DIN exhibited a serious lack of tolerance for TDS; possibly due to physical de-tuning of the nebulizer efficiency

  2. Effects of peritoneal ropivacaine nebulization for pain control after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaini, Marta; Brambillasca, Pietro; Ingelmo, Pablo Mauricio; Lovisari, Federica; Catenacci, Stefano Scalia; Rossini, Valeria; Bucciero, Mario; Sahillioglu, Emre; Buda, Alessandro; Signorelli, Mauro; Gili, Mauro; Joshi, Girish; Fumagalli, Roberto; Ferland, Catherine E; Diemunsch, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of peritoneal cold nebulization of ropivacaine on pain control after gynecologic laparoscopy. Evidence obtained from a properly designed, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Canadian Task Force classification I). Tertiary care center. One hundred thirty-five women with American Society of Anesthesiologists disease classified as ASA I-III who were scheduled to undergo operative laparoscopy. Patients were randomized to receive either nebulization of 30 mg ropivacaine before surgery (preoperative group), nebulization of 30 mg ropivacaine after surgery (postoperative group), instillation of 100 mg ropivacaine before surgery (instillation group), or instillation of saline solution (control group). Nebulization was performed using the Aeroneb Pro device. Pain scores, morphine consumption, and ambulation time were collected in the post-anesthesia care unit and at 4, 6, and 24 hours postoperatively. One hundred eighteen patients completed the study. Patients in the preoperative group reported lower pain Numeric Ranking Scale values compared with those in the control group (net difference 2 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-3.1 at 4 hours, 1-3 at 6 hours, and 0.7-3 at 24 hours; p = .01) Patients in the preoperative group consumed significantly less morphine than did those in the control group (net difference 7 mg; 95% CI, 0.7-13; p = .02). More patients who received nebulization walked without assistance within 12 hours after awakening than did those in the instillation and control groups (net difference 15%; 95% CI, 6%-24%; p = .001). Cold nebulization of ropivacaine before surgery reduced postoperative pain and morphine consumption and was associated with earlier walking without assistance. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of numerical simulations to experiments for atomization in a jet nebulizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelong, Nicolas; Vecellio, Laurent; Sommer de Gélicourt, Yann; Tanguy, Christian; Diot, Patrice; Junqua-Moullet, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The development of jet nebulizers for medical purposes is an important challenge of aerosol therapy. The performance of a nebulizer is characterized by its output rate of droplets with a diameter under 5 µm. However the optimization of this parameter through experiments has reached a plateau. The purpose of this study is to design a numerical model simulating the nebulization process and to compare it with experimental data. Such a model could provide a better understanding of the atomization process and the parameters influencing the nebulizer output. A model based on the Updraft nebulizer (Hudson) was designed with ANSYS Workbench. Boundary conditions were set with experimental data then transient 3D calculations were run on a 4 µm mesh with ANSYS Fluent. Two air flow rate (2 L/min and 8 L/min, limits of the operating range) were considered to account for different turbulence regimes. Numerical and experimental results were compared according to phenomenology and droplet size. The behavior of the liquid was compared to images acquired through shadowgraphy with a CCD Camera. Three experimental methods, laser diffractometry, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and shadowgraphy were used to characterize the droplet size distributions. Camera images showed similar patterns as numerical results. Droplet sizes obtained numerically are overestimated in relation to PDA and diffractometry, which only consider spherical droplets. However, at both flow rates, size distributions extracted from numerical image processing were similar to distributions obtained from shadowgraphy image processing. The simulation then provides a good understanding and prediction of the phenomena involved in the fragmentation of droplets over 10 µm. The laws of dynamics apply to droplets down to 1 µm, so we can assume the continuity of the distribution and extrapolate the results for droplets between 1 and 10 µm. So, this model could help predicting nebulizer output with defined geometrical and

  4. Comparison of numerical simulations to experiments for atomization in a jet nebulizer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Lelong

    Full Text Available The development of jet nebulizers for medical purposes is an important challenge of aerosol therapy. The performance of a nebulizer is characterized by its output rate of droplets with a diameter under 5 µm. However the optimization of this parameter through experiments has reached a plateau. The purpose of this study is to design a numerical model simulating the nebulization process and to compare it with experimental data. Such a model could provide a better understanding of the atomization process and the parameters influencing the nebulizer output. A model based on the Updraft nebulizer (Hudson was designed with ANSYS Workbench. Boundary conditions were set with experimental data then transient 3D calculations were run on a 4 µm mesh with ANSYS Fluent. Two air flow rate (2 L/min and 8 L/min, limits of the operating range were considered to account for different turbulence regimes. Numerical and experimental results were compared according to phenomenology and droplet size. The behavior of the liquid was compared to images acquired through shadowgraphy with a CCD Camera. Three experimental methods, laser diffractometry, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA and shadowgraphy were used to characterize the droplet size distributions. Camera images showed similar patterns as numerical results. Droplet sizes obtained numerically are overestimated in relation to PDA and diffractometry, which only consider spherical droplets. However, at both flow rates, size distributions extracted from numerical image processing were similar to distributions obtained from shadowgraphy image processing. The simulation then provides a good understanding and prediction of the phenomena involved in the fragmentation of droplets over 10 µm. The laws of dynamics apply to droplets down to 1 µm, so we can assume the continuity of the distribution and extrapolate the results for droplets between 1 and 10 µm. So, this model could help predicting nebulizer output with defined

  5. Impact of humidification and nebulization during expiratory limb protection: an experimental bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnelier, Alexandre; Lellouche, François; Bouchard, Pierre Alexandre; L'Her, Erwan

    2013-08-01

    Different filtering devices are used during mechanical ventilation to avoid dysfunction of flow and pressure transducers or for airborne microorganisms containment. Water condensates, resulting from the use of humidifiers, but also residual nebulization particles may have a major influence on expiratory limb resistance. To evaluate the influence of nebulization and active humidification on the resistance of expiratory filters. A respiratory system analog was constructed using a test lung, an ICU ventilator, heated humidifiers, and a piezoelectric nebulizer. Humidifiers were connected to different types of circuits (unheated, mono-heated, new-generation and old-generation bi-heated). Five filter types were evaluated: electrostatic, heat-and-moisture exchanger, standard, specific, and internal heated high-efficiency particulate air [HEPA] filter. Baseline characteristics were obtained from each dry filter. Differential pressure measurements were carried out after 24 hours of continuous in vitro use for each condition, and after 24 hours of use with an old-generation bi-heated circuit without nebulization. While using unheated circuits, measurements had to be interrupted before 24 hours for all the filtering devices except the internal heated HEPA filter. The heat-and-moisture exchangers occluded before 24 hours with the unheated and mono-heated circuits. The circuit type, nebulization practice, and duration of use did not influence the internal heated HEPA filter resistance. Expiratory limb filtration is likely to induce several major adverse events. Expiratory filter resistance increase is due mainly to the humidification circuit type, rather than to nebulization. If filtration is mandatory while using an unheated circuit, a dedicated filter should be used for ≤ 24 hours, or a heated HEPA for a longer duration.

  6. Role of nebulized glycopyrrolate in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santus P

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pierachille Santus,1 Dejan Radovanovic,1 Andrea Cristiano,1 Vincenzo Valenti,2 Maurizio Rizzi1 1Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences (DIBIC, University of Milan, Division of Respiratory Diseases, “L. Sacco” Hospital, ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco, Milan, Italy; 2Department of Health Bioscience, University of Milan – Respiratory Unit, Policlinico di San Donato, IRCCS – San Donato Milanese, Milan, Italy Abstract: In the upcoming years, the proportion of elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD will increase, according to the progressively aging population and the increased efficacy of the pharmacological treatments, especially considering the management of chronic comorbidities. The issue to prescribe an appropriate inhalation therapy to COPD patients with significant handling or coordination difficulties represents a common clinical experience; in the latter case, the choice of an inadequate inhalation device may jeopardize the adherence to the treatment and eventually lead to its ineffectiveness. Treatment options that do not require particular timing for coordination between activation and/or inhalation or require high flow thresholds to be activated should represent the best treatment option for these patients. Nebulized bronchodilators, usually used only in acute conditions such as COPD exacerbations, could fulfill this gap, enabling an adequate drug administration during tidal breathing and without the need for patients’ cooperation. However, so far, only short-acting muscarinic antagonists have been available for nebulization. Recently, a nebulized formulation of the inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrrolate, delivered by means of a novel proprietary vibrating mesh nebulizer closed system (SUN-101/eFlow®, has progressed to Phase III trials and is currently in late-stage development as an option for maintenance treatment in COPD. The present critical review describes the current

  7. Comparison of an ultrasonic nebulizer with a cross-flow nebulizer for selenium speciation by ion-chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.

    2000-01-01

    , the increase in sensitivity with the USN was between 2.5 and 8.7 times. It was observed that yttrium could not be used as internal standard in the USN as the sensitivity of this element was dependent on pH as well as the presence of different selenium species, while rhodium was unaffected by these parameters...

  8. Promoting adherence to nebulized therapy in cystic fibrosis: poster development and a qualitative exploration of adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen; Babiker, Nathan; Gardner, Emma; Royle, Jane; Curley, Rachael; Hoo, Zhe Hui; Wildman, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) health care professionals recognize the need to motivate people with CF to adhere to nebulizer treatments, yet little is known about how best to achieve this. We aimed to produce motivational posters to support nebulizer adherence by using social marketing involving people with CF in the development of those posters. The Sheffield CF multidisciplinary team produced preliminary ideas that were elaborated upon with semi-structured interviews among people with CF to explore barriers and facilitators to the use of nebulized therapy. Initial themes and poster designs were refined using an online focus group to finalize the poster designs. People with CF preferred aspirational posters describing what could be achieved through adherence in contrast to posters that highlighted the adverse consequences of nonadherence. A total of 14 posters were produced through this process. People with CF can be engaged to develop promotional material to support adherence, providing a unique perspective differing from that of the CF multidisciplinary team. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these posters to support nebulizer adherence.

  9. Sinuclean Nebules treatment in children suffering from otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchio, A; De Lucia, A; Varricchio, A M; Della Volpe, A; Mansi, N; Pastore, V; Ciprandi, G

    2017-03-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) is an ear disorder defined by the presence of fluid in the middle ear without signs or symptoms of acute infection. The current randomized, double-blind, controlled study aimed to evaluate whether Sinuclean Nebules treatment, administered by nasal douche (Rinowash), could induce ear healing better than isotonic saline in children with OME. The study was randomized, double-blind, and controlled. Group A (30 children) was treated with Sinuclean Nebules 45 and Group B (31 children) was treated with isotonic saline; both compounds were administered by nasal nebulization with Rinowash nasal douche twice/day in the morning and in the evening for 10 days, followed by a one-week suspension, and after by a second course as the first. Tympanogram and audiometry were performed at baseline and after treatment. Considering the global evaluation of the treatment: in Group A, 28 (93.3%) patients had complete resolution and 2 (6.7%) had partial resolution; in Group B, all patients had failure of treatment. There was a significant difference between groups (p < 0.0001). The current randomized-controlled study demonstrated that Sinuclean Nebules was effective and in the treatment of children with OME. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of the radioaerosol sup(99m)Tc-DTPA produced by different nebulizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, R.B.; Nery, L.E.; Tabacniks, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Our aim was to characterize the aerosol produced by different nebulizers through the use of sup(99m)Tc-DTPA normally applied in pulmonar ventilation studies in nuclear medicine. We have found the mass distribution's MMD and the geometric standard deviation for this type of radioaerosol. (author)

  11. Droplet size prediction in ultrasonic nebulization for non-oxide ceramic powder synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Mariana; Goutier, Simon; Foucaud, Sylvie; Mariaux, Gilles; Poirier, Thierry

    2018-03-01

    Spray pyrolysis process has been used for the synthesis of non-oxide ceramic powders from liquid precursors in the Si/C/N system. Particles with a high thermal stability and with variable composition and size distribution have been obtained. In this process, the mechanisms involved in precursor decomposition and gas phase recombination of species are still unknown. The final aim of this work consists in improving the whole process comprehension by an experimental/modelling approach that helps to connect the synthesized particles characteristics to the precursor properties and process operating parameters. It includes the following steps: aerosol formation by a piezoelectric nebulizer, its transport and the chemical-physical phenomena involved in the reaction processes. This paper focuses on the aerosol characterization to understand the relationship between the liquid precursor properties and the liquid droplet diameter distribution. Liquids with properties close to the precursor of interest (hexamethyldisilazane) have been used. Experiments have been performed using a shadowgraphy technique to determine the drop size distribution of the aerosol. For all operating parameters of the nebulizer device and liquids used, bimodal droplet size distributions have been obtained. Correlations proposed in the literature for the droplet size prediction by ultrasonic nebulization were used and adapted to the specific nebulizer device used in this study, showing rather good agreement with experimental values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Review of the safety, efficacy, costs and patient acceptability of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone for injection in assisting ovulation induction in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Nahuis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Marleen Nahuis1,2,3, Fulco van der Veen1, Jur Oosterhuis2, Ben Willem Mol1, Peter Hompes3, Madelon van Wely11Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (H4-205, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Free Medical University, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: Anovulation is a common cause of female subfertility. Treatment of anovulation is aimed at induction of ovulation. In women with clomiphene-citrate resistant WHO group II anovulation, one of the treatment options is ovulation induction with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH or follitropin. FSH is derived from urine or is produced as recombinant FSH. Two forms of recombinant FSH are available – follitropin alpha and follitropin beta. To evaluate the efficacy, safety, costs and acceptability of recombinant FSH, we performed a review to compare recombinant FSH with urinary-derived FSH products. Follitropin alpha, beta and urinary FSH products appeared to be equally effective in terms of pregnancy rates. Patient safety was also found to be comparable, as the incidence of side effects including multiple pregnancies was similar for all FSH products. In practice follitropin alpha and beta may be more convenient to use due to the ease of self-administration, but they are also more expensive than the urinary products.Keywords: follitropin apha, follitropin beta, urinary gonadotropins, polycystic ovary syndrome

  13. Delivery of albuterol and ipratropium bromide from two nebulizer systems in chronic stable asthma. Efficacy and pulmonary deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.A.; Newman, S.P.; Bloom, R.; Talaee, N.; Clarke, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Bronchodilator responses to both nebulized albuterol (salbutamol) and ipratropium bromide and aerosol delivery to the tracheobronchial tree have been assessed in eight patients with chronic stable asthma (mean baseline FEV1, 50 percent; reversibility greater than 20 percent). Two commercially available nebulizer systems were used, namely, a Turret nebulizer operated at a compressed gas flow rate of 12 L/min (droplet MMD, 3.3 mu) and an Inspiron nebulizer driven at 6 L/min (MMD, 7.7 mu). Albuterol was given as doses of 250 micrograms, 250 micrograms, 500 micrograms, and 1,000 micrograms (cumulative dose, 2 mg) and ipratropium bromide as doses of 50 micrograms, 50 micrograms, 100 micrograms, and 200 micrograms (cumulative dose, 400 micrograms) at intervals of 35 minutes. For albuterol, bronchodilatation was significantly (p less than 0.05) greater at all dosage levels with the Turret. For ipratropium, bronchodilatation was similar for both nebulizers. Measurements of aerosol deposition using 99m Tc-labelled pentetic acid (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid; DTPA) showed that 9.1 +/- 1.1 percent and 2.7 +/- 0.2 percent of the dose reached the lungs during nebulization to dryness for Turret and Inspiron, respectively (p less than 0.01); distribution within the lungs was similar for the two aerosols. Selection of nebulizer apparatus can influence delivery of aerosol and subsequent bronchodilator response to albuterol in patients with chronic stable asthma but is less important for aerosol delivery of ipratropium bromide in these patients

  14. Effects of Nebulizer Position, Gas Flow, and CPAP on Aerosol Bronchodilator Delivery: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lorenzo; Sutherasan, Yuda; Caratto, Valentina; Sanguineti, Elisa; Marsili, Maria; Raimondo, Pasquale; Ferretti, Maurizio; Kacmarek, Robert M; Pelosi, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different delivery circuit configurations, nebulizer positions, CPAP levels, and gas flow on the amount of aerosol bronchodilator delivered during simulated spontaneous breathing in an in vitro model. A pneumatic lung simulator was connected to 5 different circuits for aerosol delivery, 2 delivering CPAP through a high-flow generator tested at 30, 60, and 90 L/min supplementary flow and 5, 10, and 15 cm H2O CPAP and 3 with no CPAP: a T-piece configuration with one extremity closed with a cap, a T-piece configuration without cap and nebulizer positioned proximally, and a T-piece configuration without cap and nebulizer positioned distally. Albuterol was collected with a filter, and the percentage amount delivered was measured by infrared spectrophotometry. Configurations with continuous high-flow CPAP delivered higher percentage amounts of albuterol compared with the configurations without CPAP (9.1 ± 6.0% vs 6.2 ± 2.8%, P = .03). Among configurations without CPAP, the best performance was obtained with a T-piece with one extremity closed with a cap. In CPAP configurations, the highest delivery (13.8 ± 4.4%) was obtained with the nebulizer placed proximal to the lung simulator, independent of flow. CPAP at 15 cm H2O resulted in the highest albuterol delivery (P = .02). Based on our in vitro study, without CPAP, a T-piece with a cap at one extremity maximizes albuterol delivery. During high-flow CPAP, the nebulizer should always be placed proximal to the patient, after the T-piece, using the highest CPAP clinically indicated. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  15. Accurate assessment of adherence: self-report and clinician report vs electronic monitoring of nebulizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Tracey; Goodacre, Lynne; Sutton, Chris; Pollard, Kim; Conway, Steven; Peckham, Daniel

    2011-08-01

    People with cystic fibrosis have a high treatment burden. While uncertainty remains about individual patient level of adherence to medication, treatment regimens are difficult to tailor, and interventions are difficult to evaluate. Self- and clinician-reported measures are routinely used despite criticism that they overestimate adherence. This study assessed agreement between rates of adherence to prescribed nebulizer treatments when measured by self-report, clinician report, and electronic monitoring suitable for long-term use. Seventy-eight adults with cystic fibrosis were questioned about their adherence to prescribed nebulizer treatments over the previous 3 months. Self-report was compared with clinician report and stored adherence data downloaded from the I-Neb nebulizer system. Adherence measures were expressed as a percentage of the prescribed regimen, bias was estimated by the paired difference in mean (95% CI) patient and clinician reported and actual adherence. Agreement between adherence measures was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (95% CI), and disagreements for individuals were displayed using Bland-Altman plots. Patient-identified prescriptions matched the medical record prescription. Median self-reported adherence was 80% (interquartile range, 60%-95%), whereas median adherence measured by nebulizer download was 36% (interquartile range, 5%-84.5%). Nine participants overmedicated and underreported adherence. Median clinician report ranged from 50% to 60%, depending on profession. Extensive discrepancies between self-report and clinician report compared with nebulizer download were identified for individuals. Self- and clinician-reporting of adherence does not provide accurate measurement of adherence when compared with electronic monitoring. Using inaccurate measures has implications for treatment burden, clinician prescribing practices, cost, and accuracy of trial data.

  16. Lack of micronucleus induction activity of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether in the bone marrow of F344 rats by sub-chronic drinking-water treatment, inhalation exposure, or acute intraperitoneal injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Tadashi; Kamigaito, Tomoyuki; Katagiri, Taku; Kondou, Hitomi; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Aiso, Shigetoshi; Nishizawa, Tomoshi; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) is an oxygenated gasoline additive synthesized from ethanol and isobutene that is used to reduce CO2 emissions. To support the Kyoto Protocol, the production of ETBE has undergone a marked increase. Previous reports have indicated that exposure to ETBE or methyl tertiary-butyl ether resulted in liver and kidney tumors in rats and/or mice. These reports raise concern about the effects of human exposure being brought about by the increased use of ETBE. The present study was conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of ETBE using micronucleus induction of polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of male and female rats treated with ETBE in the drinking-water at concentrations of 0, 1,600, 4,000 or 10,000 ppm or exposed to ETBE vapor at 0, 500, 1,500 or 5,000 ppm for 13 weeks. There were no significant increases in micronucleus induction in either the drinking water-administered or inhalation-administered groups at any concentration of ETBE; although, in both groups red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration were slightly reduced in the peripheral blood in rats administered the highest concentration of ETBE. In addition, two consecutive daily intraperitoneal injections of ETBE at doses of 0, 250, 500 or 1,000 mg/kg did not increase the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow cells in either sex; all rats receiving intraperitoneal injections of ETBE at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg died after treatment day 1. These data suggest that ETBE is not genotoxic in vivo.

  17. Arsenic speciation in soil using high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, D.A.; Yaeger, J.S.; Parish, K.J.; Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Gowdy, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mohrman, G.B.; Besmer, M.G. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A method has been developed to identify and quantify As(III), As(V), and organoarsenic compounds in soil samples from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) by high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP/MS). The soils were extracted using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) and sonication. The percentages of As(III), As(V), and organoarsenic species extracted from soil samples were 30, 50, and 100 respectively. The arsenic species were not altered during the extraction process. They were separated by reversed-phase, ion-pairing, HPLC using a microbore Inertsil-ODS{trademark} column. The HPLC column effluent was introduced into an ICP/MS system using a direct injection nebulizer (DIN). Detection limits of less than 1 pg were readily obtained for each arsenic species. Internal standards are recommended to increase accuracy and precision. Soil samples spiked with arsenic oxide, sodium arsenate, dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), and chlorovinyl arsenious acid (CVAA) were extracted, identified and quantified with the HPLC/ICP/MS system. The soil samples were analyzed in support of the analytical needs of a thermal desorption treatability study being conducted at the RMA.

  18. Sequential injection-bead injection-lab-on-valve schemes for on-line solid phase extraction and preconcentration of ultra-trace levels of heavy metals with determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald; Miro, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    This communication presents an overview of the state-of-the-art of the exploitation of sequential injection (SI)-bead injection (BI)-lab-on-valve (LOV) schemes for automatic on-line sample pre-treatments interfaced with ETAAS and ICPMS detection as conducted in the authors' group. The discussions are focused on the applications of SI-BI-LOV protocols for on-line microcolumn based solid phase extraction of ultra-trace levels of heavy metals, employing the so-called renewable surface separation and preconcentration manipulatory scheme. Two types of sorbents have been employed as packing material, that is, the hydrophilic SP Sephadex C-25 cation exchange and iminodiacetate based Muromac A-1 chelating resins, and the hydrophobic poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) copolymer alkylated with octadecyl groups (C 18 -PS/DVB). Using ETAAS as detection device, the easy-to-handle hydrophilic renewable reactors hold the features of improved R.S.D.s and LODs as compared to those operated in the conventional, permanent mode, in addition to the elimination of flow resistance. The hydrophobic columns fall into two categories, that is, the renewable one packed with C 18 -PS/DVB beads entails analogous R.S.D.s and LODs with respect to the conventional approach, while those with PTFE beads result in slightly inferior R.S.D.s and LODs by similar comparison, yet offering a wider dynamic range than when using an external permanent column. Moreover, the hydrophilic materials result in much higher enrichment of the analyte than the hydrophobic ones, although PTFE is the packing material that exhibits the best retention efficiency

  19. Effect of extended infusion of meropenem and nebulized amikacin on Gram-negative multidrug-resistant ventilator-associated pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Ahmed Ammar

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Adding nebulized amikacin to systemic antibiotics in patients with VAP caused by Gram-negative MDRO may offer efficacy benefits, and the use of extended infusions of meropenem could improve the clinical outcomes in critically ill populations.

  20. Comparison of the Bronchodilative Effects of Salbutamol Delivered via Three Mesh Nebulizers in Children with Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitake Kurosaka

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Overall, all 3 mesh nebulizers were useful devices in treating bronchial asthma, although some differences in lung function improvement were evident. The limitation of this study is that subjects did not include patients with severe asthma attacks.

  1. Investigation of corrosion behavior of biodegradable magnesium alloys using an online-micro-flow capillary flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry setup with electrochemical control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, A., E-mail: andrea.ulrich@empa.ch [Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Ott, N. [Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); EPFL-Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Tournier-Fillon, A. [Laboratory for Corrosion and Material Integrity, EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Homazava, N. [Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology, Eawag/EPFL, Ueberlandstrasse 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Schmutz, P. [Laboratory for Corrosion and Material Integrity, EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2011-07-15

    The development of biodegradable metallic materials designed for implants or medical stents is new and is one of the most interesting new fields in material science. Besides biocompatibility, a detailed understanding of corrosion mechanisms and dissolution processes is required to develop materials with tailored degradation behavior. The materials need to be sufficiently stable as long as they have to fulfill their medical task. However, subsequently they should dissolve completely in a controlled manner in terms of maximum body burden. This study focuses on the elemental and time resolved dissolution processes of a magnesium rare earth elements alloy which has been compared to pure magnesium with different impurity level. The here described investigations were performed using a novel analytical setup based on a micro-flow capillary online-coupled via a flow injection system to a plasma mass spectrometer. Differences in element-specific and time-dependent dissolution were monitored for various magnesium alloys in contact with sodium chloride or mixtures of sodium and calcium chloride as corrosive media. The dissolution behavior strongly depends on bulk matrix elements, secondary alloying elements and impurities, which are usually present even in pure magnesium.

  2. Investigation of corrosion behavior of biodegradable magnesium alloys using an online-micro-flow capillary flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry setup with electrochemical control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, A.; Ott, N.; Tournier-Fillon, A.; Homazava, N.; Schmutz, P.

    2011-01-01

    The development of biodegradable metallic materials designed for implants or medical stents is new and is one of the most interesting new fields in material science. Besides biocompatibility, a detailed understanding of corrosion mechanisms and dissolution processes is required to develop materials with tailored degradation behavior. The materials need to be sufficiently stable as long as they have to fulfill their medical task. However, subsequently they should dissolve completely in a controlled manner in terms of maximum body burden. This study focuses on the elemental and time resolved dissolution processes of a magnesium rare earth elements alloy which has been compared to pure magnesium with different impurity level. The here described investigations were performed using a novel analytical setup based on a micro-flow capillary online-coupled via a flow injection system to a plasma mass spectrometer. Differences in element-specific and time-dependent dissolution were monitored for various magnesium alloys in contact with sodium chloride or mixtures of sodium and calcium chloride as corrosive media. The dissolution behavior strongly depends on bulk matrix elements, secondary alloying elements and impurities, which are usually present even in pure magnesium.

  3. Rapid isolation of plutonium in environmental solid samples using sequential injection anion exchange chromatography followed by detection with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Jixin, E-mail: jixin.qiao@risoe.d [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hou Xiaolin; Roos, Per [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Miro, Manuel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears (Spain)

    2011-01-31

    This paper reports an automated analytical method for rapid determination of plutonium isotopes ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu) in environmental solid extracts. Anion exchange chromatographic columns were incorporated in a sequential injection (SI) system to undertake the automated separation of plutonium from matrix and interfering elements. The analytical results most distinctly demonstrated that the crosslinkage of the anion exchanger is a key parameter controlling the separation efficiency. AG 1-x4 type resin was selected as the most suitable sorbent material for analyte separation. Investigation of column size effect upon the separation efficiency revealed that small-sized (2 mL) columns sufficed to handle up to 50 g of environmental soil samples. Under the optimum conditions, chemical yields of plutonium exceeded 90% and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium and lead ranged from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4}. The determination of plutonium isotopes in three standard/certified reference materials (IAEA-375 soil, IAEA-135 sediment and NIST-4359 seaweed) and two reference samples (Irish Sea sediment and Danish soil) revealed a good agreement with reference/certified values. The SI column-separation method is straightforward and less labor intensive as compared with batch-wise anion exchange chromatographic procedures. Besides, the automated method features low consumption of ion-exchanger and reagents for column washing and elution, with the consequent decrease in the generation of acidic waste, thus bearing green chemical credentials.

  4. Investigation of corrosion behavior of biodegradable magnesium alloys using an online-micro-flow capillary flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry setup with electrochemical control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, A.; Ott, N.; Tournier-Fillon, A.; Homazava, N.; Schmutz, P.

    2011-07-01

    The development of biodegradable metallic materials designed for implants or medical stents is new and is one of the most interesting new fields in material science. Besides biocompatibility, a detailed understanding of corrosion mechanisms and dissolution processes is required to develop materials with tailored degradation behavior. The materials need to be sufficiently stable as long as they have to fulfill their medical task. However, subsequently they should dissolve completely in a controlled manner in terms of maximum body burden. This study focuses on the elemental and time resolved dissolution processes of a magnesium rare earth elements alloy which has been compared to pure magnesium with different impurity level. The here described investigations were performed using a novel analytical setup based on a micro-flow capillary online-coupled via a flow injection system to a plasma mass spectrometer. Differences in element-specific and time-dependent dissolution were monitored for various magnesium alloys in contact with sodium chloride or mixtures of sodium and calcium chloride as corrosive media. The dissolution behavior strongly depends on bulk matrix elements, secondary alloying elements and impurities, which are usually present even in pure magnesium.

  5. Non-inductive plasmas studies by injection of electron cyclotron waves in the Tore Supra tokamak; Etudes des plasmas non-inductifs par injection d'ondes a la frequence cyclotronique electronique dans le tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turco, F

    2008-06-15

    In this work we addressed the issue of the phenomena typical of the non-inductive discharges in the Tore Supra tokamak, probed by means of localised perturbations of the current density profile, performed by electron cyclotron (EC) waves. In order to correctly utilize the current density profile, reconstructed by means of the CRONOS code we performed a sensitivity study on the code results. Concerning the MHD regimes we have shown that a dynamic evolution of the safety factor q which tends to shrink its profile appears to be the cause of the triggering of such regimes. From the operational point of view, deposing the EC current, generated in the same direction of the plasma current, outside the q{sub min} position results hazardous because it causes a rise in q{sub 0} and consequently the shrinking of the q profile which triggers the MHD regimes. On the contrary, the EC counter-current scans show that a very central deposition ({rho}(ECCD) < 0.1) lead almost certainly to an MHD regime, while a more external countercurrent generation has generally the quality of creating internal transport barriers (ITBs). The phenomenon of non-linear temperature oscillations (the O-regime) has also been addressed, to provide an analytical description as well as from the experimental point of view, concerning the triggering and canceling of the oscillating phases. By constructing a non-linear predator-prey system with noise, solved on two regions of space coupled by a diffusion term, we could reproduce the experimental temperature oscillations: this study allowed us to confirm that the oscillatory phenomenon is the manifestation of a Lotka-Volterra like coupling between j and T{sub e}. The experimental analysis led to the identification of the mechanism at the origin of the triggering and canceling of the O-regime in presence of a perturbation in a specific shape of magnetic shear perturbation. These results have been reproduced by the simulations preformed with the integrated

  6. Production of amorphous nanoparticles by supersonic spray-drying with a microfluidic nebulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstad, Esther; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Holtze, Christian; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Brenner, Michael P.; Spaepen, Frans; Weitz, David A.

    2015-08-01

    Amorphous nanoparticles (a-NPs) have physicochemical properties distinctly different from those of the corresponding bulk crystals; for example, their solubility is much higher. However, many materials have a high propensity to crystallize and are difficult to formulate in an amorphous structure without stabilizers. We fabricated a microfluidic nebulator that can produce amorphous NPs from a wide range of materials, even including pure table salt (NaCl). By using supersonic air flow, the nebulator produces drops that are so small that they dry before crystal nuclei can form. The small size of the resulting spray-dried a-NPs limits the probability of crystal nucleation in any given particle during storage. The kinetic stability of the a-NPs—on the order of months—is advantageous for hydrophobic drug molecules.

  7. Nebulization of the acidified sodium nitrite formulation attenuates acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surber Mark W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generalized hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV occurring during exposure to hypoxia is a detrimental process resulting in an increase in lung vascular resistance. Nebulization of sodium nitrite has been shown to inhibit HPV. The aim of this project was to investigate and compare the effects of nebulization of nitrite and different formulations of acidified sodium nitrite on acute HPV. Methods Ex vivo isolated rabbit lungs perfused with erythrocytes in Krebs-Henseleit buffer (adjusted to 10% hematocrit and in vivo anesthetized catheterized rabbits were challenged with periods of hypoxic ventilation alternating with periods of normoxic ventilation. After baseline hypoxic challenges, vehicle, sodium nitrite or acidified sodium nitrite was delivered via nebulization. In the ex vivo model, pulmonary arterial pressure and nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas were monitored. Nitrite and nitrite/nitrate were measured in samples of perfusion buffer. Pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were monitored in the in vivo model. Results In the ex vivo model, nitrite nebulization attenuated HPV and increased nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas and nitrite concentrations in the perfusate. The acidified forms of sodium nitrite induced higher levels of nitric oxide in exhaled gas and had longer vasodilating effects compared to nitrite alone. All nitrite formulations increased concentrations of circulating nitrite to the same degree. In the in vivo model, inhaled nitrite inhibited HPV, while pulmonary arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were not affected. All nitrite formulations had similar potency to inhibit HPV. The tested concentration of appeared tolerable. Conclusion Nitrite alone and in acidified forms effectively and similarly attenuates HPV. However, acidified nitrite formulations induce a more pronounced increase in nitric oxide exhalation.

  8. Nebulizer calibration using lithium chloride: an accurate, reproducible and user-friendly method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R J; Reid, D W; Leonard, R F; Johns, D P; Walters, E H

    1998-04-01

    Conventional gravimetric (weight loss) calibration of jet nebulizers overestimates their aerosol output by up to 80% due to unaccounted evaporative loss. We examined two methods of measuring true aerosol output from jet nebulizers. A new adaptation of a widely available clinical assay for lithium (determined by flame photometry, LiCl method) was compared to an existing electrochemical method based on fluoride detection (NaF method). The agreement between the two methods and the repeatability of each method were examined. Ten Mefar jet nebulizers were studied using a Mefar MK3 inhalation dosimeter. There was no significant difference between the two methods (p=0.76) with mean aerosol output of the 10 nebulizers being 7.40 mg x s(-1) (SD 1.06; range 5.86-9.36 mg x s(-1)) for the NaF method and 7.27 mg x s(-1) (SD 0.82; range 5.52-8.26 mg x s(-1)) for the LiCl method. The LiCl method had a coefficient of repeatability of 13 mg x s(-1) compared with 3.7 mg x s(-1) for the NaF method. The LiCl method accurately measured true aerosol output and was considerably easier to use. It was also more repeatable, and hence more precise, than the NaF method. Because the LiCl method uses an assay that is routinely available from hospital biochemistry laboratories, it is easy to use and, thus, can readily be adopted by busy respiratory function departments.

  9. Ultrasonic nebulization extraction/low pressure photoionization mass spectrometry for direct analysis of chemicals in matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyuan; Zhu, Yanan; Zhou, Zhongyue; Yang, Jiuzhong; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2015-09-03

    A novel ultrasonic nebulization extraction/low-pressure photoionization (UNE-LPPI) system has been designed and employed for the rapid mass spectrometric analysis of chemicals in matrices. An ultrasonic nebulizer was used to extract the chemicals in solid sample and nebulize the solvent in the nebulization cell. Aerosols formed by ultrasonic were evaporated by passing through a transferring tube, and desolvated chemicals were ionized by the emitted light (10.6 eV) from a Krypton discharge lamp at low pressure (∼68 Pa). First, a series of semi/non-volatile compounds with different polarities, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), amino acids, dipeptides, drugs, nucleic acids, alkaloids, and steroids were used to test the system. Then, the quantification capability of UNE-LPPI was checked with: 1) pure chemicals, such as 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone dissolved in solvent; 2) soil powder spiked with different amounts of phenanthrene and pyrene. For pure chemicals, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) for the standard curve of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in the range of 3 ng-20 μg mL(-1) was 0.9922, and the measured limits of detection (LOD) was 1 ng ml(-1). In the case of soil powder, linear relationships for phenanthrene and pyrene from 10 to 400 ng mg(-1) were obtained with correlation coefficients of 0.9889 and 0.9893, respectively. At last, the feasibility of UNE-LPPI for the detection of chemicals in real matrices such as tablets and biological tissues (tea, Citrus aurantium peel and sage (Salvia officinalis) leaf) were successfully demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Orange Houses and Tape Babies Temporary and Nebulous Art in Urban Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. McClish

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that the disruption of the routine ways we engage with our cities is necessary for democratic activity and public participation. Building on research that examines the relationship between public spaces and democratic action, I explore temporary forms of creative street installation as interrupting the market-ing pleas that have become the only authorized forms of visual art in our cities. I argue that tactics in urban spaces that are temporary and provide nebulous mean-ings are necessary to grab our attention and make us linger. I propose that these forms of engagement act in the same way as people performing or playing in pub-lic spaces. I specifically employ Yi-Fu Tuan’s theoretical notions of space and movement and Margaret Kohn’s discussion of the significance of presence in pub-lic spaces to examine the creative ways we engage with and experience our cities. I examine two activist/artist projects: Mark Jenkins’ tape installations and Detroit Demolition. My analysis of these two sites demonstrates the importance of citi-zens engaging in their urban spaces. By creating temporary artwork that is nebul-ous in meaning, activists/artists are interrupting the routine ways we experience our cities.

  11. Compatibility and osmolality of inhaled N-acetylcysteine nebulizing solution with fenoterol and ipratropium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzung-Yi; Chen, Chi-Ming; Lee, Chun-Nin; Chiang, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hsiang-Yin

    2005-04-15

    The compatibility, pH, and osmolality of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) nebulizing solution in the presence of ipratropium bromide or fenoterol hydrobromide were studied. Portions (400 microL) of each mixture were sampled immediately upon mixing and one, two, three, four, five, six, and seven hours after mixing and assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Osmolality was measured by sampling 100 microL from the filling cup at a five-minute interval during nebulization and by the freezing-point-depression method. Adding NAC solution to fenoterol solution raised the pH from 3.20 to 7.90 and the osmolality to a mean +/- S.D. of 1400.67 +/- 4.51 mOsm/kg. Fenoterol concentrations decreased to 93.71% and NAC concentrations to 92.54% of initial concentrations after seven hours. Mixing ipratropium with NAC solution raised the pH from 3.74 to 7.95 and the osmolality to a mean +/- S.D. of 1413 +/- 11.79 mOsm/kg. The initial ipratropium concentration declined 7.39% and 10.91% one and two hours after mixing with NAC solution, respectively. NAC and ipratropium were stable in nebulizing solution within one hour of mixing. NAC and fenoterol were compatible for at least seven hours.

  12. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Carlos Flores-González

    Full Text Available There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline.We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay.A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011. Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively.In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before.EudraCT 2009-016042-57.

  13. Heated air humidification versus cold air nebulization in newly tracheostomized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Richard; Händel, Alexander; Wenzel, Angela; Kramer, Benedikt; Aderhold, Christoph; Hörmann, Karl; Stuck, Boris A; Sommer, J Ulrich

    2017-12-01

    After tracheostomy, the airway lacks an essential mechanism for warming and humidifying the inspired air with the consequent functional impairment and discomfort. The purpose of this study was to compare airway hydration with cold-air nebulization versus heated high-flow humidification on medical interventions and tracheal ciliary beat frequency (CBF). Newly tracheostomized patients (n = 20) were treated either with cold-air nebulization or heated humidification. The number of required tracheal suctioning procedures to clean the trachea and tracheal CBF were assessed. The number of required suctions per day was significantly lower in the heated humidification group with medians 3 versus 5 times per day. Mean CBF was significantly higher in the heated humidification group (6.36 ± 1.49 Hz) compared to the cold-air nebulization group (3.99 ± 1.39 Hz). The data suggest that heated humidification enhanced mucociliary transport leading to a reduced number of required suctioning procedures in the trachea, which may improve postoperative patient care. © 2017 The Authors Head & Neck Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Labor Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ154 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Labor Induction • What is labor induction? • Why is labor induced? • What is the Bishop score? • What is “ripening ...

  15. Effect of mask dead space and occlusion of mask holes on delivery of nebulized albuterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinski, Ariel

    2014-08-01

    Infants and children with respiratory conditions are often prescribed bronchodilators. Face masks are used to facilitate the administration of nebulized therapy in patients unable to use a mouthpiece. Masks incorporate holes into their design, and their occlusion during aerosol delivery has been a common practice. Masks are available in different sizes and different dead volumes. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different degrees of occlusion of the mask holes and different mask dead space on the amount of nebulized albuterol available at the mouth opening in a model of a spontaneously breathing child. A breathing simulator mimicking infant (tidal volume [VT] = 50 mL, breathing frequency = 30 breaths/min, inspiratory-expiratory ratio [I:E] = 1:3), child (VT = 155 mL, breathing frequency = 25 breaths/min, I:E = 1:2), and adult (VT = 500 mL, breathing frequency = 15 breaths/min, I:E = 1:2) breathing patterns was connected to a collection filter hidden behind a face plate. A pediatric size mask and an adult size mask connected to a continuous output jet nebulizer were sealed to the face plate. Three nebulizers were loaded with albuterol sulfate (2.5 mg/3 mL) and operated with 6 L/min compressed air for 5 min. Experiments were repeated with different degrees of occlusion (0%, 50%, and 90%). Albuterol was extracted from the filter and measured with a spectrophotometer at 276 nm. Occlusion of the holes in the large mask did not increase the amount of albuterol in any of the breathing patterns. The amount of albuterol captured at the mouth opening did not change when the small mask was switched to the large mask, except with the breathing pattern of a child, and when the holes in the mask were 50% occluded (P = .02). Neither decreasing the dead space of the mask nor occluding the mask holes increased the amount of nebulized albuterol captured at the mouth opening.

  16. Monitoring the Inhalation Flow Rate of Nebulized Aerosols Using an Ultrasonic Flow Meter: In Vitro Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Michael Y; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2017-06-01

    The measurement of aerosol flow rates without obscuration of the flow is of particular concern with in vivo lung deposition studies, where precise knowledge of aerosol particle size distributions is a necessary requirement for the development of predictive correlations. This study examines the utility of an ultrasonic flow meter for such measurements and determines if a valved system can be attached to the flow meter for sampling exhaled aerosols. The flow rate across a D-30 flow meter was compared with and without nebulization of 0.9% saline aerosols from a PARI LC Sprint nebulizer. Particle size distributions of the nebulized aerosol before and after adding the D-30 flow meter and duckbill valve were measured using a Spraytec laser diffraction system. Finally, the ability of the Thor D-30 to capture a realistic breathing profile was assessed. The mean ± standard error flow rates measured by the D-30 flow meter with and without nebulization were 10.4 ± 0.1 versus 10.4 ± 0.1 L/min, 66.4 ± 0.1 versus 67.2 ± 0.1 L/min, and 89.9 ± 0.1 versus 91.4 ± 0.1 L/min. The D-30 flow meter did not considerably affect the volumetric median diameter (VMD) of the aerosols, while the VMD reduced slightly by 0.65 μm at 10 L/min and 0.69 μm at 72 L/min upon the inclusion of a duckbill valve. Time-weighted average inhalation flow rates measured by D-30 flow meters placed upstream and downstream of the one-way valve agreed well, 31.9 versus 32.6 L/min, respectively. The D-30 flow meter can be used to accurately measure inhalation flow rates of nebulized aerosols without significantly impacting particle size distributions, and one-way duckbill valves can be used to isolate the inhalation portion of a breathing pattern to facilitate collection of exhaled doses.

  17. Exploration of robust operating conditions in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromp, John W.; Pomares, Mario; Alvarez-Prieto, Manuel; Cole, Amanda; Ying Hai; Salin, Eric D.

    2003-01-01

    'Robust' conditions, as defined by Mermet and co-workers for inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-atomic emission spectrometry, minimize matrix effects on analyte signals, and are obtained by increasing power and reducing nebulizer gas flow. In ICP-mass spectrometry (MS), it is known that reduced nebulizer gas flow usually leads to more robust conditions such that matrix effects are reduced. In this work, robust conditions for ICP-MS have been determined by optimizing for accuracy in the determination of analytes in a multi-element solution with various interferents (Al, Ba, Cs, K, Na), by varying power, nebulizer gas flow, sample introduction rate and ion lens voltage. The goal of the work was to determine which operating parameters were the most important in reducing matrix effects, and whether different interferents yielded the same robust conditions. Reduction in nebulizer gas flow and in sample input rate led to a significantly decreased interference, while an increase in power seemed to have a lesser effect. Once the other parameters had been adjusted to their robust values, there was no additional improvement in accuracy attainable by adjusting the ion lens voltage. The robust conditions were universal, since, for all the interferents and analytes studied, the optimum was found at the same operating conditions. One drawback to the use of robust conditions was the slightly reduced sensitivity; however, in the context of 'intelligent' instruments, the concept of 'robust conditions' is useful in many cases

  18. Induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    The principle of linear induction acceleration is described, and examples are given of practical configurations for induction linacs. These examples include the Advanced Technology Accelerator, Long Pulse Induction Linac, Radial Line Accelerator (RADLAC), and Magnetically-Insulated Electron-Focussed Ion Linac. A related concept, the auto accelerator, is described in which the high-current electron-beam technology in the sub-10 MeV region is exploited to produce electron beams at energies perhaps as high as the 100 to 1000 MeV range. Induction linacs for ions are also discussed. The efficiency of induction linear acceleration is analyzed

  19. Ion deposition by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, K.; Houk, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is used with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS) for ion deposition. The deposited element is introduced as a nebulized aqueous solution. Modifications to the ICP-MS device allow generation and deposition of a mass-resolved beam of 165 Ho + at 5x10 12 ions s -1 . The ICP is a universal, multielement ion source that can potentially be used for applications such as deposition of mixtures of widely varying stoichiometry or of alternating layers of different elements. copyright 1996 American Vacuum Society

  20. Trace element determination in seawater by ICP-SFMS coupled with a microflow nebulization/desolvation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turetta, Clara; Cozzi, Giulio; Barbante, Carlo; Capodaglio, Gabriele; Cescon, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    Direct and simultaneous determination of Al, Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sb, U, V and Zn in diluted (1:10 v:v) seawater from the Antarctic Ocean and the Venice Lagoon at the ng mL -1 and pg mL -1 level has been performed by using an inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS). Samples were analysed by using a PFA microflow nebulizer coupled with a desolvation system or a PFA microflow nebulizer coupled with a Teflon spray chamber, respectively. Measurements were carried out at low (LR, m/Δm=300), medium (MR, m/Δm=3,000) and high (HR, m/Δm=7,500) resolutions depending on the studied isotope. To avoid contamination, sample pre-treatment was carried out in a clean laboratory equipped with a Class 100 vertical laminar flow hood. Concentration ranges (minimum-maximum in ng mL -1 ) found in the Antarctic seawater samples (in depth profiles) were: Ag 0.0004-0.0018, As 0.69-1.32, Cd 0.031-0.096, Co 0.018-0.065, Cr 0.18-0.46, Cu 0.04-1.58, Fe 0.13-1.63, Mn 0.02-0.12, Mo 5.97-12.46, Pb 0.007-0.074, Sb 0.033-0.088, U 0.5-1.9, V 0.6-2.5 and Zn 0.16-0.80. Concentration ranges (min-max in ng mL -1 ) found in the Venice Lagoon water samples (temporal profile from a benthic chamber experiment) were: Al 0.24-0.61, Ag 0.007-0.031, As 1.42-2.27, Cd 0.050-0.182, Co 0.440-1.461, Cr 0.15-0.34, Cu 0.81-2.46, Fe 0.25-1.66, Mn 11.6-31.7, Mo 6.50-10.6, Pb 0.047-0.225, Sb 0.240-0.492, U 1.7-3.3, V 1.3-2.8 and Zn 5.20-21.5. The detection limits range between 0.06 pg mL -1 for Ag and U to 15 pg mL -1 for Fe. In order to check the accuracy of the analytical procedure, measurements of the trace elements in a certified reference material (coastal Atlantic seawater, CASS-4-NRCC) were compared with the certified values. In addition, the results from the Antarctic and Venice Lagoon samples were compared with those obtained by using different analytical techniques. (orig.)

  1. Nebulized formoterol: a review of clinical efficacy and safety in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Gross

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas J Gross1, James F Donohue21Hines VA Hospital, Stritch Loyola School of Medicine, Hines, IL, USA; 2University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: A nebulized formulation of formoterol, Perforomist®, 20 μg/2 ml, has been available since 2007 for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We review the safety and efficacy data obtained during its development. In a dose-finding study, formoterol inhalation solution (FFIS was similar to the formoterol originator, Foradil® 12 μg DPI (FA in patients with COPD. In a 12-week efficacy study, FFIS manifested a rapid onset of action and FEV1 peak, AUC0–12, and trough levels similar to FA. No loss of efficacy, tachyphylaxis, was observed over 12 weeks of regular administration. In placebo-controlled studies in COPD patients receiving maintenance tiotropium, the addition of FFIS significantly augmented bronchodilation over the 6-week treatment duration, signifying that nebulized formoterol can further improve lung function in patients who are receiving tiotropium without an observed increase in adverse reactions. The safety profile of FFIS during 12-week and 1-year studies revealed adverse events that were similar to those of placebo and FA. Cardiac rhythm studies, including frequent ECGs and Holter monitoring, did not indicate any increase in rate or rhythm disturbances greater than placebo or FA. We conclude that maintenance use of Perforomist® is appropriate for patients with COPD who require or prefer a nebulizer for management of their disease.Keywords: long-acting bronchodilator, β-agonist, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, Perforomist®, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  2. Formulation, Characterization and Pulmonary Deposition of Nebulized Celecoxib Encapsulated Nanostructured Lipid Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlolla, Ram R.; Chougule, Mahavir; Patel, Apurva R.; Jackson, Tanise; Tata, Prasad NV; Singh, Mandip

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to encapsulate celecoxib (Cxb) in the Nanostructured Lipid Carrier (Cxb-NLC) nanoparticles and evaluate the lung disposition of nanoparticles following nebulization in Balb/c mice. Cxb-NLC nanoparticles were prepared with Cxb, Compritol, Miglyol and sodium taurocholate using high-pressure homogenization. Cxb-NLC nanoparticles were characterized for physical and aerosol properties. In-vitro cytotoxicity studies were performed with A549 cells. The lung deposition and pharmacokinetic parameters of Cxb-NLC and Cxb solution (Cxb-Soln) formulations were determined using Inexpose™ system and Pari LC star jet nebulizer. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of Cxb-NLC formulation were 217 ± 20 nm and > 90%, respectively. The Cxb-NLC released the drug in controlled fashion, and in vitro aersolization of Cxb-NLC formulation showed FPF of 75.6 ± 4.6 %, MMAD of 1.6 ±0.13 μm and GSD of 1.2 ± 0.21. Cxb-NLC showed dose and time dependent cytotoxicity against A549 cells. Nebulization of Cxb-NLC demonstrated 4 fold higher AUCt/D in lung tissues compared to Cxb-Soln. The systemic clearance of Cxb-NLC was slower (0.93 L/h) compared to Cxb-Soln (20.03 L/h). Cxb encapsulated NLC were found to be stable and aerodynamic properties were within the respirable limits. Aerosolization of Cxb-NLC improved the Cxb pulmonary bioavailability compared to solution formulation which will potentially lead to better patient compliance with minimal dosing intervals. PMID:20153385

  3. Inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan; Swendsen, Haruka

    2010-03-01

    Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge or observations to make predictions about novel cases. We review recent findings in research on category-based induction as well as theoretical models of these results, including similarity-based models, connectionist networks, an account based on relevance theory, Bayesian models, and other mathematical models. A number of touchstone empirical phenomena that involve taxonomic similarity are described. We also examine phenomena involving more complex background knowledge about premises and conclusions of inductive arguments and the properties referenced. Earlier models are shown to give a good account of similarity-based phenomena but not knowledge-based phenomena. Recent models that aim to account for both similarity-based and knowledge-based phenomena are reviewed and evaluated. Among the most important new directions in induction research are a focus on induction with uncertain premise categories, the modeling of the relationship between inductive and deductive reasoning, and examination of the neural substrates of induction. A common theme in both the well-established and emerging lines of induction research is the need to develop well-articulated and empirically testable formal models of induction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  5. Synthetic signal injection using inductive coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Marro, Kenneth I.; Lee, Donghoon; Shankland, Eric G.; Mathis, Clinton M.; Hayes, Cecil E.; Amara, Catherine E.; Kushmerick, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Conversion of MR signals into units of metabolite concentration requires a very high level of diligence to account for the numerous parameters and transformations that affect the proportionality between the quantity of excited nuclei in the acquisition volume and the integrated area of the corresponding peak in the spectrum. We describe a method that eases this burden with respect to the transformations that occur during and following data acquisition. The conceptual approach is similar to th...

  6. Comparative study of budesonide as a nebulized suspension vs pressurized metered-dose inhaler in adult asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Nikander, K; Munch, E

    1998-01-01

    The study objective was to compare the effect of budesonide administered as a nebulized suspension as compared to a spray with a spacer in adult asthmatics. In a double-blind, double-dummy crossover study, 26 adult patients with moderately severe unstable asthma were randomized to three 4-week...... treatment periods with budesonide 0.8 mg b.i.d. administered by a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) with spacer (Nebuhaler) and budesonide 1 mg and 4 mg b.i.d. administered by a Pari Inhalier Boy jet nebulizer. The nebulizer was activated only during inspiration. The total mass output was similar from...... the two devices but their fraction of small particles differed by a factor of 2 in favour of pMDI. Effect was evaluated from daily home measurements of peak expiratory flow (PEF), need of beta 2-agonist and symptom scores. Plasma cortisol and budesonide levels were measured in a subgroup of 10 patients...

  7. Development of an on-line flow injection Sr/matrix separation method for accurate, high-throughput determination of Sr isotope ratios by multiple collector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Patrick; Limbeck, Andreas; Boulyga, Sergei F; Stingeder, Gerhard; Hirata, Takafumi; Prohaska, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    This work introduces a newly developed on-line flow injection (FI) Sr/Rb separation method as an alternative to the common, manual Sr/matrix batch separation procedure, since total analysis time is often limited by sample preparation despite the fast rate of data acquisition possible by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometers (ICPMS). Separation columns containing approximately 100 muL of Sr-specific resin were used for on-line FI Sr/matrix separation with subsequent determination of (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios by multiple collector ICPMS. The occurrence of memory effects exhibited by the Sr-specific resin, a major restriction to the repetitive use of this costly material, could successfully be overcome. The method was fully validated by means of certified reference materials. A set of two biological and six geological Sr- and Rb-bearing samples was successfully characterized for its (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios with precisions of 0.01-0.04% 2 RSD (n = 5-10). Based on our measurements we suggest (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios of 0.713 15 +/- 0.000 16 (2 SD) and 0.709 31 +/- 0.000 06 (2 SD) for the NIST SRM 1400 bone ash and the NIST SRM 1486 bone meal, respectively. Measured (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios for five basalt samples are in excellent agreement with published data with deviations from the published value ranging from 0 to 0.03%. A mica sample with a Rb/Sr ratio of approximately 1 was successfully characterized for its (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope signature to be 0.718 24 +/- 0.000 29 (2 SD) by the proposed method. Synthetic samples with Rb/Sr ratios of up to 10/1 could successfully be measured without significant interferences on mass 87, which would otherwise bias the accuracy and uncertainty of the obtained data.

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Labour induction at term - a randomised trial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with or without the injection of saline solution or prostaglandins ... More analgesia was used in the Foley catheter/misoprostol ... Eligible women with clinical indications for labour induction at .... Meconium .... on the process of labour induction.

  9. Teacher induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijaard, D.; Buitink, J.; Kessels, C.; Peterson, P.; Baker, E.; McGraw, B.

    2010-01-01

    Teacher induction programs are intended to support the professional development of beginning teachers and thereby contribute to the reduction of teacher attrition during the early teaching years. Teacher induction programs are often based upon a deficit model with a focus on the better organization

  10. Placebo-controlled trial of nebulization with adrenaline in acute bronchiolitis: a quasi-experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, M.F.; Iqbal, S.M.; Sultan, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bronchiolitis is an acute inflammatory obstruction. of small In children that occurs In first two years of life and is by fever, rhinitis, cough, tachypnoea, expiratory wheeze and increased respiratory effort To study efficacy of nebulized adrenaline compared with placebo in acute bronchiolitis. Quasi-experimental study carried out at Department of aediatrics, King Edward Medical University/ Mayo Hospital, Lahore from October 2006 through March 2007. After consent from parents, sixty children of age between 2 months to 2 years with the first episode consistent with clinical case definition of bronchiolitis were included by using convenient sampling. clinical scoring system was used to grade the severity of disease as well as to monitor the efficacy of intervention. Those having score = 8 were randomly allocated to the two study groups. The information was recorded at 0 minute and effect of each method of treatment was followed for 90 minutes. Results: Our study population was 60 children. The mean age was 11:1:6 Months. Male to female ratio was 1.2: 1. Mean weight of the Children was 9:1:3 kg. Improvement in clinical score, oxygen saturation, and length of hospital at 0 and 90 minutes was noted in both groups but when compared with placebo, there was no Statistically significant difference. Conclusion: There is no difference in the efficacy of nebulization with adrenaline compared with placebo in the management of acute bronchiolitis. (author)

  11. Ultrasonic Nebulizer Assisted LIBS: a Promising Metal Elements Detection Method for Aqueous Sample Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shilei; Zheng Ronger; Lu Yuan; Cheng Kai; Xiu Junshan

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed approach for trace metal elements detection for aqueous samples analysis is presented in this paper. The idea of this approach is to improve ablation efficiency by transforming the liquid sample into a dense cloud of droplets using an ultrasonic nebulizer. The resulting droplets are then subjected to analysis by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A purpose-built ultrasonic nebulizer assisted LIBS (UN-LIBS) system has been applied to the analysis of aqueous samples at trace levels of concentration. Experimental investigations of solution samples were carried out with various dissolved trace metal elements (Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, Mg and Na) using this approach. The characteristics of UN-LIBS signal of the elements were investigated regarding the lifetime and S/B ratio and the calibration curves for trace metal elements analyses. The obtained LODs are comparable or much better than the LODS of the reported signal enhancement approaches when the laser pulse energy was as low as 30 mJ. The good linearity of calibration curves and the low LODs shows the potential ability of this method for metal elements analysis application. The density of the electrons was calculated by measuring the Stark width of the line of H α . The possible mechanism of the LIBS signal enhancement of this approach was briefly discussed. (paper)

  12. Nebulized hypertonic saline decreases IL-8 in sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-02-01

    RATIONALE: Inflammation within the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is mediated by inflammatory chemokines, such as IL-8. IL-8 is protected from proteolytic degradation in the airways by binding to glycosaminoglycans, while remaining active. Evidence that increased hypertonicity of airway secretions induced by hypertonic saline treatment alters levels of IL-8 is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antiinflammatory effect of hypertonic saline (HTS) treatment within the CF lung by focusing on IL-8. METHODS: Degradation of IL-8 in CF lung secretions after treatment with glycosaminoglycan lyases and HTS was analyzed by Western blot analysis and ELISA. The ex vivo chemotactic activity of purified neutrophils in response to CF airway secretions was evaluated post nebulization of HTS (7% saline). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In vivo CF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IL-8 levels were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). Digesting glycosaminoglycans in CF BALF displaced IL-8 from glycosaminoglycan matrices, rendering the chemokine susceptible to proteolytic cleavage. High sodium concentrations also liberate IL-8 in CF BALF in vitro, and in vivo in CF sputum from patients receiving aerosolized HTS, resulting in degradation of IL-8 and decreased neutrophil chemotactic efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Glycosaminoglycans possess the ability to influence the chemokine profile of the CF lung by binding and stabilizing IL-8, which promotes neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. Nebulized hypertonic saline treatment disrupts the interaction between glycosaminoglycans and IL-8, rendering IL-8 susceptible to proteolytic degradation with subsequent decrease in neutrophil chemotaxis, thereby facilitating resolution of inflammation.

  13. Comparison of aerosol inhalation lung images using BARC and other nebulizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, Toyoharu; Teshima, Takeo; Anazawa, Yoshiki; Miki, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    Various factors determine the site of inhaled aerosol deposition in the lungs. They are the size of aerosol the composition of carrier gas of the aerosol, the airflow rate, physico-chemical properties of the carrier gas or the aerosol, the shape and structure of the airways, and the body position during inhalation. Aerosol inhalation lung images were obtained in the same subjects using 99m Tc-human serum albumin aerosol generated by 3 different aerosol generators each producing different-sized aerosol and 2 or 3 days apart from each study. The size of aerosol produced by an ultrasonic nebulizer (Mistogen) was 1.93 Micron in activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) with its geometric standard deviation (σg) of 1.73, that by a jet nebulizer (Ultra Vent) was 1.04 micron in AMAD with its σg of 1.71, and that by our BARC nebulizer, a type of a jet nebulizer, was 0.84 micron in AMAD with its σg of 1.73. In addition Technegas was also applied to selected patients. The latter produced aerosol of less than 0.2 micron in size at the largest and the majority, say, 95% or more of the generated aerosol was less than 0.1 micron in size by electron Microscopy. Each subject inhaled aerosol in resting tidal breathing through a mouth-piece with a one way double J valve with the nose clipped in the sitting position. After inhaling approximately 2-3 mCi (74 to 111 MBq) in the thorax, four view lung images were taken: anterior, posterior, and right and left laterals. 300 K counts per view were collected. They were not only pictured on polaroid films as analogue data but also recorded and stored in a computer as digital data. In case of Technegas breathing it for the RV (residual volume) to the TLC (total lung capacity) level followed by breath-holding for 5 to 10 sec in duration was repeated 2 to 3 times as a breathing maneuver instead of tidal breathing. Otherwise deposition efficiency of Technegas is very little because of the small size of the Technegas. Representative 10

  14. Practicing induction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas; Rohde, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    We claim that induction potentially triggers both individual and organizational learning and by drawing on practice-based theory we discuss how the interplay between individual and organization, what we call a generative dance, ignites both kinds of learning.......We claim that induction potentially triggers both individual and organizational learning and by drawing on practice-based theory we discuss how the interplay between individual and organization, what we call a generative dance, ignites both kinds of learning....

  15. Progress in ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for condensed matter sciences developed from ultrasonic nebulization theories since Michael Faraday

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwakikunga, BW

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines, in great detail, the history of the phenomenon of ultrasonic nebulization of liquids since the discovery of such an effect by Michael Faraday and the explanation of the phenomenon by capillary wave mechanism and “cavitation...

  16. A Facile Droplet-Chip-Time-Resolved Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Online System for Determination of Zinc in Single Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2017-05-02

    Single cell analysis is a significant research field in recent years reflecting the heterogeneity of cells in a biological system. In this work, a facile droplet chip was fabricated and online combined with time-resolved inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) via a microflow nebulizer for the determination of zinc in single HepG2 cells. On the focusing geometric designed PDMS microfluidic chip, the aqueous cell suspension was ejected and divided by hexanol to generate droplets. The droplets encapsulated single cells remain intact during the transportation into ICP for subsequent detection. Under the optimized conditions, the frequency of droplet generation is 3-6 × 10 6 min -1 , and the injected cell number is 2500 min -1 , which can ensure the single cell encapsulation. ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were used for the quantification of zinc in single cells, and the accuracy was validated by conventional acid digestion-ICPMS method. The ZnO NPs incubated HepG2 cells were analyzed as model samples, and the results exhibit the heterogeneity of HepG2 cells in the uptake/adsorption of ZnO NPs. The developed online droplet-chip-ICPMS analysis system achieves stable single cell encapsulation and has high throughput for single cell analysis. It has the potential in monitoring the content as well as distribution of trace elements/NPs at the single cell level.

  17. Preventive nebulization of mucolytic agents and bronchodilating drugs in invasively ventilated intensive care unit patients (NEBULAE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoeven, Sophia M; Binnekade, Jan M; de Borgie, Corianne A J M; Bosch, Frank H; Endeman, Henrik; Horn, Janneke; Juffermans, Nicole P; van der Meer, Nardo J M; Merkus, Maruschka P; Moeniralam, Hazra S; van Silfhout, Bart; Slabbekoorn, Mathilde; Stilma, Willemke; Wijnhoven, Jan Willem; Schultz, Marcus J; Paulus, Frederique

    2015-09-02

    Preventive nebulization of mucolytic agents and bronchodilating drugs is a strategy aimed at the prevention of sputum plugging, and therefore atelectasis and pneumonia, in intubated and ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The present trial aims to compare a strategy using the preventive nebulization of acetylcysteine and salbutamol with nebulization on indication in intubated and ventilated ICU patients. The preventive nebulization of mucolytic agents and bronchodilating drugs in invasively ventilated intensive care unit patients (NEBULAE) trial is a national multicenter open-label, two-armed, randomized controlled non-inferiority trial in the Netherlands. Nine hundred and fifty intubated and ventilated ICU patients with an anticipated duration of invasive ventilation of more than 24 hours will be randomly assigned to receive either a strategy consisting of preventive nebulization of acetylcysteine and salbutamol or a strategy consisting of nebulization of acetylcysteine and/or salbutamol on indication. The primary endpoint is the number of ventilator-free days and surviving on day 28. Secondary endpoints include ICU and hospital length of stay, ICU and hospital mortality, the occurrence of predefined pulmonary complications (acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, large atelectasis and pneumothorax), and the occurrence of predefined side effects of the intervention. Related healthcare costs will be estimated in a cost-benefit and budget-impact analysis. The NEBULAE trial is the first randomized controlled trial powered to investigate whether preventive nebulization of acetylcysteine and salbutamol shortens the duration of ventilation in critically ill patients. NCT02159196, registered on 6 June 2014.

  18. Promoting adherence to nebulized therapy in cystic fibrosis: poster development and a qualitative exploration of adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Jones,1 Nathan Babiker,2 Emma Gardner,2,3 Jane Royle,2 Rachael Curley,3,4 Zhe Hui Hoo,3,4 Martin J Wildman3,4 1Psychology Department, University of Sheffield, 2Psychological Services, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 3Adult Cystic Fibrosis Unit, Northern General Hospital, 4School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF health care professionals recognize the need to motivate people with CF to adhere to nebulizer treatments, yet little is known about how best to achieve this. We aimed to produce motivational posters to support nebulizer adherence by using social marketing involving people with CF in the development of those posters. Methods: The Sheffield CF multidisciplinary team produced preliminary ideas that were elaborated upon with semi-structured interviews among people with CF to explore barriers and facilitators to the use of nebulized therapy. Initial themes and poster designs were refined using an online focus group to finalize the poster designs. Results: People with CF preferred aspirational posters describing what could be achieved through adherence in contrast to posters that highlighted the adverse consequences of nonadherence. A total of 14 posters were produced through this process. Conclusion: People with CF can be engaged to develop promotional material to support adherence, providing a unique perspective differing from that of the CF multidisciplinary team. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these posters to support nebulizer adherence. Keywords: behavior change, social marketing, patient participation, nebulizers, medication adherence

  19. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron immediate-release injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and to ... nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with ...

  20. Edaravone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which ... die, causing the muscles to shrink and weaken). Edaravone injection is in a class of medications called ...

  1. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  2. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  3. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  4. Defibrotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defibrotide injection is used to treat adults and children with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD; blocked blood ... the body and then returned to the body). Defibrotide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  6. Experimental demonstration of the KEK induction synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Ken; Torikai, Kota; Shimosaki, Yoshito; Kono, Tadaaki; Iwashita, Taiki; Arakida, Yoshio; Nakamura, Eiji; Shirakata, Masashi; Sueno, Takeshi; Wake, Masayoshi; Otsuka, Kazunori

    2007-01-01

    Recent progress in the KEK induction synchrotron is presented. In the recent experiment, by using a newly developed induction acceleration system instead of radio-wave acceleration devices, a single proton bunch injected from the 500 MeV Booster ring and captured by the barrier bucket created by the induction step-voltages was accelerated to 6 GeV in the KEK proton synchrotron

  7. JHKL photometry of three Herbig-Haro jet sources and a nebulous T Tauri star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrba, F.J.; Rydgren, A.E.; Zak, D.S.; Computer Sciences Corp., Baltimore, MD; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY)

    1985-01-01

    Infrared sources have been detected at the positions of the Herbig-Haro jet sources HH 30, DG Tau B, and Haro 6-5 B in the Taurus dark cloud complex. The colors of these Herbig-Haro jet sources in the 1-4 micron wavelength range are comparable to those of the dustiest T Tauri stars, while the K magnitudes corrected for likely interstellar extinction are actually somewhat fainter than those oftypical T Tauri stars in this region. These observations are consistent with the view that these Herbig-Haro jet sources are low-mass premain-sequence stars. The nebulous T Tauri star Haro 6-5 was also observed and found to show both a large infrared excess and an intrinsic-polarization of about 3 percent in visible light. Thus this star seems to resemble HL Tau and DG Tau, which have been suggested as examples of young stars with circumstellar disks. 17 references

  8. Noise distribution of an incubator with nebulizer at a neonatal intensive care unit in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H F; Chang, Y J

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the noise distribution and sources of peak noise inside an incubator with a nebulizer at a neonatal intensive care unit of a medical center in Southern Taiwan. Sound levels were monitored continuously with an electronic sound-meter for 24 hours daily over a one-week period. Three working hours (day, evening, and night hours) in the weekday and weekend (total 48 hours) were selected randomly from the one-week period of noise survey to observe peak noise at levels > or = 65 dBA. Results revealed that 24.8% of the total monitoring period had sound levels at or = 70 dBA. Furthermore, a total of 947 peak noises > or = 65 dBA were found within the 48 hours, of which 61.5% were in a range of 65-69 dBA, 24% of 70-74 dBA, 9.8% of 75-79 dBA, and 4.8% > or = 80 dBA. Human-related sources, equaling 79%, were the dominant peak noises. These noises included opening and closing doors, banging the incubator hood, conversation among staff, nursing activity inside the incubator, tearing and opening paper or bags, opening and closing trash can lids, and bumping metal carts or other apparatus. Nonhuman-related sources were 21% including alarms of monitors and running of the incubator motor. Results of this study showed that the noise distribution in the incubator with nebulizer was far above a protective limitation of 58 dBA, suggested by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1974. However, most peak noises could be reduced by modification of staff behavior. Therefore, determinations of noise distribution and sources of peak noise in this study are useful for further noise reduction programs.

  9. Surface acoustic wave nebulization of peptides as a microfluidic interface for mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Scott R; Wilson, Rab; Shaffer, Scott A; Goodlett, David R; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2010-05-15

    We describe the fabrication of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) device on a LiNbO(3) piezoelectric transducer for the transfer of nonvolatile analytes to the gas phase at atmospheric pressure (a process referred to as nebulization or atomization). We subsequently show how such a device can be used in the field of mass spectrometry (MS) detection, demonstrating that SAW nebulization (SAWN) can be performed either in a discontinuous or pulsed mode, similar to that for matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) or in a continuous mode like electrospray ionization (ESI). We present data showing the transfer of peptides to the gas phase, where ions are detected by MS. These peptide ions were subsequently fragmented by collision-induced dissociation, from which the sequence was assigned. Unlike MALDI mass spectra, which are typically contaminated with matrix ions at low m/z, the SAWN generated spectra had no such interference. In continuous mode, the SAWN plume was sampled on a microsecond time scale by a linear ion trap mass spectrometer and produced multiply charged peptide precursor ions with a charge state distribution shifted to higher m/z compared to an identical sample analyzed by ESI. The SAWN technology also provides the opportunity to re-examine a sample from a flat surface, repeatedly. The process can be performed without the need for capillaries, which can clog, reservoirs, which dilute the sample, and electrodes, which when in direct contact with sample, cause unwanted electrochemical oxidation. In both continuous and pulsed sampling modes, the quality of precursor ion scans and tandem mass spectra of peptides was consistent across the plume's lifetime.

  10. Implementation of suitable flow injection/sequential-sample separation/preconcentration schemes for determination of trace metal concentrations using detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Wang, Jianhua

    2002-01-01

    Various preconditioning procedures encomprising appropriate separation/preconcentration schemes in order to obtain optimal sensitivity and selectivity characteristics when using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS...

  11. Accurate determination of sulfur in gasoline and related fuel samples using isotope dilution ICP-MS with direct sample injection and microwave-assisted digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Jens; Boulyga, Sergei F; Heumann, Klaus G

    2004-09-01

    Inductively coupled plasma isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (ICP-IDMS) with direct injection of isotope-diluted samples into the plasma, using a direct injection high-efficiency nebulizer (DIHEN), was applied for accurate sulfur determinations in sulfur-free premium gasoline, gas oil, diesel fuel, and heating oil. For direct injection a micro-emulsion consisting of the corresponding organic sample and an aqueous 34S-enriched spike solution with additions of tetrahydronaphthalene and Triton X-100, was prepared. The ICP-MS parameters were optimized with respect to high sulfur ion intensities, low mass-bias values, and high precision of 32S/34S ratio measurements. For validation of the DIHEN-ICP-IDMS method two certified gas oil reference materials (BCR 107 and BCR 672) were analyzed. For comparison a wet-chemical ICP-IDMS method was applied with microwave-assisted digestion using decomposition of samples in a closed quartz vessel inserted into a normal microwave system. The results from both ICP-IDMS methods agree well with the certified values of the reference materials and also with each other for analyses of other samples. However, the standard deviation of DIHEN-ICP-IDMS was about a factor of two higher (5-6% RSD at concentration levels above 100 mircog g(-1)) compared with those of wet-chemical ICP-IDMS, mainly due to inhomogeneities of the micro-emulsion, which causes additional plasma instabilities. Detection limits of 4 and 18 microg g(-1) were obtained for ICP-IDMS in connection with microwave-assisted digestion and DIHEN-ICP-IDMS, respectively, with a sulfur background of the used Milli-Q water as the main limiting factor for both methods.

  12. Accurate determination of sulfur in gasoline and related fuel samples using isotope dilution ICP-MS with direct sample injection and microwave-assisted digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmann, Jens; Boulyga, Sergei F.; Heumann, Klaus G. [Johannes Gutenberg-University, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Inductively coupled plasma isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (ICP-IDMS) with direct injection of isotope-diluted samples into the plasma, using a direct injection high-efficiency nebulizer (DIHEN), was applied for accurate sulfur determinations in sulfur-free premium gasoline, gas oil, diesel fuel, and heating oil. For direct injection a micro-emulsion consisting of the corresponding organic sample and an aqueous {sup 34}S-enriched spike solution with additions of tetrahydronaphthalene and Triton X-100, was prepared. The ICP-MS parameters were optimized with respect to high sulfur ion intensities, low mass-bias values, and high precision of {sup 32}S/{sup 34}S ratio measurements. For validation of the DIHEN-ICP-IDMS method two certified gas oil reference materials (BCR 107 and BCR 672) were analyzed. For comparison a wet-chemical ICP-IDMS method was applied with microwave-assisted digestion using decomposition of samples in a closed quartz vessel inserted into a normal microwave system. The results from both ICP-IDMS methods agree well with the certified values of the reference materials and also with each other for analyses of other samples. However, the standard deviation of DIHEN-ICP-IDMS was about a factor of two higher (5-6% RSD at concentration levels above 100 {mu}g g{sup -1}) compared with those of wet-chemical ICP-IDMS, mainly due to inhomogeneities of the micro-emulsion, which causes additional plasma instabilities. Detection limits of 4 and 18 {mu}g g{sup -1} were obtained for ICP-IDMS in connection with microwave-assisted digestion and DIHEN-ICP-IDMS, respectively, with a sulfur background of the used Milli-Q water as the main limiting factor for both methods. (orig.)

  13. Production of Highly Charged Pharmaceutical Aerosols Using a New Aerosol Induction Charger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshahi, Laleh; Longest, P Worth; Holbrook, Landon; Snead, Jessica; Hindle, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Properly charged particles can be used for effective lung targeting of pharmaceutical aerosols. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of a new induction charger that operates with a mesh nebulizer for the production of highly charged submicrometer aerosols to bypass the mouth-throat and deliver clinically relevant doses of medications to the lungs. Variables of interest included combinations of model drug (albuterol sulfate) and charging excipient (NaCl) as well as strength of the charging field (1-5 kV/cm). Aerosol charge and size were measured using a modified electrical low pressure impactor system combined with high performance liquid chromatography. At the approximate mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the aerosol (~0.4 μm), the induction charge on the particles was an order of magnitude above the field and diffusion charge limit. The nebulization rate was 439.3 ± 42.9 μl/min, which with a 0.1% w/v solution delivered 419.5 ± 34.2 μg of medication per minute. A new correlation was developed to predict particle charge produced by the induction charger. The combination of the aerosol induction charger and predictive correlations will allow for the practical generation and control of charged submicrometer aerosols for targeting deposition within the lungs.

  14. Induction practice -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Nicolas; Sprogøe, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    that induction potentially triggers both individual and organizational learning and by drawing on practice-based theory we discuss how the interplay between individual and the organization, what we call agenerative dance, ignites both kinds of learning. We focus on and describe the interplay , ignites both kinds...

  15. Efficacy of nebulized fluticasone propionate in adult patients admitted to the emergency department due to bronchial asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starobin, Daniel; Bolotinsky, Ludmila; Or, Jack; Fink, Gershon; Shtoeger, Zev

    2008-01-01

    Locally delivered steroids by inhalers or nebulizers have been shown in small trials to be effective in acute asthma attack, but evidence-based data are insufficient to establish their place as routine management of adult asthma attacks. To determine the efficacy of nebulized compared to systemic steroids in adult asthmatics admitted to the emergency department following an acute attack. Adult asthmatics admitted to the ED were assigned in random consecutive case fashion to one of three protocol groups: group 1--nebulized steroid fluticasone (Flixotide Nebules), group 2--intravenous methylprednisolone, group 3--combined treatment by both routes. Objective and subjective parameters, such as peak expiratory flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate and dyspnea score, were registered before and 2 hours after ED treatment was initiated. Steroids were continued for 1 week following the ED visit according to the protocol arm. Data on hospital admission/discharge rate, ED readmissions in the week after enrollment and other major events related to asthma were registered. Altogether, 73 adult asthmatics were assigned to receive treatment: 24 patients in group 1, 23 in group 2 and 26 in group 3. Mean age was 44.4 +/- 16.8 years (range 17-75 years). Peak expiratory flow and dyspnea score significantly improved in group 1 patients compared with patients in the other groups after 2 hours of ED treatment (P = 0.021 and 0.009, respectively). The discharge rate after ED treatment was significantly higher in groups 1 and 3 than in group 2 (P = 0.05). All 73 patients were alive a week after enrollment. Five patients (20.8%) in the Flixotide treatment arm were hospitalized and required additional systemic steroids. Multivariate analysis of factors affecting hospitalization rate demonstrated that severity of asthma (odds ratio 8.11) and group 2 (OD 4.17) had a negative effect, whereas adherence to chronic anti-asthma therapy (OD 0.49) reduced the hospitalization rate. Our study cohort

  16. Induction Brazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul

    , or if the hottest area is located outside the joint interface, a number of defects may appear: the braze metal may flow away from the joint, the flux may burn off, poor binding of the braze metal may appear or the braze metal may be overheated. Joint geometry as well as electro-magnetic properties of the work piece...... presents a combined numerical and experimental method for determination of appropriate/optimiged coil geometry and position in induction brazing tube-to-plate joints of different ratios between tube and plate thickness and different combinations of the materials stainless steel, brass and copper....... The method has proven to give successful results in brazing tube-plate joints of copper-brass, copper-stainless steel, stainless steel-brass, and stainless steel-stainless steel. A new design of an adjustable flux concentrator for induction heating tube-to-plate joints is proposed and tested on a variety...

  17. Differential induction and spread of tau pathology in young PS19 tau transgenic mice following intracerebral injections of pathological tau from Alzheimer’s disease or corticobasal degeneration brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda, Susana; Iba, Michiyo; Zhang, Bin; Raible, Kevin M.; Lee, Virginia M-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous tau pathologies are hallmark lesions of several neurodegenerative tauopathies including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) which show cell type-specific and topographically distinct tau inclusions. Growing evidence supports templated transmission of tauopathies through functionally interconnected neuroanatomical pathways suggesting that different self-propagating strains of pathological tau could account for the diverse manifestations of neurodegenerative tauopathies. Here, we describe the rapid and distinct cell type-specific spread of pathological tau following intracerebral injections of CBD or AD brain extracts enriched in pathological tau (designated CBD-Tau and AD-Tau, respectively) in young human mutant P301S tau transgenic (Tg) mice (line PS19) ~6–9 months before they show onset of mutant tau transgene-induced tau pathology. At 1 month post-injection of CBD-Tau, tau inclusions developed predominantly in oligodendrocytes of the fimbria and white matter near the injection sites with infrequent intraneuronal tau aggregates. In contrast, injections of AD-Tau in young PS19 mice induced tau pathology predominantly in neuronal perikarya with little or no oligodendrocyte involvement 1 month post-injection. With longer post-injection survival intervals of up to 6 months, CBD-Tau- and AD-Tau-induced tau pathology spread to different brain regions distant from the injection sites while maintaining the cell type-specific pattern noted above. Finally, CA3 neuron loss was detected 3 months post-injection of AD-Tau but not CBD-Tau. Thus, AD-Tau and CBD-Tau represent specific pathological tau strains that spread differentially and may underlie distinct clinical and pathological features of these two tauopathies. Hence, these strains could become targets to develop disease-modifying therapies for CBD and AD. PMID:25534024

  18. Comparison of Initial Response of Nebulized Salbutamol and Adrenaline in Infants and young Children Admitted with Acute Bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S; Thapa, P; Rao, K S; Bk, G

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute bronchiolitis is common cause of hospitalization in infants and young children. There are widespread variations in the diagnosis and management. Despite the use of bronchodilators for decades, there is lack of consensus for the benefit of one above another. Objective To compare initial response of nebulized adrenaline and salbutamol. Method Children aged two months to two years admitted with acute bronchiolitis in the department of Paediatrics of Manipal teaching hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, from 1st March 2014 to 28th February 2015 were enrolled. Patients fulfilling inclusion criteria received either adrenaline or salbutamol nebulization. Data were collected in a predesigned proforma. Respiratory distress assessment instrument (RDAI) scores were considered primary outcome measure and respiratory rate at 48 hours, duration of hospital stay, requirement of supplemental oxygen and intravenous fluid were considered secondary outcome measure. Result A total of 40 patients were enrolled in each study group. Mean RDAI scores at admission was in 9.75 with (CI- 9.01, 10.49) in adrenaline and 9.77 (CI- 9.05, 10.50) in salbutamol group. There was gradual decline in mean RDAI scores in both the groups over 48 hours to 4.15 (CI- 3.57,4.73) and 4.13 (CI- 3.69,4.56) in adrenaline and salbutamol group respectively. Hospital stay was 5.32 days in adrenaline and 5.68 days in salbutamol group. Patients nebulized with adrenaline required oxygen for 33.30 hours compared with 36.45 hours in salbutamol. Intravenous fluid duration was also less in adrenaline group compared to salbutamol group (33.15 vs 37.80 hours). Conclusion Patients of acute bronchiolitis nebulized with either salbutamol or adrenaline experienced similar decline in RDAI scores in the first 48 hours. Duration of supplementary oxygen and intravenous fluid was less in adrenaline group compared with salbutamol group.

  19. Determination of uranium from nuclear fuel in environmental samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Becker, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) the environment was contaminated with spent nuclear fuel. The 236 U isotope was used in this study to monitor the spent uranium from nuclear fallout in soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl NPP. A rapid and sensitive analytical procedure was developed for uranium isotopic ratio measurement in environmental samples based on inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry with a hexapole collision cell (HEX-ICP-QMS). The figures of merit of the HEX-ICP-QMS were studied with a plasma-shielded torch using different nebulizers (such as an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) and Meinhard nebulizer) for solution introduction. A 238 U + ion intensity of up to 27000 MHz/ppm in HEX-ICP-QMS with USN was observed by introducing helium into the hexapole collision cell as the collision gas at a flow rate of 10 ml min -1 . The formation rate of uranium hydride ions UH + /U + of 2 x 10 -6 was obtained by using USN with a membrane desolvator. The limit of 236 U/ 238 U ratio determination in 10 μg 1 -1 uranium solution was 3 x 10 -7 corresponding to the detection limit for 236 U of 3 pg 1 -1 . The precision of uranium isotopic ratio measurements in 10 μg 1 -1 laboratory uranium isotopic standard solution was 0.13% ( 235 U/ 238 U) and 0.33% ( 236 U/ 238 U) using a Meinhard nebulizer and 0.45% ( 235 U/ 238 U) and 0.88% ( 236 U/ 238 U) using a USN. The isotopic composition of all investigated Chernobyl soil samples differed from those of natural uranium; i.e. in these samples the 236 U/ 238 U ratio ranged from 10 -5 to 10 -3 . (orig.)

  20. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure ...

  1. Hydromorphone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anyone else to use your medication. Store hydromorphone injection in a safe place so that no one else can use it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how much medication is left so ... with hydromorphone injection may increase the risk that you will develop ...

  2. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an older adult, you should know that ketorolac injection is not as safe as other medications that can be used to treat your condition. Your doctor may choose to prescribe a different medication ... to ketorolac injection.Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the ...

  3. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (pak'' li tax' el)Paclitaxel injection must be given in a hospital or medical facility under the supervision of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer.Paclitaxel injection may cause a large decrease in the number of white blood cells (a type of blood cell ...

  4. EFFECT OF NEBULIZED COLISTIN ON THE VENTILATOR CIRCUIT: A PROSPECTIVE PILOT CASE-CONTROL STUDY FROM A SINGLE CANCER CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad M Ghonimat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nebulized colistin (NC is used for the treatment of pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In this one-year case-control study, our objective was to evaluate the effect of NC on the ventilator circuit (VC components. The case group consisted of 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who received NC, while the control group was 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who did not receive NC. Respiratory therapists inspected the VC every 4 hrs and whenever a ventilator alarm was reported. The VC component was changed if the alarm did not subside after necessary measures were performed. Patients from both groups were treated at the adult ICU in King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC. In the case group, 22(88% patients required changing at least one of the circuit components (flow sensor, exhalation membrane, or nebulizer kit. The median number of changes (range per patient of the flow sensor, exhalation membrane, and nebulizer kit were: 2(1-3, 2(1-6, and 1(1-2, respectively. Large amounts of white crystals, which resembled the colistin powder, were reported on the replaced VC components. The flow sensor was changed in 2 control patients, but white crystals were absent. Crystals obtained from one case subject were confirmed to be colistin by chromatographic mass spectroscopy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of crystal formation on the efficacy of NC and clinical outcomes.

  5. Different Nebulized Budesonide Dosing Regimens in a Mouse Model of Chronic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Uysal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different inhaled steroid regimens on the lungs and their potential side effects on the bone tissues in chronic asthma model. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five specific pathogen-free BALB/c mice were divided into five groups. The mice in all of the study groups except the control group were sensitized with chicken egg albumin. After sensitization, the mice in group 2 were treated with saline modeling twice daily, the mice in group 3 were treated with 250 mcg of nebulized budesonide twice daily, the mice in group 4 were treated with 500 mcg of budesonide once daily, and the mice in group 5 were treated with 1000 mcg of budesonide every other day for the last 14 days of the challenge period. After challenge, the mice were sacrificed and lung and tibia samples were histologically examined. Results: Pulmonary parameters, including subepithelial smooth muscle thickness, goblet cell count, mast cell count and epithelial thickness, were the lowest in group 5 compared to other groups (p0.01. Conclusion: The beneficial effect on lung tissue was highest in the treatment group receiving budesonide every other day (group 5 and no further measureable side effects on bone mineralization were observed in this group compared with the other treatment groups. Every-other-day treatment application seems to be the most effective regimen in chronic asthma model.

  6. Quantitative analysis of lead in aqueous solutions by ultrasonic nebulizer assisted laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shi-Lei; Lu, Yuan; Kong, Wei-Jin; Cheng, Kai; Zheng, Ronger

    2016-08-01

    In this study, an ultrasonic nebulizer unit was established to improve the quantitative analysis ability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for liquid samples detection, using solutions of the heavy metal element Pb as an example. An analytical procedure was designed to guarantee the stability and repeatability of the LIBS signal. A series of experiments were carried out strictly according to the procedure. The experimental parameters were optimized based on studies of the pulse energy influence and temporal evolution of the emission features. The plasma temperature and electron density were calculated to confirm the LTE state of the plasma. Normalizing the intensities by background was demonstrated to be an appropriate method in this work. The linear range of this system for Pb analysis was confirmed over a concentration range of 0-4,150ppm by measuring 12 samples with different concentrations. The correlation coefficient of the fitted calibration curve was as high as 99.94% in the linear range, and the LOD of Pb was confirmed as 2.93ppm. Concentration prediction experiments were performed on a further six samples. The excellent quantitative ability of the system was demonstrated by comparison of the real and predicted concentrations of the samples. The lowest relative error was 0.043% and the highest was no more than 7.1%.

  7. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  8. Buprenorphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opiate partial agonists. It works to prevent withdrawal symptoms ... help. If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, ...

  9. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  10. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... haloperidol extended-release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  11. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...

  12. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  13. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  14. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  15. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  16. Daptomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work for treating colds, flu, or other viral infections. ...

  17. Ceftaroline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  18. Aztreonam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as aztreonam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  19. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  20. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  1. Cefotetan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotetan injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  2. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  3. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as tigecycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  4. Ertapenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  5. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.Using ...

  6. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  7. Telavancin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called lipoglycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as telavancin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  8. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  9. Vancomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  10. Octreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carton and protect it from light. Dispose of multi-dose vials of the immediate-release injection 14 ... and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out ...

  11. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  12. Delafloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  13. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  14. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  15. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Alirocumab injection may ...

  16. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibody. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Evolocumab injection may ...

  17. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  18. Butorphanol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using butorphanol injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  19. Evaluation of the Effect of Nebulized N-Acetylcysteine on Respiratory Secretions in Mechanically Ventilated Patients: Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Masoom Masoompour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of our study was to evaluate an inexpensive and available method to reduce mucous impactions in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 40 mechanically ventilated patients aged 15-90 years. The patients were randomly allocated into two arms; 20 cases and 20 controls. The cases received N-acetylcysteine via their nebulizers, and the control group received normal saline three times a day for one day. We measured the density of respiratory secretion, plateau and peak airway pressures, and O2 saturation at baseline, 12 and 24 hours later. Results: Although the mean secretion density was significantly lower in the NAC group (F (1, 38=8.61, P=0.006, but a repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction determined that the effect of NAC on mean secretion density did not differ significantly between time points (F (1, 38=3.08, P=0.087. NAC increased O2 saturation significantly between time points (F (1.92, 73.1=4.6, P=0.014. The plateau airway pressures were relatively stable throughout the study in the normal saline and NAC groups (F (1.95, 37.1=0.67, P=0.513. The peak airway pressure did not change significantly during the study in the normal saline and NAC groups (F (1.52, 56.4=0.91, P=0.384. Conclusion: Considering the limitations of the study, nebulized NAC in mechanically ventilated patients was not effective more than normal saline nebulization in reducing the density of mucous plugs. The peak and plateau airway pressures were relatively stable throughout the study in both groups. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201104276312N1.

  20. Humidity control of an incubator using the microcontroller-based active humidifier system employing an ultrasonic nebulizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, I; Burunkaya, M

    2002-01-01

    Relative humidity levels of an incubator were measured and controlled. An ultrasonic nebulizer system as an active humidifier was used to humidify the incubator environment. An integrated circuit-type humidity sensor was used to measure the humidity level of the incubator environment. Measurement and control processes were achieved by a PIC microcontroller. The high-performance and high-speed PIC provided the flexibility of the system. The developed system can be used effectively for the intensive care of newborns and/or premature babies. Since the humidifier generates an aerosol in ambient conditions, it is possible to provide the high relative humidity level for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes in medicine.

  1. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications ... of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  2. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are taking the medication to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the ...

  3. Triptorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puberty too soon, resulting in faster than normal bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in children 2 years and older. Triptorelin injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. It works by decreasing the amount ...

  4. Nebulized fluticasone propionate, a viable alternative to systemic route in the management of childhood moderate asthma attack: A double-blind, double-dummy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirca, Beyza Poplata; Cagan, Hasret; Kiykim, Ayca; Arig, Ulku; Arpa, Medeni; Tulunay, Aysin; Ozen, Ahmet; Karakoc-Aydiner, Elif; Baris, Safa; Barlan, I B

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we compared the clinical and immunological efficacy of nebulized corticosteroid (CS) to systemic route during treatment of moderate asthma attack in children. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, prospective study, 81 children aged 12 months to 16 years experiencing asthma attack randomized into two treatment groups to receive, either; nebulized fluticasone propionate (n = 39, 2000 mcg/day) or oral methylprednisolone (n = 41, 1 mg/kg/day). Pulmonary index scores (PIS) were assessed at admission and at 1st, 4th, 8th, 12th, 24th, 48th hours, as well as, on day 7 and peak expiratory flow (PEF) at baseline and at the 7th day. Daily symptom and medication scores were recorded for all subjects. Immunological studies included phytohemagglutinin induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells culture supernatant for cytokine responses and CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) T regulatory cell (T reg) percentage at baseline and day 7. The changes in PIS and PEF were similar in both treatment groups, with a significant improvement in both values at the 7th day, when compared to baseline. In both groups, significant reductions in symptom and medication scores were observed during the treatment period with no significant difference between the groups. At day 7 of intervention, phytohemagglutinin induced IL-4 level was significantly decreased only in the nebulized group compared to baseline (p = 0.01). Evaluation of cytokine responses by means of fold increase (stimulated (S)/unstimulated (US) ratio) revealed a significant reduction in IL-4, IL-5 and IL-17 only in nebulized group (p = 0.01, 0.01, 0.02; respectively). The fold increase value of IL-5 was significantly lower at 7th day in nebulized group when compared to systemic one (p = 0.02). At 7th day, although in both treatment groups the percentage of T reg cells was suppressed, it remained significantly higher in the nebule one when compared to systemic route (p = 0.04). In the management of

  5. Efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate/eFlow® CS (nebulized glycopyrrolate) in moderate-to-very-severe COPD: Results from the glycopyrrolate for obstructive lung disease via electronic nebulizer (GOLDEN) 3 and 4 randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Edward; Donohue, James F; Goodin, Thomas; Tosiello, Robert; Wheeler, Alistair; Ferguson, Gary T

    2017-11-01

    SUN-101 is a combination of glycopyrrolate delivered through an innovative, electronic nebulizer, intended for the treatment of patients with COPD. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of this new drug device combination. Replicate Phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate solution administered by an investigational eFlow ® Closed System (eFlow ® CS) nebulizer in subjects with moderate-to-very-severe COPD, including those with continued background use of a long-acting beta 2 -agonist ± inhaled corticosteroid and/or history of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Subjects were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive placebo or glycopyrrolate (25 μg or 50 μg twice daily [BID]) for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) at Week 12 compared with placebo. Secondary endpoints included change from baseline in forced vital capacity (FVC) after 12 weeks, change from baseline in health status measured by St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) at 12 weeks/end of study (EOS), and change in rescue medication use, as well as change from baseline in FEV 1 area under the curve from 0 to 12 h after 12 weeks in the GOLDEN 3 sub-study. Daytime and night-time symptoms were recorded using an electronic diary. Safety was monitored throughout the study, including major adverse cardiovascular events. A total of 653 subjects were randomized in GOLDEN 3 and 641 in GOLDEN 4. Treatment with glycopyrrolate 25 μg BID and 50 μg BID resulted in statistically significant and clinically important changes from baseline in trough FEV 1 compared with placebo at Week 12 (GOLDEN 3: 0.105 L and 0.126 L; p ≤ 0.0001; GOLDEN 4: 0.084 L and 0.082 L; p ≤ 0.0001). Nebulized glycopyrrolate 25 μg BID and 50 μg BID also resulted in improvements in FVC change from baseline versus placebo at

  6. Experimental human-like model to assess the part of viable Legionella reaching the thoracic region after nebulization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Pourchez

    Full Text Available The incidence of Legionnaires' disease (LD in European countries and the USA has been constantly increasing since 1998. Infection of humans occurs through aerosol inhalation. To bridge the existing gap between the concentration of Legionella in a water network and the deposition of bacteria within the thoracic region (assessment of the number of viable Legionella, we validated a model mimicking realistic exposure through the use of (i recent technology for aerosol generation and (ii a 3D replicate of the human upper respiratory tract. The model's sensitivity was determined by monitoring the deposition of (i aerosolized water and Tc99m radio-aerosol as controls, and (ii bioaerosols generated from both Escherichia coli and Legionella pneumophila sg 1 suspensions. The numbers of viable Legionella prior to and after nebulization were provided by culture, flow cytometry and qPCR. This study was designed to obtain more realistic data on aerosol inhalation (vs. animal experimentation and deposition at the thoracic region in the context of LD. Upon nebulization, 40% and 48% of the initial Legionella inoculum was made of cultivable and non-cultivable cells, respectively; 0.7% of both populations reached the filter holder mimicking the thoracic region in this setup. These results are in agreement with experimental data based on quantitative microbial risk assessment methods and bring new methods that may be useful for preventing LD.

  7. Size distribution of salbutamol/ipratropium aerosols produced by different nebulizers in the absence and presence of heat and humidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ssu-Han; Yang, Tsung-Ming; Lin, Hui-Ling; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Fang, Tien-Pei; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have evaluated the size distribution of inhaled and exhaled aerosolized drugs, or the effect of heated humidification on particle size and lung deposition. The present study evaluated these aspects of bronchodilator (salbutamol/ipratropium) delivery using a lung model in the absence and presence of heat and humidification. We positioned filters to collect and measure the initial drug, inhaled drug, and exhaled drug. Particle size distribution was evaluated using an 8-stage Marple personal cascade impactor with 0.2-μm polycarbonate filters. A greater inhaled drug mass was delivered using a vibrating mesh nebulizer (VMN) than by using a small volume nebulizer (SVN), when heated humidifiers were not employed. When heated and humidified medical gas was used, there was no significant difference between the inhaled drug mass delivered by the VMN and that delivered by the SVN. A significantly greater mass of inhaled 1.55-μm drug particles was produced by the VMN than with the SVN, under heated and humidified conditions. However, the mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) of the aerosolized drug produced by the SVN and VMN did not differ significantly under the same conditions. The VMN produced more fine particles of salbutamol/ipratropium, and the drug particle size clearly increased in the presence of heat and humidification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effects of Smartphone-based Nebulizer Therapy Education on Parents' Knowledge and Confidence of Performance in Caring for Children with Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Min; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Min, Hae Young

    This study aimed to identify the effects of smartphone-based nebulizer therapy education on the knowledge and confidence of parents while performing care for their children with respiratory disease. This quasi-experimental study employed a pretest-posttest design using a nonequivalent control group. Data were collected from children's parents who had not used nebulizer therapy for their children previously. Both the groups were given nebulizer therapy education using the same content but different learning methods. The experimental group (n=36) was taught using smartphones, while the control group (n=36) was taught using verbal and paper-based methods. The data were analyzed using the Chi Square test, repeated measures analysis of variance, and t-test. The mean scores on knowledge improvement (F=100.949, psmartphone-based education on nebulizer therapy might be effective in improving parents' knowledge and confidence in performing care for their children. This study suggests that smartphone-based education needs to be considered as an effective educational intervention in providing nursing support for parents of children with respiratory disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of EMILAC to pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Yasuhiro; Yamasaki, Takao; Nakamura, Hirone; Hashimoto, Mitsuo; Miya, Kenzo

    1987-01-01

    A new type of electromagnetic accelerator for pellet injection is proposed. Projectile of cylinder shape is accelerated with the repulsive force generated by a combination of two coils, which are different in purpose. And the accelerator is named EMILAC (Electro-Magnetic Inductive Linear Accelerator). In this paper, we investigate the method of applying EMILAC to pellet injection, and calculate the ablation rate of pellet. (author)

  10. Analysis of biogenic carbonates by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Flow injection on-line solid-phase preconcentration for trace element determination in fish otoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Z; Paulson, A J

    2002-04-01

    The aragonite deposits within the ear bones (otoliths) of teleost fish retain a chemical signal reflecting the life history of fish (similar to rings of trees) and the nature of fish habitats. Otoliths dissolved in acid solutions contain high concentrations of calcium and a variety of proteins. Elimination of matrix salts and organic interferences during preconcentration is essential for accurate determination of trace elements in otolith solutions by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry. An iminodiacetate-based chelating resin (Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650 M) has been used for on-line preconcentration and matrix separation for the determination of 31 transition and rare elements. Successful preconcentration of the elements was achieved at pH 5 by on-line buffering, except Mn which required pH 8.8. Sample solutions were loaded on to the column for 1 min at 3.2 mL min(-1), and then eluted directly into the mass spectrometer with 4% v/v nitric acid. This procedure enabled up to 25-fold preconcentration with successful removal of the calcium matrix. The effect of heat-assisted oxidation with concentrated nitric acid was investigated to eliminate the organic matrix. It was found that heating to dryness after dissolution and further mineralization with the acid significantly improved the retention of the transition elements. The method was validated by analysis of a certified reference material produced from saggittal otoliths of emperor snapper ( Lutjanus sebae), and then applied to the determination of trace metal concentrations in juvenile bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus) from the Western Pacific Ocean.

  11. Particle transport in a He-microchip plasma atomic emission system with an ultrasonic nebulizer for aqueous sample introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Joosuck [Department of Chemistry, Dankook University, 126 Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, H.B. [Department of Chemistry, Dankook University, 126 Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: plasma@dankook.ac.kr

    2008-11-15

    The transport efficiency of dried particles generated from an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) was studied to improve the analytical performance of a lab-made, He-microchip plasma system, in which a quartz tube ({approx} 1 mm i.d.) was positioned inside the central channel of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymer chip. The polymer microchip plasma has the advantages of low cost, small size, easy handling and design, and self-ignition with long stabilization (> 24 h). However, direct introduction of aqueous solution into the microplasma for the detection of metals remains problematic due to plasma instability. In addition, the much smaller size of the system can cause signal suppression due to low transport efficiency. Therefore, knowledge of particle transport efficiency in this microplasma system is required to enhance the sensitivity and stability. The weight of transported particles in the range of 0.02 to 10 mg m{sup -3} was measured using a piezobalance with a precision of 0.4-17.8%, depending on the operating conditions. The significant effects of the USN operating conditions and the physical properties of the tubing, namely, length, inner diameter and surface characteristics, on the number of particles transported from the nebulizer to the microplasma were studied. When selected metals, such as Na, Mg and Pb, at a concentration of 5 mg L{sup -1} were nebulized, transported particles were obtained with a mass range of 0.5-5 mg m{sup -3}, depending on atomic weights. For application of the He-rf-microplasma, the atomic emission system was optimized by changing both the radio frequency (rf) power (60-200 W) and cooling temperature of the USN (- 12-9 deg. C). The limits of detection obtained for K, Na and Cu were 0.26, 0.22, and 0.28 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. These results confirmed the suitable stability and sensitivity of the He-rf-PDMS microchip plasma for application as an atomization source.

  12. Impact of airborne particle size, acoustic airflow and breathing pattern on delivery of nebulized antibiotic into the maxillary sinuses using a realistic human nasal replica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lara; Pourchez, Jérémie; Aubert, Gérald; Leguellec, Sandrine; Vecellio, Laurent; Cottier, Michèle; Durand, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Improvement of clinical outcome in patients with sinuses disorders involves targeting delivery of nebulized drug into the maxillary sinuses. We investigated the impact of nebulization conditions (with and without 100 Hz acoustic airflow), particle size (9.9 μm, 2.8 μm, 550 nm and 230 nm) and breathing pattern (nasal vs. no nasal breathing) on enhancement of aerosol delivery into the sinuses using a realistic nasal replica developed by our team. After segmentation of the airways by means of high-resolution computed tomography scans, a well-characterized nasal replica was created using a rapid prototyping technology. A total of 168 intrasinus aerosol depositions were performed with changes of aerosol particle size and breathing patterns under different nebulization conditions using gentamicin as a marker. The results demonstrate that the fraction of aerosol deposited in the maxillary sinuses is enhanced by use of submicrometric aerosols, e.g. 8.155 ± 1.476 mg/L of gentamicin in the left maxillary sinus for the 2.8 μm particles vs. 2.056 ± 0.0474 for the 550 nm particles. Utilization of 100-Hz acoustic airflow nebulization also produced a 2- to 3-fold increase in drug deposition in the maxillary sinuses (e.g. 8.155 ± 1.476 vs. 3.990 ± 1.690 for the 2.8 μm particles). Our study clearly shows that optimum deposition was achieved using submicrometric particles and 100-Hz acoustic airflow nebulization with no nasal breathing. It is hoped that our new respiratory nasal replica will greatly facilitate the development of more effective delivery systems in the future.

  13. Lanthanides determination in red wine using ultrasound assisted extraction, flow injection, aerosol desolvation and ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentlin, Fabrina R.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501.970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos, Clarissa M.M. dos; Flores, Erico M.M. [Departamento de Quimica Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Pozebon, Dirce, E-mail: dircepoz@iq.ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501.970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasound was investigated and applied for red wine samples preparation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aliquots of 50 {mu}L of sample were nebulized and transported to plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FI and pneumatic nebulization/aerosol desolvation were used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LODs of the ICP-MS method for lanthanides determination were at ng L{sup -1} level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanides concentration allowed red wines classification. - Abstract: This paper deals with the determination of the fourteen naturally occurring elements of the lanthanide series in red wine. Ultrasound (US) was used for sample preparation prior lanthanides determination using ICP-MS. Flow injection (FI) and pneumatic nebulization/aerosol desolvation were used for nebulization of aliquots of 50 {mu}L of sample and its subsequent transportation to plasma. Sample preparation procedures, matrix interference and time of sonication were evaluated. Better results for lanthanides in red wine were obtained by sonication with US probe for 90 s and sample 10-fold diluted. The limits of detection of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Pr, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu and Yb were 6.57, 10.8, 9.97, 9.38, 2.71, 1.29, 1.22, 0.52, 2.35, 0.96, 2.30, 0.45, 0.24 and 1.35 ng L{sup -1}, respectively. Red wines of different varieties from three countries of South America were discriminated according to the country of origin by means of multivariate analysis of lanthanides concentration.

  14. Lanthanides determination in red wine using ultrasound assisted extraction, flow injection, aerosol desolvation and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentlin, Fabrina R.S.; Santos, Clarissa M.M. dos; Flores, Érico M.M.; Pozebon, Dirce

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ultrasound was investigated and applied for red wine samples preparation. ► Aliquots of 50 μL of sample were nebulized and transported to plasma. ► FI and pneumatic nebulization/aerosol desolvation were used. ► LODs of the ICP-MS method for lanthanides determination were at ng L −1 level. ► Lanthanides concentration allowed red wines classification. - Abstract: This paper deals with the determination of the fourteen naturally occurring elements of the lanthanide series in red wine. Ultrasound (US) was used for sample preparation prior lanthanides determination using ICP-MS. Flow injection (FI) and pneumatic nebulization/aerosol desolvation were used for nebulization of aliquots of 50 μL of sample and its subsequent transportation to plasma. Sample preparation procedures, matrix interference and time of sonication were evaluated. Better results for lanthanides in red wine were obtained by sonication with US probe for 90 s and sample 10-fold diluted. The limits of detection of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Pr, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu and Yb were 6.57, 10.8, 9.97, 9.38, 2.71, 1.29, 1.22, 0.52, 2.35, 0.96, 2.30, 0.45, 0.24 and 1.35 ng L −1 , respectively. Red wines of different varieties from three countries of South America were discriminated according to the country of origin by means of multivariate analysis of lanthanides concentration.

  15. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  16. Inductive Monitoring System (IMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMS: Inductive Monitoring System The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a tool that uses a data mining technique called clustering to extract models of normal...

  17. Inductive Reasoning and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Clay; Boyd, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Induction, properly understood, is not merely a game, nor is it a gimmick, nor is it an artificial way of explaining an element of reasoning. Proper understanding of inductive reasoning--and the various types of reasoning that the authors term inductive--enables the student to evaluate critically other people's writing and enhances the composition…

  18. Determination of uranium from nuclear fuel in environmental samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, S.F. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen]|[Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk (Belarus); Becker, J.S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen

    2000-11-01

    As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) the environment was contaminated with spent nuclear fuel. The {sup 236}U isotope was used in this study to monitor the spent uranium from nuclear fallout in soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl NPP. A rapid and sensitive analytical procedure was developed for uranium isotopic ratio measurement in environmental samples based on inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry with a hexapole collision cell (HEX-ICP-QMS). The figures of merit of the HEX-ICP-QMS were studied with a plasma-shielded torch using different nebulizers (such as an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) and Meinhard nebulizer) for solution introduction. A {sup 238}U{sup +} ion intensity of up to 27000 MHz/ppm in HEX-ICP-QMS with USN was observed by introducing helium into the hexapole collision cell as the collision gas at a flow rate of 10 ml min{sup -1}. The formation rate of uranium hydride ions UH{sup +}/U{sup +} of 2 x 10{sup -6} was obtained by using USN with a membrane desolvator. The limit of {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratio determination in 10 {mu}g 1{sup -1} uranium solution was 3 x 10{sup -7} corresponding to the detection limit for {sup 236}U of 3 pg 1{sup -1}. The precision of uranium isotopic ratio measurements in 10 {mu}g 1{sup -1} laboratory uranium isotopic standard solution was 0.13% ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U) and 0.33% ({sup 236}U/{sup 238}U) using a Meinhard nebulizer and 0.45% ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U) and 0.88% ({sup 236}U/{sup 238}U) using a USN. The isotopic composition of all investigated Chernobyl soil samples differed from those of natural uranium; i.e. in these samples the {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratio ranged from 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -3}. (orig.)

  19. Induction machine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2002-01-01

    Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines.The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to

  20. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... sures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene ... injection practices lead to high prevalence of NSSIs in operating rooms. .... guidelines, the availability of training courses to HCWs, and provi-.

  1. Determination of 241Am in sediments by isotope dilution high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID HR ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarande, M; Benzoubir, S; Bouisset, P; Calmet, D

    2001-08-01

    Trace levels (pg kg(-1)) of 241Am in sediments were determined by isotope dilution high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID HR ICP-MS) using a microconcentric nebulizer. 241Am was isolated from major elements like Ca and Fe by different selective precipitations. In further steps. Am was first separated from other transuranic elements and purified by anion exchange and extraction chromatography prior to the mass spectrometric measurements. The ID HR ICP-MS results are compared with isotope dilution alpha spectrometry.

  2. Comparison of efficacy combination of inhaled phormoterol / budesonide turbuhaler vs. combination of nebulized salbutamol / ipratropium bromide on moderate asthma acute exacerbation in Persahabatan Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Barasila

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare efficacy combination of phormoterol/budesonide turbuhaler vs. salbutamol/ipratropium bromide nebulization. Main therapy for acute asthma is inhaled short acting β2-agonist. Asthma patients are using two drugs, controller and reliever. Recently there is device-containing combination of long-acting β2-agonist with rapid onset and corticosteroid. This combination can act as reliever and controller. An opened randomized clinical trial of 76 patients between the ages of 12 and 60 years presenting to Persahabatan Hospital with asthma score between 8-12 participated in this study. After initial evaluation, patients were divided into two groups. Thirty-eight patients were administered combination of formoterol/budesonide 4.5/160 µg via turbuhaler (T-group every 20 minutes, total of three doses, and another 38 of salbutamol/ipratropium bromide 2.5/0.25 mg via nebulizer (N-group also with the same manner. There were no statistical difference in sex, mean age, high, weight, initial PEFR, and asthma score between two groups. The significant increased of PEFR and decreased of asthma score were observed in both groups. However, there were no significant difference of PEFR and asthma score between the two groups within every time-interval. Adverse events were mild including hoarseness, tremor and palpitation. Of T-group, 1 subject was suffered from 3 adverse events simultaneously (hoarseness, tremor and palpitation, 5 subjects were only tremor. Of N-group, all 6 subjects were only suffered from tremor. A combination of formoterol/budesonide turbuhaler and a combination of nebulized salbutamol/ipratropium bromide are clinically equivalent for treatment moderate acute asthma. However, nebulized salbutamol/ipratropium bromide had less adverse effects. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:34-42Keywords: phormoterol, budesonide, salbutamol, ipratropium bromide, acute asthma

  3. Lung diseases caused by /sup 60/Co irradiation combined by nebulizer therapy with Dexa-Scheroson after the operation of cancer of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saima, S; Oshiro, H; Yamamoto, Y; Naka, K; Asahara, T [Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-11-01

    In 29 cases in which the operation had been carried out for cancer of the breast, nebulizer therapy with Dexa-Scheroson was performed 30 minutes before /sup 60/Co irradiation. Radiation pneumonitis was observed in 17.2% of them, but there was no combination of pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, this method showed no serious side effects, and seemed effective for preventing the roentgenographic changes of the lung caused by /sup 60/Co irradiation.

  4. Inductance-dependent characteristics of HTS dc-SQUID amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, E.E.; Tilbrook, D.L.; Foley, C.P.; MacFarlane, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We have experimentally determined the transfer function V Φ and noise S Φ of several high temperature superconducting (HTS) dc SQUIDs of increasing loop size, while they were operated (without input flux transformer) in a small-signal-amplifier (open-loop) mode. A primary aim of our investigation was to provide reliable inductance data to aid our design of subsequent magnetometer devices. Flux was induced by means of current injection via a well-defined stripline directly into the SQUID loop. The loop size was systematically incremented in a range of otherwise similar SQUIDs. For each SQUID, the ratio between the induced flux and the injection current (which we define as the coupling inductance of the device, L c ) was measured as a function of the injection path length and the SQUID loop dimensions. Both L c and the derived SQUID self-inductance, L sq , were then compared with theoretical values, and contributions due to kinetic inductance and junction inductance were estimated. Correlations between the inductance data and our measured values of transfer function V Φ and noise S Φ were compared with previous results. Guidelines for optimisation of gradiometer SQUIDs were established, and in particular, the importance of achieving a large value transfer function together with a relatively small inductance was demonstrated. The strong influence of an enhanced transfer function was further emphasised when an order-of-magnitude reduction in noise was achieved by subjecting one of our SQUIDs to an in-house 'ion-beam trimming' process

  5. Injection Laryngoplasty Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Haldun Oðuz

    2013-01-01

    Injection laryngoplasty is one of the treatment options for voice problems. In the recent years, more safe and more biocompatible injection materials are available on the market. Long and short term injection materials are discussed in this review.

  6. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to ... early in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of ...

  7. Nebulized fentanyl vs intravenous morphine for ED patients with acute abdominal pain: a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Travis; Auten, Jonathan D; Darracq, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Patients with acute abdominal pain commonly present to emergency departments. The safe and effective relief of discomfort is a concern to patients and physicians. Intravenous opioids are the traditional method used to provide pain relief in this setting, but intravenous access is time consuming and not always achievable. Alternative methods of pain control may therefore be necessary for the acute management of painful conditions without adding to the overall physical or psychological discomfort. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of nebulized fentanyl (NF) in the alleviation of acute and undifferentiated abdominal pain. We also sought to compare NF with intravenous morphine (IVM) and to assess patient and provider satisfaction with NF. Nebulized fentanyl (2 μg/kg) was compared to IVM (0.1 mg/kg) at 10, 20, 30, and 40 minutes; and patient and physician satisfaction was recorded. The NF group experienced more rapid pain relief and more sustained and clinically significant pain relief over the 40-minute study interval. There were no adverse effects noted in the NF group. Both patient and physician satisfaction scores were higher in the NF group. Fentanyl citrate at a dose of 2 μg/kg through a breath-actuated nebulizer appears to be a feasible and safe alternative to IVM (0.1 mg/kg) in the treatment of acute abdominal pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rehydrated sterically stabilized phospholipid nanomicelles of budesonide for nebulization: physicochemical characterization and in vitro, in vivo evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahib MN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mohanad Naji Sahib, Yusrida Darwis, Kok Khiang Peh, Shaymaa Abdalwahed Abdulameer, Yvonne Tze Fung TanSchool of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, MalaysiaBackground: Inhaled corticosteroids provide unique systems for local treatment of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the use of poorly soluble drugs for nebulization has been inadequate, and many patients rely on large doses to achieve optimal control of their disease. Theoretically, nanotechnology with a sustained-release formulation may provide a favorable therapeutic index. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using sterically stabilized phospholipid nanomicelles of budesonide for pulmonary delivery via nebulization.Methods: PEG5000-DSPE polymeric micelles containing budesonide (BUD-SSMs were prepared by the coprecipitation and reconstitution method, and the physicochemical and pharmacodynamic characteristics of BUD-SSMs were investigated.Results: The optimal concentration of solubilized budesonide at 5 mM PEG5000-DSPE was 605.71 ± 6.38 µg/mL, with a single-sized peak population determined by photon correlation spectroscopy and a particle size distribution of 21.51 ± 1.5 nm. The zeta potential of BUD-SSMs was -28.43 ± 1.98 mV. The percent entrapment efficiency, percent yield, and percent drug loading of the lyophilized formulations were 100.13% ± 1.09%, 97.98% ± 1.95%, and 2.01% ± 0.02%, respectively. Budesonide was found to be amorphous by differential scanning calorimetry, and had no chemical interaction with PEGylated polymer according to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopic images of BUD-SSMs revealed spherical nanoparticles. BUD-SSMs exhibited prolonged dissolution behavior compared with Pulmicort Respules® (P , 0.05. Aerodynamic characteristics indicated significantly higher deposition in the lungs compared with Pulmicort Respules®. The mass median aerodynamic, geometric

  9. Improved direct torque control of induction motor with dither injection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology,. Kanpur 208 016 e-mail: ... voltage vectors, which keep the motor torque in the defined hysteresis tolerance band. At every sampling ... For reverse rotation, in the same way ...

  10. Bipolar Mass Spectrometry of Labile Coordination Complexes, Redox Active Inorganic Compounds, and Proteins Using a Glass Nebulizer for Sonic-Spray Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakis, Manolis M.; Tsirigotaki, Alexandra; Kanaki, Katerina; Milios, Constantinos J.; Pergantis, Spiros A.

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we report on the development of a novel nebulizer configuration for sonic-spray ionization (SSI) mass spectrometry (MS), more specifically for a version of SSI that is referred to as Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (V-EASI) MS. The developed nebulizer configuration is based on a commercially available pneumatic glass nebulizer that has been used extensively for aerosol formation in atomic spectrometry. In the present study, the nebulizer was modified in order to achieve efficient V-EASI-MS operation. Upon evaluating this system, it has been demonstrated that V-EASI-MS offers some distinct advantages for the analysis of coordination compounds and redox active inorganic compounds over the predominantly used electrospray ionization (ESI) technique. Such advantages, for this type of compounds, are demonstrated here for the first time. More specifically, a series of labile heptanuclear heterometallic [CuII 6LnIII] clusters held together with artificial amino acid ligands, in addition to easily oxidized inorganic oxyanions of selenium and arsenic, were analyzed. The observed advantages pertain to V-EASI appearing to be a "milder" ionization source than ESI, not requiring electrical potentials for gas phase ion formation, thus eliminating the possibility of unwanted redox transformations, allowing for the "simultaneous" detection of negative and positive ions (bipolar analysis) without the need to change source ionization conditions, and also not requiring the use of syringes and delivery pumps. Because of such features, especially because of the absence of ionization potentials, EASI can be operated with minimal requirements for source parameter optimization. We observed that source temperature and accelerating voltage do not seem to affect labile compounds to the extent they do in ESI-MS. In addition, bipolar analysis of proteins was demonstrated here by acquiring both positive and negative ion mass spectra from the same protein solutions

  11. Progress with helicity injection current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Raman, R.; Nelson, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) experiments in the NSTX and HIT-II devices are reported. NSTX has produced toroidal currents of 0.4 MA and pulse lengths of up to 0.33 s. These discharges nearly fill the NSTX main chamber, and show the n=1 rotating distortion characteristic of high-performance CHI plasmas. CHI has been used in HIT-II to provide a closed flux startup plasma for inductive drive. The CHI startup method saves transformer volt-seconds and greatly improves reproducibility and reliability of inductively driven discharges, even in the presence of diminishing wall conditions. (author)

  12. Analysis of bauxite by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ramon M.; Mahanti, Himansu S.

    Methods are described for the analysis of bauxite by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectroscopy. Bauxite samples were dissolved either in HCl, HNO 3, and HF at 160°C in all-PTFE bomb or fused with NaOH. Spectral lines were selected after examination of experimental wavelength scans at each potential analyte wavelength. Limits of detection, background equivalent concentration, and analytical figures of merit were established. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by determining 17 elements in NBS-SRM bauxite samples. Silicon in HF solutions was analyzed using a modified ICP torch with a graphite injector tube, an inert nebulizer using PTFE capillary tubes, and a PTFE spray chamber.

  13. Determination of long-lived actinides in soil leachates by inductively coupled plasma: Mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crain, J.S.; Smith, L.L.; Yaeger, J.S.; Alvarado, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma -- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to concurrently determine multiple long-lived (t 1/2 > 10 4 y) actinide isotopes in soil samples. Ultrasonic nebulization was found to maximize instrument sensitivity. Instrument detection limits for actinides in solution ranged from 50 mBq L -1 ( 239 Pu) to 2 μBq L -1 ( 235 U) Hydride adducts of 232 Th and 238 U interfered with the determinations of 233 U and 239 Pu; thus, extraction chromatography was, used to eliminate the sample matrix, concentrate the analytes, and separate uranium from the other actinides. Alpha spectrometric determinations of 230 Th, 239 Pu, and the 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio in soil leachates compared well with ICP-MS determinations; however, there were some small systematic differences (ca. 10%) between ICP-MS and a-spectrometric determinations of 234 U and 238 U activities

  14. Structure, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide ultra thin films prepared by jet nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thirumoorthi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO thin films have been prepared by jet nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique for different Sn concentrations on glass substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that all the films are polycrystalline of cubic structure with preferentially oriented along (222 plane. SEM images show that films exhibit uniform surface morphology with well-defined spherical particles. The EDX spectrum confirms the presence of In, Sn and O elements in prepared films. AFM result indicates that the surface roughness of the films is reduced as Sn doping. The optical transmittance of ITO thin films is improved from 77% to 87% in visible region and optical band gap is increased from 3.59 to 4.07 eV. Photoluminescence spectra show mainly three emissions peaks (UV, blue and green and a shift observed in UV emission peak. The presence of functional groups and chemical bonding was analyzed by FTIR. Hall effect measurements show prepared films having n-type conductivity with low resistivity (3.9 × 10−4 Ω-cm and high carrier concentrations (6.1 × 1020 cm−3.

  15. Effect of precursor concentration on physical properties of nebulized spray deposited In2S3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Raj Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the effect of precursor concentration (mc on the structural, optical, morphological and electrical conductivity properties of In2S3 thin films grown on amorphous glass substrates by nebulized spray pyrolysis (NSP technique. The mixed phase of cubic and tetragonal structure of In2S3 thin films at higher concentration has been observed by X-ray diffraction pattern. The reduced strain by increasing the precursor concentration increased the average crystallite from 17.8 to 28.9 nm. The energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX studies confirmed the presence of In and S. The transmittance, optical direct band gap energy, Urbach energy and skin depth of In2S3 films have been analyzed by optical absorption spectra. The better conductivity and mobility noticed at mc = 0.15 M are explained by carrier concentration and crystallite. Better optical and electrical conductivity behaviour of In2S3 thin film sample proposes for effective solar cell fabrication.

  16. Repeated cadmium nebulizations induce pulmonary MMP-2 and MMP-9 production and enphysema in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschvink, Nathalie; Vincke, Gregoire; Fievez, Laurence; Onclinx, Cecile; Wirth, Delphine; Belleflamme, Michele; Louis, Renaud; Cataldo, Didier; Peck, Michael J.; Gustin, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    This study describes induction of pulmonary inflammation, production of matrix metalloprotease of type 2 (MMP-2) and type 9 (MMP-9), and emphysema in cadmium (Cd)-exposed rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into two groups: one placebo-exposed group undergoing saline (NaCl 0.9%) inhalation (n = 30) and one Cd-exposed group undergoing cadmium (CdCl 2 0.1%) inhalation (n = 30). The animals of the placebo- and Cd-exposed groups were divided in five subgroups (n = 6). Subgroups underwent either a single exposure of 1 h or repeated exposures three times weekly for 1 h during 3 weeks (3W), 5 weeks (5W), 5 weeks followed by 2 weeks without exposure (5W + 2) or 5 weeks followed by 4 weeks without exposure (5W + 4). Each animal underwent determination of enhanced pause (Penh) as index of airflow limitation prior to the first exposure as well as before sacrifice. The animals were sacrificed the day after their last exposure. The left lung was fixed for histomorphometric analysis (determination of median interwall distance (MIWD)), whilst bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected from the right lung. BALF was analyzed cytologically, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were determined by gelatine zymography. Twelve rats previously instilled with pancreatic elastase were used as positive emphysema controls and underwent the same investigations. Cd-exposure induced a significant increase of BALF macrophages, neutrophils and MMP-9 up to 5W + 4, whereas MMP-2 gelatinolytic activity returned to baseline levels within 5W. MIWD was significantly increased in all repeatedly Cd-exposed groups and elastase-treated rats. Penh was increased in Cd-exposed rats after a single exposure and after 3W. MMP gelatinolytic activity was significantly correlated with macrophages, neutrophils and Penh. In repeatedly exposed rats, MIWD was positively and significantly correlated with MMP gelatinolytic activity, suggesting that increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 production favours the development

  17. Urofollitropin and ovulation induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wely, Madelon; Yding Andersen, Claus; Bayram, Neriman; van der Veen, Fulco

    2005-01-01

    Anovulation is a common cause of female infertility. Treatment for women with anovulation is aimed at induction of ovulation. Ovulation induction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is indicated in women with WHO type II anovulation in whom treatment with clomifene citrate (clomifene) has

  18. Inductance loop and partial

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Clayton R

    2010-01-01

    "Inductance is an unprecedented text, thoroughly discussing "loop" inductance as well as the increasingly important "partial" inductance. These concepts and their proper calculation are crucial in designing modern high-speed digital systems. World-renowned leader in electromagnetics Clayton Paul provides the knowledge and tools necessary to understand and calculate inductance." "With the present and increasing emphasis on high-speed digital systems and high-frequency analog systems, it is imperative that system designers develop an intimate understanding of the concepts and methods in this book. Inductance is a much-needed textbook designed for senior and graduate-level engineering students, as well as a hands-on guide for working engineers and professionals engaged in the design of high-speed digital and high-frequency analog systems."--Jacket.

  19. Half Bridge Inductive Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán GERMÁN-SALLÓ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Induction heating performs contactless, efficient and fast heating of conductive materials, therefore became one of the preferred heating procedure in industrial, domestic and medical applications. During induction heating the high-frequency alternating currents that heat the material are induced by means of electromagnetic induction. The material to be heated is placed inside the time-varying magnetic field generated by applying a highfrequency alternating current to an induction coil. The alternating electromagnetic field induces eddy currents in the workpiece, resulting resistive losses, which then heat the material. This paper describes the design of a power electronic converter circuit for induction heating equipment and presents the obtained results. The realized circuit is a low power half bridge resonant inverter which uses power MOS transistors and adequate driver circuits.

  20. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Background: Of the estimated 384,000 needle-stick injuries occurring in hospitals each year, 23% occur in surgical settings. This study was conducted to assess safe injection procedures, injection practices, and circumstances contributing to needlestick and sharps injures (NSSIs) in operating rooms.

  1. Interfacing capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for redox speciation of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambard, C.; Delorme, A.; Baglan, N.; Aupiais, J.; Pointurier, F.; Madic, C.

    2005-01-01

    A robust and efficient interface between a capilary electrophoresis (CE) and an ICP-MS for actinide speciation studies was developed. This interface was made of two stainless steel T-shape pieces connected to the ICP-MS through a PFA-50 nebulizer. Fast separations (typically in less than 15 min) were obtained. The performances of the technique in terms of chemical separations carried out by the capillary electrophoresis and in terms of detection limits were investigated. Concerning the detection limit of the CE-ICP-MS system for plutonium, it was determined as 5 x 10 -10 mol L -1 or 9 x 10 -18 mol under our injection conditions. The coupling enables to separate at least three (III, V and VI) of the four plutonium oxidation states which can exist in aqueous solutions and to monitor oxidation and reduction processes. (orig.)

  2. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Moir, R.W.

    1994-06-01

    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS 2 . The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of ±0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification

  3. Influence of precursor concentration on physical properties of CdO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using nebulizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anitha, M.; Amalraj, L.; Anitha, N. [Virudhunagar Hindu Nadar' s Senthikumara Nadar College (Autonomous), Department of Physics, Virudhunagar, Tamilnadu (India)

    2017-12-15

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were prepared with different concentrations of precursor solution (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25 M, respectively) at the optimized temperature (200 C) using the nebulized spray pyrolysis technique to obtain better crystallinity in polycrystalline thin films on amorphous glass substrates. The XRD characterization of those samples revealed a preferential orientation along the (111) plane having a cubic structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis displayed that all the as-deposited thin films have spherical shaped grains. The transmittance of the as-deposited CdO thin films had decreased from 88 to 71% for longer wavelength regions (600-900 nm) as the precursor concentration had increased and then increased for higher precursor concentration. The optical band gap was found to lie between 2.45 and 2.40 eV belonging to direct transition for those thin films. The presence of Cd-O bond (540 cm{sup -1}) was confirmed by FTIR spectrum. The emission properties of CdO thin films were studied by luminescence spectrum recorded at room temperature. A maximum carrier concentration and minimum resistivity values of 4.743 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} and 1.06 x 10{sup -3} Ω-cm, respectively, were obtained for 0.2 M precursor concentration. These CdO thin films have high optical transmittance and high room temperature conductivity, which can be used as the TCO and Solar cell (window layer) material. (orig.)

  4. Effect of inhaled furosemide and torasemide on bronchial response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresi, A; Pelucchi, A; Mastropasqua, B; Cavigioli, G; Carlesi, R M; Marazzini, L

    1992-08-01

    Inhaled furosemide has been shown to reduce the bronchoconstriction induced by several indirect stimuli, including ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (UNDW). Because the protective effect could be due to the inhibition of the Na(+)-2Cl(-)-K+ cotransport system of bronchial epithelium, we have compared the protective effect of inhaled furosemide with that of inhaled torasemide, a new and more potent loop diuretic, on UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction in a group of 12 asthmatic subjects. UNDW challenge was performed by constructing a stimulus-response curve with five increasing volume outputs of distilled water (from 0.5 to 5.2 ml/min) and the bronchial response expressed as the provocative output causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PO20UNDW). On different days, each subject inhaled an equal dose (28 mg) of furosemide and torasemide in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 5 min prior to an UNDW challenge. Furosemide and torasemide had no significant effect on resting lung function. The geometric mean value of PO20UNDW measured after placebo was 1.73 ml/min. This was significantly lower than that recorded after furosemide (4.25 ml/min; p < 0.025), but not after torasemide (3.05 ml/min; p = 0.07). Inhaled furosemide totally blocked bronchial response to UNDW in five subjects. In two of five subjects the response was also blocked by inhaled torasemide. A remarkable increase in diuresis was noted only after torasemide in most subjects. We conclude that inhaled furosemide has a better protective effect than does inhaled torasemide against UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction. However, the protective effect of furosemide is variable, with some asthmatic patients showing no change in bronchial response to UNDW.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Review of induction LINACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.

    1981-10-01

    There has been a recent upsurge of activity in the field of induction linacs, with several new machines becoming operational and others in the design stages. The performance levels of electron machines have reached 10's of kiloamps of current and will soon reach 10's of MeV's of energy. Acceleration of ion current has been demonstrated, and the study of a 10 GeV heavy ion induction linac for ICF continues. The operating principles of induction linacs are reviewed with the emphasis on design choices which are important for increasing the maximum beam currents

  6. Review of induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.

    1982-01-01

    There has been a recent upsurge of activity in the field of induction linacs, with several new machines becoming operational and others in the design stages. The performance levels of electron machines have reached 10's of kiloamps of current and will soon reach 10's of MeV's of energy. Acceleration of several kiloamps of ion current has been demonstrated, and the study of a 10 GeV heavy ion induction linac for ICF continues. The operating principles of induction linacs are reviewed with the emphasis on design choices which are important for increasing the maximum beam currents

  7. Properties of inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, E

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews the main psychological phenomena of inductive reasoning, covering 25 years of experimental and model-based research, in particular addressing four questions. First, what makes a case or event generalizable to other cases? Second, what makes a set of cases generalizable? Third, what makes a property or predicate projectable? Fourth, how do psychological models of induction address these results? The key results in inductive reasoning are outlined, and several recent models, including a new Bayesian account, are evaluated with respect to these results. In addition, future directions for experimental and model-based work are proposed.

  8. Nebulized salbutamol for asthma: Effects on serum potassium and phosphate levels at the 60 min

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sahan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We conducted this prospective study to expand available information in relation to serum phosphate levels in treatment of acute asthma. A β-adrenergic agonist, salbutamol, was used for this purpose. Material and methods: Twenty-six patients who met the inclusion criteria as; age over 16 years, asthma history, and an acute exacerbation were included. Serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose were within normal limits in all the patients. None of the patients were on chronic theophylline therapy. Baseline serum phosphate and potassium levels were measured. Nebulized salbutamol (2.5 mg was used three times at every hour. After 60 min, serum phosphate and potassium levels were measured. Results: Serum phosphate levels decreased from 3.7 ± 0.9 mg/dL (baseline to 3.6±0.9 mg/dL at 60 min. This decrease was not statistically significant (p = 0.373. Serum potassium levels decreased significantly (p < 0.001 from 4.6 ± 0.7 mmol/L (baseline to 4.3 ± 0.7 mmol/L (60 min. Conclusion: Administration of nebulized salbutamol during the emergency treatment of acute exacerbation of asthma is not associated with a statistical decrease in serum phosphate. There was significant hypokalemia. This study indicates that a further study is needed to elucidate the clinical significance of nebulized salbutamol on serum phosphate. Resumo: Objetivo: Levámos a cabo este estudo prospetivo para ampliar a informação disponível relativamente aos níveis de fosfato sérico no tratamento de asma aguda. Foi utilizado um agonista β-adrenérgico, salbutamol, para este efeito. Materiais e métodos: Foram incluídos 26 doentes que cumpriam os critérios de inclusão de: idade superior a 16 anos, história de asma, incluindo uma exacerbação aguda. A ureia do soro sanguíneo, creatinina e glucose estavam nos limites normais em todos os doentes. Nenhum dos doentes era

  9. Induction melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-06-17

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  10. Determination of trace elements in petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Raquel; Todolí, José Luis; Lienemann, Charles-Philippe; Mermet, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    The fundamentals, applications and latter developments of petroleum products analysis through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are revisited in the present bibliographic survey. Sample preparation procedures for the direct analysis of fuels by using liquid sample introduction systems are critically reviewed and compared. The most employed methods are sample dilution, emulsion or micro-emulsion preparation and sample decomposition. The first one is the most widely employed due to its simplicity. Once the sample has been prepared, an organic matrix is usually present. The performance of the sample introduction system (i.e., nebulizer and spray chamber) depends strongly upon the nature and properties of the solution finally obtained. Many different devices have been assayed and the obtained results are shown. Additionally, samples can be introduced into the plasma by using an electrothermal vaporization (ETV) device or a laser ablation system (LA). The recent results published in the literature showing the feasibility, advantages and drawbacks of latter alternatives are also described. Therefore, the main goal of the review is the discussion of the different approaches developed for the analysis of crude oil and its derivates by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques. - Highlights: • Analysis of petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques is revisited. • Fundamental studies are included together with reports dealing with applications. • Conventional and non-conventional sample introduction methods are considered. • Sample preparation methods are critically compared and described

  11. Linear induction accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  12. [Determination of calcium, magnesium and potassium in nurtured cell by AAS with quick-pulsed nebulization technique and NaOH base digestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, C; Gao, S; Gun, S

    1997-06-01

    The sample is digested with 6% NaOH solution and an amount of 50 microl is used for protein content analysis by the method of Comassie Brilliant Blue G250, the residual is diluted with equal 0.4% Lathanurm-EDTA solution. Its Calcium magensium and potassium content are determined by AAS. With quick-pulsed nebulization technique. When a self-made micro-sampling device is used, 20microl of sample volume is needed and it is only the 1/10 approximately 1/20 of the sample volume required for conventional determination. Sensitivity, precision and rate of recovery agree well with those using regular wet ashing method.

  13. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  14. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  15. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  17. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  18. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  19. Antigen injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  20. Linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    The development of linear induction accelerators has been motivated by applications requiring high-pulsed currents of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capability of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high for rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multi-stage induction machine, but the 50-MeV, 10-kA Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL is the highest voltage machine in existence at this time. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high-repetition rates practical, and this capability for high-average power is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines in the future. This paper surveys the US induction linac technology with primary emphasis on electron machines. A simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam is given, to illustrate many of the general issues that bound the design space of induction linacs

  1. Induction linear accelerators with high-Tc bulk superconductor lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Hidenori; Wada, Haruhisa; Mori, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    1991-01-01

    Solenoidal coils in a one-stage induction accelerator were replaced by a high-T c bulk superconductor lens (Supertron). The accelerator postaccelerated injected electron beams to ∼ 400 keV, ∼ 0.35 kA, and ∼ 10 ns of duration time. (author)

  2. Fundamental characteristics of droplet direct injection ICPMS for nano liter analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, N.; Miyahara, H.; Meguro, T.; Hotta, E.; Okino, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Recently, target of the elemental analysis has been shifted to smaller amount samples such as bio cells or nano-particles. However, a conventional ICP system consumes large amount sample solutions, so it was not suitable for these samples. To realize much smaller sample introduction, a droplet direct injection nebulizer (D-DIN) system has been developed. In this study, we applied the D-DIN system to an ICPMS device. As a result, using a single 5 nL sample solution contains 1 mg/L of Na, Mg, Sr and Ba, mass signal of these elements were successfully obtained. Fundamental characteristics of D-DIN ICPMS will be presented. (author)

  3. Induction of interferon by levamisole in mice. [X radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, S.; Suzuki, F.; Ishida, N.

    1979-03-01

    Viral inhibitor(s) with the properties of interferon (IF) was found in the sera of DDI mice injected intraperitoneally with 5 to 10 mg/kg of levamisole. A significant level of IF activity appeared by 20 hr and reached a peak by 24 hr after the injection. The induction was abrogated when the mice were pretreated with either whole-body x irradiation of more than 500 R or 2.5 mg of hydrocortisone acetate but was not affected by macrophage-specific depressors such as carrageenan and trypan blue. Also, no induction was detected in thymus-defective nude mice. These results suggest that thymus-derived lymphocytes in the mouse may be required for IF induction by levamisole.

  4. Liquid sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and mass spectrometry — Critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bings, N.H., E-mail: bings@uni-mainz.de; Orlandini von Niessen, J.O.; Schaper, J.N.

    2014-10-01

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can be considered as the most important tools in inorganic analytical chemistry. Huge progress has been made since the first analytical applications of the ICP. More stable RF generators, improved spectrometers and detection systems were designed along with the achievements gained from advanced microelectronics, leading to overall greatly improved analytical performance of such instruments. In contrast, for the vast majority of cases liquid sample introduction is still based on the pneumatic principle as described in the late 19th century. High flow pneumatic nebulizers typically demand the use of spray chambers as “aerosol filters” in order to match the prerequisites of an ICP. By this, only a small fraction of the nebulized sample actually contributes to the measured signal. Hence, the development of micronebulizers was brought forward. Those systems produce fine aerosols at low sample uptake rates, but they are even more prone for blocking or clogging than conventional systems in the case of solutions containing a significant amount of total dissolved solids (TDS). Despite the high number of publications devoted to liquid sample introduction, it is still considered the Achilles' heel of atomic spectrometry and it is well accepted, that the technology used for liquid sample introduction is still far from ideal, even when applying state-of-the-art systems. Therefore, this review is devoted to offer an update on developments in the field liquid sample introduction that had been reported until the year 2013. The most recent and noteworthy contributions to this field are discussed, trends are highlighted and future directions are outlined. The first part of this review provides a brief overview on theoretical considerations regarding conventional pneumatic nebulization, the fundamentals on aerosol generation and discusses characteristics of aerosols ideally

  5. Liquid sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and mass spectrometry — Critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bings, N.H.; Orlandini von Niessen, J.O.; Schaper, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can be considered as the most important tools in inorganic analytical chemistry. Huge progress has been made since the first analytical applications of the ICP. More stable RF generators, improved spectrometers and detection systems were designed along with the achievements gained from advanced microelectronics, leading to overall greatly improved analytical performance of such instruments. In contrast, for the vast majority of cases liquid sample introduction is still based on the pneumatic principle as described in the late 19th century. High flow pneumatic nebulizers typically demand the use of spray chambers as “aerosol filters” in order to match the prerequisites of an ICP. By this, only a small fraction of the nebulized sample actually contributes to the measured signal. Hence, the development of micronebulizers was brought forward. Those systems produce fine aerosols at low sample uptake rates, but they are even more prone for blocking or clogging than conventional systems in the case of solutions containing a significant amount of total dissolved solids (TDS). Despite the high number of publications devoted to liquid sample introduction, it is still considered the Achilles' heel of atomic spectrometry and it is well accepted, that the technology used for liquid sample introduction is still far from ideal, even when applying state-of-the-art systems. Therefore, this review is devoted to offer an update on developments in the field liquid sample introduction that had been reported until the year 2013. The most recent and noteworthy contributions to this field are discussed, trends are highlighted and future directions are outlined. The first part of this review provides a brief overview on theoretical considerations regarding conventional pneumatic nebulization, the fundamentals on aerosol generation and discusses characteristics of aerosols ideally

  6. Protective Strategies Against Dysphonia in Teachers: Preliminary Results Comparing Voice Amplification and 0.9% NaCl Nebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Maria Lúcia Vaz; de Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of two protective strategies, voice amplification (VA) and 0.9% NaCl nebulization (NEB), on teachers' voice in the work setting. An interventional evaluator-blind study was conducted, assigning 53 teachers from two public high schools to one of the two protective strategy groups (VA or NEB). Vocal function was assessed in a sound-treated booth before and after a 4-week period. Assessment included the severity of voice impairment (Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice [CAPE-V]), acoustic analysis of fundamental frequency (f0), sound pressure level (SPL), jitter, shimmer, glottal-to-noise excitation ratio (GNE), noise (VoxMetria), and the self-rated Screening Index for Voice Disorder (SIVD). Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS Statistics (version 22) with a significance level of P ≤ 0.05. Effect size was calculated using Cohen's d coefficient. There were no statistical differences between groups at baseline in terms of age, sex, time of teaching, teaching workload, and voice outcomes, except for SPL. During postintervention between groups, NEB displayed lower SIVD scores (VA = 3; NEB = 0; P = 0.018) and VA had lower acoustic irregularity (VA = 3.19; NEB = 3.69; P = 0.027), with moderate to large effect size. Postintervention within-groups decreased CAPE-V for VA (pretest = 31.97; posttest = 28.24; P = 0.021) and SIVD for NEB (pretest = 3; posttest = 0; P = 0.001). SPL decreased in both groups, NEB decreased in men only, and VA decreased in both men and women. NEB increased f0 for female participants (P ≤ 0.001). Both VA and NEB may help mitigate dysphonia in different pathways, being potential interventions for protecting teachers' voices in the work setting. An ongoing study with a control group will further support these preliminary results. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Current evidence supporting "letrozole" for ovulation induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatase inhibitor "letrozole" was first introduced as a potential ovulation induction (OI drug almost a decade back. Large number of studies has been published using letrozole for OI: In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS women, clomiphene citrate (CC resistant women, for intrauterine insemination and also in various protocols of mild stimulation for in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. Letrozole appears to be a good option, with its oral route of administration, cost, shorter half-life and negligible side effects. However, the verdict on efficacy and safety of letrozole is still uncertain. This review explores the current scientific data supporting letrozole for OI.

  8. Budesonida inalatória em crianças com asma aguda Nebulized budesonide to treat acute asthma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geórgia K. M. Milani

    2004-04-01

    prednisone in patients with acute asthma. METHODS: Randomized double-blind, double-dummy and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Forty-nine children aged 2 to 7 years with acute asthma were randomized in three groups after receiving nebulized salbutamol (0.15 mg/kg. Group I received placebo both as tablets and nebulization, group II was treated with a single dose of oral prednisone (1 mg/kg and inhaled placebo, and group III received a single dose of placebo tablet and nebulized budesonide (2 mg. Patients were evaluated in terms of symptom score and transcutaneous hemoglobin saturation. Nebulized salbutamol was repeated in case of increasing symptom score or lower saturation. RESULTS: Progressive clinical improvement was observed in all three groups. However, a significant increase in hemoglobin saturation was observed after 2 hours with prednisone, 4 hours with budesonide, and 24 hours with placebo. CONCLUSION: A combination of single-dose nebulized budesonide and salbutamol may be as effective as oral prednisone to improve symptom severity, but the latter increases hemoglobin saturation in exacerbation of asthma.

  9. Fluorescence imaging of ion distributions in an inductively coupled plasma with laser ablation sample introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, Lance M.; Ellis, Wade C.; Jones, Derick D.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution images of the spatial distributions of Sc II, Ca II, and Ba II ion densities in the 10 mm upstream from the sampling cone in a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) were obtained using planar laser induced fluorescence. Images were obtained for each analyte as a function of the carrier gas flow rate with laser ablation (LA) sample introduction and compared to images with solution nebulization (SN) over the same range of flow rates. Additionally, images were obtained using LA at varying fluences and with varying amounts of helium added to a constant flow of argon gas. Ion profiles in SN images followed a pattern consistent with previous work: increasing gas flow caused a downstream shift in the ion profiles. When compared to SN, LA led to ion profiles that were much narrower radially and reached a maximum near the sampling cone at higher flow rates. Increasing the fluence led to ions formed in the ICP over greater axial and radial distances. The addition of He to the carrier gas prior to the ablation cell led to an upstream shift in the position of ionization and lower overall fluorescence intensities. - Highlights: • We map distributions of analytes in the ICP using laser ablation sample introduction. • We compare images from laser ablation with those from a pneumatic nebulizer. • We document the effects of water added to the laser ablation aerosol. • We compare distributions from a metal to those from crystalline solids. • We document the effect of laser fluence on ion distributions

  10. Inductive dielectric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agranovich, Daniel; Popov, Ivan; Ben Ishai, Paul; Feldman, Yuri; Polygalov, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    One of the approaches to bypass the problem of electrode polarization in dielectric measurements is the free electrode method. The advantage of this technique is that, the probing electric field in the material is not supplied by contact electrodes, but rather by electromagnetic induction. We have designed an inductive dielectric analyzer based on a sensor comprising two concentric toroidal coils. In this work, we present an analytic derivation of the relationship between the impedance measured by the sensor and the complex dielectric permittivity of the sample. The obtained relationship was successfully employed to measure the dielectric permittivity and conductivity of various alcohols and aqueous salt solutions. (paper)

  11. Carbon-enhanced inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection of arsenic and selenium and its application to arsenic speciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Sturup, Stefan

    1994-01-01

    Addition of carbon as methanol or ammonium carbonate to the aqueous analyte solutions in combination with increased plasma power input enhanced the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) signal intensities of arsenic and selenium. In the presence of the optimum 3% v/v methanol...... (noise) was not increased. Therefore, the observed increase in analyte sensitivity led to a similar increase in signal-to-noise ratio. The addition of carbon as ammonium carbonate enhanced the arsenic signal by a similar factor but caused severe contamination of the ICP-MS instrument by carbon. In the 3....../nebulization efficiency. It is proposed that an increased population of carbon ions or carbon-containing ions in the plasma facilitates a more complete ionization of analytes lower in ionization energy than carbon itself. The enhanced detection power for arsenic was applied to arsenic speciation by high...

  12. Determination of Cd and Pb in human blood by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry : International comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Joon; Suh, Jeong Ki; Lee, Sang Hwa

    1996-01-01

    Inorganic analytical laboratory of Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science participated in an interlaboratory comparison program operated by Quebec Toxicology Centre of Canada in 1994 and again in 1995. The objective of this program is to enable participating laboratories to assess reproducibility and accuracy of their analytical results for trace toxic elements in human biological fluids. This laboratory determined Cd and Pb concentrations in 3 levels of human blood samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 0.5 mL of blood sample is added to the digestion bomb together with 2 mL of nitric acid and enriched spike isotopes and then decomposed in the microwave digestion system. The decomposed sample is diluted to 10 mL and nebulized into ICP-MS. The Cd and Pb values reported by all participating laboratories are presented and compared. The values reported by this laboratory are within the acceptable range of target values. (author)

  13. Lanthanides determination in red wine using ultrasound assisted extraction, flow injection, aerosol desolvation and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentlin, Fabrina R S; dos Santos, Clarissa M M; Flores, Erico M M; Pozebon, Dirce

    2012-01-13

    This paper deals with the determination of the fourteen naturally occurring elements of the lanthanide series in red wine. Ultrasound (US) was used for sample preparation prior lanthanides determination using ICP-MS. Flow injection (FI) and pneumatic nebulization/aerosol desolvation were used for nebulization of aliquots of 50 μL of sample and its subsequent transportation to plasma. Sample preparation procedures, matrix interference and time of sonication were evaluated. Better results for lanthanides in red wine were obtained by sonication with US probe for 90 s and sample 10-fold diluted. The limits of detection of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Pr, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu and Yb were 6.57, 10.8, 9.97, 9.38, 2.71, 1.29, 1.22, 0.52, 2.35, 0.96, 2.30, 0.45, 0.24 and 1.35 ng L(-1), respectively. Red wines of different varieties from three countries of South America were discriminated according to the country of origin by means of multivariate analysis of lanthanides concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...

  15. Ovulation induction: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Ioannis E

    2005-10-01

    Ovulation induction is the method for treating anovulatory infertility. For patients with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, the treatment involves administration of both FSH and LH, while HCG is injected for follicle rupture. Pulsatile GnRH has the same effectiveness as gonadotrophins and the advantage of the low multiple pregnancy rate. In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the first treatment choice is clomiphene citrate. With this drug, in properly selected patients, the cumulative pregnancy rate approaches that of normal women. Low-dose protocols of FSH are the second line of treatment, effective in inducing monofollicular development. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling can be an alternative but not as a first choice treatment in clomiphene-resistant patients. Other treatments, such as pulsatile GnRH and GnRH agonists, are hardly used today in PCOS. However, in obese women with PCOS, weight loss and exercise should be recommended as the first line of therapy. Newer agents including aromatase inhibitors and insulin sensitizers, although promising, need further evaluation.

  16. Nebulizer use - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright ...

  17. Arsenic speciation using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, D.A.; Yaeger, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Parish, K.J.; Gowdy, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mohrman, G.B. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A method has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to identify and quantify As(III), As(V), and organoarsenic compounds in environmental samples. A arsenic species were separated by reversed-phase, ion-pairing, HPLC using a microbore Inertsil-ODS{trademark} column. Only 1 {micro}L of sample was injected on the column, and the mobile phase flow rates were typically on the order of 40 {micro}L/min. The HPLC mobile phase was a mixture of methanol and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH), and the column effluent was introduced into an ICP-mass spectrometer using direct injection nebulization. Detection limits of less than 1 pg As (as injected on the column) were easily obtained for each arsenic species. The effect of changes in mobile phase composition and ICP-MS conditions will be described, as well as quality control measures, e.g., the use of surrogates, internal standards, and matrix spikes. Precision and accuracy information will be presented from the analysis of aqueous standards and soil extracts that were spiked with arsenic oxide [As(III)], sodium arsenate [As(V)], dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), or chlorovinyl arsenious acid (CVAA). The authors believe that these data demonstrate the utility of this technique for the sensitive determination of arsenic species present in water or soil.

  18. Modeling Induction Motor Imbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armah, Kabenla; Jouffroy, Jerome; Duggen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a study into the development of a generalized model for a three-phase induction motor that offers flexibility of simulating balanced and unbalanced parameter scenarios. By analyzing the interaction of forces within the motor, we achieve our main objective of deriving the system d...

  19. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  20. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... and disorders: physiology of micturition, voiding dysfunction, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, and painful bladder syndrome. In: Lobo ...

  1. Assessment methods of injection moulded nano-patterned surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, S.; Bisacco, G.; Hansen, H. N.

    2014-01-01

    algorithm for feature recognition. To compare the methods, the mould insert and a number of replicated nano-patterned surfaces, injection moulded with an induction heating aid, were measured on nominally identical locations by means of an atomic force microscope mounted on a manual CMM....

  2. High current induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Lee, E.

    1994-07-01

    Induction linacs are among the most powerful accelerators in existence. They have accelerated electron bunches of several kiloamperes, and are being investigated as drivers for heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion (HIF), which requires peak beam currents of kiloamperes and average beam powers of some tens of megawatts. The requirement for waste transmutation with an 800 MeV proton or deuteron beam with an average current of 50 mA and an average power of 40 MW lies midway between the electron machines and the heavy ion machines in overall difficulty. Much of the technology and understanding of beam physics carries over from the previous machines to the new requirements. The induction linac allows use of a very large beam aperture, which may turn out to be crucial to reducing beam loss and machine activation from the beam halo. The major issues addressed here are transport of high intensity beams, availability of sources, efficiency of acceleration, and the state of the needed technology for the waste treatment application. Because of the transformer-like action of an induction core and the accompanying magnetizing current, induction linacs make the most economic sense and have the highest efficiencies with large beam currents. Based on present understanding of beam transport limits, induction core magnetizing current requirements, and pulse modulators, the efficiencies could be very high. The study of beam transport at high intensities has been the major activity of the HIF community. Beam transport and sources are limiting at low energies but are not significant constraints at the higher energies. As will be shown, the proton beams will be space-charge-dominated, for which the emittance has only a minor effect on the overall beam diameter but does determine the density falloff at the beam edge

  3. Determination of selenium in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: interferences and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.

    1999-01-01

    when the nebulizer gas flow rate was optimized for each solute. The influences of sample uptake rate, nebulizer flow rate and rf power were examined in multivariate experiments. The nebulizer gas flow rate and rf power were found to be interdependent, but the sample pump flow rate was independent......, ethanol, propanol, butanol, glycerol, acetonitrile and acetic acid) were examined for their sensitivity enhancement effect. Enhancement factors up to six were obtained and were dependent on the nebulizer gas flow and rf power. There was no important difference in the enhancement effects of these solutes...

  4. Electron injection in microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axinescu, S.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the methods of injecting electrons in the microtron is presented. A special attention is paid to efficient injection systems developed by Wernholm and Kapitza. A comparison of advantages and disadvantages of both systems is made in relation to the purpose of the microtron. (author)

  5. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  6. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump inje...

  7. Effect of Air Injection on Nucleation Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capellades Mendez, Gerard; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    From disruption of the supersaturated solution to improved mass transfer in the crystallizing suspension, the introduction of a moving gas phase in a crystallizer could lead to improved rates of nucleation and crystal growth. In this work, saturated air has been injected to batch crystallizers...... to study the effects on formation of the first crystal and subsequent turbidity buildup. To account for the typically large sample-to-sample variation, nucleation rates were evaluated for a large number of replicates using probability distributions of induction times. The slope and the intercept...... was reduced from 69 to 13 min, and the mean induction time decreased from 128 to 36 min. The effect on aqueous solutions of l-arginine was less apparent, with a detection delay reduction from 15 to 3 min, and no significant changes on the rate of primary nucleation. These results demonstrate the potential...

  8. Inductive Communication System Design Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    The report documents the experience obtained during the design and development of the Inductive Communications System used in the Morgantown People Mover. The Inductive Communications System is used to provide wayside-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-waysid...

  9. Induction technology optimization code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.; Brooks, A.L.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    A code has been developed to evaluate relative costs of induction accelerator driver systems for relativistic klystrons. The code incorporates beam generation, transport and pulsed power system constraints to provide an integrated design tool. The code generates an injector/accelerator combination which satisfies the top level requirements and all system constraints once a small number of design choices have been specified (rise time of the injector voltage and aspect ratio of the ferrite induction cores, for example). The code calculates dimensions of accelerator mechanical assemblies and values of all electrical components. Cost factors for machined parts, raw materials and components are applied to yield a total system cost. These costs are then plotted as a function of the two design choices to enable selection of an optimum design based on various criteria. (Author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  10. Glass manufacturing through induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boen, R.; Paya, B.; Roscini, M.; Fautrelle, Y.; Tuaz, F.; Delage, D.

    1991-01-01

    Oxides and glasses are electrical and thermal insulators, but show the characteristic of being weakly conductors of electricity when they are melt. It is then possible to heat them through HF induction. This interesting property allows the development of a melting process in cold crucible induction furnace. The process is being studied and developed by a consortium made up of CFEI, CEA Marcoule, ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE and MADYLAM laboratory. The studies include 2 parts: a) One experimental part to develop the technology and research for satisfying configurations, through a small size platform (10 to 30 kg/h). The long run continuous pouring melting tests made on different kinds of glass allow to go-on with industrial range units. b) One theoretical part to understand the magneto-thermo-hydraulic phenomenon hardly in relation with the heavy dependence of the physical characteristics (electrical and heat conductivities, viscosity) according to temperature. 6 refs., 4 figs [fr

  11. Inductive energy storage commutator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, I.M.

    1987-01-01

    An inductive energy storage commutator is described. The value of commutated current is up to 800 A, the voltage amplitude in the load is up to 50 kV, the working frequency is equal to 1-50 Hz, the commutated power is up to 40 MW. The commutating device comprises of the first stage commutator having two in-series connected modules of the BTSV - 800/235 high-voltage thyristor unit, the second stage commutator containing three GMI-43A parallel connected powerful pulsed triodes, a commutating capacitor, an induction coil, two supplementary high-voltage thyristor keys (20 in-series connected thyristors T2-300 (13 class)), load, control pulse shapers, thyristor keys, power supply

  12. Pulse induction heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, A S; Kachanov, B Y; Kogan, B V

    1993-12-31

    Induction heating and three types of pulse processes were studied. It was found that in pulse processes the frequency and pulse duration of heat treatments do not remain constant. High frequency pulse heat treatments can be used on sprayed coatings; such treatments will result in stronger surfaces with no cracks. For induction hardening, the rate of specific power was 1 to 1.5 kW/sq.cm, for forging it was 0.2 to 0.3 kW/sq.cm and for melting it was 0.05 to 0.1 kW/sq.cm. The application of pulse heating will result in higher rates of specific power.

  13. Inductive Reasoning: A Training Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauer, Karl Josef; Phye, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have examined inductive reasoning to identify different cognitive processes when participants deal with inductive problems. This article presents a prescriptive theory of inductive reasoning that identifies cognitive processing using a procedural strategy for making comparisons. It is hypothesized that training in the use of the…

  14. Lexicographic Path Induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Programming languages theory is full of problems that reduce to proving the consistency of a logic, such as the normalization of typed lambda-calculi, the decidability of equality in type theory, equivalence testing of traces in security, etc. Although the principle of transfinite induction......, and weak normalization for Gödel’s T follows indirectly; both have been formalized in a prototypical extension of Twelf....

  15. Initial position estimation method for permanent magnet synchronous motor based on improved pulse voltage injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Lu, K.; Ye, Y.

    2011-01-01

    According to saliency of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), the information of rotor position is implied in performance of stator inductances due to the magnetic saturation effect. Researches focused on the initial rotor position estimation of PMSM by injecting modulated pulse voltage...... vectors. The relationship between the inductance variations and voltage vector positions was studied. The inductance variation effect on estimation accuracy was studied as well. An improved five-pulses injection method was proposed, to improve the estimation accuracy by choosing optimaized voltage vectors...

  16. Low-cost and eco-friendly nebulizer spray coated CuInAlS2 counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhas, C. Ravi; Christy, A. Jennifer; Venkatesh, R.; Esther Santhoshi Monica, S.; Panda, Subhendu K.; Subramanian, B.; Ravichandran, K.; Sudhagar, P.; Raj, A. Moses Ezhil

    2018-05-01

    CuInAlS2 thin films for different substrate temperatures were deposited by a novel nebulizer spray technique. The polycrystalline CIAS thin film exhibited tetragonal structure with the preferential orientation of (1 1 2) plane. Nanoflakes were observed from the surface morphology of CIAS film. The peak position of core level spectra confirms the presence of CuInAlS2 from XPS analysis. The absorbance spectra and optical band gap were observed from the optical property. The activation energy, carrier concentration, hole mobility and resistivity were determined by linear four probe and Hall effect measurements. The CIAS film was used as a counter electrode (CE) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and is characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel measurements. DSSC fabricated with the CIAS CE achieved the photo conversion efficiency of about 2.55%.

  17. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960's to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore's Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail

  18. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from the early 1960s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400-ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore close-quote s Site 300 produced 10,000-Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high-current, short-pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. Injectable biomaterials for minimally invasive orthopedic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, M; Shalumon, K T; Mitha, M K

    2009-06-01

    Biodegradable and injectable hydroxy terminated-poly propylene fumarate (HT-PPF) bone cement was developed. The injectable formulation consisting HT-PPF and comonomer, n-vinyl pyrrolidone, calcium phosphate filler, free radical catalyst, accelerator and radiopaque agent sets rapidly to hard mass with low exothermic temperature. The candidate bone cement attains mechanical strength more than the required compressive strength of 5 MPa and compressive modulus 50 MPa. The candidate bone cement resin elicits cell adhesion and cytoplasmic spreading of osteoblast cells. The cured bone cement does not induce intracutaneous irritation and skin sensitization. The candidate bone cement is tissue compatible without eliciting any adverse tissue reactions. The candidate bone cement is osteoconductive and inductive and allow osteointegration and bone remodeling. HT-PPF bone cement is candidate bone cement for minimally invasive radiological procedures for the treatment of bone diseases and spinal compression fractures.

  20. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  1. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  2. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  3. Inductive reasoning 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan

    2018-05-01

    Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge to make predictions about novel cases. The first part of this review summarizes key inductive phenomena and critically evaluates theories of induction. We highlight recent theoretical advances, with a special emphasis on the structured statistical approach, the importance of sampling assumptions in Bayesian models, and connectionist modeling. A number of new research directions in this field are identified including comparisons of inductive and deductive reasoning, the identification of common core processes in induction and memory tasks and induction involving category uncertainty. The implications of induction research for areas as diverse as complex decision-making and fear generalization are discussed. This article is categorized under: Psychology > Reasoning and Decision Making Psychology > Learning. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A taxonomy of inductive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles; Jern, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Inductive inferences about objects, features, categories, and relations have been studied for many years, but there are few attempts to chart the range of inductive problems that humans are able to solve. We present a taxonomy of inductive problems that helps to clarify the relationships between familiar inductive problems such as generalization, categorization, and identification, and that introduces new inductive problems for psychological investigation. Our taxonomy is founded on the idea that semantic knowledge is organized into systems of objects, features, categories, and relations, and we attempt to characterize all of the inductive problems that can arise when these systems are partially observed. Recent studies have begun to address some of the new problems in our taxonomy, and future work should aim to develop unified theories of inductive reasoning that explain how people solve all of the problems in the taxonomy.

  5. Hip joint injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine into the joint. The provider uses a real-time x-ray (fluoroscopy) to see where to place ... Wakefield RJ. Arthrocentesis and injection of joints and soft tissue. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, ...

  6. Premixed direct injection disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  7. Imipenem and Cilastatin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imipenem and cilastatin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria, including ... area), gynecological, blood, skin, bone, and joint infections. Imipenem is in a class of medications called carbapenem ...

  8. Quinupristin and Dalfopristin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are in a class of medications called streptogramin antibiotics. They work by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as quinupristin and dalfopristin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  9. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox - larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography - guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy - guided botulinum toxin treatment; ...

  10. The PEP injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Avery, R.T.; Peterson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A system to transport 10-to-15-GeV electron and positron beams from the Stanford Linear Accelerator and to inject them into the PEP storage ring under a wide variety of lattice configurations has been designed. Optically, the transport line consists of three 360/degree/ phase-shift sections of FODO lattice, with bending magnets interspersed in such a way as to provide achromaticity, convenience in energy and emittance definition, and independent tuning of the various optical parameters for matching into the ring. The last 360/degree/ of phase shift has 88 milliradians of bend in a vertical plane and deposits the beam at the injection septum via a Lambertson magnet. Injection is accomplished by launching the beam with several centimeters of radial betatron amplitude in a fast bump provided by a triad of pulsed kicker magnets. Radiation damping reduces the collective amplitude quickly enough to allow injection at a high repetition rate

  11. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  12. Linear induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation

  13. Antibody induction versus corticosteroid induction for liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penninga, Luit; Wettergren, André; Wilson, Colin H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation is an established treatment option for end-stage liver failure. To date, no consensus has been reached on the use of immunosuppressive T-cell specific antibody induction compared with corticosteroid induction of immunosuppression after liver transplantation....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of T-cell specific antibody induction versus corticosteroid induction for prevention of acute rejection in liver transplant recipients. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register...... to identify additional trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised clinical trials assessing immunosuppression with T-cell specific antibody induction versus corticosteroid induction in liver transplant recipients. Our inclusion criteria stated that participants within each included trial should...

  14. Experimental demonstration of plasma startup by coaxial helicity injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T.R.; Nelson, B.A.; Hamp, W.T.; Izzo, V.A.; O'Neill, R.G.; Redd, A.J.; Sieck, P.E.; Smith, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental results on the transfer of a coaxial-helicity-injection (CHI) produced discharge to inductive operation are reported. CHI assisted plasma startup is more robust than inductive only operation and reduces volt-seconds consumption. After handoff to inductive operation, the initial 100 kA of CHI produced current drops to 50 kA, then ramps up to 180 kA, using only 30 mVs, about 40% higher than that produced by induction alone. Results show that initiation of CHI discharges at lower densities produce higher levels of coupling current. Coupling a CHI produced discharge to induction from a precharged central solenoid has produced record currents of 290 kA using only 52 mWb of central solenoid flux. CHI discharges can also be generated while the central transformer is in the process of being precharged, during which period it induces a negative loop voltage on the CHI discharge. These significant results were obtained on the Helicity Injected Torus-II (HIT-II) [T.R. Jarboe, Fusion Technol. 15, 7 (1989)] spherical torus experiment (major/minor radius of 0.3/0.2 m and elongation of 1.5)

  15. Pulsed inductive HF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razhev, A M; Kargapol' tsev, E S [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, D S; Demchuk, S V [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    We report the results of experimentally investigated dependences of temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of an inductive HF-laser generation on the pump conditions. Gas mixtures H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF6{sub 6}) and He(Ne) – H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF{sub 6}) were used as active media. The FWHM pulse duration reached 0.42 μs. This value corresponded to a pulsed power of 45 kW. For the first time, the emission spectrum of an inductive HF laser was investigated, which consisted of seven groups of bands with centres around the wavelengths of 2732, 2736, 2739, 2835, 2837, 2893 and 2913 nm. The cross section profile of the laser beam was a ring with a diameter of about 20 mm and width of about 5 mm. Parameters of laser operation in the repetitively pulsed regime were sufficiently stable. The amplitude instability of light pulses was no greater than 5% – 6%. (lasers)

  16. Regulation of ATM induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.A.; Fang, Z.M.; Kearsley, J.H.; Lee, C.S.; Sarris, M.; De Murrell, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: ATM, the tumour suppressor protein mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia, is of pivotal importance in controlling the cells primary response to ionising radiation (IR) induced DNA damage. Mutations in ATM which reduce the level of the ATM protein and/or compromise ATM functions are known to give rise to radiosensitivity and defective cell cycle checkpoint control. In response to DNA damage ATM kinase is rapidly activated and initiates downstream signalling to cell cycle control molecules including p53. To investigate additional mechanisms of ATM control we have employed ATM antisense expression in cultured cells, western analyses and immunohistochemistry in situ. We report that ATM can be up-regulated up to 10-fold following exposure to low levels of ionising radiation. ATM radiation-induction was radiation dose dependent while the rapidity of the response indicates a post translational pathway. The concurrent time frames for the radiation-induction of ATM levels and the activation of ATM kinase activity appear to be complimentary in boosting ATM's protective response to IR induced DNA damage, especially in ATM 'low expressing' systems. We also provide the first report of ATM misregulation in 2 cancer patients, indicating that ATM is not only radio-protective but has possible implications in cancer, particularly breast cancer. These results have particular importance in defining the regulation of the ATM protein as an: adaptive radio-response; radio-prognostic market in tumours and normal tissue, and breast cancer marker

  17. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  18. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  19. Improvement of tokamak performance by injection of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masayuki.

    1992-12-01

    Concepts for improving tokamak performance by utilizing injection of hot electrons are discussed. Motivation of this paper is to introduce the research work being performed in this area and to refer the interested readers to the literature for more detail. The electron injection based concepts presented here have been developed in the CDX, CCT, and CDX-U tokamak facilities. The following three promising application areas of electron injection are described here: 1. Non-inductive current drive, 2. Plasma preionization for tokamak start-up assist, and 3. Charging-up of tokamak flux surfaces for improved plasma confinement. The main motivation for the dc-helicity injection current drive is in its efficiency that, in theory, is independent of plasma density. This property makes it attractive for driving currents in high density reactor plasmas

  20. Radionuclide determination in environmental samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lariviere, Dominic; Taylor, Vivien F.; Evans, R. Douglas; Cornett, R. Jack

    2006-01-01

    The determination of naturally occurring and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has gained recognition over the last fifteen years, relative to radiometric techniques, as the result of improvement in instrumental performance, sample introduction equipment, and sample preparation. With the increase in instrumental sensitivity, it is now possible to measure ultratrace levels (fg range) of many radioisotopes, including those with half-lives between 1 and 1000 years, without requiring very complex sample pre-concentration schemes. However, the identification and quantification of radioisotopes in environmental matrices is still hampered by a variety of analytical issues such as spectral (both atomic and molecular ions) and non-spectral (matrix effect) interferences and instrumental limitations (e.g., abundance sensitivity). The scope of this review is to highlight recent analytical progress and issues associated with the determination of radionuclides by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The impact of interferences, instrumental limitations (e.g., degree of ionization, abundance sensitivity, detection limits) and low sample-to-plasma transfer efficiency on the measurement of radionuclides by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry will be described. Solutions that overcome these issues will be discussed, highlighting their pros and cons and assessing their impact on the measurement of environmental radioactivity. Among the solutions proposed, mass and chemical resolution through the use of sector-field instruments and chemical reactions/collisions in a pressurized cell, respectively, will be described. Other methods, such as unique sample introduction equipment (e.g., laser ablation, electrothermal vaporisation, high efficiency nebulization) and instrumental modifications/optimizations (e.g., instrumental vacuum, radiofrequency power, guard electrode) that improve sensitivity and performance

  1. Vector control of induction machines

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the main law of physics and fundamental concepts inherent in electromechanical conversion, ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" introduces the standard mathematical models for induction machines - whichever rotor technology is used - as well as several squirrel-cage induction machine vector-control strategies. The use of causal ordering graphs allows systematization of the design stage, as well as standardization of the structure of control devices. ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" suggests a unique approach aimed at reducing parameter sensitivity for

  2. Reactor water injection facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1997-05-02

    A steam turbine and an electric generator are connected by way of a speed convertor. The speed convertor is controlled so that the number of rotation of the electric generator is constant irrespective of the speed change of the steam turbine. A shaft coupler is disposed between the turbine and the electric generator or between the turbine and a water injection pump. With such a constitution, the steam turbine and the electric generator are connected by way of the speed convertor, and since the number of revolution of the electric generator is controlled to be constant, the change of the number of rotation of the turbine can be controlled irrespective of the change of the number of rotation of the electric generator. Accordingly, the flow rate of the injection water from the water injection pump to a reactor pressure vessel can be controlled freely thereby enabling to supply stable electric power. (T.M.)

  3. The PEP II injection kicker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, G.C.; Donaldson, A.R.; Williams, D.

    1997-07-01

    PEP II or the B Factory consists of two asymmetric storage rings. The injection energy for electrons is 9 GeV, while that for positrons is 3.1 GeV. The bend angle into the high energy ring (HER) is 0.35 m-rad, and the angle into the low energy ring (LER) is 0.575 m-rad. The magnetic length for the HER kicker is 0.85 m, and 0.55 m for the LER kicker. The field produced by the magnet is therefore 123.5 G for the HER, and 132 G for the LER. Each ring has a kicker magnet upstream of the injection line which is used to distort the orbit of the stored beam. An identical magnet downstream of the injection line is used to restore the orbit of the stored beam and inject the incoming beam. The two magnets are driven in parallel by the modulator. The apeture of the magnets is 3.86x3.46 cm (HxV). Therefore the current required to drive the HER is 863 A, while for the LER it is 756 A. The inductance of the magnet is approximately 1.4 uH/m. The current pulse is a critically damped sinusoid with a rise time of less than 300 ns. A kicker system has been designed which can be used for injection of both beams by varying the charge of voltage. The modulator uses a conjugate circuit to match the impedance of the magnet, and coupling to the beam chamber

  4. Ultra-trace determination of iodine in sediments and biological material using UV photochemical generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinberg, Patricia [Institute for National Measurements Standards, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada)], E-mail: patricia.grinberg@nrc.ca; Sturgeon, Ralph E. [Institute for National Measurements Standards, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    Several sample preparation techniques have been evaluated for the determination of iodine using UV-photochemical generation-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Thermal decomposition of samples at 1000 {sup o}C followed by capture of the liberated iodine in dilute acetic acid permitted subsequent UV-photochemical generation of a volatile iodine species that serves to enhance sensitivity 25-fold over conventional solution nebulization, delivering reagent blank detection limits of 8.75 pg g{sup -1127}I and 0.075 pg g{sup -1129}I for solid samples (400 mg test mass). The methodology was validated through determination of total iodine in several Standard Reference Materials, including NIST 1572 Citrus leaves, NIST 1549 Non-fat milk powder, NIST 1566a Oyster tissue and NIST 2709 San Joaquin Soil. Liberation of iodine from samples and its collection as well as photochemical generation were quantitative, permitting calibration to be achieved using standards prepared in dilute acetic acid.

  5. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  6. Inductive circuit arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, Peter; Coxon, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A switched coil arrangement is connected in a bridge configuration of four switches S 1 , S 2 , S 3 and S 4 which are each shunted by diodes D 1 , D 2 , D 3 and D 4 so that current can flow in either direction through a coil L depending on the setting of the switches. A capacitor C is connected across the bridge through a switch S 5 to receive the inductive energy stored in coil L on breaking the current flow path through the coil. The electrostatic energy stored in capacitor C can then be used to supply current through the coil in the reverse direction either immediately or after a time delay. Coil L may be a superconductive coil. Losses in the circuit can be made up by a trickle charge of capacitor C from a separate supply V 2 . The device may be used in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  7. Broncodilatadores en la crisis asmática: ¿Aerosol o nebulización? Bronchodilators in acute asthma: metered dose inhalers or wet nebulizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora M. Lombardi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El número de consultas por asma aguda en el Hospital María Ferrer ha aumentado de 3300 consultas anuales en 1980 a 15364 en 2002. Los broncodilatadores de acción corta (salbutamol-ipratropio en nebulizaciones, procedimiento que consume tiempo y recursos humanos, eran el tratamiento inicial en 2002. Para tratar de mejorar el cumplimiento del tratamiento frente al aumento de la demanda, se reemplazaron las nebulizaciones por aerosoles dosificadores. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el impacto de este cambio. Comparamos 90 pacientes con crisis asmática tratados con aerosoles en diciembre del 2003 con igual número tratados con nebulizaciones en diciembre del 2002 pareados por sexo, edad, altura, VEF1 teórico y de ingreso. Con aerosoles se observó una reducción significativa del tiempo de permanencia en el Departamento de Emergencia (mediana 3 h (2-4.75 versus 4 h (1-6 p=0.01 y un número mayor de altas en las primeras 2 horas (48% vs. 31% p=0.03. Los pacientes tratados con aerosol recibieron el 87% de las dosis prescriptas, mientras que el otro grupo recibió sólo el 38%. El VEF1 mostró una tendencia a ser mayor al egreso en el grupo que recibió aerosoles, pero la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa (78% ± 17% vs. 73% ± 17% p=0.09. El porcentaje de alta final fue similar en los dos grupos (96% vs. 93%. El tratamiento con aerosoles produjo una mejoría más rápida y mejor cumplimiento de las normas de tratamiento indicadas.The number of patients attending our Emergency Department (ED with acute asthma has increased from 3300 patient/year in 1980 to 15364 in 2003. Short acting bronchodilators (albuterol/ipratropium administered in wet nebulizations, a resource consuming procedure, were our main initial treatment in 2002. To improve treatment goals, we switched the method of bronchodilator delivery to metered dose inhalers (MDI in 2003. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of this change in the

  8. Induction heating using induction coils in series-parallel circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsen, Marc Rollo; Geren, William Preston; Miller, Robert James; Negley, Mark Alan; Dykstra, William Chet

    2017-11-14

    A part is inductively heated by multiple, self-regulating induction coil circuits having susceptors, coupled together in parallel and in series with an AC power supply. Each of the circuits includes a tuning capacitor that tunes the circuit to resonate at the frequency of AC power supply.

  9. Experiments of full non-inductive current drive on HT-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.D.; Wu, Z.W.; Chen, Z.Y.; Gong, X.Z.; Wang, H.; Xu, D.; Huang, Y.; Luo, J.; Gao, X.; Hu, L.; Zhao, J.; Wan, B.N.; Li, J.

    2005-01-01

    Some experimental results of steady-state operation and full non-inductive current drive have been obtained on HT-7. Three types of experiment are used to study long pulse discharge, quasi-steady-state operation and full non-inductive current drive. The experiments show that the plasma current in the full non-inductive drive case is instable due to no adjusting effect of OH heating field, when the waveguide tube discharge lead to the LHW power injecting tokamak plasma decrease. This instability of plasma current will increase the interaction of plasma with limiter and first surface and bring impurity. All discharges of full non-inductive current drive are terminated because of impurity spurting. To adjust the LHW injection power for control the loop voltage during long pulse discharge is the most effective method for steady-state operation on HT-7. (author)

  10. Determination of High-Frequency d- and q-axis Inductances for Surface-Mounted Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Vetuschi, M.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a reliable method for the experimental determination of high-frequency d- and q -axis inductances for surface-mounted permanent-magnet synchronous machines (SMPMSMs). Knowledge of the high-frequency d- and q-axis inductances plays an important role in the efficient design...... of sensorless controllers using high-frequency signal injection techniques. The proposed method employs a static locked-rotor test using an ac +dc power supply. By injecting a high-frequency rotating voltage vector into the machine, the d- and q-axis inductances may simultaneously be determined with no need...

  11. Oxygen injection facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Masamoto; Hirose, Yuki

    1998-01-01

    A compressor introduces air as a starting material and sends it to a dust removing device, a dehumidifying device and an adsorption/separation system disposed downstream. The facility of the present invention is disposed in the vicinity of an injection point and installed in a turbine building of a BWR type reactor having a pipeline of a feedwater system to be injected. The adsorbing/separation system comprises an adsorbing vessel and an automatic valve, and the adsorbing vessel is filled with an adsorbent for selectively adsorbing nitrogen. Zeolite is used as the adsorbent. Nitrogen in the air passing through the adsorbing vessel is adsorbed and removed under a pressurized condition, and a highly concentrated oxygen gas is formed. The direction of the steam of the adsorbed nitrogen is changed by an opening/closing switching operation of an automatic valve and released to the atmosphere (the pressure is released). Generated oxygen gas is stored under pressure in a tank, and injected to the pipeline of the feedwater system by an oxygen injection conduit by way of a flow rate control valve. In the adsorbing vessel, steps of adsorption, separation and storage under pressure are repeated successively. (I.N.)

  12. Water injection dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and

  13. Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... botulinum neurotoxin as much art as it is science. It is in your best interest to locate the most well-trained and experienced doctor you can find. Before making an appointment to receive botulinum neuro toxin injections, ask the office personnel which doctor ...

  14. Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called penicillin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection. Tazobactam is ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying piperacillin.Antibiotics ... injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  15. Meropenem and Vaborbactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Vaborbactam is in a class ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying meropenem.Antibiotics such as meropenem and vaborbactam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  16. Cold water injection nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, Masaaki; Maeda, Masamitsu; Endo, Takio.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To inject cold water in a reactor without applying heat cycles to a reactor container and to the inner wall of a feedwater nozzle by securing a perforated plate at the outlet of the cold water injection nozzle. Constitution: A disc-like cap is secured to the final end of a return nozzle of a control rod drive. The cap prevents the flow of a high temperature water flowing downward in the reactor from entering into the nozzle. The cap is perforated with a plurality of bore holes for injecting cold water into the reactor. The cap is made to about 100 mm in thickness so that the cold water passing through the bore holes is heated by the heat conduction in the cap. Accordingly, the flow of high temperature water flowing downwardly in the reactor is inhibited by the cap from backward flowing into the nozzle. Moreover, the flow of the cold water in the nozzle is controlled and rectified when passed through the bore holes in the cap and then injected into the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  17. Pellet injection in WVIIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, H.; Wuersohing, E.; Weller, A.; Jaeckel, H.; Hartfuss, H.; Hacker, H.; Ringler, H.; Buechl, K.

    1986-01-01

    The results of pellet injection experiments in the Wendelstein VII A stellarator are presented. The injector was a single shot pneumatic gun using deuterium pellets. Experiments were carried out in both ECRH and NI plasmas. Data is shown for plasma density, energy confinement, penetration depth and pellet ablation. Results are compared to a neutral gas shielding model

  18. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-01-01

    Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations

  19. RHIC injection kicker impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Zhang, W.

    1995-01-01

    The longitudinal impedance of the RHIC injection kicker is measured using the wire method up to a frequency of 3 GHz. The mismatch between the 50 ohm cable and the wire and pipe system is calibrated using the TRL calibration algorithm. Various methods of reducing the impedance, such as coated ceramic pipe and copper strips are investigated

  20. SPS injection kicker magnet

    CERN Document Server

    1975-01-01

    One of the first-generation SPS injection kicker magnets. Lifting the tank-lid reveals the inner structure. For a more detailed description see 7502072X. See also 7502074X and Annual Report 1975, p.162. To the left: Roland Tröhler; to the right: Giacomo Busetta.

  1. Probabilistic inductive inference: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ambainis, Andris

    2001-01-01

    Inductive inference is a recursion-theoretic theory of learning, first developed by E. M. Gold (1967). This paper surveys developments in probabilistic inductive inference. We mainly focus on finite inference of recursive functions, since this simple paradigm has produced the most interesting (and most complex) results.

  2. A Student Teamwork Induction Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in higher education. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group…

  3. Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniel J.; Dry, Matthew J.; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key "sampling" assumption about how the available data were generated.…

  4. From Inductive Reasoning to Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical proof is an expression of deductive reasoning (drawing conclusions from previous assertions). However, it is often inductive reasoning (conclusions drawn on the basis of examples) that helps learners form their deductive arguments, or proof. In addition, not all inductive arguments generate more formal arguments. This article draws a…

  5. Covariation in Natural Causal Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Patricia W.; Novick, Laura R.

    1991-01-01

    Biases and models usually offered by cognitive and social psychology and by philosophy to explain causal induction are evaluated with respect to focal sets (contextually determined sets of events over which covariation is computed). A probabilistic contrast model is proposed as underlying covariation computation in natural causal induction. (SLD)

  6. Economic implications of labor induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Simon, Raquel; Montañes, Antonio; Clemente, Jesús; Del Pino, María D; Romero, Manuel A; Fabre, Ernesto; Oros, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    To assess health service costs associated with labor induction according to different clinical situations in a tertiary-level hospital. In a prospective study, individual patient cost data were assessed for women admitted for induction of labor at a tertiary hospital in Spain between November 1, 2012, and August 31, 2013. The costs of labor induction were estimated according to maternal and neonatal outcomes, method of delivery, cervical condition at admission, and obstetric indication. Direct costs including professional fees, epidural, maternal stay, consumables, and drugs were calculated. Overall, 412 women were included in the final cost analysis. The mean total cost of labor induction was €3589.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3475.13-3704.61). Cesarean delivery after labor induction (€4830.45, 95% CI 4623.13-5037.58) was significantly more expensive than spontaneous delivery (€3037.45, 95% CI 2966.91-3179.99) and instrumental vaginal delivery (€3344.31, 95%CI 3151.69-3536.93). The total cost for patients with a very unfavorable cervix (Bishop score Labor induction for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was the most expensive obstetric indication for induction of labor (€4347.32, 95% CI 3890.45-4804.18). Following the induction of labor, a number of patient- and treatment-related factors influence costs associated with delivery. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiotracer injections through microfilters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.; Maschek, G.; Pichler, R.; Giesen, I.; Hatzl-Griesenhofer, M.; Maschek, W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Problems with the injection of radiotracers ( 99m Tc-HAMS, 99m Tc-DPD) to infants when administered through polar-filter-protected venous pathways caused us to get a closer look of what happens to a tracer in such a system. We simulated injections of the tracers mainly used at our institution in an in-vitro array and measured full and empty tracer syringes, filters (0.2 μm micropores) and the post-filter receptacle of the radioactivity. We calculated the percentage of filter-trapped activity and of activity in the receptacle. For several tracers we repeated this process with a neutral filter of the same pore size to get a comparison between the behavior in polarized and electrically inert filters. In general injection of a soluble radiotracer through a polar filter system means a dose loss in the filter of about 10 %, up to the tracer molecule size of IgG-antibodies. Suspended tracers, which consist of comparatively large particles, like RES- or pulmonary perfusion markers, are blocked by the filter, as can be foreseen with a particle size of >> 0.2 μm. DMSA and DPD (a biphosphonate), although both being soluble and rather small molecules, were blocked by the polar filter to a high extent, and by the neutral filter to a much lower, almost neglectable degree. The conclusions are: if possible avoid any use of a filter in your tracer injection pathway. Never use a filter with bone scan or DMSA applications. When doing uptake calculations you have to add the filter counts to the empty syringe value in the formula. If you cannot avoid to inject the radiotracer through a filter you have to replace the filter afterwards and treat the used filter as radioactive waste. The polarity of the filter material might severely affect retention of radiotracer in the filter. (author)

  8. Synergistic effects of Mo and F doping on the quality factor of ZnO thin films prepared by a fully automated home-made nebulizer spray technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, K.; Dineshbabu, N.; Arun, T.; Manivasaham, A.; Sindhuja, E.

    2017-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxide films of undoped, Mo doped, Mo + F co-doped ZnO were deposited using a facile homemade nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. The effects of Mo and F doping on the structural, optical, electrical and surface morphological properties were investigated using XRD, UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, I-V and Hall probe techniques, FESEM and AFM, and XPS, respectively. The XRD analysis confirms that all the films are well crystallized with hexagonal wurtzite structure. All the synthesized samples exhibit high transmittance (above 85%) in the visible region. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics show the ohmic conduction nature of the films. The Hall probe measurements show that the synergistic effects of Mo and F doping cause desirable improvements in the quality factor of the ZnO films. A minimum resistivity of 5.12 × 10-3 Ω cm with remarkably higher values of mobility and carrier concentration is achieved for Mo (2 at.%) + F (15 at.%) co-doped ZnO films. A considerable variation in the intensity of deep level emission caused by Mo and F doping is observed in the photoluminescence (PL) studies. The presence of the constituent elements in the samples is confirmed by XPS analysis.

  9. Preparation of a Sustained-Release Nebulized Aerosol of R-terbutaline Hydrochloride Liposome and Evaluation of Its Anti-asthmatic Effects via Pulmonary Delivery in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingrui; Zhan, Shuyao; Liu, Qing; Su, Hao; Dai, Xi; Wang, Hai; Beng, Huimin; Tan, Wen

    2018-01-01

    An aerosolized liposome formulation for the pulmonary delivery of an anti-asthmatic medication was developed. Asthma treatment usually requires frequent administration of medication for a sustained bronchodilator response. Liposomes are known for their sustained drug release capability and thus would be a suitable delivery system for prolonging the therapeutic effect of anti-asthmatic medication. Liposomes prepared by thin film hydration were loaded with a model drug, R-terbutaline hydrochloride(R-TBH), using an ammonium sulfate-induced transmembrane electrochemical gradient. This technique provided an encapsulation efficiency of up to 71.35% and yielded R-TBH liposomes with a particle size of approximately 145 ± 20 nm. According to stability studies, these R-TBH liposomes should be stored at 4°C before usage. Compared to R-TBH solution, which showed 90.84% release within 8 h, liposomal R-TBH had a cumulative release of 73.53% at 37°C over 192 h. A next generation impactor (NGI) was used to analyze the particle size distribution in the lungs of R-TBH liposome aerosol in vitro at 5°C. The therapeutic efficacy of the nebulized aerosol of the R-TBH liposomes was assessed via pulmonary delivery in guinea pigs. The results showed that, compared to the R-TBH solution group, the R-TBH liposome group had a prolonged anti-asthma effect.

  10. Development of SnS (FTO/CdS/SnS) thin films by nebulizer spray pyrolysis (NSP) for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulanantham, A. M. S.; Valanarasu, S.; Jeyadheepan, K.; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd

    2018-01-01

    Herein we report a well-organized analysis on various key-properties of SnS thin films for solar cell fabricated by nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction study reveals the polycrystalline nature of deposited films with orthorhombic crystal structure. The crystallite size was calculated and observed to be in the range of 8-28 nm with increasing molarity of precursor solution. The stoichiometry composition of SnS was confirmed by EDX study. SEM/AFM studies divulge the well-covered deposited surface with spherical grains and the size of grains is increasing with concentration and so the roughness. A remarkable decrease in band gap from 2.6 eV to 1.6 eV was noticed by raising the molar concentration from 0.025 M up to 0.075 M. A single strong emission peak at about 825 nm is observed in PL spectra with enhanced intensity which may be attributed to near band edge emission. From the Hall effect measurement, it was found that the SnS thin film exhibits p-type conductivity. The calculated values of resistivity and carrier concentration are 0.729 Ω cm and 3.67 × 1018/cm3 respectively. Furthermore, to study the photovoltaic properties of SnS thin films a heterojunction solar cell, FTO/n-CdS/p-SnS was produced and the conversion efficiency was recorded about 0.01%.

  11. Interferon induction by adenoviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beladi, I; Bakay, M; Pusztai, R; Mucsi, I; Tarodi, B [University Medical School, Szeged (Hungary). Inst. of Microbiology

    1979-02-01

    All human, simian, bovine and avian adenovirus types tested so far and the canine hepatitis virus induce interferon production in chick cells. This finding indicated this property to be characteristic for viruses belonging to the adenovirus group. Trypsin treatment, which had no effect upon the infectivity, diminished or eliminated the interferon-inducing abilities of crude adenoviruses, and thus the need for a trypsin-sensitive protein in interferon induction was suggested. T antigen and interferon were formed simultaneously in chick embryo fibroblast cells infected with human adenovirus type 12, and there-fore the adenovirus-specific T antigen was resitant to the action of endogenous interferon synthetized by the same cells. In chicks inoculated with human types, the appearance of interferon was biphasic: an 'early' and a 'late' interferon could be demonstrated with maximum titre 4 and 10 hr, respectively, after virus infection. In chicks infected with adenoviruses, first interferon production and then a decreased primary immune response to sheep red blood cells was observed. It was assumed that in adenovirus-infected chicks the interferon produced by viral stimulus resulted in a transient immunosuppression.

  12. Cobalamin speciation using reversed-phase micro-high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanes, Enrique G.; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.

    2004-01-01

    Micro-high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was optimized for the determination and separation of a mixture of cobalt containing species. Four cobalamin species (cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin) representing the various forms of vitamin B12 as well as the harmful corrinoid analogue cobinamide dicyanide were separated using reversed-phase microcapillary chromatography with columns containing C18 packing material with a 2-μm particle size. Selection of organic solvents for the separation took into consideration compatibility with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer being used for element specific detection. Optimized method conditions included use of a methanol gradient and make-up solution for the nebulizer. Some issues associated with dead volume were overcome by the extension of the gradient program. The total analysis time was 52 min. The column-to-column variability was evaluated and was found to be very reasonable (9% RSD on average), confirming that this method is rugged and that the technology should be easily transferred to other laboratories

  13. Nebulizadores: fonte de contaminação bacteriana em pacientes com fibrose cística? Nebulizers in cystic fibrosis: a source of bacterial contamination in cystic fibrosis patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Xavier Costa Brzezinski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar se os nebulizadores de pacientes com fibrose cística são fonte de contaminação microbiana e verificar se a técnica e a frequência de desinfecção dos nebulizadores é apropriada. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal observacional, sem grupo controle. Foram coletadas amostras de 28 pacientes com fibrose cística, no domicílio do paciente, sem aviso prévio sobre o motivo da visita. Foram colhidas três amostras por paciente: do reservatório do nebulizador, da máscara/bocal e do próprio paciente (swab da orofaringe/escarro. As amostras foram acondicionadas adequadamente e levadas para análise. Os pacientes, seus pais ou responsáveis preencheram um questionário sobre métodos de limpeza e desinfecção dos nebulizadores. RESULTADOS: Foram obtidas 84 amostras dos 28 pacientes. Destes, 15 (53,5% eram do gênero masculino. A mediana de idade foi de 11 anos (variação: 1-27 anos. Dos 28 pacientes, 15 apresentaram culturas de escarro/orofaringe positivas. As bactérias encontradas com maior frequencia foram Streptococcus aureus (8/15 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4/15. A cultura obtida dos nebulizadores identificou diversos patógenos, sem nenhum predominante. Não houve associações entre os resultados das culturas obtidas dos nebulizadores e aquelas dos pacientes em 27 casos (96,7%. A limpeza e a desinfecção não eram realizadas de forma adequada em 22 casos (78,6%. CONCLUSÕES: Nesta amostra de pacientes, apesar das técnicas de desinfecção inadequadas, os nebulizadores não foram uma fonte de contaminação microbianaOBJECTIVE: To determine whether nebulizers are a source of microbial contamination in patients with cystic fibrosis, as well as whether the technique and frequency of disinfection of these devices is appropriate. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, uncontrolled observational study. Samples were collected from 28 patients with cystic fibrosis. Samples were collected at the homes of the patients, who

  14. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  15. Inductive line energy storage generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, P [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1997-12-31

    The inductive energy storage (IES) generator has long been considered to be the most efficient system for energy usage in large pulsed power system at the MA level. A number of parameters govern the efficiency of energy transfer between the storage capacitors and the load, and the level of current deliverable to the load. For high power system, the energy storage capacitors are arranged as a Marx generator. The primary constraints are the inductances in the various parts of the circuit, in particular, the upstream inductance between the Marx and the POS, and the downstream inductance between the POS and the load. This paper deals with the effect of replacing part of the upstream inductance with a transmission line and introduces the new concept of an inductive line for energy storage (ILES). Extensive parametric scans were carried out on circuit simulations to investigate the effect of this upstream transmission line. A model was developed to explain the operation of the ILES design based on the data obtained. Comparison with an existing IES generator shows that the ILES design offers a significant improvement in the maximum current and hence energy delivered to an inductive load. (author). 5 figs., 1 ref.

  16. Ceramic injection molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego

    1988-01-01

    Interest in making complex net-shape ceramic parts with good surface finishing and sharp tolerances without machining is a driving force for studying the injection molding technique. This method consists of softhening the ceramic material by means of adding some plastic and heating in order to inject the mixture under pressure into a relatively cold mold where solidification takes place. Essentially, it is the same process used in thermoplastic industry but, in the present case, the ceramic powder load ranges between 80 to 90 wt.%. This work shows results obtained from the fabrication of pieces of different ceramic materials (alumina, barium titanate ferrites, etc.) in a small scale, using equipments developed and constructed in the laboratory. (Author) [es

  17. Gaseous poison injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Sugisaki, Toshihiko; Inada, Ikuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly control the chain reaction due to thermal neutrons in a reactor core by using gaseous poisons as back-up means for control rod drives. Constitution: Gaseous poisons having a large neutron absorption cross section are used as back-up means for control rod drives. Upon failure of control rod insertion, the gaseous poisons are injected into the lower portion of the reactor core to control the reactor power. As the gaseous poisons, vapors at a high temperature and a higher pressure than that of the coolants in the reactor core are injected to control the reactor power due to the void effects. Since the gaseous poisons thus employed rapidly reach the reactor core and form gas bubbles therein, the deccelerating effect of the thermal neutrons is decreased to reduce the chain reaction. (Moriyama, K.)

  18. SPEAR 3 INJECTION KICKER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The design of the SPEAR 3 injection kicker system is presented. This system will include three kicker magnets and their associated pulsers. The magnet design is based on the DELTA kicker magnets, which present a low RF impedance to the beam, and are relatively straight-forward to construct. The pulsers use cascaded IGBT stages that are based on the modulator pulsers developed by a SLAC/LLNL collaboration for the NLC. Design considerations and the results of prototype tests will be discussed

  19. Gallium arsenide injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.H.B.

    1975-01-01

    The semiconductor injection laser includes a thin inner GaAs p-n junction layer between two outer GaAlAs layers which are backed by further thin outer GaAlAs layers with a heavier doping of AlAs. This reduces optical losses. Optical energy is further confined within the inner layers and the lasing threshold reduced by added outer GaAs layers of low electrical and thermal resistivity

  20. Hydrogen pellet injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Masahiro.

    1992-01-01

    In a hydrogen pellet injection device, a nozzle block having a hydrogen gas supply channel is disposed at the inner side of a main cryogenic housing, and an electric resistor is attached to the block. Further, a nozzle block and a hydrogen gas introduction pipe are attached by way of a thermal insulating spacer. Electric current is supplied to the resistor to positively heat the nozzle block and melt remaining solid hydrogen in the hydrogen gas supply channel. Further, the effect of temperature elevation due to the resistor is prevented from reaching the side of the hydrogen gas introduction pipe by the thermal insulation spacer. That is, the temperature of the nozzle block is directly and positively elevated, to melt the solid hydrogen rapidly. Preparation operation from the injection of the hydrogen pellet to the next injection can be completed in a shorter period of time compared with a conventional case thereby enabling to make the test more efficient. Further, only the temperature of the nozzle block is elevated with no effect of temperature elevation due to the resistor to other components by the thermal insulation flange. (N.H.)

  1. Overview of Bearingless Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearingless induction motors combining functions of both torque generation and noncontact magnetic suspension together have attracted more and more attention in the past decades due to their definite advantages of compactness, simple structure, less maintenance, no wear particles, high rotational speed, and so forth. This paper overviews the key technologies of the bearingless induction motors, with emphasis on motor topologies, mathematical models, and control strategies. Particularly, in the control issues, the vector control, independent control, direct torque control, nonlinear decoupling control, sensorless control, and so forth are investigated. In addition, several possible development trends of the bearingless induction motors are also discussed.

  2. Penicillin G (Potassium, Sodium) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G injection is used to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ...

  3. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  4. Antibody induction versus placebo, no induction, or another type of antibody induction for liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penninga, Luit; Wettergren, André; Wilson, Colin H

    2014-01-01

    . All 19 trials were with high risk of bias. Of the 19 trials, 16 trials were two-arm trials, and three trials were three-arm trials. Hence, we found 25 trial comparisons with antibody induction agents: interleukin-2 receptor antagonist (IL-2 RA) versus no induction (10 trials with 1454 participants....... Furthermore, serum creatinine was statistically significantly higher when T-cell specific antibody induction was compared with no induction (MD 3.77 μmol/L, 95% CI 0.33 to 7.21; low-quality evidence), as well as when polyclonal T-cell specific antibody induction was compared with no induction, but this small...... T-cell specific antibody induction, drug-related adverse events were less common among participants treated with interleukin-2 receptor antagonists (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.63; low-quality evidence), but this was caused by the results from one trial, and trial sequential analysis could not exclude...

  5. Fault diagnosis of induction motors

    CERN Document Server

    Faiz, Jawad; Joksimović, Gojko

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive, structural approach to fault diagnosis strategy. The different fault types, signal processing techniques, and loss characterisation are addressed in the book. This is essential reading for work with induction motors for transportation and energy.

  6. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  7. A New High Frequency Injection Method Based on Duty Cycle Shifting without Maximum Voltage Magnitude Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2015-01-01

    The conventional high frequency signal injection method is to superimpose a high frequency voltage signal to the commanded stator voltage before space vector modulation. Therefore, the magnitude of the voltage used for machine torque production is limited. In this paper, a new high frequency...... amplitude. This may be utilized to develop new position estimation algorithm without involving the inductance in the medium to high speed range. As an application example, a developed inductance independent position estimation algorithm using the proposed high frequency injection method is applied to drive...... injection method, in which high frequency signal is generated by shifting the duty cycle between two neighboring switching periods, is proposed. This method allows injecting a high frequency signal at half of the switching frequency without the necessity to sacrifice the machine fundamental voltage...

  8. Water injection profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method of neutron-gamma logging is described, in which water, injected in a cased well borehole with peforations, is irradiated with neutrons of 10 MeV or greater, and subsequent gamma radiation is detected by a pair of detectors along the borehole. Counting rates of detectors are analyzed in terms of two gamma ray energy windows. Linear flow velocity of fluid moving downward within the casing is used in conjunction with count rate data to determine volume flow rates of water moving in other directions. Apparatus includes a sonde with a neutron source and appropriate gamma sensors

  9. MKI UFOs at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Drosdal, L; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

    2011-01-01

    During the MD, the production mechanism of UFOs at the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) was studied. This was done by pulsing the MKIs on a gap in the circulating beam, which led to an increased number of UFOs. In total 43 UFO type beam loss patterns at the MKIs were observed during the MD. The MD showed that pulsing the MKIs directly induces UFO type beam loss patterns. From the temporal characteristics of the loss profile, estimations about the dynamics of the UFOs are made.

  10. SQL Injection Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nystrom, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut introduces you to how SQL injection vulnerabilities work, what makes applications vulnerable, and how to protect them. It helps you find your vulnerabilities with analysis and testing tools and describes simple approaches for fixing them in the most popular web-programming languages. This Short Cut also helps you protect your live applications by describing how to monitor for and block attacks before your data is stolen. Hacking is an increasingly criminal enterprise, and web applications are an attractive path to identity theft. If the applications you build, manage, or guar

  11. Determination of uranium in natural waters and high-purity aluminum by flow-injection on-line preconcentration and ICP-MS detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Tatsuya; Oguma, Koichi

    2004-01-01

    A flow injection method has been developed for the determination of uranium is natural waters and high-purity aluminum by use of on-line preconcentration on a U/TEVA TM column and ICP-MS detection. The sample solution prepared as a nitric acid solution in 3 mol l -1 was passed through the U/TEVA TM column to collect uranium and uranium adsorbed was eluted with 0.1 mol l -1 nitric acid. The effluent was introduced directly into the nebulizer of the ICP-MS and 238 U was measured. The detection limit, calculated as 3-times the standard deviation of the background noise, was 3pg and the sample throughput was about 10 per hour. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of uranium in river-water reference materials, a seawater reference material and high-purity aluminum reference materials. (author)

  12. Low-pressure water-cooled inductively coupled plasma torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliskar, Carl J.; Warner, David K.

    1988-12-27

    An inductively coupled plasma torch is provided which comprises an inner tube, including a sample injection port to which the sample to be tested is supplied and comprising an enlarged central portion in which the plasma flame is confined; an outer tube surrounding the inner tube and containing water therein for cooling the inner tube, the outer tube including a water inlet port to which water is supplied and a water outlet port spaced from the water inlet port and from which water is removed after flowing through the outer tube; and an r.f. induction coil for inducing the plasma in the gas passing into the tube through the sample injection port. The sample injection port comprises a capillary tube including a reduced diameter orifice, projecting into the lower end of the inner tube. The water inlet is located at the lower end of the outer tube and the r.f. heating coil is disposed around the outer tube above and adjacent to the water inlet.

  13. Value of computed tomography for evaluating the injection site in endosonography-guided celiac plexus neurolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Hiroki; Kitano, Masayuki; Nishio, Takeshi; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Yasuda, Chikao; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2006-01-01

    Endosonography-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN) safely and effectively relieves pain associated with intra-abdominal malignancies when the neurolytic is accurately injected. We applied contrast medium to evaluate the ethanol injection sites in patients who received EUS-CPN due to abdominal pain caused by malignancies. We injected, under the guidance of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), ethanol containing 10% contrast medium into the celiac plexus of patients with intra-abdominal pain due to malignancies. Immediately after the endoscopic therapy, patients underwent computed tomography (CT) to confirm the injection site. Images of distribution of injected solutions were classified into three groups. Injected solution dispersed in unilateral and bilateral anterocrural space was defined as ''unilateral injection'' or bilateral injection'', respectively. Injected solution located out of the anterocrural space was defined as ''inappropriate injection''. Pre- and postprocedure pain was assessed using a standard analog scale. Before and 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after the procedure, pain scores were evaluated. From April 2003 to May 2005, 13 patients were enrolled in this study. Improvement of pain score in the ''bilateral injection'' and ''unilateral injection'' groups was significantly superior to the change in the ''inappropriate injection'' group. Although EUS-CPN was effective in eight of 13 patients (61.5%), additional EUS-CPN to the ''inappropriate injection group'' increased the response rate to 84.6%. Injection of ethanol to the anterocrural space by EUS-CPN produced adequate pain relief. Immediate examination by CT for confirmation of injection sites after EUS-CPN would increase the likelihood of induction of pain relief. (author)

  14. [Determination of sodium, magnesium, calcium, lithium and strontium in natural mineral drinking water by microwave plasma torch spectrometer with nebulization sample introduction system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Xiong, Hai-long; Feng, Guo-dong; Yu, Ai-min; Chen, Huan-wen

    2014-06-01

    The microwave plasma torch (MPT) was used as the emission light source. Aqueous samples were introduced with a nebulizer and a desolvation system. A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in natural mineral drinking water by argon microwave plasma torch spectrometer (ArMPT spectrometer) was established. The effects of microwave power, flow rate of carrier gas and support gas were investigated in detail and these parameters were optimized. Under the optimized condition, the experiments for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in 11 kinds of bottled mineral drinking water were carried out by ArMPT spectrometer. The limit-of-detection (LOD) of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr was found to be 4.4, 21, 56, 11 and 84 μg x mL(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation (n = 6) was in the range of 1.30%-5.45% and standard addition recoveries were in the range of 84.6%-98.5%. MPT spectrometer was simpler, more convenient and of lower cost as compared to ICP unit. MPT spectrometer demonstrated its rapid analysis speed, accuracy, sensitivity and simultaneous multi element analysis ability during the analysis process. The results showed that MPT spectrometer was suitable for metal elements detection for natural mineral drinking water. This approach provides not only one way for resisting the illegal dealings, but also a security for the quality of drinking water. Moreover, the usability of MPT spectrometer in the field of food security; drug safety; clinical diagnostic is promised.

  15. Inducción del desove y espermiación de anchoveta peruana Engraulis ringens (Jennyns, 1842 en cautiverio mediante la inyección de un análogo de GnRH Induction of spawning and spermiation in captive Peruvian anchovy Engraulis ringens (Jennyns using GnRH analogue injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de obtener desoves de ejemplares de Engraulis ringens en cautiverio para realizar pruebas experimentales con huevos y larvas; el presente trabajo evaluó el efecto de inyecciones de acetato de buserelina (un análogo de GnRH; GnRHa sobre desove y espermiación. Además, se utilizó domperidona (DOM para eliminar un posible control dopaminérgico en la liberación de gonadotropinas endógenas en esta especie. Se inyectaron intraperitonealmente ejemplares maduros con 0,005 ug GnRHa g-1 pez (GnRHa; 0,005 ug GnRHa g-1 pez + 0,01 mg DOM g-1 pez (GnRHa+DOM o solución salina a 0,9% (SS. Hubo un efecto inductor de los tratamientos con GnRHa y GnRHa+DOM sobre el desove. Los desoves ocurrieron entre 24 y 48 h post-inyección (p.i. y los porcentajes totales fueron 57,3% y 20,9% con GnRHa y GnRHa+DOM respectivamente, los cuales fueron significativamente diferentes (P , siendo el porcentaje de machos expulsantes a 0 horas p.i. significativamente diferente al control (0 %> (P con GnRHa y 75,0%> con GnRHa+DOM, entre los cuales no se encontró diferencias significativas (P > 0,05. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos no existiría un control dopaminérgico en esta especie, ya que hubo expulsión de gametos con o sin la aplicación de domperidona. Por el contrario, se observó significativa reducción de los porcentajes de peces expulsantes al inyectar DOM.In order to achieve spawning in captive Engraulis ringens that would result in eggs and larvae for experimental assays, the present work evaluated the effect of buserelin acétate (an analogue of GnRH; GnRHa injections on spawning and spermiation. Domperidone (DOM was also used in order to reject a possible dopaminergic control in the reléase of endogenous gonadotropins for this species. Ripe fish were mjected mtraperitoneally with 0.005 ug GnRHa g-1 fish (H, 0.005 ug GnRHa g-1 fish + 0.01 mg DOM g-1 fish (HD or saline solution at 0.9%> (SS. The GnRHa and GnRHa+DOM treatments showed an

  16. Induction of estrus during the non-breeding season in Egyptian Baladi goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medan, Mohamed; Shalaby, Abdel-Hamid; Sharawy, Sayed; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The induction of estrus during the non-breeding season was investigated in 100 Egyptian Baladi goats (Capra hircus). All animals assigned to treatments had low progesterone concentrations (Baladi goats using norgestomet and PGF2alpha and the injection of GnRH 24 hr after norgestomet implant removal synchronized ovulation in a higher percentage of goats.

  17. Efficient Spin Injection into Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahid, M.A.I.

    2010-06-01

    Spintronic research has made tremendous progress nowadays for making future devices obtain extra advantages of low power, and faster and higher scalability compared to present electronic devices. A spintronic device is based on the transport of an electron's spin instead of charge. Efficient spin injection is one of the very important requirements for future spintronic devices. However, the effective spin injection is an exceedingly difficult task. In this paper, the importance of spin injection, basics of spin current and the essential requirements of spin injection are illustrated. The experimental technique of electrical spin injection into semiconductor is also discussed based on the experimental experience. The electrical spin injection can easily be implemented for spin injection into any semiconductor. (author)

  18. Oral tolerance induction with altered forms of ovalbumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stransky B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available As a T cell-dependent phenomenon, oral tolerance is not expected to depend necessarily on native configuration of antigens. We investigated the induction of oral tolerance with modified ovalbumin (Ova. Oral administration of heat-denatured (HD-Ova and cyanogen bromide-degraded ovalbumin was less effective than native Ova in inducing oral tolerance in B6D2F1 mice. HD-Ova was effective in suppressing delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reactions but did not suppress specific antibody formation. Injection of Ova directly into the stomach, but not into the ileum or cecum, suppressed subsequent immunization to DTH reactions. Gavage with protease inhibitors (aprotinin or ovomucoid before gavage with Ova was ineffective in blocking tolerance induction. Treatment with hydroxyurea to destroy cycling cells 24 h before gavage with Ova blocked oral tolerance induction and also the possibility to passively transfer tolerance to naive recipients with the serum of mice gavaged with Ova 1 h before. The implications of these findings about oral tolerance induction are discussed

  19. Hypnosis for induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Shirakawa, Miyako N; Ota, Erika; Hanada, Nobutsugu; Mori, Rintaro

    2014-08-14

    Induction of labour using pharmacological and mechanical methods can increase complications. Complementary and alternative medicine methods including hypnosis may have the potential to provide a safe alternative option for the induction of labour. However, the effectiveness of hypnosis for inducing labour has not yet been fully evaluated. To assess the effect of hypnosis for induction of labour compared with no intervention or any other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2014), handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted key personnel and organisations in the field for published and unpublished references. All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs of acceptable quality comparing hypnosis with no intervention or any other interventions, in which the primary outcome is to assess whether labour was induced. Two review authors assessed the one trial report that was identified (but was subsequently excluded). No RCTs or cluster-RCTs were identified from the search strategy. There was no evidence available from RCTs to assess the effect of hypnosis for induction of labour. Evidence from RCTs is required to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this intervention for labour induction. As hypnosis may delay standard care (in case standard care is withheld during hypnosis), its use in induction of labour should be considered on a case-by-case basis.Future RCTs are required to examine the effectiveness and safety of hypnotic relaxation for induction of labour among pregnant women who have anxiety above a certain level. The length and timing of the intervention, as well as the staff training required, should be taken into consideration. Moreover, the views and experiences of women and staff should also be included in future RCTs.

  20. An economic comparison of a laparoscopic electrocautery strategy and ovulation induction with recombinant FSH in women with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wely, M.; Bayram, N.; van der Veen, F.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant FSH (rFSH) is the current standard treatment for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) that do not respond to clomiphene citrate. Ovulation induction with rFSH is known to be costly due to the necessity of daily injections and intensive

  1. Powder processing and spheroidizing with thermal inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutsch, G.; Linke, P.; Zakharian, S.; Dzur, B.; Weiss, K.-H.

    2001-01-01

    Processing of advanced powder materials for the spraying industry is one of the most promising applications of the thermal RF inductively coupled plasma. By selecting the feedstock carefully and adjusting the RF plasma parameters, unique materials with high quality can be achieved. Powders injected in the hot plasma core emerge with modified shapes, morphology, crystal structure and chemical composition. Ceramic oxide powders such as Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , SiO 2 are spheroidized with a high spheroidization rate. By using the RF induction plasma spheroidizing process tungsten melt carbide powders are obtained with a high spheroidization rate at high feeding rates by densification of agglomerated powders consisting of di-tungsten carbide and monocarbide with a definite composition. This kind of ball-like powders is particularly suited for wear resistant applications. (author)

  2. Gas and particle velocity measurements in an induction plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesinski, J.; Gagne, R.; Boulos, M.I.

    1981-08-01

    Laser doppler anemometry was used for the measurements of the plasma and particle velocity profiles in the coil region of an inductively coupled plasma. Results are reported for a 50 mm ID induction torch operated at atmospheric pressure with argon as the plasma gas. The oscillator frequency was 3 MHz and the power in the coil was varied between 4.6 and 10.5 kW. The gas velocity measurements were made using a fine carbon powder as a tracer (dp approx. = 1 μm). Measurements were also made with larger silicon particles (dp = 33 μm and sigma = 13 μm) centrally injected in the plasma under different operating conditions

  3. Plasma-particle interaction effects in induction plasma modelling under dense loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proulx, P.; Mostaghimi, J.; Boulos, M.

    1983-07-01

    The injection of solid particles or aerosol droplets in the fire-ball of an inductively coupled plasma can substantially perturb the plasma and even quench it under high loading conditions. This can be mainly attributed to the local cooling of the plasma by the particles or their vapour cloud, combined with the possible change of the thermodynamic and transport properties of the plasma in the presence of the particle vapour. This paper reports the state-of-the-art in the mathematical modelling of the induction plasma. A particle-in-cell model is used in order to combine the continuum approach for the calculation of the flow, temperature and concentration fields in the plasma, with the stochastic single particle approach, for the calculation of the particle trajectories and temperature histories. Results are given for an argon induction plasma under atmospheric pressure in which fine copper particles are centrally injected in the coil region of the discharge

  4. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC; Johnson, Thomas Edward [Greer, SC; Lacy, Benjamin Paul [Greer, SC; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC

    2011-02-15

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  5. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group,

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of him taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows. Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human...

  6. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Document Server

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of his taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction1) (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows.Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human Re...

  7. Road infrastructure and demand induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lahrmann, Harry

    2006-01-01

    a long screenline is used to measure the development in aggregate demand in selected corridors. The paper analyses demand induction by establishing time series of aggregate demand that is compared with the national traffic index. Significant trend breaks in the association between aggregate demand...... in the corridors and the national index, following the opening of motorways or bridges, indicates demand induction by infrastructure expansion in a number of instances. Lack of significant trend breaks following opening year is found in peripheral areas where major population centres are missing. This indicates...... the necessity of some latent demand within suitable travel range for new infrastructure elements to produce significant amounts of induced demand. Estimates of demand induction as a percentage of the realised demand five years after opening are between 10% and 67% for new motorway sections depending...

  8. Suppression induction in vivo by a T helper clone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crispe, I N; Owens, T

    1985-01-01

    We have previously described a helper T cell clone which augments in vivo cytotoxic T cell responses when injected at 10(4) cells per mouse, but not at 10(5) per mouse (Crispe, I. N. et al., Immunology 1984. 52:55). To test whether this dose-response relationship was due to the induction...... of suppression, naive syngeneic mice were injected with 10(5) cloned T helper cells, and their spleen cells were subsequently assayed for suppressive activity in adoptive transfer experiments. Lymphocytes from such mice indeed suppressed an antigen-specific cytotoxic response, but only in the presence...... of the same T helper cell clone freshly added at the time of adoptive transfer. On this basis we argue that the distinction between T helper cell activity and T suppressor-inducer activity corresponds to differences in cell numbers, rather than to two separate cell lineages....

  9. Clinical and histologic effects of intracardiac administration of propofol for induction of anesthesia in ball pythons (Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Michael S; Bennett, R Avery; Reavill, Drury R; Ragetly, Guillaume R; Clark-Price, Stuart C

    2011-09-15

    To assess the clinical differences between induction of anesthesia in ball pythons with intracardiac administration of propofol and induction with isoflurane in oxygen and to assess the histologic findings over time in hearts following intracardiac administration of propofol. Prospective randomized study. 30 hatchling ball pythons (Python regius). Anesthesia was induced with intracardiac administration of propofol (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb]) in 18 ball pythons and with 5% isoflurane in oxygen in 12 ball pythons. Induction time, time of anesthesia, and recovery time were recorded. Hearts from snakes receiving intracardiac administration of propofol were evaluated histologically 3, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days following propofol administration. Induction time with intracardiac administration of propofol was significantly shorter than induction time with 5% isoflurane in oxygen. No significant differences were found in total anesthesia time. Recovery following intracardiac administration of propofol was significantly longer than recovery following induction of anesthesia with isoflurane in oxygen. Heart tissue evaluated histologically at 3, 7, and 14 days following intracardiac administration of propofol had mild inflammatory changes, and no histopathologic lesions were seen 30 and 60 days following propofol administration. Intracardiac injection of propofol in snakes is safe and provides a rapid induction of anesthesia but leads to prolonged recovery, compared with that following induction with isoflurane. Histopathologic lesions in heart tissues following intracardiac injection of propofol were mild and resolved after 14 days.

  10. Harmonic modeling of induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedra, J.; Sainz, L.; Corcoles, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, ETSEIB-UPC, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The paper proposes an induction motor model for the study of harmonic load flow in balanced and unbalanced conditions. The parameters of this model are obtained from motor manufacturer data and the positive- and negative-sequence equivalent circuits of the single- and double-cage models. An approximate harmonic model based on motor manufacturer data only is also proposed. In addition, the paper includes manufacturer data and the calculated parameters of 36 induction motors of different rated powers. This database is used to analyze the proposed models. (author)

  11. Induction linacs and pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in electronic power conversion technology is making possible a new class of induction linacs that can operate at extremely high repetition rates. Advances in insulator technology, pulse forming line design and switching may also lead to a new type of high current accelerator with accelerating gradients at least an order of magnitude greater than those attainable today. The evolution of the induction accelerator pulsed power system will be discussed along with some details of these emerging technologies which are at the frontiers of accelerator technology

  12. Timing of induction of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacak, Stephen J; Olson-Chen, Courtney; Pressman, Eva

    2015-10-01

    Determining the optimal timing for induction of labor is critical in minimizing the risks to maternal and fetal health. While data are available to guide us in some clinical situations, such as hypertension and diabetes, many gaps in knowledge still exist in others, including cholestasis of pregnancy, fetal anomalies, and placental abruption. This review of the currently available literature assesses the risks and benefits of preterm and early term induction in a wide variety of maternal and fetal conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  14. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Apps, J.; Pruess, K.; Muller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification

  15. 75 FR 20268 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Propofol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... 21 CFR Part 522 Animal drugs. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and under... use in dogs and cats--(1) Amount. The drug is administered by intravenous injection as follows: (i) Dogs. For induction of general anesthesia without the use of preanesthetics the dosage is 5.5 to 7.0 mg...

  16. Steady-state operation of spheromaks by inductive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janos, A.

    1984-04-01

    A method to maintain a steady-state spheromak configuration inductively using the S-1 Spheromak device is described. The S-1 Spheromak formation apparatus can be utilized to inject magnetic helicity continuously (C.W., not pulsed or D.C.) into the spheromak configuration after equilibrium is achieved in the linked mode of operation. Oscillation of both poloidal- and toroidal-field currents in the flux core (psi-phi Pumping), with proper phasing, injects a net time-averaged helicity into the plasma. Steady-state maintenance relies on flux conversion, which has been earlier identified. Relevant experimental data from the operation of S-1 are described. Helicity flow has been measured and the proposed injection scheme simulated. In a reasonable time practical voltages and frequencies can inject an amount of helicity comparable to that in the initial plasma. Plasma currents can be maintained or increased. This pumping technique is similar to F-THETA Pumping of a Reversed-Field-Pinch but is applied to this inverse-pinch formation

  17. Circular induction accelerator for borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.K.; Bertozzi, W.; Corris, G.W.; Diamond, W.; Doucet, J.A.; Schweitzer, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a downhole logging sonde adapted to be moved through a borehole, a source of gamma rays in the sonde for irradiating earth formations traversed by the borehole, one or more gamma ray detectors for detecting gamma rays scattered back to the sonde from the irradiated earth formations, and means for transmitting signals representative of the detected gamma rays to the earth's surface for processing. This patent describes improvement in the gamma ray source comprises a magnetic induction particle accelerator, including: a magnetic circuit having a field magnet, generally circular opposed pole pieces, and a core magnet metal ions from the group consisting of Mn, Zn and Ni; an excitation circuit including a field coil surrounding the field magnet and the core magnet and a core coil surrounding the central axially leg of the core magnet; an annular acceleration chamber interposed between the pole pieces; means for applying time-varying acceleration voltage pulses across the primary excitation circuit; means for injecting charged particles into orbit within the acceleration chamber; means for compressing the particle orbits to trap particles within generally circular orbits within the acceleration chamber; means for generating a particle accelerating magnetic flux in the magnetic circuit; and means for ejecting charged particles from the generally circular orbits and into contact with a target to produce gamma ray photons

  18. Numerical study of particle filtration in an induction crucible furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, Amjad; Kratzsch, Christoph; Dudczig, Steffen; Aneziris, Christos G.; Schwarze, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Removing particles from a melt in an induction furnace by using a filter is introduced. • The effect of filter and its permeability on the melt flow is shown. • The impact of filter permeability and particle diameter on filter efficiency is studied. • The filter efficiency depends on filter position and number of the used filter. - Abstract: The present paper deals with a numerical investigation of the turbulent melt flow driven by the electromagnetic force in an induction furnace. The main scope of the paper is to present a new principle to remove non-metallic particles from steel melt in an induction furnace by immersing a porous filter in the melt. The magnetic field acting on the melt is calculated by using the open source software MaxFEM"®, while the turbulent flow is simulated by means of the open source computational fluid dynamics library OpenFOAM"®. The validation of the numerical model is accomplished by using experimental results for the flow without the immersed filter. Here it is shown that the time-averaged flow, obtained numerically is in a good quantitive agreement with the experimental data. Then, the validated numerical model is employed to simulate the melt flow with the immersed filter in the induction furnace of a new type of real steel casting simulator investigated at Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg. The considerable effect of the filter on the flow pattern is indicated in the present work. Moreover, it is shown that the filter permeability and its position have a significant influence on the melt flow in the induction furnace. Additionally, particles are injected in the flow domain and tracked by using Lagrangian framework. In this case, the efficiency of the used filter is determined in the present investigation depending on its permeability, its position and the particles diameter.

  19. A comparison of molding procedures - Contact, injection and vacuum injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathiard, G.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the contact, injection and vacuum injection molding of reinforced plastic components are compared for the example of a tractor roof with a gel-coated surface. Consideration is given to the possibility of reinforcement, number of smooth faces, condition of the gel-coated surface, reliability, and labor and workplace requirements of the three processes, and advantages of molding between the mold and a countermold in smooth faces, reliability, labor requirements, working surface and industrial hygiene are pointed out. The times and labor requirements of each step in the molding cycles are examined, and material requirements and yields, investment costs, amortization and product cost prices of the processes are compared. It is concluded that, for the specific component examined, the processes of vacuum injection and injection molding appear very interesting, with injection molding processes resulting in lower cost prices than contact molding for any production volume.

  20. Oral administration of fisetin promotes the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-bin He; Kazuho Abe; Tatsuhiro Akaishi

    2018-01-01

    To explore memory enhancing effect of the flavonoid fisetin, we investigated the effect of oral administration of flavonoids on the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA1 synapses of anesthetized rats. Among four flavonoids (fisetin, quercetin, luteolin and myricetin) tested, only fisetin significantly facilitated the induction of hippocampal LTP. The effect of oral fisetin was abolished by intracerebroventricular injection of U0126, an agent that was previously found to...

  1. Inductive acquisition of expert knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggleton, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Expert systems divide neatly into two categories: those in which (1) the expert decisions result in changes to some external environment (control systems), and (2) the expert decisions merely seek to describe the environment (classification systems). Both the explanation of computer-based reasoning and the bottleneck (Feigenbaum, 1979) of knowledge acquisition are major issues in expert-systems research. The author contributed to these areas of research in two ways: 1. He implemented an expert-system shell, the Mugol environment, which facilitates knowledge acquisition by inductive inference and provides automatic explanation of run-time reasoning on demand. RuleMaster, a commercial version of this environment, was used to advantage industrially in the construction and testing of two large classification systems. 2. He investigated a new techniques called 'sequence induction' that can be used in construction of control systems. Sequence induction is based on theoretical work in grammatical learning. He improved existing grammatical learning algorithms as well as suggesting and theoretically characterizing new ones. These algorithms were successfully applied to acquisition of knowledge for a diverse set of control systems, including inductive construction of robot plans and chess end-gam strategies.

  2. Phonotactics in inductive logic programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerbonne, J.; Konstantopoulos, S.; Klopotek, M.A.; Wierzchon, S.T.; Trojanowski, K.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the results of applying inductive logic programming (ILP) to a relatively simple linguistic task, that of recognizing monosyllables in one language. ILP is suited to linguistic problems given linguists' preference for formulating their theories in discrete rules, and because of ILP's

  3. Inductive logic on conceptual spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sznajder, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the question of how conceptual frameworks influence inductive reasoning. A conceptual framework is a collection of concepts used for a particular purpose; we can think of it as a semantic environment in which observations, or evidence, are recorded, and beliefs are formed

  4. Teaching Inductive Reasoning with Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    Working with language-independent logic structures can help students develop both inductive and deductive reasoning skills. The Japanese publisher Nikoli (with resources available both in print and online) produces a treasure trove of language-independent logic puzzles. The Nikoli print resources are mostly in Japanese, creating the extra…

  5. Cooling water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, ECCS system is constituted as a so-called stand-by system which is not used during usual operation and there is a significant discontinuity in relation with the usual system. It is extremely important that ECCS operates upon occurrence of accidents just as specified. In view of the above in the present invention, the stand-by system is disposed along the same line with the usual system. That is, a driving water supply pump for supplying driving water to a jet pump is driven by a driving mechanism. The driving mechanism drives continuously the driving water supply pump in a case if an expected accident such as loss of the function of the water supply pump, as well as during normal operation. That is, all of the water supply pump, jet pump, driving water supply pump and driving mechanism therefor are caused to operate also during normal operation. The operation of them are not initiated upon accident. Thus, the cooling water injection system can perform at high reliability to remarkably improve the plant safety. (K.M.)

  6. Studies of non-inductive current drive in the CDX-U tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.S.

    1993-01-01

    Two types of novel, non-inductive current drive concepts for starting-up and maintaining tokamak discharges, dc-helicity injection and internally-generated pressure-driven currents, have been developed on the CDX-U tokamak. To study the equilibrium and transport of these plasmas, a full set of magnetic diagnostics was installed. By applying a finite element method and a least squares error fitting technique, internal plasma current distributions are reconstructed from the measurements. Electron density distributions were obtained from 2 mm interferometer measurements by a similar least squares error technique utilizing magnetic flux configurations obtained by the magnetic analysis. Neoclassical pressure-driven currents in ECH plasmas are modeled with the reconstructed magnetic structure, using the electron density distribution and the electron temperature profile measured by a Langmuir probe. In the dc-helicity injection scheme, the need to increase injection current and maintain plasma equilibrium restricts possible arrangements. Several injection configurations were investigated, with the best found to be outside injection with a single divertor configuration, where the cathode is placed at the low field side of the x-point. Both pressure-driven and dc-helicity injected tokamaks show the importance of plasma equilibrium in obtaining high plasma current. Programmed vertical field operation has proven to be very important in achieving high plasma current. These non-inductive current drive techniques show great potential as efficient current drive methods for future steady-state and/or long-pulse fusion reactors

  7. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  8. Injection and lessons for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, C.; Barnes, M.J.; Bartmann, W.; Cornelis, K.; Drosdal, L.N.; Goddard, B.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; Mertens, V.; Uythoven, J.

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and one nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the Transfer Line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking de-bunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by- shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular re-steering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches. (authors)

  9. Injection and lessons for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Bartmann, W; Cornelis, K; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and a nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished during MD time. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the transfer line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking debunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by-shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular resteering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches.

  10. Towards spin injection into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, S.P.

    2007-08-15

    Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

  11. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  12. Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for multielement analysis in small sample amounts of thyroid tissue from Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.S.; Dietze, H.J.; Boulyga, S.F.; Bazhanova, N.N.; Kanash, N.V.; Malenchenko, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, thyroid pathologies occurred among children in some regions of belarus. Besides the irradiation of children's thyroids by radioactive iodine and caesium nuclides, toxic elements from fallout are a direct risk to health. Inductively coupled plasma quadrupole-based mass spectrometry (Icp-Ms) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (IAA) were used for multielement determination in small amounts (I-10 mg) of human thyroid tissue samples. The accuracy of the applied analytical technique for small biological sample amounts was checked using NIST standard reference material oyster tissue (SRM 1566 b). Almost all essential elements as well as a number of toxic elements such as Cd, Pb, Hg, U etc. Were determined in a multitude of human thyroid tissues by quadrupole-based Icp-Ms using micro nebulization. In general, the thyroid tissue affected by pathology is characterized by higher calcium content. Some other elements, among them Sr, Zn, Fe, Mn, V, As, Cr, Ni, Pb, U, Ba, Sb, were also Accumulated in such tissue. The results obtained will be used as initial material for further specific studies of the role of particular elements in thyroid pathology development

  13. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2006-11-01

    Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes (18G, 20G, 21G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed.

  14. Induction generator-induction motor wind-powered pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, M.S.; Lyra, R.O.C.; Silva, S.R. [CPDEE - UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The energy storage matter plays an important role in wind-electric conversion systems for isolated applications. Having that in mind, two different approaches can be basically considered: either the immediate conversion of the generated electric energy, as in a water pumping system or electric energy storage for later use, as in a battery charging system. Due to some features such as no need of an external reactive power source and, sometimes, a gearbox, permanent-magnet synchronous generators have been broadly used in low rated power isolated systems. Despite that, system performance can be affected when the generator is feeding an inductive load (e.g., an induction motor) under variable-speed-variable-frequency operational conditions. Since there is no effective flux control, motor overload may occur at high wind speeds. Thus, good system performance can be obtained through additional control devices which may increase system cost. Although being rugged and cheap, induction machines always work as a reactive power drain; therefore, they demand an external reactive power source. Considering that, reactive static compensators appear as an attractive alternative to the cost x performance problem. In addition to that, different control strategies can be used so that system performance can be improved.

  15. Optimization of injection law for direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feola, M.; Bella, G.; Pelloni, P.; Casoli, P.; Toderi, G.; Cantore, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how different timing and shape of the injection law can influence pollutant emission of a direct injection diesel engine. The study was carried out making use of a multizone thermodynamic model as regards the closed valve phase, and a filling-emptying one as regards the open valve phase. After being calibrated by comparison with experimental data, the abovementioned model was used for injection law optimization as regards minimum pollutant concentration (NO x and soot) in the exhaust gases with the smallest engine performance reduction possible

  16. Titrated Misoprostol Versus Dinoprostone for Labor Induction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study designed to compare titrated misoprostol regarding its safety and efficacy with dinoprostone for induction of labor. ... Statistical analysis done using Student's t-test for quantitative data and ..... induction: A pilot study. Rev Bras ...

  17. Scalable conditional induction variables (CIV) analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Oancea, Cosmin E.; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    challenges to automatic parallelization. Because the complexity of such induction variables is often due to their conditional evaluation across the iteration space of loops we name them Conditional Induction Variables (CIV). This paper presents a flow

  18. Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1979-02-14

    The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

  19. Development of induction cells at CAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huacen; Zhang Kaizhi; Cheng Nian'an; Zhang Wenwei; Lai Qinggui; Wen Long; Zhang Linwen; Deng Jianjun; Ding Bonan

    2002-01-01

    The effects to develop induction cells for induction linac and radiography at CAEP are introduced and reviewed in this paper. During the past two decades, several kinds of cells have been designed and tested, and some of them have been used for construction of induction linac, such as Dragon-1 and 12 MeV, and a Synthetic Test Stand (STS) for comprehensive linac technology study. The structure, test results and performance in the induction linac of these cells are given

  20. The induction on a continuous variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingzhong.

    1989-06-01

    Mathematical induction is a useful tool. But it could be used to prove only the proposition with form P(n) for the natural number n. Could the natural number n be replaced by a continuous variable x? Yes, and then we have the continuous induction. The continuous induction is very easy to grasp by the students who have learned mathematical induction. And it can be used to prove many basic propositions in the elementary calculus. (author)