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Sample records for injection mmt local

  1. Crystallization kinetics and morphology of PBT/MMT and PTT/MMT nanocomposites during injection molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, Marcia M.; Branciforti, Marcia C.; Bretas, Rosario E.S.

    2009-01-01

    This work had as main objective to study the crystallization of nanocomposites of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) with a montmorillonite nanoclay (MMT) using an on-line optical monitoring system during the injection molding and to characterize the morphologies of the injection samples by polarized light optical microscopy (PLOM), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The optical system allowed to analyze the crystallization process by the changes of the optical properties during the solidification of the materials. It was concluded that the MMT lamellae accelerated the overall crystallization of the polymers. By PLOM, it was observed that the nanoclay caused qualitative changes on the morphology of the PTT (polymer with slow crystallization kinetics). The crystallinity indexes were not affected by the addition of the MMT; however, by WAXS it was shown that the nanocomposites had a higher orientation degree. (author)

  2. Novel applications of locally sourced montmorillonite (MMT) clay as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work explores the application of a locally sourced raw material, montmorillonite (MMT) clay, as a disintegrant in the formulation of an analgesic pharmaceutical product - paracetamol. The raw MMT was refined and treated with 0.IM NaCl to yield sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT) and the powder properties established in ...

  3. Neurotoxic effects of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in the mouse: basis of MMT-induced seizure activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, B E; McGinley, P A; Gianutsos, G

    1987-08-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic manganese-containing compound which is used as an additive in unleaded gasoline. One neurotoxic effect of MMT in mice is seizure activity. In this study, seizures were observed in mice treated with MMT in propylene glycol or corn oil. The LD50 associated with seizure activity was lower in mice receiving MMT in propylene glycol (152 mg/kg) than in those receiving MMT in corn oil (999 mg/kg). Manganese concentrations in the brains of mice which showed seizure activity due to MMT were higher than in those that did not (2.45 micrograms/g vs. 1.14 micrograms/g for MMT treated in propylene glycol and 3.25 micrograms/g vs. 1.63 micrograms/g for MMT in corn oil). Mice treated with manganese chloride (MnCl2) showed increases in brain manganese comparable to those of the mice showing seizure activity due to MMT, but exhibited no sign of seizure activity. MMT in non-lethal seizure-inducing doses had no effect on the accumulation of 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mouse brain. However, MMT inhibited the binding of t-[3H]t-butylbicycloorthobenzoate [3H]-TBOB (a ligand for the GABA-A-receptor linked chloride channel) in mouse brain membranes with an IC50 value of 22.8 microM. The data suggest that MMT (organic manganese) or a closely related metabolite and not elemental manganese itself is responsible for the seizure activity observed. The seizure activity may be the result of an inhibitory effect of MMT at the GABA-A receptor linked chloride channel.

  4. Neurotoxic effects of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in the mouse: basis of MMT-induced seizure activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, B.E.; McGinley, P.A.; Gianutsos, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic manganese-containing compound which is used as an additive in unleaded gasoline. One neurotoxic effect of MMT in mice is seizure activity. In this study, seizures were observed in mice treated with MMT in propylene glycol or corn oil. The LD 50 associated with seizure activity was lower in mice receiving MMT in propylene glycol (152 mg/kg) than in those receiving MMT in corn oil (999 mg/kg). Manganese concentrations in the brains of mice which showed seizure activity due to MMT were higher than in those than did not (2.45 μg/g vs, l.14 μg/g for MMT treated in propylene glycol and 3.25 μg/g vs. l.63 μg/g for MMT in corn oil). Mice treated with manganese chloride (MnCl 2 ) showed increases in brain manganese comparable to those of the mice showing seizure activity due to MMT, but exhibited no sign of seizure activity. MMT in non-lethal seizure-inducing doses had no effect on the accumulation of 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mouse brain. However, MMT inhibited the binding of t-[ 3 H] t-butylbicycloorthobenzoate [ 3 H]-TBOB (a ligand for the GABA-A-receptor linked chloride channel) in mouse brain membranes with an IC 50 value of 22.8 μM. The data suggest that MMT (organic manganese) or a closely related metabolite and not elemental manganese itself is responsible for the seizure activity observed. The seizure activity may be the result of an inhibitory effect of MMT at the GABA-A receptor linked chloride channel. 20 refs. (author)

  5. HIV risk-taking behaviour among injecting drug users currently, previously and never enrolled in methadone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A; Kochan, N; Dixon, J; Wodak, A; Heather, N

    1995-04-01

    This study compares the injecting and sexual risk-taking behaviour among injecting drug users (IDUs) currently, previously and never enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). All subjects had injected during the 6 months prior to the day of interview. The current MMT group showed significantly lower injecting risk-taking behaviour subscale scores on the HIV Risk-taking Behaviour Scale (HRBS) of the Opiate Treatment Index than the previous MMT and non-MMT groups together. The current MMT group differed from the other two groups in the frequency of injecting and cleaning of injection equipment with bleach. There was no difference between the current MMT group and the other two groups combined in sexual risk-taking behaviour scores on the HRBS. There were no differences between the previous MMT and non-MMT groups in injecting and sexual risk-taking behaviour. HIV seroprevalence was low and there was no difference in seroprevalence between groups. Thus, IDUs currently enrolled in MMT are at reduced risk for HIV infection when compared with IDUs who have previously or never been enrolled in MMT. However, the absence of a difference between the current MMT and other two groups in frequency of sharing behaviours suggests the need for additional strategies among MMT clients to reduce needle-sharing. Possible strategies include the application of relapse prevention interventions and the availability of sterile injecting equipment in MMT clinics. Further research is needed to identify factors which increase attraction and retention of IDUs to MMT.

  6. The characterizations of rheological, electrokinetical and structural properties of ODTABr/MMT and HDTABr/MMT organoclays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isci, S.; Uslu, Y.O.; Ece, O.I.

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, we have investigated as a function of surfactant concentration the rheological (yield value, plastic viscosity) and electrokinetic (mobility, zeta potential) properties of montmorillonite (MMT) dispersions. The influence of surfactants (Octadeccyltrimethylammonium bromide, ODTABr and Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, HDTABr) on dispersions of Na-activated bentonite was evaluated by rheological and electrokinetic measurements, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The interactions between clay minerals and surfactants in water-based Na-activated MMT dispersions (2 wt.%) were examined in detail using rheologic parameters, such as viscosity, yield point, apparent and plastic viscosity, hysteresis area, and electrokinetic parameters of mobility and zeta potentials, and XRD also analyses helped to determine swelling properties of d-spacings. MMT and organoclay dispersions showed Bingham Plastic flow behavior. The zeta potential measurements displayed that the surfactant molecules hold on the clay particle surfaces and the XRD analyses displayed that they get into the basal layers

  7. Effectiveness of Methadone in Reduction of High Risk Behaviors in Clients of MMT Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ehsani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Addiction as a social, health problem with its specific complications threatens societies. High risk behaviors such as violence, self mutilation, tattooing, shared injections and unprotected sex behaviors are some of the problems in addicts that need to be treated. One of these treatments is methadone therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of methadone in prevention or reduction of high risk behaviors in clients of a MMT center of Shaheed Sadoughi University of medical sciences of Yazd. Methods: This study was done on 93 clients of a MMT center.Questionnaire for this study included items from MAP and questions about some other risky behaviors. This questionnaire was completed at onset of treatment and 6 months after. Data was analyzed with SPSS software program Results: 89.2% of participants were married and 10.8% were single. 63.5% of them were in the20-40 years age group. Most commonly abused substances were heroin and opium. Before onset of treatment, 37.6% of participants had history of imprisonment, 35.5% had shared injections, 32.3%had had unprotected sex, 22.6%had tattooing and 5.4%had mutilated their own selves. Only 36.6% didn’t have any high risk behavior. These behaviors were more common in heroin users and in the20-40 years age group. After onset of treatment and during 6 month of MMT, 86% of clients didn’t have any risky behavior. Only 14%of them continued to have unsafe sex behaviors Conclusion: Addiction can cause high risk behaviors. Data in this paper suggests that young age, heroin use, low education level and no or inadequate information about addictive substances and their consequences are effective and important factors that cause high risk behaviors. Treatment of addicts with methadone maintenance therapy plays an important role in reduction of risky behaviors. Development of appropriate and more MMT centers are recommended.

  8. Women Opiate Users' Perception Toward MMT: A Qualitative Study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zarei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT is an evidence-based approach for opiate addiction treatment. While its effectiveness in reducing opiate use has been evidently verified, unanswered questions with respect to the cultural scenarios for MMT programs remain unanswered. This study was conducted to explore understanding address MMT initiation among a women-recruited sample of persons who use Opiate. Methods: Qualitative in-depth interviews were used in purposeful and maximum variation sampling. All participants recruited for interview in 60-90 minutes were 17 women with opiate addiction experience from three MMT clinics in Sari capital city of Mazandaran, Iran. We applied a content analysis with a conventional approach for analyzing and finding addicted women perception towards MMT. Results: To answer the main concern of the research team about how Iranian Opiate- addicted women perceived the MMT. The results were categorized into six main themes including Service Providers’ Support, Stigma in Society, Fear of Rejection, Long waiting time, Family Support, and Methadone’ Side Effects. Conclusion: The results revealed that there are several perceived reasons beyond personal and psychological factors. The contextual experience acts as important cues that might encourage or deter drug users toward MMT.

  9. First principles calculation on the adsorption of water on lithium-montmorillonite (Li-MMT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wungu, Triati Dewi Kencana; Agusta, Mohammad Kemal; Saputro, Adhitya Gandaryus; Kasai, Hideaki; Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of water molecules and lithium-montmorillonite (Li-MMT) is theoretically investigated using density functional theory (DFT) based first principles calculation. The mechanism of water adsorption at two different water concentrations on Li-MMT as well as their structural and electronic properties are investigated. It is found that the adsorption stability in Li-MMT is higher in higher water concentration. It is also found that an adsorbed water molecule on Li-MMT causes the Li to protrude from the MMT surface, so it is expected that Li may be mobile on H 2 O/Li-MMT.

  10. First principles calculation on the adsorption of water on lithium-montmorillonite (Li-MMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wungu, Triati Dewi Kencana; Agusta, Mohammad Kemal; Saputro, Adhitya Gandaryus; Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno; Kasai, Hideaki

    2012-11-28

    The interaction of water molecules and lithium-montmorillonite (Li-MMT) is theoretically investigated using density functional theory (DFT) based first principles calculation. The mechanism of water adsorption at two different water concentrations on Li-MMT as well as their structural and electronic properties are investigated. It is found that the adsorption stability in Li-MMT is higher in higher water concentration. It is also found that an adsorbed water molecule on Li-MMT causes the Li to protrude from the MMT surface, so it is expected that Li may be mobile on H(2)O/Li-MMT.

  11. MMT promises: how the Ethyl Corporation beat the federal ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiderman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The manganese-based MMT has been blended in gasoline fuel sold in Canada for almost 20 years. Invoking environmental health and consumer protection grounds, the federal government moved to prohibit the importation and inter-provincial trade of MMT in June 1997. Ethyl Corporation of Richmond, Virginia, the sole producers of MMT, claimed discriminatory treatment under NAFTA and sought $ 250 million in damages as compensation for alleged 'expropriation' of the company's investment interests. A stunning reversal of the Canadian government's decision occurred one year later. Canada agreed to pay Ethyl Corporation $ 13 million (representing legal fees and lost profits) and agreed to rescind the legislation and admit publicly that the use of MMT poses no environmental risk. The reversal was the result of the little-known Agreement on Internal Trade (AIT), a federal-provincial government agreement, intended to reduce 'non-tariff' barriers to inter-provincial trade and create greater economic union. The AIT is modelled on NAFTA and the Uruguay-round GATT, and treats relations between the Canadian provinces as if they were relations among sovereign states. In cases of conflict, provinces are entitled to seek resolution of complaints before dispute resolution panels. Some of the provinces voiced objection to the MMT legislation and Alberta, supported by three other provinces, filed an AIT complaint against the federal government for prohibiting the inter-provincial trade of MMT. The AIT dispute panel upheld Alberta's complaint. The decision was hailed as a 'triumph of principle over bad science'. It was an unmitigated success for Ethyl Corporation, and a humiliating defeat for the federal government. In this author's view, the MMT story is a clear example of yet another instrument by which corporate power can limit the capacity of democratically elected governments to act on behalf of the public good

  12. Willingness to pay for methadone maintenance treatment in Vietnamese epicentres of injection-drug-driven HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan

    2013-07-01

    Willingness to pay for methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in three Vietnamese epicentres of injection-drug-driven human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was assessed. A convenience sample of 1016 patients receiving HIV treatment in seven clinics was enrolled during 2012. Contingent valuation was used to assess willingness to pay. Interviewers reviewed adverse consequences of injection drug use and the benefits of MMT. Interviewers then described the government's plan to scale up MMT and the financial barriers to scale-up. Willingness to pay was assessed using double-bounded binary questions and a follow-up open-ended question. Point and interval data models were used to estimate maximum willingness to pay. A total of 548 non-drug-users and 468 injection drug users were enrolled; 988 were willing to pay for MMT. Monthly mean willingness to pay among non-drug-users, 347 drug users not receiving MMT and 121 drug users receiving MMT was 10.7 United States dollars [US$] (35.7% of treatment costs), US$ 21.1 (70.3%) and US$ 26.2 (87.3%), respectively (mean: US$ 15.9; 95% confidence interval, CI: 13.6-18.1). Fifty per cent of drug users were willing to pay 50% of MMT costs. Residence in households with low monthly per capita income and poor health status predicted willingness to pay less among drug users; educational level, employment status, health status and current antiretroviral therapy receipt predicted willingness to pay less among non-drug-users. Willingness to pay for MMT was very high, supporting implementation of a co-payment programme.

  13. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOY PROTEIN ISOLATE(SPI)/MONTMORILLONITE(MMT) BIONANOCOMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅强

    2009-01-01

    The bionanocomposites of soy protein isolate(SPI)/montmorillonite(MMT) have been prepared successfully via simple melt mixing,in which MMT was used as nanofiller and glycerol was used as plasticizer.Their structures and properties were characterized with X-ray diffraction(XRD),differential scanning calorimetry(DSC),scanning electron microscopy(SEM),thermogravimetric analysis and tensile testing.XRD、TEM and SEM results indicated that the MMT layers could be easily intercalated by the SPI matrix even by si...

  14. Color formation monitoring of extruded melt mixed PP/MMT nanocomposite;Analise colorimetrica de nanocompositos PP/MMT obtidos via extrusao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Kelen C. dos; Bertolino, Marcelo K. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPGCEM/UFSCar), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Canevarolo, Sebastiao V., E-mail: caneva@power.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work advances the use of colorimeter technique to analyze the desegregation of the MMT clay tactoids during the preparation of PP/MMT nanocomposites via polymer melt compounding. X-ray diffraction and the light extinction level (turbidity) measured by the intensity of the detector's signal were used to monitoring platelet exfoliation. On tactoids exfoliation their size are reduced below the minimum particle size to produce light extinction (turbidity) and so the signal intensity reduces as the nano size composite is formed, the luminosity of nanocomposite increased as expected. The color formation was brown, yellow and green and it depends of the organoclay type. (author)

  15. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis in a portfolio of prevention programs for injection drug users in mixed HIV epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina S Alistar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis with oral antiretroviral treatment (oral PrEP for HIV-uninfected injection drug users (IDUs is potentially useful in controlling HIV epidemics with a significant injection drug use component. We estimated the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of strategies for using oral PrEP in various combinations with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT and antiretroviral treatment (ART in Ukraine, a representative case for mixed HIV epidemics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a dynamic compartmental model of the HIV epidemic in a population of non-IDUs, IDUs who inject opiates, and IDUs in MMT, adding an oral PrEP program (tenofovir/emtricitabine, 49% susceptibility reduction for uninfected IDUs. We analyzed intervention portfolios consisting of oral PrEP (25% or 50% of uninfected IDUs, MMT (25% of IDUs, and ART (80% of all eligible patients. We measured health care costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, HIV prevalence, HIV infections averted, and incremental cost effectiveness. A combination of PrEP for 50% of IDUs and MMT lowered HIV prevalence the most in both IDUs and the general population. ART combined with MMT and PrEP (50% access averted the most infections (14,267. For a PrEP cost of $950, the most cost-effective strategy was MMT, at $520/QALY gained versus no intervention. The next most cost-effective strategy consisted of MMT and ART, costing $1,000/QALY gained compared to MMT alone. Further adding PrEP (25% access was also cost effective by World Health Organization standards, at $1,700/QALY gained. PrEP alone became as cost effective as MMT at a cost of $650, and cost saving at $370 or less. CONCLUSIONS: Oral PrEP for IDUs can be part of an effective and cost-effective strategy to control HIV in regions where injection drug use is a significant driver of the epidemic. Where budgets are limited, focusing on MMT and ART access should be the priority, unless PrEP has low cost.

  16. Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in a Portfolio of Prevention Programs for Injection Drug Users in Mixed HIV Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alistar, Sabina S.; Owens, Douglas K.; Brandeau, Margaret L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-exposure prophylaxis with oral antiretroviral treatment (oral PrEP) for HIV-uninfected injection drug users (IDUs) is potentially useful in controlling HIV epidemics with a significant injection drug use component. We estimated the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of strategies for using oral PrEP in various combinations with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Ukraine, a representative case for mixed HIV epidemics. Methods and Findings We developed a dynamic compartmental model of the HIV epidemic in a population of non-IDUs, IDUs who inject opiates, and IDUs in MMT, adding an oral PrEP program (tenofovir/emtricitabine, 49% susceptibility reduction) for uninfected IDUs. We analyzed intervention portfolios consisting of oral PrEP (25% or 50% of uninfected IDUs), MMT (25% of IDUs), and ART (80% of all eligible patients). We measured health care costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), HIV prevalence, HIV infections averted, and incremental cost effectiveness. A combination of PrEP for 50% of IDUs and MMT lowered HIV prevalence the most in both IDUs and the general population. ART combined with MMT and PrEP (50% access) averted the most infections (14,267). For a PrEP cost of $950, the most cost-effective strategy was MMT, at $520/QALY gained versus no intervention. The next most cost-effective strategy consisted of MMT and ART, costing $1,000/QALY gained compared to MMT alone. Further adding PrEP (25% access) was also cost effective by World Health Organization standards, at $1,700/QALY gained. PrEP alone became as cost effective as MMT at a cost of $650, and cost saving at $370 or less. Conclusions Oral PrEP for IDUs can be part of an effective and cost-effective strategy to control HIV in regions where injection drug use is a significant driver of the epidemic. Where budgets are limited, focusing on MMT and ART access should be the priority, unless PrEP has low cost. PMID:24489747

  17. Confine Clay in an Alternating Multilayered Structure through Injection Molding: A Simple and Efficient Route to Improve Barrier Performance of Polymeric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feilong; Deng, Hua; Bai, Hongwei; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Ke; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2015-05-20

    Various methods have been devoted to trigger the formation of multilayered structure for wide range of applications. These methods are often complicated with low production efficiency or require complex equipment. Herein, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method for the fabrication of polymeric sheets containing multilayered structure with enhanced barrier property through high speed thin-wall injection molding (HSIM). To achieve this, montmorillonite (MMT) is added into PE first, then blended with PP to fabricate PE-MMT/PP ternary composites. It is demonstrated that alternating multilayer structure could be obtained in the ternary composites because of low interfacial tension and good viscosity match between different polymer components. MMT is selectively dispersed in PE phase with partial exfoliated/partial intercalated microstructure. 2D-WAXD analysis indicates that the clay tactoids in PE-MMT/PP exhibits an uniplanar-axial orientation with their surface parallel to the molded part surface, while the tactoids in binary PE-MMT composites with the same overall MMT contents illustrate less orientation. The enhanced orientation of nanoclay in PE-MMT/PP could be attributed to the confinement of alternating multilayer structure, which prohibits the tumbling and rotation of nanoplatelets. Therefore, the oxygen barrier property of PE-MMT/PP is superior to that of PE-MMT because of increased gas permeation pathway. Comparing with the results obtained for PE based composites in literature, outstanding barrier property performance (45.7% and 58.2% improvement with 1.5 and 2.5 wt % MMT content, respectively) is achieved in current study. Two issues are considered responsible for such improvement: enhanced MMT orientation caused by the confinement in layered structure, and higher local density of MMT in layered structure induced denser assembly. Finally, enhancement in barrier property by confining impermeable filler into alternating multilayer structure through such

  18. Influence of mold temperature associated with glass fiber on the mechanical and thermal properties of a (PA6/GF/MMT) nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiani, Renato Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This work describes the second of a series of studies of the effects of injection molding conditions on the mechanical and thermal properties of Polyamide 6/Glass Fiber/Montmorillonite (PA6/GF/MMT) composites and was motivated by the lack of information about how the processing variables influence on the properties of three-phase composites containing fiber glass. By this time, the effects of the injection molding temperature associated with the fiber glass percentage on the mechanical and thermal properties of the composite are investigated. Some samples were processed, following a statistical experimental factorial planning, varying the mold temperature and the fiber glass percentage and maintaining 5 wt % of the MMT. The samples were submitted to tensile and flexural tests, XRD, SEM and DSC. The studies showed that an increase in the mold temperature and the fiber percentage improves the maximum tensile and flexural stresses. The increased mold temperature slows the cooling rate, which, over time, decreases the degree of crystallinity. However, there is an increase in the intercalation of the polymeric chains and the nanoclay lamellae, and the structure forms with fewer defects. (author)

  19. Influence of mold temperature associated with glass fiber on the mechanical and thermal properties of a (PA6/GF/MMT) nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, Renato Adriano, E-mail: eng.damiani@hotmail.com [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Engenharia de Materiais; Duarte, Glaucea Warmeling; Riella, Humberto Gracher, E-mail: gwduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: huberto.riella@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica; Silva, Luciano Luiz; Mello, Josiane Maria Muneron de; Fiori, Marcio Antonio; Batiston, Eduardo Roberto, E-mail: marciofiori@gmail.com, E-mail: lucianols@unochapeco.edu.br, E-mail: josimello@unochapeco.edu.br, E-mail: erbatiston@unochapeco.edu.br [Universidade Comunitaria da Regiao de Chapeco (UNOCHAPECO), Chapeco, SC (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    This work describes the second of a series of studies of the effects of injection molding conditions on the mechanical and thermal properties of Polyamide 6/Glass Fiber/Montmorillonite (PA6/GF/MMT) composites and was motivated by the lack of information about how the processing variables influence on the properties of three-phase composites containing fiber glass. By this time, the effects of the injection molding temperature associated with the fiber glass percentage on the mechanical and thermal properties of the composite are investigated. Some samples were processed, following a statistical experimental factorial planning, varying the mold temperature and the fiber glass percentage and maintaining 5 wt % of the MMT. The samples were submitted to tensile and flexural tests, XRD, SEM and DSC. The studies showed that an increase in the mold temperature and the fiber percentage improves the maximum tensile and flexural stresses. The increased mold temperature slows the cooling rate, which, over time, decreases the degree of crystallinity. However, there is an increase in the intercalation of the polymeric chains and the nanoclay lamellae, and the structure forms with fewer defects. (author)

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of PMMA/MMT nanocomposite as denture base material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junping; Su, Qiang; Wang, Chen; Cheng, Gang; Zhu, Ran; Shi, Jin; Yao, Kangde

    2011-04-01

    Inorganic-polymer nanocomposites are of significant interest for emerging materials due to their improved properties and unique combination of properties. Poly (methylmethacrylate) (PMMA)/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites were prepared by in situ suspension polymerization with dodecylamine used as MMT-modifier. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structures of the nanocomposites. Cytotoxicity test, hemolysis test, acute systemic toxicity test, oral mucous membrane irritation test, guinea-pig maximization test and mouse bone-marrow micronucleus test were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of PMMA/MMT nanocomposites. The results indicated that an exfoliated nanocomposite was achieved, and the resulting nanocomposites exhibited excellent biocompatibility as denture base material and had potential application in dental materials.

  1. Megasite Management Tool (mmt): a Decision Support System Built Using Mapwindow Activex Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsani, B. R.

    2017-11-01

    Megasite Management Tool (MMT) is planning and evaluation software for contaminated sites. Using different statistical modules, MMT produces maps which help decision makers in rehabilitating contaminated sites. The input data used by MMT is of geographic nature and exists as shapefile and raster format. As MMT is built using simple windows forms application, the objective of the study was to find a way to visualize geographic data and to allow the user to edit its attribute information. Therefore, the application requirement was to find GIS libraries which offer capabilities such as (1) map viewer with navigation tools (2) library to read/write geographic data and (3) software which allows free distribution of the developed components. A research on these requirements led to the discovery of MapWindow ActiveX components which not only offered these capabilities but also provided free and open source licensing options for redistribution. Although considerable amount of reports and publications exist on MMT, the major contribution provided by MapWindow libraries have been under played. The current study emphasises upon the contribution and advantages MapWindow ActiveX provides for incorporating GIS functionality to an already existing application. Similar components for other languages have also been reviewed.

  2. Comparative studies on the corrosion protection effect of DBSA-doped polyaniline prepared from in situ emulsion polymerization in the presence of hydrophilic Na+-MMT and organophilic organo-MMT clay platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.-C.; Lai, M.-C.; Peng, C.-W.; Chen, Y.-T.; Yeh, J.-M.; Lin, C.-L.; Yang, J.-C.

    2006-01-01

    A series of polyaniline (PANI)/Na + -montmorillonite (MMT) clay and PANI/organo-MMT nanocomposite materials have been successfully prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization in the presence of inorganic nanolayers of hydrophilic Na + -MMT clay or organophilic organo-MMT clay with DBSA and KPS as surfactant and initiator, respectively. The as-synthesized Na + -PCN and organo-PCN materials were characterized and compared by Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, wide-angle powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Na + -PCN materials in the form of coatings with low loading of Na + -MMT clay (e.g., 3 wt.%, CLAN3) on cold-rolled steel (CRS) were found much superior in corrosion protection over those of organo-PCN materials with same clay loading based on a series of electrochemical measurements of corrosion potential, polarization resistance, corrosion current and impedance spectroscopy in 5 wt.% aqueous NaCl electrolyte. The molecular weights of PANI extracted from PCN materials and neat PANI were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) with NMP as eluant. Effects of material composition on the gas permeability, optical properties and electrical conductivity of neat PANI and a series of PCN materials, in the form of free-standing film, solution and powder-pressed pellet, were also studied by gas permeability analyzer (GPA), ultraviolet-vis spectra and four-point probe technique, respectively

  3. Morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of PVC/MMT nanocomposites prepared by solution blending and solution blending + melt compounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madaleno, Liliana Andreia Oliveira; Schjødt-Thomsen, Jan; Pinto, José Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Two types of montmorillonite (MMT), natural sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT), in different amounts of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 25 phr (parts per hundred resin), were dispersed in rigid poly (vinyl chloride) by two different methods solution blending...... and solution blending + melt compounding The effects on morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of the PVC/MMT nanocomposites were studied by varying the amount of Na-MMT and OMMT in both methods SEM and XRD analysis revealed that possible intercalated and exfoliated structures were obtained in all...... prepared by solution blending + melt compounding method Experimental values for 1 and 2 phr are larger than the calculated values which directly suggest that the MMT particles are exfoliated (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved...

  4. Color formation monitoring of extruded melt mixed PP/MMT nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Kelen C. dos; Bertolino, Marcelo K.

    2009-01-01

    This work advances the use of colorimeter technique to analyze the desegregation of the MMT clay tactoids during the preparation of PP/MMT nanocomposites via polymer melt compounding. X-ray diffraction and the light extinction level (turbidity) measured by the intensity of the detector's signal were used to monitoring platelet exfoliation. On tactoids exfoliation their size are reduced below the minimum particle size to produce light extinction (turbidity) and so the signal intensity reduces as the nano size composite is formed, the luminosity of nanocomposite increased as expected. The color formation was brown, yellow and green and it depends of the organoclay type. (author)

  5. HIV and injecting drug use in Indonesia: epidemiology and national response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriandi, Irvan; Aditama, Tjandra Yoga; Mustikawati, Dyah; Oktavia, Martiani; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Riono, Pandu

    2009-07-01

    Indonesia is facing one of the most rapidly growing HIV-epidemics in Asia. Risk behaviour associated with injecting drug use, such as sharing contaminated needles, is the main risk factor for HIV infection. Among the general population the prevalence of HIV-infection is still low (0.2%), but up to 50% or more of the estimated 145.000 - 170.000 injecting drug users are already HIV-positive. Overrepresentation of injecting drug users and continued risk behavior inside Indonesian prisons contribute to spread of HIV. Through sexual contacts, HIV is transmitted from current or previous injecting drug users to their non-injecting sexual partners; 10-20% of this group may already be infected. The national response targeted to limit spread of HIV through injecting drug use has included needle and syringe program (NSP), methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), and outreach program as priority programs. However coverage and utilization of the harm reduction services is still limited, but effective integration with HIV testing and treatment is expanding. By 2008, there were 110 service points for NSP and 24 operational MMT clinics. Nevertheless, utilization of these services has been less satisfactory and their effectiveness has been questioned. Besides effective prevention, HIV- testing and earlier treatment of HIV-seropositve individuals, including those with a history of injecting drug use, will help control the growing HIV-epidemic in Indonesia.

  6. Non-isothermal curing kinetics and physical properties of MMT-reinforced unsaturated polyester (UP) resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, María A., E-mail: angelesvh@yahoo.com [Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Ecatepec, Av. Tecnológico S/N, Valle de Anáhuac, 55210 Ecatepec de Morelos (Mexico); Vázquez, H. [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Física, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Guthausen, G. [KIT, Pro2NMR at MVM and IBG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-10

    Highlights: • Non-isothermal DSC analysis results have shown that the addition of MMT to a UP resin produces a delay in the cure reaction. • The shape of experimental heat-flow DSC curves showed two exothermic peaks for all the samples at different heating rates. • The overall kinetic analysis was performed by isoconversional methods. • It was found that the dependence of the activation energy (E{sub a}) on degree of reaction (α) is complex. - Abstract: Cure behavior of unsaturated polyester (UP)/montmorillonite (MMT)/methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP)/cobalt octoate intercalated nanocomposites with various MMT loadings was investigated by dynamic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UP/MMT nanocomposites were prepared by sequential mixing. Non-isothermal DSC curves were obtained by applying heating rates ranging from 5 to 20 °C/min. They presented two exothermic peaks, which should correspond to two independent cure reactions. The effective activation energy E{sub a}, was determined by applying both the Kissinger’s and Starink’s methods. The results showed slightly higher activation energy for nanocomposites, except for UP/10-MMT. It was found that the dependence of E{sub a} on α is complex. All the systems in this study fitted Sesták–Berggren (SB) model in overall reaction controlled kinetics and the corresponding model parameters, n, m, A were obtained, but it was insufficient in depicting the complex reaction kinetics. Transmission electron microscopy data support the formation of a partially delaminated nanocomposite material. UP and nanocomposites showed similar behavior on thermal stability.

  7. Thermal stability and structural characteristics of PTHF–Mmt organophile nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Hattab

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to use organophilized montmorillonites in the presence of monomer tetrahydrofuran to obtain polytétrahydrofuran montmorillonites (PTHF–Mmt of composites by polymerization in situ. The organophilisation of the Mmt is formed by active cationic surface. The obtained results show an increase in the distance inside the reticular in the diffractograms of X-rays (DRX and the appearance of absorption bands of the characteristics of polytétrahydrofuran on the spectra of infrared spectroscopy (IR, which indicate pre-polymerization of tetrahydrofuran in the galleries of clay and, therefore, the obtaining of a nanocomposite. We have also studied the thermal stability of the samples by differential analysis calorimetric (DSC analysis, and we can conclude that the nanocomposites are stabilized thermally by the presence of clay in the matrix.

  8. MMT OBSERVATORY 6.5M CLIO CALIBRATED OBSERVATIONS OF LCROSS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archive contains calibrated observations of the 2009-10-09 impact of the LCROSS spacecraft on the moon by the CLIO instrument on the MMT Observatory 6.5m...

  9. Ductile-brittle transition behaviour of PLA/o-MMT films during the physical aging process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ll. Maspoch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ductile-brittle transition behaviour of organo modified montmorillonite-based Poly(lactic acid films (PLA/o-MMT was analysed using the Essential Work of Fracture (EWF methodology, Small Punch Tests (SPT and Enthalpy relaxation analysis. While the EWF methodology could only be applied successfully to de-aged samples, small punch test (SPT was revealed as more effective for a mechanical characterization during the transient behaviour from ductile to brittle. According to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results, physical aging at 30°C of PLA/o-MMT samples exhibited slower enthalpy relaxation kinetics as compared to the pristine polymer. Although all samples exhibited an equivalent thermodynamic state after being stored one week at 30°C, significant differences were observed in the mechanical performances. These changes could be attributed to the toughening mechanisms promoted by o-MMT.

  10. Nocebo-induced hyperalgesia during local anesthetic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelmann, Dirk; Pancaro, Carlo; Cappiello, Eric C; Camann, William R

    2010-03-01

    Common practice during local anesthetic injection is to warn the patient using words such as: "You will feel a big bee sting; this is the worst part." Our hypothesis was that using gentler words for administration of the local anesthetic improves pain perception and patient comfort. One hundred forty healthy women at term gestation requesting neuraxial analgesia were randomized to either a "placebo" ("We are going to give you a local anesthetic that will numb the area and you will be comfortable during the procedure") or "nocebo" ("You are going to feel a big bee sting; this is the worst part of the procedure") group. Pain was assessed immediately after the local anesthetic skin injection using verbal analog scale scores of 0 to 10. Median verbal analog scale pain scores were lower when reassuring words were used compared with the harsher nocebo words (3 [2-4] vs 5 [3-6]; P words improves the subjective experience during invasive procedures.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of HDA/NaMMT organoclay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. In this study, the rheologic and colloidal characterizations of sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT) were examined. Hexadecylamine (CH3(CH2)15NH2, HDA) was added to the bentonite water dispersion. (2%, w/w) in different concentrations in the range 5⋅6 × 10–4–9⋅4 × 10–3 m mol/l. The rheological and ...

  12. Obtention of polyester-montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites applied to powder coating - part 1: nanocomposites characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazza, Diego; Zattera, Ademir J.; Silveira, Debora S.; Lorandi, Natalia P.; Birriel, Eliena J.; Scienza, Lisete C.

    2009-01-01

    The development and obtention of polymeric nanocomposites in the nanotechnology and nanoscience field have attracted great attention due to diversity of potential applications and significant property improvement when compared to conventional composites. In this work, commercial formulations of polyester-based powder coating with 0, 2 and 4% (w/w) of montmorillonite (MMT) were obtained by incorporation in the melting state and characterized by TEM, SEM, DSC, TGA and XRD. The nanocoatings were applied on the mild carbon steel panels by electrostatic paint. The microscopy analysis showed MMT in the coating film, predominantly in the exfoliated form, corroborated by XRD results. Some tactoid structures and a surface film with some defects and porous were also revealed. Progressive reduction of crosslinking temperature and thermal stability was observed in thermal analysis. The best clay dispersion in the coating and a higher quality film were achieved at 2% MMT concentration. (author)

  13. Conservative approach in localised rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder and prostate: results from International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) studies: malignant mesenchymal tumour (MMT) 84, 89 and 95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenney, Meriel; Oberlin, Odile; Audry, Georges; Stevens, Michael C G; Rey, Annie; Merks, Johannes H M; Kelsey, Anna; Gallego, Soledad; Haie-Meder, Christine; Martelli, Hélène

    2014-02-01

    The three sequential SIOP MMT studies provide the largest dataset available to date, to define the patient and tumour characteristics, treatment modalities and event-free and overall survival for children with non metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the bladder and/or prostate (BP). The combined dataset of 172 patients with BP RMS treated on the SIOP MMT 84, 89 and 95 studies was reviewed to determine tumour characteristics, details of treatment and outcome. Median age at diagnosis was 2.5 years (range 2 months-17.8 years) and 138 (79%) were males. Median follow-up was 11.4 years (range 3 months-22 years). The 5-year overall survival of the combined cohort was 77% (CI 70-83%). The 5-year event-free survival was 63% and included 7 patients (4%) who did not achieve complete remission (CR), and 57 (33%) who relapsed. Age ≥ 10 years (RR 3.7) and alveolar pathology (RR 3.3) were identified as independent prognostic factors on multivariate analysis. Fifty-nine (50%) of the 119 survivors were cured without significant local therapy, improving from 31% in MMT84 study to 61% in MMT95 study. The clinical strategy of the MMT studies aims to minimise the burden of therapy whilst maintaining survival rates. Overall survival is comparable to that of other international groups, despite the lower use of radiotherapy and or radical surgery, although number of events experienced is higher. Further assessment of the late effects of therapy is required to confirm whether this approach results in lower morbidity in the long-term. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Enhanced Thermal, Mechanical and Morphological Properties of CNT/HDPE Nanocomposite Using MMT as Secondary Filler

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Ali Mohsin; Agus Arsad; Othman Y. Alothman

    2014-01-01

    This study explains the influence of secondary filler on the dispersion of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposites (CNT/HDPE). In order to understand the mixed-fillers system, Montmorillonite (MMT) was added to CNT/HDPE nanocomposites. It was followed by investigating their effect on the thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of the aforesaid nanocomposite. Incorporation of 3 wt% each of MMT into CNT/HDPE nanocomposite resulted to the increas...

  15. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater using media-injected permeable reactive barriers with a modified montmorillonite: sand tank studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ximing; Liu, Haifei; Huang, Guoxin; Li, Ye; Zhao, Yan; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    A modified montmorillonite (MMT) was prepared using an acid activation-sodium activation-iron oxide coating method to improve the adsorption capacities of natural MMTs. For MMT, its interlamellar distance increased from 12.29 to 13.36 Å, and goethite (α-FeOOH) was intercalated into its clay layers. Two novel media-injected permeable reactive barrier (MI-PRB) configurations were proposed for removing arsenic from groundwater. Sand tank experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of the two MI-PRBs: Tank A was filled with quartz sand. Tank B was packed with quartz sand and zero-valent iron (ZVI) in series, and the MMT slurry was respectively injected into them to form reactive zones. The results showed that for tank A, total arsenic (TA) removal of 98.57% was attained within the first 60 mm and subsequently descended slowly to 88.84% at the outlet. For tank B, a similar spatial variation trend was observed in the quartz sand layer, and subsequently, TA removal increased to ≥99.80% in the ZVI layer. TA removal by MMT mainly depended on both surface adsorption and electrostatic adhesion. TA removal by ZVI mainly relied on coagulation/precipitation and adsorption during the iron corrosion. The two MI-PRBs are feasible alternatives for in situ remediation of groundwater with elevated As levels.

  16. Fabrication of durable fluorine-free superhydrophobic polyethersulfone (PES) composite coating enhanced by assembled MMT-SiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiguang; Wang, Huaiyuan; Liu, Zhanjian; Zhu, Yixing; Wu, Shiqi; Wang, Chijia; Zhu, Yanji

    2017-02-01

    A durable fluorine-free polyethersulfone (PES) superhydrophobic composite coating with excellent wear-resistant and anti-corrosion properties has been successfully fabricated by combining sol-gel and spray technology. The robust micro/nano-structures of the prepared surface were established by introducing binary montmorillonite-silica (MMT-SiO2) assembled composite particles, which were formed by in-situ growth of SiO2 on MMT surfaces via sol-gel. Combined with the low surface energy of amino silicon oil (APDMS), the fluorine-free superhydrophoic PES coating was obtained with high water contact angle 156.1 ± 1.1° and low sliding angle 4.8 ± 0.7°. The anti-wear of the final PES/APDMS/MMT-SiO2 superhydrophobic coating can reach up to 60,100 cycles, which is outdistancing the pure PES coating (6800 cycles) and the PES/MMT/SiO2 coating prepared by simple physical mixture (18,200 cycles). The enhanced wear resistance property can be mainly attributed to the lubrication performance of APDMS and stable interface bonding force between the MMT surface and SiO2. Simultaneously, potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy exhibited the outstanding anti-corrosion property of PES/APDMS/MMT-SiO2 composite coating, with low corrosion current (1.6 × 10-10 A/cm2) and high protection efficiency (99.999%) even after 30 d immersion process. These test results show that this durable superhydrophobic PES composite coating can be hopefully to provide the possibility of industrial application.

  17. MMT OBSERVATORY 6.5M CLIO RAW DATA OBSERVATIONS OF LCROSS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archive contains raw observations of the 2009-10-09 impact of the LCROSS spacecraft on the moon by the CLIO instrument on the MMT Observatory 6.5m telescope....

  18. Comparison of in situ polymerization and solution-dispersion techniques in the preparation of Polyimide/Montmorillonite (MMT) Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Gharayebi, Yadollah; Salit, Mohd Sapuan; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Shameli, Kamyar

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, Polyimide/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites (PI/MMT NCs), based on aromatic diamine (4-Aminophenyl sulfone) (APS) and aromatic dianhydride (3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride) (BTDA) were prepared using in situ polymerization and solution-dispersion techniques. The prepared PI/MMT NCs films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD results showed that at the content of 1.0 wt % Organo Montmorillonite (OMMT) for two techniques and 3.0 wt % OMMT for the in situ polymerization technique, the OMMT was well-intercalated, exfoliated and dispersed into polyimide matrix. The OMMT agglomerated when its amount exceeded 10 wt % and 3.0 wt % for solution-dispersion and in situ polymerization techniques respectively. These results were confirmed by the TEM images of the prepared PI/MMT NCs. The TGA thermograms indicated that thermal stability of prepared PI/MMT NCs were increased with the increase of loading that, the effect is higher for the samples prepared by in situ polymerization technique.

  19. Autologous platelet lysate local injections for the treatment of refractory lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xun-xiang; Ju, Hai-yang; Yan, Wei; Jiang, Hong-jiang; Su, Jin-ping; Dong, Hua-jun; Wang, Ling-shuang; Zou, De-bao

    2016-01-25

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of autologous platelet lysate (APL) local injections in reducing pain and improving function in patients with refractory lateral epicondylitis. A total of 56 patients with refractory lateral epicondylitis were enrolled in this study. All the patients received three injections in one course of treatment. Subjective assessments include visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and Mayo elbow score before injection (baseline) and at 1, 6, and 12 months after injection. Significant differences were observed in VAS and Mayo scores at baseline and at 1, 6, and 12 months after injection. Overall, the injections of APL improved local symptoms and all the patients recovered to normal elbow function with 12 months follow-up. Local injections of APL resulted in favorable clinical outcomes for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. APL could be clinically effective in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

  20. Tennis elbow: role of local steroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Gulzar Saeed; Ali, Muhammad; Trago, Imtiaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Tennis elbow is a condition, characterised by pain and tenderness over the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, and pain on resisted dorsiflexion of the wrist, middle finger, or both. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the short term efficacy of local steroid injection compared with oral and topical NSAIDs. Sixty patients (45 male and 15 female) were included in the study. The mean age was 42 years for men and 40 years for women. They were placed in group A and B (30 cases each). Group A received local steroid injection (triamcinolone 20 mg mixed with lignocaine 2% 1 cc) and topical NSAID cream application (diclofenac diethylammonium) twice a day, tab. diclofenac sodium 50 mg twice a day for 3 weeks. Group B received tab diclofenac 50 mg twice a day and, topical NSAID cream application twice a day for 3 weeks. Assessment of patients was made 3 times; first at the start of the study, 2nd time after 6 weeks, and 3rd time after 12 weeks. A blinded assessor rated the elbow complaints of the patients at resisted dorsiflexion of wrist using VAS (0 = no severity, 1-3 mild, 4-6 moderate, 7-9 sever, 10 = maximum severity). At six weeks, 22 (73.33%) patient in group A had no pain as compared to 7 (23.33%) patients in group B who were pain free (p < 0.0001, chi2 = 38.75). At 12 weeks 27 (90%) patients in group A were pain free compared to group B in which 7 (23.33%) patients were pain free (p < 0.0001, chi2 = 27.56). In patients with tennis elbow, the use of local steroid injection in combination with topical and oral NSAIDs is superior to the use of combination of topical and oral NSAIDs. Better results with combination therapy using local steroid injection may be limited to the short term.

  1. Physics of the current injection process during localized helicity injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Edward Thomas

    An impedance model has been developed for the arc-plasma cathode electron current source used in localized helicity injection tokamak startup. According to this model, a potential double layer (DL) is established between the high-density arc plasma (narc ˜ 1021 m-3) in the electron source, and the less-dense external tokamak edge plasma (nedge ˜ 10 18 m-3) into which current is injected. The DL launches an electron beam at the applied voltage with cross-sectional area close to that of the source aperture: Ainj ≈ 2 cm 2. The injected current, Iinj, increases with applied voltage, Vinj, according to the standard DL scaling, Iinj ˜ V(3/2/ inj), until the more restrictive of two limits to beam density nb arises, producing Iinj ˜ V(1/2/inj), a scaling with beam drift velocity. For low external tokamak edge density nedge, space-charge neutralization of the intense electron beam restricts the injected beam density to nb ˜ nedge. At high Jinj and sufficient edge density, the injected current is limited by expansion of the DL sheath, which leads to nb ˜ narc. Measurements of narc, Iinj , nedge, Vinj, support these predicted scalings, and suggest narc as a viable control actuator for the source impedance. Magnetic probe signals ≈ 300 degrees toroidally from the injection location are consistent with expectations for a gyrating, coherent electron beam with a compact areal cross-section. Technological development of the source has allowed an extension of the favorable Iinj ˜ V(1/2/inj) to higher power without electrical breakdown.

  2. Blown films of PA6/MMT nanocomposites: structural characterization by SAXs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, J.; Beatrice, C.A.G.; Lucas, A.A.; Bretas, R.E.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work the influence of the processing conditions (take up and blow up ratios, TUR and BUR, respectively) in the nano-periodicity and lamellae orientation of PA6 nanocomposites blown films with natural (MMT) and organically modified montmorillonite (oMMT) was studied by SAXS. Unexpectedly, a preferred orientation of the crystalline lamellae along the normal direction (ND) was observed for all analyzed films. Such behavior can be explained by the preservation of the initial lamellae orientation of the PA6 chains imposed by the spiral flow in the die, almost null elastic recovery and fast crystallization kinetics of PA6 at the processing conditions applied. The orientation of the nanoparticles (measured by TEM) showed to be directly dependent on the TUR and BUR. The presence of the reinforcing fillers and the different processing conditions showed no significant influence on the nanoperiodicity. (author)

  3. The Marine Magnetotelluric Method (MMT) applied of hydrocarbons exploration in Brazilian waters; Aplicacao do Metodo Magnetotelurico Marinho (MMT) na exploracao de hidrocarbonetos em aguas brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Vinicius R.; Flexor, Jean M.; La Terra, Emanuele F.; Fontes, Sergio L. [Observatorio Nacional do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lugao, Patricia P. [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Western-Geco

    2008-07-01

    Magnetotellurics (MT) is a natural-source, electromagnetic geophysical method of imaging structures below the earth's surface. It is used to map the subsurface Earth's resistivity by measuring the naturally occurring electric and magnetic fields at the Earth's surface. These natural EM fields are generated in the Earth's atmosphere mainly by lightning strokes and by interactions between the solar wind and the ionosphere. Natural variations in the earth's magnetic field induce electric currents (or telluric currents) under the earth's surface. Concurrent measurements of orthogonal components of the electric and magnetic fields allow for the calculation of the impedance tensor, which is complex and frequency-dependent and from which it is possible to gain insight into the resistivity structure of the surrounding material. The marine magnetotelluric method (MMT) is the application of MT method to investigate the sea-floor resistivity's distribution. A MMT sounding with 96 stations was realized in the region of Santos Basin on a subsalt section to assist the interpretation of seismic data in order to estimate the depth of base of the salt (subsalt) since this imaging in general is problematic. The high contrast of the electrical resistivity between the salt and the surrounding sediments is an excellent objective and it constitutes a great opportunity to test the applicability of the MMT method in oil exploration studies. The geological interpretation of the seismic profile of the studied area shows the existence of several bodies of salt with depths of the base that could vary more from 7000 m to more than 9000 m. The top of the body of more important salt of the profile begins to the 3500 m and your base is not solved by the seismic sign that it reaches a maximum depth of 9000 m. The MMT data of the central profile were submitted an inversion procedure - 2D by using the non linear conjugate gradients that produces smooth models for

  4. Local corticosteroid injections: Rational use in common orthopaedic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of local corticosteroid injections in orthopaedic practice is common due to their anti- inflammatory and analgesic effect. However, the use may result in local or systemic complications. Moreover, the conflicting reports on their benefits versus side effects, throws the average user in confusion or fear. This review ...

  5. Influence of processing temperature on the rheological behavior of PCL/MMT nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, Juliano; Beatrice, Cesar A.G.; Favaro, Marcia M.; Bretas, Rosario E.S.; Branciforti, Marcia C.

    2009-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a biodegradable polymer; however, this polymer had low mechanical strength, limiting its applications. The addition of a lamellar silicate (MMT) can alter this behavior, especially when the filler is well dispersed and distributed thru the polymeric matrix. In this work the influence of the processing temperature in the structure of PCL/MMT nanocomposites was studied. The nanocomposites were obtained by melt intercalation in a Haake rheometer at two temperatures: 80 and 120 deg C. Wide angle X-ray analysis showed that the intercalation of the polymer chains into the clay's galleries was not influenced by the processing temperature. However, the steady state and dynamic rheological properties showed that the higher the processing temperature the better the dispersion and distribution of the clay thru the matrix, without having polymer degradation. (author)

  6. Stroop task among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and pathological gambling (PG) in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, Einat; Weinstein, Aviv; Sason, Anat; Adelson, Miriam; Schreiber, Shaul

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the impaired attention selection (Stroop interference effect) and general performance [reaction times (RTs)] on the Stroop task among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), pathological gambling (PG), both PG/OCD or none, and the influence if having ADHD. Eighty-six patients and 15 control subjects underwent the Stroop task, which measured RTs of condition-related words (color, obsessive compulsive disorder, pathological gambling, addiction) and neutral words. MMT patients had longer RTs on the Stroop task compared with controls. RTs were longer among patients with OCD and in those who abused drugs on the study day. The combined PG/OCD group had the longest RTs, but they were also characterized as abusing more drugs, being older, and having worse cognitive status. Stroop color interference differed only among MMT patients with ADHD, and it was higher among those with OCD than those without OCD. The modified condition-related Stroop did not show any interference effect of OCD, addiction, or gambling words. MMT patients had generally poorer performance, as indicated by longer RTs, that were related to clinical OCD, drug abuse, poor cognitive state, and older age. Patients with both clinical OCD and ADHD had a higher Stroop interference effect, which is a reflection of an attention deficit. In order to improve clinical approach and treatment of MMT patients, OCD and ADHD should be evaluated (and treated as needed).

  7. Bioluminescence imaging in a medium-sized animal by local injection of d-luciferin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Min; Min, Jung Joon; Kim, Sung Mi; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Suk Jung; Kang, Han Saem; Kim, Kwang Yoon [ECOBIO INC., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Luciferase is one of the most commonly used reporter enzymes in the field of molecular imaging. D-luciferin is known as the substrate for luciferase enzyme and its cost is very expensive. Therefore, the bioluminescence molecular imaging study has been allowed in small animals such as mice and rats. In this current study, we validated local injection of D-luciferin in articular capsule for bioluminescence imaging in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured and infected by replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding firefly luciferase. And then was performed different method of chondrocyte cell injection and transplantation into the knee of rabbits. The rabbits underwent imaging by cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin (3mg) into experimental knee joint as well as contralateral normal knee joint on days 1, 5, 7, 9. We sought whether optimal imaging signal was acquired by using cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin. We successfully visualized injected or transplanted cells in knee joint by local injection of D-luciferin. Total photon flux (7.86E+08 p/s/cm{sup 2}/sr) from the knee joint transplanted with cells approximately increased 10-fold more than (9.43E+07p/s/cm{sup 2}/sr) that from injected knee joints until 7 day. Imaging signal was observed in transplanted joints until day 9 after surgery while signal from injected knee was observed by day 7 after injection. We successfully carried out bioluminescence imaging study with medium sized animal by local injection of small amount of D-luciferin. Survival of chondrocytes were prolonged when surgically transplanted in joints than when directly injected in joint space.

  8. Lake destratification induced by local air injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical and physical modelling makes possible quantitative predictions regarding the destratification process brought about by the local injection of air at the bottom of a thermally stratified lake or reservoir. The mathematical model developed distinguishes between a near field and a far

  9. Ultrasound guided local steroid injection versus extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nayera Saber

    2011-12-17

    Dec 17, 2011 ... Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in plantar fascia .... Several previous studies evaluate the effects of either local ... The choice of ultrasound guided technique of steroid injection was related to the accuracy of application and supe- ..... chronic proximal plantar fasciitis: a meta analysis.

  10. Multifunctional e-spun colloidal nanofiber structures from various dispersed blends of PVA/ODA-MMT with PVP/ODA-MMT, poly(VP-alt-MA and AgNPs incorporated polymer complexes as electro-active platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Bunyatova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presented a new approach to fabricate polymer nanocomposites films with nanofiber structures from solution blends of poly(vinyl alcohol + octadecyl amine-montmorillonite (ODA-MMT (matrix with poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone + ODA-MMT (partner-1, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-alt-maleic anhydride ((poly(VP-alt-MA + (ODA-MMT (partner-2 and their silver (Ag-carrying polymer complexes by electrospinning. Chemical and physical structures, surface morphologies, thermal behaviors, electrical conductivity and thermal resistance parameters of nanofiber structures were investigated. Poly(VP-alt-MA was used both as a crosslinker and a donor of the hydrophilic groups such as ‒COOH and ‒NH–C=O amide from pyrrolidone ring. Reactive poly(VP-alt-MA, in situ generated Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs and original partner polymer had an significant effect on the morphology and diameter distribution of nanofibers. High and excellent conductive behaviors were observed for the homopolymer and copolymer of VP based fiber structures, respectively. Upon successive chemical cross-linking of the nanofiber structures by reactive partner copolymer, the conductivity of nanofiber films as electro-active platforms dramatically increased to 3.90·10–2 S·cm–1 at room temperature. Comparative analysis results also indicated that electrical properties strongly depended on the loaded reactive organoclay and in situ generated AgNPs.

  11. Evaluation of the contamination and the exposure to manganese from the combustion of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in unleaded fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, J.; Loranger, S.; Kennedy, G.

    1994-01-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) has been used since 1976 in Canada as an antiknock additive in gasoline to replace tetraethyl lead. Combustion of MMT in the engine forms manganese oxides, mainly Mn 3 O 4 , which are emitted into the environment. Since human exposure to Mn is associated with various health problems, a research program was initiated to evaluate the degree of contamination and the fate of Mn originating from MMT combustion. Four projects were conducted as part of this program: chronological evaluation of atmospheric Mn concentrations in Montreal from 1981 to 1992; comparative evaluation of Mn concentrations in soil and vegetation exposed to MMT-generated Mn; evaluation of the pigeon as an ecological indicator of MMT-generated Mn contamination; and evaluation of the occupational and environmental exposure of workers exposed to Mn oxides. Methodologies and results from these projects are reveiwed. In Montreal, atmospheric Mn levels are significantly higher at monitoring stations in areas of high traffic density. A large drop in Mn levels starting in 1991 was attributed to closure of a ferromanganese plant ca 25 km from Montreal. Field tests in experimental bean and oat plots also showed higher Mn levels in soil and plants in areas of high traffic. While pigeons from Montreal had higher Mn levels in tissues than rural pigeons, it is nevertheless impossible to link such levels directly to Mn originating from MMT. Mechanics were found to be exposed to higher atmospheric Mn concentrations than blue collar workers. Blood Mn levels in those workers were normal, but Mn concentrations in hair of mechanics were significantly higher than those found in a control group. 13 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Implementation and on-sky results of an optimal wavefront controller for the MMT NGS adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Keith B.; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya

    2010-07-01

    The MMT observatory has recently implemented and tested an optimal wavefront controller for the NGS adaptive optics system. Open loop atmospheric data collected at the telescope is used as the input to a MATLAB based analytical model. The model uses nonlinear constrained minimization to determine controller gains and optimize the system performance. The real-time controller performing the adaptive optics close loop operation is implemented on a dedicated high performance PC based quad core server. The controller algorithm is written in C and uses the GNU scientific library for linear algebra. Tests at the MMT confirmed the optimal controller significantly reduced the residual RMS wavefront compared with the previous controller. Significant reductions in image FWHM and increased peak intensities were obtained in J, H and K-bands. The optimal PID controller is now operating as the baseline wavefront controller for the MMT NGS-AO system.

  13. Treatment of cervical pregnancy with ultrasound-guided local methotrexate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, M; Honda, R; Erdenebaatar, C; Monsur, M; Honda, T; Sakaguchi, I; Okamura, Y; Ohba, T; Katabuchi, H

    2017-12-01

    Cervical pregnancy (CP) is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy. While methotrexate (MTX) is generally the first-line method of choice for clinically stable women, there is still no consensus on the most appropriate treatment for this abnormal pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a single local MTX injection under transvaginal ultrasound guidance for the initial treatment of CP and to assess post-treatment fertility. We reviewed retrospectively 15 patients with CP treated with local MTX injection under transvaginal ultrasound guidance. In all patients, the serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels were monitored and the gestational sac was evaluated using ultrasonography after treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed as necessary. We evaluated the patients' clinical characteristics and clinical course after treatment, the efficacy of the treatment and the post-treatment fertility in patients desiring subsequent pregnancy. The median estimated gestational age at the time of MTX injection was 6 + 2 (range, 5 + 2 to 11 + 0) weeks. All 15 patients were treated successfully, without the need for blood transfusion or surgical procedures; however, three patients required an additional local MTX injection due to a poor decline in serum hCG level following the initial injection, while one patient required uterine artery embolization due to persistent vaginal bleeding and an enlarging gestational sac with blood vessels visible on contrast-enhanced MRI. The mean time following initial MTX injection for hCG normalization was 43.8 (95% CI, 33.3-54.3) days and for resumption of menses was 68.4 (95% CI, 51.9-84.9) days. Seven of the 10 women desiring subsequent pregnancy following treatment had uneventful pregnancy, one became pregnant but miscarried spontaneously at 8 weeks of gestation, one was treated by laparoscopic surgery after diagnosis of a tubal pregnancy and one did not conceive. A single, ultrasound

  14. Influence of radiation on the thermal and mechanical properties of BISGMA / TEGDMA based nanocomposites using pre-irradiated MMT nanoparticles as filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Tamiris M.R.; Campos, Luiza M.P.; Santos, Mariana de J.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Boaro, Leticia C.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study was observed the influence of gamma radiation in thermal and mechanical properties of the experimental dental composites based on BISGMA/TEGDMA filled with pre-irradiated MMT nanoparticles (Cloisite® 20A). MMT nanoparticle was pre-irradiated at doses of 10, 15 and 70 kGy. As a control group MMT nanoparticle was added in the polymeric matrix without pre-irradiation. Four formulations of experimental nanocomposites were studied all with 50% wt of filler. The characterization of the experimental composites was performed by means of the following techniques: Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA), Elastic Modulus and Flexural Strength. It was observed that the group filled with pre-irradiated nanoparticles at dose of 70 kGy showed a delay in the decomposition temperature when compared to the control group. For elastic modulus the results showed a proportional increase related to the dose of radiation applied in the MMT nanoparticle. Regarding flexural strength, the groups filled with pre–irradiated nanoparticles and the control group presented similar results. (author)

  15. Influence of radiation on the thermal and mechanical properties of BISGMA / TEGDMA based nanocomposites using pre-irradiated MMT nanoparticles as filler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Tamiris M.R.; Campos, Luiza M.P.; Santos, Mariana de J.; Parra, Duclerc F., E-mail: tamiris.martins@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Boaro, Leticia C. [Universidade de Santo Amaro (UNISA), Santo Amaro, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Biomateriais

    2017-07-01

    In the present study was observed the influence of gamma radiation in thermal and mechanical properties of the experimental dental composites based on BISGMA/TEGDMA filled with pre-irradiated MMT nanoparticles (Cloisite® 20A). MMT nanoparticle was pre-irradiated at doses of 10, 15 and 70 kGy. As a control group MMT nanoparticle was added in the polymeric matrix without pre-irradiation. Four formulations of experimental nanocomposites were studied all with 50% wt of filler. The characterization of the experimental composites was performed by means of the following techniques: Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA), Elastic Modulus and Flexural Strength. It was observed that the group filled with pre-irradiated nanoparticles at dose of 70 kGy showed a delay in the decomposition temperature when compared to the control group. For elastic modulus the results showed a proportional increase related to the dose of radiation applied in the MMT nanoparticle. Regarding flexural strength, the groups filled with pre–irradiated nanoparticles and the control group presented similar results. (author)

  16. Evaluation of new injection and cavity preparation model in local anesthesia teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yekta, S.S.; Lampert, F.; Kazemi, S.; Kazemi, R.; Brand, H.S.; Baart, J.A.; Mazandarani, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a recently developed preclinical injection and cavity preparation model in local anesthesia. Thirty-three dental students administered an inferior alveolar nerve block injection in the model, followed by preparation on a tooth. The injection was evaluated by

  17. Local measurement of transport parameters for laser injected trace impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannella, R; Lauro-Taroni, L [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    A procedure has been developed that determines local measurements of transport parameters`s profiles for injected impurities. The measured profiles extend from the plasma centre up to a certain radial position (usually {rho} = 0.6-0.7). In the outer region of the plasma the procedure supplies ``most suitable extensions`` up to the plasma edge of the measured transport profiles. The procedure intrinsically assures consistency and excellent agreement between the simulated and experimental data of local broad band soft X-ray emissivity and intensities of individual emission lines from different ion states of the injected impurities. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Treatment of lateral epicondilitis using three different local injection modalities: a randomized prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Yunus; Kalaci, Aydiner; Savaş, Nazan; Duman, I Gokhan; Yanat, A Nedim

    2009-10-01

    To determine the effectiveness of three different local injection modalities in the treatment of lateral epicondilitis. In a prospective randomized study on lateral epicondilitis, 75 patients were divided into three equal groups A, B and C (n = 25) and were treated using three different method of local injection. The patients in group A were treated with local injection of a steroid (1 mL triamcinolone) combined with local anaesthetic (1 mL lidocaine), those in group B were treated with injection of local anaesthetic (1 mL lidocaine) combined with peppering technique and those in group C with local injection of a steroid (1 mL triamcinolone) combined with local anaesthetic (1 mL lidocaine) and peppering technique. The outcome was defined by measuring the elbow pain during the activity using a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) and satisfaction with the treatment using a scoring system based on the criteria of the Verhaar et al. at 3 weeks and 6 months after the injection and compared with the pre-treatment condition. There were significant (P = 0.006) differences in the successful outcomes between the three groups at 6 months. In group C in which local steroid + peppering injection technique were used; excellent results were obtained in 84% of patients comparing to 36% and 48% for patients in groups A and B, respectively. The successful outcomes were statistically higher in group C comparing to group A (P = 0.002) and group B (P = 0.011). In all groups, there was a significantly lower pain (VAS) at the 3-week and 6-month follow-ups comparing to the pre-treatment condition. VAS measured at 6-month follow-up were significantly lower in group C comparing to other groups (P = 0.002). In the treatment of lateral epicondilitis, combination of corticosteroid injections with peppering is more effective than corticosteroid injections or peppering injections alone and produces better clinical results.

  19. 1,2'-Bis(4-aminophenoxy)benzene based designed fluoro-poly(ether-imide)/MMT clay nanocomposites: Synthesis and properties for high performance applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vora, Rohitkumar H.; Vora, Mayur

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to develop structure-property understanding of fluoro-polymer/inorganic clay nanocomposite (i.e., Ceramer) technology, two series of fluoro-poly(ether amic acid) (6F-PEAA)/organosoluble Montmorillonite (MMT) clay nanocomposite formulations containing varying percentage of diamine modified (ion-exchanged) organosoluble-MMT clay were prepared from the partially fluorinated fluoro poly(ether-amic acid)s (6F-PEAA) synthesized by reacting on 2,2'-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA) and di-ether-containing diamines, such as 1,2'-bis(4-aminophenoxy) benzene (o-BAPOB) and 4,4'-bis(4-aminophenoxy) diphenyl sulfone (p-SED), respectively. Self supporting films were cast from these formulations and cured at elevated temperatures. XRD data, indirectly confirmed the exfoliation of organosoluble-MMT clay at molecular level in the nanocomposite. The solubility, chemical resistance, morphology, thermo-oxidative stability, thermal degradation kinetics, mechanical behavior, and moisture absorption of these [(6F-PEI)/MMT clay] nanocomposite films were systematically studied

  20. Intraosseous injection as an adjunct to conventional local anesthetic techniques: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Idris; Nasil Sakkir; Kishore Gopalakrishna Naik; Nandakishore Kunijal Jayaram

    2014-01-01

    Background: The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system) have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetic techniques have failed. Aim: A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alve...

  1. Functional copolymer/organo-MMT nanoarchitectures. VI. Synthesis and characterization of novel nanocomposites by interlamellar controlled/living radical copolymerization via preintercalated RAFT-agent/organoclay complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzayev, Zakir M O; Söylemez, A Ernur

    2011-04-01

    We have developed a new approach for the synthesis of polymer nanocomposites using a bifunctional reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agent, two types of organo-montmorillonites, such as a non-reactive dimethyldodecyl ammonium (DMDA)-MMT and a reactive octadecylamine (ODA)-MMT organoclays, and a radical initiator. The method includes the following stages: (1) synthesis of RAFT intercalated O-MMTs by a physical or chemical interaction of the RAFT agent having two pendant carboxylic groups [S,S-bis(alpha,alpha'-dimethyl-alpha"-acetic acid)trithiocarbonate] with surface alkyl amines of O-MMT containing tertiary ammonium cation or primary amine groups through strong H-bonding and complexing/amidization reactions, respectively, and (2) utilization of these well-dispersed and intercalated RAFT ... O-MMT complexes and their amide derivatives as new modified RAFT agents in radical-initiated interlamellar controlled/living copolymerization of itaconic acid (IA)-n-butylmethacrylate (BMA) monomer pair. The structure and compositions of the synthesized RAFT ... O-MMT complexes and functional copolymer/O-MMT hybrids were confirmed by FTIR, XRD, thermal (DSC-TGA), SEM and TEM morphology analyses. It was demonstrated that the degree of interaction/exfoliation, morphology and thermal behavior of nanocomposites significantly depended on the type of organoclay and in situ interaction, as well as on the content of flexible butyl-ester linkages as a internal plasticizer. The results of the comparative analysis of the nanocomposites structure-composition-property relations show that the functional copolymer-organoclay hybrids prepared with reactive RAFT ... ODA-MMT complex and containing a combination of partially intercalated and predominantly exfoliated nano-structures exhibit relatively higher thermal stability and fine dispersed morphology. These effects were explained by in situ interfacial chemical reactions through amidization of RAFT with surface alkyl amine

  2. Comparative Effects of MMT Clay Modified with Two Different Cationic Surfactants on the Thermal and Rheological Properties of Polypropylene Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshal Al-Samhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene montmorillonite (MMT nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending using two different organoclays modified with imidazolium and alkylammonium surfactants. The imidazolium and ammonium modified organoclays were characterized by the FTIR and SEM analysis. The effect of organic clay (MMT on the physical properties of polypropylene was evaluated, thermal and rheological properties with different filler weight percentage. Differential scanning calorimetric results showed that imidazolium modified clay (IMMT exhibits low melting temperature compared to the ammonium modified clay (AMMT. The crystallinity analysis showed that crystallization improved in all nanocomposites irrespective of surface modification; the thermogravimetric analysis showed that the imidazolium modified polymer composites are more thermally stable than conventional ammonium modified composites. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM analyses indicated that the PP-IMMT composites displayed exfoliated morphologies compared with the intercalated structure in PP-AMMT, and the rheological analysis at 180°C showed an enhancement in the viscoelastic properties as the clay concentration increases. The melt viscosity, crossover modulus, and relaxation times were comparable for both the surface modified composites with two different cations. The imidazolium based surfactant was found to be an effective organic modification for MMT to prepare thermally stable PP/MMT nanocomposites.

  3. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Craving, Depression & Anxiety among the Opiate Abusers Under MMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshte Momeni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy on craving, symptoms of depression and anxiety among the patients under MMT. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 opiate addicts under MMT were selected out of all the patients referring to Iranian National Center of Addiction Studies on a judgmental sampling method and were randomly allocated to two experimental and control groups. In experimental group, a total sum of 8 sessions (one session per week of cognitive behavioral group therapy were delivered. The main theme of these sessions were efficient management of craving, negative mood and anxiety. Data were gathered with different questionnaires including the questionnaire of demographic data, RPS for craving assessment, BDI-II for depression and BAI for anxiety. Different methods of statistical analysis were implemented. Results: The results indicated that post test and follow-up scores of craving index were decreased significantly (P<0.05. Depression and Anxiety scores showed significant decrease as well. Discussion: Considering the above mentioned findings, we concluded that cognitive-behavioral group therapy was effective in significantly decreasing craving and symptoms of anxiety and depression in opiate addicts under MMT.

  4. Intraosseous injection as an adjunct to conventional local anesthetic techniques: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Mohamed; Sakkir, Nasil; Naik, Kishore Gopalakrishna; Jayaram, Nandakishore Kunijal

    2014-09-01

    The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system) have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetic techniques have failed. A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alveolar nerve block has failed to provide pulpal anesthesia. Sixty adult patients selected were to undergo endodontic treatment for a mandibular molar tooth. Inferior alveolar nerve block was given using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Twenty-four patients (40%) had pain even after administration of IAN block; intraosseous injection was administered using 4% articaine containing 1:100,000 epinephrine, using the X-tip system. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analog scale ratings ≤ 54 mm) on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. Intraosseous injection technique was successful in 21 out of 24 patients (87.5%), except three patients who had pain even after supplemental X-tip injection. Within the limits of this study, we can conclude that supplemental intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  5. The effect of recycled Natural Rubber Glove (rRG) Plasticizers to Deflection and Flexural Strength Properties of PP/MMt/rRG Smart Composites and Its Inflammability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharty, N. S.; Ismail, H.; Diharjo, K.; Handayani, D. S.; Saputri, L. N. M. Z.; Ariesta, N.

    2018-03-01

    Had been synthesized PP/rRG/MMt+ZB smart material composite in solution reactive processes with various rRG concentration. The addition of rRG plasticizers will improve the deflection properties and increase the filler capacity MMt loading to reach the optimum concentration. The addition of 3% rRG is capable of loading filler capacity MMt to 23% as the optimum condition. At the optimum conditions it can increase the deflection (Defl) and flexural strength (FS) up to 16% and 15% respectively compared to that of the composites without rRG. The rRG plasticizer serves as a bio-compatibilizer that can reduce surface tension of the mixture and leads to decrease the Defl., follow by the increase of loading filler capacity and well interaction finally can increase the FS properties. The increase of loading filler MMt up to 23% can also improve the inflammability of the composites. Time to Ignition (TTI) increase by 5% and Burning Rate (BR) decrease by 4.5% compared to that of the composites which is containing MMt 20% without rRG.

  6. Intraosseous injection as an adjunct to conventional local anesthetic techniques: A clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Mohamed; Sakkir, Nasil; Naik, Kishore Gopalakrishna; Jayaram, Nandakishore Kunijal

    2014-01-01

    Background: The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system) have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetic techniques have failed. Aim: A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alveolar nerve block has failed to provide pulpal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult patients selected were to undergo endodontic treatment for a mandibular molar tooth. Inferior alveolar nerve block was given using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Twenty-four patients (40%) had pain even after administration of IAN block; intraosseous injection was administered using 4% articaine containing 1:100,000 epinephrine, using the X-tip system. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analog scale ratings ≤ 54 mm) on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. Results: Intraosseous injection technique was successful in 21 out of 24 patients (87.5%), except three patients who had pain even after supplemental X-tip injection. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we can conclude that supplemental intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:25298642

  7. The impact of HCV therapy in a high HIV-HCV prevalence population: A modeling study on people who inject drugs in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruthie B Birger

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV coinfection is a major global health problem especially among people who inject drugs (PWID, with significant clinical implications. Mathematical models have been used to great effect to shape HIV care, but few have been proposed for HIV/HCV.We constructed a deterministic compartmental ODE model that incorporated layers for HIV disease progression, HCV disease progression and PWID demography. Antiretroviral therapy (ART and Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT scale-ups were modeled as from 2016 and projected forward 10 years. HCV treatment roll-out was modeled beginning in 2026, after a variety of MMT scale-up scenarios, and projected forward 10 years.Our results indicate that scale-up of ART has a major impact on HIV though not on HCV burden. MMT scale-up has an impact on incidence of both infections. HCV treatment roll-out has a measurable impact on reductions of deaths, increasing multifold the mortality reductions afforded by just ART/MMT scale-ups.HCV treatment roll-out can have major and long-lasting effects on averting PWID deaths on top of those averted by ART/MMT scale-up. Efficient intervention scale-up of HCV alongside HIV interventions is critical in Vietnam.

  8. Injectable bulking agents for urinary incontinence after radical prostaectomy, mimicking local recurrence: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Je Hong; Ahn, Sung Eun; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Park, Seong Jin; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Sun Ju [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Periurethral bulking agent injection (or transurethral submucosal injection) is a comparatively less invasive procedure for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in patients who develop incontinence after radical prostatectomy, and who are more frequently being treated with transurethral submucosal injection. However, as the radiologic findings of bulking agents are not very well known, they can be mistaken for local recurrence in prostate cancer patients who have undergone prostatectomy. Unlike some of the literatures, in which the radiologic features of collagen injections have been reported, the radiologic findings of silicone injections are yet to be determined. Thus, it is our intention to report this case along with the literature review as the authors have experienced an actual case of a silicone injection mistaken as local recurrence.

  9. Fine-particle Mn and other metals linked to the introduction of MMT into gasoline in Sydney, Australia: Results of a natural experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D. D.; Gulson, B. L.; Davis, J. M.; Stelcer, E.; Garton, D.; Hawas, O.; Taylor, A.

    Using a combination of accelerator-based ion beam methods we have analysed PM 2.5 particulates for a suite of 21 species (H, C, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb) to evaluate the contribution to Sydney (New South Wales, Australia) air associated with the introduction of MMT as a replacement for lead. MMT was discontinued in 2004. Teflon filters representing continuous sampling for a 7 year period from 1998 to 2004 were analysed from two sites: one from Mascot, a suburb close to the Central Business District [CBD ( n=718)] and a high trafficked area, and the other, a relatively rural (background) setting at Richmond, ˜20 km west of the CBD ( n=730). Manganese concentrations in air at the background site increased from a mean of 1.5-1.6 ng m -3 to less than 2 ng m -3 at the time of greatest MMT use whereas those at Mascot increased from about 2 to 5 ng m -3. From the maximum values, the Mn showed a steady decrease at both sites concomitant with the decreasing use of MMT. Lead concentrations in air at both sites decreased from 1998 onwards, concomitant with the phase out of leaded gasoline, attained in 2002. Employing previously determined elemental signatures it was possible to adjust effects from season along with auto emissions and soil. A high correlation was obtained for the relationship between Mn in air and lead replacement gasoline use ( R2 0.83) and an improved correlation for Mn/ Al+Si+K and lead replacement gasoline use ( R2 0.93). In addition, using Mn concentrations normalized to background values of Al+Si+K or Ti to account for the lithogenically derived Mn, the proportion of anthropogenic Mn was approximately 70%. The changes for Mn and Pb detected in the particulates are attributed to the before-during-after use of MMT and decreasing use of lead in gasoline. The values measured in Sydney air are well below the reference concentration of 50 ng Mn m -3. The incremental increases in air, however, are larger than

  10. Comparative efficacy and safety of local and systemic methotrexate injection in cesarean scar pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ping Peng,1 Ting Gui,1 Xinyan Liu,1 Weilin Chen,1 Zhenzhen Liu2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Ultrasonography, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX injection in treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP. Method: A randomized controlled study was performed in 104 CSP patients receiving either local or systemic MTX injection at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from the year 2008 to 2013. Results: Complete cure was defined as regression of ultrasonographic findings and normalization of serum β-hCG within 60 days. It was regarded as delayed cure if additional dilation and curettage (D&C was needed. The overall cure rate (complete cure plus delayed cure was 69.2% versus 67.3% for local injection versus systemic administration (P>0.05. The median time for serum β-hCG remission and uterine mass disappearance after systemic administration (42 [21–69] days and 40 [20–67] days were significantly lower than those receiving local injection (56 [24–92] days and 53 [23–88] days, with P=0.029 and 0.046, respectively. The mean pretreatment serum β-hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin level and lesion size in cured group (21,941±18,351 mIU/mL and 2.9±1.3 cm, respectively were significantly lower than those in the failed group (37,047±30,864 mIU/mL and 3.6±1.3 with P=0.038 and 0.044, respectively. Conclusion: MTX injection is effective in CSP treatment. Systemic administration shows similar overall cure rate compared to local injection, but requires shorter time for serum β-hCG remission and uterine mass disappearance. Keywords: cesarean scar pregnancy, methotrexate injection, local, systemic

  11. Local Helicity Injection Systems for Non-solenoidal Startup in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. M.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Lewicki, B. T.; Redd, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    Local helicity injection is being developed in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment for non-solenoidal startup in spherical tokamaks. The effective loop voltage due to helicity injection scales with the area of the injectors, requiring the development of electron current injectors with areas much larger than the 2 cm2 plasma arc injectors used to date. Solid and gas-effused metallic electrodes were found to be unusable due to reduced injector area utilization from localized cathode spots and narrow operational regimes. An integrated array of 8 compact plasma arc sources is thus being developed for high current startup. It employs two monolithic power systems, for the plasma arc sources and the bias current extraction system. The array effectively eliminates impurity fueling from plasma-material interaction by incorporating a local scraper-limiter and conical-frustum bias electrodes to mitigate the effects of cathode spots. An energy balance model of helicity injection indicates that the resulting 20 cm2 of total injection area should provide sufficient current drive to reach 0.3 MA. At that level, helicity injection drive exceeds that from poloidal induction, which is the relevant operational regime for large-scale spherical tokamaks. Future placement of the injector array near an expanded boundary divertor region will test simultaneous optimization of helicity drive and the Taylor relaxation current limit. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  12. Local injection of high-molecular hyaluronan promotes wound healing in old rats by increasing angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Luying; Wang, Yi; Liu, Hua; Huang, Jianhua

    2018-02-02

    Impaired angiogenesis contributes to delayed wound healing in aging. Hyaluronan (HA) has a close relationship with angiogenesis and wound healing. However, HA content decreases with age. In this study, we used high molecular weight HA (HMW-HA) (1650 kDa), and investigated its effects on wound healing in old rats by local injection. We found that HMW-HA significantly increases proliferation, migration and tube formation in endothelial cells, and protects endothelial cells against apoptosis. Local injection of HMW-HA promotes wound healing by increasing angiogenesis in old rats. HMW-HA increases the phosphorylation of Src, ERK and AKT, leading to increased angiogenesis, suggesting that local injection of HMW-HA promotes wound healing in elderly patients.

  13. Cost analysis of injection laryngoplasty performed under local anaesthesia versus general anaesthesia: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, D; Woods, C M; Schar, M; Ma, N; Ooi, E H; Athanasiadis, T

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a cost analysis of injection laryngoplasty performed in the operating theatre under local anaesthesia and general anaesthesia. The retrospective study included patients who had undergone injection laryngoplasty as day cases between July 2013 and March 2016. Cost data were obtained, along with patient demographics, anaesthetic details, type of injectant, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, length of stay, total operating theatre time and surgeon procedure time. A total of 20 cases (general anaesthesia = 6, local anaesthesia = 14) were included in the cost analysis. The mean total cost under general anaesthesia (AU$2865.96 ± 756.29) was significantly higher than that under local anaesthesia (AU$1731.61 ± 290.29) (p costs. Procedures performed under local anaesthesia in the operating theatre are associated with shorter operating theatre time and length of stay in the hospital, and provide significant cost savings. Further savings could be achieved if local anaesthesia procedures were performed in the office setting.

  14. Non-local electrical spin injection and detection in germanium at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rortais, F.; Vergnaud, C.; Marty, A.; Vila, L.; Attané, J.-P.; Widiez, J.; Zucchetti, C.; Bottegoni, F.; Jaffrès, H.; George, J.-M.; Jamet, M.

    2017-10-01

    Non-local carrier injection/detection schemes lie at the very foundation of information manipulation in integrated systems. This paradigm consists in controlling with an external signal the channel where charge carriers flow between a "source" and a well separated "drain." The next generation electronics may operate on the spin of carriers in addition to their charge and germanium appears as the best hosting material to develop such a platform for its compatibility with mainstream silicon technology and the predicted long electron spin lifetime at room temperature. In this letter, we demonstrate injection of pure spin currents (i.e., with no associated transport of electric charges) in germanium, combined with non-local spin detection at 10 K and room temperature. For this purpose, we used a lateral spin valve with epitaxially grown magnetic tunnel junctions as spin injector and spin detector. The non-local magnetoresistance signal is clearly visible and reaches ≈15 mΩ at room temperature. The electron spin lifetime and diffusion length are 500 ps and 1 μm, respectively, the spin injection efficiency being as high as 27%. This result paves the way for the realization of full germanium spintronic devices at room temperature.

  15. Impact of local anaesthetics and needle calibres used for painless PRP injections on platelet functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausset, Olivier; Magalon, Jeremy; Giraudo, Laurent; Louis, Marie-Laure; Serratrice, Nicolas; Frere, Corrine; Magalon, Guy; Dignat-George, Françoise; Sabatier, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous biotherapy commonly used for its healing properties. Once activated, platelets released a real "cocktail" of growth factor and cytokines implied in numerous regenerative processes. However the impact of medical practices associated to PRP therapeutic use on platelets functionality remains poorly known. we evaluated the in vitro effects of two commonly used local anesthetics (Xylocaine(*) and Naropin(*)) on PRP functionality. We also investigated the quantity and quality of PRP that passed through the smallest gauge needle commercialized. PRP from 9 healthy volunteers were prepared using our previously described home made purification protocol. Platelet aggregation capacity was evaluated by aggregometry assays and the growth factor release was determined by ELISA after platelet activation. We also evaluated the platelet activation status, reactivity and stability of platelets by flow cytometry using the P-selectin expression marker. the association of local anaesthetics with PRP injections resulted in a significant decrease of platelets functionality, assessed by their capacity of aggregating. Local anaesthetics did not interfere with the growth factor release. The different needle sizes and calibres tested for PRP injections did not influence the platelet functionality. the use of local anaesthetics to prevent pain during PRP injections could compromise the therapeutic potential of PRP. These results suggest using carefully local anaesthetics or limiting their use as often is possible. To minimize injection pain, we recommend using 30 G needles. These data will lead to clinical recommendations for painless and controlled PRP injections.

  16. Local corticosteroid injection versus Cyriax-type physiotherapy for tennis elbow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); G.H.I.M. Walenkamp; H. van Mameren; A.D.M. Kester; A.J. van der Linden

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe performed a prospective, randomised trial on 106 patients to compare the effects of local corticosteroid injections with physiotherapy as advocated by Cyriax in the treatment of tennis elbow. The main outcome measures were the severity of pain, pain provoked by resisted dorsiflexion

  17. Preparation and photo-catalytic activities of FeOOH/ZnO/MMT composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yao, E-mail: zy19830808@163.com [College of Environment and Safety Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Liu, Fusheng; Yu, Shitao [College of Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The montmorillonite was used as the carrier for the synthesis of FeOOH nano-material and FeOOH/ZnO nano-material. • TEM was used to study the structure of the two nano-materials with the composite structure of goethite and wurtzite. • TEM was used to demonstrate FeOOH/ZnO nano-material can formed with the appropriate interface: wurtzite-(1 0 1)/(1 1 1)-goethite. • There were some coupling effect between FeOOH and ZnO, which can improve the photo-catalytic activities of FeOOH. • According to FTIR and TOC, PCP was degraded to aromatic ketone compounds and then to H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, HCl. - Abstract: Montmorillonite (MMT) was used as the carrier for synthesis of FeOOH and FeOOH/ZnO nano-material. FeOOH and FeOOH/ZnO were synthesized by the aqueous solutions of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}–HNO{sub 3} and Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}–NaOH/Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}–HNO{sub 3} with the carrier of montmorillonite respectively. Transmission electron-microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study the morphology form and structure of the nano-materials. TEM was also used to demonstrate that FeOOH/ZnO can be formed with the appropriate interface. According to UV–vis absorption spectra, FeOOH/ZnO has a better response to visible light than FeOOH and ZnO, which indicates there is some coupling effect between FeOOH and ZnO. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was used as a representative organic pollutant to evaluate the photo-catalytic efficiency of the FeOOH/ZnO and FeOOH catalysts in visible light (λ > 400 nm). The photo-catalytic efficiency of FeOOH/ZnO/MMT is better than FeOOH/MMT. According to FTIR, changes of pH and TOC, the degradation mechanism was also discussed. PCP was degraded to aromatic ketone and chloro-hydrocarbon compounds and then to H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and HCl.

  18. Symptomatic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis After a Single Local Epidural Steroid Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tok, Chung Hong; Kaur, Shaleen; Gangi, Afshin

    2011-01-01

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder that can manifest with progressive neurological deficits. It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated epidural fat commonly associated with the administration of exogenous steroids associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies, and Cushing syndrome (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202–211, 2005). Occasionally, spinal epidural lipomatosis may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or in patients with endocrinopathies, primarily in obese individuals (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202–211, 2005). However, spinal lumbar epidural lipomatosis resulting from local steroid injection has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 45-year-old diabetic man with claudication that was probably due to symptomatic lumbar spinal lipomatosis resulting from a single local epidural steroid injection.

  19. Local Injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide: A Forgotten Aetiology of Cushing’s Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhumthammarat, Weera; Putthapiban, Prapaipan; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn

    2017-01-01

    Many different non systemic corticosteroid administrations can cause iatrogenic Cushing’s Syndrome (CS). We herein report a case series of iatrogenic CS from keloid scars treatment and aesthetic regimen called mesotherapy. Our first patient developed CS after having exceeded recommended dose of intralesional injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide (TAC). Second case presented with CS followed by unidentified mesotherapy treatment for local fat reduction. Subcutaneous injections of dexamethasone ...

  20. Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), plant uptake and effects on metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A.R.; Lytle, C.M.; Stone, R.L.; Smith, B.N [Department of Botany and Range Science, Brigham Young University, Provo (United States); Hansen, L.D. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo (United States)

    2000-04-01

    In the USA and Canada, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese (MMT) is currently added to gasoline to replace tetraethyl lead as an antiknock fuel additive. Manganese concentrations in roadside soil and plants are increasing and correlated with distance from the roadway, traffic volume, plant type, and microhabitat. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings were treated for either five or thirty-five days with different levels of manganous chloride (0-1000ppm). Metabolic heat rates (q) and respiration rates (R{sub CO{sub 2}}), measured calorimetrically, indicated severe stress at Mn concentrations between 10 and 100ppm and at temperatures above 20C. Predicted growth rates (R{sub SG}) also decreased in these circumstances.

  1. HISTORY AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE US EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT (MMT) PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript presents the history and evolution of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Monitoring and Measurement Technology (MMT) Program. This includes a discussion of how the fundamental concepts of a performanc...

  2. Transmicrocatheter local injection of ethanol to treat hepatocellular carcinoma with high flow arteriovenous shunts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Shouhai; Shan Hong; Jiang Zaibo; Huang Mingsheng; Zhu Kangshun; Li Zhengran; Meng Xiaochun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical effect of embolization therapy in treating the high flow hepatic arteriovenous shunts in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by locally injected ethanol through microcatheter. Methods: Forty-one branches of arteriovenous shunts were treated by local ethanol infusion through microcatheter in 29 patients suffered with HCC. Angiography was performed to observe the embolization effect and influence to non-targeted vessels. Result: Forty-one branches of arteriovenous shunts in 29 patients were injected with ethanol locally. Each single shunt was infused 1-6 times. The dose of ethanol was 2-3 ml per time, and the total dose of ethanol was 2-12 ml. All shunting tracts were embolized, and all non-target vessels were protected fluently. Iodine-oil deposition was well in continued TACE. Their syndromes were improved or disappeared. Conclusion: Transmicrocatheter injection of ethanol could safely and effectively treat the hepatic arteriovenous shunts and make advantages to TACE in HCC

  3. Randomised controlled trial of local corticosteroid injections for de Quervain's tenosynovitis in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenier Klaas H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background De Quervain's tenosynovitis is a stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and leads to wrist pain and to impaired function of the wrist and hand. It can be treated by splinting, local corticosteroid injection and operation. In this study effectiveness of local corticosteroid injections for de Quervain's tenosynovitis provided by general practitioners was assessed. Methods Participants with de Quervain's tenosynovitis were recruited by general practitioners. Short-term outcomes (one week after injections were assessed in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Long-term effectiveness was evaluated in an open prospective cohort-study of steroid responders during a follow-up period of 12 months. Participants were randomised to one or two local injections of 1 ml of triamcinolonacetonide (TCA or 1 ml of NaCl 0.9% (placebo. Non-responders to NaCl were treated with additional TCA injections. Main outcomes were immediate treatment response, severity of pain, improvement as perceived by participant and functional disability using sub items hand and finger function of the Dutch Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (Dutch AIMS-2-HFF. Results 11 general practitioners included 21 wrists in 21 patients. The TCA-group had better results for short-term outcomes treatment response (78% vs. 25%; p = 0.015, perceived improvement (78% vs. 33%; p = 0.047 and severity of pain (4.27 vs. 1.33; p = 0.031 but not for the Dutch-AIMS-HFF (2.71 vs. 1.92; p = 0.112. Absolute risk reduction for the main outcome short-term treatment response was 0.55 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.76 with a number needed to treat of 2 (95% CI: 1, 3. In the cohort of steroid responders (n = 12 the beneficial effects of steroid injections were sustained during the follow-up of 12 months regarding severity of pain (p = 0.67 and scores of Dutch AIMS-2-HFF (p = 0.36, but not for patient perceived improvement (p = 0.02. No adverse events were observed during the 12

  4. Application of Local Injection of Botulinum Toxin A in Cosmetic Patients with Congenital Drooping Mouth Corner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Zhang, Yan-Kun; Lv, Wei; Hou, Ying; Cao, Qian; Fan, Ju-Feng

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical application and efficacy of local injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) at the depressor anguli oris in patients with congenital drooping mouth corner. From September 2013 to March 2015, 36 cosmetic patients received local injections of botulinum toxin A at the depressor anguli oris, with 1-3 injection sites in the moving region of the depressor anguli oris on each side. At each injection site, 2-4 U of BTX-A was injected, and the total dose for any unilateral treatment did not exceed 8 U. The change in the degree of drooping of the mouth corner before and after the injection was analyzed using statistical methods. The clinical efficacy, preservation time, and adverse reactions were observed. The degree of drooping of the mouth corners of the cosmetic patients before the treatment was compared with that at 1 month after using a paired t test, and the difference was statistically significant, with P injection. The local injection of BTX-A at the depressor anguli oris can effectively lift a drooping mouth corner, thereby improving the depressed, stern, and aged appearance of the face. The performance of this treatment is simple, safe, and easy to perform in clinical applications. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  5. Local myogenic pulp-derived cell injection enhances craniofacial muscle regeneration in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J E; Song, M J; Shin, S; Choi, Y J; Kim, K H; Chung, C J

    2017-02-01

    To enhance myogenic differentiation in pulp cells isolated from extracted premolars by epigenetic modification using a DNA demethylation agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), and to evaluate the potent stimulatory effect of 5-Aza-treated pulp cell injection for craniofacial muscle regeneration in vivo. Pulp cells were isolated from premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes from four adults (age range, 18-22.1 years). Levels of myogenic differentiation and functional contraction response in vitro were compared between pulp cells with or without pre-treatment of 5-Aza. Changes in muscle regeneration in response to green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled myogenic pulp cell injection in vivo were evaluated using a cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced muscle injury model of the gastrocnemius as well as the masseter muscle in mice. Pre-treatment of 5-Aza in pulp cells stimulated myotube formation, myogenic differentiation in terms of desmin and myogenin expression, and the level of collagen gel contraction. The local injection of 5-Aza pre-treated myogenic pulp cells was engrafted into the host tissue and indicated signs of enhanced muscle regeneration in both the gastrocnemius and the masseter muscles. The epigenetic modification of pulp cells from extracted premolars and the local injection of myogenic pulp cells may stimulate craniofacial muscles regeneration in vivo. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Methadone Maintenance Therapy in Vietnam: An Overview and Scaling-Up Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam T. M. Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is among the countries with the highest rate of HIV transmission through injecting drug users. HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 20% and up to 50% in many provinces. An estimated number of drug users in the country by the end of 2011 were 171,000 in which the most common is heroin (85%. Detoxification at home, community, and in rehabilitation centers have been the main modalities for managing heroin addiction until Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT was piloted in 2008. Recent reports have demonstrated positive treatment outcomes. Incidence of HIV was found remarkably low among patients on MMT. Treatment has significantly improved the quality of life as well as stability for society. The government has granted the Ministry of Health (MoH to expand Methadone treatment to at least 30 provinces to provide treatment for more than 80,000 drug users by 2015. The Vietnam Administration for HIV/AIDS Control (VAAC and MOH have outlined the role and responsibility of key departments at the central and local levels in implementing and maintaining MMT treatment. This paper will describe the achievements of the MMT pilot program and the scaling-up plan as well as strategies to ensure quality and sustainability and to overcome the challenges in the coming years.

  7. Effectiveness of new vibration delivery system on pain associated with injection of local anesthesia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpapriya, Mangalampally; Jayanthi, Mungara; Reddy, Venumbaka Nilaya; Sakthivel, Rajendran; Selvaraju, Girija; Vijayakumar, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Pain is highly subjective and it is neurologically proven that stimulation of larger diameter fibers - e.g., using appropriate coldness, warmth, rubbing, pressure or vibration - can close the neural "gate" so that the central perception of itch and pain is reduced. This fact is based upon "gate control" theory of Melzack and Wall. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of vibration stimuli on pain experienced during local anesthetic injections. Thirty patients aged 6-12 years old of both the genders with Frankel's behavior rating scale as positive and definitely positive requiring bilateral local anesthesia injections for dental treatment were included in the split-mouth cross over design. Universal pain assessment tool was used to assess the pain with and without vibration during the administration of local anesthesia and the results obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Local anesthetic administration with vibration resulted in significantly less pain (P = 0.001) compared to the injections without the use of vibe. The results suggest that vibration can be used as an effective method to decrease pain during dental local anesthetic administration.

  8. Three cases of unresectable locally advanced breast cancer treated with local injection of the new radiosensitization (KORTUC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimbo, Taijyu; Yosikawa, Nobuhiko; Yoshioka, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Yoshida, Ken; Uesugi, Yasuo; Narumi, Yoshifumi; Inomata, Taisuke

    2013-01-01

    New radiosensitization therapy named Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectabe carcinomas (KORTUC) using a new agent containing 0.5% hydrogen peroxide and 0.83% sodium hyaluronate is the world first treatment developed in Japan. The agent was injected into tumor two times per week under ultrasonographic guidance. Unresectable locally advanced breast cancer is radiation resistance. The local control is difficult in a conventional radiation therapy. In 3 cases, KORTUC was enforced safety, and remarkable effects was admitted. (author)

  9. Tissue localization and fate in mice of injected multipotential colony-stimulating factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, D.; Nicola, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    The hemopoietic regulator multipotential colony-stimulating factor [Multi-CSF (interleukin 3)] has proliferative effects on a wide range of hemopoietic cells in vitro and in vivo. Native or recombination Multi-CSF injected intravenoulsy into adult mice had an initial half-life of 3-5 min and a second phase of 50 min. Clear labeling of hemopoietic cells was observed in the bone marrow and spleen of mice injected intravenously with recombinant 125 I-labeled Multi-CSF showing that injected Multi-CSF can obtain access to such cells in situ. A high proportion of injected 125 I-labeled Multi-CSF of both types became localized in the liver and in the kidney (in cells of the Bowman's capsule and proximal renal tubules). The kidney appeared to be an active site of degradation of Multi-CSF with the early appearance of low molecular weight labeled material in the urine

  10. Severe Bradycardia Possibly due to a Local Anesthetic Oral Mucosal Injection during General Anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Kenichi; Ohashi, Ayako; Kumagai, Miho; Hoshi, Hideki; Otaka, Kousei; Joh, Shigeharu

    2015-01-01

    Local anesthesia may induce systemic complications leading to parasympathetic activity leading to bradycardia and hypotension. We report a case of a 50-year-old man undergoing dental surgery under general anesthesia who experienced severe bradycardia and hypotension after local anesthesia infiltration. Concerns regarding the utilization of a relatively large lumen injection needle for local anesthesia during general anesthesia are discussed.

  11. Randomised controlled trial of local corticosteroid injections for de Quervain's tenosynovitis in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Veluthamaningal, Cyriac; Winters, Jan C.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Meyboom-deJong, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Background: De Quervain's tenosynovitis is a stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and leads to wrist pain and to impaired function of the wrist and hand. It can be treated by splinting, local corticosteroid injection and operation. In this study effectiveness of local

  12. Effectiveness of new vibration delivery system on pain associated with injection of local anesthesia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangalampally Shilpapriya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Pain is highly subjective and it is neurologically proven that stimulation of larger diameter fibers - e.g., using appropriate coldness, warmth, rubbing, pressure or vibration - can close the neural "gate" so that the central perception of itch and pain is reduced. This fact is based upon "gate control" theory of Melzack and Wall. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of vibration stimuli on pain experienced during local anesthetic injections. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients aged 6-12 years old of both the genders with Frankel′s behavior rating scale as positive and definitely positive requiring bilateral local anesthesia injections for dental treatment were included in the split-mouth cross over design. Universal pain assessment tool was used to assess the pain with and without vibration during the administration of local anesthesia and the results obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: Local anesthetic administration with vibration resulted in significantly less pain (P = 0.001 compared to the injections without the use of vibe. Conclusion: The results suggest that vibration can be used as an effective method to decrease pain during dental local anesthetic administration.

  13. Antibody against progesterone in local rabbit following low dose of progesterone injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyadi Suyadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Antibody against progesgerone was produced from serum of local rabbit following low dose of progesterone injection: While a control group (Control; n=5 was injected with Freund's adjuvant solution in aquadest, the treatment groups were either firstly injected with progesterone conjugated to Freund's Adjuvant (P--CFA, 150 p.l : 150 pl or progesterone conjugated to Freund's Adjuvant and bovine serum albumin (P-CFA-BSA; 135 p;l : 150 tt1 : 15 gl. Twice boostering injections were adminstered using incomplete Freund's Adjuvant on day 14 and 52 after first immunization. Weekly bleeding for serum collection were done from 1 week following first booster immunization to week 10, Using ELISA technique it was shown that the antibody titer to progesterone after first and second booster immunization in the P-CFA groug was higher than Control- and P-CFA-BSA groups. The antibody titer in the P-CFA-BSA remained low similar in the Control group: Key words: antibody; progesterone; rabbit

  14. Autologous blood versus corticosteroid local injection for treatment of Lateral Epicondylosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Singh,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present single blinded prospective randomized control trial was assessment of efficacy of autologous blood injection versus local steroid injection in treatment of lateral epicondylosis of elbow. Methodology: Using a pre-post experimental design, a total of sixty patients of previously untreated lateral epicondylosis were selected; Group 1 (n=30 was administered single injection of autologous blood and Group 2 (n=30 single local corticosteroid injection. Assessment was done at baseline, 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 12 weeks using PRTEE (Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation score. Results: Pre injection parameters showed no difference between groups (chi square test, p > 0.005. Analysis between groups showed significant decrease in steroid group at very short term - 2 weeks (unpaired t test, p < 0.005.There was no difference between groups at 6 weeks. There was a significant improvement in blood group at medium term -12 weeks (unpaired t test, p < 0.05. Conclusion: Both the interventions were effective in reducing pain and improving functional status of patients in short term, but autologous blood was more effective in longer run.

  15. Study of local currents in low dimension materials using complex injecting potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shenglai; Covington, Cody; Varga, Kálmán

    2018-04-01

    A complex potential is constructed to inject electrons into the conduction band, mimicking electron currents in nanoscale systems. The injected electrons are time propagated until a steady state is reached. The local current density can then be calculated to show the path of the conducting electrons on an atomistic level. The method allows for the calculation of the current density vectors within the medium as a function of energy of the conducting electron. Using this method, we investigate the electron pathway of graphene nanoribbons in various structures, molecular junctions, and black phosphorus nanoribbons. By analyzing the current flow through the structures, we find strong dependence on the structural geometry and the energy of the injected electrons. This method may be of general use in the study of nano-electronic materials and interfaces.

  16. Effect of the Local Heat on the Pain of Vitamin K Injection in the Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Zahed Pasha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe absence of pain relief in infants can lead to harmful effects; so, this study aimed to investigate the effect of local heat on the pain of vitamin K injection in the infants.Materials and MethodsThis randomized clinical trial was conducted on 80 healthy infants. For the control group, 1 mg vitamin K was injected into the vastus lateralis muscle by a nurse. In the 3 intervention groups, respectively 5, 10 and 15 minutes before the injection, hot-water bag at 37 °C was placed on the quadriceps muscle and then injection was done with the same condition as in the control group. Immediately after the injection, the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS was completed. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21.0 software.Results41(51.25% girls and 39 (48.75% boys were participated. First-minute Apgar of all samples were 8.64±0.557. Birth weight was 3335.37±339.51 grams and the minimum gestational age 36.37±1.01 weeks. The mean pain score in the first minute in the control group was 3.6± 2.136, which was 3.3± 1.976 in the 5-minute warm-up group, and this amount was reached to 1.6± 1.569 in 10-minute warm up group, and 0.6± 0.821 in 15 minute warm-up group (P=0.008. The mean pain scores in the control group for the second minute was 1.0±1.835, which was reduced to 0.25± 0.716 in the 10-minute and 15-minute warm-up group (P=0.023.ConclusionLocal heating before the injection procedure can be effective in reducing pain in infants and the pain will reduce by increasing the local heating time (15 minutes.

  17. Thrust Vectoring of a Continuous Rotating Detonation Engine by Changing the Local Injection Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shi-Jie; Lin Zhi-Yong; Sun Ming-Bo; Liu Wei-Dong

    2011-01-01

    The thrust vectoring ability of a continuous rotating detonation engine is numerically investigated, which is realized via increasing local injection stagnation pressure of half of the simulation domain compared to the other half. Under the homogeneous injection condition, both the flow-field structure and the detonation wave propagation process are analyzed. Due to the same injection condition along the inlet boundary, the outlines of fresh gas zones at different moments are similar to each other. The main flow-field features under thrust vectoring cases are similar to that under the baseline condition. However, due to the heterogeneous injection system, both the height of the fresh gas zone and the pressure value of the fresh gas in the high injection pressure zone are larger than that in the low injection pressure zone. Thus the average pressure in half of the engine is larger than that in the other half and the thrust vectoring adjustment is realized. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  18. Drug-related stigma and access to care among people who inject drugs in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chiao-Wen; Lin, Chunqing; Thanh, Duong Cong; Li, Li

    2018-03-01

    There are considerable challenges faced by people with a history of injecting drug use (PWID) in Vietnam, including drug-related stigma and lack of access to healthcare. Seeking and utilising healthcare, as well as harm reduction programs for PWID, are often hampered by drug-related stigma. This study aimed to examine the impacts of drug-related stigma on access to care and utilisation of harm reduction programs among PWID in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two provinces in Vietnam, Phú Thọ and Vinh Phúc. The study participants completed the survey by using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview between late 2014 and early 2015. Linear multiple regression models and logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship among drug-related stigma, access to care and utilisation of harm reduction programs, including methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and needle exchange programs (NEP). A total of 900 PWID participated in this study. Drug-related stigma was significantly associated with lower level of access to care, but not with utilisation of MMT or NEP. Older age was positively associated with higher levels of access to care. Levels of education were positively correlated with access to care, as well as utilisation of MMT and NEP. This study underscores the need for future interventions to reduce drug-related stigma in society and in health-care settings to improve PWID's utilisation of care services. Special attention should be paid to younger PWID and those with lower levels of education. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. Effects of single injection of local anesthetic agents on intervertebral disc degeneration: ex vivo and long-term in vivo experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Iwasaki

    Full Text Available Analgesic discography (discoblock can be used to diagnose or treat discogenic low back pain by injecting a small amount of local anesthetics. However, recent in vitro studies have revealed cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on intervertebral disc (IVD cells. Here we aimed to investigate the deteriorative effects of lidocaine and bupivacaine on rabbit IVDs using an organotypic culture model and an in vivo long-term follow-up model.For the organotypic culture model, rabbit IVDs were harvested and cultured for 3 or 7 days after intradiscal injection of local anesthetics (1% lidocaine or 0.5% bupivacaine. Nucleus pulposus (NP cell death was measured using confocal microscopy. Histological and TUNEL assays were performed. For in vivo study, each local anesthetic was injected into rabbit lumbar IVDs under a fluoroscope. Six or 12 months after the injection, each IVD was prepared for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological analysis.In the organotypic culture model, both anesthetic agents induced time-dependent NP cell death; when compared with injected saline solution, significant effects were detected within 7 days. Compared with the saline group, TUNEL-positive NP cells were significantly increased in the bupivacaine group. In the in vivo study, MRI analysis did not show any significant difference. Histological analysis revealed that IVD degeneration occurred to a significantly level in the saline- and local anesthetics-injected groups compared with the untreated control or puncture-only groups. However, there was no significant difference between the saline and anesthetic agents groups.In the in vivo model using healthy IVDs, there was no strong evidence to suggest that discoblock with local anesthetics has the potential of inducing IVD degeneration other than the initial mechanical damage of the pressurized injection. Further studies should be performed to investigate the deteriorative effects of the local injection of analgesic agents

  20. Development of a local anesthetic lidocaine-loaded redox-active injectable gel for postoperative pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Yukio; Mizukoshi, Yutaro; Gao, Zhenyu; Feliciano, Chitho P; Chang, Kyungho; Sekiyama, Hiroshi; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-15

    Although local anesthesia is commonly applied for pain relief, there are several issues such as its short duration of action and low effectiveness at the areas of inflammation due to the acidic pH. The presence of excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to induce inflammation and aggravate pain. To resolve these issues, we developed a redox-active injectable gel (RIG) with ROS-scavenging activity. RIG was prepared by mixing polyamine-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polyamine with nitroxide radical moieties as side chains on the polyamine segments (PMNT-b-PEG-b-PMNT) with a polyanion, which formed a flower-type micelle via electrostatic complexation. Lidocaine could be stably incorporated in its core. When the temperature of the solution was increased to 37°C, the PIC-type flower micelle transformed to gel. The continuous release of lidocaine from the gel was observed for more than three days, without remarkable initial burst, which is probably owing to the stable entrapment of lidocaine in the PIC core of the gel. We evaluated the analgesic effect of RIG in carrageenan-induced arthritis mouse model. Results showed that lidocaine-loaded RIG has stronger and longer analgesic effect when administered in inflamed areas. In contrast, while the use of non-complexed lidocaine did not show analgesic effect one day after its administration. Note that no effect was observed when PIC-type flower micelle without ROS-scavenging ability was used. These findings suggest that local anesthetic-loaded RIG can effectively reduce the number of injection times and limit the side effects associated with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs for postoperative pain management. 1. We have been working on nanomaterials, which effectively eliminate ROS, avoiding dysfunction of mitochondria in healthy cells. 2. We designed redox injectable gel using polyion complexed flower type micelle, which can eliminates ROS locally. 3. We could prepare local anesthesia-loaded redox injectable

  1. Selective Synthesis, Characterization and Kinetics Studies of poly(α-Methyl styrene induced by Maghnite-Na+ Clay (Algerian MMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulkheir Ayat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new and efficient catalyst of Na-Montmorillonite (Na+-MMT was employed in this paper for α-methylstyrene (AMS cationic polymerization. Maghnite clay, obtained from Tlemcen Algeria, was investigated to remove heavy metal ion from wastewater. “Maghnite-Na” is a Montmorillonite sheet silicate clay, exchanged with sodium as an efficient catalyst for cationic polymerization of many vinylic and heterocyclic monomers. The various techniques, including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, DSC and Ubbelohde viscometer, were used to elucidate structural characteristics and thermal properties of the resulting polymers. The structure compositions of “MMT”, “H+-MMT” and “Na+-MMT” have been developed. It was found that the cationic polymerization of AMS is initiated by Na+-MMT at 0 °C in bulk and in solution. The influences of reaction temperature, solvent, weight ratio of initiator/monomer and reaction time on the yield of monomer and the molecular weight are investigated. The kinetics indicated that the polymerization rate is first order with respect to the monomer concentration. A possible mechanism of this cationic polymerization is discussed based on the results of the 1H-NMR Spectroscopic analysis of these model reactions. A cationic mechanism for the reaction was proposed. From the mechanism studies, it was showed that monomer was inserted into the growing chains. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved. Received: 6th September 2016; Revised: 27th April 2016; Accepted: 7th June 2016 How to Cite: Ayat, M., Belbachir, M., Rahmouni, A. (2016. Selective Synthesis, Characterization and Kinetics Studies of poly(α-Methyl styrene induced by Maghnite-Na+ Clay (Algerian MMT. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 376-388 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.3.578.376-388 Permalink/DOI: http://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.3.578.376-388

  2. Effect of liposomes on rheological and syringeability properties of hyaluronic acid hydrogels intended for local injection of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kechai, Naila; Bochot, Amélie; Huang, Nicolas; Nguyen, Yann; Ferrary, Evelyne; Agnely, Florence

    2015-06-20

    The aim of this work was to thoroughly study the effect of liposomes on the rheological and the syringeability properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels intended for the local administration of drugs by injection. Whatever the characteristics of the liposomes added (neutral, positively or negatively charged, with a corona of polyethylene glycol chains, size), the viscosity and the elasticity of HA gels increased in a lipid concentration-dependent manner. Indeed, liposomes strengthened the network formed by HA chains due to their interactions with this polymer. The nature and the resulting effects of these interactions depended on liposome composition and concentration. The highest viscosity and elasticity were observed with liposomes covered by polyethylene glycol chains while neutral liposomes displayed the lowest effect. Despite their high viscosity at rest, all the formulations remained easily injectable through needles commonly used for local injections thanks to the shear-thinning behavior of HA gels. The present study demonstrates that rheological and syringeability tests are both necessary to elucidate the behavior of such systems during and post injection. In conclusion, HA liposomal gels appear to be a promising and versatile formulation platform for a wide range of applications in local drug delivery when an injection is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Survey of relationship between spiritual health and mental health in patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abolhassan naghibi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and goal: Religiosity and spirituality decreasesof the impact of life stress on the tendency to substance use. Everyday addedto the number of people who believe that spirituality is the way to treat neuroses and mental problems. This study aimed to determine the relationship between spiritual health and mental health in patients undergoing to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT dependent on the private and government sector in Sari. Method: This study was cross- sectional study. The target populations of this study were 123 women and men undergoing to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT. The data collected by spiritual and mental health questionnaire and were analyzed using two-sample t-test and spearman correlationin theSPSS (18 software. Findings: The grade average of spiritual health was 43/29 and mental health was 41/26.The results showed that a significant correlation between spiritual health with mental health. The highest correlation was between spiritual healthwith the social function and the lowestcorrelation was with physical problems. There was no significant relationshipbetween of marital status, number of children, sex and spiritual health. Conclusion: According to positive and significant role spiritual health in mental health, so, strengthen the spiritual dimension can to promote mental health and reduce mental disorders and the tendency to addiction.

  4. MMT hypervelocity star survey. III. The complete survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We describe our completed spectroscopic survey for unbound hypervelocity stars (HVSs) ejected from the Milky Way. Three new discoveries bring the total number of unbound late B-type stars to 21. We place new constraints on the nature of the stars and on their distances using moderate resolution MMT spectroscopy. Half of the stars are fast rotators; they are certain 2.5-4 M {sub ☉} main sequence stars at 50-120 kpc distances. Correcting for stellar lifetime, our survey implies that unbound 2.5-4 M {sub ☉} stars are ejected from the Milky Way at a rate of 1.5 × 10{sup –6} yr{sup –1}. These unbound HVSs are likely ejected continuously over the past 200 Myr and do not share a common flight time. The anisotropic spatial distribution of HVSs on the sky remains puzzling. Southern hemisphere surveys like SkyMapper will soon allow us to map the all-sky distribution of HVSs. Future proper motion measurements with Hubble Space Telescope and Gaia will provide strong constraints on origin. Existing observations are all consistent with HVS ejections from encounters with the massive black hole in the Galactic center.

  5. MMT hypervelocity star survey. III. The complete survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe our completed spectroscopic survey for unbound hypervelocity stars (HVSs) ejected from the Milky Way. Three new discoveries bring the total number of unbound late B-type stars to 21. We place new constraints on the nature of the stars and on their distances using moderate resolution MMT spectroscopy. Half of the stars are fast rotators; they are certain 2.5-4 M ☉ main sequence stars at 50-120 kpc distances. Correcting for stellar lifetime, our survey implies that unbound 2.5-4 M ☉ stars are ejected from the Milky Way at a rate of 1.5 × 10 –6 yr –1 . These unbound HVSs are likely ejected continuously over the past 200 Myr and do not share a common flight time. The anisotropic spatial distribution of HVSs on the sky remains puzzling. Southern hemisphere surveys like SkyMapper will soon allow us to map the all-sky distribution of HVSs. Future proper motion measurements with Hubble Space Telescope and Gaia will provide strong constraints on origin. Existing observations are all consistent with HVS ejections from encounters with the massive black hole in the Galactic center.

  6. Automatic and remote controlled ictal SPECT injection for seizure focus localization by use of a commercial contrast agent application pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Michael; Eder, Hans; Holl, Alexander; Körner, Eva; Zmugg, Gerda; Aigner, Reingard; Fazekas, Franz; Ott, Erwin

    2007-07-01

    In the presurgical evaluation of patients with partial epilepsy, the ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool for seizure focus localization. To achieve optimal SPECT scan quality, ictal tracer injection should be carried out as quickly as possible after the seizure onset and under highest safety conditions possible. Compared to the commonly used manual injection, an automatic administration of the radioactive tracer may provide higher quality standards for this procedure. In this study, therefore, we retrospectively analyzed efficiency and safety of an automatic injection system for ictal SPECT tracer application. Over a 31-month period, 26 patients underwent ictal SPECT by use of an automatic remote-controlled injection pump originally designed for CT-contrast agent application. Various factors were reviewed, including latency of ictal injection, radiation safety parameters, and ictal seizure onset localizing value. Times between seizure onset and tracer injection ranged between 3 and 48 s. In 21 of 26 patients ictal SPECT supported the localization of the epileptogenic focus in the course of the presurgical evaluation. In all cases ictal SPECT tracer injection was performed with a high degree of safety to patients and staff. Ictal SPECT by use of a remote-controlled CT-contrast agent injection system provides a high scan quality and is a safe and confirmatory presurgical evaluation technique in the epilepsy-monitoring unit.

  7. Therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic muscles after local injection of fragmented fibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyan; Wan, Huiying; Xia, Tian; Chen, Maohua; Zhang, Yun; Luo, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis remains the most effective method to re-establish a proper blood flow in ischemic tissues. There is a great clinical need to identify an injectable format to achieve a well accumulation following local administration and a sustained delivery of biological factors at the ischemic sites. In the current study, fragmented nanofibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicines, astragaloside IV (AT), the main active ingredient of astragalus, and ferulic acid (FA), the main ingredient of angelica, were proposed to promote the microvessel formation after intramuscular injection into ischemic hindlimbs. Fragmented fibers with average lengths of 5 (FF-5), 20 (FF-20) and 80 μm (FF-80) were constructed by the cryocutting of aligned electrospun fibers. Their dispersion in sodium alginate solution (0.2%) indicated good injectability. After injection into the quadriceps muscles of the hindlimbs, FF-20 and FF-80 fiber fragments showed higher tissue retentions than FF-5, and around 90% of the injected doses were determined after 7 days. On a hindlimb ischemia model established by ligating the femoral arteries, intramuscular injection of the mixtures of FA-loaded and AT-loaded FF-20 fiber fragments substantially reduced the muscle degeneration with minimal fibrosis formation, significantly enhanced the neovessel formation and hindlimb perfusion in the ischemic tissues, and efficiently promoted the limb salvage with few limb losses. Along with the easy manipulation and lower invasiveness for in vivo administration, fragmented fibers should become potential drug carriers for disease treatment, wound recovery and tissue repair after local injection.

  8. Development and experimental basis of local subretinal technique of xenogenic’s injection stem cells labelled by magnetic perticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belyy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: is to develop a technique for local subretinal injection of xenogeneic stem cells labeled with magnetic particles and to prove experimentally its effectiveness.Material and methods: We used a line of stem cells HEK-293 GFP,labeled with magnetic particles. The study was made on 84 eyes of 42 chinchilla rabbits 6 months of age, the weight were from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. All right eyes were experimental (42 eyes and all left eyes (42 eyes were the control group. In the experimental group we used original complex of polymer elastic magnetic implant (PEMI with laser probe and fixed it to the sclera, then we made a median vitrectomy and injected HEK-293 GFP under the retina using a specially designed dispenser. In the control group PEMI was not fixed. We examined animals using biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound scanning, optical coherence tomography  OCT, computer tomography (CT, morphological study (cryohistological sections in 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 day and 1 month after surgery.Results: According the results of biomicroscopy in observation periods up to 3 days the vascular injection was visualized in the area operation. According the results of ophthalmoscopy and ultrasound scanning in 1 day the local retinal detachment was visualized in the area of local injection of the stem cells, which was not visualized in terms of further observations. CT helped us to confirm the local place of PEMI fixation. The morphological study results showed that cells were located in the subretinal space up to 14 days in the experimental group, and only up 3 days in the control group.Conclusion: The suggested surgical technique enables to control the injection of cells into the subretinal space, reduces the risk of tissue damage and exit cells in the vitreous space. The suggested methodology allows the fixing of the cellular material in the local place of the injection and enables to predict cells`s movement.

  9. Enhanced Control for Local Helicity Injection on the Pegasus ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierren, C.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.; Perry, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Local helicity injection (LHI) experiments on Pegasus rely upon programmable control of a 250 MVA modular power supply system that drives the electromagnets and helicity injection systems. Precise control of the central solenoid is critical to experimental campaigns that test the LHI Taylor relaxation limit and the coupling efficiency of LHI-produced plasmas to Ohmic current drive. Enhancement and expansion of the present control system is underway using field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology for digital logic and control, coupled to new 10 MHz optical-to-digital transceivers for semiconductor level device communication. The system accepts optical command signals from existing analog feedback controllers, transmits them to multiple devices in parallel H-bridges, and aggregates their status signals for fault detection. Present device-level multiplexing/de-multiplexing and protection logic is extended to include bridge-level protections with the FPGA. An input command filter protects against erroneous and/or spurious noise generated commands that could otherwise cause device failures. Fault registration and response times with the FPGA system are 25 ns. Initial system testing indicates an increased immunity to power supply induced noise, enabling plasma operations at higher working capacitor bank voltage. This can increase the applied helicity injection drive voltage, enable longer pulse lengths and improve Ohmic loop voltage control. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  10. PET imaging of TSPO in a rat model of local neuroinflammation induced by intracerebral injection of lipopolysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ory, Dieter; Planas, Anna; Dresselaers, Tom; Gsell, Willy; Postnov, Andrey; Celen, Sofie; Casteels, Cindy; Himmelreich, Uwe; Debyser, Zeger; Van Laere, Koen; Verbruggen, Alfons; Bormans, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to measure functional and structural aspects of local neuroinflammation induced by intracerebral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats using TSPO microPET imaging with [ 18 F]DPA-714, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in vitro autoradiography and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in order to characterize a small animal model for screening of new PET tracers targeting neuroinflammation. Methods: Rats were injected stereotactically with LPS (50 μg) in the right striatum and with saline in the left striatum. [ 18 F]DPA-714 microPET, MRI, in vitro autoradiography and IHC studies were performed at different time points after LPS injection for 1 month. Results: Analysis of the microPET data demonstrated high uptake of the tracer in the LPS injected site with an affected-to-non-affected side-binding potential ratio (BP right-to-left ) of 3.0 at 3 days after LPS injection. This BP ratio decreased gradually over time to 0.9 at 30 days after LPS injection. In vitro autoradiography ([ 18 F]DPA-714) and IHC (CD68, GFAP and TSPO) confirmed local neuroinflammation in this model. Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI demonstrated BBB breakdown near the LPS injection site at day 1, which gradually resolved over time and was absent at 1 month after LPS injection. Conclusion: The LPS model is useful for first screening of newly developed tracers because of the easy design and the robust, unilateral inflammatory reaction allowing the use of the contralateral region as control. Additionally, this model can be used to test and follow up the benefits of anti-inflammatory therapies by non-invasive imaging

  11. Early response of local steroid injection versus mini incision technique in treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, A.S.; Khan, A.; Afridi, S.A.; Khan, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of the commonest peripheral neuropathies which effects mainly middle aged women. Different techniques are being tried to decrease the post-operative pain in patients operated for CTS. The objective of this study was to compare effectiveness of local injection of steroid and mini incision technique in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Methods: This randomized control trial was conducted at department of Orthopedics and department of Neurosurgery, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from Aug 2011 to Feb 2013. A total of 116 patients of CTS were randomly allocated to either of the two groups. Fifty-eight Patient in Group A were subjected to local steroid injection and the same number of patient in Group B underwent mini incision technique. All patients of were advised to report to the OPD after one month to determine intervention effectiveness in terms of improvement in at least one grade of pain. Results: In this study mean age of the patients was 32.8 ± 5.1 years. Female gender was in dominance with 99 (86.3%) cases. In this study we compared the effectiveness of local steroid injection and mini incision technique in the treatment of carpel tunnel syndrome. We found out that the steroid injection was effective in 69.0% cases while mini incision technique was effective in 56.9% cases. The difference being statistically insignificant with a p-value of 0.17. Conclusion: The difference in pain after 1 month of the intervention was not statistically significant. (author)

  12. Comparison of Two Local Anesthesia Injection Methods During a Transrectal Ultrasonography-guided Prostate Biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Song Ee; Oh, Young Taik [Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jang Hwan; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Yang, Seung Choul [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    To compare the effectiveness of 2 injection methods of lidocaine during a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy for pain control and complication rates. We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent a TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from March 2005 to March 2006. One hundred patients were categorized into two groups based on injection method. For group 1, 10 mL of 1% lidocaine was injected bilaterally at the junction of the seminal vesicle and prostate and for group 2, into Denonvilliers' fascia. Pain scores using a visual analog scale (VAS) as well as immediate and delayed complication rates were evaluated. The mean VAS score showed no significant differences between the groups (group 1, 3.4{+-}1.78: group 2, 2.8{+-}1.3: p = 0.062). The difference in delayed complication rates and incidence of hematuria, hemospermia, and blood via the rectum was not significant between groups. However, two patients in group 1 complained of symptoms immediately after local anesthesia: one of tinnitus and the other of mild dizziness. There were no significant differences between pain control and complication rates between the 2 lidocaine injection methods. However, injection into Denonvilliers' fascia is thought to have less potential risk

  13. Comparison of Two Local Anesthesia Injection Methods During a Transrectal Ultrasonography-guided Prostate Biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Song Ee; Oh, Young Taik; Kim, Jang Hwan; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Yang, Seung Choul

    2010-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of 2 injection methods of lidocaine during a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy for pain control and complication rates. We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent a TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from March 2005 to March 2006. One hundred patients were categorized into two groups based on injection method. For group 1, 10 mL of 1% lidocaine was injected bilaterally at the junction of the seminal vesicle and prostate and for group 2, into Denonvilliers' fascia. Pain scores using a visual analog scale (VAS) as well as immediate and delayed complication rates were evaluated. The mean VAS score showed no significant differences between the groups (group 1, 3.4±1.78: group 2, 2.8±1.3: p = 0.062). The difference in delayed complication rates and incidence of hematuria, hemospermia, and blood via the rectum was not significant between groups. However, two patients in group 1 complained of symptoms immediately after local anesthesia: one of tinnitus and the other of mild dizziness. There were no significant differences between pain control and complication rates between the 2 lidocaine injection methods. However, injection into Denonvilliers' fascia is thought to have less potential risk

  14. Comparison of Two Local Anesthesia Injection Methods During a Transrectal Ultrasonography-guided Prostate Biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Song Ee; Oh, Young Taik [Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jang Hwan; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Yang, Seung Choul [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    To compare the effectiveness of 2 injection methods of lidocaine during a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy for pain control and complication rates. We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent a TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from March 2005 to March 2006. One hundred patients were categorized into two groups based on injection method. For group 1, 10 mL of 1% lidocaine was injected bilaterally at the junction of the seminal vesicle and prostate and for group 2, into Denonvilliers' fascia. Pain scores using a visual analog scale (VAS) as well as immediate and delayed complication rates were evaluated. The mean VAS score showed no significant differences between the groups (group 1, 3.4{+-}1.78: group 2, 2.8{+-}1.3: p = 0.062). The difference in delayed complication rates and incidence of hematuria, hemospermia, and blood via the rectum was not significant between groups. However, two patients in group 1 complained of symptoms immediately after local anesthesia: one of tinnitus and the other of mild dizziness. There were no significant differences between pain control and complication rates between the 2 lidocaine injection methods. However, injection into Denonvilliers' fascia is thought to have less potential risk

  15. The effect of local injection of the human growth hormone on the mandibular condyle growth in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Feizbakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of local injection of human growth hormone (GH in stimulating cartilage and bone formation in a rabbit model of temporomandibular joint (TMJ. Materials and Methods: In an experimental animal study, 16 male Albino New Zealand white rabbits aged 12 weeks were divided into two groups: In the first group (7 rabbits 2 mg/kg/1 ml human GH and in the control group (9 rabbits 1 ml normal saline was administered locally in both mandibular condyles. Injections were employed under sedation and by single experienced person. Injections were made for 6 times with 3 injections a week in the all test and control samples. Rabbits were sacrified at the 20th day from the beginning of study and TMJs were histologically examined. ANOVA (two-sided with Dunnett post hoc test was used to compare data of bone and cartridge thickness while chi-square test was used to analyze hyperplasia and disk deformity data. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Cartilage layer thickness was greater in the GH-treated (0.413 ± 0.132 than the control group (0.287 ± 0.098 (P value = 0.02. Although bone thickness and condylar cartilage hyperplasia were greater in the GH-treated group, these differences were not statistically significant (P value = 0.189 and 0.083, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between two groups regarding the disc deformity (P value = 0.46. Conclusion: Local injection of human GH in the TMJ is able to accelerate growth activity of condylar cartilage in rabbit.

  16. Direct Injection of Blood Products Versus Gelatin Sponge as a Technique for Local Hemostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaga, John [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Rahim, Shiraz, E-mail: Shiraz.rahim@uhhospitals.org

    2017-02-15

    PurposeTo provide a method of reducing risk of minimally invasive procedures on patients with abnormal hemostasis and evaluate efficacy of direct fresh frozen plasma injection through a procedure needle tract compared to Gelfoam (gelatin sponge) administration.Materials and MethodsEighty patients with elevated international standardized ratio (INR) undergoing minimally invasive procedures using imaging guidance were selected retrospectively. Forty patients had received Gelfoam as a means of tract embolization during the procedure. The other 40 received local fresh frozen plasma (FFP) through the needle tract. The number of complications and clinically significant bleeding events were recorded. A threshold of 30 cc of blood loss after a procedure was used to identify excess bleeding.ResultsNo patients experienced clinically significant bleeding after administration of FFP. Five patients experienced postoperative drops in hemoglobin or hematomas after administration of Gelfoam.ConclusionLocal injection of blood products can reduce postprocedure bleeding in patients undergoing minimally invasive procedures and provides a safe alternative to the use of synthetic fibrin plugs.

  17. Prompt triggering of edge localized modes through lithium granule injection on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, Robert; Sun, Z.; Hu, J. S.; Xu, W.; Zuo, G. Z.; Gong, X. Z.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.; Huang, M.; Maingi, R.; Diallo, A.; Tritz, K.; the EAST Team

    2017-10-01

    We report successful triggering of edge localized mode (ELMs) in EAST with Lithium (Li) micropellets, and the observed dependence of ELM triggering efficiency on granule size. ELM control is essential for successful ITER operation throughout the entire campaign, relying on magnetic perturbations for ELM suppression and ELM frequency enhancement via pellet injection. To separate the task of fueling from ELM pacing, we initiate the prompt generation of ELMs via impurity granule injection. Lithium granules ranging in size from 200 - 1000 microns are mechanically injected into upper-single null EAST long pulse H-mode discharges. The injections are monitored for their effect on high Z impurity accumulation and to assess the pressure perturbation required for reliable ELM triggering. We have determined that granules of diameter larger than 600 microns (corresponding to 5.2 x 1018 Li atoms) are successful at triggering ELMs more than 90% of the time. The triggering efficiency drops precipitously to less than 40% as the granule size is reduced to 400 microns (1.5 x 1018 Li atoms), indicating a triggering threshold has been crossed. Using this information an optimal impurity granule size which will regularly trigger a prompt ELM in these EAST discharges is determined. Coupling these results with alternate discharge scenarios on EAST and similar experiments performed on DIII-D provides the possibility of extrapolation to future devices.

  18. Preparation and characterization of HMSPP/MMT/silver nanocomposite films with antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliani, Washington Luiz; Komatsu, Luiz Gustavo Hiroki; Berenguer, Isabelle; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes; Lincopan, Nilton

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to use nanocomposites for bactericide packing for food. The polypropylene modified by irradiation in acetylene at dose of 12.5 kGy, also known as high-melt-strength-polypropylene (HMSPP), with montmorillonite (MMT) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) composed a mix to process by melt intercalation in a twin-screw extruder. As compatibilizer agent it has been used a propylene graft maleic anhydride copolymer (PP-g-MA). The nanocomposites were evaluated by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX) and determination of antibacterial activity. The results indicate the formation of microstructures predominantly intercalated and flocculated. Further, the antibacterial properties of the films were investigated against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) bacteria. (author)

  19. Preparation and characterization of HMSPP/MMT/silver nanocomposite films with antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliani, Washington Luiz; Komatsu, Luiz Gustavo Hiroki; Berenguer, Isabelle; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes, E-mail: washoliani@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lincopan, Nilton [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia. Dept. de Analises Clinicas; Rangari, Vijaya Kumar [Center For Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Tuskegee University, AL (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The aim of study was to use nanocomposites for bactericide packing for food. The polypropylene modified by irradiation in acetylene at dose of 12.5 kGy, also known as high-melt-strength-polypropylene (HMSPP), with montmorillonite (MMT) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) composed a mix to process by melt intercalation in a twin-screw extruder. As compatibilizer agent it has been used a propylene graft maleic anhydride copolymer (PP-g-MA). The nanocomposites were evaluated by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX) and determination of antibacterial activity. The results indicate the formation of microstructures predominantly intercalated and flocculated. Further, the antibacterial properties of the films were investigated against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) bacteria. (author)

  20. Preparation and characterization of bentonite clay for formation of nanocomposites; Preparacao e caracterizacao da argila bentonita para a formacao de nanocompositos PELMD/MMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.J.M.; Silva, B.L.; Araujo, I.J.C.; Medeiros, A.M.; Melo, J.D.D.; Paskocimas, C.A., E-mail: bismarckengmat@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEMat/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    This study we used the linear medium density polyethylene (PELMD) as polymer matrix and introduced, as reinforcement to increase the mechanical and thermal properties, the green bentonite deposit of Boa Vista/PB, rich montmorillonite (MMT), previously characterized by XRD, that passed by three stages of purification. The first stage was to clean by washing and filtering for removal of coarse material (sand and organic matter), followed by an acid attack. In the second, we used the quaternary ammonium surfactant, in order to increase the distance between the layers of MMT, and the third was removed from the wastewater, using absolute ethanol, finishing the purification of process. Then, the clay was introduced into the polymer matrix by polymerization in solution by intercalation and characterized by XRD. The results showed a partial exfoliation, satisfying the increasing properties. (author)

  1. Non-solenoidal Startup with High-Field-Side Local Helicity Injection on the Pegasus ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. M.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Pachicano, J. L.; Pierren, C.; Richner, N. J.; Rodriguez Sanchez, C.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Weberski, J. D.

    2017-10-01

    Local Helicity Injection (LHI) is a non-solenoidal startup technique utilizing electron current injectors at the plasma edge to initiate a tokamak-like plasma at high Ip . Recent experiments on Pegasus explore the inherent tradeoffs between high-field-side (HFS) injection in the lower divertor region and low-field-side (LFS) injection at the outboard midplane. Trade-offs include the relative current drive contributions of HI and poloidal induction, and the magnetic geometry required for relaxation to a tokamak-like state. HFS injection using a set of two increased-area injectors (Ainj = 4 cm2, Vinj 1.5 kV, and Iinj 8 kA) in the lower divertor is demonstrated over the full range of toroidal field available on Pegasus (BT 0 = 10) attainable with LHI and the favorable stability of the ultra-low aspect ratio, low-li LHI-driven plasmas allow access to high βt-up to 100 % , as indicated by kinetically-constrained equilibrium reconstructions. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  2. Analysis of clinical records of dental patients attending Jordan University Hospital: Documentation of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Dar-Odeh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Najla Dar-Odeh1, Soukaina Ryalat1, Mohammad Shayyab1, Osama Abu-Hammad21Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Oral Medicine and Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan, Jordan; 2Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan, JordanObjectives: The aim of this study was to analyze clinical records of dental patients attending the Dental Department at the University of Jordan Hospital: a teaching hospital in Jordan. Analysis aimed at determining whether dental specialists properly documented the drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections given to their patients.Methods: Dental records of the Dental Department at the Jordan University Hospital were reviewed during the period from April 3rd until April 26th 2007 along with the issued prescriptions during that period.Results: A total of 1000 records were reviewed with a total of 53 prescriptions issued during that period. Thirty records documented the prescription by stating the category of the prescribed drug. Only 13 records stated the generic or the trade names of the prescribed drugs. Of these, 5 records contained the full elements of a prescription. As for local anesthetic injections, the term “LA used” was found in 22 records while the names and quantities of the local anesthetics used were documented in only 13 records. Only 5 records documented the full elements of a local anesthetic injection.Conclusion: The essential data of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections were poorly documented by the investigated group of dental specialists. It is recommended that the administration of the hospital and the dental department implement clear and firm guidelines for dental practitioners in particular to do the required documentation procedure.Keywords: dental records, documentation, prescriptions, local anesthesia

  3. Acceleration of Medpor implant fibrovascularization with local vascular endothelial growth-factor injections: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Demirel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medpor is a biocompatible, high-density porous polyethylene implant that is used for multiple indications in plastic surgery. The most frequent complications associated with the Medpor implant are infection and implant exposure. The primary cause of these complications is poor fibrovascularization of the Medpor implant and poor nourishment of the overlying skin. The present experimental study aimed to determine whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF could accelerate and increase Medpor implant fibrovascularization in vivo, and thereby improve local nourishment and prevent complications. Materials and Methods: The Medpor implant was inserted under the dorsal skin area in 40 Sprague-Dawley rats. 20 rats receiving local VEGF injections comprised the study group. The control group received saline injections. Fibrovascularization of the Medpor implants was compared. Results: In the rats injected with VEGF, the Medpor implant fibrovascularized faster, and there were more newly formed blood vessels, as compared with those in the control group. Conclusion: These findings have led to our use of VEGF-like agents that the accelerate angiogenesis in the Medpor implant as a means to reduce the incidence of such complications as infection and implant exposure. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(4.000: 196-201

  4. Local Injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide: A Forgotten Aetiology of Cushing’s Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhumthammarat, Weera; Putthapiban, Prapaipan

    2017-01-01

    Many different non systemic corticosteroid administrations can cause iatrogenic Cushing’s Syndrome (CS). We herein report a case series of iatrogenic CS from keloid scars treatment and aesthetic regimen called mesotherapy. Our first patient developed CS after having exceeded recommended dose of intralesional injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide (TAC). Second case presented with CS followed by unidentified mesotherapy treatment for local fat reduction. Subcutaneous injections of dexamethasone were found to be the part of mesotherapy regimen in one case. Physicians should be insightful in prescribing TAC especially in those patients who have high predisposing factors for developing CS. In the same way, off-label mesotherapy combine with corticosteroid can lead to iatrogenic CS and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis suppression. Currently, there are no standard guidelines for mesotherapy treatment. Therefore, further clinical trials on dosage, duration and effective combination of mesotherapy regimens are needed to increase safety uses. PMID:28764237

  5. Influence of blending sequence on the rheological behavior of HDPE/LLDPE/MMT nano composites; Influencia da sequencia de mistura no comportamento reologico de nanocompositos HDPE/LLDPE/MMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passador, F.R.; Pessan, L.A., E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMA/UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Ruvolo Filho, A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPGCEM/UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The blending sequence affects the rheological behavior and the morphology formation of the nanocomposites. In this work, the blending sequences were explored to see its influence in the rheological behavior of HDPE/LLDPE/MMT nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were obtained by melt-intercalation using HDPE-g-MA as a compatibilizer in a torque rheometer (Haake Rheomix 600p at 180 deg C and rotor speed of 80rpm) and five blending sequences were studied. The materials structures were characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and by rheological properties. The nanoclay's addition increased the shear viscosity at low shear rates, changing the behavior of HDPE/LLDPE matrix to a Bingham model behavior with an apparent yield stress. Intense interactions were obtained for the blending sequence where HDPE and HDPE-g-MA were first reinforced with organoclay and then the HDPE/HDPE-g-MA/organoclay nanocomposite was later blended with LLDPE. (author)

  6. The safety of peri-articular local anaesthetic injection for patients undergoing total knee replacement with autologous blood transfusion: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D F; Emmett, S R; Kang, K K; Chahal, G S; Hiskens, R; Balasubramanian, S; McGuinness, K; Parsons, H; Achten, J; Costa, M L

    2012-12-01

    Intra-operative, peri-articular injection of local anaesthesia is an increasingly popular way of controlling pain following total knee replacement. At the same time, the problems associated with allogenic blood transfusion have led to interest in alternative methods for managing blood loss after total knee replacement, including the use of auto-transfusion of fluid from the patient's surgical drain. It is safe to combine peri-articular infiltration with auto-transfusion from the drain. We performed a randomised clinical trial to compare the concentration of local anaesthetic in the blood and in the fluid collected in the knee drain in patients having either a peri-articular injection or a femoral nerve block. Clinically relevant concentrations of local anaesthetic were found in the fluid from the drains of patients having peri-articular injections (4.92 μg/ml (sd 3.151)). However, none of the patients having femoral nerve blockade had detectable levels. None of the patients in either group had clinically relevant concentrations of local anaesthetic in their blood after re-transfusion. The evidence from this study suggests that it is safe to use peri-articular injection in combination with auto-transfusion of blood from peri-articular drains during knee replacement surgery.

  7. A brief review on the efficacy of different possible and nonpharmacological techniques in eliminating discomfort of local anesthesia injection during dental procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Amin; Rismanchian, Mansour; Akhavan, Ali; Nosouhian, Saeid; Bajoghli, Farshad; Haghighat, Abbas; Arbabzadeh, Farahnaz; Samimi, Pouran; Fiez, Atiyeh; Shadmehr, Elham; Tabari, Kasra; Jahadi, Sanaz

    2016-01-01

    Dental anxiety and fear of needle injection is one of the most common problems encountered by dental practitioners, especially in the pediatric patient. In consequences, it might affect the patient's quality of life. Several methods are suggested to lower the discomfort of local anesthesia injection during dental procedures. Desensitization of injection site is one of the recommended strategies. Among chemical anesthetic topical agents that are effective but might have allergic side effects, using some nonpharmacological and safe techniques might be useful. This study aimed to overview the efficacy of using cooling techniques, mostly by ice or popsicles, warming or pH buffering of drug, and using modern devices to diminish the discomfort of local anesthesia injection during dental procedures. PMID:26957683

  8. Short-term muscle atrophy caused by botulinum toxin-A local injection impairs fracture healing in the rat femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yongqiang; Ma, Yongcheng; Wang, Xuepeng; Jin, Fangchun; Ge, Shengfang

    2012-04-01

    Damaged bone is sensitive to mechanical stimulation throughout the remodeling phase of bone healing. Muscle damage and muscular atrophy associated with open fractures and subsequent fixation are not beneficial to maintaining optimum conditions for mechanical stability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether local muscle atrophy and dysfunction affect fracture healing in a rat femur fracture model. We combined the rat model of a short period atrophy of the quadriceps with femur fracture. Forty-four-month-old male Wistar rats were adopted for this study. Two units of botulinum toxin-A (BXTA) were administered locally into the right side of the quadriceps of each rat, while the same dose of saline was injected into the contralateral quadriceps. After BXTA had been fully absorbed by the quadriceps, osteotomy was performed in both femurs with intramedullary fixation. Gross observation and weighing of muscle tissue, X-ray analysis, callus histology, and bone biomechanical testing were performed at different time points up to 8 weeks post-surgery. Local injection of BXTA led to a significant decrease in the volume and weight of the quadriceps compared to the control side. At the eighth week, the left side femurs of the saline-injected quadriceps almost reached bony union, and fibrous calluses were completely calcified into woven bone. However, a gap was still visible in the BXTA-treated side on X-ray images. As showed by bone histology, there were no mature osseous calluses or woven bone on the BXTA-treated side, but a resorption pattern was evident. Biomechanical testing indicated that the femurs of the BXTA-treated side exhibited inferior mechanical properties compared with the control side. The inferior outcome following BXTA injection, compared with saline injection, in terms of callus resistance may be the consequence of unexpected load and mechanical unsteadiness caused by muscle atrophy and dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  9. Baseline HCV Antibody Prevalence and Risk Factors among Drug Users in China's National Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhe Wang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is the most common viral infection among injecting drug users worldwide. We aimed to assess HCV antibody prevalence and associated risk factors among clients in the Chinese national methadone maintenance treatment (MMT program.Data from 296,209 clients who enrolled in the national MMT program between March 2004 and December 2012 were analyzed to assess HCV antibody prevalence, associated risk factors, and geographical distribution.Anti-HCV screening was positive for 54.6% of clients upon MMT entry between 2004 and 2012. HCV antibody prevalence at entry declined from 66.8% in 2005 to 45.9% in 2012. The most significant predictors of HCV seropositivity were injecting drug use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 8.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.17-8.52, p<0.0001 and a history of drug use ≥9 years (AOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.96-2.06, p<0.0001. Being female, of Uyghur or Zhuang ethnicity, and unmarried were identified as demographic risk factors (all p-values<0.0001. Of the 28 provincial-level divisions included in the study, we found that 5 divisions had HCV antibody prevalence above 70% and 20 divisions above 50%. The HCV screening rate within 6 months after MMT entry greatly increased from 30.4% in 2004 to 93.1% in 2012.The current HCV antibody prevalence remains alarmingly high among MMT clients throughout most provincial-level divisions in China, particularly among injecting drug users and females. A comprehensive prevention strategy is needed to control the HCV epidemic among MMT clients in China.

  10. Local mechanical properties of LFT injection molded parts: Numerical simulations versus experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desplentere, F.; Soete, K.; Bonte, H.; Debrabandere, E.

    2014-05-01

    In predictive engineering for polymer processes, the proper prediction of material microstructure from known processing conditions and constituent material properties is a critical step forward properly predicting bulk properties in the finished composite. Operating within the context of long-fiber thermoplastics (LFT, length Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight 2014 software has been used. In this software, a fiber breakage algorithm for the polymer flow inside the mold is available. Using well known micro mechanic formulas allow to combine the local fiber length with the local orientation into local mechanical properties. Different experiments were performed using a commercially available glass fiber filled compound to compare the measured data with the numerical simulation results. In this investigation, tensile tests and 3 point bending tests are considered. To characterize the fiber length distribution of the polymer melt entering the mold (necessary for the numerical simulations), air shots were performed. For those air shots, similar homogenization conditions were used as during the injection molding tests. The fiber length distribution is characterized using automated optical method on samples for which the matrix material is burned away. Using the appropriate settings for the different experiments, good predictions of the local mechanical properties are obtained.

  11. To what extent can charge localization influence electron injection efficiency at graphene-porphyrin interfaces?

    KAUST Repository

    Parida, Manas R.

    2015-04-28

    Controlling the electron transfer process at donor- acceptor interfaces is a research direction that has not yet seen much progress. Here, with careful control of the charge localization on the porphyrin macrocycle using β -Cyclodextrin as an external cage, we are able to improve the electron injection efficiency from cationic porphyrin to graphene carboxylate by 120% . The detailed reaction mechanism is also discussed.

  12. Ion Heating During Local Helicity Injection Plasma Startup in the Pegasus ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. G.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Plasmas in the Pegasus ST are initiated either through standard, MHD stable, inductive current drive or non-solenoidal local helicity injection (LHI) current drive with strong reconnection activity, providing a rich environment to study ion dynamics. During LHI discharges, a large amount of impurity ion heating has been observed, with the passively measured impurity Ti as high as 800 eV compared to Ti ~ 60 eV and Te ~ 175 eV during standard inductive current drive discharges. In addition, non-thermal ion velocity distributions are observed and appear to be strongest near the helicity injectors. The ion heating is hypothesized to be a result of large-scale magnetic reconnection activity, as the amount of heating scales with increasing fluctuation amplitude of the dominant, edge localized, n =1 MHD mode. An approximate temporal scaling of the heating with the amplitude of higher frequency magnetic fluctuations has also been observed, with large amounts of power spectral density present at several impurity ion cyclotron frequencies. Recent experiments have focused on investigating the impurity ion heating scaling with the ion charge to mass ratio as well as the reconnecting field strength. The ion charge to mass ratio was modified by observing different impurity charge states in similar LHI plasmas while the reconnecting field strength was modified by changing the amount of injected edge current. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  13. Relationship between Corrected-QT Intervals and Other ECG Characteristics with Methadone Dose in Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT Patients and Healthy Subjects: A Case- Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Akbari Rad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In this study we assessed the relationship between corrected-QT intervals and other ECG characteristics with methadone dose and other parameters in MMT patients and healthy subjects. Methods This was a case-control study which was carried out on patients underwent MMT and healthy control group who had been referred to Ebne-Sina academic hospital, Mashhad during 2014 - 2015. At the time of the study, 40 patients who received MMT therapy for at least 6 months and 40 voluntary healthy subjects who matched on age and sex enrolled in the study. 12-lead ECG was performed for all the patients. Mean QT interval, PR interval and QRS duration in every 12 leads were documented for each patient in maximum. Results To evaluate the patients, we divided 80 patients into two groups: 40 patients under treatment with Methadone and 40 voluntary participants as control group. There were 20 males and 20 females in each group. Duration of addiction was 214.80 ± 126.99 months in MMT group. Significant differences were observed in PRi between the patient and control groups (P = 0.007, and also between methadone dose and PRi (r = 0.468, P = 0.038 in males. QTc prolongation was reported in 4 patients of addicted group (10%. All of the QTc prolongation patients were female (P = 0.037. There was significant relationship between PRi and weight (P = 0.015, addiction period (P = 0.011, methadone treatment period (P = 0.018 as well as methadone dosage (P = 0.14. Methadone cut off point of 65 mg had a significant relationship with systolic blood pressure (P = 0.002, diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.013, QTCi (P = 0.016 and QRS (P = 0.044; however, no significant relationship was reported with PRi (P = 0.451. Conclusions We found that there is no exact dosage of methadone in which the side effects such as TdP (Torsade de pointes or QTc prolongation can be predicted. Female gender and methadone dosage ≥ 65 mg were risk factors of our study for QTc prolongation which

  14. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Reduction of Craving, Depression and Anxiety Symptoms among the Opiate Abusers Under MMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshtwh Momeni

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior group therapy on reduction of craving, depression and anxiety symptoms among the Opiate abusers under MMT. Method: In this experimental research, 36 addicts on MMT were selected between the entire opiate addicts referred to Iranian national center for addiction studies (INCAS by convenience sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. In experimental group, cognitive behavior group therapy was performed in 8 sessions, one each week. Sessions were performed for craving, depression and anxiety management. Data was gathered by demographic questionnaire, scale of relapse predicts craving assessment, BDI-II and BAI for depression and anxiety symptoms assessment. The data was analyzed, independent and paired samples t test. Results: Data analysis revealed that craving index was decreased in post- test and follow-up and it was statistically significant. Also beck depression and anxiety symptoms were decreased significantly in post-test and follow-up. Conclusion: The results show that cognitive-behavior group therapy was efficient on reduction of drug craving, depression, and anxiety symptoms in post-test and follow-up, and it can apply as a method of treatment.

  15. A novel segmentation method for uneven lighting image with noise injection based on non-local spatial information and intuitionistic fuzzy entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Fan, Jiulun

    2017-12-01

    Local thresholding methods for uneven lighting image segmentation always have the limitations that they are very sensitive to noise injection and that the performance relies largely upon the choice of the initial window size. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for segmenting uneven lighting images with strong noise injection based on non-local spatial information and intuitionistic fuzzy theory. We regard an image as a gray wave in three-dimensional space, which is composed of many peaks and troughs, and these peaks and troughs can divide the image into many local sub-regions in different directions. Our algorithm computes the relative characteristic of each pixel located in the corresponding sub-region based on fuzzy membership function and uses it to replace its absolute characteristic (its gray level) to reduce the influence of uneven light on image segmentation. At the same time, the non-local adaptive spatial constraints of pixels are introduced to avoid noise interference with the search of local sub-regions and the computation of local characteristics. Moreover, edge information is also taken into account to avoid false peak and trough labeling. Finally, a global method based on intuitionistic fuzzy entropy is employed on the wave transformation image to obtain the segmented result. Experiments on several test images show that the proposed method has excellent capability of decreasing the influence of uneven illumination on images and noise injection and behaves more robustly than several classical global and local thresholding methods.

  16. A Fast pH-Switchable and Self-Healing Supramolecular Hydrogel Carrier for Guided, Local Catheter Injection in the Infarcted Myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Bastings, Maartje M. C.; Koudstaal, Stefan; Kieltyka, Roxanne E.; Nakano, Yoko; Pape, A. C. H.; Feyen, Dries A. M.; van Slochteren, Frebus J.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Sluijter, Joost P. G.; Meijer, E. W.; Chamuleau, Steven A. J.; Dankers, Patricia Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive intervention strategies after myocardial infarction use state-of-the-art catheter systems that are able to combine mapping of the infarcted area with precise, local injection of drugs. To this end, catheter delivery of drugs that are not immediately pumped out of the heart is still challenging, and requires a carrier matrix that in the solution state can be injected through a long catheter, and instantaneously gelates at the site of injection. To address this unmet need, a ...

  17. The effect of local tramadol injection in post appendectomy pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khazaei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been demonstrated that tramadol, asemisynthetic opioid, is an effective analgesic with systemic (central and local (peripheral anesthetic effects. The aim of this study was to compare the post-operative anesthetic effect of subcutaneous wound infiltration of tramadol with normal saline as placebo in the incision wounds after appendectomy and measuring the average need to petidine during the next 24 hours after the appendectomy. Materials and Method: This double blind study was carried out on 60 patients over 15 years old. Patients were randomly divided in two equal groups. At the end of procedure after repairing fascia 100mg of tramadol that was diluted with water for injection up to 10 cc in one syringe or 10 cc of normal saline in another syringe was infiltrated subcutaneously by surgeon before suturing the skin. The intensity of pain (NRS was recorded in the recovery room, after 6 and 24 hours post-operation as well as total amount of administered petidine in the same period. At the end of study the intensity of pain in the mentioned times and the average use of petidine compared in two groups. Results: A significant difference was noted in the severity of pain between two groups in recovery time, 6 and 24 hours afetr operation that was lower in tramadol group (p<0.0001. Also the average use of petidine was significantly lower in tramadol group in 24 hours (p<0.05. The average severity of pain by NRS in recovery was 5.36 for control (N and 3.08 for tramadol (T groups; and after 6 hours it was 5.36 for (N and 3.36 for (T and after 24 hours reached to 3.08 for (N and 2.08 for (T and the average number of injected 25mg ampoules of petidine was 1.56 in (N and 0.76 in (T.Conclusion: Local wound infiltration of tramadol is a good choice for reduction of post appendectomy pain and decreasing need for high potent opioid analgesics

  18. Prospective Randomized Comparison of the Effectiveness of Radiation Therapy and Local Steroid Injection for the Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canyilmaz, Emine; Canyilmaz, Fatih; Aynaci, Ozlem; Colak, Fatma; Serdar, Lasif; Uslu, Gonca Hanedan; Aynaci, Osman; Yoney, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized trial of radiation therapy for plantar fasciitis and to compare radiation therapy with local steroid injections. Methods and Materials: Between March 2013 and April 2014, 128 patients with plantar fasciitis were randomized to receive radiation therapy (total dose of 6.0 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 1.0 Gy three times a week) or local corticosteroid injections a 1 ml injection of 40 mg methylprednisolone and 0.5 ml 1% lidocaine under the guidance of palpation. The results were measured using a visual analog scale, a modified von Pannewitz scale, and a 5-level function score. The fundamental phase of the study was 3 months, with a follow-up period of up to 6 months. Results: The median follow-up period for all patients was 12.5 months (range, 6.5-18.6 months). For the radiation therapy patients, the median follow-up period was 13 months (range, 6.5-18.5 months), whereas in the palpation-guided (PG) steroid injection arm, it was 12.1 months (range, 6.5-18.6 months). After 3 months, results in the radiation therapy arm were significantly superior to those in the PG steroid injection arm (visual analog scale, P<.001; modified von Pannewitz scale, P<.001; 5-level function score, P<.001). Requirements for a second treatment did not significantly differ between the 2 groups, but the time interval for the second treatment was significantly shorter in the PG steroid injection group (P=.045). Conclusion: This study confirms the superior analgesic effect of radiation therapy compared to mean PG steroid injection on plantar fasciitis for at least 6 months after treatment

  19. Prospective Randomized Comparison of the Effectiveness of Radiation Therapy and Local Steroid Injection for the Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canyilmaz, Emine, E-mail: dremocan@ktu.edu.tr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Canyilmaz, Fatih [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Yavuz Selim Bone Disease and Rehabilitation Hospital, Trabzon (Turkey); Aynaci, Ozlem; Colak, Fatma; Serdar, Lasif [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Uslu, Gonca Hanedan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kanuni Research and Education Hospital, Trabzon (Turkey); Aynaci, Osman [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Yoney, Adnan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized trial of radiation therapy for plantar fasciitis and to compare radiation therapy with local steroid injections. Methods and Materials: Between March 2013 and April 2014, 128 patients with plantar fasciitis were randomized to receive radiation therapy (total dose of 6.0 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 1.0 Gy three times a week) or local corticosteroid injections a 1 ml injection of 40 mg methylprednisolone and 0.5 ml 1% lidocaine under the guidance of palpation. The results were measured using a visual analog scale, a modified von Pannewitz scale, and a 5-level function score. The fundamental phase of the study was 3 months, with a follow-up period of up to 6 months. Results: The median follow-up period for all patients was 12.5 months (range, 6.5-18.6 months). For the radiation therapy patients, the median follow-up period was 13 months (range, 6.5-18.5 months), whereas in the palpation-guided (PG) steroid injection arm, it was 12.1 months (range, 6.5-18.6 months). After 3 months, results in the radiation therapy arm were significantly superior to those in the PG steroid injection arm (visual analog scale, P<.001; modified von Pannewitz scale, P<.001; 5-level function score, P<.001). Requirements for a second treatment did not significantly differ between the 2 groups, but the time interval for the second treatment was significantly shorter in the PG steroid injection group (P=.045). Conclusion: This study confirms the superior analgesic effect of radiation therapy compared to mean PG steroid injection on plantar fasciitis for at least 6 months after treatment.

  20. 99mTc-HDP SPECT-CT Aids Localization of Joint Injections in Degenerative Joint Disease of the Foot and Ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthipun, Arum; Moser, Joanna; Mok, Wing; Paramithas, Anton; Hamilton, Paul; Sott, Andrea Helene

    2015-08-01

    Pain relating to degenerative joint disease within the foot and ankle can be difficult to localize with clinical examination alone due to the complex anatomy of the joints. The aim of this study was to determine whether single-photon emission computed tomography combined with conventional computed tomography (SPECT-CT) could be used to localize the site of degenerative joint disease for intra-articular injection and thereby improve the clinical success of the procedure. A prospective study was performed involving 203 patients who had undergone triple-phase (99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate bone scans with SPECT-CT of the foot and ankle for degenerative joint disease. Fifty-two patients went on to have joint injections for degenerative joint disease, with clinical follow-up. Correlation with the clinical diagnosis and the outcome of intra-articular injections with 0.5% bupivacaine and 80 mg of Depo-Medrone was performed. A successful outcome was determined by an improvement in the visual analog pain score of at least 50%. In 19 (37%) patients, the site of degenerative joint disease determined by SPECT-CT differed from the initial clinical assessment and resulted in a change in management. Overall, 46 (88%) patients showed an improvement in symptoms. The study demonstrated a high clinical success rate for SPECT-CT-guided joint injections. The technique was useful in localizing degenerative joint disease of the ankle, hindfoot, and midfoot as an adjunct to clinical examination. Level IV, case series. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Spin-injection into epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Keita; Cui, Zhixin; Hiraki, Takahiro; Yoh, Kanji

    2013-09-01

    We have studied the spin-injection properties in epitaxial graphene on SiC. The ferromagnetic metal (FM) electrodes were composed of a tunnel barrier layer AlOx (14 Å) and a ferromagnetic Co (600 Å) layer. We have successfully observed the clear resistance peaks indicating spin-injection both in the "local" and "non-local" spin measurement set-ups at low temperatures. We estimate spin-injection rate of 1% based on "non-local" measurement and 1.6% based on local measurements. Spin-injection rate of multilayer graphene by mechanical exfoliation method was twice as high as single layer graphene on SiC based on "local" measurement.

  2. [Case-control study on local injection of autoallergic platelet rich plasma or whole blood for the treatment of tennis elbow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Lai; Tong, Pei-Jian; Xiao, Lu-Wei; Zhu, Qiu-Liang; Xu, Bin; Yan, Mao-Hua

    2014-11-01

    To compare therapeutic effects of local injection with autoallergic platelet rich plasma (PRP) or autoallergic whole blood (AWB) for the treatment of chronic tennis elbow. From January 2011 to January 2014, 40 patients with chronic tennis elbow were divided into 2 groups, 20 cases in each group: PRP group and AWB group. There were 20 patients in PRP group treated with local injection of autoallergic platelet rich plasma, including 5 males and 15 females, with an average age of (47.50 ± 9.86) years old; and the average course of disease was (4.67 ± 3.27) months. Among the 20 patients in AWB group treated with local injection of autoallergic whole blood, 3 patients were male and 17 patients were female, with an average age of (46.50 ± 9.96) years old;and the average course of disease was (4.53 ± 2.27) months. The elbow joint was fixed with elastic stockings after injection. All the patients were guided to do strengthening and extension exercises during the follow-up period. Visual analog scale (VAS), Mayo scores for elbow and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were used to evaluate clinical effects after injection immediately and 4,8 weeks after treatment. Results:All the patients were followed up,there were no infections and swelling occurred. The VAS, Mayo and PPT scores of patients in PRP group were improved from pre-therapy 7.22 ± 1.32, 56.71 ± 10.90 and 17.47 ± 4.62 to 2.73 ± 1.00, 91.59 ± 6.95 and 21.35 ± 4.80 respectively 8 weeks after treatment. The VAS, Mayo and PPT scores of patients in AWB group were improved from pre-therapy 7.16 ±1.27, 54.72 ± 8.36 and 17.06 ± 4.83 to 3.81 ± 1.36, 82.06 ± 7.89 and 20.12 ± 4.97 respectively 8 weeks after treatment. All the pain and functional variables including VAS, PPT, and Mayo scores were improved significantly in both groups 4 weeks after injection. On the 4th week after injection, there was no statistically significant difference in PPT between two groups; while the VAS and Mayo score of AWB group were

  3. Inadvertent injection of formalin mistaken for local anesthetic agent: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Brennan, Peter A

    2012-05-01

    Chemical facial cellulitis, while commonly seen in domestic accidents or attempted suicide, is uncommon in the dental office and hence rarely addressed in the dental literature. We present an unusual case of chemical facial cellulitis caused by inadvertent injection of formalin into the soft tissues of the oral cavity, which was mistaken for local anesthesia solution. This report comprises the immediate symptoms, possible root cause, and management of the difficult situation. We also provide some guidelines to avoid such unfortunate events. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The metallicity evolution of blue compact dwarf galaxies from the intermediate redshift to the local Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Lian, Jianhui; Hu, Ning; Fang, Guanwen; Ye, Chengyun; Kong, Xu

    2016-01-01

    We present oxygen abundance measurements for 74 blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies in the redshift range in [0.2, 0.5] using the strong-line method. The spectra of these objects are taken using Hectospec on the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT). More than half of these BCDs had dust attenuation corrected using the Balmer decrement method. For comparison, we also selected a sample of 2023 local BCDs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database. Based on the local and intermediate-z BCD sampl...

  5. [The effect of locally injected betamethasone on collagen deposition in benign central airway stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y F; Xu, D F; Zeng, Y M; Zhang, H P; Yang, D Y; Chen, X Y; Zhang, J

    2016-08-01

    To assess the effects of locally injected betamethasone on cicatricial tissue hyperplasia in patients with benign central airway stenosis. A prospective study was conducted with 2 treatment modalities: conventional interventional(CI)therapy, and CI combined with local betamethasone injection(LBI). The average optical density value of TGF-β1 and collagen density in the local airway tissues were compared before therapy and 7 d after the CI treatment and the LBI treatment, respectively. Six patients were recruited in this study from May 2013 to June 2015.The results showed significant statistical differences by paired t-test in TGF-β1: 92±38 vs 164±47(t=-7.984, P=0.000)before and after the CI treatment, respectively; 128±45 vs 78±40 (t=10.055, P=0.000)before and after the LBI treatment, respectively. The collagen density was 91 932±59 520 vs 150 252±76 673(t=-8.105, P=0.000) before and after the CI treatment, respectively; 107 024±54 880 vs 114 038±50 772(t=-0.621, P=0.54) before and after the LBI treatment, respectively.Trend comparisons made before and after the treatments showed significant statistical differences in TGF-β1(F=712.139, P=0.000) and in the collagen density (F=261.256, P=0.000)between the CI treatment and the LBI treatment groups. The CI treatment was shown to stimulate the production of TGF-β1 and the deposition of collagen, while the LBI treatment was shown to reduce the production of TGF-β1 and alleviate the deposition of collagen from the stimulation of the CI treatment.

  6. The Efficacy of Local Injection of Methylprednisolone and Lidocaine with and Without Splint, in Treating Patients with De Quervain's Tenosynovitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suffering from de Quervain's tenosynovitis due to repetitive and routine activities leads to considerable referrals to orthopedic clinics and increasing health care costs and wasting of patients' time. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of local injection of methylprednisolone with and without splint for treatment of patients suffering from de Quervain's tenosynovitis. Methods: In a clinical trial study, 72 patients with de Quervain's tenosynovitis were selected in 2010 and were randomly divided into two groups. Therapeutic intervention in the first group was injection of 40 mg methylprednisone and 1 ml lidocaine with splint, and in the second group it was injection 40 mg methylprednisone and 1ml lidocaine without splint. Both groups followed this treatment for three periods(21 day. The related data were collected by visual analogue scale. Then data was analyzed by SPSS (ver. 16 using Fisher exact test and t test. Results: The findings of this study revealed that after the 3-week period of treatment the mean reduced pain intensity and improvement in the first group was significantly lower than the second group(p<0/05. Conclusion: Therefore, local injection of methylprednisone and lidocaine with splint is an effective method in the treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis.

  7. Mapping of local argon impingement on a virtual surface: an insight for gas injection during FEBID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanzenboeck, H.D.; Hochleitner, G.; Mika, J.; Shawrav, M.M.; Gavagnin, M.; Bertagnolli, E. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Solid State Electronics, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    During the last decades, focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) has become a successful approach for direct-write fabrication of nanodevices. Such a deposition technique relies on the precursor supply to the sample surface which is typically accomplished by a gas injection system using a tube-shaped injector nozzle. This precursor injection strategy implies a position-dependent concentration gradient on the surface, which affects the geometry and chemistry of the final nanodeposit. Although simulations already proposed the local distribution of nozzle-borne gas molecules impinging on the surface, this isolated step in the FEBID process has never been experimentally measured yet. This work experimentally investigates the local distribution of impinging gas molecules on the sample plane, isolating the direct impingement component from surface diffusion or precursor depletion by deposition. The experimental setup used in this work maps and quantifies the local impinging rate of argon gas over the sample plane. This setup simulates the identical conditions for a precursor molecule during FEBID. Argon gas was locally collected with a sniffer tube, which is directly connected to a residual gas analyzer for quantification. The measured distribution of impinging gas molecules showed a strong position dependence. Indeed, a 300-μm shift of the deposition area to a position further away from the impingement center spot resulted in a 50 % decrease in the precursor impinging rate on the surface area. With the same parameters, the precursor distribution was also simulated by a Monte Carlo software by Friedli and Utke and showed a good correlation between the empirical and the simulated precursor distribution. The results hereby presented underline the importance of controlling the local precursor flux conditions in order to obtain reproducible and comparable deposition results in FEBID. (orig.)

  8. Mapping of local argon impingement on a virtual surface: an insight for gas injection during FEBID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanzenboeck, H.D.; Hochleitner, G.; Mika, J.; Shawrav, M.M.; Gavagnin, M.; Bertagnolli, E.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) has become a successful approach for direct-write fabrication of nanodevices. Such a deposition technique relies on the precursor supply to the sample surface which is typically accomplished by a gas injection system using a tube-shaped injector nozzle. This precursor injection strategy implies a position-dependent concentration gradient on the surface, which affects the geometry and chemistry of the final nanodeposit. Although simulations already proposed the local distribution of nozzle-borne gas molecules impinging on the surface, this isolated step in the FEBID process has never been experimentally measured yet. This work experimentally investigates the local distribution of impinging gas molecules on the sample plane, isolating the direct impingement component from surface diffusion or precursor depletion by deposition. The experimental setup used in this work maps and quantifies the local impinging rate of argon gas over the sample plane. This setup simulates the identical conditions for a precursor molecule during FEBID. Argon gas was locally collected with a sniffer tube, which is directly connected to a residual gas analyzer for quantification. The measured distribution of impinging gas molecules showed a strong position dependence. Indeed, a 300-μm shift of the deposition area to a position further away from the impingement center spot resulted in a 50 % decrease in the precursor impinging rate on the surface area. With the same parameters, the precursor distribution was also simulated by a Monte Carlo software by Friedli and Utke and showed a good correlation between the empirical and the simulated precursor distribution. The results hereby presented underline the importance of controlling the local precursor flux conditions in order to obtain reproducible and comparable deposition results in FEBID. (orig.)

  9. Mapping of local argon impingement on a virtual surface: an insight for gas injection during FEBID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzenboeck, H. D.; Hochleitner, G.; Mika, J.; Shawrav, M. M.; Gavagnin, M.; Bertagnolli, E.

    2014-12-01

    During the last decades, focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) has become a successful approach for direct-write fabrication of nanodevices. Such a deposition technique relies on the precursor supply to the sample surface which is typically accomplished by a gas injection system using a tube-shaped injector nozzle. This precursor injection strategy implies a position-dependent concentration gradient on the surface, which affects the geometry and chemistry of the final nanodeposit. Although simulations already proposed the local distribution of nozzle-borne gas molecules impinging on the surface, this isolated step in the FEBID process has never been experimentally measured yet. This work experimentally investigates the local distribution of impinging gas molecules on the sample plane, isolating the direct impingement component from surface diffusion or precursor depletion by deposition. The experimental setup used in this work maps and quantifies the local impinging rate of argon gas over the sample plane. This setup simulates the identical conditions for a precursor molecule during FEBID. Argon gas was locally collected with a sniffer tube, which is directly connected to a residual gas analyzer for quantification. The measured distribution of impinging gas molecules showed a strong position dependence. Indeed, a 300-µm shift of the deposition area to a position further away from the impingement center spot resulted in a 50 % decrease in the precursor impinging rate on the surface area. With the same parameters, the precursor distribution was also simulated by a Monte Carlo software by Friedli and Utke and showed a good correlation between the empirical and the simulated precursor distribution. The results hereby presented underline the importance of controlling the local precursor flux conditions in order to obtain reproducible and comparable deposition results in FEBID.

  10. [Local reactions after diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccines in mice; changes in histopathology at the injection site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Chiharu; Katsuta, Tomohiro; Honjo, Ayako; Tateyama, Satoshi; Tokutake, Tadaomi; Arimoto, Yutaka; Nakajima, Natsuki; Goshima, Toshiro; Kato, Tatsuo

    2006-03-01

    Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) developed in Japan is now widely used worldwide. DTaP is safer than the diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP) and has fewer severe side effects, but local reactions such as redness, swelling, and induration are still reported. The pathophysiological mechanism of these reactions is controversial. To clarify the cause of local reactions, we conducted studies using the mouse model. After administering either one or two abdominal subcutaneous DTaP inoculations, we observed changes in histopathology at the injection site at 24h, 48h, and 7 days. The control group, inoculated with physiologic saline, showed no significant changes either pathologically or with the naked eye. All mice after DTaP vaccination showed indurations at the injection site. Pathologically, we watched leukocyte invasion into or around the site, especially neutrophils and eosinophils. After the first vaccination, the extent of the invasion was strong 24h and 7 days later. At 24h following the second vaccination, a dramatic leukocyte invasion seen persisted at 7days. At 7 days after the first vaccination, peripheral fibrosis had begun, and when a second vaccination was administered, it began even earlier at the second site. These histopathological changes show that local reactions are caused by both inflammatory and allergic responses. Because this mouse study resulted in the same pattern of reactions observed in humans, this method will be useful for studies focusing on local reactions.

  11. Influence of blending sequence on the rheological behavior of HDPE/LLDPE/MMT nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passador, F.R.; Pessan, L.A.; Ruvolo Filho, A.

    2010-01-01

    The blending sequence affects the rheological behavior and the morphology formation of the nanocomposites. In this work, the blending sequences were explored to see its influence in the rheological behavior of HDPE/LLDPE/MMT nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were obtained by melt-intercalation using HDPE-g-MA as a compatibilizer in a torque rheometer (Haake Rheomix 600p at 180 deg C and rotor speed of 80rpm) and five blending sequences were studied. The materials structures were characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and by rheological properties. The nanoclay's addition increased the shear viscosity at low shear rates, changing the behavior of HDPE/LLDPE matrix to a Bingham model behavior with an apparent yield stress. Intense interactions were obtained for the blending sequence where HDPE and HDPE-g-MA were first reinforced with organoclay and then the HDPE/HDPE-g-MA/organoclay nanocomposite was later blended with LLDPE. (author)

  12. The energetic ion substorm injection boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.E.; Sibeck, D.G.; McEntire, R.W.; Krimigis, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The substorm injection boundary model has enjoyed considerable success in explaining plasma signatures in the near-geosynchronous region. However, the injection boundary has remained primarily a phenomenological model. In this paper the authors examine 167 dispersionless energetic ion injections which were observed by AMPTE CCE. The radial and local time distribution of the events as a function of Kp is qualitatively similar to that envisioned in the injection boundary model of Mauk and McIlwain (1974). They argue that particles observed during dispersionless injections are locally energized during the disruption of the cross-tail current sheet. Therefore they identify the injection boundary, as derived from the spatial distribution of dispersionless injections, with the earthward edge of the region of the magnetotail which undergoes current sheet disruption during the substorm expansion phase. The authors show that this qualitative model for the generation of the injection boundary can provide an explanation for the dispersionless nature, the double spiral shape, and the Kp dependence of the boundary

  13. Police bribery and access to methadone maintenance therapy within the context of drug policy reform in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, D; Wagner, K D; Beletsky, L; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, S A

    2015-03-01

    In 2009, Mexico passed legislation to decriminalize drug possession and improve access to addiction treatment. We undertook research to assess the implementation of the reform among a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. This study specifically sought to determine whether discretionary policing practices like extortion impact access to methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in Tijuana, a city characterized by high levels of drug-related harms. Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to construct longitudinal confounding models to determine the association between paying a police bribe and MMT enrolment among PWID in Tijuana enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Outcome of interest was MMT enrolment in the past six months. Data on police interactions and MMT enrolment were also obtained. Between October, 2011 and September, 2013, 637 participants provided 1825 observations, with 143 (7.8%) reports of MMT enrolment during the study period. In a final confounding model, recently reporting being forced to pay a bribe to police was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of accessing MMT (adjusted odds ratio=1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.81, p=0.043). However, in 56 (39.2%) cases, MMT enrolment ceased within six months. The majority of participant responses cited the fact that MMT was too expensive (69.1%). Levels of MMT access were low. PWID who experienced police extortion were more likely to access MMT at baseline, though this association decreased during the study period. Coupled with the costs of MMT, this may compromise MMT retention among PWID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Photosensitized production of hydrogen by Halobacterium halobium MMT sub 22 coupled to Escherichia coli in reversed micelles of sodium lauryl sulfate in organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M.M.T.; Bhatt, J.P. (Central Salt and Marine Research Inst., Bhavnagar (India))

    1991-01-01

    Observation on the enhanced production of hydrogen by Halobacterium halobium MMT{sub 22} coupled to Escherichia coli entrapped inside the reversed micelles formed by sodium lauryl sulfate in various organic solvents, namely benzene, carbon tetrachloride, toluene, n-heptane, nitrobenzene, chlorobenzene, are reported. In the present system, a hundred fold increase in activity as compared to the activity in the usual aqueous medium was observed. (author).

  15. Advances in thermal control and performance of the MMT M1 mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. D.; Williams, G. G.; Callahan, S.; Comisso, B.; Ortiz, R.; Williams, J. T.

    2010-07-01

    Strategies for thermal control of the 6.5-meter diameter borosilicate honeycomb primary (M1) mirror at the MMT Observatory have included: 1) direct control of ventilation system chiller setpoints by the telescope operator, 2) semiautomated control of chiller setpoints, using a fixed offset from the ambient temperature, and 3) most recently, an automated temperature controller for conditioned air. Details of this automated controller, including the integration of multiple chillers, heat exchangers, and temperature/dew point sensors, are presented here. Constraints and sanity checks for thermal control are also discussed, including: 1) mirror and hardware safety, 2) aluminum coating preservation, and 3) optimization of M1 thermal conditions for science acquisition by minimizing both air-to-glass temperature differences, which cause mirror seeing, and internal glass temperature gradients, which cause wavefront errors. Consideration is given to special operating conditions, such as high dew and frost points. Precise temperature control of conditioned ventilation air as delivered to the M1 mirror cell is also discussed. The performance of the new automated controller is assessed and compared to previous control strategies. Finally, suggestions are made for further refinement of the M1 mirror thermal control system and related algorithms.

  16. Local inflammation, lethality and cytokine release in mice injected with Bothrops atrox venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Barros

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We have provided evidence that: (a lethality of mice to crude Bothrops venom varies according the isogenic strain (A/J > C57Bl/6 > A/Sn > BALB/c > C3H/ HePas > DBA/2 > C3H/He; (bBALB/c mice (LD50=100.0 μg were injected i.p. with 50 μg of venom produced IL-6, IL-10, INF-γ, TNF-α and NO in the serum. In vitro the cells from the mice injected and challenged with the venom only released IL-10 while peritoneal macrophages released IL-10, INF-γ and less amounts of IL-6; (c establishment of local inflammation and necrosis induced by the venom, coincides with the peaks of TNF-α, IFN-γ and NO and the damage was neutralized when the venom was incubated with a monoclonal antibody against a 60 kDa haemorrhagic factor. These results suggest that susceptibility to Bothrops a trox venom is genetically dependent but MHC independent; that IL-6, IL10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and NO can be involved in the mediation of tissue damage; and that the major venom component inducers of the lesions are haemorrhagins.

  17. Comparison of the effectiveness of local corticosteroid injection and extracorporeal shock wave therapy in patients with lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyazal, Münevver Serdaroğlu; Devrimsel, Gül

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine and compare the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy and local corticosteroid injection in patients with lateral epicondylitis. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients with lateral epicondylitis were randomly divided into extracorporeal shock wave therapy and steroid injection groups. Patients were evaluated using hand grip strength, visual analog scale, and short-form McGill pain questionnaire at baseline and at 4 and 12 weeks post-treatment. [Results] Both groups showed statistically significant increase in hand grip strength and decreases on the visual analog scale and short form McGill pain questionnaire overtime. There was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of improvement in hand grip strength and on the short-form McGill pain questionnaire between groups at 4 weeks post-treatment, whereas the extracorporeal shock wave therapy group showed better results on the visual analog scale. The percentages of improvements in all 3 parameters were higher in the extracorporeal shock wave therapy group than in the injection group at 12 weeks post-treatment. [Conclusion] Both the extracorporeal shock wave therapy and steroid injection were safe and effective in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. However, extracorporeal shock wave therapy demonstrated better outcomes than steroid injection at the long-term follow-up.

  18. The Possible Effects of Methadone Maintenance Therapy on Erectile Dysfunction in Male Addicts Visiting MMT Centers of Rasht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Rahbar Taramsari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methadone is considered a long-acting opioid agonist which is widely used in the treatment of drug addiction. It is believed that opioids can cause erectile dysfunction (ED by inhibiting gonadotropin and testosterone release. This study is aimed at defining the possible effects of conservative treatment with methadone on erectile dysfunction in the addicts. Methods: A total of 382 male addicts visiting methadone maintenance therapy (MMT centers in Rasht, Iran, during 2010 were enrolled in this study. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF questionnaire and patients' profiles were the main means of collecting data on demographic information, methadone dose intake, and erectile function status before and after the two months of therapy with methadone. Erectile function status was defined by the total score from questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 15 of the questionnaire. The data was analyzed by X2, McNemer’s test, and paired t-test using SPSS software 18. Results: The mean age of patients was 37.6 ± 8.9 years (range: 18-72 years. Most of the patients were married (79.3% and they were citizens of Rasht (72.3%. The most frequent substances were opium (188 patients, 49.2% and crack (129 patients, 33.8%, respectively. Most of the patients received low dose methadone (286 patients, 74.9%. No significant relationship was indicated comparing the average scores of erectile function before and after taking methadone (18.53±6.978 vs. 19.03±5.819 (P=0.138. However, the severity of erectile dysfunction was significantly related to the methadone intake dose (P<0.001. Conclusion: Although MMT increases the frequency of erectile dysfunction, appropriate doses of methadone minimize this effect.

  19. A Case of Sublingual Ranula That Responded Successfully to Localized Injection Treatment with OK-432 after Healing from Drug Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshizawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A ranula is a mucus retention cyst or pseudocyst caused by leakage of mucus from the sublingual gland and generally occurs in the oral floor. In addition, drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS is a rare but well-recognized serious adverse effect characterized by fever, skin rashes, generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, and hepatosplenomegaly and oral stomatitis. This paper presents the first case of successfully treated sublingual ranula with localized injection of OK-432 after healing from drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome, which has previously been unreported in the literature. We present the case of a 38-year-old Japanese woman with sublingual ranula that responded successfully to localized injection treatment with OK-432 after healing from drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome. She was affected with cutaneous myositis and interstitial lung disease when she was 26 years old. At the age 34 years, she received additional oral treatment of diaminodiphenyl-sulfone due to deterioration of the cutaneous myositis, which resulted in drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS with severe oral stomatitis. Local injection of OK-432 to the ranula may be a very safe and useful treatment method even if the patient has a history of drug allergy and has connective tissue disease such as cutaneous myositis.

  20. Spatial distribution of HIV, HCV, and co-infections among drug users in the southwestern border areas of China (2004-2014): a cohort study of a national methadone maintenance treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingli; Li, Rongjian; Shen, Zhiyong; Li, Chunying; Liang, Nengxiu; Peng, Zhenren; Huang, Wenbo; He, Chongwei; Zhong, Feng; Tang, Xianyan; Lan, Guanghua

    2017-09-30

    A methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program to curb the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and drug use has been administered by China since 2004. Little is known regarding the geographic heterogeneity of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among MMT clients in the resource-constrained context of Chinese provinces, such as Guangxi. This study aimed to characterize the geographic distribution patterns and co-clustered epidemic factors of HIV, HCV and co-infections at the county level among drug users receiving MMT in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, located in the southwestern border area of China. Baseline data on drug users' demographic, behavioral and biological characteristics in the MMT clinics of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region during the period of March 2004 to December 2014 were obtained from national HIV databases. Residential addresses were entered into a geographical information system (GIS) program and analyzed for spatial clustering of HIV, HCV and co-infections among MMT clients at the county level using geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics. A total of 31,015 MMT clients were analyzed, and the prevalence of HIV, HCV and co-infections were 13.05%, 72.51% and 11.96% respectively. Both the geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics showed that HIV, HCV and co-infections in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region exhibited significant geographic clustering at the county level, and the Moran's I values were 0.33, 0.41 and 0.30, respectively (P areas surrounding P county. HIV, HCV and co-infections among MMT clients in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region all presented substantial geographic heterogeneity at the county level with a number of overlapping significant clusters. The areas surrounding P county were effective in enrolling high-risk clients in their MMT programs which, in turn, might enable people who inject drugs to inject less, share fewer syringes, and receive referrals for HIV or HCV treatment in

  1. Morphological analysis of thermoplastic starch films and montmorillonite (TPS/MMT) using vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizers;Morfologia de filmes de amido termoplastico e montmorilonita (TPS/MMT) usando oleos vegetais do cerrado como plastificantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemmer, Daniela; Sales, Maria Jose A. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. de Pesquisa em Polimeros; Angelica, Romulo S. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Raios X; Gomes, Ana Cristina M.M. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA-CENARGEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Lab. de Microscopia Eletronica

    2009-07-01

    Biopolymers can be used where petrochemical plastics have applications with short life. The excellent degradation of starch and its low cost make it an alternative for obtaining biodegradable plastics. To obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS) is necessary mechanical shake, high temperature and plasticizers. In this work, TPS were produced using three different vegetable oils from Brazilian's cerrado as plasticizers: buriti, macauba or pequi. Materials are also produced with montmorillonite (MMT). All the materials were analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The starch micrographs revealed irregular delaminate with a predominance of starch and 'holes' for the oils. In nanocomposites the clusters of clay are dispersed without a defined standard. It was understood that the plasticizers and processing completely changed the structure of starch causing a decrease in their crystallinity degree. Almost all nanocomposites presented exfoliate structure, only one presented intercalated structure. (author)

  2. Factors associated with interest in receiving prison-based methadone maintenance therapy in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Trena I; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Desai, Mayur M; Pillai, Veena; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-07-01

    Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is crucial for HIV prevention and treatment in people who inject opioids. In Malaysia, a large proportion of the prison population is affected by both HIV and opioid use disorders. This study assessed individual preferences and factors associated with interest in receiving MMT among male prisoners meeting criteria for opioid dependence in Malaysia. A convenience sample of 96 HIV-positive and 104 HIV-negative incarcerated men who met pre-incarceration criteria for opioid dependence was interviewed using a structured questionnaire to examine participant characteristics and attitudes toward MMT. Factors associated with interest in prison-based MMT initiation were identified using logistic regression analysis. Among all participants, 85 (42.5%) were interested in receiving MMT within prison. Independent correlates of interest in prison-based MMT were being previously married (AOR=4.15, 95% CI: 1.15, 15.02), previously incarcerated (AOR=5.68, 95% CI: 1.54, 21.02), depression (AOR=3.66, 95% CI: 1.68, 7.98), daily heroin use in the 30days prior to incarceration (AOR=5.53, 95% CI: 1.65, 18.58), and more favorable attitudes toward MMT (AOR=19.82, 95% CI: 6.07, 64.74). Overall, interest in receiving prison-based MMT was low, and was associated with adverse social, mental health, and drug use consequences. Incarceration provides a unique opportunity to initiate MMT for those who need it, however, optimal scale-up efforts must be systemic and address modifiable factors like improving attitudes toward and motivation for MMT. Informed or shared decision-making tools may be useful in improving expectations and acceptability of MMT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Local corticosteroid versus autologous blood injections in lateral epicondylitis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirico, Felice; Ricca, Flavia; DI Meglio, Franca; Nurzynska, Daria; Castaldo, Clotilde; Spera, Rocco; Montagnani, Stefania

    2017-06-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common painful elbow disorder. Several approaches to treatment have been proposed, with a local injection of corticosteroids being the most frequently used. Recent insights into the pathophysiology encouraged the introduction of autologous blood injections as an alternative treatment method. The aim of this meta-analysis is to summarize quantitatively the evidence regarding the efficacy of corticosteroids and autologous blood injections for treatment of pain in lateral epicondylitis. Studies were considered eligible based on the following inclusion criteria: adult human, diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis, randomized controlled trials comparing corticosteroids versus autologous blood injections, pain assessment. Exclusion criteria were previous surgery for lateral epicondylitis or for other elbow disorders, concurrent treatment with drugs or physiotherapy, diagnosis of musculoskeletal systemic disorder. A systematic search of literature was performed according to the PRISMA statement. Effect size of each included study was calculated and analyzed in a random-effects model. Four studies, enrolling total of 218 patients (139 females and 79 males), were included in quantitative analysis. At 2 weeks, there was a trend towards a reduction of VAS score in the corticosteroid group (WMD=2.12 [95% CI: 4.38 to 0.14], P=0.07). No significant differences were recorded in the medium-term (4-12 weeks; WMD=0.85 [95% CI: -0.44 to 2.15], P=0.19) and long-term (24 weeks; WMD=0.63 [95% CI: -2.40 to 3.66], P=0.68) follow-up. Few high-quality trials compare the efficacy of corticosteroid and autologous blood injections in the control of pain related to lateral epicondylitis. Available data indicate that corticosteroids tend to reduce VAS score in short-term follow-up, although these data are not statistically significant. No differences were recorded in the medium and long term. Contrary to popular opinion among medical professionals, and despite

  4. Hemodynamic changes following injection of local anesthetics with different concentrations of epinephrine during simple tooth extraction: A prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Mostafa, Nedal; Al-Showaikhat, Fatimah; Al-Shubbar, Fatimah; Al-Zawad, Kawther; Al-Zawad, Fatimah

    2015-10-01

    Presence of epinephrine in local anesthetic cartridge increases the duration of local anesthesia (LA), decreases the risk of toxicity, and provides hemostasis. However, the unfavorable effects are increasing heart rate (HR) and raising blood pressure (BP). The aim was to evaluate hemodynamic changes in the BP, HR, and oxygen saturation (SpO2) of normal patients undergoing tooth extraction using LA with various epinephrine concentrations. A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 patients who were divided randomly into 3 parallel groups according to the LA received. Group 1: lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:80,000 (L80). Group 2: articaine 4% with epinephrine 1:100,000 (A100). Group 3: articaine 4% with epinephrine 1:200,000 (A200). normal patients whose BP extraction. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly increased after injection of L80 and continued after extraction to be significant than pre-injection. SBP significantly increased after injection of A100 then decreased after extraction. In the group of A200, SBP insignificantly decreased after injection then increased after extraction. The increasing of SBP between time point 1and 2 was significantly higher in G1 than G3 (p=0.014). Diastolic blood pressure decreased after LA in the 3 groups; however it was significant only with L80, then increased after extraction for all. The changings of DBP, HR and SpO2 after anesthesia and extraction showed no significant difference among the three groups. However, A200 had significant lesser effect on SBP than L80 and the least effect on other parameters. Therefore, A200 is considered safer than L80 and A100 and is recommended for LA before teeth extraction in normal patient. Local anesthesia, lidocaine, epinephrine 1:80,000, articaine, epinephrine 1:100,000, epinephrine 1:200,000, tooth extraction.

  5. Searching for manganese pollution from MMT anti-knock gasoline additives in snow from central Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veysseyre, A.; Velde, K. van de; Ferrari, C.; Boutron, C.

    1998-01-01

    Mn has been measured in snow core samples dated from 1967 to 1989 collected in central Greenland. Observed concentrations range from 16 to 236 pg g -1 . A large fraction of Mn in Greenland snow is found to originate from rock and soil dust. The different possible natural sources for 'excess' Mn above that contributed from rock and soil dust include volcanoes, natural vegetation fires and continental biogenic emissions. They could explain part of the observed excess. At least part of it is, however, probably related to anthropogenic inputs, especially from North America. Aside from industrial sources, MMT (methyl-cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl) anti-knock gasoline additives are good candidates, but our data do not allow to clearly identify their influence. Unambiguous identification will require the direct determination of organo-Mn compounds in comprehensive series of Greenland snow samples with sub-seasonal resolution using highly sensitive speciation techniques. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Increased localized delivery of piroxicam by cationic nanoparticles after intra-articular injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SR

    2016-11-01

    , polymeric nanoparticles, electrostatic interaction, intra-articular injection, local delivery, hyaluronic acid

  7. Effects of levothyroxine on visual evoked potential impairment following local injections of lysolecithin into the rat optic chiasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobra Payghani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which has no any known definitive treatment. Studies have shown that thyroid hormones (THs in addition to their roles in the development of the nervous system and the production of myelin have important roles in the adult's brain function. Since the only way to treat MS is the restoration of myelin, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of levothyroxine on visual evoked potential (VEP impairment following local injections of lysolecithin into the rat optic chiasm. Methods: To induce demyelination, lysolecithin was injected into the optic chiasm of male Wistar rats. VEP recording was used to evaluate demyelination and remyelination before and 10, 17, and 24 days after the lysolecithin injection. The rats received an intraperitoneal injection of levothyroxine with doses 20, 50, and 100 μg/kg in different experimental groups. Results: VEP latency and amplitude showed demyelination at 10 and 17 days after an induced lesion in MS group which was reversed at day 24. Levothyroxine prevented these impairments, especially in high doses. Conclusions: According to the results, lysolecithin-induced demyelination at optic chiasm and VEP impairments can be restored by administration of levothyroxine. Therefore, THs probably have positive effects in demyelinating diseases.

  8. Office-based endoscopic botulinum toxin injection in laryngeal movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderbay, A; Righini, C A; Castellanos, P F; Atallah, I

    2018-06-01

    Botulinum toxin injection is widely used for the treatment of laryngeal movement disorders. Electromyography-guided percutaneous injection is the technique most commonly used to perform intralaryngeal botulinum toxin injection. We describe an endoscopic approach for intralaryngeal botulinum toxin injection under local anaesthesia without using electromyography. A flexible video-endoscope with an operating channel is used. After local anaesthesia of the larynx by instillation of lidocaine, a flexible needle is inserted into the operating channel in order to inject the desired dose of botulinum toxin into the vocal and/or vestibular folds. Endoscopic botulinum toxin injection under local anaesthesia is a reliable technique for the treatment of laryngeal movement disorders. It can be performed by any laryngologist without the need for electromyography. It is easy to perform for the operator and comfortable for the patient. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Genito-urinary Rhabdomyosarcoma: Overview on SIOP committee trials and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelli, Helene

    1997-01-01

    Since 1975, 4 rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) studies have been undertaken by the SIOP (RMS 75, MMT 84, MMT 89 and presently MMT 95) (FLAMANT 1985 -1997). The main goal of theses protocols was to improve the survival of children with RMS while reducing late effects from therapy by restricting the indications for local treatment (surgery and/or radiotherapy) after good response to initial chemotherapy (CT). All theses studies are based on the proven efficacy of initial CT (Vincristine, Dactinomycin, Cyclophosphamide replaced by Ifosfamide) followed by local treatment of residual disease. In case of complete clinical and radiological remission after initial CT, a Mm study (Godzinski 1994) concluded that positive biopsies were rare (5%) and that the local relapse rate remained high even when biopsies apparently confirmed complete remission. subsequently, MMT studies have not placed such emphasis on the value of second look surgery to confirm clinical and radiological evidence of remission. surgery is therefore indicated in case of residual mass after initial CT and should, as a rule, be conservative, anticipating local radiotherapy for residual disease. Genito-urinary RMS account for 24% of all RMS in MMT 84 study and 28% in MMT 89 study. They are classified into two groups, according to slop workshop (RODARY 1989): genito-urinary bladder prostate (GUBP) and genito-urinary non-bladder prostate (GU non BP) including paratesticular RMS in boys and uterine and/or vulvo-vaginal RMS in girls. According to MMT 84 study, tumor site is an important prognostic factor in multivariate analysis as well as T status (according to SIOP UICC- TNM classification) and histology (alveolar versus non alveolar). GU non-BP represents the most favourable site with orbit followed in order by GUBP, head and neck, limbs and other sites

  10. Behavioral and quality-of-life outcomes in different service models for methadone maintenance treatment in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Nong, Vuong Minh; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Latkin, Carl A

    2016-02-02

    Integrating HIV/AIDS and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) services with existing health care delivery system is critical in sustaining efforts to fight HIV/AIDS in large injection-driven epidemics. However, efficiency of different integrative service models is unknown. This study assessed behavioral and health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes of MMT in four service delivery models and explored factors associated with these outcomes of interest. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two HIV epicenters in Vietnam: Hanoi and Nam Dinh Province. All patients in five selected MMT clinics were invited to participate, and 1016 were interviewed (80-90% response rate). Respondents had a mean age of 35.8, taken MMT for average 16.5 months and 3.3% on MMT for 36-60 months. The MMT integrated with rural district health center (DHC) has the highest prevalence of concurrent drug use (11.3%). The percentage of condom use (last sexual intercourse) with primary and casual partners was lowest in the MMT at urban DHCs. Patients at the rural DHC reported very high proportions of pain/discomfort (37.8%), anxiety/depression (43.1%), and mobility (13.3%). In regression models, poorer HRQOL outcomes were found in MMT models in the rural areas or without general health care, and among those patients who were HIV positive, reported concurrent drug use, and had higher numbers of previous drug rehabilitation episodes. Mobility and anxiety/depression are factors that increased the likelihood of concurrent drug use among MMT patients. Outcomes of MMT were diverse across different integrative service models. Policies on rapid expansion of the MMT program in Vietnam should also emphasize on the integration with comprehensive health care services including psychological supports for patients.

  11. [Types of rabies vaccines which were locally injected to the subjects bitten by animals abroad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, N

    1997-08-01

    In recent years there have been a number of subjects who were bitten by supposed rabid animals in foreign rabies-epizootic countries and visited our hospital to received post-exposure therapy after their return to Japan. WHO recommends immediate washing of the wound with soap and water, application of human anti-rabies immunoglobulin and administration of tissue-culture rabies vaccine at 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, and 90 days after exposure. However, tissue-culture vaccines, are expensive and they are not always used in all parts of the world. The author checked whether the victims of animal bite were injected with rabies vaccines abroad or not and investigated the type of rabies vaccine when they were vaccinated. About a half of the consulted victims were locally injected with rabies vaccine. By mean of certificates of inoculation or empty boxes of vaccine, types of rabies vaccines were proved in 40 subjects of which 38 received tissue-culture vaccines. Sample-type vaccine was administered to one subject and suckling mouse vaccine was done to another one. When post-exposure prophylaxis was continued after return to Japan, it is important to know the sort of rabies vaccine injected abroad, because brain-tissue vaccines are less effective in inducing antibody than tissue-culture vaccines. Consequently both physicians and travelers should keep in mind that even now brain-tissue vaccines are used in some areas of the world.

  12. Treatment of metastasis localizations by intratumoral injection of radionuclide microsphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuo Peiyu; Pang Yan; Zhu Dianqing; Chang Keli; Zhu Yanjia

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of radionuclide-labeled microsphere by intratumoral injection into 18 patients with superficial metastasis tumor for treatment. Methods: 18 patients with superficial metastasis were treated with radionuclide-labeled microsphere ( 90 Y-GTMS and 32 P-GTMS) by multi-point intratumoral injection. Each injection dose was 11.1-18.5 MBq/g (tumor). Results: 1 patient was relieved completely, 9 were relieved partly, 5 were improved and 3 kept stable. The total rate of relief and virtual value were 55.6% and 83.3% respectively. Conclusion: Topical treatment by using radionuclide may help diminish the tumor, control its progress and ease the symptoms. Thus it can be used as a supplement of routine treatment of tumors and it should do some work in therapy of malignant tumors in late stages

  13. Use of Pre-Injection Diffusion of Local Anaesthetic as a Means of Reducing Needle Penetration Discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuket Sandalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine if pre-injection diffusion of local anaesthetic solution influences the discomfort of needle penetration in the palate. Methods: A placebo-controlled, randomised, doubleblind split-mouth investigation was conducted. 25 healthy adult volunteers were recruited and each received two needle penetrations in a random order during one visit. The penetration sites were 1 cm from the gingival margin of the first maxillary premolars on each side of the mouth. 30 gauge-13 mm needles which were attached to syringes that contained either 2% lidocaine with 0.125mg/ml epinephrine or physiological saline were used. For each penetration an operator encouraged a drop of solution to appear at the end of the needle and placed this drop with the bevel of the needle flat on the palate for 20 seconds. The discomfort was noted on a 100 mm visual analogue scale with end points marked “No pain” and “Unbearable pain”. Results: There was no significant difference in penetration discomfort between solutions, (mean VAS = 26.80±19.36mm for lidocaine and 26.20±18.39mm for saline however the 2nd penetration was significantly more uncomfortable than the first (mean VAS = 31.00±19.84 mm and 22.00±16.65 mm respectively. Conclusion: Pre-injection diffusion of local anaesthetic solution did not influence the discomfort of needle penetration in the palate.

  14. Power Balance Modeling of Local Helicity Injection for Non-Solenoidal ST Startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberski, J. D.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    A zero-dimensional power balance model for predicting Ip(t) for Local Helicity Injection (LHI) discharges has been used to interpret experimental results from recent experimental campaigns using high-field-side (HFS) helicity injection. This model quantifies LHI's effective drive (Veff) through helicity balance while enforcing the Taylor relaxation current limit and tracking inductive effects to determine Ip(t) . Recent analysis of HFS LHI discharges indicate LHI is the dominant source of drive and provides Veff up to 1.3 V while geometric effects and inductive drive provide < 0.1 V throughout much of the discharge. In contrast to previous analysis of low-field-side (LFS) LHI discharges, which were driven by Veff = 0.3 V and 2.0 V from geometric effects and inductive drive. A significant remaining uncertainty in the model is the resistive dissipation of LHI discharges. This requires greater understanding of LHI confinement scaling and impurity content, which are currently under investigation. However, the model and experimental Ip(t) exhibit good agreement for parameters consistent with previous experimental findings. Extrapolation of plasma parameters and shaping from recent experiments allow for the model to project the performance of LHI systems. These projections indicate Ip 0.3 MA can be accessed on Pegasus via HFS LHI through changes to injector geometry to provide more Veff. This regime can be accessed via a LFS system by increasing the Taylor relaxation current limit early in the discharge. Work supported by US DOE Grants DE-FG02-96ER54375 and DE-SC0006928.

  15. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2006-11-01

    Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes (18G, 20G, 21G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed.

  16. Severity of psychiatric and physical problems is associated with lower quality of life in methadone patients in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Shelly; van Crevel, Reinout; Hidayat, Teddy; Siregar, Ike M P; Achmad, Tri H; van der Ven, Andre J; De Jong, Cor A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is to reduce the harm and to improve patients' quality of life (Qol). However, the Qol is also influenced by other co-occurring disorders. Data regarding the Qol and the co-occurrence of these disorders is lacking in low-middle income countries. We therefore describe the prevalence of physical, psychiatric, and drug abuse co-occurring disorders among MMT patients in Indonesia and determine the association between the severity of the co-occurring disorders and the Qol. Data were collected in 112 injection drug abusers (IDUs) attending a MMT program in West Java, Indonesia, using validated questionnaires, medical records and laboratory testing. For comparison, 154 IDUs not enrolled in MMT were recruited by respondent driven sampling. The most frequent co-occurring disorders were hepatitis C (92%), HIV (77%), benzodiazepine abuse (56%), and anxiety disorders (32%). IDUs in MMT had one (26%), two (47%), or three (27%) co-occurring disorders. Higher severity in psychiatric and physical problems was associated with poorer Qol. IDUs not enrolled in MMT had similar co-occurring problems. The prevalence of co-occurring disorders in IDUs in Indonesia is high and they influence their Qol. Therefore, comprehensive treatment, especially focusing on the common co-occurring disorders should be provided in MMT to improve the Qol. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  17. Exchange Sex Among Persons Who Inject Drugs in the New York Metropolitan Area: The Importance of Local Context, Gender and Sexual Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Suzan M; Rivera, Alexis V; Reilly, Kathleen H; Anderson, Bridget J; Bolden, Barbara; Wogayehu, Afework; Neaigus, Alan; Braunstein, Sarah

    2018-02-21

    Exchanging sex for money or drugs is known to increase risk for HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWID). To better understand determinants of exchange sex among PWID we examined factors associated with exchange sex in the New York metropolitan area-defined as New York City (NYC), NY; Newark, NJ; and Long Island, NY-using data from the 2012 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system cycle on injection drug use. Of the 1160 PWID in this analysis, 24% reported exchange sex, with differences in gender and sexual identity by location. In multivariable analysis gay/bisexual men, heterosexual women, and lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) women were more likely to exchange sex compared to heterosexual men. Exchange sex was also associated with race/ethnicity, homelessness, incarceration, location, and non-injection crack and cocaine use. We find that heterosexual women and LGB women who injected drugs residing in Newark were more likely to report exchange sex compared to NYC. This study highlights how local conditions impact exchange sex.

  18. Comparative evaluation of effectiveness of intra-pocket anesthetic gel and injected local anesthesia during scaling and root planing – A split-mouth clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Chintala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Pain control is an important outcome measure for successful periodontal therapy. Injected local anesthesia has been used to secure anesthesia for scaling and root planing (SRP and continues to be the anesthetic of choice for pain control. Alternatively, intra-pocket anesthetic gel has been used as an anesthetic during SRP. Hence, this clinical trial was done to compare the effectiveness of intra-pocket anesthetic gel and injected local anesthesia during SRP and also to assess the influence of intra-pocket anesthetic gel on treatment outcomes in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Fifteen systemically healthy chronic periodontitis patients were recruited. The dental quadrants on right side received either intra-pocket 20% benzocaine gel (Gel group or infiltration/block by 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 adrenaline (injection group. Quadrants on the left side received the alternative. Pain perception and patients preference for the type of anesthesia was recorded. Clinical parameters: plaque index, modified gingival index, modified sulcular bleeding index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded at baseline and 1 month after treatment. Results: No difference was observed in visual analog scale (P > 0.05 and verbal rating scale (P > 0.05 pain perception between gel group and injection group. A slightly increased preference to gel as anesthesia (53% vs. 47% was observed. The treatment outcome after SRP did not show a significant difference between gel and injection group (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Intra-pocket administration of 20% benzocaine gel may be effective for pain control during SRP and may offer an alternative to conventional injection anesthesia.

  19. The Physics of Local Helicity Injection Non-Solenoidal Tokamak Startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, A. J.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Jardin, S.

    2013-10-01

    Non-solenoidal startup via Local Helicity Injection (LHI) uses compact current injectors to produce toroidal plasma current Ip up to 170 kA in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment, driven by 4-8 kA injector current on timescales of 5-20 milliseconds. Increasing the Ip buildup duration enables experimental demonstration of plasma position control on timescales relevant for high-current startup. LHI-driven discharges exhibit bursty MHD activity, apparently line-tied kinking of LHI-driven field lines, with the bursts correlating with rapid equilibrium changes, sharp Ip rises, and sharp drops in the injector impedance. Preliminary NIMROD results suggest that helical LHI-driven current channels remain coherent, with Ip increases due to reconnection between adjacent helical turns forming axisymmetric plasmoids, and corresponding sharp drops in the bias circuit impedance. The DC injector impedance is consistent with a space charge limit at low bias current and a magnetic limit at high bias current. Internal measurements show the current density profile starts strongly hollow and rapidly fills in during Ip buildup. Simulations of LHI discharges using the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) will provide insight into the detailed current drive mechanism and guide experiments on PEFASUS and NSTX-U. Work supported by US DOE Grants DE-FG02-96ER54375 and DE-SC0006928.

  20. HIV and HCV prevalence among entrants to methadone maintenance treatment clinics in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Xun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was implemented in China since 2004. It was initiated in 8 pilot clinics and subsequently expanded to 738 clinics by the end of 2011. Numerous individual research studies have been conducted to estimate HIV and HCV prevalence among MMT clients but an overview of the epidemics in relations to MMT remains unclear. The aim of this study is to estimate the magnitude and changing trends of HIV, HCV and HIV-HCV co-infections among entry clients to MMT clinics in China during 2004-2010. Methods Chinese and English databases of literature were searched for studies reporting HIV, HCV and co-infection prevalence among MMT clients in China from 2004 to 2010. The prevalence estimates were summarized through a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literatures. Results Ninety eligible articles were selected in this review (2 in English and 88 in Chinese. Nationally, pooled prevalence of HIV-HCV and HIV-HCV co-infection among MMT clients was 6.0% (95%CI: 4.7%-7.7%, 60.1% (95%CI: 52.8%-67.0% and 4.6% (95%CI: 2.9%-7.2%, respectively. No significant temporal trend was found in pooled prevalence estimates. Study location is the major contributor of heterogeneities of both HIV and HCV prevalence among drug users in MMT. Conclusions There was no significant temporal trend in HIV and HCV prevalence among clients in MMT during 2004–2010. Prevalence of HCV is markedly higher than prevalence of HIV among MMT clients. It is recommended that health educational programs in China promote the earlier initiation and wider coverage of MMT among injecting drug users (IDUs, especially HIV-infected IDUs.

  1. Does ultrasound-guided lidocaine injection improve local anaesthesia before femoral artery catheterization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliopoulos, S.; Katsanos, K.; Diamantopoulos, A.; Karnabatidis, D.; Siablis, D.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To present the results of a prospective, randomized, single-centre study investigating local anaesthesia before percutaneous common femoral artery (CFA) puncture and catheterization with the use of ultrasound-guided injection of lidocaine versus standard infiltration by manual palpation. Materials and methods: Patients scheduled to undergo diagnostic or therapeutic transfemoral catheter-based procedures gave informed consent and were randomized in two groups. In the first arm local anaesthesia with lidocaine hydrochloride 1% was performed under ultrasound guidance (group U/S), while in the second arm the standard method of manual artery palpation was applied (group M). In both groups, subsequent CFA catheterization was achieved under ultrasound guidance. The primary study endpoint was peri-procedural pain level evaluated with a visual-analogue scale (VAS score 0-10). Results: Between January 2009 and 2010, 200 patients (161 men, mean age 63 ± 12 years) were equally assigned to each group without any significant differences in baseline demographics. Patients in group U/S experienced significantly less pain during CFA catheterization in comparison with group M with a difference of three points in mean VAS score reported (1.6 ± 1.6 versus 4.6 ± 1.9, p < 0.0001). In addition, significantly less volume of lidocaine was used in group U/S compared to group M (16 ± 2.7 versus 19 ± 0.8 ml, p < 0.001).Total vascular access time was similar in both groups (4.4 ± 1.3 versus 4.5 ± 1.3 min). Overall complications included two small groin haematomas in each group. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided local anaesthesia of the CFA prior to percutaneous transcatheter procedures is safe and achieves superior levels of analgesia with minimal patient pain and discomfort compared to the standard method of manual palpation.

  2. Does ultrasound-guided lidocaine injection improve local anaesthesia before femoral artery catheterization?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliopoulos, S., E-mail: stavspiliop@upatras.g [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Patras University Hospital, School of Medicine, Patras (Greece); Katsanos, K.; Diamantopoulos, A.; Karnabatidis, D.; Siablis, D. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Patras University Hospital, School of Medicine, Patras (Greece)

    2011-05-15

    Aim: To present the results of a prospective, randomized, single-centre study investigating local anaesthesia before percutaneous common femoral artery (CFA) puncture and catheterization with the use of ultrasound-guided injection of lidocaine versus standard infiltration by manual palpation. Materials and methods: Patients scheduled to undergo diagnostic or therapeutic transfemoral catheter-based procedures gave informed consent and were randomized in two groups. In the first arm local anaesthesia with lidocaine hydrochloride 1% was performed under ultrasound guidance (group U/S), while in the second arm the standard method of manual artery palpation was applied (group M). In both groups, subsequent CFA catheterization was achieved under ultrasound guidance. The primary study endpoint was peri-procedural pain level evaluated with a visual-analogue scale (VAS score 0-10). Results: Between January 2009 and 2010, 200 patients (161 men, mean age 63 {+-} 12 years) were equally assigned to each group without any significant differences in baseline demographics. Patients in group U/S experienced significantly less pain during CFA catheterization in comparison with group M with a difference of three points in mean VAS score reported (1.6 {+-} 1.6 versus 4.6 {+-} 1.9, p < 0.0001). In addition, significantly less volume of lidocaine was used in group U/S compared to group M (16 {+-} 2.7 versus 19 {+-} 0.8 ml, p < 0.001).Total vascular access time was similar in both groups (4.4 {+-} 1.3 versus 4.5 {+-} 1.3 min). Overall complications included two small groin haematomas in each group. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided local anaesthesia of the CFA prior to percutaneous transcatheter procedures is safe and achieves superior levels of analgesia with minimal patient pain and discomfort compared to the standard method of manual palpation.

  3. Combined Use of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Sheet Transplantation and Local Injection of SDF-1 for Bone Repair in a Rat Nonunion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangnan; Fang, Tingting; Qi, Yiying; Yin, Xiaofan; Di, Tuoyu; Feng, Gang; Lei, Zhong; Zhang, Yuxiang; Huang, Zhongming

    2016-10-01

    Bone nonunion treatments pose a challenge in orthopedics. This study investigated the joint effects of using mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets with local injection of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) on bone formation. In vitro, we found that migration of MSCs was mediated by SDF-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, stimulation with SDF-1 had no direct effect on the proliferation or osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Furthermore, the results indicated elevated expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and vascular endothelial growth factor in MSC sheets compared with MSCs cultured in medium. New bone formation in fractures was evaluated by X-ray, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, Safranin-O staining, and immunohistochemistry in vivo. In the rat bone fracture model, the MSC sheets transplanted into the injured site along with injection of SDF-1 showed significantly more new bone formation within the gap. Moreover, at 8 weeks, complete bone union was obtained in this group. In contrast, the control group showed nonunion of the bone. Our study suggests a new strategy involving the use of MSC sheets with a local injection of SDF-1 for hard tissue reconstruction, such as the healing of nonunions and bone defects.

  4. Treatment of frozen shoulder with subcutaneous TNF-alpha blockade compared with local glucocorticoid injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schydlowsky, Pierre; Szkudlarek, Marcin; Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effect of subcutaneous adalimumab injections with intraarticular glucocorticoid injections on frozen shoulder of 18 patients with unilateral joint involvement. Ten patients were randomised to subcutaneous injections with adalimumab and eight to intraarticular glucocorticoid inject...

  5. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  6. Ultrasound-Guided Versus Landmark-Guided Local Corticosteroid Injection for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei-Ghazani, Arash; Roomizadeh, Peyman; Forogh, Bijan; Moeini-Taba, Seyed-Mohammad; Abedini, Amin; Kadkhodaie, Mona; Jahanjoo, Fateme; Eftekharsadat, Bina

    2018-04-01

    To review the literature and assess the comparative effectiveness of ultrasound-guided versus landmark-guided local corticosteroid injections in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase (Ovid), and Web of Science (from inception to February 1, 2017). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ultrasound-guided injection with landmark-guided injection in patients with CTS were included. Two authors independently screened abstracts and full texts. The outcomes of interest were Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) and Functional Status Scale (FSS) scores of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and 4 electrodiagnostic parameters, including compound muscle action potential (CMAP), sensory nerve action potential (SNAP), distal motor latency (DML), and distal sensory latency (DSL). Overall, 569 abstracts were retrieved and checked for eligibility; finally, 3 RCTs were included (181 injected hands). Pooled analysis showed that ultrasound-guided injection was more effective in SSS improvement (mean difference [MD], -.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], -.59 to -.32; P.99), DML (MD, .05; 95% CI, -.30 to .39; P=.80), or DSL (MD, .00; 95% CI, -.65 to .65; P>.99). This review suggested that ultrasound-guided injection was more effective than landmark-guided injection in symptom severity improvement in patients with CTS; however, no significant differences were observed in functional status or electrodiagnostic improvements between the 2 methods. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of One-Year Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Heroin Users in Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Although the effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is well-established in many countries, it is a relatively new therapy for heroin users in China. Jiangsu Province, a relatively wealthy province, set up 4 MMT clinics in February 2006. No previous studies have evaluated the impact of MMT in a wealthy Chinese province. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a 1-year MMT among heroin users in Jiangsu Province. We investigated the impact of the treatment by examining the following outcomes: 1 reduction of heroin use, 2 increase of appropriate sexual intercourse, 3 reduction of antisocial behavior, 4 increase of better social and family relationships, and 5 HIV prevalence among heroin users in MMT clinics. Design and Setting Repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and after heroin users in Jiangsu Province received at least 1-year of treatment in the MMT clinics. A questionnaire survey was implemented for those who agreed to participate from March to April 2006, before the initiation of MMT (N = 554. The second survey was from August to September 2007 and was administered to those who received MMT for more than 1 year (N = 804. One hundred and ninety-six patients who were investigated in both surveys were included in a longitudinal study to evaluate the factors attributable to behavior change. Results MMT helped in reducing the percentage of heroin injection and also improved social and familial relationships. Antisocial behavior, including theft, prostitution, and dealing in heroin, decreased after 1-year treatment in the MMT clinics. However, the percentage of patients using condoms was not statistically significant. No case was found to be HIV-positive among those who received more than 1 year MMT. In the longitudinal study of 196 patients who participated in both surveys, no specific demographic variables were found to be associated with heroin use, anti-social behaviors after 1-year

  8. Caffeine adsorption of montmorillonite in coffee extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto

    2017-08-01

    The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.

  9. Usefulness of injecting local anesthetic before compression in stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Akiko; Urashima, Masaki; Nishihara, Reisuke

    2009-01-01

    Stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy is a useful method of breast biopsy. However, some patients feel unbearable breast pain due to compression. Breast pain due to compression caused the fact that the breast cannot be compressed sufficiently. Sufficient compression is important to fix the breast in this method. Breast pain during this procedure is problematic from the perspectives of both stress and fixing the breast. We performed biopsy in the original manner by injecting local anesthetic before compression, in order to relieve breast pain due to compression. This was only slightly different in order from the standard method, and there was no need for any special technique or device. This way allowed for even higher breast compression, and all of the most recent 30 cases were compressed at levels greater than 120N. This approach is useful not only for relieving pain, but also for fixing the breast. (author)

  10. Methadone maintenance treatment program in prisons from the perspective of medical and non-medical prison staff: a qualitative study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Farnia, Marzieh; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Shahbazi, Mohammad; Moazen, Babak; Rahmani, Khaled

    2015-03-12

    As one of the most important components of harm reduction strategy for high-risk groups, following the HIV epidemics, Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) has been initiated in prisoners since 2003. In this paper, we aimed to assess the advantages and shortcomings of the MMT program from the perspective of people who were involved with the delivery of prison healthcare in Iran. On the basis of grounded theory and through conducting 14 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), 7 FGDs among physicians, consultants, experts, and 7 FGDs among directors and managers of prisons (n= 140) have been performed. The respondents were asked about positive and negative elements of the MMT program in Iranian prisons. This study included a total of 48 themes, of which 22 themes were related to advantages and the other 26 were about shortcomings of MMT programs in the prisons. According to participants' views "reduction of illegal drug use and high-risk injection", "reduction of potentially high-risk behaviors" and "making positive attitudes" were the main advantages of MMT in prisons, while issues such as "inaccurate implementation", "lack of skilled manpower" and "poor care after release from prison" were among the main shortcomings of MMT program. MMT program in Iran's prisons has achieved remarkable success in the field of harm reduction, but to obtain much more significant results, its shortcomings and weaknesses must be also taken into account by policy-makers. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  11. Comparison of Local Injection of Platelet Rich Plasma and Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis of Humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Raman; Kothari, S Y; Borah, Diganta

    2015-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis or Tennis Elbow is one of the most common causes of upper extremity pain with various treatment options. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) offers a new option for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. This study was conducted with an aim to compare the efficacy of PRP versus methyl-prednisolone local injection in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Sixty five patients with lateral epicondylitis were included in the study and randomized into two groups. Group A was treated with single injection of 1ml PRP with absolute platelet count of at least 1 million platelets/ mm(3). Group B was treated with single injection of 1ml (40mg) methyl-prednisolone. Pain, grip strength and functional improvements were assessed using visual analogue scale, dynamometer and quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scale respectively at baseline, 15 days, 1 month and 3 months. Sixty patients completed the follow up. All assessment parameters improved significantly in both the Groups at each follow up compared to baseline. At the end of three months group A showed significantly better improvement as compared to Group B. PRP and methyl-prenisolone both are effective in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. However, PRP is a superior treatment option for longer duration efficacy.

  12. A Prospective Study to Investigate Predictors of Relapse among Patients with Opioid Use Disorder Treated with Methadone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Naji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Concomitant opioid abuse is a serious problem among patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT for opioid use disorder. This is an exploratory study that aims to identify predictors of the length of time a patient receiving MMT for opioid use disorder remains abstinent (relapse-free. Methods Data were collected from 250 MMT patients enrolled in addiction treatment clinics across Southern Ontario. The impact of certain clinical and socio-demographic factors on the outcome (time until opioid relapse was determined using a Cox proportional hazard model. Results History of injecting drug use behavior (hazard ratio (HR: 2.26, P = 0.042, illicit benzodiazepine consumption (HR: 1.07, P = 0.002, and the age of onset of opioid abuse (HR: 1.10, P < 0.0001 are important indicators of accelerated relapse among MMT patients. Conversely, current age is positively associated with duration of abstinence from illicit opioid use, serving as a protective factor against relapse (HR: 0.93, P = 0.003. Conclusion This study helps to identify patients at increased risk of relapse during MMT, allowing health care providers to target more aggressive adjunct therapies toward high-risk patients.

  13. Morphological analysis of thermoplastic starch films and montmorillonite (TPS/MMT) using vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlemmer, Daniela; Sales, Maria Jose A.; Angelica, Romulo S.; Gomes, Ana Cristina M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Biopolymers can be used where petrochemical plastics have applications with short life. The excellent degradation of starch and its low cost make it an alternative for obtaining biodegradable plastics. To obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS) is necessary mechanical shake, high temperature and plasticizers. In this work, TPS were produced using three different vegetable oils from Brazilian's cerrado as plasticizers: buriti, macauba or pequi. Materials are also produced with montmorillonite (MMT). All the materials were analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The starch micrographs revealed irregular delaminate with a predominance of starch and 'holes' for the oils. In nanocomposites the clusters of clay are dispersed without a defined standard. It was understood that the plasticizers and processing completely changed the structure of starch causing a decrease in their crystallinity degree. Almost all nanocomposites presented exfoliate structure, only one presented intercalated structure. (author)

  14. Accidental epidural injection of Atropine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayan Bakshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal injection of drugs for anesthesia, regional analgesia, and chronic pain management are common practice now. Local anesthetic, adjuvants, and opioids are in common use. Human error in the Operation Theater and the Intensive Care Unit setup is also known and reported, due to stress and overwork. A case of unintentional atropine injection intrathecally, which was closely observed for any untoward effects, is reported here.

  15. Children's behavioral pain reactions during local anesthetic injection using cotton-roll vibration method compared with routine topical anesthesia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherian, Ali; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Topical anesthesia has been widely advocated as an important component of atraumatic administration of intraoral local anesthesia. The aim of this study was to use direct observation of children's behavioral pain reactions during local anesthetic injection using cotton-roll vibration method compared with routine topical anesthesia. Forty-eight children participated in this randomized controlled clinical trial. They received two separate inferior alveolar nerve block or primary maxillary molar infiltration injections on contralateral sides of the jaws by both cotton-roll vibration (a combination of topical anesthesia gel, cotton roll, and vibration for physical distraction) and control (routine topical anesthesia) methods. Behavioral pain reactions of children were measured according to the author-developed face, head, foot, hand, trunk, and cry (FHFHTC) scale, resulting in total scores between 0 and 18. The total scores on the FHFHTC scale ranged between 0-5 and 0-10 in the cotton-roll vibration and control methods, respectively. The mean ± standard deviation values of total scores on FHFHTC scale were lower in the cotton-roll vibration method (1.21 ± 1.38) than in control method (2.44 ± 2.18), and this was statistically significant (P anesthesia in reducing behavioral pain reactions in children during local anesthesia administration.

  16. Does pain relief by CT-guided indirect cervical nerve root injection with local anesthetics and steroids predict pain relief after decompression surgery for cervical nerve root compression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Alexander; Dietrich, Tobias J; Farshad, Mazda

    2016-10-01

    The relationship of pain relief from a recently presented CT-guided indirect cervical nerve root injection with local anesthetics and steroids to surgical decompression as a treatment for single-level cervical radiculopathy is not clear. This retrospective study aimed to compare the immediate and 6-week post-injection effects to the short- and long-term outcomes after surgical decompression, specifically in regard to pain relief. Patients (n = 39, age 47 ± 10 years) who had undergone CT-guided indirect injection with local anesthetics and steroids as an initial treatment for single cervical nerve root radiculopathy and who subsequently needed surgical decompression were included retrospectively. Pain levels (VAS scores) were monitored before, immediately after, and 6 weeks after injection (n = 34), as well as 6 weeks (n = 38) and a mean of 25 months (SD ± 12) after surgical decompression (n = 36). Correlation analysis was performed to find potential associations of pain relief after injection and after surgery to investigate the predictive value of post-injection pain relief. There was no correlation between immediate pain relief after injection (-32 ± 27 %) and 6 weeks later (-7 ± 19 %), (r = -0.023, p = 0.900). There was an association by tendency between immediate pain relief after injection and post-surgical pain relief at 6 weeks (-82 ± 27 %), (r = 0.28, p = 0.08). Pain relief at follow-up remained high at -70 ± 21 % and was correlated with the immediate pain amelioration effect of the injection (r = 0.37, p = 0.032). Five out of seven patients who reported no pain relief from injection had a pain relief from surgery in excess of 50 %. The amount of immediate radiculopathic pain relief after indirect cervical nerve root injection is associated with the amount of pain relief achieved at long-term follow-up after surgical decompression of single-level cervical radiculopathy

  17. Methyl Methacrylate and Alpha-Methyl Styrene: New Strategy for Synthesis of Bloc Copolymers for Use in Potential Biomedical Applications Generated by an Ecologic Catalyst Called Maghnite (Algerian MMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulkheir Ayat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new model for synthesis of the plastics, block copolymers were prepared from methyl methacrylate (MMA and alpha-methyl styrene (α-MS by cationic copolymerization in the presence of a new and efficient catalyst of “Maghnite-Na” at 0 °C in bulk. In this paper, the copolymerization of α-MS and MMA was induced in heterogeneous phase catalyzed by Maghnite-Na was investigated under suitable conditions. The “Maghnite-Na” is a montmorillonite sheet silicate clay, with exchanged sodium cations to produce Na-Montmorillonite (Na+-MMT obtained from Tlemcen, Algeria, was investigated to remove heavy metal ion from wastewater as an efficient catalyst for cationic polymerization of many vinylic and heterocyclic monomers. The synthesized copolymer were characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR-1H, NMR-13C, FT-IR spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC to elucidate structural characteristics and thermal properties of the resulting copolymers. The structure compositions of “MMT”, “H+-MMT” and “Na+-MMT” have been developed. The effect of the MMA/α-MS molar ratio on the rate of copolymerization, the amount of catalyst, temperature and time of copolymerization on yield of copolymers was studied. The yield of copolymerization depends on the amount of Na+-MMT used and the reaction time. The kinetic studies indicated that the polymerization rate is first order with respect to monomer concentration. A possible mechanism of this cationic polymerization is discussed based on the results of the 1H-NMR Spectroscopic analysis of these model reactions. A cationic mechanism for the reaction studies showed that monomer was inserted into the growing chains. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 2nd May 2015; Revised: 24th February 2016; Accepted: 15th March 2016 How to Cite: Ayat, M., Belbachir, M., Rahmouni, A. (2016. Methyl Methacrylate and Alpha-Methyl Styrene: New

  18. Blockade of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors in the Dorsal Periaqueductal Gray Unmasks the Antinociceptive Effect of Local Injections of Anandamide in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego C. Mascarenhas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Divergent results in pain management account for the growing number of studies aiming at elucidating the pharmacology of the endocannabinoid/endovanilloid anandamide (AEA within several pain-related brain structures. For instance, the stimulation of both Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 and Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 receptors led to paradoxical effects on nociception. Here, we attempted to propose a clear and reproducible methodology to achieve the antinociceptive effect of exogenous AEA within the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG of mice exposed to the tail-flick test. Accordingly, male Swiss mice received intra-dPAG injection of AEA (CB1/TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist, WIN (CB1 agonist, AM251 (CB1 antagonist, and 6-iodonordihydrocapsaicin (6-IODO (TRPV1 selective antagonist and their nociceptive response was assessed with the tail-flick test. In order to assess AEA effects on nociception specifically at vanilloid or cannabinoid (CB substrates into the dPAG, mice underwent an intrinsically inactive dose of AM251 or 6-IODO followed by local AEA injections and were subjected to the same test. While intra-dPAG AEA did not change acute pain, local injections of capsaicin or WIN induced a marked TRPV1- and CB1-dependent antinociceptive effect, respectively. Regarding the role of AEA specifically at CB/vanilloid substrates, while the blockade of TRPV1 did not change the lack of effects of intra-dPAG AEA on nociception, local pre-treatment of AM251, a CB1 antagonist, led to a clear AEA-induced antinociception. It seems that the exogenous AEA-induced antinociception is unmasked when it selectively binds to vanilloid substrates, which might be useful to address acute pain in basic and perhaps clinical trials.

  19. Intramuscular Injection of “Site Enhancement Oil”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Louise; Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Jensen, Thomas Hartvig Lindkær

    2015-01-01

    The use of intramuscular injection of foreign substances for aesthetic purposes is well known. Complications are usually local to the site of injection but can be potentially lethal. Here, we present a case of "site enhancement oil" use in a 42-year-old man who died from asphyxia due to hanging. ...

  20. Local injection of the 90Y-labelled peptidic vector DOTATOC to control gliomas of WHO grades II and III: an extended pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, T.; Mueller-Brand, J.; Hofer, S.; Wasner, M.; Zimmerer, S.; Gratzl, O.; Merlo, A.; Eichhorn, K.; Freitag, P.; Probst, A.; Reubi, J.-C.; Maecke, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    We have previously presented preliminary observations on targeting somatostatin receptor-positive malignant gliomas of all grades by local injection of the radiolabelled peptidic vector 90 Y-DOTATOC. We now report on our more thorough clinical experience with this novel compound, focussing on low-grade and anaplastic gliomas. Small peptidic vectors have the potential to target invisible infiltrative disease within normal surrounding brain tissue, thereby opening a window of opportunity for early intervention. Five progressive gliomas of WHO grades II and III and five extensively debulked low-grade gliomas were treated with varying fractions of 90 Y-DOTATOC. The vectors were locally injected into the resection cavity or into solid tumour. The activity per single injection ranged from 555 to 1,875 MBq, and the cumulative activity from 555 to 7,030 MBq, according to tumour volumes and eloquence of the affected brain area, yielding dose estimates from 76±15 to 312±62 Gy. Response was assessed by the clinical status, by steroid dependence and, every 4-6 months, by magnetic resonance imaging and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. In the five progressive gliomas, lasting responses were obtained for at least 13-45 months without the need for steroids. Radiopeptide brachytherapy had been the only modality applied to counter tumour progression. Interestingly, we observed the slow transformation of a solid, primarily inoperable anaplastic astrocytoma into a resectable multi-cystic lesion 2 years after radiopeptide brachytherapy. Based on these observations, we also assessed the feasibility of local radiotherapy following extensive debulking, which was well tolerated. Targeted beta-particle irradiation based on diffusible small peptidic vectors appears to be a promising modality for the treatment of malignant gliomas. (orig.)

  1. How Much Volume of Local Anesthesia and How Long Should You Wait After Injection for an Effective Wrist Median Nerve Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, Lyndsay M; Chishti, Yasmin Z; Woodland, Jennifer L; Lalonde, Donald H

    2018-05-01

    Many surgeons and emergentologists use non-ultrasound-guided wrist nerve blocks. There is little evidence to guide the ideal volume of local anesthesia or how long we should wait after injection before performing pain-free procedures. This pilot study examined time to maximal anesthesia to painful needle stick in 14 volunteer participants receiving bilateral wrist blocks of 6 versus 11 mL of local. One surgeon performed all 14 bilateral wrist median nerve blocks in participants who remained blinded until after bandages were applied to their wrist. No one could see which wrist received the larger 11-mL volume injection versus the 6-mL block. Blinded sensory assessors then measured perceived maximal numbness time and numbness to needle stick pain in the fingertips of the median nerve distribution. Failure to get a complete median nerve block occurred in seven of fourteen 6-mL wrist blocks versus failure in only one of fourteen 11-mL blocks. Perceived maximal numbness occurred at roughly 40 minutes after injection, but actual numbness to painful needle stick took around 100 minutes. Incomplete median nerve numbness occurred with both 6- and 11-mL non-ultrasound-guided blocks at the wrist. In those with complete blocks, it took a surprisingly long time of 100 minutes for maximal anesthesia to occur to painful needle stick stimuli to the fingertips of the median nerve distribution. Non-ultrasound-guided median nerve blocks at the wrist as described in this article lack reliability and take too long to work.

  2. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and local tolerance at injection site of marbofloxacin administered by regional intravenous limb perfusion in standing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Elodie; Trencart, Pierre; Tahier, Carine; Dron, Frederic; Paulin, Angelique; Tessier, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic variables and local tolerance at injection-site of marbofloxacin administered via regional intravenous limb perfusion (RIVLP) in standing horses. Adult horses (n = 6). RIVLP were performed with rubber tourniquets applied to the forelimbs of standing sedated horses. Marbofloxacin (0.67 mg/kg) was randomly injected in 1 forelimb, with the contralateral limb serving as a control (0.9% NaCl solution). Samples of jugular blood and synovial fluid from the radiocarpal joint of the marbofloxacin-perfused limb were collected before and at intervals after RIVLP for determination of drug concentrations. All injection sites were evaluated before, 24 and 48 hours after RIVLP by means of ultrasonographic examination, circumferential measurements and subjective visible inflammation scores by veterinarians unaware of treatment received. No adverse effects associated with the technique or antibiotic were observed. High marbofloxacin concentrations were obtained in the synovial fluid, AUCINF was significantly higher in synovial fluid than in plasma (78.64 ± 49.41 and 2.85 ± 0.60 µg h/mL respectively, P = .028). The efficacy indices, AUC0-24 /MIC90 and Cmaxobs/MIC90 , predicted a favorable outcome in the treatment of synovial fluid infections caused by enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. After RIVLP, there was no statistically significant difference between marbofloxacin-injected and control limbs for lameness, visual inflammation score, limb circumference, and ultrasonographic appearance of the veins. Marbofloxacin injected limbs had a significantly greater subcutaneous thickness, compared with control limbs. These data suggest that RIVLP of marbofloxacin (0.67 mg/kg) could be a safe and effective method for treatment of infections of the distal portion of the limb for susceptible organisms. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  3. [Current situation related to antiretroviral therapy and related influential factors on HIV infected injection drug users in the methadone maintenance treatment clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Qing; Pang, Lin; Cao, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Chang-He; Luo, Wei; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Hua; Li, Rong-Jian; Rou, Ke-Ming; Wu, Zun-You

    2013-08-01

    To find out the current coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV positive subjects and to identify the major influential factors associated with the participation in ART among them. 291 HIV positive subjects from 6 methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in Guangxi and Yunnan province were surveyed by questionnaires. 217 males (74.6%) and 74 females (25.4%) were under investigation, with the average age of 38.4 +/- 5.9. Most of them received less than senior high school education, married and unemployed. Results from the single factor logistic regression analysis showed that: working status, living alone, self-reported history of drinking alcohol in the last month, negative attitude towards MMT among family members,poor self-reported compliance to MMT in the last month,lack of incentives in the MMT clinics, reluctance on disclosure of their own HIV status, good self-perception on their health status, lack of communication on ART related topics among family members in the last 6 months, lack of correct attitude and knowledge on ART etc. appeared as the main factors that influencing the participation in ART program among the patients. Data from the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that factors as: living alone, unwilling to tell others about the status of HIV infection, poor self-perception on HIV infection, lack of discussion of ART related topics within family members in the last 6 months and poor awareness towards ART among the family members etc., were associated with the low participation rate of ART. Conclusion Strengthening the publicity and education programs on HIV positive patients and their family members at the MMT clinics seemed to be effective in extending the ART coverage. Attention should also be paid to increase the family support to the patients.

  4. Local gas injection as a scrape-off layer diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, D.F.

    1996-05-01

    A capillary puffing array has been installed on Alcator C-Mod which allows localized introduction of gaseous species in the scrape-off layer. This system has been utilized in experiments to elucidate both global and local properties of edge transport. Deuterium fueling and recycling impurity screening are observed to be characterized by non-dimensional screening efficiencies which are independent of the location of introduction. In contrast, the behavior of non-recycling impurities is seen to be characterized by a screening time which is dependent on puff location. The work of this thesis has focused on the use of the capillary array with a camera system which can view impurity line emission plumes formed in the region of an injection location. The ionic plumes observed extend along the magnetic field line with a comet-like asymmetry, indicative of background plasma ion flow. The flow is observed to be towards the nearest strike-point, independent of x-point location, magnetic field direction, and other plasma parameters. While the axes of the plumes are generally along the field line, deviations are seen which indicate cross-field ion drifts. A quasi-two dimensional fluid model has been constructed to use the plume shapes of the first charge state impurity ions to extract information about the local background plasma, specifically the temperature, parallel flow velocity, and radial electric field. Through comparisons of model results with those of a three dimensional Monte Carlo code, and comparisons of plume extracted parameters with scanning probe measurements, the efficacy of the model is demonstrated. Plume analysis not only leads to understandings of local edge impurity transport, but also presents a novel diagnostic technique

  5. Local gas injection as a scrape-off layer diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, David F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A capillary puffing array has been installed on Alcator C-Mod which allows localized introduction of gaseous species in the scrape-off layer. This system has been utilized in experiments to elucidate both global and local properties of edge transport. Deuterium fueling and recycling impurity screening are observed to be characterized by non-dimensional screening efficiencies which are independent of the location of introduction. In contrast, the behavior of non-recycling impurities is seen to be characterized by a screening time which is dependent on puff location. The work of this thesis has focused on the use of the capillary array with a camera system which can view impurity line emission plumes formed in the region of an injection location. The ionic plumes observed extend along the magnetic field line with a comet-like asymmetry, indicative of background plasma ion flow. The flow is observed to be towards the nearest strike-point, independent of x-point location, magnetic field direction, and other plasma parameters. While the axes of the plumes are generally along the field line, deviations are seen which indicate cross-field ion drifts. A quasi-two dimensional fluid model has been constructed to use the plume shapes of the first charge state impurity ions to extract information about the local background plasma, specifically the temperature, parallel flow velocity, and radial electric field. Through comparisons of model results with those of a three dimensional Monte Carlo code, and comparisons of plume extracted parameters with scanning probe measurements, the efficacy of the model is demonstrated. Plume analysis not only leads to understandings of local edge impurity transport, but also presents a novel diagnostic technique.

  6. Subdural spread of injected local anesthetic in a selective transforaminal cervical nerve root block: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofuku Katsuhiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although uncommon, selective cervical nerve root blocks can have serious complications. The most serious complications that have been reported include cerebral infarction, spinal cord infarction, transient quadriplegia and death. Case presentation A 40-year-old Japanese woman with a history of severe right-sided cervical radicular pain was scheduled to undergo a right-sided C6 selective cervical nerve root block using a transforaminal approach under fluoroscopic guidance. An anterior oblique view of the C5-C6 intervertebral foramen was obtained, and a 23-gauge spinal needle, connected to the normal extension tube with a syringe filled with contrast medium, was introduced into the posterior-caudal aspect of the C5-C6 intervertebral foramen on the right side. In the anteroposterior view, the placement of the needle was considered satisfactory when it was placed no more medial than halfway across the width of the articular pillar. Although the spread of the contrast medium along the C6 nerve root was observed with right-sided C6 radiculography, the subdural flow of the contrast medium was not observed with real-time fluoroscopy. The extension tube used for the radiculography was removed from the spinal needle and a normal extension tube with a syringe filled with lidocaine connected in its place. We performed a negative aspiration test and then injected 1.5 mL of 1.0% lidocaine slowly around the C6 nerve root. Immediately after the injection of the local anesthetic, our patient developed acute flaccid paralysis, complained of breathing difficulties and became unresponsive; her respiratory pattern was uncoordinated. After 20 minutes, she regained consciousness and became alert, and her muscle strength in all four limbs returned to normal without any sensory deficits after receiving emergent cardiorespiratory support. Conclusions We believe that confirming maintenance of the appropriate needle position in the anteroposterior

  7. Bioluminescence imaging of chondrocytes in rabbits by intraarticular injection of D-luciferin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Min; Min, Jung Joon; Kim, Sung Mi; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Suk Jung; Kang, Han Saem; Kim, Kwang Yoon [ECOBIO INC., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho [College of Natural Science, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Luciferase is one of the most commonly used reporter enzymes in the field of in vivo optical imaging. D-luciferin, the substrate for firefly luciferase has very high cost that allows this kind of experiment limited to small animals such as mice and rats. In this current study, we validated local injection of D-luciferin in the articular capsule for bioluminescence imaging in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured and infected by replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding firefly luciferase (Fluc). Chondrocytes expressing Fluc were injected or implanted in the left knee joint. The rabbits underwent optical imaging studies after local injection of D-luciferin at 1, 5, 7, 9 days after cellular administration. We sought whether optimal imaging signals was could be by a cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin. Imaging signal was not observed from the left knee joint after intraperitoneal injection of D-luciferin (15 mg/kg), whereas it was observed after intraarticular injection. Photon intensity from the left knee joint of rabbits was compared between cell injected and implanted groups after intraarticular injection of D-luciferin. During the period of imaging studies, photon intensity of the cell implanted group was 5-10 times higher than that of the cell injected group. We successfully imaged chondrocytes expressing Fluc after intraarticular injection of D-luciferin. This technique may be further applied to develop new drugs for knee joint disease.

  8. Targeting the Plantar Fascia for Corticosteroid Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Andrea Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is often a difficult condition to treat. It is related to repetitive strain of the fascia at its attachment to the heel bone. This condition quite often appears with the concomitant presence of a plantar calcaneal heel spur. Corticosteroid injection is a popular treatment choice for plantar fasciitis, and accurate localization of the injected medication is essential for successful resolution of symptoms after the injection. In the present brief technical communication, a method for targeting the attachment of the plantar fascia to the medial tubercle of the tuberosity of the calcaneus is described. The targeting method uses the lateral radiograph of the foot to aid in localization of the proximal attachment of the plantar fascia to the calcaneus. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spinal CT-guided injections. Clinical applications-limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatakis, V.; Vlachou, I.; Petrocheilou, G.; Safarika, V.; Geroukis, I.; Petinelli, A.; Stathopoulou, S.; Kokkinis, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Chronic spinal pain is an important health issue with serious social and financial consequences. Thus, application of minimal invasive procedures is a popular technique for immediate relief of pain. Objectives and tasks: Our purpose is to present CT guided intraspinal injection of pharmaceutical agents for the relief of persistent pain. Material and methods: Chronic localized or radicular spinal pain may be treated safely and efficiently with injection of various pharmaceutical agents (local anesthetic, opioid analgesic and steroids or combination of these). The possible sites of infiltration include: a) intervertebral joints (facets), b) sacroiliac joints, c)perineural infiltration of the affected nerve roots and d) the epidural space. We will mention the patients choice criteria (combination of clinical symptoms and specific pain evaluation questionnaire) as they are reported in the international bibliography. Finally, we will discuss the repeatability criteria of the method as well as its limitations. Results: CT-guided pharmaceutical agents injection for the relief of persistent spinal pain have an advantage against other methods because of the precision and safety that they offer to the localization and diagnosis of the pain cause. Conclusion: Small complications percentage and satisfactory results have made CT-guided spinal injections a popular technique for chronic back pain relief. In order to apply these techniques the good knowledge of the method, its possibilities and limitations is necessary

  10. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.; Harding, J.; Kingsly, A.; Bradley, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  11. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R., E-mail: russell.young@gwh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Harding, J. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Coventry, Coventry (United Kingdom); Kingsly, A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Bristol Institue of Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bradley, M. [Department of Radiology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  12. Adjuncts to local anesthesia: separating fact from fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J K

    2001-01-01

    Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection, computer-controlled delivery systems, periodontal ligament injection and needleless jet injection, have been proposed to hold particular advantages over conventional means of achieving local anesthesia. This article describes the use of each technique and proprietary armamentarium and reviews the literature appraising their use.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of methadone maintenance therapy as HIV prevention in an Indonesian high-prevalence setting: a mathematical modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wammes, Joost J G; Siregar, Adiatma Y; Hidayat, Teddy; Raya, Reynie P; van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, André J; Baltussen, Rob

    2012-09-01

    Indonesia faces an HIV epidemic that is in rapid transition. Injecting drug users (IDUs) are among the most heavily affected risk populations, with estimated prevalence of HIV reaching 50% or more in most parts of the country. Although Indonesia started opening methadone clinics in 2003, coverage remains low. We used the Asian Epidemic Model and Resource Needs Model to evaluate the long-term population-level preventive impact of expanding Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) in West Java (43 million people). We compared intervention costs and the number of incident HIV cases in the intervention scenario with current practice to establish the cost per infection averted by expanding MMT. An extensive sensitivity analysis was performed on costs and epidemiological input, as well as on the cost-effectiveness calculation itself. Our analysis shows that expanding MMT from 5% coverage now to 40% coverage in 2019 would avert approximately 2400 HIV infections, at a cost of approximately US$7000 per HIV infection averted. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate that the use of alternative assumptions does not change the study conclusions. Our analyses suggest that expanding MMT is cost-effective, and support government policies to make MMT widely available as an integrated component of HIV/AIDS control in West Java. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Periodontal ligament and intraosseous anesthetic injection techniques: alternatives to mandibular nerve blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul A; Cuddy, Michael A; Cooke, Matthew R; Sokolowski, Chester J

    2011-09-01

    and Overview. The provision of mandibular anesthesia traditionally has relied on nerve block anesthetic techniques such as the Halsted, the Gow-Gates and the Akinosi-Vazirani methods. The authors present two alternative techniques to provide local anesthesia in mandibular teeth: the periodontal ligament (PDL) injection and the intraosseous (IO) injection. The authors also present indications for and complications associated with these techniques. The PDL injection and the IO injection are effective anesthetic techniques for managing nerve block failures and for providing localized anesthesia in the mandible. Dentists may find these techniques to be useful alternatives to nerve block anesthesia.

  15. Repeat Sequence Proteins as Matrices for Nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummy, L.; Koerner, H; Phillips, D; McAuliffe, J; Kumar, M; Farmer, B; Vaia, R; Naik, R

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant protein-inorganic nanocomposites comprised of exfoliated Na+ montmorillonite (MMT) in a recombinant protein matrix based on silk-like and elastin-like amino acid motifs (silk elastin-like protein (SELP)) were formed via a solution blending process. Charged residues along the protein backbone are shown to dominate long-range interactions, whereas the SELP repeat sequence leads to local protein/MMT compatibility. Up to a 50% increase in room temperature modulus and a comparable decrease in high temperature coefficient of thermal expansion occur for cast films containing 2-10 wt.% MMT.

  16. The ultrasound-guided retrolaminar block: volume-dependent injectate distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanovska M

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Marija Damjanovska,1 Tatjana Stopar Pintaric,1,2 Erika Cvetko,2 Kamen Vlassakov3 1Clinical Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 2Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Purpose: The ultrasound-guided retrolaminar block is one of the newer and simpler alternatives to the traditional, often technically challenging, paravertebral (PV block. Its feasibility, safety, and efficacy have already been clinically demonstrated in patients with multiple rib fractures using higher volumes of local anesthetic, when compared with the traditional approach. The primary aim of this observational anatomical study was to assess the spread of local anesthetic from the retrolaminar injection point to the PV space and its volume dependence. Second, we assessed the incidence of epidural and contralateral PV spread in the both groups.Methods: Ten fresh porcine cadavers were randomized into 2 groups (n=5 each to receive ultrasound-guided retrolaminar injections at Th4-Th5 level with either 10 mL (low-volume group or 30 mL (high-volume group of 2% lidocaine and methylene blue mixture. After the procedure, the cadavers were dissected and frozen. Cross-section cuts (~1 cm thick were performed to evaluate the injectate spread.Results: In the high-volume group, injectate spread from the retrolaminar to the PV space was observed in all specimens (5 out of 5; 100%, while in the low-volume group, no apparent spread to the PV space was found (0 out of 5; 0%. No epidural or contralateral PV spread was observed in any of the specimens.Conclusion: Following ultrasound-guided retrolaminar injections in fresh porcine cadavers, injectate spread from the retrolaminar tissue plane to the PV space is strongly volume dependent

  17. Evolution of the dispersionless injection boundary associated with substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sarris

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available One manifestation of energetic particle acceleration during magnetospheric substorms is the sudden appearance of particle injections into the inner magnetosphere, often observed near geosynchronous orbit. Injections that show simultaneous flux increases in all energy ranges of a detector are called dispersionless injections, and are most often observed in a narrow region around local midnight. In these events it is assumed that the satellite is located close to or inside the region where acceleration and/or transport processes are taking place, called the injection region. We present a study of the location, extent and temporal evolution of the injection region, based on simulation results of a model of the expansion of the electric and magnetic fields associated with a substorm. The model simulates the fields during a substorm onset with an electric field and consistent magnetic field pulse that propagates towards the Earth with a decreasing speed. Our simulation shows that the dispersionless injection boundary can be considered coincident with the leading edge of the pulse field, which transports particles toward the Earth across a certain range of local time. Under the same model field, the dispersionless injection boundary shifts eastward for electrons and westward for protons, consistent with the observation results deduced from statistical analysis of multiple spacecraft measurements.

  18. NEGOTIATING STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY FOLLOWING REGULATORY CHANGES TO A PROVINCIAL METHADONE PROGRAM IN VANCOUVER, CANADA: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Kerr, Thomas; Anderson, Solanna; Maher, Lisa; Keewatin, Chereece; Milloy, MJ; Wood, Evan; Small, Will

    2015-01-01

    While regulatory frameworks governing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) require highly regimented treatment programs that shape treatment outcomes, little research has examined the effects of regulatory changes to these programs on those receiving treatment, and located their experiences within the wider context of socialstructural inequities. In British Columbia (BC), Canada, provincial regulations governing MMT have recently been modified, including: replacing the existing methadone formulation with Methadose® (pre-mixed and 10 times more concentrated); prohibiting pharmacy delivery of methadone; and, prohibiting pharmacies incentives for methadone dispensation. We undertook this study to examine the impacts of these changes on a structurally vulnerable population enrolled in MMT in Vancouver, BC. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 people enrolled in MMT and recruited from two ongoing observational prospective cohort studies comprised of drug-using individuals in the six-month period in 2014 following these regulatory changes. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically, and by drawing on the concept of ‘structural vulnerability’. Findings underscore how these regulatory changes disrupted treatment engagement, producing considerable health and social harms. The introduction of Methadose® precipitated increased withdrawal symptoms. The discontinuation of pharmacy delivery services led to interruptions in MMT and codispensed HIV medications due to constraints stemming from their structural vulnerability (e.g., poverty, homelessness). Meanwhile, the loss of pharmacy incentives limited access to material supports utilized by participants to overcome barriers to MMT, while diminishing their capacity to assert some degree of agency in negotiating dispensation arrangements with pharmacies. Collectively, these changes functioned to compromise MMT engagement and increased structural vulnerability to harm, including re-initiation of injection drug

  19. A novel vehicle for local protein delivery to the inner ear: injectable and biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogel loaded with PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Juan; Long, Wei; Liang, Zhongping; Wen, Lu; Yang, Fan; Chen, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Delivery of biomacromolecular drugs into the inner ear is challenging, mainly because of their inherent instability as well as physiological and anatomical barriers. Therefore, protein-friendly, hydrogel-based delivery systems following local administration are being developed for inner ear therapy. Herein, biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) containing interferon α-2 b (IFN α-2 b) were loaded in chitosan/glycerophosphate (CS/GP)-based thermosensitive hydrogel for IFN delivery by intratympanic injection. The injectable hydrogel possessed a physiological pH and formed semi-solid gel at 37 °C, with good swelling and deswelling properties. The CS/GP hydrogel could slowly degrade as visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of NPs in CS/GP gel largely influenced in vitro drug release. In the guinea pig cochlea, a 1.5- to 3-fold increase in the drug exposure time of NPs-CS/GP was found than those of the solution, NPs and IFN-loaded hydrogel. Most importantly, a prolonged residence time was attained without obvious histological changes in the inner ear. This biodegradable, injectable, and thermosensitive NPs-CS/GP system may allow longer delivery of protein drugs to the inner ear, thus may be a potential novel vehicle for inner ear therapy.

  20. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Fasciitis after Intramuscular Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Abbate

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing soft tissue fasciitis (NSTIs or necrotizing fasciitis is an infrequent and serious infection. Herein, we describe the clinical course of a female patient who received a diagnosis of NSTIs after gluteus intramuscular injection. We also report the results of our review of published papers from 1997 to 2017. Since now, 19 cases of NSTIs following intramuscular injections have been described. We focus on the correlation between intramuscular injection and NSTIs onset, especially in immunosuppressed patients treated with corticosteroids, suffering from chronic diseases or drug addicted. Intramuscular injections can provoke severe tissue trauma, representing local portal of infection, even if correctly administrated. Otherwise, it is important not to inject drug in subcutaneous, which is a less vascularized area and therefore more susceptible to infections. Likewise, a proper injecting technique and aspiration prior to injection seem to be valid measure to prevent intra-arterial or para-arterial drug injection with the consequent massive inflammatory reaction. Necrosis at the infection site appears to be independent of the drug, and it is a strong additional risk factor for NSTIs.

  1. Sonoanatomy and injection technique of the iliolumbar ligament.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, Dominic

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: The iliolumbar ligament plays an important biomechanic role in anchoring the spine to the pelvic ring and stabilizing the sacroiliac joint. Iliolumbar syndrome is a back pain condition caused by pathology of the iliolumbar ligament. History and physical examination are important in the assessment of back pain, but they lack sufficient specificity. Injection of small volumes of local anesthetic into the structure considered to be the source of the pain (i.e. the iliolumbar ligament) increases the specificity of the diagnostic workup. OBJECTIVE: To describe an ultrasound - guided technique for injecting the iliolumbar ligament. STUDY DESIGN: Case report based on knowledge of topographic anatomy and sonoanatomy. SETTING: Outpatient clinic. METHODS: A patient with a clinical picture suggestive of iliolumbar syndrome was selected. An ultrasound-guided injection of the iliolumbar ligament with local anesthetic was performed. We recorded the patient\\'s subjective assessment of pain and the change in range of movement and pain scores during provocative tests. RESULTS: Following the injection, the patient\\'s pain score decreased, provocation tests became negative, and the range of movement increased. LIMITATIONS: Case report. Target specificity and dispersion of local anesthetic spread not confirmed with an independent technique (i.e. magnetic resonance imaging). CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound guidance allows the selective deposition of small volumes of local anesthetic into structures believed to cause soft tissue back pain and thus to confirm or exclude the working diagnosis. Further studies are needed to confirm our conclusions and to prove the clinical feasibility of this technique.

  2. MMT/AO 5 μm IMAGING CONSTRAINTS ON THE EXISTENCE OF GIANT PLANETS ORBITING FOMALHAUT AT ∼13-40 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Hinz, Philip M.; Meyer, Michael R.; Miller, Douglas L.; Sivanandam, Suresh; Freed, Melanie; Mamajek, Eric E.; Heinze, Aren N.

    2009-01-01

    A candidate ∼ Jup extrasolar planet was recently imaged by Kalas et al. using Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys and Keck II at 12.''7 (96 AU) separation from the nearby (d = 7.7 pc) young (∼200 Myr) A2V star Fomalhaut. Here, we report results from M-band (4.8 μm) imaging of Fomalhaut on 2006 December 5 using the Clio IR imager on the 6.5 m MMT with the adaptive secondary mirror. Our images are sensitive to giant planets at orbital radii comparable to the outer solar system (∼10-40 AU). Comparing our 5σ M-band photometric limits to theoretical evolutionary tracks for substellar objects, our results rule out the existence of planets with masses >2 M Jup from ∼13 to 40 AU and objects >13 M Jup from ∼8 to 40 AU.

  3. Phase I/II study of radiotherapy in combination with local injection of H2O2 (KORTUC II) for advanced or relapsed cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashihara, Kenichi; Honda, Chikara; Yamashita, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Between January 2009 and June 2011, 29 patients with advanced or relapsed cancer were treated with radiotherapy and local injection of H 2 O 2 as a radiation sensitizer (KORTUC II) in our Clinic. They included head and neck cancer (n=8), breast cancer (n=7), GI tract cancer (n=6) and others (n=8). The 10/29 patients had a history of local irradiation at the previous hospitals. The 4/29 patients stopped during the treatment, 3 of them were due to the poor general conditions not due to this treatment, and only one was due to local pain. This therapy was tolerable for almost patients. We analysed the local response of twelve patients irradiated more than BED2.050 Gy. One patient with breast DCIS had stable disease at 1 month after the therapy. The local effectiveness of 11/12 patients was PR. Radiotherapy with KORTUG II is safe and effective, it may become a main treatment for radio-resistant tumor. (author)

  4. The Effect of 2 Injection Speeds on Local Anesthetic Discomfort During Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Melo, Marcelo Rodrigo; Sabey, Mark Jon Santana; Lima, Carla Juliane; de Almeida Souza, Liane Maciel; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This randomized double-blind crossover trial investigated the discomfort associated with 2 injection speeds, low (60 seconds) and slow (100 seconds), during inferior alveolar nerve block by using 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine. Three phases were considered: (a) mucosa perforation, (b) needle insertion, and (c) solution injection. Thirty-two healthy adult volunteers needing bilateral inferior alveolar nerve blocks at least 1 week apart were enrolled in the present study. The anesthetic procedure discomfort was recorded by volunteers on a 10-cm visual analog scale in each phase for both injection speeds. Comparison between the 2 anesthesia speeds in each phase was performed by paired t test. Results showed no statistically significant difference between injection speeds regarding perforation (P = .1016), needle placement (P = .0584), or speed injection (P = .1806). The discomfort in all phases was considered low. We concluded that the 2 injection speeds tested did not affect the volunteers' pain perception during inferior alveolar nerve blocks.

  5. Injection therapy for subacute and chronic low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, J Bart; de Bie, Rob; de Vet, Henrica Cw; Hildebrandt, Jan; Nelemans, Patty

    2008-07-16

    The effectiveness of injection therapy for low-back pain is still debatable. Heterogeneity of target tissue, pharmacological agent and dosage generally found in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) points to the need for clinically valid comparisons in a literature synthesis. To determine if injection therapy is more effective than placebo or other treatments for patients with subacute or chronic low-back pain. We updated the search of the earlier systematic review and searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from January 1999 to March 2007 for relevant trials reported in English, French, German, Dutch and Nordic languages. We also screened references from trials identified. RCTs on the effects of injection therapy involving epidural, facet or local sites for subacute or chronic low-back pain were included. Studies which compared the effects of intradiscal injections, prolotherapy or Ozone therapy with other treatments, were excluded unless injection therapy with another pharmaceutical agent (no placebo treatment) was part of one of the treatment arms. Studies about injections in sacroiliac joints and studies evaluating the effects of epidural steroids for radicular pain were also excluded. Two review authors independently assessed the quality of the trials. If study data were clinically and statistically too heterogeneous to perform a meta-analysis, we used a best evidence synthesis to summarize the results. The evidence was classified into five levels (strong, moderate, limited, conflicting or no evidence), taking into account the methodological quality of the studies. 18 trials (1179 participants) were included in this updated review. The injection sites varied from epidural sites and facet joints (i.e. intra-articular injections, peri-articular injections and nerve blocks) to local sites (i.e. tender- and trigger points). The drugs that were studied consisted of corticosteroids, local anesthetics and a variety of

  6. Heroin on trial: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials of diamorphine-prescribing as treatment for refractory heroin addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strang, John; Groshkova, Teodora; Uchtenhagen, Ambros; van den Brink, Wim; Haasen, Christian; Schechter, Martin T.; Lintzeris, Nick; Bell, James; Pirona, Alessandro; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Simon, Roland; Metrebian, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background Supervised injectable heroin (SIN) treatment has emerged over the past 15 years as an intensive treatment for entrenched heroin users who have not responded to standard treatments such as oral methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) or residential rehabilitation. Aims To synthesise

  7. Study Protocol- Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injections for Spinal Stenosis (LESS: a double-blind randomized controlled trial of epidural steroid injections for lumbar spinal stenosis among older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedly Janna L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbar spinal stenosis is one of the most common causes of low back pain among older adults and can cause significant disability. Despite its prevalence, treatment of spinal stenosis symptoms remains controversial. Epidural steroid injections are used with increasing frequency as a less invasive, potentially safer, and more cost-effective treatment than surgery. However, there is a lack of data to judge the effectiveness and safety of epidural steroid injections for spinal stenosis. We describe our prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial that tests the hypothesis that epidural injections with steroids plus local anesthetic are more effective than epidural injections of local anesthetic alone in improving pain and function among older adults with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods We will recruit up to 400 patients with lumbar central canal spinal stenosis from at least 9 clinical sites over 2 years. Patients with spinal instability who require surgical fusion, a history of prior lumbar surgery, or prior epidural steroid injection within the past 6 months are excluded. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either ESI with local anesthetic or the control intervention (epidural injections with local anesthetic alone. Subjects receive up to 2 injections prior to the primary endpoint at 6 weeks, at which time they may choose to crossover to the other intervention. Participants complete validated, standardized measures of pain, functional disability, and health-related quality of life at baseline and at 3 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months after randomization. The primary outcomes are Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and a numerical rating scale measure of pain intensity at 6 weeks. In order to better understand their safety, we also measure cortisol, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, weight, and blood pressure at baseline, and at 3 and 6 weeks post-injection. We also obtain data on resource utilization

  8. Squeezing in an injection-locked semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, S.; Machida, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Ohzu, H.

    1993-09-01

    The intensity-noise properties of an injection-locked semiconductor laser were studied experimentally. The constant-current-driven semiconductor laser producing the amplitude-squeezed state whose intensity noise was reduced below the standard quantum limit (SQL) by 0.72 dB was injection-locked by an external master laser. The measured intensity-noise level of the injection-locked semiconductor laser was 0.91 dB below the SQL. This experimental result indicates that a phase-coherent amplitude-squeezed state or squeezed vacuum state together with a reference local oscillator wave can be generated directly by semiconductor laser systems.

  9. Delivery and utilisation of injectable contraceptives services in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in four rural Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Oyo state, Nigeria. Trained ... Besides selling injectable contraceptives, 14.9% of the PMVs reported administering injectables and 43.9% reported referring clients to a formal health facility for this contraceptive. Slightly over ...

  10. Therapeutic application of injectable thermosensitive hydrogel in preventing local breast cancer recurrence and improving incision wound healing in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Na; Gong, Changyang; Qian, Zhiyong; Luo, Feng; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Helan; Wei, Yuquan

    2012-08-01

    Many drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been investigated for local targeting of malignant disease with the intention of increasing anti-tumor activity and minimizing systemic toxicity. An injectable thermosensitive hydrogel was applied to prevent locoregional recurrence of 4T1 breast cancer in a mouse model. The presented hydrogel, which is based on poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG, PECE), flows freely at normal temperature, forms a gel within seconds in situ at body temperature, and eventually releases the drug in a consistent and sustained fashion as it gradually biodegrades. Locoregional recurrence after primary tumor removal was significantly inhibited in mice treated with the paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded PECE hydrogel subcutaneously (9.1%) administered, compared with the blank hydrogel (80.0%), systemic (77.8%) and locally (75.0%) administered PTX, and the control group (100%) (P 0.05), in agreement with histopathological examinations. This novel DDSs represents a promising approach for local adjuvant therapy in malignant disease.

  11. Probing Hypergiant Mass Loss with Adaptive Optics Imaging and Polarimetry in the Infrared: MMT-Pol and LMIRCam Observations of IRC +10420 and VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Dinesh P.; Jones, Terry J.; Packham, Chris; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique

    2015-07-01

    We present 2-5 μm adaptive optics (AO) imaging and polarimetry of the famous hypergiant stars IRC +10420 and VY Canis Majoris. The imaging polarimetry of IRC +10420 with MMT-Pol at 2.2 μ {m} resolves nebular emission with intrinsic polarization of 30%, with a high surface brightness indicating optically thick scattering. The relatively uniform distribution of this polarized emission both radially and azimuthally around the star confirms previous studies that place the scattering dust largely in the plane of the sky. Using constraints on scattered light consistent with the polarimetry at 2.2 μ {m}, extrapolation to wavelengths in the 3-5 μm band predicts a scattered light component significantly below the nebular flux that is observed in our Large Binocular Telescope/LMIRCam 3-5 μm AO imaging. Under the assumption this excess emission is thermal, we find a color temperature of ˜500 K is required, well in excess of the emissivity-modified equilibrium temperature for typical astrophysical dust. The nebular features of VY CMa are found to be highly polarized (up to 60%) at 1.3 μm, again with optically thick scattering required to reproduce the observed surface brightness. This star’s peculiar nebular feature dubbed the “Southwest Clump” is clearly detected in the 3.1 μm polarimetry as well, which, unlike IRC +10420, is consistent with scattered light alone. The high intrinsic polarizations of both hypergiants’ nebulae are compatible with optically thick scattering for typical dust around evolved dusty stars, where the depolarizing effect of multiple scatters is mitigated by the grains’ low albedos. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.

  12. Nicolau syndrome caused by the "self-injection" of diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Yaylaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicolau syndrome (NS is a rare injection-related local complication. Some drugs have been implicated to cause this syndrome. Several cases were previously reported in the literature. In this paper, an interesting case of NS in a 30-year-old male patient after intramuscular self-injection of diclofenac was presented.

  13. EMC3-EIRENE modeling of toroidally-localized divertor gas injection experiments on Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lore, J.D., E-mail: lorejd@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Reinke, M.L. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); LaBombard, B. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lipschultz, B. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Churchill, R.M. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Feng, Y. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Experiments on Alcator C-Mod with toroidally and poloidally localized divertor nitrogen injection have been modeled using the three-dimensional edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE to elucidate the mechanisms driving measured toroidal asymmetries. In these experiments five toroidally distributed gas injectors in the private flux region were sequentially activated in separate discharges resulting in clear evidence of toroidal asymmetries in radiated power and nitrogen line emission as well as a ∼50% toroidal modulation in electron pressure at the divertor target. The pressure modulation is qualitatively reproduced by the modeling, with the simulation yielding a toroidal asymmetry in the heat flow to the outer strike point. Toroidal variation in impurity line emission is qualitatively matched in the scrape-off layer above the strike point, however kinetic corrections and cross-field drifts are likely required to quantitatively reproduce impurity behavior in the private flux region and electron temperatures and densities directly in front of the target.

  14. Seizure After Local Anesthesia for Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Jing Tsai

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a young male patient who experienced seizure after local injection of 3 mL 2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:200,000 around a recurrent nasal angiofibroma. After receiving 100% oxygen via mask and thiamylal sodium, the patient had no residual neurologic sequelae. Seizure immediately following the injection of local anesthetics in the nasal cavity is probably due to injection into venous or arterial circulation with retrograde flow to the brain circulation. Further imaging study or angiography should be done before head and neck surgeries, especially in such highly vascular neoplasm.

  15. Radiation pressure injection in laser-wakefield acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. L.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Isayama, S.; Chen, S. H.

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the injection of electrons in laser-wakefield acceleration induced by a self-modulated laser pulse by a two dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. The localized electric fields and magnetic fields are excited by the counter-streaming flows on the surface of the ion bubble, owing to the Weibel or two stream like instability. The electrons are injected into the ion bubble from the sides of it and then accelerated by the wakefield. Contrary to the conventional wave breaking model, the injection of monoenergetic electrons are mainly caused by the electromagnetic process. A simple model was proposed to address the instability, and the growth rate was verified numerically and theoretically.

  16. Evaluating the Effects of local Injections of Bupivacaine and Triamcinolone Acetate on Shoulder Joint Pain and Restricted Range of Motion Following Cerebrovascular Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadollah Saadat Niaki M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shoulder pain is a common complication of cerebrovascular accidents. This study was conducted to assess the effects of local injections of bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetate on shoulder joint pain and on restricted range of motion following brain events. Methods: This single-blind clinical trial study included 35 patients with chronic shoulder pain (the controls and 35 patients with chronic shoulder pain due to brain events (the case group. The study was done at Imam Hossein Hospital & Gandhi Day Clinic during the year 2008-2010. The patients in the two groups received bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetate for subacromial bursa injection and suprascapular nerve block by following the protocol described by Dangoisse et al. The patients were followed up for 12 weeks and they were evaluated for pain and range of motion 1, 6, and 12 weeks after the injections.Results: The mean age of the patients was 60.9±9.07 years. Statistically significant improvements in pain score (P=0.001 and shoulder joint range of motion (P=0.001 were observed in patients with chronic shoulder pain versus patients with brain events 12 weeks after suprascapulare nerve block and subacromial bours injections by bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetate.Conclusion: Suprascapular nerve block and subacromial bursa injections of bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetate is a safe and efficacious treatment for the treatment of chronic shoulder pain and restricted range of motion but it is not efficacious or of significant value for the treatment of shoulder pain in patients with brain events.

  17. Large scale gas injection test (Lasgit): Results from two gas injection tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuss, R. J.; Harrington, J. F.; Noy, D. J.; Wikman, A.; Sellin, P.

    2011-01-01

    entry occurs at a gas pressure close to, or slightly in excess of, the local stress state and is associated with a rapid increase in flux, linked to a series of kicks in axial and radial stress and pore water pressure. Post peak gas flux exhibits dynamic behaviour, symptomatic of unstable gas flow. When gas injection is stopped, flux into the clay rapidly reduces before entering an extended period of very small flows. This is accompanied by a rapid reduction in pressure which decays to an asymptotic value close to that of the total stress locally within the deposition hole. Examination of the data shows considerable evidence for the development of a highly-dynamic, tortuous network of pressure induced pathways which evolve both temporally and geo-spatially within the clay, opening and closing due to local changes in gas pressure and/or effective stress. These detailed observations do not conform to standard concepts of two-phase flow. The bentonite response to the passage of gas suggests that pathway dilation is the primary mechanism governing gas migration within the Lasgit system. The important coupling between gas, stress and pore water pressure at the repository scale is clearly evident with the data. The importance and interdependencies of this coupling will be investigated in future experiments planned at the Lasgit experimental site. (authors)

  18. Giant tunnel-electron injection in nitrogen-doped graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagoute, Jerome; Joucken, Frederic; Repain, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy experiments have been performed to measure the local electron injection in nitrogen-doped graphene on SiC(000) and were successfully compared to ab initio calculations. In graphene, a gaplike feature is measured around the Fermi level due to a phonon-mediated tunneling...... and at carbon sites. Nitrogen doping can therefore be proposed as a way to improve tunnel-electron injection in graphene....

  19. Ventricular fibrillation after accidental injection of bupivacaine into the pericardium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Even, B. J.; de Jongh, R. F.; de Hert, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    A postoperative cardiac surgical patient developed ventricular fibrillation immediately after accidental pericardial injection of bupivacaine at room temperature. The possible causes, which include systemic toxicity, local vasoconstriction with myocardial ischaemia, local toxic effect of bupivacaine

  20. Mesotherapy and phosphatidylcholine injections: historical clarification and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotunda, Adam M; Kolodney, Michael S

    2006-04-01

    Mesotherapy was originally conceived in Europe as a method of utilizing cutaneous injections containing a mixture of compounds for the treatment of local medical and cosmetic conditions. Although mesotherapy was traditionally employed for pain relief, its cosmetic applications, particularly fat and cellulite removal, have recently received attention in the United States. Another treatment for localized fat reduction, which was popularized in Brazil and uses injections of phosphatidylcholine, has been erroneously considered synonymous with mesotherapy. Despite their attraction as purported "fat-dissolving" injections, the safety and efficacy of these novel cosmetic treatments remain ambiguous to most patients and physicians. To distinguish mesotherapy from phosphatidylcholine injections by reviewing their history and the relevant experimental or clinical findings. A comprehensive search of Medline indexed literature and conference proceedings. All the published studies evaluating the clinical efficacy of traditional mesotherapy currently originate from Europe. These reports focus primarily on musculoskeletal pain and vascular disease, rather than cosmetic applications. Although experimental data suggest that a number of traditional mesotherapy ingredients may theoretically reduce fat, these effects have not been supported in peer-reviewed studies. An increasing number of reports demonstrate that subcutaneous injections of a formula containing phosphatidylcholine combined with its emulsifier, deoxycholate, are effective in removing small collections of adipose tissue. Cell lysis, resulting from the detergent action of deoxycholate, may account for this clinical effect. Mesotherapy is distinct from a method of treating adipose tissue with subcutaneous injections of deoxycholate alone or in combination with phosphatidylcholine. Additional clinical and experimental studies are necessary to more definitively establish the safety and efficacy of these treatments.

  1. Clinical effectiveness of multiple-drug injection treatment in unruptured ectopic pregnancies: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Quan; Wang, Lu-Lu; Shao, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Si-Ming; Dong, Xiao-Qiu

    2012-10-01

    To study the effect of local interventional treatment of unruptured ectopic pregnancies with multiple-drug injection guided by color Doppler sonography. In this retrospective analysis, 49 patients with an unruptured ectopic pregnancy were treated with two different local injection methods administered under sonographic guidance. The patients were divided into single-drug (n = 23) and multiple-drug (n = 26) injection groups, and they received a locally administered injection of methotrexate alone or a combination including methotrexate, hemocoagulase, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. Overall, local injection treatment was successful in 44 patients. The 5 patients with failed treatment underwent laparotomy about 1 week after single-drug injection. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG ) levels, ectopic pregnancy mass sizes, blood flow at various points after treatment, the incidence of pelvic bleeding, and the time for serum β-hCG levels to return to normal and the mass to resolve were analyzed in the remaining 44 patients. Single-drug treatment was successful in 18 patients; 10 of 23 had low to moderate pelvic bleeding after treatment, and 5 were referred for surgery. All 26 patients were successfully treated by multiple-drug injection. Only 2 patients had a small amount of pelvic bleeding. Differences between groups were statistically significant (P injection under color Doppler guidance is a new, safe, and effective method for treating unruptured ectopic pregnancies. It accelerates the serum β-hCG decline and facilitates mass resolution. This regimen is associated with a very low rate of pelvic bleeding, improves the success rate of conservative treatment, and, therefore, has value as an important clinical application.

  2. The Incidence of Intravascular Needle Entrance during Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Ebrahimi, Hooman; Mahdipour, Masoumeh; Pourshahidi, Sara; Amini, Parisa; Vatankhah, Mahdi

    2008-01-01

    Dentists administer thousands of local anesthetic injections every day. Injection to a highly vascular area such as pterygomandibular space during an inferior alveolar nerve block has a high risk of intravascular needle entrance. Accidental intravascular injection of local anesthetic agent with vasoconstrictor may result in cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity, as well as tachycardia and hypertension. There are reports that indicate aspiration is not performed in every injection. The aim of the present study was to assess the incidence of intravascular needle entrance in inferior alveolar nerve block injections. Three experienced oral and maxillofacial surgeons performed 359 inferior alveolar nerve block injections using direct or indirect techniques, and reported the results of aspiration. Aspirable syringes and 27 gauge long needles were used, and the method of aspiration was similar in all cases. Data were analyzed using t-test. 15.3% of inferior alveolar nerve block injections were aspiration positive. Intravascular needle entrance was seen in 14.2% of cases using direct and 23.3% of cases using indirect block injection techniques. Of all injections, 15.8% were intravascular on the right side and 14.8% were intravascular on the left. There were no statistically significant differences between direct or indirect block injection techniques (P = 0.127) and between right and left injection sites (P = 0.778). According to our findings, the incidence of intravascular needle entrance during inferior alveolar nerve block injection was relatively high. It seems that technique and maneuver of injection have no considerable effect in incidence of intravascular needle entrance.

  3. New perineal injection technique for pudendal nerve infiltration in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinschenk, Stefan; Hollmann, Markus W.; Strowitzki, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Pudendal nerve injection is used as a diagnostic procedure in the vulvar region and for therapeutic purposes, such as in vulvodynia. Here, we provide a new, easy-to-perform perineal injection technique. We analyzed 105 perineal injections into the pudendal nerve with a local anesthetic (LA),

  4. Intrathecal Spread of Injectate Following an Ultrasound-Guided Selective C5 Nerve Root Injection in a Human Cadaver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falyar, Christian R; Abercrombie, Caroline; Becker, Robert; Biddle, Chuck

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound-guided selective C5 nerve root blocks have been described in several case reports as a safe and effective means to anesthetize the distal clavicle while maintaining innervation of the upper extremity and preserving diaphragmatic function. In this study, cadavers were injected with 5 mL of 0.5% methylene blue dye under ultrasound guidance to investigate possible proximal and distal spread of injectate along the brachial plexus, if any. Following the injections, the specimens were dissected and examined to determine the distribution of dye and the structures affected. One injection revealed dye extended proximally into the epidural space, which penetrated the dura mater and was present on the spinal cord and brainstem. Dye was noted distally to the divisions in 3 injections. The anterior scalene muscle and phrenic nerve were stained in all 4 injections. It appears unlikely that local anesthetic spread is limited to the nerve root following an ultrasound-guided selective C5 nerve root injection. Under certain conditions, intrathecal spread also appears possible, which has major patient safety implications. Additional safety measures, such as injection pressure monitoring, should be incorporated into this block, or approaches that are more distal should be considered for the acute pain management of distal clavicle fractures.

  5. Accidental deposition of local anaesthetic in the subdural space ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of accidental injection of local anaesthetic into the subdural space during neuraxial blockade is rare. The presentation of unexplainable clinical signs that do not match the clinical picture of subarachnoid or intravascular injection of the local anaesthetic agent should invoke high suspicion of unintentional ...

  6. Initial Thomson Scattering Survey of Local Helicity Injection and Ohmic Plasmas at the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2014-10-01

    A multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been installed on the Pegasus ST. The system utilizes a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (λ0 ~ 532 nm), spectrometers with volume phase holographic gratings, and a gated, intensified CCD camera. It provides measurements of Te and ne at 8 spatial locations for each spectrometer once per discharge. A new multiple aperture and beam dump system has been implemented to mitigate interference from stray light. This system has provided initial measurements in the core region of plasmas initiated by local helicity injection (LHI), as well as conventional Ohmic L- and H-mode discharges. Multi-shot averages of low-density (ne ~ 3 ×1018 m-3) , Ip ~ 0 . 1 MA LHI discharges show central Te ~ 75 eV at the end of the helicity injection phase. Ip ~ 0 . 13 MA Ohmic plasmas at moderate densities (ne ~ 2 ×1019 m-3) have core Te ~ 150 eV in L-mode. Generally, these plasmas do not reach transport equilibrium in the short 25 ms pulse length available. After an L-H transition, strong spectral broadening indicates increasing Te, to values above the range of the present spectrometer system with a high-dispersion VPH grating. Near-term system upgrades will focus on deploying a second spectrometer, with a lower-dispersion grating capable of measuring the 0.1-1.0 keV range. The second spectrometer system will also increase the available number of spatial channels, enabling study of H-mode pedestal structure. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  7. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Jensen, Rigmor H.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    Background. The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry. Methods. The study included data sets of annual sales of local...

  8. Using standardized methods for research on HIV and injecting drug use in developing/transitional countries: case study from the WHO Drug Injection Study Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stimson Gerry V

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful cross-national research requires methods that are both standardized across sites and adaptable to local conditions. We report on the development and implementation of the methodology underlying the survey component of the WHO Drug Injection Study Phase II – a multi-site study of risk behavior and HIV seroprevalence among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs. Methods Standardized operational guidelines were developed by the Survey Coordinating Center in collaboration with the WHO Project Officer and participating site Investigators. Throughout the duration of the study, survey implementation at the local level was monitored by the Coordinating Center. Surveys were conducted in 12 different cities. Prior rapid assessment conducted in 10 cities provided insight into local context and guided survey implementation. Where possible, subjects were recruited both from drug abuse treatment centers and via street outreach. While emphasis was on IDUs, non-injectors were also recruited in cities with substantial non-injecting use of injectable drugs. A structured interview and HIV counseling/testing were administered. Results Over 5,000 subjects were recruited. Subjects were recruited from both drug treatment and street outreach in 10 cities. Non-injectors were recruited in nine cities. Prior rapid assessment identified suitable recruitment areas, reduced drug users' distrust of survey staff, and revealed site-specific risk behaviors. Centralized survey coordination facilitated local questionnaire modification within a core structure, standardized data collection protocols, uniform database structure, and cross-site analyses. Major site-specific problems included: questionnaire translation difficulties; locating affordable HIV-testing facilities; recruitment from drug treatment due to limited/selective treatment infrastructure; access to specific sub-groups of drug users in the community, particularly females or higher income groups

  9. Injection of botulinum toxin type a to reduce saliva in patients with neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Manrique

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the effect of local injection of Botox® inpatients with neurological diseases, following our protocol for thetreatment of sialorrhea. Study design: clinical prospective study.Methods: Twenty-one patients with neurological diseases seen atthe Otorhinolaryngology of the Associação de Assistência à CriançaDeficiente. They were all submitted to local injection of Botox® insalivary glands and followed up for one year. The protocol consistsof a clinical questionnaire about inability to swallow saliva and itsrepercussions in general health and quality of life. Patients must nothave periodontal disease or intolerance to adverse effects ofanticholinergic agents and must not have used Botox® at least inthe last six months. The injection was ultrasonographically guidedand the dose was 30 U in one site of the submandibular glands, and20 U in two sites in each parotid gland. Results: Twenty-one patientswith sialorrhea resulting from several neurological diseases (chronicencephalopathy, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,neuromuscular diseases, cerebral tumor, trauma, aged 2 to 66 yearsold, were submitted to Botox® injection in their salivary glands. Weobserved a markedly improvement of sialorrhea in all but one patient.Seventeen patients had no complaints of sialorrhea or salivaaspiration for approximately four months with good repercussion intheir quality of life. No patient presented local or systemic effectswith local injection of Botox®. Conclusion: the injection of Botox® asindicated in the present study was able to reduce sialorrhea resultingfrom several neurological conditions.

  10. Injection therapy for subacute and chronic low back pain: an updated Cochrane review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, J Bart; de Bie, Rob A; de Vet, Henrica C W; Hildebrandt, Jan; Nelemans, Patty

    2009-01-01

    A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). To determine if injection therapy is more effective than placebo or other treatments for patients with subacute or chronic low back pain. The effectiveness of injection therapy for low back pain is still debatable. Heterogeneity of target tissue, pharmacological agent, and dosage, generally found in RCTs, point to the need for clinically valid comparisons in a literature synthesis. We updated the search of the earlier systematic review and searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases up to March 2007 for relevant trials reported in English, French, German, Dutch, and Nordic languages. We also screened references from trials identified. RCTs on the effects of injection therapy involving epidural, facet, or local sites for subacute or chronic low back pain were included. Studies that compared the effects of intradiscal injections, prolotherapy, or ozone therapy with other treatments were excluded unless injection therapy with another pharmaceutical agent (no placebo treatment) was part of one of the treatment arms. Studies about injections in sacroiliac joints and studies evaluating the effects of epidural steroids for radicular pain were also excluded. Eighteen trials (1179 participants) were included in this review. The injection sites varied from epidural sites and facet joints (i.e. intra-articular injections, peri-articular injections and nerve blocks) to local sites (i.e. tender-and trigger points). The drugs that were studied consisted of corticosteroids, local anesthetics, and a variety of other drugs. The methodologic quality of the trials was limited with 10 of 18 trials rated as having a high methodologic quality. Statistical pooling was not possible because of clinical heterogeneity in the trials. Overall, the results indicated that there is no strong evidence for or against the use of any type of injection therapy. There is insufficient evidence to

  11. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Injection of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Dadaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicolau syndrome is a rare complication of intramuscular injection that leads to local ischemic necrosis of the skin and adipose tissue. In this paper, we discuss etiologies, risk factors, and treatment options for gluteal Nicolau syndrome referring to patients treated in our hospital. Our study includes 17 women who visited our clinic with symptoms of gluteal necrosis secondary to intramuscular injection. The following variables were taken into account: injection site, drug administered, frequency of injections, the person who administered the injections, needle size, and needle tip color. Magnetic resonance images obtained in the aftermath of intramuscular injection application were carefully analyzed for presence of necrosis, cyst formation and the thickness of the gluteal fat tissue layer. Drugs that had been received in intramuscular injection were exclusively non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Mean patient BMI was 41.8 (all patients were considered as obese, and mean gluteal fat thickness was 54 mm. Standard length of needles (3.8 cm had been used in procedures. The wounds were treated with primary closure in 11 patients and with local flap therapy in 6 patients. The observed necrosis was a consequence of misplaced gluteal injection, where drugs were injected into the adipose tissue instead of the muscle due to the extreme thickness of the fat layer, on one hand, and the inappropriate length of standard needles, on the other hand. Intramuscular injection should be avoided in obese patients whenever possible: if it is necessary, proper injection technique should be used.

  12. Local injection of Lenti-Olig2 at lesion site promotes functional recovery of spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bo-Tao; Jiang, Long; Liu, Li; Yin, Ying; Luo, Ze-Ru-Xin; Long, Zai-Yun; Li, Sen; Yu, Le-Hua; Wu, Ya-Min; Liu, Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Olig2 is one of the most critical factors during CNS development, which belongs to b-HLH transcription factor family. Previous reports have shown that Olig2 regulates the remyelination processes in CNS demyelination diseases models. However, the role of Olig2 in contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the possible therapeutic effects remain obscure. This study aims to investigate the effects of overexpression Olig2 by lentivirus on adult spinal cord injury rats. Lenti-Olig2 expression and control Lenti-eGFP vectors were prepared, and virus in a total of 5 μL (10 8 TU/mL) was locally injected into the injured spinal cord 1.5 mm rostral and caudal near the epicenter. Immunostaining, Western blot, electron microscopy, and CatWalk analyzes were employed to investigate the effects of Olig2 on spinal cord tissue repair and functional recovery. Injection of Lenti-Olig2 significantly increased the number of oligodendrocytes lineage cells and enhanced myelination after SCI. More importantly, the introduction of Olig2 greatly improved hindlimb locomotor performances. Other oligodendrocyte-related transcription factors, which were downregulated or upregulated after injury, were reversed by Olig2 induction. Our findings provided the evidence that overexpression Olig2 promotes myelination and locomotor recovery of contusion SCI, which gives us more understanding of Olig2 on spinal cord injury treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Blindness following cosmetic injections of the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Davide; Agostini, Tommaso; Figus, Michele; Nardi, Marco; Pantaloni, Marcello; Lazzeri, Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Complications following facial cosmetic injections have recently heightened awareness of the possibility of iatrogenic blindness. The authors conducted a systematic review of the available literature to provide the best evidence for the prevention and treatment of this serious eye injury. The authors included in the study only the cases in which blindness was a direct consequence of a cosmetic injection procedure of the face. Twenty-nine articles describing 32 patients were identified. In 15 patients, blindness occurred after injections of adipose tissue; in the other 17, it followed injections of various materials, including corticosteroids, paraffin, silicone oil, bovine collagen, polymethylmethacrylate, hyaluronic acid, and calcium hydroxyapatite. Some precautions may minimize the risk of embolization of filler into the ophthalmic artery following facial cosmetic injections. Intravascular placement of the needle or cannula should be demonstrated by aspiration before injection and should be further prevented by application of local vasoconstrictor. Needles, syringes, and cannulas of small size should be preferred to larger ones and be replaced with blunt flexible needles and microcannulas when possible. Low-pressure injections with the release of the least amount of substance possible should be considered safer than bolus injections. The total volume of filler injected during the entire treatment session should be limited, and injections into pretraumatized tissues should be avoided. Actually, no safe, feasible, and reliable treatment exists for iatrogenic retinal embolism. Nonetheless, therapy should theoretically be directed to lowering intraocular pressure to dislodge the embolus into more peripheral vessels of the retinal circulation, increasing retinal perfusion and oxygen delivery to hypoxic tissues. Risk, V.

  14. Urinary bladder blood flow. I. Comparison of clearance of locally injected 99mtechnetium pertechnate and radioactive microsphere technique in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøyer, Kristian; Bülow, J; Nielsen, S L

    1990-01-01

    The blood flow of the dog urinary bladder measured by radioactive microsphere technique was compared to the clearance of locally injected 99mTechnetium pertechnate (99mTc) in the bladder wall. In semilogarithmic plots the 99mTc washout curves showed a multiexponential course. From the initial...... slopes (median 5.7 min) the bladder blood flow was calculated to be only 30-62% of the results obtained from the radioactive microsphere technique (blood flow in the muscular layer 21.7-44.8 ml/100 g/min). These lower values imply that the rate of removal of the hydrophilic tracer 99mTc at these flow...... blood flow....

  15. [Recycle of contaminated scrap metal]: Task 1.3.2, Bulk solids feed system. Topical report, October 1993-- January 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    A critical requirement in DOE's efforts to recycle, reuse, and dispose of materials from its decontamination and decommissioning activities is the design of a robust system to process a wide variety of bulk solid feeds. The capability to process bulk solids will increase the range of materials and broaden the application of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP). The term bulk solids refers to materials that are more economically fed into the top of a molten metal bath than by submerged injection through a tuyere. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) has characterized CEP's ability to process bulk solid feed materials and has achieved significant growth in the size of bulk solid particles compatible with Catalytic Extraction Processing. Parametric experimental studies using various feed materials representative of the components of various DOE waste streams have validated design models which establish the reactor operating range as a function of feed material, mass flow rate, and particle size. MMT is investigating the use of a slurry system for bulk solid addition as it is the most efficient means for injecting soils, sludges, and similar physical forms into a catalytic processing unit. MMT is continuing to evaluate condensed phase product removal systems and alternative energy addition sources to enhance the operating efficiency of bulk solids CEP units. A condensed phase product removal system capable of on-demand product removal has been successfully demonstrated. MMT is also investigating the use of a plasma arc torch to provide supplemental heating during bulk solids processing. This comprehensive approach to bulk solids processing is expected to further improve overall process efficiency prior to the deployment of CEP for the recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning Activities

  16. The Incidence of Intravascular Needle Entrance during Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pourshahidi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Dentists administer thousands of local anesthetic injections every day. Injection to a highly vascular area such as pterygomandibular space during an inferior alveolar nerve block has a high risk of intravascular needle entrance. Accidental intravascular injection of local anesthetic agent with vasoconstrictor may result in cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity, as well as tachycardia and hypertension. There are reports that indicate aspiration is not performed in every injection. The aim of the present study was to assess the incidence of intravascular needle entrance in inferior alveolar nerve block injections.

    Materials and methods. Three experienced oral and maxillofacial surgeons performed 359 inferior alveolar nerve block injections using direct or indirect techniques, and reported the results of aspiration. Aspirable syringes and 27 gauge long needles were used, and the method of aspiration was similar in all cases. Data were analyzed using t-test.

    Results. 15.3% of inferior alveolar nerve block injections were aspiration positive. Intravascular needle entrance was seen in 14.2% of cases using direct and 23.3% of cases using indirect block injection techniques. Of all injections, 15.8% were intravascular on the right side and 14.8% were intravascular on the left. There were no statistically significant differences between direct or indirect block injection techniques (P = 0.127 and between right and left injection sites (P = 0.778.

    Conclusion. According to our findings, the incidence of intravascular needle entrance during inferior alveolar nerve block injection was relatively high. It seems that technique and maneuver of injection have no considerable effect in incidence of intravascular needle entrance.

  17. Injection Pressure as a Marker of Intraneural Injection in Procedures of Peripheral Nerves Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilvana Vučković

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The blockade of peripheral nerves carries a certain risk of unwanted complications, which can follow after unintentional intraneural injection of a local anesthetic. Up till today, the research of measuring injection pressure has been based on animal models, even though the histological structure of periphery nerve is different for animal and human population, so the application pressure which presages intraneural injection in human population is still unknown. As material in performing this study there have been used 12 Wistar rats and 12 delivered stillborns. After bilateral access to the median nerve, we applied 3 ml of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine, with the help of automatic syringe charger. The needle was at first placed perineural on one side, and then intraneural on the other side of both examination groups. During every application the pressure values were monitored using the manometer, and then they were analyzed by special software program BioBench. All perineural injections resulted with the pressure < or = 27.92 kPa, while the majority of intraneural injections were combined with the injectionpressure > or = 69.8 kPa. The difference between intraneural and perineural injection pressures for the two different examination groups (rats and delivered stillborns was not statistically significant (P>0.05. As prevention from intraneural injections today are in use two methods: the method of causing paresthesia or the method of using the peripheral nerve stimulator. However the nerve injury can still occur, independent from the technique used. If our results are used in clinical practice on human population, than the high injection pressure could be the markerof intraneural lodging of a needle.

  18. Advanced techniques and armamentarium for dental local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Taylor M; Yagiela, John A

    2010-10-01

    Computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery (C-CLAD) devices and systems for intraosseous (IO) injection are important additions to the dental anesthesia armamentarium. C-CLAD using slow infusion rates can significantly reduce the discomfort of local anesthetic infusion, especially in palatal tissues, and facilitate palatal approaches to pulpal nerve block that find special use in cosmetic dentistry, periodontal therapy, and pediatric dentistry. Anesthesia of single teeth can be obtained using either C-CLAD intraligamentary injections or IO injections. Supplementary IO anesthesia is particularly suited for providing effective pain control of teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Safe injection practice among health care workers, Gharbiya, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nanees A; Aboul Ftouh, Aisha M; El Shoubary, Waleed H

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 25 health care facilities in Gharbiya governorate to assess safe injection practices among health care workers (HCWs). Two questionnaires, one to collect information about administrative issues related to safe injection and the other to collect data about giving injections, exposure to needle stick injuries, hepatitis B vaccination status and safe injection training. Practices of injections were observed using a standardized checklist. The study revealed that there was lack of both national and local infection control policies and lack of most of the supplies needed for safe injection practices. Many safe practices were infrequent as proper needle manipulation before disposal (41%), safe needle disposal (47.5%), reuse of used syringe & needle (13.2%) and safe syringe disposal (0%). Exposure to needle stick injuries were common among the interviewed HCWs (66.2%) and hand washing was the common post exposure prophylaxis measure (63.4%). Only 11.3% of HCWs had full course hepatitis B vaccination. Infection control -including safe injections- training programs should be afforded to all HCWs.

  20. Frequency of booster injections of allergoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, P S; Creticos, P S; Marsh, D G

    1990-01-01

    In 1982, 43 ragweed-sensitive patients receiving maintenance injections of full doses of ragweed allergoid were selected for a study of the immunologic and clinical efficacy of booster injections only four times a year. These patients had participated for 2 to 7 years as part of a trial of mixes of up to four allergoids to common pollens in the mid-Atlantic area tailored to each patient's skin test sensitivity. They were divided into a group (21 patients) to receive injections every 3 months and a group (22 patients) to receive injections about every 6 weeks (eight injections per year). Patients were rerandomized after 1 year so that half of each original group switched to the alternate treatment, and this program was continued until after the ragweed season of 1985. Thirty-four patients were still under study the last year. Doses, per injection, were 100 allergoid units (1 allergoid unit equals 100 PNU) of each allergen in the mixture. Symptom scores during the 8 weeks of each of the four ragweed seasons were not significantly higher in the 3-month treated group. IgG antibody levels to Amb a I (antigen E) were followed until early 1984 and were not significantly different in the two groups, even though the 6-week treated patients received a two times higher cumulative dose per year. Rates of local and systemic reactions (percent of injections eliciting reactions) were not different in the groups, which means that the 3-month treated group had about half as many reactions by virtue of taking half as many injections.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Intramuscular injection of malignant hyperthermia trigger agents induces hypermetabolism in susceptible and nonsusceptible individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metterlein, Thomas; Schuster, Frank; Kranke, Peter; Roewer, Norbert; Anetseder, Martin

    2010-01-01

    A new minimally invasive metabolic test for the diagnosis of susceptibility for malignant hyperthermia measuring intramuscular p(CO(2)) and lactate following local application of caffeine and halothane in humans was recently proposed. The present study tested the hypothesis that a more simplified test protocol allows a differentiation between malignant hyperthermia susceptible (MHS) and malignant hyperthermia nonsusceptible (MHN) and control individuals. With approval of the local ethics committee and informed consent, microdialysis and p(CO(2)) probes with attached microtubing were placed into the lateral vastus muscle of six MHS, seven MHN and seven control individuals. Following equilibration, boluses of 500 microl caffeine 80 mmol l(-1) and halothane 10 vol% dissolved in soybean oil were injected locally. p(CO(2)) and lactate were measured spectrophotometrically. The maximal rate of p(CO(2)) increase was significantly higher in MHS than in MHN and control individuals following application of halothane and caffeine, respectively. Intramuscular caffeine injection leads to a significantly higher increase of local lactate levels in MHS than in MHN and control individuals, whereas halothane increased local lactate levels in all investigated groups. Haemodynamic and systemic metabolic parameters did not differ between the investigated groups. Local caffeine and halothane injection increased intramuscular metabolism in MHS individuals significantly more than in the two other groups. In contrast to previous investigations, direct injection of the concentrations of halothane described here increased lactate and p(CO(2)) even in MHN skeletal muscle.

  2. Heart rate effects of intraosseous injections using slow and fast rates of anesthetic solution deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Louis; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel; Drum, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a single-blind manner, 3 primary intraosseous injections to 61 subjects using: the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 45 seconds (fast injection); the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection); a conventional syringe injection at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection), in 3 separate appointments spaced at least 3 weeks apart. A pulse oximeter measured heart rate (pulse). The results demonstrated the mean maximum heart rate was statistically higher with the fast intraosseous injection (average 21 to 28 beats/min increase) than either of the 2 slow intraosseous injections (average 10 to 12 beats/min increase). There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 slow injections. We concluded that an intraosseous injection of 1.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine with the Wand at a 45-second rate of anesthetic deposition resulted in a significantly higher heart rate when compared with a 4-minute and 45-second anesthetic solution deposition using either the Wand or traditional syringe.

  3. Oral Mucosal Injection of a Local Anesthetic Solution Containing Epinephrine Enhances Muscle Relaxant Effects of Rocuronium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Asako; Terakawa, Yui; Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how submucosal injection of a clinically relevant dose of a lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing epinephrine affects the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide. Sixteen patients scheduled for orthognathic surgery participated in this study. All patients were induced with fentanyl citrate, a target-controlled infusion of propofol and rocuronium bromide. Anesthesia was maintained by total intravenous anesthesia. After nasotracheal intubation, an infusion of rocuronium bromide was started at 7 µg/kg/min, and the infusion rate was then adjusted to maintain a train of four (TOF) ratio at 10 to 15%. The TOF ratio just prior to oral mucosal injection of a 1% lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing 10 µg/mL epinephrine (LE) was taken as the baseline. TOF ratio was observed for 20 minutes, with 1-minute intervals following the start of injection. Mean epinephrine dose was 85.6 ± 18.6 µg and mean infusion rate of rocuronium bromide was 6.3 ± 1.6 µg/kg/min. TOF ratio began to decrease 2 minutes after the injection of LE, reached the minimum value at 3.1 ± 3.6% 12 minutes after the injection, and then began to recover. We conclude that oral mucosal injection of LE enhances the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide. PMID:22428970

  4. Ability to join the workforce and work productivity among drug users under methadone maintenance treatment in a mountainous area of Northern Vietnam: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Vuong Minh; Boggiano, Victoria L; Nguyen, Lan Huong Thi; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Xuan Bach, Tran; Nguyen, Hung Van; Hoang, Canh Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Minh Thuc Thi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives A major measure of treatment success for drug users undergoing rehabilitation is the ability to enter the workforce and generate income. This study examines the absenteeism and productivity among people who inject drugs (PWID) enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Northern Vietnam. Setting We conducted a cross-sectional study in two clinics in Tuyen Quang province. Participants A total of 241 patients enrolled in MMT. Primary and secondary outcome measures Patients’ work productivity was measured using the WPAI-GH instrument (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health V2.0). We also collected additional characteristics about participants’ employment history, such as proficient jobs, whether they actively found a new job and be accepted by employers. Results Most of the participants (>90%) were employed at the time of the study. Rates of absenteeism (missed work), presenteeism (impairment while working) and overall loss of productivity were 15.8%, 5.6% and 11.2%, respectively, as measured by the WPAI-GH questionnaire. The most proficient job was ‘freelancer’ (17.5%), followed by ‘blue-collar worker’ (10.6%) and ‘farmer’ (10.2%). Only 26.8% of patients reported that they actively sought jobs in the past. About half of them had been refused by employers because of their drug use history and/or HIV status. We found no statistically significant difference between patients enrolled in MMT for 1 year. Factors associated with higher work productivity included not endorsing problems in mobility, self-care or pain; being HIV-negative and having greater MMT treatment adherence. Conclusion Our study highlights the high employment rate and work productivity among PWID in MMT programmes in remote areas of Northern Vietnam. The results can help to improve the quality and structure of MMT programmes across Vietnam and in other countries. PMID:28751487

  5. Studying nanostructure gradients in injection-molded polypropylene/montmorillonite composites by microbeam small-angle x-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stribeck, Norbert; Schneider, Konrad; Zeinolebadi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The core–shell structure in oriented cylindrical rods of polypropylene (PP) and nanoclay composites (NCs) from PP and montmorillonite (MMT) is studied by microbeam small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The structure of neat PP is almost homogeneous across the rod showing regular semicrystalline......-shaped phyllosilicate filler particles....

  6. Distribution of [35S] taurine in mouse retina after intravitreal and intravascular injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourcho, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of [ 35 S] taurine in mouse retinae was studied by autoradiographic techniques after either intravitreal or intravascular injection. The route of injection did not affect the final localization. The major sites of label accumulation were the outer nuclear layer, the inner nuclear layer, and Mueller cell processes adjacent to the vitreal surface. The distribution was consistent with the interpretation that taurine was localized within two cellular compartments of mouse retina, photoreceptor cells and Mueller cells. (author)

  7. The Co-axial Flow of Injectable Solid Hydrogels with Encapsulated Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brandon; Pochan, Darrin; Sathaye, Sameer

    2013-03-01

    Hydrogels are quickly becoming an important biomaterial that can be used for the safe, localized injection of cancer drugs, the injection of stem cells into areas of interest or other biological applications. Our peptides can be self-assembled in a syringe where they form a gel, sheared by injection and, once in the body, immediately reform a localized pocket of stiff gel. My project has been designed around looking at the possibility of having a co-axial strand, in which one gel can surround another. This co-axial flow can be used to change the physical properties of our gel during injection, such as stiffening our gel using hyaluronic acid or encapsulating cells in the gel and surrounding the gel with growth medium or other biological factors. Rheology on hyaluron stiffened gels and cells encapsulated in gels was performed for comparison to the results from co-axial flow. Confocal microscopy was used to examine the coaxial gels after flow and to determine how the co-axial nature of the gels is affected by the concentration of peptide.

  8. Effect of gas injection during LH wave coupling at ITER-relevant plasma-wall distances in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekedahl, A; Goniche, M; Basiuk, V; Delpech, L; Imbeaux, F; Joffrin, E; Loarer, T; Rantamaeki, K; Mailloux, J; Alper, B; Baranov, Y; Beaumont, P; Corrigan, G; Erents, K; Hawkes, N; McDonald, D; Petrzilka, V; Granucci, G; Hobirk, J; Kirov, K

    2009-01-01

    Good coupling of lower hybrid (LH) waves has been demonstrated in different H-mode scenarios in JET, at high triangularity (δ ∼ 0.4) and at large distance between the last closed flux surface and the LH launcher (up to 15 cm). Local gas injection of D 2 in the region magnetically connected to the LH launcher is used for increasing the local density in the scrape-off layer (SOL). Reciprocating Langmuir probe measurements magnetically connected to the LH launcher indicate that the electron density profile flattens in the far SOL during gas injection and LH power application. Some degradation in normalized H-mode confinement, as given by the H98(y,2)-factor, could be observed at high gas injection rates in these scenarios, but this was rather due to total gas injection and not specifically to the local gas puffing used for LH coupling. Furthermore, experiments carried out in L-mode plasmas in order to evaluate the effect on the LH current drive efficiency, when using local gas injection to improve the coupling, indicate only a small degradation (ΔI LH /I LH ∼ 15%). This effect is largely compensated by the improvement in coupling and thus increase in coupled power when using gas puffing.

  9. Local and distant chemical burns due to cetrimide injection in a massive dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kumar

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty ml of 20% cetrimide shampoo solution was injected subcutaneously around the left elbow by a drug addict to commit suicide. Edema, blisters with skip areas and, cellulitis were noted within 6 hours, not only around the site of the injection but also upto the wrist and the pectoral region. Muscles were protected by the tough deep fascia. There was no systemic toxidcity despite receiving at least 4 times the reported fatal dose. The patient was treated with multiple fasciotomies, broad spectrum antibiotics, an atory drugs, iunb elevation and daily dressings, followed by secondary suturing of fasciotomy wounds when the limb edema regressed. The cutaneous bums healed without needing skin grafts.

  10. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures : [La technique d'injection d'air comprimé pour normaliser les pressions d'injection d'un blocage nerveux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2006-11-01

    Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes ( 18G, 20G, 21 G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed. Présentement, aucune technique normalisée ne permet de vérifier les pressions d'injection pendant les blocages nerveux périphériques. Nous voulions vérifier si une technique d'injection d'air comprimé, utilisant un modèle in vitro fondé sur la loi de Boyle et du matériel propre à l'anesthésie régionale, pouvait maintenir avec régularité les

  11. Magnetic surfaces, particle orbits and neutral injection in conventional and ultimate torsatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.T.; Derr, J.A.; Kruckewitt, T.; Shohet, J.L.; Rehker, S.; Tataronis, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Capabilities in fully non-axisymmetric numerical methods have resulted in a parametric study of various conventional and ultimate torsatron configurations. No superbananas are found in torsatrons without local magnetic wells. Neutral injection calculations show that, if the vacuum magnetic surfaces are well defined, tangential injection is very efficient

  12. [THREE CASES OF ACCIDENTAL AUTO-INJECTION OF ADRENALINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Iikura, Katsuhito; Ogura, Kiyotake; Wang, Ling-jen; Asaumi, Tomoyuki; Sato, Sakura; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2015-12-01

    Reports on accidental auto-injection of adrenaline are few. We encountered three cases of accidental injection of adrenaline. In this study, we have examined and reported the clinical courses and symptoms of our cases. CASE 1 involved a female physician in her 50s who had attended an explanatory meeting on auto-injection of adrenaline. She mistook EpiPen® to be the EpiPen trainer and accidentally injected herself with 0.3 mg EpiPen®. Her systolic/diastolic pressure peaked at 7 min to reach 144/78 mmHg and decreased to 120/77 mmHg at 14 min. Except for palpitation after 7 min, the only subjective symptom was local pain at the injection site. CASE 2 was noted in a 6-year-old boy. He accidentally pierced his right forefinger with 0.15 mg EpiPen®, and after 20 min, his right forefinger was swollen. The swelling improved 80 min after the accidental injection. CASE 3 was noted in a 4-year-old girl. She accidentally injected herself with 0.15 mg EpiPen®. Her systolic/diastolic pressure peaked at 23 min to reach 123/70 mmHg and decreased to 96/86 mmHg at 28 min. Severe adverse effects of accidental auto-injection of adrenaline were not observed in these three cases. Our findings suggest that while handling adrenaline auto-injectors, we should keep in mind the possibility of accidental injection.

  13. Tungsten migration studies by controlled injection of volatile compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, M., E-mail: rubel@kth.se [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Association EURATOM-VR, Stockholm (Sweden); Coenen, J. [IEK-4, Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Jülich (Germany); Ivanova, D. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Association EURATOM-VR, Stockholm (Sweden); Möller, S. [IEK-4, Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Jülich (Germany); Petersson, P. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Association EURATOM-VR, Stockholm (Sweden); Brezinsek, S.; Kreter, A.; Philipps, V.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Schweer, B. [IEK-4, Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Jülich (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Volatile tungsten hexa-fluoride was locally injected into the TEXTOR tokamak as a marker for material migration studies. The injection was accompanied by puffing N-15 rare isotope as a nitrogen tracer in discharges with edge cooling by impurity seeding. The objective was to assess material balance by qualitative and quantitative determination of a global and local deposition pattern, material mixing effects and fluorine residence in plasma-facing components. Spectroscopy and ex situ ion beam analysis techniques were used. Tungsten was detected on all types of limiter tiles and short-term probes retrieved from the vessel. Over 80% of the injected W was identified. The largest tungsten concentration, 1 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −2}, was in the vicinity of the gas inlet. Co-deposits contained tungsten and a mix of light isotopes: H, D, He-4, B-10, B-11, C-12, C-13, N-14, N-15, O-16 and small quantities of F-19 thus showing that both He and nitrogen are trapped following wall conditioning (He glow) and edge cooling.

  14. Development of a device for real-time light-guided vocal fold injection: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Wonjae; Ro, Jung Hoon; Wang, Soo-Geun; Jang, Jeon Yeob; Cho, Jae Keun; Kim, Geun-Hyo; Lee, Yeon Woo

    2016-04-01

    Vocal fold injection is a minimally invasive technique for various vocal fold pathologies. The shortcomings of the cricothyroid (CT) membrane approach are mainly related to invisibility of the injection needle. If localization of the needle tip can be improved during vocal fold injection with the CT approach, the current problems of the technique can be overcome. We have conceptualized real-time light-guided vocal fold injection that enables simultaneous injection under precise localization. In this study, we developed a device for real-time light-guided vocal fold injection and applied it in excised canine larynx. Animal model. A single optic fiber was inserted in an unmodified 25-gauge needle. A designated connector for the device was attached to the needle, the optic fiber, and the syringe. A laser diode module was used as the light source. An ex vivo canine larynx model was used to validate the device. The location of the needle tip was accurately indicated, and the depth from the mucosa could be estimated according to the brightness and size of the red light. The needle was inserted and could be localized in the canine vocal fold by the light of the device. Precise injection at the intended location was easily performed with no manipulation of the device or the needle. Real-time light-guided vocal fold injection might be a feasible and promising technique for treatment of vocal fold pathology. It is expected that this technique can improve the precision of vocal fold injection and expand its indication in laryngology. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Elevated Hemoglobin A1C Levels Correlate with Blood Glucose Elevation in Diabetic Patients following Local Corticosteroid Injection in the Hand: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nayoung; Schroeder, Jake; Hoffler, C Edward; Matzon, Jonas L; Lutsky, Kevin F; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic patients develop hand conditions that are managed with local corticosteroid injections. Injections can result in a transient elevation in serum glucose in diabetic patients. Hemoglobin A1c is the accepted measure of long-term plasma glucose control in diabetics (levels ≥7 percent reflect poor blood glucose control). The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between hemoglobin A1c levels and increased blood glucose levels after corticosteroid injections. Twenty-five diabetic patients were evaluated prospectively. One milliliter containing 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide was used. The most recent hemoglobin A1c level and normal average blood glucose levels were obtained. Glucose levels were obtained from patient recall of their daily blood glucose self- monitoring on the day of the injection. Postinjection blood glucose levels were recorded until levels returned to preinjection baseline. Twenty patients (80 percent) had elevation of their blood glucose level from baseline. No patient had elevated blood glucose levels after 5 days. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels greater than or equal to 7 percent had a higher blood glucose elevation and maintained this for longer than those who had a lower hemoglobin A1c level. Patients in the higher hemoglobin A1c group also had a higher number of hyperglycemic events. There was a strong or moderate correlation between hemoglobin A1c and elevated blood glucose levels during days 1 to 4. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels greater than or equal to 7 percent have elevations in blood glucose that are higher and last longer than patients with lower levels. Hemoglobin A1c levels can be used to roughly predict the degree of blood glucose elevation after corticosteroid injections into the hands of diabetic patients.

  16. Warmed local anesthetic reduces pain of infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; McDougall, E P

    1996-01-01

    The effect of warming local anesthetic on the amount of pain experienced during local infiltration was tested by comparing equal volumes of 40 degrees C- and 21 degrees C-infiltrates in each of 26 subjects. Six subjects were patients undergoing excision of two benign asymptomatic nevi in separate locations, and 20 subjects were healthy adult volunteers who were injected in bilateral antebrachial sites. The warmed and room temperature solutions were randomized to each side, so that each subject received both temperature injections in random order. All subjects and the injector were blinded. The rate of injection was time-controlled (0.05 ml/sec). Following both injections, subjects were asked to rate the pain experienced at each site. In addition, the subject was asked if there was no difference, a slight difference, or a substantial difference between the two sites. A two-tailed paired t-test was used to analyze the mean difference in pain scores for all subjects. Paired analysis of the pain scores for each subject eliminated intersubject variance of pain tolerance. The mean difference in pain score between the room temperature and warmed solutions was +1.5 (p < 0.0001). Of the 21 subjects (81%) who found the warmed solution less painful, 11 (52%) found the difference to be significant, while 10 (48%) found the difference to be slight. Two subjects (8%) found no difference between the two, while 3 subjects (11%) found the colder solution slightly less painful. We conclude that warming local anesthetic to 40 degrees C prior to subcutaneous injection is a simple, inexpensive means of reducing the pain of local infiltration.

  17. Hepatitis B virus HBx protein localized to the nucleus restores HBx-deficient virus replication in HepG2 cells and in vivo in hydrodynamically-injected mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keasler, Victor V.; Hodgson, Amanda J.; Madden, Charles R.; Slagle, Betty L.

    2009-01-01

    Identifying the requirements for the regulatory HBx protein in hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication is an important goal. A plasmid-based HBV replication assay was used to evaluate whether HBx subcellular localization influences its ability to promote virus replication, as measured by real time PCR quantitation of viral capsid-associated DNA. HBx targeted to the nucleus by a nuclear localization signal (NLS-HBx) was able to restore HBx-deficient HBV replication, while HBx containing a nuclear export signal (NES-HBx) was not. Both NLS-HBx and NES-HBx were expressed at similar levels (by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting), and proper localization of the signal sequence-tagged proteins was confirmed by deconvolution microscopy using HBx, NLS-HBx, and NES-HBx proteins fused to GFP. Importantly, these findings were confirmed in vivo by hydrodynamic injection into mice. Our results demonstrate that in these HBV replication assays, at least one function of HBx requires its localization to the nucleus.

  18. Three-dimensional simulation of H-mode plasmas with localized divertor impurity injection on Alcator C-Mod using the edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lore, J. D.; Reinke, M. L.; Lipschultz, B.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J.; Pitts, R. A.; Feng, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in Alcator C-Mod to assess the level of toroidal asymmetry in divertor conditions resulting from poloidally and toroidally localized extrinsic impurity gas seeding show a weak toroidal peaking (∼1.1) in divertor electron temperatures for high-power enhanced D-alpha H-mode plasmas. This is in contrast to similar experiments in Ohmically heated L-mode plasmas, which showed a clear toroidal modulation in the divertor electron temperature. Modeling of these experiments using the 3D edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE [Y. Feng et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 241, 930 (1997)] qualitatively reproduces these trends, and indicates that the different response in the simulations is due to the ionization location of the injected nitrogen. Low electron temperatures in the private flux region (PFR) in L-mode result in a PFR plasma that is nearly transparent to neutral nitrogen, while in H-mode the impurities are ionized in close proximity to the injection location, with this latter case yielding a largely axisymmetric radiation pattern in the scrape-off-layer. The consequences for the ITER gas injection system are discussed. Quantitative agreement with the experiment is lacking in some areas, suggesting potential areas for improving the physics model in EMC3-EIRENE

  19. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  20. Local Anesthesia Part 2: Technical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kenneth L.; Malamed, Stanley F.; Fonner, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    An earlier paper by Becker and Reed provided an in-depth review of the pharmacology of local anesthetics. This continuing education article will discuss the importance to the safe and effective delivery of these drugs, including needle gauge, traditional and alternative injection techniques, and methods to make injections more comfortable to patients. PMID:23050753

  1. Injection Induced Seismicity in Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. R. M.; Liu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Utah is one of the top producers of oil and natural gas in the country. Over the past 18 years, more than 4.2 billion gallons of wastewater from the petroleum industry has been injected into the Navajo Sandstone, Kayenta Formation, and Wingate Sandstone in two areas in Carbon and Emery County, Utah. We found that the seismicity rate increased significantly 3 to 5 years following the commencement of wastewater injection. The increased seismicity consists almost entirely of earthquakes with magnitudes of less than 3 and is localized in areas seismically active prior to the injection. We suggest that the marked increase in the seismicity rate was induced by pore pressure increase along pre-existing faults in these areas. We have used simple groundwater models to estimate the change in pore pressure, calculate the pore pressure diffusion rate, and evaluate the observed time gap between the start of injection and the onset of the increased seismicity in the areas surrounding the injection wells.

  2. Comparison Between the Two-Injection Technique and the Four-Injection Technique in Axillary Brachial Plexus Block with Articaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertikin, Aysun; Argun, Güldeniz; Mısırlıoğlu, Mesut; Aydın, Murat; Arıkan, Murat; Kadıoğulları, Nihal

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare axillary brachial plexus block using the two-injection and four-injection techniques assisted with ultrasonography (USG) and nerve stimulator in patients operated for carpal tunnel syndrome with articaine. To evaluate which technique is more effective, we compared the onset time, effectiveness, and duration of block procedures, patient satisfaction, adverse effect of the drug, and complication rates of the motor and sensory blocks. Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups. A mixture of physiologic serum added to articain with NaHCO 3 (30 mL) was injected into the patients' axilla in both the groups. After the blockage of the musculocutaneous nerve in both the groups, the median nerve in the two-injection group and the median nerve, ulnar nerve, and radial nerve in the four-injection group were blocked. In brachial plexus nerves, sensorial blockage was evaluated with pinprick test, and motor block was evaluated by contraction of the muscles innervated by each nerve. The adverse effects and complications, visual analog scale (VAS) values during the operation, and post-operative patient satisfaction were recorded. Sufficient analgesia and anaesthesia were achieved with no need for an additional local anaesthetics in both the groups. Furthermore, additional sedation requirements were found to be similar in both the groups. A faster rate and a more effective complete block were achieved in more patients from the four-injection group. In the two-injection group, the block could not be achieved for N. radialis in one patient. All other nerves were successfully blocked. Whereas the blockage procedure lasted longer in the four-injection group, the VAS values recorded during the blockage procedure were higher in the four-injection group. No statistical difference was found with regard to patient satisfaction, and no adverse effects and complications were observed in any group. Although the multi-injection method takes more time

  3. Less promising results with sclerosing ethoxysclerol injections for midportion achilles tendinopathy: a retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sterkenburg, Maayke N.; de Jonge, Milko C.; Sierevelt, Inger N.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Local injections of the sclerosing substance polidocanol (Ethoxysclerol) have shown good clinical results in patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. After training by the inventors of the technique, sclerosing Ethoxysclerol injections were applied on a group of patients

  4. Environmental Particle Emissions due to Automated Drilling of Polypropylene Composites and Nanocomposites Reinforced with Talc, Montmorillonite and Wollastonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starost, K.; Frijns, E.; Laer, J. V.; Faisal, N.; Egizabal, A.; Elizextea, C.; Nelissen, I.; Blazquez, M.; Njuguna, J.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the effect on nanoparticle emissions due to drilling on Polypropylene (PP) reinforced with 20% talc, 5% montmorillonite (MMT) and 5% Wollastonite (WO) is investigated. The study is the first to explore the nanoparticle release from WO and talc reinforced composites and compares the results to previously researched MMT. With 5% WO, equivalent tensile properties with a 10 % weight reduction were obtained relative to the reference 20% talc sample. The materials were fabricated through injection moulding. The nanorelease studies were undertaken using the controlled drilling methodology for nanoparticle exposure assessment developed within the European Commission funded SIRENA Life 11 ENV/ES/506 project. Measurements were taken using CPC and DMS50 equipment for real-time characterization and measurements. The particle number concentration (of particles <1000nm) and particle size distribution (4.87nm - 562.34nm) of the particles emitted during drilling were evaluated to investigate the effect of the silicate fillers on the particles released. The nano-filled samples exhibited a 33% decrease (MMT sample) or a 30% increase (WO sample) on the average particle number concentration released in comparison to the neat polypropylene sample. The size distribution data displayed a substantial percentage of the particles released from the PP, PP/WO and PP/MMT samples to be between 5-20nm, whereas the PP/talc sample emitted larger particle diameters.

  5. Modification of SRIM-calculated dose and injected ion profiles due to sputtering, injected ion buildup and void swelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing, E-mail: jing.wang@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Toloczko, Mychailo B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Bailey, Nathan [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Garner, Frank A.; Gigax, Jonathan; Shao, Lin [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    In radiation effects on materials utilizing self-ion irradiations, it is necessary to calculate the local displacement damage level and ion injection profile because of the short distance that self-ions travel in a material and because of the strong variation of displacement rate with depth in a specimen. The most frequently used tool for this is the software package called Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM). A SRIM-calculated depth-dependent dose level is usually determined under the implicit assumption that the target does not undergo any significant changes in volume during the process, in particular SRIM ignores the effect of sputtering, injected ions, and void swelling on the redistribution of the dose and injected ion profiles. This approach become increasingly invalid as the ion fluence reaches ever higher levels, especially for low energy ion irradiations. The original surface is not maintained due to sputter-induced erosion, while within the irradiated region of the specimen, injected ions are adding material, and if void swelling is occurring, it is creating empty space. An iterative mathematical treatment of SRIM outputs to produce corrected dose and injected ion profiles based on these phenomenon and without regard to diffusion is presented along with examples of differences between SRIM-calculated values and corrected values over a range of typical ion energies. The intent is to provide the reader with a convenient tool for more accurately calculating dose and injected ion profiles for heavy-ion irradiations.

  6. Externally Controlled Injection of Electrons by a Laser Pulse in a Laser Wakefield Electron Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Szu Yuan; Chen Wei Ting; Chien, Ting-Yei; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Wang, Jyhpyng

    2005-01-01

    Spatially and temporally localized injection of electrons is a key element for development of plasma-wave electron accelerator. Here we report the demonstration of two different schemes for electron injection in a self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator (SM-LWFA) by using a laser pulse. In the first scheme, by implementing a copropagating laser prepulse with proper timing, we are able to control the growth of Raman forward scattering and the production of accelerated electrons. We found that the stimulated Raman backward scattering of the prepulse plays the essential role of injecting hot electrons into the fast plasma wave driven by the pump pulse. In the second scheme, by using a transient density ramp we achieve self-injection of electrons in a SM-LWFA with spatial localization. The transient density ramp is produced by a prepulse propagating transversely to drill a density depression channel via ionization and expansion. The same mechanism of injection with comparable efficiency is also demonstrated wi...

  7. Multipoint Observations of Energetic Particle Injections and Substorm Activity During a Conjunction Between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Clemmons, J. H.; Jaynes, A. N.; Leonard, T.; Baker, D. N.; Cohen, I. J.; Gkioulidou, M.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mauk, B. H.; Gabrielse, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Strangeway, R. J.; Kletzing, C. A.; Le Contel, O.; Spence, H. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Reeves, G. D.

    2017-11-01

    This study examines multipoint observations during a conjunction between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes on 7 April 2016 in which a series of energetic particle injections occurred. With complementary data from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms, Geotail, and Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit (16 spacecraft in total), we develop new insights on the nature of energetic particle injections associated with substorm activity. Despite this case involving only weak substorm activity (maximum AE energy wave activity is also established from Van Allen Probes and MMS. Drift mapping using a simplified magnetic field model provides estimates of the dispersionless injection boundary locations as a function of universal time, magnetic local time, and L shell. The analysis reveals that at least five electron injections, which were localized in magnetic local time, preceded a larger injection of both electrons and ions across nearly the entire nightside of the magnetosphere near geosynchronous orbit. The larger ion and electron injection did not penetrate to L < 6.6, but several of the smaller electron injections penetrated to L < 6.6. Due to the discrepancy between the number, penetration depth, and complexity of electron versus ion injections, this event presents challenges to the current conceptual models of energetic particle injections.

  8. Injection laryngoplasty as miniinvasive office-based surgery in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis - voice quality outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina M; Sobol, Maria; Jędra, Katarzyna; Rzepakowska, Anna; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-09-01

    Injection laryngoplasty (glottis augmentation) is the preferred method in surgical management of unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). Traditionally, these procedures are performed in the operating room. Nowadays, however, these procedures have moved into the office. To evaluate the voice quality after transoral injection laryngoplasty under local anaesthesia in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Fourteen subjects (5 women and 9 men) with unilateral vocal fold paresis (9 with right vocal fold paresis and 5 with left vocal fold paresis) were included in the study. The mean age of the group was 57.8 ±19.0 years (32-83 years). All of the injection laryngoplasties were performed transorally, under local anaesthesia. The injection material was calcium hydroxylapatite. Before and 1, 3 and 6 months after the procedure the following variables were evaluated: voice perception, videostroboscopy, acoustic analysis, aerodynamic evaluation, and the subjective rating of the voice quality by the patient. After injection laryngoplasty, complete glottal closure was achieved or there was a significant improvement in the glottal closure of each subject. We noted great improvement in the post-injection objective and subjective voice outcomes and patients reported improvement in the voice-related quality of life. The transoral approach for injection laryngoplasty under local anaesthesia is an effective and safe way to treat incomplete glottal closure in patients with UVFP. The transoral approach is an efficient alternative to other surgical techniques used for vocal fold injection.

  9. Radiation loads on the ITER first wall during massive gas injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, I., E-mail: igor.landman@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bazylev, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Saibene, G. [Fusion for Energy Joint Undertaking, Josep Pla no. 2 – Torres Diagonal Litoral Edificio B3 7/03, Barselona 08019 (Spain); Pestchanyi, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Putvinski, S.; Sugihara, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The massive gas injection (neon) is simulated with the two-dimensional tokamak code TOKES assuming the toroidal symmetry. • The neon injection, assimilation and transport of impurities through the entire plasma volume are modelled. • The output of TOKES is used by the melt motion code MEMOS to assess beryllium wall temperature and the regime with melting. • Complete plasma cooling occurs in minimum time of 5.7 ms with avoiding Be melting at any point on the first wall. -- Abstract: Unmitigated disruptions in ITER can produce strong localized surface damage on the first wall (FW). Massive gas injection (MGI) systems are being designed to dissipate a large fraction of the plasma stored energy at the disruption thermal quench (TQ) and hence reduce the consequences for FW components. The stored energies can be high enough, however, for there to be potential for the photon flash at the MGI TQ to drive local melting of beryllium FW components. To estimate the poloidal distribution of FW surface temperatures, the MGI process is being simulated using the 2D code TOKES, assuming toroidal symmetry. High pressure neon injection, assimilation and transport of injected impurities through the entire plasma volume are modelled. The output of these simulations is used by the melt motion code MEMOS to assess the resulting maximum surface temperature and the regimes with melting on the FW surface.

  10. The concept of "compartment allergy": prilocaine injected into different skin layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobser Marion

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We herein present a patient with delayed-type allergic hypersensitivity against prilocaine leading to spreading eczematous dermatitis after subcutaneous injections for local anesthesia with prilocaine. Prilocaine allergy was proven by positive skin testing and subcutaneous provocation, whereas the evaluation of other local anesthetics - among them lidocaine, articaine and mepivacaine - did not exhibit any evidence for cross-reactivity. Interestingly, our patient repeatedly tolerated strictly deep subcutaneous injection of prilocaine in provocation testing while patch and superficial subcutaneous application mounted strong allergic responses. We hypothesize, that lower DC density in deeper cutaneous compartments and/or different DC subsets exhibiting distinct functional immunomodulatory properties in the various layers of the skin may confer to the observed absence of clinical reactivity against prilocaine after deep subcutaneous injection. The term compartment allergy indicates that the route of allergen administration together with the targeted immunologic environment orchestrates on the immunologic outcome: overt T-cell mediated allergy or clinical tolerance.

  11. Effect of corticosteroid injection for trochanter pain syndrome: design of a randomised clinical trial in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaar Jan AN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regional pain in the hip in adults is a common cause of a general practitioner visit. A considerable part of patients suffer from (greater trochanteric pain syndrome or trochanteric bursitis. Local corticosteroid injections is one of the treatment options. Although clear evidence is lacking, small observational studies suggest that this treatment is effective in the short-term follow-up. So far, there are no randomised controlled trials available evaluating the efficacy of injection therapy. This study will investigate the efficacy of local corticosteroid injections in the trochanter syndrome in the general practice, using a randomised controlled trial design. The cost effectiveness of the corticosteroid injection therapy will also be assessed. Secondly, the role of co-morbidity in relation to the efficacy of local corticosteroid injections will be investigated. Methods/Design This study is a pragmatic, open label randomised trial. A total of 150 patients (age 18–80 years visiting the general practitioner with complaints suggestive of trochanteric pain syndrome will be allocated to receive local corticosteroid injections or to receive usual care. Usual care consists of analgesics as needed. The randomisation is stratified for yes or no co-morbidity of low back pain, osteoarthritis of the hip, or both. The treatment will be evaluated by means of questionnaires at several time points within one year, with the 3 month and 1 year evaluation of pain and recovery as primary outcome. Analyses of primary and secondary outcomes will be made according to the intention-to-treat principle. Direct and indirect costs will be assessed by questionnaires. The cost effectiveness will be estimated using the following ratio: CE ratio = (cost of injection therapy minus cost of usual care/(effect of injection therapy minus effect of usual care. Discussion This study design is appropriate to estimate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the

  12. Prevention of polydimethylsiloxane microsphere migration using a mussel-inspired polydopamine coating for potential application in injection therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jae Chung

    Full Text Available The use of injectable bulking agents is a feasible alternative procedure for conventional surgical therapy. In this study, poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS microspheres coated with polydopamine (PDA were developed as a potential injection agent to prevent migration in vocal fold. Uniform PDMS microspheres are fabricated using a simple fluidic device and then coated with PDA. Cell attachment test reveals that the PDA-coated PDMS (PDA-PDMS substrate favors cell adhesion and attachment. The injected PDA-PDMS microspheres persist without migration on reconstructed axial CT images, whereas, pristine PDMS locally migrates over a period of 12 weeks. The gross appearance of the implants retrieved at 4, 8, 12 and 34 weeks indicates that the PDA-PDMS group maintained their original position without significant migration until 34 weeks after injection. By contrast, there is diffuse local migration of the pristine PDMS group from 4 weeks after injection. The PDA-coated PDMS microspheres can potentially be used as easily injectable, non-absorbable filler without migration.

  13. Localized paediatric orbital rhabdomyosarcoma: Influence of imaging on treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, B.J.; McHugh, K.; McDowell, H.P.; Anslow, P.; Mitchell, C.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common primary malignant orbital tumour in children and has a good prognosis. The purpose of this paper was to review the imaging and consequent treatment of patients with localized orbital rhabdomyosarcoma from around the U.K. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were identified through the U.K. Chilren's Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) database. Investigations and therapy were dictated by the Malignant Mesenchymal Tumour '89 (MMT89) protocol. Imaging and radiological reports of 16 patients from 12 centres were reviewed. The number of patients receiving radiotherapy, timing of radiotherapy, and adherence to treatment protocols were assessed. RESULTS: Local radiologists' reports and imaging techniques varied between sequential examinations and centres. The imaging was adequate for management. No reports quoted measurements of the tumours. Treatment protocols were not always followed rigidly with regard to a residual mass at day 80 post-diagnosis. However, the protocol was not explicit for all outcomes. Fifteen out of 16 patients eventually received radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: There is no standardization of imaging between centres. The presence or absence of a post-therapeutic residue should be stated in the radiology report. Further investigation is needed to differentiate between fibrosis and recurrent tumour. Radiotherapy for residual mass at day 80 is probably more important than standardizing radiological technique. Burns B.J. et al. (2001)

  14. Do not rush to return to sports after trigger finger injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeehae; Jo, Leechan; Lee, Jong In

    2015-04-01

    Trigger finger, or digital stenosing tenosynovitis, is a common hand problem. A widely accepted treatment is steroid injection into the flexor tendon sheath. This can cause rupture of the flexor tendon. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on tendon rupture after a single corticosteroid injection. Moreover, there are no guidelines for patients with tendinopathy who want to return to sports after corticosteroid injection. Clinicians who perform local steroid injections for tendinopathy treatment should be aware of the possible dangers of tendon rupture and should confirm that steroids are not administrated into the tendon. Patients should also be warned about returning to sports prematurely and should be encouraged to gradually resume sports after the injection to prevent further damage. Herein, we report an unusual case of flexor digitorum profundus rupture after a single corticosteroid injection in a 57-yr-old male golfer and we also present a review of the literature.

  15. Influence of hypodermic needle dimensions on subcutaneous injection delivery - a pig study of injection deposition evaluated by CT scanning, histology, and backflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ann Praestmark Juul, Kezia; Bengtsson, Henrik; Eyving, Bente

    2012-01-01

    , little is known about local drug delivery in relation to needle length and thickness. This study aimed to compare deposition depth and backflow from three hypodermic needles of 3 mm 34G (0.19 mm), 5 mm 32G (0.23 mm), and 8 mm 30G (0.30 mm) in length and thickness. METHODS: Ex vivo experiments were......BACKGROUND: Thinner and shorter needles for subcutaneous administration are continuously developed. Previous studies have shown that a thinner needle causes fewer occurrences of painful needle insertions and that a shorter needle decreases the occurrence of painful intramuscular injections. However...... depth, the bulk of the injection was in the subcutaneous tissue and did not propagate from subcutis into dermis. With the 8 mm 30G needle all injections apart from one intramuscular injection were located in the subcutaneous layer. The volume depositions peaked in 4-5 mm depth for the 3 mm 34G needle...

  16. Localization of functional memory B cells at sites of antigen localization and its relationship to local aspects of immunological memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponzio, N.M.; Baine, Y.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments are described which have been designed to test whether antigen in a draining lymph node can mediate local accumulation of passively transferred antigen-specific memory B cells, using recipients whose own immune response is inhibited via γ-irradiation or by injection of cyclophosphamide. (Auth.)

  17. Post-Injection Induced Seismicity in EGS: Triggering Mechanisms and Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, S.; Carrera, J.; Vilarrasa, V.

    2017-12-01

    Induced microseismicity is a controversial issue related to Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and in general with fluid injection into deep geological formations. The occurring of felt earthquakes after stopping injection especially generates concern, because the correlation between injection and seismic activity is unclear. The aim of this work is to advance in the understanding of the processes that may induce or trigger co- and post-injection seismicity. To this end we investigate the thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling by means of numerical simulations of hydraulic stimulation of deep geothermal systems. We find that preferential flow through conductive fractures or fault zones provokes pressure and temperature perturbations that result in not only heterogeneous variation of the stress field, but also highly anisotropic variations of the local stress tensor. Anisotropic variations tend to stabilize some fractures, but destabilize others. Moreover, activation of shear slip causes a significant variation of the stress field that enlarges the range of critical fracture orientations. We find that post-injection seismicity may occur on non-critically oriented faults that were originally stable. During injection, such faults become destabilized by thermal and shear slip stress changes, but remain static by the superposition of the stabilizing effect of pressure forces. However, these fractures become unstable and fail when the pressure forcing dissipates shortly after injection stops abruptly, which suggests that a slow reduction in injection rate may mitigate post-injection seismicity.

  18. A Clinical Report of Localized Itching After Treatment with Sweet Bee Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Seok-woo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study is to report the percentage of localized itching which occurred, when we injected to patients with Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV. Methods : We investigated 374 patients who had injected with Sweet BV in our clinic from February 15. 2009 to April 30, 2010. We checked the number and percentage of patients who occured localized itching on injection area. Then we analyzed those according to times in treatment, the body parts of injection and treatment dosage. Results and Conclusion : Localized itching was lower by 1.60% in the first treatment with Sweet BV. However localized itching was 12.83% in the whole course of treatment, which showed a similar incidence of 13% in Bee Venom. Therefore it can be interpreted that Sweet BV may help suppress the immune responses such as itching in the initial treatment, but the occurrence of local immune responses of Sweet BV may be similar to that of Bee Venom in continued treatment. We suppose that we should be careful of the occurrence of local immune responses as Bee Venom at least until the fourth treatment in clinical application with Sweet BV, although localized itching did not occur in the first treatment. Also we should be careful of treatment with Sweet BV in body parts, such as wrist, hand, chest and abdominal, because the percentage of localized itching was relatively high in those parts.

  19. Effect of injection time on postictal SPET perfusion changes in medically refractory epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, R.A.; Corsi, M.; Seibyl, J.P.; Zubal, I.G. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Spencer, S.S.; Spanaki, M.V. [Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) brain imaging in epilepsy has become an increasingly important noninvasive tool in localizing the epileptogenic site. Ictal SPET demonstrates the highest localization sensitivity as compared with postictal and interictal SPET. While ictal SPET consistently reveals hyperperfusion at the epileptogenic site, postictal SPET reveals either hyper- or hypoperfusion depending on the timing of radiopharmaceutical injection. Much discussion in the literature exists about exactly when the transition from hyper- to hypoperfusion occurs at the epileptogenic site in postictal SPET. The systematic examination of two clinical variables - time of injection from seizure onset and offset - was useful in understanding postictal perfusion changes. Twenty-seven patients with medically refractory epilepsy receiving postictal and interictal SPET scans were studied. Quantitative SPET difference imaging was used to evaluate perfusion changes in relationship to injection time. Perfusion changes were found to reflect the time of injection in relation to seizure onset, but to be somewhat independent of seizure offset. Thus, the majority of patients (8/12, 67%) receiving postictal injections within 100 s after seizure onset demonstrated hyperperfusion, while all patients (15/15, 100%) receiving postictal injections more than 100 s after seizure onset showed hypoperfusion. The explanation of this phenomenon is unknown but the findings appear to parallel known changes in cerebral lactate levels. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 32 refs.

  20. Endoscopic ultrasound guided injection of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for liver and pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungureanu, Bogdan Silviu; Pirici, Daniel; Margaritescu, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    )-guidance, both systemically and locally in the liver and pancreas in order to study new potential therapies for liver and pancreatic tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six domestic pigs were used for our study design, and divided into three groups: two were injected in the portal vein, and other four were subjected...... to local exposure of IONs in the liver and pancreas, two each. The pigs were on a 7 days follow-up and necropsy was performed with their organs harvested. A 3T MRI scan was also performed. RESULTS: All animals underwent an endoscopic ultrasound fine needle injection (EUS-FNI) procedure without any...

  1. Green Synthesis of Cationic Polyacrylamide Composite Catalyzed by An Ecologically Catalyst Clay Called Maghnite-H+ (Algerian MMT Under Microwave Irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmouni Abdelkader

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel green cationic hydrogel of cationic polyacrylamide composite have been prepared and investigated. The synthesis of green cationic polyacrylamide composite was evaluated for its solubility in water. The reactions were performed using acrylamide monomer, solvent, catalyst (clay fin called maghnite and solution of  H2SO4 (0.25 M, with the system under microwave irradiation (160 ºC for 4 min. Major factors affecting the polymerization reaction were studied with a view to discover appropriate conditions for preparation of the composite. The cationic polyacrylamide obtained is the subject of future studies of modification and transformation. The resulting polymer has been characterized by a variety of characterization techniques, such as: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra and 1H NMR spectra.  Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th June 2015; Revised: 2nd September 2015; Accepted: 5th January 2016 How to Cite: Abdelkader, R., Mohammed, B. (2016. Green Synthesis of Cationic Polyacrylamide Composite Catalyzed by An Ecologically  Catalyst Clay Called Maghnite-H+ (Algerian MMT Under Microwave Irradiation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (2: 170-175 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.2.543.170-175 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.2.543.170-175

  2. [Practical advices in choosing local anesthesia tools in dentistry. Management of carpule's quality in local anesthesia in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, A V

    2014-01-01

    The equipment for local anesthesia is described in this article. Practical recommendations for the selection of the injection needle length, size, bevel type is given. Using dental needle for local anesthesia should be guided by the "one injection - one needle" rule, as a needle tends to deform by even the slightest contact with jawbone. Some of the shortcomings of carpule quality may be detected before use: signs of cup corrosion, the presence of sediment, air bubbles, rubber plunger disposition. In the case of such defects being identified all the package should not be used. The use of such carpule in clinical practice is unsafe.

  3. Maximization of ICRF power by SOL density tailoring with local gas injection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jacquet, P.; Goniche, M.; Bobkov, V.; Lerche, E.; Pinsker, R.I.; Pitts, R.A.; Zhang, W.; Colas, L.; Hosea, J.; Moriyama, S.; Wang, S.-J.; Wukitch, S.; Zhang, X.; Bilato, R.; Bufferand, H.; Guimarais, L.; Faugel, H.; Hanson, G.R.; Kocan, M.; Monakhov, I.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Petržílka, Václav; Shaw, A.; Stepanov, I.; Sips, A.C.C.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2016), s. 046001 ISSN 0029-5515 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ICRF power * antenna loading * gas injection * SOL density Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0029-5515/56/4/046001

  4. Comparison between newer local anesthetics for myofascial pain syndrome management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaralidou, A Th; Amaniti, E N; Maidatsi, P G; Gorgias, N K; Vasilakos, D F

    2007-06-01

    Myofascial pain syndromes are characterized by the presence of painful loci within muscles, tendons or ligaments, called trigger points. Infiltration of these points with local anesthetics is often used as a treatment modality. The aim of the study was to comparatively evaluate 0.25% levobupivacaine and 0.25% ropivacaine for trigger point injection regarding pain on injection, treatment efficacy and duration of symptoms remission. Sixty-eight patients, suffering from myofascial pain syndromes, were randomly assigned to two groups to receive either levobupivacaine or ropivacaine for trigger-point injection. After completion of the procedure, patients were asked to rate pain during injection and efficacy of the treatment, based on immediate relief. Two weeks later, they were asked about the duration of this relief. Statistical analysis did not reveal significant differences between groups with respect to pain during injection, efficacy of the treatment and duration of pain relief. The two local anesthetics seem to be equally effective for trigger point infiltration. (c) 2007 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  5. Local anesthesia for prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, Kent; Simpson, Colleen; Roof, James; Arthurs, Sandy; Korssjoen, Tammy; Sutlief, Steven

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the technique and feasibility of prostate brachytherapy performed with local anesthesia only. Methods and Materials: A 5 by 5 cm patch of perineal skin and subcutaneous tissue is anesthetized by local infiltration of 10 cc of 1% lidocaine with epinephrine, using a 25-gauge 5/8-inch needle. Immediately following injection into the subcutaneous tissues, the deeper tissues, including the pelvic floor and prostate apex, are anesthetized by injecting 15 cc lidocaine solution with approximately 8 passes of a 20-gauge 1.0-inch needle. Following subcutaneous and peri-apical lidocaine injections, the patient is brought to the simulator suite and placed in leg stirrups. The transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe is positioned to reproduce the planning images and a 3.5- or 6.0-inch, 22-gauge spinal needle is inserted into the peripheral planned needle tracks, monitored by TRUS. When the tips of the needles reach the prostatic base, about 1 cc of lidocaine solution is injected in the intraprostatic track, as the needle is slowly withdrawn, for a total volume of 15 cc. The implants are done with a Mick Applicator, inserting and loading groups of two to four needles, so that a maximum of only about four needles are in the patient at any one time. During the implant procedure, an additional 1 cc of lidocaine solution is injected into one or more needle tracks if the patient experiences substantial discomfort. The total dose of lidocaine is generally limited to 500 mg (50 ml of 1% solution). Results: To date, we have implanted approximately 50 patients in our simulator suite, using local anesthesia. Patients' heart rate and diastolic blood pressure usually showed moderate changes, consistent with some discomfort. The time from first subcutaneous injection and completion of the source insertion ranged from 35 to 90 minutes. Serum lidocaine levels were below or at the low range of therapeutic. There has been only one instance of acute urinary retention in the

  6. Ability to join the workforce and work productivity among drug users under methadone maintenance treatment in a mountainous area of Northern Vietnam: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Vuong Minh; Boggiano, Victoria L; Nguyen, Lan Huong Thi; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Xuan Bach, Tran; Nguyen, Hung Van; Hoang, Canh Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Minh Thuc Thi

    2017-07-26

    A major measure of treatment success for drug users undergoing rehabilitation is the ability to enter the workforce and generate income. This study examines the absenteeism and productivity among people who inject drugs (PWID) enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Northern Vietnam. We conducted a cross-sectional study in two clinics in Tuyen Quang province. A total of 241 patients enrolled in MMT. Patients' work productivity was measured using the WPAI-GH instrument (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health V2.0). We also collected additional characteristics about participants' employment history, such as proficient jobs, whether they actively found a new job and be accepted by employers. Most of the participants (>90%) were employed at the time of the study. Rates of absenteeism (missed work), presenteeism (impairment while working) and overall loss of productivity were 15.8%, 5.6% and 11.2%, respectively, as measured by the WPAI-GH questionnaire. The most proficient job was 'freelancer' (17.5%), followed by 'blue-collar worker' (10.6%) and 'farmer' (10.2%). Only 26.8% of patients reported that they actively sought jobs in the past. About half of them had been refused by employers because of their drug use history and/or HIV status. We found no statistically significant difference between patients enrolled in MMT for 1 year. Factors associated with higher work productivity included not endorsing problems in mobility, self-care or pain; being HIV-negative and having greater MMT treatment adherence. Our study highlights the high employment rate and work productivity among PWID in MMT programmes in remote areas of Northern Vietnam. The results can help to improve the quality and structure of MMT programmes across Vietnam and in other countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  7. Treatment of recurrent chronic bacterial prostatitis by local injection of thiamphenicol into prostate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, T.A.; Baert, L.; Maes, R.A.

    Twenty-nine patients were treated for recurrent chronic bacterial prostatitis by an injection of 2 Gm. thiamphenicol glycinate via the perineal route directly into the prostate. Escherichia coli was identified as the pathogen responsible for this infection in 83 per cent of the cases. Using this

  8. Drug injecting and HIV risk among injecting drug users in Hai Phong, Vietnam: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Long, Thanh Nguyen; Huong, Phan Thi; Stewart, Donald Edwin

    2015-01-29

    Hai Phong, located in northern Vietnam, has become a high HIV prevalence province among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) since the infection shifted from the southern to the northern region of the country. Previous research indicates high levels of drug and sex related risk behaviour especially among younger IDUs. Our recent qualitative research provides a deeper understanding of HIV risk behaviour and highlights views and experiences of IDUs relating to drug injecting and sharing practices. Fifteen IDUs participated in semi-structured interviews conducted in September-October, 2012. Eligible participants were selected from those recruited in a larger scale behavioural research project and identified through screening questions. Interviews were conducted by two local interviewers in Vietnamese and were audiotaped. Ethical procedures, including informed consent and participants' understanding of their right to skip and withdraw, were applied. Transcripts were translated and double checked. The data were categorised and coded according to themes. Thematic analysis was conducted and a qualitative data analysis thematic framework was used. Qualitative analysis highlighted situational circumstances associated with HIV risks among IDUs in Hai Phong and revealed three primary themes: (i) places for injecting, (ii) injecting drugs in small groups, and (iii) sharing practices. Our results showed that shared use of jointly purchased drugs and group injecting were widespread among IDUs without adequate recognition of these as HIV risk behaviours. Frequent police raids generated a constant fear of arrest. As a consequence, the majority preferred either rail lines or isolated public places for injection, while some injected in their own or a friend's home. Price, a heroin crisis, and strong group norms encouraged collective preparation and group injecting. Risk practices were enhanced by a number of factors: the difficulty in getting new syringes, quick withdrawal management

  9. Mechanical performance of injection molded polypropylene : characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van T.B.; Govaert, L.E.; Peters, G.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that predictions of local mechanical properties in a product can be made from the orientation only using an anisotropic viscoplastic model. Due to processing-induced crystalline orientations, the mechanical properties of injection-molded polymer products are anisotropic and exhibit

  10. Comparative study of the novel and conventional injection approach for inferior alveolar nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsiriseth, K; Sirintawat, N; Arunakul, K; Wongsirichat, N

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anesthesia obtained with a novel injection approach for inferior alveolar nerve block compared with the conventional injection approach. 40 patients in good health, randomly received each of two injection approaches of local anesthetic on each side of the mandible at two separate appointments. A sharp probe and an electric pulp tester were used to test anesthesia before injection, after injection when the patients' sensation changed, and 5 min after injection. This study comprised positive aspiration and intravascular injection 5% and neurovascular bundle injection 7.5% in the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block, but without occurrence in the novel injection approach. A visual analog scale (VAS) pain assessment was used during injection and surgery. The significance level used in the statistical analysis was pinferior alveolar nerve block by the novel injection approach provided adequate anesthesia and caused less pain and greater safety during injection. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of pilot injection parameters on low temperature combustion diesel engines equipped with solenoid injectors featuring conventional and rate-shaped main injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Ambrosio, S.; Ferrari, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The influence of the principal pilot injection parameters is discussed for low-temperature combustion systems. • Swirl-sweep and dwell-time sweep results are combined to analyze soot emissions. • The pilot injection effects are investigated in injection profiles featuring rate-shaped main injections. - Abstract: The potential of pilot injection has been assessed on a low-temperature combustion diesel engine for automotive applications, which was characterized by a reduced compression-ratio, high EGR rates and postponed main injection timings. Dwell time sweeps have been carried out for pilot injections with distinct energizing times under different representative steady-state working conditions of the medium load and speed area of the New European Driving Cycle. The results of in-cylinder analyses of the pressure, heat-release rate, temperature and emissions are presented. Combustion noise has been shown to decrease significantly when the pilot injected mass increases, while it is scarcely affected by the dwell time between the pilot and main injections. The HC, CO and fuel consumption trends, with respect to both the pilot injection dwell time and mass, are in line with those of conventional combustion systems, and in particular decreasing trends occur as the pilot injection energizing time is increased. Furthermore, a reduced sensitivity of NO_x emissions to both dwell time and pilot injected mass has been found, compared to conventional combustion systems. Finally, it has been observed that soot emissions diminish as the energizing time is shortened, and their dependence on dwell time is influenced to a great extent by the presence of local zones with reduced air-to-fuel ratios within the cylinder. A combined analysis of the results of swirl sweeps and dwell time sweeps is here proposed as a methodology for the detection of any possible interference between pilot combustion burned gases and the main injected fuel. The effect of pilot

  12. A Phase Space Monitoring of Injected Beam of J-PARC MR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Shuichiro; Toyama, Takeshi

    Beam power of J-PARC MR (30 GeV Proton Synchrotron Main Ring) has been improved since 2008 and now achieved over 200 kW for the user operation. A part of beam loss is localized at the beam injection phase so it is important to monitor the beam bunch behavior in the transverse direction. In this paper it is described the method how to measure the position and momentum for each injected beam bunch using Beam Position Monitors (BPMs). It is also mentioned some implementation of an operator's interface (OPI) to display the plots of injected and circulating beam bunches in phase space coordinate.

  13. Radiation asymmetries during disruptions on DIII-D caused by massive gas injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commaux, N.; Baylor, L. R.; Jernigan, T. C.; Foust, C. R.; Combs, S.; Meitner, S. J.; Hollmann, E. M.; Izzo, V. A.; Moyer, R. A.; Humphreys, D. A.; Wesley, J. C.; Eidietis, N. W.; Parks, P. B.; Lasnier, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges that the ITER tokamak will have to face during its operations are disruptions. During the last few years, it has been proven that the global consequences of a disruption can be mitigated by the injection of large quantities of impurities. But one aspect that has been difficult to study was the possibility of local effects inside the torus during such injection that could damage a portion of the device despite the global heat losses and generated currents remaining below design parameter. 3D MHD simulations show that there is a potential for large toroidal asymmetries of the radiated power during impurity injection due to the interaction between the particle injection plume and a large n = 1 mode. Another aspect of 3D effects is the potential occurrence of Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), which could induce large poloidal heat load asymmetries. This potential deleterious effect of 3D phenomena has been studied on the DIII-D tokamak, thanks to the implementation of a multi-location massive gas injection (MGI) system as well as new diagnostic capabilities. This study showed the existence of a correlation between the location of the n = 1 mode and the local heat load on the plasma facing components but shows also that this effect is much smaller than anticipated (peaking factor of ∼1.1 vs 3-4 according to the simulations). There seems to be no observable heat load on the first wall of DIII-D at the location of the impurity injection port as well as no significant radiation asymmetries whether one or 2 valves are fired. This study enabled the first attempt of mitigation of a VDE using impurity injection at different poloidal locations. The results showed a more favorable heat deposition when the VDE is mitigated early (right at the onset) by impurity injection. No significant improvement of the heat load mitigation efficiency has been observed for late particle injection whether the injection is done “in the way” of the VDE

  14. Effects of local high-frequency perturbation on a turbulent boundary layer by synthetic jet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hao; Huang, Qian-Min; Liu, Pei-qing; Qu, Qiu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the local high-frequency perturbation effects of a synthetic jet injection on a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. Parameters of the synthetic jet are designed to force a high-frequency perturbation from a thin spanwise slot in the wall. In the test locations downstream of the slot, it is found that skin-friction is reduced by the perturbation, which is languishingly evolved downstream of the slot with corresponding influence on the near-wall regeneration mechanism of turbulent structures. The downstream slot region is divided into two regions due to the influence strength of the movement of spanwise vortices generated by the high-frequency perturbation. Interestingly, the variable interval time average technique is found to be disturbed by the existence of the spanwise vortices’ motion, especially in the region close to the slot. Similar results are obtained from the analysis of the probability density functions of the velocity fluctuation time derivatives, which is another indirect technique for detecting the enhancement or attenuation of streamwise vortices. However, both methods have shown consistent results with the skin-friction reduction mechanism in the far-away slot region. The main purpose of this paper is to remind researchers to be aware of the probable influence of spanwise vortices’ motion in wall-bounded turbulence control. (paper)

  15. Injecting Artificial Memory Errors Into a Running Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Benjamin J.; Granat, Robert A.; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2008-01-01

    Single-event upsets (SEUs) or bitflips are computer memory errors caused by radiation. BITFLIPS (Basic Instrumentation Tool for Fault Localized Injection of Probabilistic SEUs) is a computer program that deliberately injects SEUs into another computer program, while the latter is running, for the purpose of evaluating the fault tolerance of that program. BITFLIPS was written as a plug-in extension of the open-source Valgrind debugging and profiling software. BITFLIPS can inject SEUs into any program that can be run on the Linux operating system, without needing to modify the program s source code. Further, if access to the original program source code is available, BITFLIPS offers fine-grained control over exactly when and which areas of memory (as specified via program variables) will be subjected to SEUs. The rate of injection of SEUs is controlled by specifying either a fault probability or a fault rate based on memory size and radiation exposure time, in units of SEUs per byte per second. BITFLIPS can also log each SEU that it injects and, if program source code is available, report the magnitude of effect of the SEU on a floating-point value or other program variable.

  16. Fluoroscopic lumbar interlaminar epidural injections in managing chronic lumbar axial or discogenic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchikanti L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Laxmaiah Manchikanti,1,2 Kimberly A Cash,1 Carla D McManus,1 Vidyasagar Pampati,1 Ramsin Benyamin3,41Pain Management Center of Paducah, Paducah, KY; 2University of Louisville, Louisville, KY; 3Millennium Pain Center, Bloomington, IL; 4University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USAAbstract: Among the multiple causes of chronic low back pain, axial and discogenic pain are common. Various modalities of treatments are utilized in managing discogenic and axial low back pain including epidural injections. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity of any treatment modality utilized for managing axial or discogenic pain, including epidural injections. In an interventional pain management practice in the US, a randomized, double-blind, active control trial was conducted. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of lumbar interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for managing chronic low back pain of discogenic origin. However, disc herniation, radiculitis, facet joint pain, or sacroiliac joint pain were excluded. Two groups of patients were studied, with 60 patients in each group receiving either local anesthetic only or local anesthetic mixed with non-particulate betamethasone. Primary outcome measures included the pain relief-assessed by numeric rating scale of pain and functional status assessed by the, Oswestry Disability Index, Secondary outcome measurements included employment status, and opioid intake. Significant improvement or success was defined as at least a 50% decrease in pain and disability. Significant improvement was seen in 77% of the patients in Group I and 67% of the patients in Group II. In the successful groups (those with at least 3 weeks of relief with the first two procedures, the improvement was 84% in Group I and 71% in Group II. For those with chronic function-limiting low back pain refractory to conservative management

  17. Spread of Injectate Around Hip Articular Sensory Branches of the Femoral Nerve in Cadavers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Greher, Manfred; Moriggl, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    of the femoral nerve. Methods: Fifteen cadaver sides were injected with 5 mL dye in the iliopsoas plane guided by ultrasound. Dissection was performed to verify the spread of injectate around the hip articular branches of the femoral nerve. Results: In 10 dissections (67% [95% confidence interval: 38.......2-32%]) adhesions partially obstructed the spread of dye. Conclusion: An injection of 5 mL in the iliopsoas plane spreads around all hip articular branches of the femoral nerve in 10 of 15 cadaver sides. If these findings translate to living humans, injection of local anaesthetic into the iliopsoas plane could...

  18. Departure from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in argon plasmas sustained in a Torche à Injection Axiale sur Guide d'Ondes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincón, R.; Muñoz, J.; Calzada, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma torches are suitable plasma sources for a wide range of applications. The capability of these discharges to produce processes like sample excitation or decomposition of molecules inside them depends on the density of the plasma species and their energies (temperatures). The relation between these parameters determines the specific state of thermodynamic equilibrium in the discharge. Thus, the understanding of plasma possibilities for application purposes is related to the knowledge of the plasma thermodynamic equilibrium degree. In this paper a discussion about the equilibrium state for Ar plasmas generated by using a Torche à Injection Axiale sur Guide d'Ondes, TIAGO device, is presented. Emission spectroscopy techniques were used to measure gas temperature and electron density at the exit of the nozzle torch and along the dart. Boltzmann-plots as well as b p parameters were calculated to characterize the type and degree of departure from partial Local Saha Equilibrium (pLSE). This study indicates that the closer situation to Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) of the plasma corresponds to larger Ar flows which highlights the importance of the nitrogen (atmosphere surrounding the plasma) in the kinetics of Ar-TIAGO discharges. - Highlights: • Discharges sustained in Ar using a TIAGO Torch show a significant departure from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium. • Nitrogen entrance from surrounding air highly influences Thermodynamic Equilibrium. • Departure from LTE has been studied by means of Boltzmann plots and b p parameters. • The discharge is ionizing at the nozzle exit plasma, while along the dart it becomes recombining

  19. Bioengineering of injectable encapsulated aggregates of pluripotent stem cells for therapy of myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuting; Xu, Zhaobin; Wang, Hai; Reese, Benjamin E.; Gushchina, Liubov V.; Jiang, Meng; Agarwal, Pranay; Xu, Jiangsheng; Zhang, Mingjun; Shen, Rulong; Liu, Zhenguo; Weisleder, Noah; He, Xiaoming

    2016-10-01

    It is difficult to achieve minimally invasive injectable cell delivery while maintaining high cell retention and animal survival for in vivo stem cell therapy of myocardial infarction. Here we show that pluripotent stem cell aggregates pre-differentiated into the early cardiac lineage and encapsulated in a biocompatible and biodegradable micromatrix, are suitable for injectable delivery. This method significantly improves the survival of the injected cells by more than six-fold compared with the conventional practice of injecting single cells, and effectively prevents teratoma formation. Moreover, this method significantly enhances cardiac function and survival of animals after myocardial infarction, as a result of a localized immunosuppression effect of the micromatrix and the in situ cardiac regeneration by the injected cells.

  20. Locally limited inhibition of bone resorption and orthodontic relapse by recombinant osteoprotegerin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D A; Smith, S M; Campbell, C; Hayami, T; Kapila, S; Hatch, N E

    2015-04-01

    To determine minimal dose levels required for local inhibition of orthodontic relapse by recombinant OPG protein (OPG-Fc), while also determining effects of injected OPG-Fc on alveolar bone and long bone. The Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry at the University of Michigan. Eighteen male Sprague Dawley rats. Maxillary molars were moved with nickel-titanium springs and then allowed to relapse in Sprague Dawley rats. Upon appliance removal, animals were injected with a single dose of 1.0 mg/kg OPG-Fc, 0.1 mg/kg OPG-Fc, or phosphate-buffered saline (vehicle) just distal to the molar teeth. Tooth movement measurements were made from stone casts, which were scanned and digitally measured. Alveolar tissues were examined by histology. Micro-computed tomography was used to quantify changes in alveolar and femur bone. Local injection of OPG-Fc inhibited molar but not incisor relapse, when compared to vehicle-injected animals. No significant differences in alveolar or femur bone were seen between the three treatment groups after 24 days of relapse. Our results demonstrate that a single local injection of OPG-Fc effectively inhibits orthodontic relapse, with minimal systemic bone metabolic effects. Our results also show that a single injection of OPG-Fc will influence tooth movement only in teeth close to the injection site. These findings indicate that OPG-Fc has potential as a safe and effective pharmacological means to locally control osteoclasts, for uses such as maintaining anchorage during orthodontic tooth movement and preventing orthodontic relapse in humans. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Modeling earthquake magnitudes from injection-induced seismicity on rough faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, J.; Dunham, E. M.; Segall, P.

    2017-12-01

    It is an open question whether perturbations to the in-situ stress field due to fluid injection affect the magnitudes of induced earthquakes. It has been suggested that characteristics such as the total injected fluid volume control the size of induced events (e.g., Baisch et al., 2010; Shapiro et al., 2011). On the other hand, Van der Elst et al. (2016) argue that the size distribution of induced earthquakes follows Gutenberg-Richter, the same as tectonic events. Numerical simulations support the idea that ruptures nucleating inside regions with high shear-to-effective normal stress ratio may not propagate into regions with lower stress (Dieterich et al., 2015; Schmitt et al., 2015), however, these calculations are done on geometrically smooth faults. Fang & Dunham (2013) show that rupture length on geometrically rough faults is variable, but strongly dependent on background shear/effective normal stress. In this study, we use a 2-D elasto-dynamic rupture simulator that includes rough fault geometry and off-fault plasticity (Dunham et al., 2011) to simulate earthquake ruptures under realistic conditions. We consider aggregate results for faults with and without stress perturbations due to fluid injection. We model a uniform far-field background stress (with local perturbations around the fault due to geometry), superimpose a poroelastic stress field in the medium due to injection, and compute the effective stress on the fault as inputs to the rupture simulator. Preliminary results indicate that even minor stress perturbations on the fault due to injection can have a significant impact on the resulting distribution of rupture lengths, but individual results are highly dependent on the details of the local stress perturbations on the fault due to geometric roughness.

  2. The efficacy of an intraosseous injection system of delivering local anesthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, M S

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the clinical testing of a new system for the intraosseous delivery of local anesthesia. The author concluded that the system delivered local anesthetic very effectively (in some situations more effectively than the traditional delivery method), thus offering a great potential advantage to both dentists and patients.

  3. Non-injection Drug Use and Injection Initiation Assistance among People Who Inject Drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamida, Amen; Rafful, Claudia; Jain, Sonia; Sun, Shelly; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Werb, Dan

    2018-02-01

    Although most people who inject drugs (PWID) report receiving assistance during injection initiation events, little research has focused on risk factors among PWID for providing injection initiation assistance. We therefore sought to determine the influence of non-injection drug use among PWID on their risk to initiate others. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models on longitudinal data among a prospective cohort of PWID in Tijuana, Mexico (Proyecto El Cuete IV), while controlling for potential confounders. At baseline, 534 participants provided data on injection initiation assistance. Overall, 14% reported ever initiating others, with 4% reporting this behavior recently (i.e., in the past 6 months). In a multivariable GEE model, recent non-injection drug use was independently associated with providing injection initiation assistance (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-4.20). Further, in subanalyses examining specific drug types, recent non-injection use of cocaine (AOR = 9.31, 95% CI = 3.98-21.78), heroin (AOR = 4.00, 95% CI = 1.88-8.54), and methamphetamine (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.16-3.55) were all significantly associated with reporting providing injection initiation assistance. Our findings may have important implications for the development of interventional approaches to reduce injection initiation and related harms. Further research is needed to validate findings and inform future approaches to preventing entry into drug injecting.

  4. Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1979-02-14

    The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

  5. Numerical simulation of boron injection in a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinoco, Hernan, E-mail: htb@forsmark.vattenfall.s [Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, SE-742 03 Osthammar (Sweden); Buchwald, Przemyslaw [Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Frid, Wiktor, E-mail: wiktor@reactor.sci.kth.s [Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    The present study constitutes a first step to understand the process of boron injection, transport and mixing in a BWR. It consists of transient CFD simulations of boron injection in a model of the downcomer of Forsmark's Unit 3 containing about 6 million elements. The two cases studied are unintentional start of boron injection under normal operation and loss of offsite power with partial ATWS leaving 10% of the core power uncontrolled. The flow conditions of the second case are defined by means of an analysis with RELAP5, assuming boron injection start directly after the first ECCS injection. Recent publications show that meaningful conservative results may be obtained for boron or thermal mixing in PWRs with grids as coarse as that utilized here, provided that higher order discretization schemes are used to minimize numerical diffusion. The obtained results indicate an apparently strong influence of the scenario in the behavior of the injection process. The normal operation simulation shows that virtually all boron solution flows down to the Main Recirculation Pump inlet located directly below the boron inlet nozzle. The loss of offsite power simulation shows initially a spread of the boron solution over the entire sectional area of the lower part of the downcomer filled with colder water. This remaining effect of the ECCS injection lasts until all this water has left the downcomer. Above this region, the boron injection jet develops in a vertical streak, eventually resembling the injection of the normal operation scenario. Due to the initial spread, this boron injection will probably cause larger temporal and spatial concentration variations in the core. In both cases, these variations may cause reactivity transients and fuel damage due to local power escalation. To settle this issue, an analysis using an extended model containing the downcomer, the MRPs and the Lower Plenum will be carried out. Also, the simulation time will be extended to a scale of

  6. Numerical simulation of boron injection in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinoco, Hernan; Buchwald, Przemyslaw; Frid, Wiktor

    2010-01-01

    The present study constitutes a first step to understand the process of boron injection, transport and mixing in a BWR. It consists of transient CFD simulations of boron injection in a model of the downcomer of Forsmark's Unit 3 containing about 6 million elements. The two cases studied are unintentional start of boron injection under normal operation and loss of offsite power with partial ATWS leaving 10% of the core power uncontrolled. The flow conditions of the second case are defined by means of an analysis with RELAP5, assuming boron injection start directly after the first ECCS injection. Recent publications show that meaningful conservative results may be obtained for boron or thermal mixing in PWRs with grids as coarse as that utilized here, provided that higher order discretization schemes are used to minimize numerical diffusion. The obtained results indicate an apparently strong influence of the scenario in the behavior of the injection process. The normal operation simulation shows that virtually all boron solution flows down to the Main Recirculation Pump inlet located directly below the boron inlet nozzle. The loss of offsite power simulation shows initially a spread of the boron solution over the entire sectional area of the lower part of the downcomer filled with colder water. This remaining effect of the ECCS injection lasts until all this water has left the downcomer. Above this region, the boron injection jet develops in a vertical streak, eventually resembling the injection of the normal operation scenario. Due to the initial spread, this boron injection will probably cause larger temporal and spatial concentration variations in the core. In both cases, these variations may cause reactivity transients and fuel damage due to local power escalation. To settle this issue, an analysis using an extended model containing the downcomer, the MRPs and the Lower Plenum will be carried out. Also, the simulation time will be extended to a scale of several

  7. Intrathecal opioids versus epidural local anesthetics for labor analgesia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklin, Brenda A; Chestnut, David H; Hawkins, Joy L

    2002-01-01

    Some anesthesiologists contend that intrathecal opioid administration has advantages over conventional epidural techniques during labor. Randomized clinical trials comparing analgesia and obstetric outcome using single-injection intrathecal opioids versus epidural local anesthetics suggest that intrathecal opioids provide comparable analgesia with few serious side effects. This meta-analysis compared the analgesic efficacy, side effects, and obstetric outcome of single-injection intrathecal opioid techniques versus epidural local anesthetics in laboring women. Relevant clinical studies were identified using electronic and manual searches of the literature covering the period from 1989 to 2000. Searches used the following descriptors: intrathecal analgesia, spinal opioids, epidural analgesia, epidural local anesthetics, and analgesia for labor. Data were extracted from 7 randomized clinical trials comparing analgesic measures, incidence of motor block, pruritus, nausea, hypotension, mode of delivery, and/or Apgar scores. Combined test results indicated comparable analgesic efficacy 15 to 20 minutes after injection with single-injection intrathecal opioid administration. Intrathecal opioid injections were associated with a greater incidence of pruritus (odds ratio, 14.01; 99% confidence interval, 6.9 to 28.3), but there was no difference in the incidence of nausea or in the method of delivery. Published studies suggest that intrathecal opioids provide comparable early labor analgesia when compared with epidural local anesthetics. Intrathecal opioid administration results in a greater incidence of pruritus. The choice of technique does not appear to affect the method of delivery.

  8. In vivo localization of cloned IL-2-dependent T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.M.; Palladino, M.A.; Oettgen, H.; De Sousa, M.

    1983-01-01

    The quantitative organ distribution and tissue microenvironment positioning of radioisotopically labeled cloned T cells were characterized. Intravenous (iv) injection of 51chromium ( 51 Cr)-labeled, long-term cultured cloned T-helper cells and cells from several cloned cytolytic T-lymphocyte lines (CTLL) resulted in poor localization of these cells in recipient lymphoid tissues, similar to results reported for activated lymphoblastoid cells. Simultaneous administration of interleukin 2 (IL-2) with labeled cells resulted in enhanced recovery from recipient spleen. By the intraperitoneal (ip) injection route, overall percentage recovery of injected radioactivity was lower than by the iv route, but significant localization to lymph nodes occurred. Examination of autoradiographs of tissue sections from recipients of [ 3 H]adenosine-labeled cells showed most label associated with intact, isolated cells in the liver, lungs, spleen, and small intestine. By 24 hr after iv injection, labeled cells in spleen sections were distributed to both nonlymphoid and T- and B-lymphoid areas. These findings suggest that poor localization of these cells to recipient lymphoid tissue is due both to intrinsic characteristics of cultured lymphocytes and to the possible reduced viability of IL-2-dependent cells in vivo

  9. One-month injectables are popular choice in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In Latin America over 100,000 women use monthly injectable contraceptives. These injectables are not part of any national program and are manufactured by local companies. Convenience and secretiveness were 2 primary reasons given by a group of injectable contraceptive users for preferring this method to all other forms of birth control. This was 1 of the findings of a study undertaken by Promotora de Planificacion Familiar A.C. (PROFAM) in Mexico to assess the market for a 1 month injectable, to include in its contraceptive social marketing program. In depth information was obtained about the attitudes and perceptions of present users of injectables with regard to the advantages of the method compared to other contraceptives and the motivation to use the 1 month rather than the 3 month product. In December 1983 PROFAM conducted a motivational study of injectable contraceptive users, utilizing 4 discussion groups composed of women who used 1 month injectables and were residents of several randomly selected lower middle income and low income areas of metropolitan Mexico City. The older women in the study had generally begun to use injectables after other methods were deemed unsatisfactory. They had either had physical or psychological complaints about their previous methods or were worried about effectiveness. Injectables were considered by all the women to be "less troublesome" than but as effective as either oral contraceptives (OCs) or the IUD. Features most often cited in favor of injectables were their effectiveness, lack of rumors about side effects, the possibility of secrecy, and ease of correct use. Knowledge about injectables was widespread, and the women reported no difficulty in getting the information they wanted from friends, drugstore personnel, or doctors. The product usually reached the consumer without a medical prescription. Finding someone to administer the shot was the principal drawback of an injectable contraceptive. Middle class women usually

  10. Local administration of growth hormone stimulates tendon collagen synthesis in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, P; Jørgensen, J.O.L.; Olesen, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Tendon collagen content and circulating growth hormone (GH) are reduced in elderly. In a placebo-controlled, double-blinded study, we examined if local injections of rhGH enhance collagen synthesis in healthy elderly men (61 ± 1 yr). Two injections of rhGH or saline (control) were injected into e...

  11. Ocular complications associated with local anesthesia administration in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynes, Sean G; Echeverria, Zydnia; Abdulwahab, Mohammad

    2010-10-01

    The most widely used method for controlling pain during dental procedures is the intraoral administration of local anesthetics in close proximity to a specific nerve or fiber to obtund nerve conduction. The most commonly anesthetized nerves in dentistry are branches or nerve trunks associated with the maxillary and mandibular divisions of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). However, other nerves may be inadvertently affected by intraoral local anesthesia injections, resulting in anesthetic complications of structures far from the oral cavity. Practitioners should be aware of potential ocular complications following intraoral injections in dentistry. These complications include oculomotor paralysis and vision loss. The knowledge of these conditions and their potential cause should alert the dentist to the importance of appropriate injection techniques and an understanding of management protocol. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  13. The impact of injection on seismicity at The Geysers, California Geothermal Field

    OpenAIRE

    Majer, Ernest L.; Peterson, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Water injection into geothermal systems has often become a required strategy to extend and sustain production of geothermal resources. To reduce a trend of declining pressures and increasing non-condensable gas concentrations in steam produced from The Geysers, operators have been injecting steam condensate, local rain and stream waters, and most recently treated wastewater piped to the field from neighboring communities. If geothermal energy is to provide a significant increase in energy in ...

  14. The Impact of Injection on Seismicity at The Geyses, California Geothermal Field

    OpenAIRE

    Majer, Ernest L.; Peterson, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Water injection into geothermal systems has often become a required strategy to extended and sustain production of geothermal resources. To reduce a trend of declining pressures and increasing non-condensable gas concentrations in steam produced from The Geysers, operators have been injecting steam condensate, local rain and stream waters, and most recently treated wastewater piped to the field from neighboring communities. If geothermal energy is to provide a significant increase in ene...

  15. Diagnostic value of lumbar facet joint injection: a prospective triple cross-over study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Schütz

    Full Text Available The diagnosis "lumbar facet syndrome" is common and often indicates severe lumbar spine surgery procedures. It is doubtful whether a painful facet joint (FJ can be identified by a single FJ block. The aim of this study was to clarify the validity of a single and placebo controlled bilateral FJ blocks using local anesthetics. A prospective single blinded triple cross-over study was performed. 60 patients (31 f, 29 m, mean age 53.2 yrs (22-73 with chronic low back pain (mean pain persistance 31 months, 6 months of conservative treatment without success admitted to a local orthopaedic department for surgical or conservative therapy of chronic LBP, were included in the study. Effect on pain reduction (10 point rating scale was measured. The 60 subjects were divided into six groups with three defined sequences of fluoroscopically guided bilateral monosegmental lumbar FJ test injections in "oblique needle" technique: verum-(local anaesthetic-, placebo-(sodium chloride- and sham-injection. Carry-over and periodic effects were evaluated and a descriptive and statistical analysis regarding the effectiveness, difference and equality of the FJ injections and the different responses was performed. The results show a high rate of non-response, which documents the lack of reliable and valid predictors for a positive response towards FJ blocks. There was a high rate of placebo reactions noted, including subjects who previously or later reacted positively to verum injections. Equivalence was shown among verum vs. placebo and partly vs. sham also. With regard to test validity criteria, a single intraarticular FJ block with local anesthetics is not useful to detect the pain-responsible FJ and therefore is no valid and reliable diagostic tool to specify indication of lumbar spine surgery. Comparative FJ blocks with local anesthetics and placebo-controls have to be interpretated carefully also, because they solely give no proper diagnosis on FJ being main pain

  16. Local anesthetics and nuclear medical bone images of the equine fore limb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaughan, E.M.; Wallace, R.J.; Kallfelz, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of two local anesthetic agents on the diagnostic quality of nuclear medical bone images (NMBIs) of distal parts of the equine fore limb were investigated. Local effects on bone uptake of technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) 4 and 24 hours after perineural and intraarticular injection of mepivacaine hydrochloride and bupivacaine hydrochloride were evaluated in the carpal and metacarpophalangeal regions of 12 horses and ponies. Neither mepivacaine hydrochloride nor bupivacaine hydrochloride significantly altered the diagnostic quality of the NMBIs. The injection and subsequent action of local anesthetics do not appear to influence local bone uptake of 99mTc-MDP significantly

  17. Pain Perception: Computerized versus Traditional Local Anesthesia in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, M; Kumar, A; Srivastava, D; Sharma, P; Sharma, S

    2015-01-01

    Local anesthetic injection is one of the most anxiety- provoking procedure for both children and adult patients in dentistry. A computerized system for slow delivery of local anesthetic has been developed as a possible solution to reduce the pain related to the local anesthetic injection. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare pain perception rates in pediatric patients with computerized system and traditional methods, both objectively and subjectively. It was a randomized controlled study in one hundred children aged 8-12 years in healthy physical and mental state, assessed as being cooperative, requiring extraction of maxillary primary molars. Children were divided into two groups by random sampling - Group A received buccal and palatal infiltration injection using Wand, while Group B received buccal and palatal infiltration using traditional syringe. Visual Analog scale (VAS) was used for subjective evaluation of pain perception by patient. Sound, Eye, Motor (SEM) scale was used as an objective method where sound, eye and motor reactions of patient were observed and heart rate measurement using pulse oximeter was used as the physiological parameter for objective evaluation. Patients experienced significantly less pain of injection with the computerized method during palatal infiltration, while less pain was not statistically significant during buccal infiltration. Heart rate increased during both buccal and palatal infiltration in traditional and computerized local anesthesia, but difference between traditional and computerized method was not statistically significant. It was concluded that pain perception was significantly more during traditional palatal infiltration injection as compared to computerized palatal infiltration, while there was no difference in pain perception during buccal infiltration in both the groups.

  18. Local changes after intramuscular administration of gammaphos (WR-2721) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resl, M.; Kuna, P.

    1985-01-01

    Local changes were investigated after i.m. injection of WR-2721, dissolved in saline or in aqua pro injectionem (ApI), and of ApI or saline alone. First muscle changes were found in the all the experimental groups after 6 h. Their development was most intensive after i.m. injection of ApI alone (granular degeneration up to complete necrosis of muscle fibers). The local changes after i.m. injection of WR-2721 in saline did not reach the intensity of changes of WR-2721 in ApI. The first reparative or regenerative changes were observed 72 hours after application. In the late phase (14th to 21st day) the normal tissue state was reached. The i.m. injection of WR-2721 in saline may be one of the possible routes of administration of this radioprotective substance. (author)

  19. Real-time ultrasound image classification for spine anesthesia using local directional Hadamard features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesteie, Mehran; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Ashab, Hussam Al-Deen; Lessoway, Victoria A; Massey, Simon; Gunka, Vit; Rohling, Robert N

    2015-06-01

    Injection therapy is a commonly used solution for back pain management. This procedure typically involves percutaneous insertion of a needle between or around the vertebrae, to deliver anesthetics near nerve bundles. Most frequently, spinal injections are performed either blindly using palpation or under the guidance of fluoroscopy or computed tomography. Recently, due to the drawbacks of the ionizing radiation of such imaging modalities, there has been a growing interest in using ultrasound imaging as an alternative. However, the complex spinal anatomy with different wave-like structures, affected by speckle noise, makes the accurate identification of the appropriate injection plane difficult. The aim of this study was to propose an automated system that can identify the optimal plane for epidural steroid injections and facet joint injections. A multi-scale and multi-directional feature extraction system to provide automated identification of the appropriate plane is proposed. Local Hadamard coefficients are obtained using the sequency-ordered Hadamard transform at multiple scales. Directional features are extracted from local coefficients which correspond to different regions in the ultrasound images. An artificial neural network is trained based on the local directional Hadamard features for classification. The proposed method yields distinctive features for classification which successfully classified 1032 images out of 1090 for epidural steroid injection and 990 images out of 1052 for facet joint injection. In order to validate the proposed method, a leave-one-out cross-validation was performed. The average classification accuracy for leave-one-out validation was 94 % for epidural and 90 % for facet joint targets. Also, the feature extraction time for the proposed method was 20 ms for a native 2D ultrasound image. A real-time machine learning system based on the local directional Hadamard features extracted by the sequency-ordered Hadamard transform for

  20. Drift-shell splitting of energetic ions injected at pseudo-substorm onsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Anderson, B.J.; Ohtani, S.; Reeves, G.D.; Takahashi, S.; Sarris, T.E.; Mursula, K.

    1997-01-01

    One feature of a magnetospheric substorm is the injection of energetic particles into closed drift orbits. Injections are routinely observed by geosynchronous satellites and have been used to identify the occurrence of substorms and the local time of particle energization. In this study we examine pitch angle distributions of ion injections in the 50-to 300-keV energy range observed by the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers Charge Composition Explorer (AMPTE/CCE) satellite, hereinafter CCE. In a dipole field, all pitch angles follow the same drift shell, but the day night asymmetry of the magnetospheric magnetic field introduces a pitch angle dependence in particle drift orbits, so that particles with different pitch angles disperse radially as they drift. The effect is known as drift-shell splitting. For satellite observations near noon at a fixed geocentric distance, the guiding center orbits of ions detected at small pitch angles intersect the midnight meridian at larger geocentric distances than do ions with near-90 degree pitch angles. The ion pitch angle distributions detected on the dayside therefore provide information about the radial distance of the nightside acceleration region. We apply this principle to study ion injection events observed on September 17 - 18, 1984, in association with pseudo-substorm onsets. CCE was at 13 hours local time near its apogee (8.8R E ) and observed a series of ion flux enhancements. Energy dispersion of the timing of the flux increases assures that they are due to injections on the nightside. The flux increases were observed only at pitch angles from 0 degree to 60 degree. We calculate drift orbits of protons using the Tsyganenko 89c magnetic field model and find that the drift orbits for 60 degree pitch angle protons observed at the satellite pass through midnight at 9R E , well outside of geostationary orbit, indicating that the ion injections occurred tailward of 9R E . Energetic ion data from geostationary

  1. Catalytic Ethanol Dehydration over Different Acid-activated Montmorillonite Clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutpijit, Chadaporn; Jongsomjit, Bunjerd

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the catalytic dehydration of ethanol to obtain ethylene over montmorillonite clays (MMT) with mineral acid activation including H2SO4 (SA-MMT), HCl (HA-MMT) and HNO3 (NA-MMT) was investigated at temperature range of 200 to 400°C. It revealed that HA-MMT exhibited the highest catalytic activity. Ethanol conversion and ethylene selectivity were found to increase with increased reaction temperature. At 400°C, the HA-MMT yielded 82% of ethanol conversion having 78% of ethylene yield. At lower temperature (i.e. 200 to 300°C), diethyl ether (DEE) was a major product. The highest activity obtained from HA-MMT can be attributed to an increase of weak acid sites and acid density by the activation of MMT with HCl. It can be also proven by various characterization techniques that in most case, the main structure of MMT did not alter by acid activation (excepted for NA-MMT). Upon the stability test for 72 h during the reaction, the MMT and HA-MMT showed only slight deactivation due to carbon deposition. Hence, the acid activation of MMT by HCl is promising to enhance the catalytic dehydration of ethanol.

  2. Outcomes After Diagnostic Hip Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Steinhaus, Michael E; Popkin, Charles A; Ahmad, Christopher S; Rosneck, James

    2016-08-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of outcomes associated with local anesthetic (LA) or LA and corticosteroid (CS) diagnostic hip injections, and how well response predicts subsequent operative success. A systematic review from database (PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Embase) inception to January 2015 for English-language articles reporting primary patient outcomes data was performed, excluding studies with >50% underlying osteoarthritis. Studies were assessed by 2 reviewers who collected pertinent data. Seven studies were included, reporting on a total 337 patients undergoing diagnostic hip injection. The mean age was 34.4 years, with 5 studies reporting 94 (35.2%) males and 173 (64.8%) females. One study examined the rate of pain relief with LA (92.5%); 2 CS studies reported relief on a scale from 0% to 100% (no to complete relief), ranging from 61% to 82.3%; and 3 studies used 10-point pain scales, with a CS study noting a pain score of 1.0, an LA study with a score of 3.03, and 1 study using either CS or LA scores of 3 to 5.6. Duration of pain relief was 9.8 (CS) and 2.35 days (LA). By pathology, greatest relief was achieved in acetabular chondral injury (93.3%) and least in cam impingement (81.6%), with clinical and imaging findings being unreliable predictors of relief. One study showed nonresponse to be a strong predictor of negative surgical outcome for femoroacetabular impingement. Diagnostic hip injections provide substantial pain relief for patients with various hip pathologies, with limited data to suggest greatest relief for those with chondral injury. Clinical and imaging findings are unreliable predictors of injection response, and nonresponse to injection is a strong negative predictor of surgical outcome. Future research should focus on elucidating differences by underlying pathology and predicting future operative success. Level IV, systematic review. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... sures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene ... injection practices lead to high prevalence of NSSIs in operating rooms. .... guidelines, the availability of training courses to HCWs, and provi-.

  4. Tokamak startup using point-source dc helicity injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, D J; Bongard, M W; Fonck, R J; Redd, A J; Sontag, A C

    2009-06-05

    Startup of a 0.1 MA tokamak plasma is demonstrated on the ultralow aspect ratio Pegasus Toroidal Experiment using three localized, high-current density sources mounted near the outboard midplane. The injected open field current relaxes via helicity-conserving magnetic turbulence into a tokamaklike magnetic topology where the maximum sustained plasma current is determined by helicity balance and the requirements for magnetic relaxation.

  5. Modelling and Simulation of Structural Deformation of Isothermal Subsurface Flow and Carbon Dioxide Injection

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2011-05-15

    Injection of CO2 in hydrocarbon reservoir has double benefit. On the one hand, it is a profitable method due to issues related to global warming, and on the other hand it is an effective mechanism to enhance hydrocarbon recovery. Such injection associates complex processes involving, e.g., solute transport of dissolved materials, in addition to local changes in density of the phases. Also, increasing carbon dioxide injection may cause a structural deformation of the medium, so it is important to include such effect into the model. The structural deformation modelling in carbon sequestration is important to evaluate the medium stability to avoid CO2 leakage to the atmosphere. On the other hand, geologic formation of the medium is usually heterogeneous and consists of several layers of different permeability. In this work we conduct numerical simulation of two-phase flow in a heterogeneous porous medium domain with dissolved solute transport as well as structural deformation effects. The solute transport of the dissolved component is described by concentration equation. The structural deformation for geomechanics is derived from a general local differential balance equation with neglecting the local mass balance of solid phase and the inertial force term. The flux continuity condition is used at interfaces between different permeability layers of the heterogeneous medium. We analyze the vertical migration of a CO2 plume injected into a 2D layered reservoir. Analysis of distribution of flow field components such as saturation, pressures, velocities, and CO2 concentration are presented.

  6. Localization of 3H-diethylstilbestrol in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, B.; Cohen, L.

    1981-01-01

    The localization of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in skeletal muscle was studied in CF1 mice and perfused rat hindlimbs. There was a slow accumulation of 3H-DES in mouse muscle from 4 to 24 hours following i.p. injection even though plasma DES was decreasing. Twenty-four hours after injection of 50 microCi 3H-DES (714 pmole) mouse gastrocnemius contained 8.9 x 10(-17) mole unaltered 3H-DES per mg muscle. Extrapolating to the entire skeletal muscle mass of the animal, this represents 0.15% of the radioactivity injected. The radioactivity in muscle was completely extracted with 95% ethanol or ether: ethanol (3:1), and both unaltered DES and DES-metabolites were present in the extracts. The fraction of radioactivity due to unaltered DES 4 hours after injection was 0.51 +/- 0.09 in muscle and 0.30 +/- 0.11 in plasma. Significant extrahepatic metabolism of DES was demonstrated in perfused isolated rat hindlimbs by the presence of DES-metabolites in the perfusate. The radioactivity extracted from the perfused muscle itself was unaltered DES. These results indicate that skeletal muscle is an important site of DES localization in rodents

  7. Stability of fault submitted to fluid injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantut, N.; Passelegue, F. X.; Mitchell, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated pore pressure can lead to slip reactivation on pre-existing fractures and faults when the coulomb failure point is reached. From a static point of view, the reactivation of fault submitted to a background stress (τ0) is a function of the peak strength of the fault, i.e. the quasi-static effective friction coefficient (µeff). However, this theory is valid only when the entire fault is affected by fluid pressure, which is not the case in nature, and during human induced-seismicity. In this study, we present new results about the influence of the injection rate on the stability of faults. Experiments were conducted on a saw-cut sample of westerly granite. The experimental fault was 8 cm length. Injections were conducted through a 2 mm diameter hole reaching the fault surface. Experiments were conducted at four different order magnitudes fluid pressure injection rates (from 1 MPa/minute to 1 GPa/minute), in a fault system submitted to 50 and 100 MPa confining pressure. Our results show that the peak fluid pressure leading to slip depends on injection rate. The faster the injection rate, the larger the peak fluid pressure leading to instability. Wave velocity surveys across the fault highlighted that decreasing the injection-rate leads to an increase of size of the fluid pressure perturbation. Our result demonstrate that the stability of the fault is not only a function of the fluid pressure requires to reach the failure criterion, but is mainly a function of the ratio between the length of the fault affected by fluid pressure and the total fault length. In addition, we show that the slip rate increases with the background effective stress and with the intensity of the fluid pressure pertubation, i.e. with the excess shear stress acting on the part of the fault pertubated by fluid injection. Our results suggest that crustal fault can be reactivated by local high fluid overpressures. These results could explain the "large" magnitude human-induced earthquakes

  8. Behavior of pellet injected Li ions into heliotron E plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Christou, C.; Ida, K.

    1996-07-01

    Li pellet injection has provided a complex plasma with a large fraction of Li ions, which is characterized by intense emissions from Li I and III. The spatial profiles of the fully ionized Li 3+ ions are measured by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy with a resolution of 13 mm, and the local decay time of the injected Li ion has been estimated. The spectral profile of the charge exchange recombination line of Li 2+ from n=5 to n=4 shows a complicated structure, which depends of Li 3+ density. The effects on other intrinsic impurities and recycled Li are also discussed. (author)

  9. Characterization of Polylactic Acid/ Microcrystalline Cellulose/ Montmorillonite Hybrid Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza Arjmandi; Azman Hassan; Haafiz, M.K.M.; Zainoha Zakaria; Inuwa, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of montmorillonite (MMT)/ microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) hybrid fillers on mechanical properties and morphological characteristics of polylactic acid (PLA) composites. PLA/ MMT nano composites and PLA/ MMT/ MCC hybrid composites were prepared by solution casting method. Morphology and tensile properties of PLA composites were investigated using Field emission scanning electron microscopy and Instron tensile testing machine. The maximum tensile strength of PLA/ MMT nano composites was obtained with 5 phr contents of MMT, which corresponding to 30.75 MPa. Based on optimized formulation of PLA/ MMT nano composites (5 phr MMT contents), various amounts of MCC (0 to 7 phr) were added into optimum formulation of PLA/ MMT in order to produce PLA/ MMT/ MCC hybrid composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed some level of interaction between PLA and both MMT and MCC in the hybrid composites. However, the percent elongation at break of the hybrid composites was generally higher than PLA/ MMT nano composites. Additionally, Young's modulus of the PLA/ MMT/ MCC hybrid composites increased gradually with increasing of MCC contents and was higher than PLA/ MMT at all compositions. The present results are the first among a series of experiments that have been designed in order to probe the effect of MMT and MCC in the PLA. (author)

  10. Risk of Infection After Intra-articular Steroid Injection at the Time of Ankle Arthroscopy in a Medicare Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Cancienne, Jourdan M; Burrus, M Tyrrell; Park, Joseph S; Perumal, Venkat; Cooper, M Truitt

    2016-02-01

    To employ a national database to evaluate the association between intraoperative corticosteroid injection at the time of ankle arthroscopy and postoperative infection rates in Medicare patients. A national insurance database was queried for Medicare patients who underwent ankle arthroscopy, including arthroscopic removal of loose body, synovectomy, and limited or extensive debridement. Two groups were created: ankle arthroscopy with concomitant local steroid injection (n = 459) and a control group of patients who underwent ankle arthroscopy without intraoperative local steroid injection (n = 9,327). The demographics and Charlson Comorbidity Index of each group were compared. Infection rates within 6 months postoperatively were assessed using International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, and Current Procedural Terminology codes and compared between groups using χ(2)-tests. A total of 9,786 unique patients who underwent ankle arthroscopy were included in the study. There were no statistically significant differences between the steroid injection study group and controls for the assessed infection-related variables, including gender, age group, obesity, smoking, and average Charlson Comorbidity Index. The infection rate for patients who had a local steroid injection at the time of surgery was 3.9% (18/459 patients), compared with 1.8% (168/9,327 patients) in the control group (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 3.7; P = .002.) The majority of this difference was noted between the 65 and 79 years age groups. The use of intraoperative intraarticular corticosteroid injection at the time of ankle arthroscopy in Medicare patients is associated with significantly increased rates of postoperative infection compared with controls without intraoperative steroid injections. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  12. Spectral dependence efficiency and localization of non-inductive current-drive via helicity injection by global Alfven waves in Tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoshvili, K.; Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C.

    1996-01-01

    The non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by Global Alfven eigenmode (GAE) waves is studied. For illustration, the first radial mode of the discrete resonant GAE spectrum is considered. The following aspects are given special attention: spectral analysis, radial dependence and efficiency - all these as functions of the characteristics of the waves launched by an external, concentric antenna (i.e, wave frequency and poloidal and toroidal wave numbers). The results reveal the following conclusions. Generation of GAE waves. In the range of poloidal wave numbers -3 0 for m = -l, -2, -3 and -20 10; I-BAR < 0 for m = +1, +2, +3 and n < 10. (iv) The efficiency of the current drive, η = absolute I-BAR/absolute P-BAR, increases in the cases m = -1, -2, -3 with absolute m and absolute 1/n. (v) Detailed information on the relative direction and radial (core) localization of the current drive is obtained. (authors)

  13. Effect of antigen on localization of immunologically specific B cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponzio, N.M.; Chapman, J.M.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were conducted to demonstrate homing of memory B cells to sites of antigen localization in lymph nodes, using functional criteria to detect local presence of memory cells at varying intervals after intravenous injection. Cell suspensions were prepared from spleens of donor mice injected with complete Freund's adjuvant. Recipient mice were injected with Escherichia coli endotoxin and immune or normal spleen cells and were gamma-irradiated. Results indicated that passively transferred unilateral B cell memory was established. The development over a period of several days of this difference between left and right lymph nodes suggests that recirculating memory B cells are being progressively selected by antigen in the lymph node, rather than that this difference is due to a specific exit of cells from the circulation towards the antigen

  14. Septa and Distributor Developments for H- Injection into the Booster from LINAC4

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Fowler, T; Hourican, M; Weterings, W

    2008-01-01

    The construction of Linac4 requires the modification of the existing injection system of the CERN PS Booster. A new transfer line will transport 160 MeV H- ions to this machine. A system of 5 pulsed magnets (BIDIS) and 3 vertical septa (BISMV) will distribute and inject the Linac pulses into the four-vertically separated Booster rings. Subsequently the beam will be injected horizontally, using a local bump created with bumpers (BS magnets) to bring the injected H- beam together with the orbiting proton beam onto the stripper foil. To accommodate the injected H- beam, the first of the BS magnets will have to be a septum-like device, deflecting only the orbiting beam. This paper highlights the requirements and technical issues and describes the solutions to be adopted for both the BIDIS and BISMV. The results of initial prototype testing of the BIDIS magnet will also be presented.

  15. Correlation between Ultrasonographic Findings and The Response to Corticosteroid Injection in Pes Anserinus Tendinobursitis Syndrome in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Ho Sung; Kim, Sung Eun; Suh, Young Ran; Seo, Young-Il; Kim, Hyun Ah

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the ultrasonographic (US) findings in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) with pes anserinus tendinitis or bursitis (PATB) syndrome and to determine the correlation between the US findings and the response to local corticosteroid injection. We prospectively studied 26 patients with knee OA with clinically diagnosed PATB syndrome. A linear array 7 MHz transducer was used for US examination of the knee. Seventeen patients were injected locally with...

  16. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  17. From continuum analytical description to discrete numerical modelling of localized fluidization in granular media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig i Montellà Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present analytical and numerical results on localized fluidization within a granular layer subjected to a local injection of fluid. As the injection rate increases the three different regimes previously reported in the literature are recovered: homogeneous expansion of the bed, fluidized cavity in which fluidization starts developing above the injection area, and finally the chimney of fluidized grains when the fluidization zone reaches the free surface. The analytical approach is at the continuum scale, based on Darcy’s law and Therzaghi’s effective stress principle. It provides a good description of the phenomenon as long as the porosity of the granular assembly remains relatively homogeneous. The numerical approach is at the particle scale based on the coupled DEM-PFV method. It tackles the more heterogeneous situations which occur at larger injection rates. A direct link is evidenced between the occurrence of the different regimes of fluidization and the injection aperture. Finally, the merging of chimneys in case of two injection points is investigated.

  18. "Injection first": a unique group of injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Lozada, Remedios M; Gallardo, Manuel; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    Using baseline data from a study of injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico (N = 1,052), we identified social and behavioral factors associated with injecting at the same age or earlier than other administration routes of illicit drug use (eg, "injection first") and examined whether this IDU subgroup had riskier drug using and sexual behaviors than other IDUs. Twelve-percent "injected first." Characteristics independently associated with a higher odds of "injection first" included being younger at first injection, injecting heroin as their first drug, being alone at the first injection episode, and having a sexual debut at the same age or earlier as when they initiated drug use; family members' illicit drug use was associated with lower odds of injecting first. When adjusting for age at first injection and number of years injecting, "injection first" IDUs had lower odds of ever overdosing, and ever trading sex. On the other hand, they were less likely to have ever been enrolled in drug treatment, and more commonly obtained their syringes from potentially unsafe sources. In conclusion, a sizable proportion of IDUs in Tijuana injected as their first drug using experience, although evidence that this was a riskier subgroup of IDUs was inconclusive.  Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  19. Gallium-67 detection of intramammary injection sites secondary to intravenous drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swayne, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    A case of gallium localization within the breast occurred secondary to intravenous drug abuse. In the appropriate clinical setting, prior self-administered injections should be considered as a cause of Ga-67 accumulation at unusual sites

  20. Local absolute alcohol ablation for the treatment of recurrent pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Mingyi; Wang Peijun; Lu Ying; Ma Jun; Tang Junjun; Xi Qian; Huang Zongliang; Gao Xiaolong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to assess the clinical value of local injection of absolute alcohol under CT guidance in treating recurrent pheochromocytoma. Methods: Five patients with benign recurrent pheochromocytoma were enrolled in this study. Of the five cases, the lesions were located on the right side in three, on the left in one and on both sides in one. All the lesions were pathologically proved to be benign ones. Under CT guidance the ablation therapy with local injection of absolute alcohol was performed. The therapeutic results were observed and evaluated. Results: Thirty days after the treatment, different degrees of decrease in tumor size was observed on follow-up CT scans. All the patients were followed up for 9-42 months. During the follow-up period, both the blood pressure and the vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA) level in urine remained normal and no paroxysmal dizziness, headache or syncope occurred in all patients. Conclusion: For the treatment of recurrent pheochromocytoma the ablation therapy by using local injection of absolute alcohol under CT guidance is a safe and practical therapeutic means with definite and reliable effectiveness. (authors)

  1. Evaluation of the integrated clinic model for HIV/AIDS services in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, V; Nguyen, S T; Tieu, V T T; Nguyen, T T T; Duong, T H; Lyss, S; Oeltmann, J E

    2016-12-21

    Setting: Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Viet Nam. Objective: To evaluate a new integrated service model for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) care. Design: In HCMC, co-located services, including voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT), HIV treatment at out-patient clinics (OPC), and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for persons who inject drugs, have operated under different administrative structures. In the context of decreasing international financial support, integration of these services into one administrative structure with reduced staff occurred in seven districts in HCMC between October 2013 and June 2014. We used a pre-post study design to compare service-related outcomes from routinely collected data at health facilities 6 months before and 6 months after integration. Results: The proportion of HIV-infected persons linked from VCT to OPCs was unchanged or increased following integration. A higher percentage of patients eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) were started on ART. The proportion of ART patients lost to follow-up remained unchanged. The proportions of MMT patients who tested positive for heroin or other substances decreased or were unchanged. Conclusions: VCT, OPC and MMT service delivery quality remained the same or improved during the 6 months following the integration. Expansion of the integrated model should be considered for HIV-related services.

  2. Enhanced mechanical and thermal properties of poly (vinyl alcohol)/corn starch blends by nanoclay intercalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huafeng; Wang, Kai; Liu, Di; Yan, Jiaan; Xiang, Aimin; Rajulu, A Varada

    2017-08-01

    Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/corn starch blend films with enhanced properties were fabricated by melt processing and montmorillonite (MMT) reinforcing. It was revealed that strong hydrogen bonding occurred between the abundant OH groups of the matrix and polar SiOSi and OH groups of MMT. The highly exfoliated MMT nanolayers were randomly dispersed in the matrix containing MMT lower than 10wt%, whereas the intercalated structure was predominant with MMT content higher than 10wt%. With the increase of MMT, the glass transition temperature as well as equilibrium torque increased. The water sorption decreased and water resistant properties were improved with the incorporation of MMT due to the restricted swelling of the matrix by MMT nanolayers. Significant improvement in strength and flexibility were observed due to the fine dispersion of the MMT layers and the strong interaction between MMT and the matrix. The thermal stability was also improved. The MMT nanolayers could act as the heat and mass transport barriers and retard the thermal decomposition of the composites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Localization of gravitational wave sources with networks of advanced detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, S.; Mitselmakher, G.; Pankow, C.; Vedovato, G.; Drago, M.; Prodi, G.; Mazzolo, G.; Salemi, F.; Re, V.; Yakushin, I.

    2011-01-01

    Coincident observations with gravitational wave (GW) detectors and other astronomical instruments are among the main objectives of the experiments with the network of LIGO, Virgo, and GEO detectors. They will become a necessary part of the future GW astronomy as the next generation of advanced detectors comes online. The success of such joint observations directly depends on the source localization capabilities of the GW detectors. In this paper we present studies of the sky localization of transient GW sources with the future advanced detector networks and describe their fundamental properties. By reconstructing sky coordinates of ad hoc signals injected into simulated detector noise, we study the accuracy of the source localization and its dependence on the strength of injected signals, waveforms, and network configurations.

  4. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Background: Of the estimated 384,000 needle-stick injuries occurring in hospitals each year, 23% occur in surgical settings. This study was conducted to assess safe injection procedures, injection practices, and circumstances contributing to needlestick and sharps injures (NSSIs) in operating rooms.

  5. Injection practices in a metropolis of North India: perceptions, determinants and issues of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, A; Priya, R; Thakur, R; Gupta, V; Kotwal, J; Seth, T

    2004-08-01

    At least 50 percent of the injections administered each year are unsafe, more particularly in developing countries, posing serious health risks. An initial assessment to describe injection practices; their determinants and adverse effects can prevent injection-associated transmission of blood borne pathogens by reducing injection frequency and adoption of safe injection practices. To assess the injection practices in a large metropolitan city encompassing varied socio-cultural scenarios. STUDY SETTING AND DESIGN: Field based cross sectional survey covering urban non-slum, slum and peri-urban areas of a large metropolitan city. Injection prescribers, providers and community members selected by random sampling from the study areas. Pre tested questionnaires assessed knowledge and perceptions of study subjects towards injections and their possible complications. Observation of the process of injection and prescription audit also carried out. MS Access for database and SPSS ver 11 for analysis. Point estimates, 95% confidence intervals, Chi Square, t test, one-way ANOVA. The per capita injection rate was 5.1 per year and ratio of therapeutic to immunization injections was 4.4:1. Only 22.5%of injections were administered with a sterile syringe and needle. The level of knowledge about HIV and HBV transmission by unsafe injections was satisfactory amongst prescribers and community, but inadequate amongst providers. HCV was known to a very few in all the groups. The annual incidence of needle stick injuries among providers was quite high. A locally relevant safe injection policy based on multi disciplinary approach is required to reduce number of injections, unsafe injections and their attendant complications.

  6. Montmorillonite Supported Titanium/Antimony Catalyst:Preparation, Characterization and Immobilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guiyong; WANG Xiaoqun; ZHAO Chuan; DU Shanyi

    2014-01-01

    Montmorillonite supported titanium (Ti-MMT) or antimony catalyst (Sb-MMT) has been a hot area of research on preparing polyethylene terephthalate/montmorillonite (PET/MMT) nanocomposites by in situ polymerization. So removal of Ti or Sb from Ti-MMT or Sb-MMT is not expected during in situ polymerization. Studies on immobilization of Ti or Sb on Ti-MMT or Sb-MMT are seldom reported. In this work, a series of montmorillonite supported catalysts of titanium (Ti-MMT) or antimony (Sb-MMT) and co-intercalated montmorillonite of titanium and antimony (Ti/Sb-MMT) were prepared by (1) the reaction of sodium bentonite suspension with intercalating solution containing titanium tetrachloride and/or antimony chloride, and (2) drying or calcinating the products at different temperature (100, 150, 240, 350 and 450℃). The physicochemical properties of these MMT supported catalysts were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICPOES), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy(UV-vis) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The immobile character of Ti or Sb on MMT supported catalysts was evaluated by a two-step method in deionized water or ethylene glycol. Several results were obtained, i e, (a) during the preparation, with an increase in drying or calcinating temperature, the amount of titanium and/or antimony species remained on these MMT supported catalysts decreased, (b) the experiments about immobile character of Ti or/and Sb showed that with an increase in drying or calcinating temperature, the immobilization of Ti and/or Sb species remained on these MMT supported catalysts increased gradually, (c) Ti-MMT calcinated at 450℃had the biggest pore volume, which means Ti-MMT had the best adsorption application prospect.

  7. Possibility of Cooper-pair formation controlled by multi-terminal spin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Ishitaki, M.; Kimura, T.

    2018-03-01

    A multi-terminal lateral spin valve consisting of three ferromagnetic nanopillars on a Cu/Nb bilayer has been fabricated. We investigated the influence of the spin injection on the superconducting properties at the Cu/Nb interface. The non-local spin valve signal exhibits a clear spin insulation signature due to the superconducting gap of the Nb. The magnitude of the spin signal is found to show the probe configuration dependence. From the careful analysis of the bias current dependence, we found the suppression of the superconductivity due to the exchange interaction between the Cooper pair and accumulated spin plays an important role in the multi-terminal spin injections. We also discuss about the possibility of the Cooper-pair formation due to the spin injection from the two injectors with the anti-parallel alignment.

  8. Biomechanical effects of steroid injections used to treat pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turvey Blake R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent study from our laboratory has demonstrated improved range of motion in the toes of broiler chickens afflicted with pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis when treated with local antibiotic and corticosteroid injections, without surgical drainage. However, the use of corticosteroids as an adjunct treatment raised peer concern, as steroids are thought to have deleterious effects on tendon strength. The purpose of this study was to compare the tensile strength of the aforementioned steroid treated tendons, to a group of tendons administered with the current standard treatment: systemic antibiotics, surgical drainage and no corticosteroids. Methods Twenty-three tendons’ structural and material properties were investigated (fifteen receiving the standard treatment, eight receiving the steroid treatment. The measurements from each group were interpreted via Student’s unpaired t-test and a post-hoc power analysis. Results The steroid treated tendons did demonstrate a trend toward decreased mechanical properties when compared with the standard treatment group, but the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions Treatment of septic tenosynovitis with local corticosteroid and local antibiotic injections resulted in better digital motion, without a significant loss of tendon strength, over a twenty-eight day recovery period.

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Cellulose Acetate/Montmorillonite Composite Nanofibers by Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Wook Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofibers composed of cellulose acetate (CA and montmorillonite (MMT were prepared by electrospinning method. MMT was first dispersed in water and mixed with an acetic acid solution of CA. The viscosity and conductivity of the CA/MMT solutions with different MMT contents were measured to compare with those of the CA solution. The CA/MMT solutions were electrospun to fabricate the CA/MMT composite nanofibers. The morphology, thermal stability, and crystalline and mechanical properties of the composite nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and tensile test. The average diameters of the CA/MMT composite nanofibers obtained by electrospinning 18 wt% CA/MMT solutions in a mixed acetic acid/water (75/25, w/w solvent ranged from 150~350 nm. The nanofiber diameter decreased with increasing MMT content. TEM indicated the coexistence of CA nanofibers. The CA/MMT composite nanofibers showed improved tensile strength compared to the CA nanofiber due to the physical protective barriers of the silicate clay layers. MMT could be incorporated into the CA nanofibers resulting in about 400% improvement in tensile strength for the CA sample containing 5 wt% MMT.

  10. Usefulness of K-Point Injection for the Nonspecific Neck Pain in So-Called K-Point Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jeong Jae; Ahn, Myun Whan; Ahn, Hyo Sae; Lee, Sung Jun; Lee, Dong Yeol

    2016-12-01

    Shoichi Kokubun introduced his successful experience with local anesthetic injection at the occipital insertion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle in K-point syndrome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term and long-term effectiveness of K-point injection and investigate factors affecting treatment results. K-point injection was performed in 58 patients with K-point syndrome at Yeungnam University Medical Center. The syndrome was associated with cervical whiplash injury in 10 patients and was of nonspecific origin in the rest. One milliliter of 2% lidocaine mixed with 1 milliliter of dexamethasone was injected in 50 patients and 2 milliliters of 1% lidocaine alone in the rest. Initially, the severity of local tenderness at the K-point and other tender points was examined and the degree of immediate pain relief effect was assessed within 1 hour after injection. Early effect within 1 month after the injection and current effect were evaluated in 27 patients using a modified Kim's questionnaire with regard to the duration of improvement, degree of improvement in pain and daily living activities, and satisfaction. Of the total 58 patients, 44 (75.8%) apparently had immediate pain relief after K-point injection. The only factor associated with successful immediate pain relief was the whiplash injury associated with traffic accident (TA). The early pain control effect was associated with the immediate effect. The current effect was associated with the early effect alone. Satisfaction with the K-point injection was related to early successful pain relief. K-point injection would be useful for early pain relief in nonspecific neck pain syndrome so called K-point syndrome, but not for current pain relief. Especially, it was very effective for early pain control in the whiplash injury associated with TA.

  11. Injection Drug Use Trajectories Among Migrant Populations: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Jason S; Mittal, Maria Luisa; Horyniak, Danielle; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Werb, Dan

    2018-01-24

    Dual epidemics of injection drug use and blood-borne disease, characterized as "syndemics," are present in a range of settings. Behaviors that drive such syndemics are particularly prevalent among mobile drug-using populations, for whom cross-border migration may pose additional risks. This narrative review aims to characterize the risk factors for injection drug use initiation associated with migration, employing a risk environment framework and focusing on the San Diego-Tijuana border region as the most dynamic example of these phenomena. Based on previous literature, we divide migration streams into three classes: intra-urban, internal, and international. We synthesized existing literature on migration and drug use to characterize how mobility and migration drive the initiation of injection drug use, as well as the transmission of hepatitis and HIV, and to delineate how these might be addressed through public health intervention. Population mixing between migrants and receiving communities and the consequent transmission of social norms about injection drug use create risk environments for injection drug use initiation. These risk environments have been characterized as a result of local policy environments, injection drug use norms in receiving communities, migration-related stressors, social dislocation, and infringement on the rights of undocumented migrants. Policies that exacerbate risk environments for migrants may inadvertently contribute to the expansion of epidemics of injection-driven blood-borne disease. Successful interventions that address emerging syndemics in border regions may therefore need to be tailored to migrant populations and distinguish between the vulnerabilities experienced by different migration classes and border settings.

  12. Estimating Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR Regional and Local Suitability: A Case Study in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. Gibson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing aquifers as underground water supply reservoirs is an advantageous approach applicable to meeting water management objectives. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR is a direct injection and subsequent withdrawal technology that is used to increase water supply storage through injection wells. Due to site-specific hydrogeological quantification and evaluation to assess ASR suitability, limited methods have been developed to identify suitability on regional scales that are also applicable at local scales. This paper presents an ASR site scoring system developed to qualitatively assess regional and local suitability of ASR using 9 scored metrics to determine total percent of ASR suitability, partitioned into hydrogeologic properties, operational considerations, and regulatory influences. The development and application of a qualitative water well suitability method was used to assess the potential groundwater response to injection, estimate suitability based on predesignated injection rates, and provide cumulative approximation of statewide and local storage prospects. The two methods allowed for rapid assessment of ASR suitability and its applicability to regional and local water management objectives at over 280 locations within 62 watersheds in Washington, USA. It was determined that over 50% of locations evaluated are suitable for ASR and statewide injection potential equaled 6400 million liters per day. The results also indicate current limitations and/or potential benefits of developing ASR systems at the local level with the intent of assisting local water managers in strategic water supply planning.

  13. Single injection of basic fibroblast growth factor to treat severe vocal fold lesions and vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takeharu; Komazawa, Daigo; Indo, Kanako; Akagi, Yusuke; Lee, Yogaku; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Matsushima, Koji; Kunieda, Chikako; Misawa, Kiyoshi; Nishino, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yusuke

    2015-10-01

    Severe vocal fold lesions such as vocal fold sulcus, scars, and atrophy induce a communication disorder due to severe hoarseness, but a treatment has not been established. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) therapies by either four-time repeated local injections or regenerative surgery for vocal fold scar and sulcus have previously been reported, and favorable outcomes have been observed. In this study, we modified bFGF therapy using a single of bFGF injection, which may potentially be used in office procedures. Retrospective chart review. Five cases of vocal fold sulcus, six cases of scars, seven cases of paralysis, and 17 cases of atrophy were treated by a local injection of bFGF. The injection regimen involved injecting 50 µg of bFGF dissolved in 0.5 mL saline only once into the superficial lamina propria using a 23-gauge injection needle. Two months to 3 months after the injection, phonological outcomes were evaluated. The maximum phonation time (MPT), mean airflow rate, pitch range, speech fundamental frequency, jitter, and voice handicap index improved significantly after the bFGF injection. Furthermore, improvement in the MPT was significantly greater in patients with (in increasing order) vocal fold atrophy, scar, and paralysis. The improvement in the MPT among all patients was significantly correlated with age; the MPT improved more greatly in younger patients. Regenerative treatments by bFGF injection—even a single injection—effectively improve vocal function in vocal fold lesions. 4 © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Increased localized delivery of piroxicam by cationic nanoparticles after intra-articular injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Rae; Ho, Myoung Jin; Kim, Sang Hyun; Cho, Ha Ra; Kim, Han Sol; Choi, Yong Seok; Choi, Young Wook; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-01-01

    Piroxicam (PRX), a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is prescribed to relieve postoperative and/or chronic joint pain. However, its oral administration often results in serious gastrointestinal adverse effects including duodenal ulceration. Thus, a novel cationic nanoparticle (NP) was explored to minimize the systemic exposure and increase the retention time of PRX in the joint after intra-articular (IA) injection, by forming micrometer-sized electrostatic clusters with endogenous hyaluronic acid (HA) in the synovial cavity. PRX-loaded NPs consisting of poly(lactic- co -glycolic acid), Eudragit RL, and polyvinyl alcohol were constructed with the following characteristics: particle size of 220 nm, zeta potential of 11.5 mV in phosphate-buffered saline, and loading amount of 4.0% (w/w) of PRX. In optical and hyperspectral observations, the cationic NPs formed more than 50 μm-sized aggregates with HA, which was larger than the intercellular gaps between synoviocytes. In an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats, area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC 0-24 h ) and maximum plasma concentration ( C max ) of PRX after IA injection of the cationic NPs were <70% ( P <0.05) and 60% ( P <0.05), respectively, compared to those obtained from drug solution. Moreover, the drug concentration in joint tissue 24 h after dosing with the cationic NPs was 3.2-fold ( P <0.05) and 1.8-fold ( P <0.05) higher than that from drug solution and neutrally charged NPs, respectively. Therefore, we recommend the IA cationic NP therapy as an effective alternative to traditional oral therapy with PRX, as it increases drug retention selectively in the joint.

  15. Increasing the effectiveness of intracerebral injections in adult and neonatal mice: a neurosurgical point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathon, Bertrand; Nassar, Mérie; Simonnet, Jean; Le Duigou, Caroline; Clemenceau, Stéphane; Miles, Richard; Fricker, Desdemona

    2015-12-01

    Intracerebral injections of tracers or viral constructs in rodents are now commonly used in the neurosciences and must be executed perfectly. The purpose of this article is to update existing protocols for intracerebral injections in adult and neonatal mice. Our procedure for stereotaxic injections in adult mice allows the investigator to improve the effectiveness and safety, and save time. Furthermore, for the first time, we describe a two-handed procedure for intracerebral injections in neonatal mice that can be performed by a single operator in a very short time. Our technique using the stereotaxic arm allows a higher precision than freehand techniques previously described. Stereotaxic injections in adult mice can be performed in 20 min and have >90% efficacy in targeting the injection site. Injections in neonatal mice can be performed in 5 min. Efficacy depends on the difficulty of precisely localizing the injection sites, due to the small size of the animal. We describe an innovative, effortless, and reproducible surgical protocol for intracerebral injections in adult and neonatal mice.

  16. Influence of Reaction Medium on CO2 Photocatalytic Reduction Yields Over Zns-MMT / Vliv Reakčního Prostření Na Výtěžky Fotokatalytické Redukce CO2 V Přítomnosti Zns-MMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reli Martin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Redukce CO2 pomocí fotokatalyzátorů je jedna z nejslibnějších metod, jelikož CO2 může být redukován na užitečné sloučeniny ozařováním UV zářením při pokojové teplotě a tlaku. Tato práce byla zaměřena na posouzení vlivu reakčních prostředí na výtěžky fotokatalytické redukce CO2 v přítomnosti nanočástic ZnS nanesených na montmorillonit (ZnS-MMT. Byla testována čtyři různá reakční prostředí, NaOH, NaOH+Na2SO3 (1:1, NH4OH, NH4OH+Na2SO3 (1:1. Výtěžky v obou fázích, plynné (CH4 a CO i kapalné (CH3OH, byly vyšší v čistém hydroxidu sodném než v hydroxidu amonném. Přídavek Na2SO3 zvýšil výtěžky methanolu a to díky zamezení oxidace vznikajícího methanolu zpět na oxid uhličitý. Výtěžky plynné fáze se však po přídavku Na2SO3 snížily. Nejlepším z testovaných reakčních prostředí pro fotokatalytickou redukci CO2 byl roztok hydroxidu sodného.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafful, Claudia; Wagner, Karla D; Werb, Dan; González-Zúñiga, Patricia E; Verdugo, Silvia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-11-01

    Injecting drugs in the neck has been related to adverse health conditions such as jugular vein thrombosis, deep neck infections, aneurysm, haematomas, airway obstruction, vocal cord paralysis and wound botulism, among others. We identified prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico. Beginning in 2011, PWID aged ≥18 years who injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective cohort. At baseline and semi-annually, PWID completed interviewer-administered surveys soliciting data on drug-injecting practices. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of injecting in the neck as the most frequent injection site at a single visit. Of 380 PWID, 35.3% injected in the neck at least once in the past 6 months, among whom 71.6% reported it as their most common injection site, the most common injecting site after the arms (47%). Controlling for age, years injecting and injecting frequency, injecting heroin and methamphetamine two or more times per day and having sought injection assistance were associated with injecting in the neck [adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 2.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.27-3.53 and AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.52-4.53 respectively]. Injecting in the neck was very common among PWID in Tijuana and was associated with polydrug use and seeking injection assistance. Tailoring harm reduction education interventions for individuals who provide injection assistance ('hit doctors') may allow for the dissemination of safe injecting knowledge to reduce injection-related morbidity and mortality. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. 'Crisis' and 'everyday' initiators: A qualitative study of coercion and agency in the context of methadone maintenance treatment initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Will; Small, Will; Anderson, Solanna; Maher, Lisa; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; McNeil, Ryan

    2017-03-01

    Patient attrition is common among people enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs and most pronounced during the first year of treatment. However, the experiences of patients initiating MMT have been overlooked in the literature. This study explores experiences of MMT initiation among MMT patients, focusing on contextual influences on MMT initiation and perceptions of MMT and their subsequent influence on treatment retention. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 39 MMT patients in Vancouver, Canada. Individuals reporting enrolment in MMT were recruited from within two ongoing cohort studies comprised of people who use drugs. Interview transcripts were analysed using an inductive and iterative approach. Two groups of MMT initiators were identified: (i) 'crisis initiators' prescribed methadone following critical transition events, such as incarceration or pregnancy; and (ii) 'everyday initiators' enrolled in MMT as part of routine healthcare utilisation. While most 'crisis initiators' and some 'everyday initiators' described experiencing coercion during MMT initiation, 'crisis initiators' were further subjected to the coercive leveraging of their vulnerability to motivate 'consent' for MMT. 'Crisis initiators' developed negative views towards MMT and were more likely to discontinue treatment. Long-standing patient-provider relationships and open dialogue were associated with more positive views regarding MMT, regardless of the circumstances of initiation. Findings underscore the need for clear and effective communication regarding treatment regimens and expectations during MMT initiation. Furthermore, training in trauma-informed care may help reduce perceptions of coercion and rates of early treatment termination. [Damon W, Small W, Anderson S, Maher L, Wood E, Kerr T, McNeil R. Crisis' and 'everyday' initiators: A qualitative study of coercion and agency in the context of methadone maintenance treatment initiation. Drug

  19. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  20. Disposal of liquid wastes by injection underground--Neither myth nor millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Arthur M.

    1969-01-01

    Texas-have statutes specifically to regulate injection of industrial wastes. Other States impose widely diverse constraints under unlike administrative authorities. Few, if any, State agencies currently have the staff skills, centralized authority, and financial resources to assure rights of the general public to be spared harm from, and to reap the benefit of accrued experience with, deep injection. Some new, fully competent institutional arrangement appears to be essential, under a unified policy. As required, such an institution might have en echelon components, respectively having nationwide, single State or major province, subprovince, or local jurisdiction.

  1. Treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts by percutaneous CT-guided injection of calcitonin and steroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Connie Y.; Kattapuram, Susan V.; Huang, Ambrose J.; Simeone, F.J.; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    To determine the efficacy and safety of percutaneous calcitonin and steroid injection in the treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs). Our study was IRB-approved and HIPAA-compliant. We reviewed pre- and post-procedural imaging studies and medical records of all CT-guided percutaneous injections of ABCs with calcitonin and steroid performed at our institution between 2003 and 2015. Treatment success based on imaging was categorized as substantial (51-100 %), partial (1-50 %), or none (0 %) by comparing radiographs of the lesion before and after treatment. Our study group comprised 9 patients (7 female, 2 male; mean age 19 ± 5 (range 12-25) years). ABCs were located in the pubis (n = 3), femur (n = 2), and humerus/scapula/ilium/sacrum (n = 1 for each). One patient did not have any clinical or imaging follow-up. For the other 8 patients, clinical and imaging follow-up ranged from 1 to 93 months (mean 16 ± 29 months). One patient had two injections, and 1 patient had three injections. Six out of eight patients (75 %) had complete symptomatic relief and 2 patients (25 %) had partial symptomatic relief after initial injection. Imaging follow-up revealed substantial imaging response in 4 out of 8 patients (50 %). There was a partial imaging response in 2 patients (25 %) and no imaging response in 2 out of 8 patients (25 %), and all 4 of these patients had local recurrence. There were no complications. Percutaneous CT-guided injection of ABCs with calcitonin and steroid is a safe and effective treatment. Lack of imaging response may necessitate more aggressive treatment to minimize local recurrence. (orig.)

  2. Surface Modification of Sodium Montmorillonite Nanoclay by Plasma Polymerization and Its Effect on the Properties of Polystyrene Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Idalia Narro-Céspedes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium montmorillonite nanoclay (Na+-MMT was modified by plasma polymerization with methyl methacrylate (MMA and styrene (St as monomers and was denominated as Na+-MMT/MMA and Na+-MMT/St, respectively. This plasma modified nanoclay was used as reinforcement for polystyrene (PS nanocomposites that were prepared by melt mixing. Pristine and modified Na+-MMT nanoclay were analyzed by the dispersion in various solvents, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results confirmed a change in hydrophilicity of the modified Na+-MMT, as well as the presence of a polymeric material over its surface. The pristine PS/Na+-MMT and modified PS/Na+-MMT/MMA and PS/Na+-MMT/St nanocomposites were studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and TGA, as well as mechanical properties. It was found that the PS/Na+-MMT/St nanocomposites presented better thermal properties and an improvement in Young’s modulus (YM in compared to PS/Na+-MMT/MMA nanocomposites.

  3. CALIOP-based Biomass Burning Smoke Plume Injection Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.; Choi, H. D.; Fairlie, T. D.; Pouliot, G.; Baker, K. R.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.; Szykman, J.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon and aerosols are cycled between terrestrial and atmosphere environments during fire events, and these emissions have strong feedbacks to near-field weather, air quality, and longer-term climate systems. Fire severity and burned area are under the control of weather and climate, and fire emissions have the potential to alter numerous land and atmospheric processes that, in turn, feedback to and interact with climate systems (e.g., changes in patterns of precipitation, black/brown carbon deposition on ice/snow, alteration in landscape and atmospheric/cloud albedo). If plume injection height is incorrectly estimated, then the transport and deposition of those emissions will also be incorrect. The heights to which smoke is injected governs short- or long-range transport, which influences surface pollution, cloud interaction (altered albedo), and modifies patterns of precipitation (cloud condensation nuclei). We are working with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) science team and other stakeholder agencies, primarily the Environmental Protection Agency and regional partners, to generate a biomass burning (BB) plume injection height database using multiple platforms, sensors and models (CALIOP, MODIS, NOAA HMS, Langley Trajectory Model). These data have the capacity to provide enhanced smoke plume injection height parameterization in regional, national and international scientific and air quality models. Statistics that link fire behavior and weather to plume rise are crucial for verifying and enhancing plume rise parameterization in local-, regional- and global-scale models used for air quality, chemical transport and climate. Specifically, we will present: (1) a methodology that links BB injection height and CALIOP air parcels to specific fires; (2) the daily evolution of smoke plumes for specific fires; (3) plumes transport and deposited on the Greenland Ice Sheet; and (4) compare CALIOP-derived smoke plume injection

  4. Radiation Dosimetry of Intratumoral Injection of Radionuclides into Human Breast Cancer. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    products will be eliminated by nuclear decay in storage behind lead bricks for at least 4 weeks. The synthesis and testing procedures typically last 80...to be sensitive to T2*. Injection may be preceded with surface or subcutaneous local anesthesia (1cc of 4% lidocaine , if the patient has no...history of allergy or adverse reactions to lidocaine ; otherwise, an alternative local anesthetics will be used) at the needle entrance through the surface

  5. Local charge trapping in Ge nanoclustersdetected by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratenko, S.V., E-mail: kondr@univ.kiev.ua [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13 Volodymyrska Str., 01601, Kyiv (Ukraine); Lysenko, V.S. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 41 Prospect Nauki, 03028, Kyiv (Ukraine); Kozyrev, Yu. N. [O.O. Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 GeneralaNaumova Str. 03164, Kiev (Ukraine); Kratzer, M. [Institute of Physics, MontanuniversitätLeoben, Franz Josef Str. 18, A-8700, Leoben (Austria); Storozhuk, D.P.; Iliash, S.A. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13 Volodymyrska Str., 01601, Kyiv (Ukraine); Czibula, C. [Institute of Physics, MontanuniversitätLeoben, Franz Josef Str. 18, A-8700, Leoben (Austria); Teichert, C., E-mail: teichert@unileoben.ac.at [Institute of Physics, MontanuniversitätLeoben, Franz Josef Str. 18, A-8700, Leoben (Austria)

    2016-12-15

    The understanding of local charge trapping on the nanoscale is crucial for the design of novel electronic devices and photodetectors based on SiGe nanoclusters (NCs). Here, the local spatial distribution of the surface potential of the Ge NCs was detected using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Different surface potentials between Ge NCs and the wetting layer (WL) surface were detected at room temperature. Changes of the local contact potential differences (CPD) were studied after injection of electrons or holes into single Ge NCs on top of the Si layer using a conductive atomic force microscopy tip. The CPD image contrast was increased after electron injection by applying a forward bias to the n-tip/i-Ge NC/p-Si junction. Injecting holes into a single Ge NC was also accompanied by filling of two-dimensional states in the surrounding region, which is governed by leakage currents through WL or surface states and Coulomb charging effects. A long retention time of holes trapped by the Ge NC was found.

  6. Anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection following a primary intraosseous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joanne; Nusstein, John; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection given 30 minutes after a primary intraosseous injection. Using a crossover design, 55 subjects randomly received a primary X-tip intraosseous injection (Dentsply Inc, York, PA) of 1.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine (using the Wand; Milestone Scientific, Deerfield, IL) and a repeated intraosseous or mock injection at 30 minutes in two appointments. The first molar and adjacent teeth were pulp tested every 2 minutes for a total of 120 minutes. Success was defined as obtaining two consecutive 80 readings with the electric pulp tester. Success of the initial intraosseous injection was 100% for the first molar. The repeated intraosseous injection mimicked the initial intraosseous injection in terms of pulpal anesthesia and statistically provided another 15 minutes of pulpal anesthesia. In conclusion, using the methodology presented, repeating the intraosseous injection 30 minutes after an initial intraosseous injection will provide an additional 15 minutes of pulpal anesthesia.

  7. Mode and sawtooth behaviour during neutral beam injection in the W VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieger, G.; Renner, H.; Sapper, J.; Wobig, H.; Dorst, D.; Cattanei, G.; Javel, P.; Rau, F.; Zippe, M.; Jaeckel, H.

    1980-02-01

    The mode behaviour during Neutral Beam Injection in the WENDELSTEIN VII-A stellarator is presented. The analysis is mainly relying on soft X-ray measurements. Two types of discharges were found during Neutral Beam Injection with plasma currents >= 20 kA. The first type is dominated by large, regular and long sawteeth, which are caused by a (m,n) = (1,1) mode. In the second type the sawteeth disappear completely. Later in the discharge a local disruption causes a transition to the first type; this disruption has a (3,2) mode precursor. A new mode (2,2) is found and phase coupled to the (3,2) mode. Even at a high external rotational transform (t 0 = 0.23) a large (2,1) mode is found after the (3,2) mode has caused the local disruption. At slightly lower external rotational transform values major current disruptions may even occur. This is mainly due to the enhanced edge heating by the Neutral Beam Injection. Results of simulations of the mode structures are also presendet. (orig./GG)

  8. Accommodation Paralysis after Pheniramine Maleate Injection: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingol Kiziltunc, Pinar; Atilla, Huban; Yalcindag, F Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    We present a case in which Gilbert syndrome was diagnosed following a neuro-ophthalmic complaint. Adverse effects of drugs as well as various systemic, neurological, and local ocular pathologies can cause accommodative insufficiency and loss of accommodation. A 29-year-old man was admitted to an ophthalmology department with blurred vision and diagnosed as suffering from acute accommodation paralysis. He had a history of being given a pheniramine maleate injection for pruritus 20 days previously. Symptoms began immediately following the injection. After systemic evaluation and laboratory tests, he was diagnosed as having Gilbert syndrome. His complaints and symptoms recovered in approximately a further 10 days. Metabolism of pheniramine maleate can be impaired in Gilbert syndrome and anticholinergic effects can cause accommodation paralysis.

  9. Modelling the Molecular Transportation of Subcutaneously Injected Salubrinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the subcutaneous administration of a chemical agent (salubrinal, we constructed a mathematical model of molecule transportation and subsequently evaluated the kinetics of diffusion, convection, and molecular turnover. Salubrinal is a potential therapeutic agent that can reduce cellular damage and death. The understanding of its temporal profiles in local tissue as well as in a whole body is important to develop a proper strategy for its administration. Here, the diffusion and convection kinetics was formulated using partial and ordinary differential equations in one- and three-dimensional (semi-spherical coordinates. Several key parameters including an injection velocity, a diffusion coefficient, thickness of subcutaneous tissue, and a permeability factor at the tissue-blood boundary were estimated from experimental data in rats. With reference to analytical solutions in a simplified model without convection, numerical solutions revealed that the diffusion coefficient and thickness of subcutaneous tissue determined the timing of the peak concentration in the plasma, and its magnitude was dictated by the permeability factor. Furthermore, the initial velocity, induced by needle injection, elevated an immediate transport of salubrinal at t < 1h. The described analysis with a combination of partial and ordinary differential equations contributes to the prediction of local and systemic effects and the understanding of the transportation mechanism of salubrinal and other agents.

  10. When local anesthesia becomes universal: Pronounced systemic effects of subcutaneous lidocaine in bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Catherine; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Bertelsen, Mads Frost

    2017-01-01

    Sodium channel blockers are commonly injected local anesthetics but are also routinely used for general immersion anesthesia in fish and amphibians. Here we report the effects of subcutaneous injection of lidocaine (5 or 50mgkg-1) in the hind limb of bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) on reflexes...... regained over 4h. Systemic sedative effects were not coupled to local anti-nociception, as a forceps pinch test at the site of injection provoked movement at the height of the systemic effect (tested at 81±4min). Amphibians are routinely subject to general anesthesia via exposure to sodium channel blockers...

  11. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  12. Injection Laryngoplasty Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Haldun Oðuz

    2013-01-01

    Injection laryngoplasty is one of the treatment options for voice problems. In the recent years, more safe and more biocompatible injection materials are available on the market. Long and short term injection materials are discussed in this review.

  13. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  14. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  15. “Don’t Judge a Book by Its Cover”: A Qualitative Study of Methadone Patients’ Experiences of Stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Woo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite its efficacy and widespread use, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT continues to be widely stigmatized. Reducing the stigma surrounding MMT will help improve the accessibility, retention, and treatment outcomes in MMT. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 adults undergoing MMT. Thematic content analysis was used to identify overarching themes. Results: In total, 78% of participants reported having experienced stigma surrounding MMT. Common stereotypes associated with MMT patients included the following: methadone as a way to get high, incompetence, untrustworthiness, lack of willpower, and heroin junkies. Participants reported that stigma resulted in lower self-esteem; relationship conflicts; reluctance to initiate, access, or continue MMT; and distrust toward the health care system. Public awareness campaigns, education of health care workers, family therapy, and community meetings were cited as potential stigma-reduction strategies. Discussion and Conclusion: Stigma is a widespread and serious issue that adversely affects MMT patients’ quality of life and treatment. More efforts are needed to combat MMT-related stigma.

  16. Modern technologies of local injection anesthesia in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohov S.Т.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the importance of using the new system Quick Sleeper for local anesthesia, to highlight benefits of quick and comfortable anesthesia. Material and Methods. The examination of effectiveness, convenience of this kind of anesthesia has been carried out. Results. All patients, taking part in this examination, confirmed more comfortable condition after this anesthesia than conductor and infiltration methods of anesthesia. The effect of anesthesia is better than after conductor anesthesia. Conclusion. This technology guarantees equal introduction and spread of anesthetic, independently of tissue density, eliminating the risk of carpule breakage.

  17. Localization of lead in rat peripheral nerve by electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windebank, A.J.; Dyck, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Lead intoxication in rats reliably produces segmental demyelination. Following a single intravenous injection of radioactive lead, localization of tracer was observed sequentially by quantitative electron microscopical autoradiography. The animals injected had been on a lead-containing diet for 70 days; as a result, the blood-nerve barrier was broken down and demyelination was proceeding. Six hours after a single dose, the lead was localized to the endoneurial space of the peroneal nerve, and 72 hours later, to the myelin membrane. Lead may exert a direct effect on the membrane and alter its stability both by altering the lipid content of the membrane and by directly interfering with the lamellar structure

  18. Cutaneous Mycobacterium abscessus Infection Associated with Mesotherapy Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkitisophon, Pranee; Rattanakaemakorn, Ploysyne; Tanrattanakorn, Somsak; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2011-02-18

    Non-tuberculous mycobacterial skin infections have an increasing incidence. In immunocompetent patients, they usually follow local trauma. We present a case of cutaneous Mycobacterium abscessus infection following mesotherapy. The lesions were successfully treated with a combination of clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline. Atypical mycobacterial infection should be suspected in patients who develop late-onset skin and soft tissue infection after cutaneous injury, injection, and surgical intervention, particularly if they do not respond to conventional antibiotic treatment.

  19. Lessons learned from a community based intervention to improve injection safety in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Arshad; Shah, Sharaf Ali; Shaikh, Kulsoom; Constable, Fiona M; Khamassi, Selma

    2013-04-22

    A national study in 2007 revealed that in Pakistan the prevalence of hepatitis B is 2.5% and for hepatitis C it is 5%. Unsafe injections have been identified as one of the reasons for the spread of these infections. Trained and untrained providers routinely perform unsafe practices primarily for economic reasons i.e. they reuse injection equipment on several patients. The patients, do not question the provider about the need for an injection because of social barriers or whether the syringe is coming from a new sterile packet due to lack of knowledge. The present paper represents an intervention that was developed to empower the community to improve unsafe injection practices in rural Pakistan. In a rural district of Pakistan (Tando Allahyar, Sindh) with a population of approximately 630,000 a multipronged approach was used in 2010 (June to December) to improve injection safety. The focus of the intervention was the community, however providers were not precluded. The organization of interventions was also carefully planned. A baseline assessment (n=300) was conducted prior to the intervention. The interventions comprised large scale gatherings of the community (males and females) across the district. Smaller gatherings included teachers, imams of mosques and the training of trained and untrained healthcare providers. The Pakistan Television Network was used to broadcast messages recorded by prominent figures in the local language. The local FM channel and Sunday newspaper were also used to disseminate messages on injection safety. An end of project assessment was carried out in January 2012. The study was ethically reviewed and approved. The interventions resulted in improving misconceptions about transmission of hepatitis B and C. In the baseline assessment (only 9%) of the respondents associated hepatitis B and C with unsafe injections which increased to 78% at the end of project study. In the baseline study 15% of the study participants reported that a new

  20. Physicians’ attitudes towards office-based delivery of methadone maintenance therapy: results from a cross-sectional survey of Nova Scotia primary-care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dooley Jessica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 90,000 Canadians use opioids each year, many of whom experience health and social problems that affect the individual user, families, communities and the health care system. For those who wish to reduce or stop their opioid use, methadone maintenance therapy (MMT is effective and supporting evidence is well-documented. However, access and availability to MMT is often inconsistent, with greater inequity outside of urban settings. Involving community based primary-care physicians in the delivery of MMT could serve to expand capacity and accessibility of MMT programs. Little is known, however, about the extent to which MMT, particularly office-based delivery, is acceptable to physicians. The aim of this study is to survey physicians about their attitudes towards MMT, particularly office-based delivery, and the perceived barriers and facilitators to MMT delivery. Methods In May 2008, facilitated by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Nova Scotia, a cross-sectional, e-mail survey of 950 primary-care physicians practicing in Nova Scotia, Canada was administered via the OPINIO on-line survey software, to assess the acceptability of office-based MMT. Logistic regressions, adjusted for physician sociodemographic characteristics, were used to examine the association between physicians’ willingness to participate in office-based MMT, and a series of measures capturing physician attitudes and knowledge about treatment approaches, opioid use, and methadone, as well as perceived barriers to MMT. Results Overall, 19.8% of primary-care physicians responded to the survey, with 56% who indicated that they would be willing to be involved in MMT under current or similar circumstances; however, willingness was associated with numerous attitudinal and systemic factors. The barriers to involvement in MMT that were frequently cited included a lack of training or experience in MMT, lack of support services, and potential

  1. Effects of pancreatic intraductal injection of a radioisotope in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devonec, M.; Faure, J.L.; Blanc-Brunat, N.; Dubernard, J.M.; Traeger, J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects on exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functions of local irradiation by the intraductal injection of Rhenium 186 were investigated as an alternative to neoprene for exocrine secretion suppression. The results indicate that Rhenium 186 irradiation suppressed exocrine secretion of the pancreas while conserving the endocrine function. Although some edema and fibrosis were observed, the effects were not excessive

  2. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  3. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  4. The Effect of Progesterone on Lipid Peroxidation and in Rat Alzheimer Model by Local Injection of Streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mozafari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most prevalent brain neurodegenerative diseases and the most common cognitive deficits are memory dysfunction and spatial perception impairment. Progesterone has a neorostroid action in hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptic stability and spatial learning and memory and has antioxidant effect. Since oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, and conflicting results were reported about the effects of progesterone on therefore in Alzheimer’s, the present study investigated the effect of microinjection of three doses of progesterone on the process of spatial memory and lipid peroxidation and total peroxidation in the hippocampus in the experimental model of AD. Methods: 42 adult male Wistar rats weighting 250±50 g were randomly divided into six main groups (n=7: control group, sham group, Alzheimer’s model (intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin, Alzheimer model + progesterone (0.5, 1.5, 2µg/kg. 2 weeks after injection of streptozotocin (3 mg/kg, Alzheimer's was induced then progesterone injected in different doses. After termination of behavioral testing days, the hippocampus was removed to measure the levels of oxidative stress parameter to measure levels of oxidative stress parameters. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Results showed that intraventricular injection of STZ decreased spatial memory in comparison to control group (P<0.001. Administration progesterone significantly improved spatial memory in experimental models of Alzheimer's rats (P<0.001. MDA and SOD in all doses of progesterone showed a significant reduction compared to the AD animals (P<0.001. Conclusion: Progesterone can prevent a decrease in spatial learning and memory by reducing oxidative stress in the hippocampus of rats with Alzheimer's.

  5. Effects of surface deposition and droplet injection on film cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jin; Cui, Pei; Vujanović, Milan; Baleta, Jakov; Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cooling effectiveness is significantly affected by the deposition size. • Coverage area for model without mist is reduced by increasing the deposition height. • Wall temperature is decreased by 15% with 2% mist injection. • Cooling coverage is increased by more than three times with 2% mist injection. • Cooling effectiveness for mist models is improved by increasing deposition height. - Abstract: In the present research, the influence of the particle dispersion onto the continuous phase in film cooling application was analysed by means of numerical simulations. The interaction between the water droplets and the main stream plays an important role in the results. The prediction of two-phase flow is investigated by employing the discrete phase model (DPM). The results present heat transfer characteristics in the near-wall region under the influence of mist cooling. The local wall temperature distribution and film cooling effectiveness are obtained, and results show that the film cooling characteristics on the downstream wall are affected by different height of surface deposits. It is also found that smaller deposits without mist injection provide a lower wall temperature and a better cooling performance. With 2% mist injection, evaporation of water droplets improves film cooling effectiveness, and higher deposits cause lateral and downstream spread of water droplets. The results indicate that mist injection can significantly enhance film cooling performance.

  6. Preoperative Localization of Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma with Intra-arterial Methylene Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, Rida; Sebaaly, Mikhael G. [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Lebanon); Wehbe, Mohammad Rachad; Sfeir, Pierre; Khalife, Mohamad [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of General Surgery (Lebanon); Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad, E-mail: mk00@aub.edu.lb [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Lebanon)

    2017-06-15

    Ectopic parathyroid is found in 16% of patients with hyperparathyroidism. 2% of ectopic parathyroid adenomas are not accessible to standard cervical excision. In such cases, video-assisted thoracoscopic resection is the recommended definitive treatment. We present a case of mediastinal parathyroid adenoma localized preoperatively by injecting methylene blue within a branch of the internal mammary artery that is supplying the adenoma. Intra-arterial methylene blue injection facilitated visualization and resection of the adenoma. The preoperative intra-arterial infusion of methylene blue appears to be an effective and safe method for localization of ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenomas and allows rapid identification during thoracoscopic resection.

  7. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Injection control development of the JT-60U electron cyclotron heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiranai, Shinichi; Shinozaki, Shin-ichi; Yokokura, Kenji; Moriyama, Shinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Sato, Fumiaki [Nippon Advanced Technology Co., Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Yasuo [Atomic Energy General Service Co., Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ikeda, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The JT-60U electron cyclotron heating (ECH) System injects a millimeteric wave at 110 GHz into the JT-60 Plasma, and heats the plasma or drives a current locally to enhance the confinement performance of the JT-60 plasma. The system consists of four sets of high power gyrotrons, high voltage power supplies and transmission lines, and two antennas that launch electron cyclotron (EC) beams toward the plasma. The key features of the injection control system are streering of the direction of the EC beam by driving the movable mirror in the antenna, and capability to set any combination of polarization angle and ellipticity by rotating the two grooved mirrors in the polarizers. This report represents the design, fabrication and improvements of the injection control system. (author)

  9. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron immediate-release injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and to ... nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with ...

  10. Edaravone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which ... die, causing the muscles to shrink and weaken). Edaravone injection is in a class of medications called ...

  11. Defibrotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defibrotide injection is used to treat adults and children with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD; blocked blood ... the body and then returned to the body). Defibrotide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  12. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  13. Platelet-rich plasma for chronic lateral epicondylitis: is one injection sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzmann, Michael C; Audigé, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    Chronic lateral epicondylitis is generally treated using nonsurgical methods including physiotherapy and infiltrations of cortisone or platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The latter is known for its simple application as well as associated low risk of adverse events, which lend to its widespread use in treating various musculoskeletal conditions. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of PRP injections to optimally treat chronic lateral epicondylitis. This study explored the effectiveness of single or repeated injections for patients with symptoms that spanned 6 months or more and were unresponsive to alternate conservative measures. Patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis received PRP injections in 4-week intervals that were complemented with standardized physical therapy. Patient-reported outcomes based on the patient-rated elbow evaluation (PREE), quick disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (qDASH), and EuroQol (five dimensions) 3-level version (EQ5D3L) questionnaires were documented at each visit including 6 months after the first injection. These outcomes were compared between patients receiving 1 vs. 2 or 3 PRP injections. Sixty-two patients received one (n = 36) or more (n = 26) PRP injections. The mean baseline to 6-month follow-up scores of the PREE and qDASH questionnaires improved significantly from 54.0 to 23.0 and 50.3 to 20.7, respectively. The mean baseline EQ5D3L-visual analogue scale score improved from 62.5 to 82.9 by 6 months post-injection. These outcomes did not significantly differ between the patients who received varying numbers of injections. Patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis reported significant pain relief and gain in function as well as quality of life 6 months after localized PRP treatment. A single PRP injection may be sufficient.

  14. Local intra-articular injection of resveratrol delays cartilage degeneration in C57BL/6 mice by inducing autophagy via AMPK/mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Na; Wei, Liwei; Li, Wuyin; Yang, Wei; Cai, Litao; Qian, Zhuang; Wu, Shufang

    2017-07-01

    Autophagy is an essential cellular homeostasis mechanism that was found to be compromised in aging and osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage. Previous studies showed that resveratrol can effectively regulate autophagy in other cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the chondroprotective effect of resveratrol was related to chondrocyte autophagy and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. OA model was induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) in 10-week-old male mice. OA mice were treated with resveratrol with/without 3-MA for 8 weeks beginning 4 weeks after surgery. The local intra-articular injection of resveratrol delayed articular cartilage degradation in DMM-induced OA by OARSI scoring systems and Safranin O-fast green. Resveratrol treatment increased Unc-51-like kinase1, Beclin1, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3, hypoxia inducible factor-1α, phosphorylated AMPK, collagen-2A1, Aggrecan expressions, but decreased hypoxia inducible factor-2α, phosphorylated mTOR, matrix metalloproteinases13 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 expressions. The effects of resveratrol were obviously blunted by 3-MA except HIF and AMPK. These findings indicate that resveratrol intra-articular injection delayed articular cartilage degeneration and promoted chondrocyte autophagy in an experimental model of surgical DMM-induced OA, in part via balancing HIF-1α and HIF-2α expressions and thereby regulating AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intra-articular hip injection: does pain relief correlate with radiographic severity of osteoarthritis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Ajit J.; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Panagopoulos, Georgia; Alizadeh, Ahmadreza; Klein, Devon A.

    2011-01-01

    Intra-articular injection is being used widely for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in the hip. However, its efficacy is not always predictable in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of radiographic severity of OA was predictive of the response to intra-articular injection of local anesthetic with corticosteroid and to determine the relationship between immediate pain relief resulting from the anesthetic and delayed pain relief resulting from corticosteroid administration. This retrospective study included 217 patients (220 injections) with diagnosis of hip OA who underwent a fluoroscopically guided therapeutic hip injection of local anesthetic and corticosteroid. Hip radiographs were scored using the Kellgren-Lawrence scale. Immediate and delayed pain relief was documented using a visual analog scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether age, gender or radiographic severity of OA were independent predictors of pain relief. Degree of agreement between immediate and delayed response was assessed with the kappa coefficient. Immediate pain relief was reported in 68.2% of hips and delayed relief in 71.4% of hips. A high level of agreement was observed between immediate and delayed pain relief (kappa = 0.80, p < 0.001). 94% of patients reporting immediate relief also reported relief 2 weeks later. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that neither gender nor age was related to immediate or delayed pain relief. Only severity of OA (based on radiographic analysis) was observed to be predictive of pain relief. Pain relief following intra-articular hip injection correlated with radiographic severity of OA. This intervention may be of therapeutic and prognostic value in patients awaiting hip arthroplasty. (orig.)

  16. Two-year follow-up results of fluoroscopic cervical epidural injections in chronic axial or discogenic neck pain: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Malla, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial. To assess the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for the management of axial or discogenic pain in patients without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain. Cervical discogenic pain without disc herniation is a common cause of suffering and disability in the adult population. Once conservative management has failed and facet joint pain has been excluded, cervical epidural injections may be considered as a management tool. Despite a paucity of evidence, cervical epidural injections are one of the most commonly performed nonsurgical interventions in the management of chronic axial or disc-related neck pain. One hundred and twenty patients without disc herniation or radiculitis and negative for facet joint pain as determined by means of controlled diagnostic medial branch blocks were randomly assigned to one of the 2 treatment groups. Group I patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 5 mL), whereas Group II patients received 0.5% lidocaine, 4 mL, mixed with 1 mL or 6 mg of nonparticulate betamethasone. The primary outcome measure was ≥ 50% improvement in pain and function. Outcome assessments included numeric rating scale (NRS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), opioid intake, employment, and changes in weight. Significant pain relief and functional improvement (≥ 50%) was present at the end of 2 years in 73% of patients receiving local anesthetic only and 70% receiving local anesthetic with steroids. In the successful group of patients, however, defined as consistent relief with 2 initial injections of at least 3 weeks, significant improvement was illustrated in 78% in the local anesthetic group and 75% in the local anesthetic with steroid group at the end of 2 years. The results reported at the one-year follow-up were sustained at the 2-year follow-up. Cervical interlaminar epidural

  17. Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release using a modified application technique of local anesthesia: safety and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Khayat Jehad

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local anesthesia is widely used for open carpal tunnel release. However, injection of local anesthesia as described by Altissimi and Mancini (1988 can interfere with endoscopic carpal tunnel release, by increasing the bulk of synovial layers and consequently result in worsening of the view. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy using modified technique for application of local anesthesia. Methods 33 patients suffering from gradual increasing symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. The patients were also asked to evaluate the pain associated with injection as well as tourniquet during surgery using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS (ranging from 0 = no pain to 10 = maximum pain. Results One patient required additionally local anesthesia because of mild pain in the hand. The tourniquet was inflated for 13.00 (2.8 min. The pain score related to injection was 2.5 (0.8 and to tourniquet was 3.6 (0.9. Inflation of the tourniquet was well tolerated by all patients. Postoperative neurological sensory and motor deficits related to surgery and local blocks were not occurred. Conclusion Endoscopic release of the carpal tunnel syndrome in local anesthesia is effective, well tolerated and safe. This kind of application of local anesthesia did not reduce visibility.

  18. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  19. Nano porous Adsorbent from Chitosan Interacted Montmorillonite for Dye-containing Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriphannon, P.; Monvisade, P.

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan intercalated montmorillonite (Chi-MMT) was prepared by mixing 2 wt% of chitosan solution with sodium mont-morillonite (Na + -MMT) suspension at 60 degree Celsius for 24 hours. The Na + ions in Na + -MMT were completely exchanged with -NH 3 + ions of chitosan, resulting in the intercalation of chitosan into the MMT layer. The chitosan intercalation brought about the expansion of d 001 of Na + -MMT from 1.23 nm to 1.42 - >2.21 nm of the Chi-MMT. The existence of the intercalated-chitosan and large pore size could significantly increase the adsorption capacity of Chi-MMT from those of the starting materials, for example Na + -MMT and chitosan. The adsorption capacity of Chi-MMT adsorbent was equal to 4.9 mg/ g for acid red 91 (AR91) with initial dye concentration of 50 mg/ L, 45.9 mg/ g for basic yellow 1 (BY1) and 15.0 mg/ g for reactive orange 16 (RO16) with initial dye concentration of 500 mg/ L. These results indicated the competency of Chi-MMT nano porous adsorbent for treatment of wastewater containing various kinds of dyestuffs. (author)

  20. Correlation between ultrasonographic findings and the response to corticosteroid injection in pes anserinus tendinobursitis syndrome in knee osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ho Sung; Kim, Sung Eun; Suh, Young Ran; Seo, Young-Il; Kim, Hyun Ah

    2005-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the ultrasonographic (US) findings in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) with pes anserinus tendinitis or bursitis (PATB) syndrome and to determine the correlation between the US findings and the response to local corticosteroid injection. We prospectively studied 26 patients with knee OA with clinically diagnosed PATB syndrome. A linear array 7 MHz transducer was used for US examination of the knee. Seventeen patients were injected locally with tramcinolone acetonide in the anserine bursa area. Response to local corticosteroid injection was evaluated by pain visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario and MacMaster (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index and Global patient/physician assessment using Likert scale. On US examination, only 2 patients (8.7%) showed evidence of PATB. Pain VAS, WOMAC pain index and WOMAC physical function index improved significantly after corticosteroid injection. Global patient assessment revealed that 2 patients showed best response, 6 good, 1 fair, 8 the same, and none worse. It is of note that the 2 patients who showed the best response were those who showed US evidence of PATB. This finding shows that US can serve as a useful diagnostic tool for guiding treatment in PATB syndrome of OA patients.

  1. Transpulmonary CT-guided percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (CT-PEIT) for hepatocellular carcinoma located in the subphrenic region of liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kazushige; Ohkawara, Tohru; Minami, Masahito; Sawa, Yoshihiko; Morinaga, Osamu; Kohli, Yoshihiro; Ohkawara, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of transpulmonary CT-guided percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (CT-PEIT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, 15 lesions) located in the subphrenic region and untreatable by ultrasonography-guided PEIT. The HCC was localized on Lipiodol CT image with a graduated grid system. We advanced a PEIT needle in a stepwise fashion, perpendicularly to the major axis of body through the lung with intermittent localization scans to position the tip of the needle in the lesion. Ethanol was injected with monitoring scans obtained after incremental volumes of injection, until perfusion was judged to be complete. A total of 20 CT-PEIT sessions were performed. The average number of needles passed from skin to liver in each CT-PEIT session was 2.7, the average volume of ethanol injected was 11.7 ml, and the average time required was 53.6 minutes. Complete perfusion of the lesion by ethanol was achieved in all lesions with only a single or double CT-PEIT procedure without severe complications. Local recurrence was detected in 3 to 15 followed up lesions for 14 months on average. In conclusion, transpulmonary CT-PEIT should prove to be a feasible, acceptable treatment for challenging cases of HCC located in the subphrenic region. (author)

  2. The social context of hormone and silicone injection among Puerto Rican transwomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B; Rodríguez-Madera, Sheilla; Ramos Pibernus, Alixida G; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B

    2018-05-01

    This paper draws on ethnographic, qualitative and survey data with transwomen in Puerto Rico to examine the social and political-economic context of lay injection with hormone and silicone - common practices within this community. We describe specific practices of hormone and silicone injection, the actors that govern them, the market for the sale and distribution of syringes and the networks of lay specialists who provide services to a population that is neglected by and largely excluded from biomedical settings. Our data derive from ethnographic observations, sociodemographic questionnaires, surveys and semi-structured interviews conducted with a diverse group of transwomen in metropolitan San Juan, Puerto Rico. Our analysis focuses on four overlapping social domains or processes that shape the practices of lay silicone and hormone injection among transwomen: (1) the circulation of gender transitioning technologies within local and global markets; (2) the tension between the social exclusion of transwomen and their resilient sub-cultural responses; (3) the cultural meanings that shape transwomen's attitudes about injection; and (4) the perceived consequences of injection. We conclude with a discussion of the kinds of intervention and policy changes that would respond to the factors that most endanger transwomen's health.

  3. Consequence of oxytocin injections on minerals concentration in Sahiwal cow milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, A.; Anjum, F.M.; Zahoor, T.; Jamil, A.

    2010-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to find out the consequence of exogenous administration of oxytocin to Sahiwal cow, local breed of Pakistan (to enhance milk let down) on mineral composition. Milk samples were collected from two groups of eight animals under controlled atmosphere and feeding input. The analysis of fodder and feed samples were also carried out to support this study. Means of macro and micro minerals of fodder and feed samples were determined. One group of Sahiwal cows was subjected to intramuscular injection of oxytocin (20 IU). The milk obtained from oxytocin injected animals possessed significantly higher sodium and chloride with increment in ash content. Lactose content decreased by 0.39% and ash content increased by 0.08% in milk treated with oxytocin injections. Oxytocin administration increased the level of Na (19.74%), Cl (9.39%) and Cu (146.89%) while K content decreased (10.06%). (author)

  4. A comparison of molding procedures - Contact, injection and vacuum injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathiard, G.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the contact, injection and vacuum injection molding of reinforced plastic components are compared for the example of a tractor roof with a gel-coated surface. Consideration is given to the possibility of reinforcement, number of smooth faces, condition of the gel-coated surface, reliability, and labor and workplace requirements of the three processes, and advantages of molding between the mold and a countermold in smooth faces, reliability, labor requirements, working surface and industrial hygiene are pointed out. The times and labor requirements of each step in the molding cycles are examined, and material requirements and yields, investment costs, amortization and product cost prices of the processes are compared. It is concluded that, for the specific component examined, the processes of vacuum injection and injection molding appear very interesting, with injection molding processes resulting in lower cost prices than contact molding for any production volume.

  5. Prevalence of injections and knowledge of safe injections among rural residents in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y W; Yan, J; Zhang, G P; Gao, Z L; Jian, H X

    2007-08-01

    Abuse of the injection services, namely unnecessary injections and unsafe injections, exists extensively in developing countries. Unsafe injection practices contribute to the transmission of blood-borne pathogens. The aims of this study were to survey the prevalence of injections and knowledge of injection safety among the rural residents in Jingzhou district, Hubei, China and to provide scientific data for developing a health educational programme. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 villages, which were selected from the Jingzhou district by the random sampling method. 50 rural residents were interviewed per village using a questionnaire. Among the 595 residents studied, 192 had received at least one injection in the past three months, with an injection prevalence of 32.3 percent and an average of 0.93 injections. 90.3 percent of the rural residents knew that unsafe injections could transmit the following blood-borne pathogens: human immunodeficiency virus (74.4 percent), hepatitis B virus (55.8 percent) and hepatitis C virus (22.9 percent). Logistic regression analysis showed that the residents' age, educational level and residential area were important factors in influencing their knowledge about injection safety. The results indicated that the injection prevalence was high among rural residents in the study area, and their knowledge regarding injection safety should be further improved.

  6. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics: needle lesion or neurotoxicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Jensen, Rigmor H; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry METHODS: The study included data sets of annual sales of local anes...

  7. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  8. Does Reducing the Concentration of Bupivacaine When Performing Therapeutic Shoulder Joint Injections Impact the Clinical Outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Michael G; Patrie, James T

    2016-04-01

    Mixtures of local anesthetics and steroids are routinely injected intraarticularly to temporarily relieve joint pain, even though local anesthetics have been reported to cause chondrocyte death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This study aimed to determine if intraarticular injections of bupivacaine 0.5% and bupivacaine 0.25% would provide similar pain relief. All fluoroscopically guided glenohumeral joint injections performed using 2.5 mL of bupivacaine and 0.5 mL (20 mg) of triamcinolone acetonide over a 42-month period were included if a pain score was recorded before, 5-10 minutes after, and 1 week after injection. Pain reduction of more than 2 points was considered much improved clinically with pain reduction of more than 1 point considered the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) threshold. Statistically significant and much improved pain reduction was achieved using both bupivacaine 0.5% and 0.25% 5-10 minutes (-3.7 points; 95% CI, -3.4 to -4.0 points; p ≤ 0.001; and -3.3 points; 95% CI, -3.0 to -3.5 points; p ≤ 0.001) and 1 week (-2.5 points; 95% CI, -2.2 to -2.9 points; p ≤ 0.001; and -2.1 points; 95% CI, -1.8 to -2.3 points; p ≤ 0.001) after injection, respectively. Adjusting for age, sex, pain score before injection, and indication, the mean decrease in pain was greater in the bupivacaine 0.5% group by 0.30 points 5-10 minutes after injection (95% CI, -0.03 to 0.63 points; p = 0.08) and 0.46 points 1 week after injection (95% CI, 0.13-0.77 points; p = 0.01). Both bupivacaine 0.5% and bupivacaine 0.25% provide statistically significant and much improved pain relief 5-10 minutes and 1 week after intraarticular glenohumeral injections. Bupivacaine 0.5% provided greater pain relief than bupivacaine 0.25%, but the difference was less than 0.5 points and therefore did not meet the MCID threshold.

  9. Localized internal radiotherapy with 90Y particles embedded in a new thermosetting alginate gel: a feasibility study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holte, Oyvind; Skretting, Arne; Bach-Gansmo, Tore; Hol, Per Kristian; Johnsrud, Kjersti; Tønnesen, Hanne Hjorth; Karlsen, Jan

    2006-02-01

    Internal radiotherapy requires the localization of the radionuclide to the site of action. A new injectable alginate gel formulation intended to undergo immediate gelation in tissues and capable of encapsulating radioactive particles containing 90Y was investigated. The formulation was injected intramuscularly, into the bone marrow compartment of the femur and intravenously, respectively, in pigs. The distribution of radioactivity in various tissues was determined. Following intramuscular injection, more than 90% of the radioactivity was found at the site of injection. Following injection into bone marrow, 30-40% of the radioactivity was retained at the site of injection, but a considerable amount of radioactivity was also detected in the lungs (35-45%) and the liver (5-18%). Following intravenous injection, 80-90% of the radioactivity was found in the lungs. The present formulation appears suitable for localized radiotherapy in organs and tissues having low perfusion.

  10. Cutaneous Mycobacterium abscessus Infection Associated with Mesotherapy Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranee Wongkitisophon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-tuberculous mycobacterial skin infections have an increasing incidence. In immunocompetent patients, they usually follow local trauma. We present a case of cutaneous Mycobacterium abscessus infection following mesotherapy. The lesions were successfully treated with a combination of clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline. Atypical mycobacterial infection should be suspected in patients who develop late-onset skin and soft tissue infection after cutaneous injury, injection, and surgical intervention, particularly if they do not respond to conventional antibiotic treatment.

  11. Large potential change induced by pellet injection in JIPP T-IIU tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Sato, K.N.; Sakakita, H.

    1995-05-01

    A large, rapid change in the local plasma potential is found to be induced by off-axis hydrogen ice-pellet injection into a tokamak plasma. The polarity of the rapid change is reversed when the pellet is injected into the upper and lower halves of the poloidal plasma cross-section. This change can be interpreted as being due to the gradient-B drift of particles in the high-density plasmas of the pellet cloud, before the increase of the plasma density due to the ablation becomes uniform on the magnetic surface. (author)

  12. CT-guided cervical nerve root injections: comparing the immediate post-injection anesthetic-related effects of the transforaminal injection with a new indirect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K.; Zanetti, Marco; Hodler, Juerg

    2011-01-01

    To describe an ''indirect'' cervical nerve root injection technique with a dorsal approach that should carry less inherent risk than the ''direct'' cervical transforaminal injection approach, and to compare the immediate post-injection results of the two procedures. The indirect and direct cervical nerve root injection procedures are described in detail. Fifty-three consecutive patients receiving the indirect nerve root injections during 2009-2010 were age- and gender-matched to 53 patients who underwent direct transforaminal nerve root injections performed in 2006. Pain level data were collected immediately before and 20-30 min after each procedure. The percentages of pain change in the two groups were compared using the unpaired Student's t test. Fifty-two men (mean age 49) and 54 women (mean age 55) were included. The mean percentage of pain reduction for patients receiving indirect nerve root injections was 38.4% and for those undergoing the direct nerve root injections approach it was 43.2%. This was not significantly different (P = 0.455). No immediate or late adverse effects were reported after either injection procedure. The indirect cervical nerve root injection procedure is a potentially safer alternative to direct cervical transforaminal nerve root injections. The short-term pain reduction is similar using the two injection methods. (orig.)

  13. Chronic organic manganese administration in the rat does not damage dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, V W; Perry, T L; Godolphin, W J; Jones, K A; Clavier, R M; Ito, M; Foulks, J G

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to produce an animal model of Parkinson's disease, we injected rats repeatedly with high doses of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), a compound which has been reported to lower striatal dopamine content in mice. Chronic MMT administration for up to 5 months, even though it produced a substantial elevation in brain manganese content during the period of exposure, did not destroy dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. This was assessed by measurements of tyrosine hydroxylase activity and contents of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum, and by histological examination of the substantia nigra. Our results differ from those of others who administered manganese chloride in drinking water to rats. This discrepancy is unlikely to be a consequence of differences in duration of exposure or route of administration. It could be due to our having used an organic rather than an inorganic manganese compound, or to a species difference in vulnerability to organic manganese between rats and mice.

  14. Will a single periarticular lidocaine-corticosteroid injection improve the clinical efficacy of intraarticular hyaluronic acid treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk, Cemil; Altay, Mehmet Akif; Altay, Nuray; Kalender, Ali Murat; Öztürk, İbrahim Avşin

    2016-11-01

    A local injection of corticosteroid-lidocaine into the periarticular soft tissue structures is used commonly for rapid pain relief. It is hypothesized that knee pain associated with knee osteoarthritis would be relieved quickly and effectively in patients receiving intraarticular hyaluronic acid combined with a periarticular lidocaine-corticosteroid injection. To test this hypothesis, the clinical effect of the combined treatment with hyaluronic acid injection alone in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis as compared in this prospective single-blinded randomized trial. This study included 70 patients. Group 1 (n = 35) received intraarticular hyaluronic acid injections only, whereas group 2 (n = 35) received intraarticular hyaluronic acid injections combined with a single local injection of corticosteroid-lidocaine. Injections were administered to the most painful areas of the anterior or posterior medial condyle of the femur or tibia. The outcome was measured by independent assessors (blinded to treatment) using a linear VAS pain scale and WOMAC and HSS knee scores. Assessments were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks. During the first 3 weeks, group 2 patients showed significantly better all scores than did group 1 patients (p hyaluronic acid alone in patients with knee osteoarthritis and can be considered a useful adjunctive treatment modality. This combined method may provide early return to patient's daily activity. Therapeutic study, Level I.

  15. Current trends in needle-free jet injection: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barolet D

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Barolet,1,2 Antranik Benohanian3 1RoseLab Skin Optics Research Laboratory, Laval, QC, Canada; 2MUHC Dermatology Service, Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3CHUM Service de Dermatologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada Background: Jet injection can be defined as a needle-free drug delivery method in which a high-speed stream of fluid impacts the skin and delivers a drug. Despite 75 years of existence, it never reached its full potential as a strategic tool to deliver medications through the skin. Objective: The aim of this review was to evaluate and summarize the evolution of jet injection intradermal drug delivery method including technological advancements and new indications for use. Methods: A review of the literature was performed with no limits placed on publication date. Results: Needleless injectors not only reduce pain during drug delivery but also confine the drug more evenly in the dermis. Understanding skin properties of the injection site is a key factor to obtain optimal results as well as setting the right parameters of the jet injector. Until the advent of disposable jet injectors/cartridges, autoclaving of the injector remains the only reliable method to eliminate the risk of infection. Needle-free intradermal injection using corticosteroids and/or local anesthetics is well documented with promising indications being developed. Limitations: Limitations of the review include low-quality evidence, small sample sizes, varying treatment parameters, and publication bias. Conclusion: New developments may help reconsider the use of jet injection technology. Future studies should focus on measurable optimized parameters to insure a safe and effective outcome. Keywords: needle free, injector, jet injection, xylocaine, triamcinolone, PDT

  16. Optimization of injection law for direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feola, M.; Bella, G.; Pelloni, P.; Casoli, P.; Toderi, G.; Cantore, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how different timing and shape of the injection law can influence pollutant emission of a direct injection diesel engine. The study was carried out making use of a multizone thermodynamic model as regards the closed valve phase, and a filling-emptying one as regards the open valve phase. After being calibrated by comparison with experimental data, the abovementioned model was used for injection law optimization as regards minimum pollutant concentration (NO x and soot) in the exhaust gases with the smallest engine performance reduction possible

  17. Tumor localization of 131I-labeled antibodies by radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, T.; Tai, J.; Aquino, J.; Guclu, A.; Norvell, S.; MacDondald, A.

    1975-01-01

    Intravenous injections of 131 I-labeled anti-EL4 lymphoma antibodies showed progressive localization of radioactivity in EL4 transplants but not in B16 melanoma in mice carrying both tumors. Normal rabbit globulin labeled with 131 I did not localize in either tumor and cleared more slowly from the internal organs. Metastatic localization of intravenous 131 I-labeled anti-tumor antibodies was also observed in two cancer patients. (U.S.)

  18. Non-real-time computed tomography-guided percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for heapocellular carcinoma undetectable by ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kazushige; Ohkawara, Tohru; Minami, Masahito; Sawa, Yoshihiko; Morinaga, Osamu; Kohli, Yoshihiro; Ohkawara, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of non-real-time CT-guided percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, 37 lesions) untreatable by ultrasonography-guided (US)-PEIT. The HCC lesion was localized on the lipiodol CT image with a graduated grid system. We advanced a 21 G or 22 G needle in a stepwise fashion with intermittent localization scans using a tandem method to position the tip of the needle in the lesion. Ethanol containing contrast medium was injected with monitoring scans obtained after incremental volumes of injection, until perfusion of the lesion was judged to be complete. A total of 44 CT-PEIT procedures were performed. The average number of needle passes from the skin to the liver in each CT-PEIT procedure was 2.3, the average amount of ethanol injected was 14.4 ml, and the average time required was 49.3 minutes. Complete perfusion of the lesion by ethanol on monitoring CT images was achieved in all lesions with only a single or double CT-PEIT procedure without severe complication. Local recurrence was detected only in 5 lesions. At present, it is more time-consuming to perform CT-PEIT than US-PEIT because conventional CT guidance is not real-time imaging. However, it is expected that this limitation of CT-PEIT will be overcome in the near future with the introduction of CT fluoroscopy. In conclusion, CT-PEIT should prove to be a feasible, acceptable treatment for challenging cases of HCC undetectable by US. (author)

  19. A comparative trial of ice application versus EMLA cream in alleviation of pain during botulinum toxin injections for palmar hyperhidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsantali A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Adel Alsantali Department of Dermatology, King Fahd Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background: Botulinum toxin is a safe and effective therapy for palmar hyperhidrosis, but the associated pain from injections limits the usefulness of this method of treatment. Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics (EMLA cream versus ice application in alleviation of pain during botulinum toxin injections for palmar hyperhidrosis. Methods: In this prospective study, 23 patients underwent palm Botox injections to treat their excessive sweating. In each patient, EMLA cream was applied to one palm and ice was applied directly before the injections in the other palm. Pain was evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale. Results: Statistically, there was a significant difference in pain control between EMLA cream group and ice application group (p<0.05. The average pain score on the hands where EMLA cream was applied was 8.9 (SD=0.81, whereas it was 4.8 (±0.9 in the ice group. Conclusion: In this study, the successful use of ice application in reducing pain by 40% in comparison to EMLA cream during Botox toxin injection for palmar hyperhidrosis is demonstrated.Keywords: ice, local anesthetics, EMLA, palmar hyperhidrosis, Botox injection, pain reduction

  20. The effect of intravenous paracetamol for the prevention of rocuronium injection pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Sennur; Erden, Ismail A; Canbay, Ozgur; Aypar, Ulku

    2014-11-01

    Rocuronium is a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent used in anesthesia induction and is associated with considerable discomfort and burning pain during injection, which is reported to occur in 50-80% of patients. This study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of intravenous paracetamol pretreatment compared with lidocaine and normal saline to prevent rocuronium injection pain. The study included 150 ASA I-II patients undergoing elective orthopedic, gastrointestinal, and gynecological procedures under general anesthesia. They were allocated into three groups according to pretreatment drugs: lidocaine (40 mg) (n = 50), paracetamol (n = 50), and normal saline group (n = 50). Before anesthesia induction with propofol, all patients were pretreated with rocuronium. The pain caused by the injection was evaluated. Local signs were assessed on the arm at the end of the injection, as well as 24 hours after recovery from anesthesia. There were no patients with blurred speech or vision and there was no respiratory depression in any group after pretreatment with the study drug. The level of pain on injection was statistically lower in those who had received paracetamol compared to normal saline (p = 0.009). There were more patients in the saline group with severe pain (p rocuronium injection pain better than normal saline but lidocaine was the best of the three drugs (p < 0.001). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  1. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure ...

  2. Hydromorphone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anyone else to use your medication. Store hydromorphone injection in a safe place so that no one else can use it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how much medication is left so ... with hydromorphone injection may increase the risk that you will develop ...

  3. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an older adult, you should know that ketorolac injection is not as safe as other medications that can be used to treat your condition. Your doctor may choose to prescribe a different medication ... to ketorolac injection.Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the ...

  4. Sonographically guided deep plantar fascia injections: where does the injectate go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, Eugene; Presley, James C; Murthy, Naveen; Pawlina, Wojciech; Smith, Jay

    2013-08-01

    To determine the distribution of sonographically guided deep plantar fascia injections in an unembalmed cadaveric model. A single experienced operator completed 10 sonographically guided deep plantar fascia injections in 10 unembalmed cadaveric specimens (5 right and 5 left) obtained from 6 donors (2 male and 4 female) aged 49 to 95 years (mean, 77.5 years) with a mean body mass index of 23.2 kg/m(2) (range, 18.4-26.3 kg/m(2)). A 12-3-MHz linear array transducer was used to direct a 22-gauge, 38-mm stainless steel needle deep to the plantar fascia at the anterior aspect of the calcaneus using an in-plane, medial-to-lateral approach. In each case, 1.5 mL of 50% diluted colored latex was injected deep to the plantar fascia. After a minimum of 72 hours, study coinvestigators dissected each specimen to assess injectate placement. All 10 injections accurately placed latex adjacent to the deep side of the plantar fascia at the anterior calcaneus. However, the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) origin from the plantar fascia variably limited direct latex contact with the plantar fascia, and small amounts of latex interdigitated with the FDB origin in 90% (9 of 10). In all 10 specimens, latex also covered the traversing first branch of the lateral plantar nerve (FBLPN, ie, Baxter nerve) between the FDB and quadratus plantae muscles. No latex was found in the plantar fat pad or plantar fascia in any specimen. Sonographically guided deep plantar fascia injections reliably deliver latex deep to the plantar fascia while avoiding intrafascial injection. However, the extent of direct plantar fascia contact is variable due to the intervening FDB. On the contrary, the traversing FBLPN is reliably covered by the injection. Deep plantar fascia injections may have a role in the management of refractory plantar fasciitis, particularly following failed superficial perifascial or intrafascial injections, in cases of preferential deep plantar fascia involvement, or when entrapment

  5. A comprehensive study on the effect of cavitation on injection velocity in diesel nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javier López, J.; Salvador, F.J.; Garza, Oscar A. de la; Arrègle, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cavitation has an indirect effect on the effective injection velocity. ► Cavitation in the injector hole reduces locally the fluid viscosity. ► A lower viscosity leads to a more turbulent velocity profile. ► The more turbulent velocity profile justifies the increase in effective velocity. - Abstract: Results when testing cavitating injection nozzles show a strong reduction in mass flow rate when cavitation appears (the flow is choked), while the momentum flux is reduced to a lesser extent, resulting in an increase in effective injection velocity. So as to better understand the origin of this increase in effective injection velocity, the basic equations for mass and momentum conservation were applied to an injection nozzle in simplified conditions. The study demonstrated that the increase in injection velocity provoked by cavitation is not a direct effect of the latter, but an indirect effect. In fact, the vapor appearance inside the injection hole produces a decrease in the viscosity of the fluid near the wall. This leads to lower momentum flux losses and to a change in the velocity profile, transforming it into a more “top hat” profile type. This change in the profile shape allows explaining why the momentum flux reduction is not so important compared to that of the mass flow rate, thus explaining why the effective injection velocity increases.

  6. Statistical Analysis of Interchange Injection Events from Over a Decade of Cassini Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, A.; Jia, X.; Liemohn, M. W.; Sergis, N.; Thomsen, M. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Rymer, A. M.; Paranicas, C.; Provan, G.; Ye, S.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Vandegriff, J. D.; Kurth, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has routinely observed interchange injection events with multiple instruments since arriving at Saturn in 2004. Interchange injection events are thought to initiate from a Rayleigh-Taylor like plasma instability sourced from Saturn's rapid rotation (period 10.8 hours) and dense plasma population outgassing primarily from Enceladus, and are the primary source of mass transport in the inner/middle magnetosphere. This dense plasma must be transported outward, and to conserve magnetic flux, inward moving flux tubes of low density, energetic (> keV) plasma from the outer reaches of the Saturnian system also occur. These inward-bound flux tubes are referred to as interchange injections. We will present a statistical evaluation of the occurrence rates of interchange injections at Saturn demonstrating seasonal dependence of interchange over the entirety of the Cassini mission's equatorial orbits between 2005 and 2016. We identify interchange events from CHarge Energy Mass Spectrometer (CHEMS) H+ data using a trained and tested automated algorithm. Our event identification compares well with manual identification and previous surveys of injections by L-shell and local time (Chen and Hill, 2008, Lai et al., 2016, Kennelly et al., 2013). We find that peak rates of interchange events occur between 7 - 9 Saturn radii, in agreement with previous surveys. We also evaluate interchange by preferred local time sector and season, splitting our events into pre-equinox, equinox, and post - equinox time periods. We determine that over all seasons, nightside occurrence dominated as compared to dayside, but the preferred dayside sector shifts from pre-noon during equinox, to post-noon during post-equinox. We will further investigate seasonal dependence by presenting occurrence organized by the phase systems derived based on Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR) and magnetic field perturbations (PPO).

  7. A miniature silicon diode matrix detector for in vivo measurement of 133Xe disappearance following local tissue injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, K; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Rasmussen, H B

    1992-01-01

    have the capability of measuring the lowest energies (25-40 keV) of gamma and x-ray emitters with sufficient efficiency when applied on the skin surface and close to the indicator depot. The purpose of the present study was firstly to evaluate a portable Si photodiode matrix detector system, composed...... and sensitivity within the range 20-38 degrees C and calibrated to +/- 1% between diodes. The in vivo investigations comprised two SC injections on humans with four measuring periods for comparison, and four SC and five SM injections on dogs, resulting in eight and five measuring periods for comparison. Only when...

  8. Characterization of the new biodegradable WPI/clay nanocomposite films based on kefiran exopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfi, Mohsen; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Mousavi, Mohammad; Hashemi, Maryam

    2015-06-01

    Physico-mechanical, thermal and structural characteristics of nanocomposite film composed of kefiran-whey protein isolate (WPI)-montmorillonite (MMT; 1, 3 and 5 % w/w) were studied. Incorporation of MMT significantly affected the mechanical attributes of the kefiran-WPI films. The tensile strength and Young's modulus increased and the percentage of elongation at break decreased as the MMT content increased. Moisture content, moisture absorption and water solubility decreased as the MMT concentration increased. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the glass transition temperature for kefiran-WPI film was -12.5 °C and was noticeably affected by an increase in MMT. X-ray diffraction analysis showed formation of an exfoliated structure with the addition of small amounts of MMT to the kefiran-WPI matrix. Intercalation and some exfoliation occurred up to 5 % (wt) increase in MMT. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated ideal dispersion for MMT nanoparticles into the structure of the bio-nanocomposite films.

  9. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Vibrating Syringe Attachment in Decreasing Intraoral Injection Pain Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    refill.html. 32. Ogle 0 & Mahjoubi G. (2011) Advances in local anesthesia in dentistry . Dental Clinics of North America, 55(3),481-499. 33. OzIer L. (2010...Evaluation ofthe effects of the VibraJect® attachment on pain in children receiving local anesthesia . Pediatric Dentistry , 33(1), 46-50. 49 37...pain during the administration of the local anesthesia . After the second injection, the participant will be asked ifhe could determine which side

  10. HIV Prevention and Rehabilitation Models for Women Who Inject Drugs in Russia and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Yorick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Women who inject drugs require gender-specific approaches to drug rehabilitation, modification of risk behaviors, and psychosocial adaptation. Improved outcomes have been demonstrated when the specific needs of women’s subpopulations have been addressed. Special services for women include prenatal care, child care, women-only programs, supplemental workshops on women-focused topics, mental health services, and comprehensive programs that include several of the above components. To address the special needs of women injecting drug user (IDU subpopulations, such as HIV-positive pregnant women and women with young children, recently released female prisoners, and street-involved girls and young women, HealthRight International and its local partners in Russia and Ukraine have developed innovative service models. This paper presents each of these models and discusses their effectiveness and implementation challenges specific to local contexts in Russia and Ukraine.

  11. Effect of local injection of Zolena, zoledronic acid made in Iran, on orthodontic tooth movement and root and bone resorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Asefi, Sohrab; Hatamifard, Ghazal; Lotfi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background. Anchorage control is an essential part of orthodontic treatment planning, especially in adult patients who demand a more convenient treatment. Zoledronic acid (ZA) is an effective choice to address this problem. It is the most potent member of the bisphosphonates family that has an inhibitory effect on bone resorption by suppressing osteoclast function. Therefore, ZA might be a good option for orthodontic anchorage control. The current study evaluated the effect of local administration of Zolena (ZA made in Iran) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and root and bone resorption. Methods. The experimental group consisted of 30 rats in 3 subgroups (n=10). Anesthesia was induced, and one closed NiTi coil spring was installed between the first molar and central incisor unilaterally, except for the negative control group. The positive control group received vestibular injection of 0.01 mL of saline next to the maxillary first molar, and 0.01 mL of the solution was injected at the same site in the ZA group. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and the distance between the first and second molars was measured with a leaf gauge. Histological analysis was conducted by a blind pathologist for the number of Howship's lacunae, blood vessels, osteoclast-like cells and root resorption lacunae. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, Tukey test and t-test. Results. There were no significant differences in OTM between the force-applied groups. ZA significantly inhibited bone/root resorption and angiogenesis compared to the positive control group. Conclusion. Zolena did not decrease OTM but significantly inhibited bone and root resorption. Zolena might be less potent than its foreign counterparts.

  12. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (pak'' li tax' el)Paclitaxel injection must be given in a hospital or medical facility under the supervision of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer.Paclitaxel injection may cause a large decrease in the number of white blood cells (a type of blood cell ...

  13. Evaluation of the effect of locally administered amitriptyline gel as adjunct to local anesthetics in irreversible pulpitis pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghadamnia A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amitriptyline is one of the most common tricyclic antidepressants, which binds to pain sensory nerve fibers close to the sodium channel; hence, it could interact to some degree with receptors of local anesthetics. This study was designed to assess the additional analgesic effects of 2% Amitriptyline local gel administration in irreversible pulpitis pain of the molars. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized, double-blind clinical trial that was performed on 56 consented adult patients who did not receive enough analgesia after a lidocaine nerve block for their tooth pulpitis pain. Patients were treated with 0.2 ml of either 2% amitriptyline or placebo, which was directly injected into their mandibular molar pulp chamber after they had received two routine lidocaine injections. Patients were asked to score their pain as a mark on a 10-cm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS at different timepoints: 0 (just before gel administration, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 minutes after the treatments. Results: There was a 92.5% decrease in VAS scores of patients 9 minutes after amitriptyline administration compared to Time 0, while in the placebo group this difference was only 13.5%. Further, in the amitriptyline group, the VAS score at all timepoints was statistically different from Time 0 ( P < 0.01. The overall pain reduction and its trend was significantly higher in the amitriptyline group compared with the placebo group ( P < 0.001. Conclusion: Inter-pulp space administration of amitriptyline 2% gel for completing analgesia in irreversible pulpitis pain could be effective and useful as a conjunctive therapy to injections of local anesthetics.

  14. The effect of local tramadol injection in post appendectomy pain

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Khazaei; Farshid Arbabi-Kalati; Soheil Borumand; Reza Rooshanravan

    2012-01-01

    Background: It has been demonstrated that tramadol, asemisynthetic opioid, is an effective analgesic with systemic (central) and local (peripheral) anesthetic effects. The aim of this study was to compare the post-operative anesthetic effect of subcutaneous wound infiltration of tramadol with normal saline as placebo in the incision wounds after appendectomy and measuring the average need to petidine during the next 24 hours after the appendectomy. Materials and Method: This double blind stud...

  15. Use of MMT and MMT organoclay in production of starch nanocomposites; Utilizacao da MMT e da MMT organofilica na producao de nanocompositos de amido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemmer, D; Sales, M J.A., [Universidade de Brasilia (LabPol/UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Pesquisa em Polimeros; Macedo, J.L. de [Universidade de Brasilia (LabCat/UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Catalise; Angelica, R S [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Raios X

    2010-07-01

    Starch can be used to replace petrochemical plastics for short shelf life. However, starch films have poor mechanical strength and sensitivity to moisture. This can be improved through the incorporation of nanoclays, such as montmorillonite, forming nanocomposites. Nanocomposites were prepared with 1, 3, 5 and 10% of montmorillonite, using pequi oil as plasticizer. The clay was also modified with a quaternary ammonium salt. The clays were characterized by XRF, XRD, IR and TG. Results confirmed the organophilization. The nanocomposites diffractograms showed that the addition of small amounts of clay produces delaminated nanocomposites. Already the addition of larger amount of clay does not form nanocomposites, or leads to the formation of intercalated nanocomposites. (author)

  16. Indian contribution to applications of artificially injected tritium in hydrological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, P.S.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives a brief description on significance of groundwater hydrology and sets it in the context of radioisotopic investigations. The topics described pertain to potential applications of artificially injected tritium in local or regional scale to determine water movement in the unsaturated zone, rate of infiltration, groundwater recharge, direction and velocity of groundwater, interconnection of groundwater bodies, dispersion of pollutants, etc. The Indian contribution on these topics is incorporated giving informations on techniques adopted and the major findings and conclusions of the experiments conducted. Merits and demerits of each technique have also been described. Some aspects deserving urgent consideration are outlined to gain maximum benefits from the applications of artificially injected tritium tracer techniques in hydrology. (author)

  17. Multicomponent mass transport model: a model for simulating migration of radionuclides in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, J.F.; Kaszeta, F.E.; Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of the development of a one-dimensional radionuclide transport code, MMT2D (Multicomponent Mass Transport), for the AEGIS Program. Multicomponent Mass Transport is a numerical solution technique that uses the discrete-parcel-random-wald (DPRW) method to directly simulate the migration of radionuclides. MMT1D accounts for: convection;dispersion; sorption-desorption; first-order radioactive decay; and n-membered radioactive decay chains. Comparisons between MMT1D and an analytical solution for a similar problem show that: MMT1D agrees very closely with the analytical solution; MMT1D has no cumulative numerical dispersion like that associated with solution techniques such as finite differences and finite elements; for current AEGIS applications, relatively few parcels are required to produce adequate results; and the power of MMT1D is the flexibility of the code in being able to handle complex problems for which analytical solution cannot be obtained. Multicomponent Mass Transport (MMT1D) codes were developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to predict the movement of radiocontaminants in the saturated and unsaturated sediments of the Hanford Site. All MMT models require ground-water flow patterns that have been previously generated by a hydrologic model. This report documents the computer code and operating procedures of a third generation of the MMT series: the MMT differs from previous versions by simulating the mass transport processes in systems with radionuclide decay chains. Although MMT is a one-dimensional code, the user is referred to the documentation of the theoretical and numerical procedures of the three-dimensional MMT-DPRW code for discussion of expediency, verification, and error-sensitivity analysis

  18. Restraining Na-Montmorillonite Delamination in Water by Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate or Octadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride on the Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The delamination of montmorillonite in water leads to sliming in ore slurry, which is detrimental to mineral flotation and solid/water separation. In this work, the delamination of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT has been restrained by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (1831 through the adsorption on the edge of the mineral. The experimental results have shown that the pretreatment by adding SDS and 1831 could greatly reduce the Stokes size percentage of −1.1 µm particles in the aqueous Na-MMT suspension. From the X-ray diffractometer (XRD results, the interlayer spacing of the MMT pre-treated by SDS and 1831 is smaller than that of original MMT particles. Adsorption position of SDS and 1831 on MMT surfaces was analyzed by the measurements of adsorption capacity of SDS and 1831, inductively-coupled plasma spectra, and zeta potential before and after the plane surface of MMT was covered with tetraethylenepentaminecopper ([Cu(tetren]2+. The results indicated that SDS and 1831 are adsorbed on the edge and the whole surface of Na-MMT, respectively. Delamination of MMT could be well restrained by the adsorption of SDS and 1831 on the edges of MMT.

  19. Adsorption properties of Congo Red from aqueous solution onto surfactant-modified montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li; Wang Aiqin

    2008-01-01

    A series of surfactant-modified montmorillonites (MMT) were prepared using octyltrimethylammonium bromide (OTAB), dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and stearyltrimethylammonium bromide (STAB), and the organification of MMT was proved by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron micrographic (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The adsorption of Congo Red (CR) anionic dye from aqueous solution onto surfactant-modified MMT was carried out. Compared with MMT, the adsorption capacity of surfactant-modified MMT for CR was greatly enhanced and MMT modified with CTAB (2.0 CEC) exhibited the higher adsorption capacity. The effects of pH value of the dye solution, adsorption temperature, adsorption time and the initial dye concentration on the adsorption capacity of CR on CTAB-MMT have been investigated. The results showed that the adsorption kinetic of CR on CTAB-MMT could be best described by the pseudo-second-order model and that the adsorption isotherm of CR was in good agreement with the Langmuir equation. The IR spectra and SEM analysis also revealed that the adsorption of CTAB-MMT was a chemical adsorption process between CTAB and the NH 2 , -N=N- and SO 3 groups of CR

  20. Deposition probe measurements of impurities injected into a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Grote, H.; Herrmann, A.

    1985-01-01

    Impurity confinement behaviour has been studied by using a deposition probe in conjunction with pellet injection. Generally, an exponential decay of the impurity efflux and nearly symmetric ion/electron side toroidal flows have been observed. During phases of strong plasma disturbances, asymmetric flow is seen, indicative of edge transport and prompt recycling from local sources. The application of ECRH may cause such disturbances. (author)

  1. Power deposition by neutral beam injected fast ions in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshiki; Kato, Takayuki; Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Iwasaka, Naotaka

    2004-04-01

    Effects of Coulomb collisions on neutral beam (NB) injected fast ions into Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas are investigated by calculating the single particle orbits, where the ions are subject to the slowing down and pitch angle collisions. The Monte-Carlo method is used for the pitch angle scattering, and the friction term is added to the equation of motion to show effects of slowing down collision such as the deposited power profile. Calculation parameters used are relevant to the NB injection on the FRC Injection Experiment (FIX) device. It is found that the dominant local power deposition occurs in the open field region between the X-point and the mirror point because of a concentration of fast ions and a longer duration travel at the mirror reflection point. In the present calculation, the maximum deposited power to the FRC plasma is about 10% of the injected power. Although the pitch angle scattering by Coulomb collision destroys the mirror confinement of NB injected fast ions, this effect is found negligible. The loss mechanism due to non-adiabatic fast ion motion, which is intrinsic in non-uniform FRC plasmas, affects much greater than the pitch angle scattering by Coulomb collision. (author)

  2. Microcellular injection molding process for producing lightweight thermoplastic polyurethane with customizable properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingham, Thomas; Kharbas, Hrishikesh; Manitiu, Mihai; Scholz, Guenter; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2018-03-01

    A three-stage molding process involving microcellular injection molding with core retraction and an "out-of-mold" expansion was developed to manufacture thermoplastic polyurethane into lightweight foams of varying local densities, microstructures, and mechanical properties in the same microcellular injection molded part. Two stages of cavity expansion through sequential core retractions and a third expansion in a separate mold at an elevated temperature were carried out. The densities varied from 0.25 to 0.42 g/cm3 (77% to 62% weight reduction). The mechanical properties varied as well. Cyclic compressive strengths and hysteresis loss ratios, together with the microstructures, were characterized and reported.

  3. Local strategies to prevent and treat osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torstrick, F Brennan; Guldberg, Robert E

    2014-03-01

    Despite advances in systemic osteoporosis therapeutic outcomes, management of fragility fractures and implant fixation in osteoporotic bone remain difficult clinical challenges. Low initial bone density and a prolonged healing response can lead to fracture nonunion and aseptic implant loosening. Local treatment strategies could be used to prevent fracture, accelerate healing, and increase implant fixation by locally stimulating anabolic pathways or inhibiting catabolic pathways. Local strategies under investigation include direct drug release from injectable materials or implant surface coatings. Common locally delivered drugs include bisphosphonates, parathyroid hormone, and bone morphogenetic proteins, yet additional compounds targeting novel pathways in bone biology are also being actively explored. Mechanical stimulation via low intensity pulsed ultrasound, alone or in combination with drug therapy, may also prove effective to promote local bone healing and implant fixation within osteoporotic bone.

  4. Preparation and characterization of silver loaded montmorillonite modified with sulfur amino acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tian, E-mail: phdlitian@163.com; Lin, Oulian; Lu, Zhiyuan; He, Liuimei; Wang, Xiaosheng

    2014-06-01

    The Na{sup +} montmorillonite (MMT) was modified with sulfur containing amino acid (L-cystine, L-cysteine or L-methionine) and characterized by energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR). The results showed the modification was smooth and the surface condition of MMT was changed with sulfur containing groups. Then silver was loaded on the modified MMTs via ion-exchange reaction under microwave irradiation, the spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), EDS and FT-IR confirmed the successful loading of massive silver and the strong interaction between sulfur and silver, the silver loaded L-cystine modified MMT (Ag@AA-MMT-3) with a silver content of 10.93 wt% was the highest of all. Further more, the Ag@AA-MMT-3 was under the irradiation of a UV lamp to turn silver ions to silver nano particles (Ag NPs). The XPS, specific surface area (SSA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), XRD patterns and UV–vis spectra proved the existence of uniform nano scaled metallic Ag NPs. By contrast, the UV irradiated Ag@AA-MMT-3 (Ag@AA-MMT-UV) showed a much better slow release property than Ag@AA-MMT-3 or Ag@MMT. The Ag@AA-MMT-UV showing a large inhibition zone and high inhibition ratio presented very good antibacterial property.

  5. Fe/Ti co-pillared clay for enhanced arsenite removal and photo oxidation under UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Guang Dong Electric Power Design Institute, China Energy Engineering Group Co. Ltd., Guangzhou 510663 (China); Cai, Xiaojiao [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Guo, Jingwei [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); The 718th Research Institute of CSIC, Handan 056027 (China); Zhou, Shimin [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Na, Ping, E-mail: naping@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An iron and titanium co-pillared montmorillonite (Fe-Ti/MMT) was synthesized for arsenite removal. • Variety of characterization results indicated that Fe and Ti species were pillared in MMT. • A possible mechanism of arsenite adsorption/oxidation with UV light was established. • The participation of Fe component can promote the process of photocatalytic oxidation in Fe-Ti/MMT + As(III) system. • Fe-Ti/MMT can function as both photocatalyst and adsorbent for arsenite removal. - Abstract: A series of iron and titanium co-pillared montmorillonites (Fe-Ti/MMT) were prepared using hydrolysis of inserted titanium and different iron content in montmorillonite (MMT). The Fe-Ti/MMT were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, N{sub 2} adsorption and desorption, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), confirming the effective insertion of Fe species and TiO{sub 2} in the MMT. The Fe-Ti/MMT was used to remove arsenite (As(III)) from aqueous solutions under different conditions. The result of As(III) adsorption under UV irradiation showed that the photo activity can be enhanced by incorporating Fe and Ti in MMT. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the hydroxyl groups bonded to metal oxide (M–OH) played an important role in the adsorption of As(III)

  6. Numerical modeling of injection, stress and permeability enhancement during shear stimulation at the Desert Peak Enhanced Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, David; Kelkar, Sharad; Davatzes, Nick; Hickman, Stephen H.; Moos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Creation of an Enhanced Geothermal System relies on stimulation of fracture permeability through self-propping shear failure that creates a complex fracture network with high surface area for efficient heat transfer. In 2010, shear stimulation was carried out in well 27-15 at Desert Peak geothermal field, Nevada, by injecting cold water at pressure less than the minimum principal stress. An order-of-magnitude improvement in well injectivity was recorded. Here, we describe a numerical model that accounts for injection-induced stress changes and permeability enhancement during this stimulation. In a two-part study, we use the coupled thermo-hydrological-mechanical simulator FEHM to: (i) construct a wellbore model for non-steady bottom-hole temperature and pressure conditions during the injection, and (ii) apply these pressures and temperatures as a source term in a numerical model of the stimulation. In this model, a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion and empirical fracture permeability is developed to describe permeability evolution of the fractured rock. The numerical model is calibrated using laboratory measurements of material properties on representative core samples and wellhead records of injection pressure and mass flow during the shear stimulation. The model captures both the absence of stimulation at low wellhead pressure (WHP ≤1.7 and ≤2.4 MPa) as well as the timing and magnitude of injectivity rise at medium WHP (3.1 MPa). Results indicate that thermoelastic effects near the wellbore and the associated non-local stresses further from the well combine to propagate a failure front away from the injection well. Elevated WHP promotes failure, increases the injection rate, and cools the wellbore; however, as the overpressure drops off with distance, thermal and non-local stresses play an ongoing role in promoting shear failure at increasing distance from the well.

  7. Spatial Epidemiology of HIV among Injection Drug Users in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Kimberly C; Rusch, Melanie L; Weeks, John R; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    The northwest border city of Tijuana is Mexico's fifth largest and is experiencing burgeoning drug use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics. Since local geography influences disease risk, we explored the spatial distribution of HIV among injection drug users (IDUs). From 2006-2007, 1056 IDUs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling, and then followed for eighteen months. Participants underwent semi-annual surveys, mapping, and testing for HIV, tuberculosis, and syphilis. Using Average Nearest Neighbor and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics, locations where participants lived, worked, bought and injected drugs were compared with HIV status and environmental and behavioral factors. Median age was thirty-seven years; 85 percent were male. Females had higher HIV prevalence than males (10.2 percent vs. 3.4 percent; p =0.001). HIV cases at baseline ( n =47) most strongly clustered by drug injection sites ( Z -Score -6.173; p light district. Spatial correlates of HIV included syphilis infection, female gender, younger age, increased hours on the street per day, and higher number of injection partners. Almost all HIV seroconverters injected within a 2.5 block radius of each other immediately prior to seroconversion. Only history of syphilis infection and female gender were strongly associated with HIV in the area where incident cases injected. Directional trends suggested a largely static epidemic until July-December 2008, when HIV spread to the southeast, possibly related to intensified violence and policing that spiked in the latter half of 2008. While clustering allows for targeting interventions, the dynamic nature of epidemics suggests the importance of mobile treatment and harm reduction programs.

  8. [Systemic safety following intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillif, S; Levy, B; Girmens, J-F; Dumas, S; Tadayoni, R

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this manuscript is to assess data suggesting that intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (anti-VEGFs) could result in systemic adverse events (AEs). The class-specific systemic AEs should be similar to those encountered in cancer trials. The most frequent AE observed in oncology, hypertension and proteinuria, should thus be the most common expected in ophthalmology, but their severity should be lower because of the much lower doses of anti-VEGFs administered intravitreally. Such AEs have not been frequently reported in ophthalmology trials. In addition, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data describing systemic diffusion of anti-VEGFs should be interpreted with caution because of significant inconsistencies reported. Thus, safety data reported in ophthalmology trials and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data provide robust evidence that systemic events after intravitreal injection are very unlikely. Additional studies are needed to explore this issue further, as much remains to be understood about local and systemic side effects of anti-VEGFs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Dexamethasone prolongs local analgesia after subcutaneous infiltration of bupivacaine microcapsules in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Werner, Mads U; Lacouture, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The addition of small amounts of dexamethasone to extended-release formulations of bupivacaine in microcapsules has been found to prolong local analgesia in experimental studies, but no clinical data are available. METHODS: In a double-blinded study, 12 healthy male volunteers were...... randomized to receive simultaneous subcutaneous injections of bupivacaine microcapsules with dexamethasone and bupivacaine microcapsules without dexamethasone in each calf. Local analgesia was assessed with a validated human pain model; main parameters evaluated were thermal, mechanical, and pain detection...... curve [AUC]) were considered best estimate of analgesia. Safety evaluations were performed daily for the first week and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 6 months after injection. RESULTS: The addition of dexamethasone significantly prolonged local analgesia of bupivacaine microcapsules without influence...

  10. Comparative study of diode-pumping self-injection and injection-locking Tm:YAG lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C T; Chen, F; Ju, Y L; Wang, Y Z

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of the laser characteristics of self-injection and injection-locking Tm:YAG lasers is given in this paper. At a pump energy of 145 mJ and Q-switched repetition rate of 100 Hz, an output energy of 2.39 mJ was obtained for an injection-locking Tm:YAG laser, with a pulse width of 403.2 ns and a pulse building-up time of 2.12 μs. Under the same conditions, the output energy, pulse width and pulse build-up time for a self-injection Tm:YAG laser were 2.21 mJ, 407.0 ns and 3.95 μs, respectively. The threshold of the Q-switched injection-locking Tm:YAG laser was much lower than that of the self-injection laser, and the pulse width was narrower and the pulse build-up time shorter. Additionally, the output spectrum was much purer for the injection-locking laser. (paper)

  11. Calculation method of water injection forward modeling and inversion process in oilfield water injection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A forward modeling and inversion algorithm is adopted in order to determine the water injection plan in the oilfield water injection network. The main idea of the algorithm is shown as follows: firstly, the oilfield water injection network is inversely calculated. The pumping station demand flow is calculated. Then, forward modeling calculation is carried out for judging whether all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation or not. If all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation, calculation is stopped, otherwise the demand injection allocation flow rate of certain step size is reduced aiming at water injection wells which do not meet requirements, and next iterative operation is started. It is not necessary to list the algorithm into water injection network system algorithm, which can be realized easily. Iterative method is used, which is suitable for computer programming. Experimental result shows that the algorithm is fast and accurate.

  12. Injeção de gordura na prega vocal: efeitos do local de injeção sobre a configuração glótica e a distribuição espacial da gordura injetada Fat injection into the vocal fold: effects of the place of injection on the configuration of the glottis and the spatial distribution of the fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Imamura

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A injeção intracordal de gordura tem sido utilizada para medializar a prega vocal em casos de paralisia laríngea, com resultados variáveis. A ausência de consenso entre os autores em relação a diversos aspectos técnicos, como o local de injeção, pode contribuir, em parte, para essa variação. OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito do local de injeção em relação à distribuição espacial da gordura dentro da prega vocal e à configuração glótica após essas injeções. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Seis laringes adultas excisadas foram utilizadas. Gordura colhida por lipoaspiração foi injetada, por meio de uma seringa de pressão, no ponto médio da prega vocal em três laringes e lateralmente ao processo vocal da aritenóide em outras três. Fotografias digitais em vista cranial da glote foram obtidas antes e após as injeções. Após fixação e descalcificação, as laringes foram cortadas no plano frontal nos terços anterior, médio e posterior da prega vocal e no nível da cartilagem aritenóide, para estudar a distribuição da gordura. RESULTADOS: Somente a injeção de gordura lateralmente ao processo vocal da aritenóide permitiu o fechamento da glote posterior. A gordura tendeu