WorldWideScience

Sample records for injection metering systems

  1. Pain and Efficacy Rating of a Microprocessor-Controlled Metered Injection System for Local Anaesthesia in Minor Hand Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André S. Nimigan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Little attention has been given to syringe design and local anaesthetic administration methods. A microprocessor-controlled anaesthetic delivery device has become available that may minimize discomfort during injection. The purpose of this study was to document the pain experience associated with the use of this system and to compare it with use of a conventional syringe. Methods. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was designed. 40 patients undergoing carpal tunnel release were block randomized according to sex into a two groups: a traditional syringe group and a microprocessor-controlled device group. The primary outcome measure was surgical pain and local anaesthetic administration pain. Secondary outcomes included volume of anaesthetic used and injection time. Results. Analysis showed that equivalent anaesthesia was achieved in the microprocessor-controlled group despite using a significantly lower volume of local anaesthetic (P=.0002. This same group, however, has significantly longer injection times (P<.0001. Pain during the injection process or during surgery was not different between the two groups. Conclusions. This RCT comparing traditional and microprocessor controlled methods of administering local anaesthetic showed similar levels of discomfort in both groups. While the microprocessor-controlled group used less volume, the total time for the administration was significantly greater.

  2. Pain and efficacy rating of a microprocessor-controlled metered injection system for local anaesthesia in minor hand surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimigan, André S; Gan, Bing Siang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Little attention has been given to syringe design and local anaesthetic administration methods. A microprocessor-controlled anaesthetic delivery device has become available that may minimize discomfort during injection. The purpose of this study was to document the pain experience associated with the use of this system and to compare it with use of a conventional syringe. Methods. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was designed. 40 patients undergoing carpal tunnel release were block randomized according to sex into a two groups: a traditional syringe group and a microprocessor-controlled device group. The primary outcome measure was surgical pain and local anaesthetic administration pain. Secondary outcomes included volume of anaesthetic used and injection time. Results. Analysis showed that equivalent anaesthesia was achieved in the microprocessor-controlled group despite using a significantly lower volume of local anaesthetic (P = .0002). This same group, however, has significantly longer injection times (P microprocessor controlled methods of administering local anaesthetic showed similar levels of discomfort in both groups. While the microprocessor-controlled group used less volume, the total time for the administration was significantly greater.

  3. Hot-wire air flow meter for gasoline fuel-injection system. Calculation of air mass in cylinder during transient condition; Gasoline funsha system yo no netsusenshiki kuki ryuryokei. Kato untenji no cylinder juten kukiryo no keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Y. [Hitachi Car Engineering, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Y.; Osuga, M.; Yamauchi, T. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Air flow characteristics of hot-wire air flow meters for gasoline fuel-injection systems with supercharging and exhaust gas recycle during transient conditions were investigated to analyze a simple method for calculating air mass in cylinder. It was clarified that the air mass in cylinder could be calculated by compensating for the change of air mass in intake system by using aerodynamic models of intake system. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Smart Metering System for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters are the cornerstone in the new conception of the electrical network or Smart Grid (SG), providing detailed information about users' energy consumption and allowing the suppliers to remotely collect data for billing. Nevertheless, their features are not only useful for the energy...... will expose an example of Smart Meters integration in a Microgrid scenario, which is the Intelligent Microgrid Lab of Aalborg University (AAU). To do this, first the installation available in the Microgrid Lab will be introduced. Then, three different test scenarios and their respective results...... will be presented, regarding the capabilities of this system and the advantages of integration the Smart Meters information in the Microgrid control....

  5. Informatics Solutions for Smart Metering Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper different aspects regarding smart metering systems integration have been depicted. Smart metering systems, renewable energy sources integration and advanced tariff systems implementation require informatics solution that could automatically collect and process data, forecast the behavior of electricity consumers, analyze trends regarding electricity prices, optimize the consumption of consumers, provide friendly interfaces, etc. They are advanced technologies that represent solutions for insufficient conventional primary energy sources, gas emissions, dependency on energy sources located outside European Union and issues related to energy efficiency. This paper mainly describes several informatics solutions correlated with operational requirements for smart metering system and our proposal for simplified architecture of smart metering systems, with three distinct levels (base level, middle level and top level and load profile calculation methods.

  6. Injection molding tools with micro/nano-meter pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for embedded a micrometer and/or nanometer pattern into an injection molding tool. In a first main aspect, a micro/nanometer structured imprinting device is applied in, or on, an active surface so as to transfer the micro/nanometer patterned structure to t...

  7. Injection molding tools with micro/nano-meter pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for embedded a micrometer and/or nanometer pattern into an injection molding tool. In a first main aspect, a micro/nanometer structured imprinting device is applied in, or on, an active surface so as to transfer the micro/nanometer patterned structure...... to the tool while the imprinting device is, at least partly, within a cavity of the injection molding tool. In a second main aspect, a base plate with a micro/nanometer structured pattern positioned on an upper part is positioned on the active surface within the tool, the lower part of the base plate facing...... the tool, the active surface receiving the base plate being non-planar on a macroscopic scale. Both aspects enable a simple and effective way of transferring the pattern, and the pattern may be transferred on the active working site of tool immediately prior to molding without the need for extensive...

  8. E-Park: Automated-Ticketing Parking Meter System

    OpenAIRE

    Kulesza, Mateusz J.

    2015-01-01

    E-Park is an electronic parking meter system which enables real-time ticketing of illegally parked vehicles. The system is a drop-in replacement for existing curb-side parking meters. It consists of lowpower front-end parking meter hardware and a back-end server that handles the information database management. Wireless network communication enables the parking meter to accept electronic payment, enforce parking regulation, and ticket parking violators by capturing an image of the vehicle lic...

  9. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  10. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  11. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  12. Smart meters. Smart metering. A solution module for a future-oriented energy system; Intelligente Zaehler. Smart Metering. Ein Loesungsbaustein fuer ein zukunftsfaehiges Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Nadia; Seidl, Hans (comps.)

    2011-12-15

    The German Energy Agency GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on smart metering as a solution module for a future-oriented energy system by means of the following contributions: (1) Key role for smart meters; (2) What is smart metering? (3) Implementation of smart metering in Europe; (4) The market development to date in Germany; (5) Practical experiences with smart metering in Germany; (6) Frequently asked questions; (7) Smart metering in intelligent networks; (8) Legal framework conditions; (9) Data security and data protection in the utilisation of smart meters; (10) Ongoing information; (11) Efficient energy systems.

  13. A Novel Smart Meter Controlling System with Dynamic IP Addresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manembu, Pinrolinvic; Welang, Brammy; Kalua Lapu, Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Smart meters are the electronic devices for measuring energy consumption in real time. Usually, static public IP addresses are allocated to realize the point-to-point (P2P) communication and remote controlling for smart metering systems. This, however, restricts the wide deployment of smart meters......, due to the deficiency of public IP resources. This paper proposes a novel subscription-based communication architecture for the support of dynamic IP addresses and group controlling of smart meters. The paper evaluates the proposed architecture by comparing the traditional P2P architecture......, and validate its effectiveness to interact with smart meters....

  14. Microcontroller Based Single Phase Digital Prepaid Energy Meter for Improved Metering and Billing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mejbaul Haque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single phase digital prepaid energy meter based on two microcontrollers and a single phase energy meter IC. This digital prepaid energy meter does not have any rotating parts. The energy consumption is calculated using the output pulses of the energy meter chip and the internal counter of microcontroller (ATmega32. A microcontroller (ATtiny13 is used as a smart card and the numbers of units recharged by the consumers are written in it. A relay system has been used which either isolates or establishes the connection between the electrical load and energy meter through the supply mains depending upon the units present in the smart card.Energy consumption (kWh, maximum demand (kW, total unit recharged (kWh and rest of the units (kWh are stored in the ATmega32 to ensure the accurate measurement even in the event of an electrical power outage that can be easily read from a 20×4 LCD. As soon as the supply is restored, energy meter restarts with the stored values. A single phase prepaid energy meter prototype has been implemented to provide measurement up to 40A load current and 230V line to neutral voltage.Necessary program for microcontrollers are written in c-language and compiled by Win-AVR libc compiler.

  15. Design and Implementation of Intel ligent Water Meter Reading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao-tao

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of intelligent residential housing project and the implement of intelligent meter reading system, the four become the typical representative at the same time , they also become the short board of the old residential intelligent direction and constraints .As one of the four meter is an important measurement tool to save water resources .In the process of the development of society and technology , different types of meter reading methods have been derived , but there are still many problems , such as difficulty , time consuming , error copy , misreading .With the current mature image processing technology , the Internet technology and the rapid development of handheld intelligent terminal , the paper develop a meter reading system base on the Android system.The system can reduce the work intensity and the cost of meter reading , and it can make up the blank which old district and the mechanical meter reading can not be intelligent .

  16. Automatic Meter Reading and Theft Control System by Using GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rakesh Malhotra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with automatic meter reading and theft control system in energy meter. Current transformer is used to measure the total power consumption for house or industrial purpose. This recorded reading is transmitted to the electricity board for every 60 days once. For transmitting the reading of energy meter GSM module is used. To avoid theft, infrared sensor is placed in the screw portion of energy meter seal. If the screw is removed from the meter a message is sent to the electricity board. The measuring of energy meter and monitoring of IR sensor is done with a PIC microcontroller.The informative system will be helpful for the electricity board to monitor the entire supply and the correct billing accordingly without any mishap. This model reduces the manual manipulation work andtheft control.

  17. Dual-frequency feed system for 26-meter antenna conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    New cassegrain feed cone assemblies were designed as part of the upgrade of three 26-meter diameter antennas to 34-meter diameter with improved performance. The new dual-frequency feed cone (SXD) will provide both S- and X-band feed systems and traveling wave masers, with a reflex reflector system to permit simultaneous operation analogous to the 64-meter antennas. Tasks involved in adding the X-band receiving capability and improving the S-band feed performance in support of Voyager and later missions described in.

  18. Embedded computer controlled premixing inline injection system for air-assisted variable-rate sprayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improvements to reduce chemical waste and environmental pollution for variable-rate sprayers used in orchards and ornamental nurseries require inline injection techniques. A microprocessor controlled premixing inline injection system implementing a ceramic piston chemical metering pump and two small...

  19. A metering rotary nanopump for microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Scott G; Moore, Matthew R; Friedlander, Troy A; Schaffer, David K; Reiserer, Ron S; Wikswo, John P; Seale, Kevin T

    2010-12-07

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfabricated metering rotary nanopump for the purpose of driving fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The miniature peristaltic pump is composed of a set of microfluidic channels wrapped in a helix around a central camshaft in which a non-cylindrical cam rotates. The cam compresses the helical channels to induce peristaltic flow as it is rotated. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanopump design is able to produce intermittent delivery or removal of several nanolitres of fluid per revolution as well as consistent continuous flow rates ranging from as low as 15 nL min(-1) to above 1.0 µL min(-1). At back pressures encountered in typical microfluidic devices, the pump acts as a high impedance flow source. The durability, biocompatibility, ease of integration with soft-lithographic fabrication, the use of a simple rotary motor instead of multiple synchronized pneumatic or mechanical actuators, and the absence of power consumption or fluidic conductance in the resting state all contribute to a compact pump with a low cost of fabrication and versatile implementation. This suggests that the pump design may be useful for a wide variety of biological experiments and point of care devices.

  20. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  1. A microcomputer based system for current-meter data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting current measurements as part of an interdisciplinary study of the San Francisco Bay estuarine system. The current meters used in the study record current speed, direction, temperature, and conductivity in digital codes on magnetic tape cartridges. Upon recovery of the current meters, the data tapes are translated by a tape reader into computer codes for further analyses. Quite often the importance of the data processing phase of a current-measurement program is underestimated and downplayed. In this paper a data-processing system which performs the complete data processing and analyses is described. The system, which is configured around an LSI-11 microcomputer, has been assembled to provide the capabilities of data translation, reduction, and tabulation and graphical display immediately following recovery of current meters. The flexibility inherent in a microcomputer has made it available to perform many other research functions which would normally be done on an institutional computer.

  2. CT reclassification system cuts costs of grid metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doig, P. [Schneider Electric, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    New regulatory requirements demand that utilities meter previously un-metered locations on the power network with accurate revenue metering equipment. Utilities are now exploring the possibility of re-using existing relay-class transformers (CTs) for metering applications. However, the true accuracy of the existing CTs is often unknown. This paper presented details of a new CT reclassification system. The system uses a highly accurate current sensor for use in live-line methods in a high voltage environment. The system analyzes the accuracy of an existing CT and calculates its characteristic performance. Corresponding error correction parameters are then obtained and programmed into an advanced revenue meter in order to enable dynamic accuracy reclassification of the existing CT while it is operational. The sensor is based on a split-core active CT design. In a typical installation, 3 primary sensors are installed on the high-side bus in a high voltage substation in series with the circuit breaker containing the existing relay-class CTs under test. The sensors each wirelessly stream data to a computer workstation in a nearby substation control building. The sensors and the advanced revenue meter are equipped with a global positioning system (GPS) receiver that support accurate time-stamping and synchronization of all data sent to the computer for analysis. Software is used to compare data from the sensors to the respective 3-phase data collected from the meter and to calculate the appropriate ratio correction factors and phase angle correction factors for each test point. Correction parameters are then programmed into the revenue meter which provides dynamic correction for the ratio and phase angle errors of the relay-class CT over its operational range. The revenue meter is left in place after the sensors are removed in order to measure highly accurate energy data which is reported back to the utility data collection and billing system. Details of a test conducted

  3. Smart Meter Data Analytics: Systems, Algorithms and Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Golab, Lukasz; Golab, Wojciech;

    2016-01-01

    the proposed benchmark using five representative platforms: a traditional numeric computing platform (Matlab), a relational DBMS with a built-in machine learning toolkit (PostgreSQL/MADlib), a main-memory column store (“System C”), and two distributed data processing platforms (Hive and Spark/Spark Streaming......Smart electricity meters have been replacing conventional meters worldwide, enabling automated collection of fine-grained (e.g., every 15 minutes or hourly) consumption data. A variety of smart meter analytics algorithms and applications have been proposed, mainly in the smart grid literature......). We compare the five platforms in terms of application development effort and performance on a multicore machine as well as a cluster of 16 commodity servers....

  4. Segment handling system prototype progress for Thirty Meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuku, Satoru; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nakaoji, Toshitaka; Takaki, Junji; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Haruna, Masaki; Kim, Ieyoung; Fukushima, Kazuhiko; Domae, Yukiyasu; Hatta, Toshiyuki; Yoshitake, Shinya; Hoshino, Hayato

    2016-07-01

    Segment Handling System (SHS) is the subsystem that is planned to be permanently implemented on Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) telescope structure that enables fast, efficient, semi-automatic exchange of M1 segments. TMT plans challenging segment exchange (10 segments per 10 hours a day). To achieve these, MELCO develops innovative SHS by accommodating Factory Automation (FA) technology such as force control system and machine vision system into the system. Force control system used for install operation, achieves soft handling by detecting force exerted to mirror segment and automatically compensating the position error between handling segments and primary mirror. Machine vision system used for removal operation, achieves semi-automatic positioning between SHS and mirror segments to be handled. Prototype experience proves soft (extraneous force 300N) and fast ( 3 minutes) segment handling. The SHS will provide upcoming segmented large telescopes for cost-efficient, effortless, and safe segment exchange operation.

  5. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input–output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy.

  6. LLNL current meter array--concept and system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantrom, D.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    A measurement capability using a horizontal array of 10 S4 current meters mounted on a stiff floating structure with 35 m aperture has been developed to support interpretation of radar imaging of surface effects associated with internal waves. This system has been fielded three times and most recently, has collected data alongside the sea-surface footprint of a land-fixed radar imaging ship-generated internal waves. The underlying need for this measurement capability is described. The specifications resulting from this need are presented and the engineering design and deployment procedures of the platform and systems that resulted are described The current meter data are multiplexed along with meteorological and system status data on board the floating platform and are telemetered to a shore station and on to a data acquisition system. The raw data are recorded, and are then processed to form space-time images of current and strain rate (a spatial derivative of the current field). Examples of raw and processed data associated with ship-generated internal waves are presented.

  7. Methane metering devices and systems for continuous measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gralewski, K.; Krupa, M.

    1982-01-01

    Brief characteristics are presented for the advantages and shortcomings of the existing methane devices and systems developed in the Polish People's Republic, FRG, Great Britain, United States, CSSR and USSR. Among the main requirements made for the modern methane metering devices designed for continuous measurements of methane concentration in the coal mines, requirements such as rapid reaction to the spasmodic change in methane concentration, resistance to contamination of the catalyst, low consumed power etc. are named. Trends are outlined for improvement in the coal industry of the Polish People's Republic.

  8. Security Challenges in Smart-Grid Metering and Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid is a next-generation power system that is increasingly attracting the attention of government, industry, and academia. It is an upgraded electricity network that depends on two-way digital communications between supplier and consumer that in turn give support to intelligent metering and monitoring systems. Considering that energy utilities play an increasingly important role in our daily life, smart-grid technology introduces new security challenges that must be addressed. Deploying a smart grid without adequate security might result in serious consequences such as grid instability, utility fraud, and loss of user information and energy-consumption data. Due to the heterogeneous communication architecture of smart grids, it is quite a challenge to design sophisticated and robust security mechanisms that can be easily deployed to protect communications among different layers of the smart grid-infrastructure. In this article, we focus on the communication-security aspect of a smart-grid metering and control system from the perspective of cryptographic techniques, and we discuss different mechanisms to enhance cybersecurity of the emerging smart grid. We aim to provide a comprehensive vulnerability analysis as well as novel insights on the cybersecurity of a smart grid.

  9. Portable refrigerant charge meter and method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming; Abdelaziz, Omar; LaClair, Tim L.

    2017-08-08

    A refrigerant charge meter and a method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems are described. The meter includes means for determining an optimum refrigerant charge from system subcooling and system component parameters. The meter also includes means for determining the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge. Finally, the meter includes means for determining the actual refrigerant charge from the optimum refrigerant charge and the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge.

  10. The next generation of injection systems for high-speed diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Ralph Michael; Senghaas, Clemens; Ziegler, Thomas; Willmann, Michael [L' Orange GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    With the introduction of Tier 4 engines in the off-highway sector, L'Orange is presenting the next generation of its common rail fuel injection system. The system represents an evolution of the current series and has been improved and enhanced in detail, especially for increased injection pressures and heightened requirements regarding metering accuracy. (orig.)

  11. NFIRAOS First Facility AO System for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Herriot, Glen; Atwood, Jenny; Boyer, Corinne; Byrnes, Peter; Caputa, Kris; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Hill, Alexis; Ljusic, Zoran; Pazder, John; Rosensteiner, Matthias; Smith, Malcolm; Spano, Paolo; Szeto, Kei; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Wevers, Ivan; Wang, Lianqi; Wooff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    NFIRAOS, the Thirty Meter Telescope's first adaptive optics system is an order 60x60 Multi-Conjugate AO system with two deformable mirrors. Although most observing will use 6 laser guide stars, it also has an NGS-only mode. Uniquely, NFIRAOS is cooled to -30 C to reduce thermal background. NFIRAOS delivers a 2-arcminute beam to three client instruments, and relies on up to three IR WFSs in each instrument. We present recent work including: robust automated acquisition on these IR WFSs; trade-off studies for a common-size of deformable mirror; real-time computing architectures; simplified designs for high-order NGS-mode wavefront sensing; modest upgrade concepts for high-contrast imaging.

  12. Smart Meter Data Analytics: Systems, Algorithms and Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Golab, Lukasz; Golab, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Smart electricity meters have been replacing conventional meters worldwide, enabling automated collection of fine-grained (e.g., every 15 minutes or hourly) consumption data. A variety of smart meter analytics algorithms and applications have been proposed, mainly in the smart grid literature....... However, the focus has been on what can be done with the data rather than how to do it efficiently. In this paper, we examine smart meter analytics from a software performance perspective. First, we design a performance benchmark that includes common smart meter analytics tasks. These include off......-line feature extraction and model building as well a framework for on-line anomaly detection that we propose. Second, since obtaining real smart meter data is difficult due to privacy issues, we present an algorithm for generating large realistic data sets from a small seed of real data. Third, we implement...

  13. Fission Meter Information Barrier Attribute Measurement System: Task 1 Report: Document existing Fission Meter neutron IB system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, P. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    An SNM attribute Information Barrier (IB) system was developed for a 2011 US/UK Exercise. The system was modified and extensively tested in a 2013-2014 US-UK Measurement Campaign. This work demonstrated rapid deployment of an IB system for potential treaty use. The system utilizes an Ortec Fission Meter neutron multiplicity counter and custom computer code. The system demonstrates a proof-of-principle automated Pu-240 mass determination with an information barrier. After a software start command is issued, the system automatically acquires and downloads data, performs an analysis, and displays the results. This system conveys the results of a Pu mass threshold measurements in a way the does not reveal sensitive information. In full IB mode, only red/green ‘lights’ are displayed in the software. In test mode, more detailed information is displayed. The code can also read in, analyze, and display results from previously acquired or simulated data. Because the equipment is commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), the system demonstrates a low-cost short-lead-time technology for treaty SNM attribute measurements. A deployed system will likely require integration of additional authentication and tamper-indicating technologies. This will be discussed for the project in this and future progress reports.

  14. Real time Aanderaa current meter data collection system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    in laboratory. In this paper a method is described to read the real time current meter data and display/print/store on cartridge. For this, binary coded electrical signal available at the top end plate of the current meter is connectEd. by underwater cable...

  15. Design of a Calibration System for Heat Flux Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpino, F.; Dell'Isola, M.; Ficco, G.; Iacomini, L.; Fernicola, V.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate heat flux measurements are needed to gain a better knowledge of the thermal performance of buildings and to evaluate the heat exchange among various parts of a building envelope. Heat flux meters (HFMs) are commonly used both in laboratory applications and in situ for measuring one-dimensional heat fluxes and, thus, estimating the thermal transmittance of material samples and existing buildings components. Building applications often requires heat flux measurements below 100 W · m-2. However, a standard reference system generating such a low heat flux is available only in a few national metrology institutes (NMIs). In this work, a numerical study aimed at designing an HFM calibration apparatus operating in the heat flux range from 5 W·m-2 to 100 W · m-2 is presented. Predictions about the metrological performance of such a calibration system were estimated by numerical modeling exploiting a commercial FEM code (COMSOL®). On the basis of the modeling results, an engineered design of such an apparatus was developed and discussed in detail. The system was designed for two different purposes: (i) for measuring the thermal conductivity of insulators and (ii) for calibrating an HFM with an absolute method (i.e., by measuring the applied power from the heater and its active cross section) or by a relative method (i.e., by measuring the temperature drop across a reference material of known thickness and thermal conductivity). The numerical investigations show that in order to minimize the uncertainty of the generated heat flux, a fine temperature control on the thermal guard is needed. The predicted standard uncertainty is within 2% at 10W·m-2 and within 0.5% at 100 W · m-2.

  16. Lessons from wet gas flow metering systems using differential measurements devices: Testing and flow modelling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazin, J.; Couput, J.P.; Dudezert, C. et al

    2005-07-01

    A significant number of wet gas meters used for high GVF and very high GVF are based on differential pressure measurements. Recent high pressure tests performed on a variety of different DP devices on different flow loops are presented. Application of existing correlations is discussed for several DP devices including Venturi meters. For Venturi meters, deviations vary from 9% when using the Murdock correlation to less than 3 % with physical based models. The use of DP system in a large domain of conditions (Water Liquid Ratio) especially for liquid estimation will require information on the WLR This obviously raises the question of the gas and liquid flow metering accuracy in wet gas meters and highlight needs to understand AP systems behaviour in wet gas flows (annular / mist / annular mist). As an example, experimental results obtained on the influence of liquid film characteristics on a Venturi meter are presented. Visualizations of the film upstream and inside the Venturi meter are shown. They are completed by film characterization. The AP measurements indicate that for a same Lockhart Martinelli parameter, the characteristics of the two phase flow have a major influence on the correlation coefficient. A 1D model is defined and the results are compared with the experiments. These results indicate that the flow regime influences the AP measurements and that a better modelling of the flow phenomena is needed even for allocation purposes. Based on that, lessons and way forward in wet gas metering systems improvement for allocation and well metering are discussed and proposed. (author) (tk)

  17. 基于共注成型原理的多色仪表盖模具设计%Injection Mould Design for Multi-color Meter Lids Based on the Principle of Co-injection Molding Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋彦; 傅强

    2009-01-01

    The principle of co-injection molding was illustrated and was applied to the injection procedure for the multi-color meter lid. Based on the material characters and the structure analysis of the part, a set of multi-color and multi-component injection mold with two different gating systems composed of six different dimensioned cavities was developed, which could fill three lids in the different cavities with different kind or different color plastics simultaneously. This set of mold could exchange the position of two cavities and strip the lids successively by a rotary mechanism and a eccentric mechanism.%介绍了共注成型工艺及设备工作原理,并将其应用于多色仪表盖的成型与模具设计中.通过对塑件材料及结构的工艺性分析,采用多色多模清色注塑方式,布置一模六腔两个模位两个不同的浇注系统,实现1个成型周期中多种色彩塑料3个塑件的同时注射,并利用转盘机构与偏心顶出机构实现先后两个模位成型多色仪表盖并顺利脱模的过程.

  18. Design and Realization of a Condition Management System for the Gateway Electrical Energy Metering Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the construction of firm and intelligent power grid in China, it is difficult for the traditional management method of electrical energy metering device to meet the prospecting requirements. Using the computer and internet techniques to realize the information and intelligentization of the electrical energy metering management has become a necessary guarantee of improving power supply ability, marketing control, and customer service. This paper introduced a kind of large and intelligent condition management system of the gateway electrical energy metering device. The key technologies and realize process were analyzed. Moreover, a detailed description of the application modules such as the GIS smart display of metering point, the condition management of metering devices and the visual monitoring of metering point was presented. The trial operation in the selected transformer substations and the power stations of Chongqing Power Electrical Corp. indicated that, the condition management system is very open, safety and efficient. According to the data exchange with the production and scheduling platform, the system improved the efficient operation of the electrical energy metering devices. Meanwhile, combined with the real-time visual monitoring, the condition management system improved the prevention ability of electricity filching, realized the unified automatic large-scale management of electrical energy metering devices.

  19. Study on the system-level test method of digital metering in smart substation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Min; Hu, Juan; Li, Fuchao; Luo, Ruixi; Li, Jinsong; Ai, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, the test methods of digital metering system in smart substation are used to test and evaluate the performance of a single device, but these methods can only effectively guarantee the accuracy and reliability of the measurement results of a digital metering device in a single run, it does not completely reflect the performance when each device constitutes a complete system. This paper introduced the shortages of the existing test methods. A system-level test method of digital metering in smart substation was proposed, and the feasibility of the method was proved by the actual test.

  20. Tilt meters for the Alignment System of the CMS Experiment: Users Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.

    2007-09-27

    We present the instructions for the use of the electrolytic tilt meters installed in the link alignments system of the CMS experimental and give the Data Base to be used as a Handbook during CMS operation. (Author) 16 refs.

  1. Screening of Stepping Forces in an Arthritic Rat Model Using a Novel Analgesic Meter and Data Acquisition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusliza Basir

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The stepping forces of normal and Freund Complete Adjuvant (FCA-induced arthritic rats were studied in vivo using a proposed novel analgesic meter. An infrared charge-coupled device (CCD camera and a data acquisition system were incorporated into the analgesic meter to determine and measure the weight of loads on the right hind paw before and after induction of arthritis by FCA injection into the paw cavity. FCA injection resulted in a significant reduction in the stepping force of the affected hind paw. The stepping force decreased to the minimum level on day 4 after the injection and then gradually increased up to day 25. Oral administration of prednisolone significantly increased the stepping forces of FCA-induced arthritic rats on days 14 and 21. These results suggest that the novel device is an effective tool for measuring the arthritic pain in in vivo studies even though walking is a dynamic condition.

  2. Dimethyl Ether in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, M.; Abata, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates......A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates...

  3. Optimal Scheduling for the Complementary Energy Storage System Operation Based on Smart Metering Data in the DC Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokyung Ko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG sources in low-voltage grid feeders causes problems concerning voltage regulation. The penetration of DG sources such as photovoltaics (PVs in the distribution system can significantly impact the power flow and voltage conditions on the customer side. As the DG sources are more commonly connected to low-voltage distribution systems, voltage fluctuations in the distribution system are experienced because of the DG fluctuation and uncertainty. Therefore, the penetration of DGs in distribution systems is often limited by the required operating voltage ranges. By using an energy storage system (ESS, voltage fluctuation can be compensated for, thus satisfying the voltage regulation requirements. This paper presents an ESS scheduling algorithm based on the power injection data obtained from a smart metering system. The proposed ESS scheduling algorithm is designed for use within a direct current (DC distribution grid, which comprises customers, each with a PV and an ESS system. The purpose of this ESS scheduling algorithm is to optimize the ESS scheduling by considering the complementary operation among all the ESSs.

  4. 自动抄表系统中电能表的设计%Design of Energy Meter in Automatic Meter Reading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宇

    2011-01-01

    Automatic meter reading system is an integral part of automation for the electricity sector, and energy meter plays an important part of the terminal equipment in the system. Using electricity metering technologies, embedded control technology, power line carrier communication technology and infrared communication technology, a multi-function energy meter is designed. The energy meter can measure accurately, with a remote meter reading and meter-reading function of the infrared proximity to the structure of the balance between a variety of power line carrier, easy to choose a different approach to realize long-distance carrier communications, and higher development efficiency of energy meter under a different means of communication are achieved.%自动抄表系统是电力部门实现自动化的组成部分,电能表又是该系统中重要的终端设备.利用电量计量技术、嵌入式控制技术、电力线载波通信技术和红外通信技术,完成了多功能电能表的设计.该电能表计量准确,具有远程抄表和近距离红外抄表功能,在结构上兼顾多种电力线载波方式,便于选择不同载波方式来实现远程通信,提高了不同通信方式下电能表的开发效率.

  5. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office sponsored two separate, independent solar sail system design and development demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L' Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators.

  6. Development and evaluation of an automated system for testing current meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Saretta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Current meters are equipment widely used for estimating flow velocity in rivers and streams. Periodic calibrations of current meters are important to ensure the quality of measurements, but the required testing facilities are complex and only available in a few institutions. However, advances in electronics and automation may contribute to developing simple and reliable calibration systems. Thus, this study aimed to develop an automated system for testing current meters, which consisted of a trapezoidal channel, a step motor, a tow car and a management system, composed of a supervisory application and microprocessed modules to control the motor and the data acquisition. Evaluations of the displacement velocity showed that it matched the reference value up to 1.85 m s-1 for a vertical-axis current meter and 2.3 m s-1 for a horizontal-axis one. The developed system showed reliability during tests, for both current meter movement and data acquisition. The management of the system based on the developed modules and the supervisory application improved its user interface, turning all the procedure into a simple task.

  7. Continuously acting fuel injection system. Kontinuierlich arbeitende Kraftstoffeinspritzanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsch, H.; Hofbauer, A.; Steinbeck, H.

    1986-02-20

    A continuously acting fuel injection system with an air quantity meter in the suction pipe and a fuel distributor controlled by it is provided with an additional device for use in a multi-cylinder aircraft engine, which is used to give the best possible performance, fuel saving and safety. An altitude control pressure controller is connected in parallel with a warming up controller to the control pressure pipe going to the fuel distributor, which measures the control pressure and therefore the fuel dosing according to the air density varying with the temperature and pressure. By fitting a fixed throttle between the control pressure pipe and the fuel return pipe to the fuel tank, emergency running of the engine is ensured on failure of both controllers. (orig./BWI).

  8. AUTOMATED METERING SYSTEM FOR CONTROL OF THE SPATIAL-ANGULAR DEVIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Zvetkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic metering system using devices and instruments for inertial navigation has been elaborated. The system allows more accurate measurement of angular deviation of installation sites for scientific equipment. Enhanced functionality is achieved by additional measuring of the azimuth angle error.

  9. Multispectral light metering system for cultural heritage diagnosis and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Matteo; Melis, Marcello

    2013-05-01

    In the world of Cultural Heritage the first concern is all about Conservation of the works of art. A piece of art in bad shape is meant to deteriorate to an irreversible stage. To avoid this, quite often it's needed to go through one or more cycles of restoration to clean and consolidate the various elements of the piece. The very second concern, once the work of art is restored and in good and stable shape, is its fruition. At the end of the day why one should do all that restoration work if nobody then can access and view? Yet viewing and enjoying an artwork means that a visitor would be able to see it at its best, and this means, almost always, to have a good lighting system. Today, both restoration and fruition can greatly benefit of all the available technologies, and achieve very high level quality. The goal of this paper is the development of an exposimetric system suitable to be extremely useful as a tool for the the non invasive analysis, as well as for the lighting design and lighting systems monitoring. Many diagnosis techniques that are used before the restoration stage, require a suitable lighting system to allow to extract from the painting the maximum amount of information through the acquisition of images in the range of visible as well as UV and IR light. A standard exposimeter is for its own nature, sensitive only to the visible light, constrained by the standard photometric sensitivity curve V(lambda). A wide band exposimeter would be, on the other hand, an invaluable tool to get higher precision and to speed up multispectral wide band images acquisition, avoiding time wasting fail and try cycles to record the subject under wide spectrum conditions. The same equipment can be used to monitor the quality of the light in a expo lighting system at, for example, a museum or a gallery. The light hitting a piece of art has to allow the visitor to see and appreciate all the color shades, and to appreciate the contrast of dark and bright areas due only to

  10. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  11. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Edward E.; Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office has been sponsoring 2 separate, independent system design and development hardware demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L'Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter ground demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators. Descriptions of the system designs for both the ATK and L'Garde systems will be presented. Changes, additions and evolution of the system designs will be highlighted. A description of the modeling and analyses activities performed by both teams, as well as testing conducted to raise the TRL of solar sail technology will be presented. A summary of the results of model correlation activities will be presented. Finally, technology gaps identified during the assessment and gap closure plans will be presented, along with "lessons learned", subsequent planning activities and validation flight opportunities for solar sail propulsion technology.

  12. Design of the Remote Wireless Meter Reading System Based on GPRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid is the focus development direction of the national power grid construction, and remote power information collection is the important part of smart grid. The existing automatic meter reading system of remote electric power information collection has such problems as high cost, big power consumption, small networking and big line interference etc. Aim at these features, this paper proposes a new scheme of wireless meter reading based on GPRS, that is, the wireless communication module MC55 of SIMENS and STC89C58RD single chip are adopted as the core to develop a set of remote wireless meter reading system. The paper mainly introduces the overall design of the system, the hardware circuit and software design of each component, and the major software flow chart is given. The system has the characteristic of low cost, low power consumption, ad-Hoc network, self adaption, etc, and it has the strong portability and compatibility. Field test results show that the wireless meter reading system can finish the data collection and transmission task quickly and accurately, and has strong anti-interference ability and wide applicability.

  13. Evaluation of a metering, mixing, and dispensing system for mixing polysulfide adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kurt B.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate whether a metered mixing system can mix PR-1221 polysulfide adhesive as well as or better than batch-mixed adhesive; also, to evaluate the quality of meter-mixed PR-1860 and PS-875 polysulfide adhesives. These adhesives are candidate replacements for PR-1221 which will not be manufactured in the future. The following material properties were evaluated: peel strength, specific gravity and adhesive components of mixed adhesives, Shore A hardness, tensile adhesion strength, and flow rate. Finally, a visual test called the butterfly test was performed to observe for bubbles and unmixed adhesive. The results of these tests are reported and discussed.

  14. Use of Medical Metered Dose Inhalers for Functionality Testing of Bioaerosol Detection and Identification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    BIOAEROSOL DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS ECBC-TR-964 Jana Kesavan Deborah R. Schepers Jerold R. Bottiger RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY...Testing Of Bioaerosol Detection And Identification Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Medical Metered Dose Inhalers for Functionality Testing of Bioaerosol Detection and Identification Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  15. Modular injection systems for miniature engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Mike

    1992-07-01

    Mission requirements for Kinetic Energy Weapons will require miniaturization of current vehicle propulsion systems for future Space Defence Iniative Programs. A modular injection system (MIS) valve is presented which will decrease cost, size and weight of miniaturized storable bipropellant rocket engines and features two poppet-type propellant valve modules pneumatically linked to a pilot solenoid module. A prototype modular injection valve sized for 100lbf thrust was designed and is being tested to show lower costs, fewer moving parts and a reduction in weight and size. Results show that this valve meets objectives of one-half weight, one-half cost and one-fifth the envelopment of current production valves. Studies indicate that a cruciform configuration of four nominal 100lbf thrust engines can be controlled by four modular injection valve systems in a single housing of less than 1.0 m3. Following further development and correlation of results this concept may be scaled to control four higher thrust engines.

  16. An Innovative Needle-free Injection System: Comparison to 1 ml Standard Subcutaneous Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, Nikola; Goyal, Pragun; Lou, Cheryl Hamer; Corwin, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    A needle-free delivery system may lead to improved satisfaction and compliance, as well as reduced anxiety among patients requiring frequent or ongoing injections. This report describes a first-in-man assessment comparing Portal Instruments' innovative needle-free injection system with subcutaneous injections using a 27G needle. Forty healthy volunteer participants each received a total of four injections of 1.0 mL sterile saline solution, two with a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle, and two using the Portal injection system. Perception of pain was measured using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Injection site reactions were assessed at 2 min and at 20-30 min after each injection. Follow-up contact was made 24-48 h after the injections. Subject preference regarding injection type was also assessed. VAS pain scores at Portal injection sites met the criteria to be considered non-inferior to the pain reported at 27G needle injection sites (i.e., upper 95% confidence bound less than +5 mm). Based on a mixed effects model, at time 0, accounting for potential confounding variables, the adjusted difference in VAS scores indicated that Portal injections were 6.5 mm lower than the 27G needle injections (95% CI -10.5, -2.5). No clinically important adverse events were noted. Portal injections were preferred by 24 (60%) of the subjects (P = 0.0015). As an early step in the development of this new needle-free delivery system, the current study has shown that a 1.0-mL saline injection can be given with less pain reported than a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle.

  17. System modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope alignment and phasing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekens, Frank G.; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Troy, Mitchell

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a system model using the System Modeling Language (SysML) for the Alignment and Phasing System (APS) on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). APS is a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor that will be used to measure the alignment and phasing of the primary mirror segments, and the alignment of the secondary and tertiary mirrors. The APS system model contains the ow-down of the Level 1 TMT requirements to APS (Level 2) requirements, and from there to the APS sub-systems (Level 3) requirements. The model also contains the operating modes and scenarios for various activities, such as maintenance alignment, post-segment exchange alignment, and calibration activities. The requirements ow-down is captured in SysML requirements diagrams, and we describe the process of maintaining the DOORS database as the single-source-of-truth for requirements, while using the SysML model to capture the logic and notes associated with the ow-down. We also use the system model to capture any needed communications from APS to other TMT systems, and between the APS sub-systems. The operations are modeled using SysML activity diagrams, and will be used to specify the APS interface documents. The modeling tool can simulate the top level activities to produce sequence diagrams, which contain all the communications between the system and subsystem needed for that activity. By adding time estimates for the lowest level APS activities, a robust estimate for the total time on-sky that APS requires to align and phase the telescope can be obtained. This estimate will be used to verify that the time APS requires on-sky meets the Level 1 TMT requirements.

  18. Low Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development Reaction Injection Molded 7.5 Meter Wind Turbine Blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David M. Wright; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2007-07-31

    An optimized small turbine blade (7.5m radius) was designed and a partial section molded with the RIM (reaction-injection molded polymer) process for mass production. The intended market is for generic three-bladed wind turbines, 100 kilowatts or less, for grid-assist end users with rural and semi-rural sites, such as the farm/ranch market, having low to moderate IEC Class 3-4 wind regimes. This blade will have substantial performance improvements over, and be cheaper than, present-day 7.5m blades. This is made possible by the injection-molding process, which yields high repeatability, accurate geometry and weights, and low cost in production quantities. No wind turbine blade in the 7.5m or greater size has used this process. The blade design chosen uses a RIM skin bonded to a braided infused carbon fiber/epoxy spar. This approach is attractive to present users of wind turbine blades in the 5-10m sizes. These include rebladeing California wind farms, refurbishing used turbines for the Midwest farm market, and other manufacturers introducing new turbines in this size range.

  19. A Scheme for the Application of Smart Message Language in a Wireless Meter Reading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Homa Keshav

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless automation in almost all the fields of power, gas and water generation, distribution and billing has come of age. Here with the inclusion of wireless communication with the automation may lead to paradigm change in the current trend. The design presents a new methodology for avoiding the high construction and maintenance costs in the existing meter reading technology. Apart the use of wireless meter reading with network technologies has become need of the day. The designed system avoids the human intervention in Power Management. The Consumer has to pay the bill in time, if couldn’t, the power connection may be disconnected automatically from the remote server. It displays the corresponding billing information on LCD and data is sent to the server through the GSM Module. The ARM7 based hardware system consists of a processor core board and the peripheral board. The entire programming for microcontroller operation is based on Embedded C Language. This system provides efficient meter reading, avoiding the billing error and reduces the maintenance cost. This paper also addresses advantages of implementing the GSM communication module and design detail and discusses the advanced security of the data communications.

  20. Injection system of the minicyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYonghao; LIDeming; 等

    1999-01-01

    The existing injection system of the SMCAMS(super-sensitive minicyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer)is described together with the discussion of its disadvantages exposed after having been operating for five years.which provides a basis for consideration of improvements to the injection system.An optimized injection system with an analytical magent added prior to the minicryclotron has been proposed and calculated.

  1. Injection System design for a hadron therapy Synchrotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-Quan; SONG Ming-Tao; WEI Bao-Wen

    2008-01-01

    A synchrotron is designed for tumour therapy with C6+ ions or proton.Its injector is a cyclotron, which delivers C5+or H+2 ions to the synchrotron.After comparing the methods of the single-turn injection, the multi-turn injection and the stripping injection,this paper chooses the stripping injection method.In addition,the concept design of the injection system is presented,in which the synchrotron lattice is optimized.

  2. The development of a metering and remote checking system using a light sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, S.Y.; Ahn, S.H.; Lee, K.J. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea); Choi, W.Y.; Lee, B.C.; Song, J.C.; Park, J.Y.; Park, J.H.; Park, K.L.; Kim, K.Y.; Kim, J.Y [Venture Korea Corporation (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The light sensing technology developed in this project can apply all the conventional mechanical meters using only attaching a light sensor set. The technology is available to the majority of small scale consumption such as households, restaurants and offices rather than the minority of large scale consumption such as industry use. When the light sensing technology is practically in use, the expense of the remote checking system can be below 30,000 won per household, and unnecessary national loss can be prevented due to replacement of the conventional meters. If the remote checking system can be constructed using low-priced expenses, all the city gas companies can not only settle all the inconveniences of consumers due to unexpected visit of a gas meterman and communication problems in their absence fundamentally but expect economic profit such as curtailment of the expenses of inspection of meters and early retrieval of gas usage charge. Especially, by inspecting all the households in the midnight of every month simultaneously, civil petitions can be reduced by eliminating causes of bottleneck for flexible rate of natural gas, thus it is expected that general management expenses can be curtailed to a great extent. 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Injection molding lens metrology using software configurable optical test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Cheng; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    Optical plastic lens produced by injection molding machine possesses numerous advantages of light quality, impact resistance, low cost, etc. The measuring methods in the optical shop are mainly interferometry, profile meter. However, these instruments are not only expensive, but also difficult to alignment. The software configurable optical test system (SCOTS) is based on the geometry of the fringe refection and phase measuring deflectometry method (PMD), which can be used to measure large diameter mirror, aspheric and freeform surface rapidly, robustly, and accurately. In addition to the conventional phase shifting method, we propose another data collection method called as dots matrix projection. We also use the Zernike polynomials to correct the camera distortion. This polynomials fitting mapping distortion method has not only simple operation, but also high conversion precision. We simulate this test system to measure the concave surface using CODE V and MATLAB. The simulation results show that the dots matrix projection method has high accuracy and SCOTS has important significance for on-line detection in optical shop.

  4. Meters and systems for future. Meters fit for retrofitting with a communication module; Zaehler und Systeme fuer die Zukunft. Mit Kommunikationsmodul nachruestbare Zaehler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Martin [Itron GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany). Marketing Gas Germany; Sievers, Marco [Allmess GmbH, Oldenburg (Germany). Marketing und Vertrieb Systeme, Wasser- und Waermewirtschaft

    2011-04-18

    The contribution looks at the situation of smart meters in view of the German government's decision of 2007, which required that smart meters should be installed within a period of six years. However, there is no market-compatible strategy for their introduction, and legal regulations are still lacking. For example, the EnWG demands the obligatory installation of smart meters from 1 January 2010 only in newly constructed or extensively modernized buildings and also on the user's demand.

  5. Beam shaping element for compact fiber injection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichman, L.S.; Dickey, F.M.; Shagam, R.N.

    2000-01-05

    Injection of high power, multi-mode laser profiles into a fiber optic delivery system requires controlling a number of injection parameters to maximize throughput and minimize concerns for optical damage both at the entrance and exit faces of the fiber optic. A simple method for simultaneously achieving a compact fiber injection geometry and control of these injection parameters, independent of the input source characteristics, is provided by a refractive lenslet array and simple injection lens configuration. Design criteria together with analytical and experimental results for the refractive lenslet array and short focal length injection lens are presented. This arrangement provides a uniform spatial intensity distribution at the fiber injection plane to a large degree independent of the source mode structure, spatial profile, divergence, size, and/or alignment to the injection system. This technique has application to a number of laser systems where uniform illumination of a target or remote delivery of high peak power is desired.

  6. An IoT Based Tamper Prevention System for Electricity Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Ogu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an IoT based Tamper Prevention System for Electricity Meters (IoTETPS. The power sector in Nigeria is an untapped gold mine for investors, because of the huge population without access to stable electricity. However, electricity theft is one of the challenges facing the power companies; it makes the infrastructure needed for effective operations to be unsustainable because power companies cannot make adequate profit from the electricity they generate and distribute. This work has developed an embedded system that will help in prevention of electricity theft using Internet of Things technology. The system comprises of an Arduino WiFi Shield 101 mounted on top of Arduino Mega 2560 board for the connectivity and controller functions, while a Passive Infrared Sensor and Solid State Relay were used for sensing and actuation. The result of this work is a functional Internet of Things based system that is capable of detecting tamper and disconnecting the consumer; this is in addition to sending the GPS location of the meter to the distribution company portal. The incorporation of this system will reduce electricity theft, make the Grid smart and subsequently lead to a vibrant profitable power sector.

  7. System identification of mechanomyograms detected with an acceleration sensor and a laser displacement meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Takanori; Shinohara, Keita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the transfer functions of mechanomyograms (MMGs) detected with an acceleration sensor and a laser displacement meter. The MMGs evoked by electrical stimulation to the peroneal nerve were recorded on the skin of the tibial anterior muscle. The displacement MMG (DMMG) and the acceleration MMG (AMMG) systems were identified using a singular value decomposition method. The appropriate order of the AMMG system was six and that of the DMMG system was four. The undamped natural frequencies of the systems were compared to resonance frequencies of human soft tissue. Some of the undamped natural frequencies estimated from the AMMG systems agreed with the resonance frequencies in the literature but others were lower than the resonance frequencies. The undamped natural frequencies estimated from the DMMG systems were lower than the resonance frequencies.

  8. Tracing Injection Fluids in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P. E.; Leecaster, K.; Mella, M.; Ayling, B.; Bartl, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    The reinjection of produced fluids is crucial to the effective management of geothermal reservoirs, since it provides a mechanism for maintaining reservoir pressures while allowing for the disposal of a toxic byproduct. Tracers are essential to the proper location of injection wells since they are the only known tool for reliably characterizing the flow patterns of recirculated fluids. If injection wells are placed too close to production wells, then reinjected fluids do not have sufficient residence time to extract heat from the reservoir and premature thermal breakthrough results. If injection wells are placed too far away, then the reservoir risks unacceptable pressure loss. Several thermally stable compounds from a family of very detectable fluorescent organic compounds (the naphthalene sulfonates) were characterized and found to be effective for use as geothermal tracers. Through batch-autoclave reactions, their Arrhenius pseudo-first-order decay-rate constants were determined. An analytical method was developed that allows for the laboratory determination of concentrations in the low parts-per-trillion range. Field experiments in numerous geothermal reservoirs throughout the world have confirmed the laboratory findings. Whereas conservative tracers such as the naphthalene sulfonates are effective tools for indicating interwell flow patterns and for measuring reservoir pore volumes, 'reactive' tracers can be used to constrain fracture surface area, which is the effective area for heat extraction. This is especially important for engineered geothermal system (EGS) wells, since reactive tracers can be used to measure fracture surface area immediately after drilling and while the well stimulation equipment is still on site. The reactive properties of these tracers that can be exploited to constrain fracture surface area are reversible sorption, contrasting diffusivity, and thermal decay. Laboratory batch- and flow-reactor experiments in combination with numerical

  9. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2016-12-13

    A method of recovering a liquid hydrocarbon using an injectate includes recovering the liquid hydrocarbon through primary extraction. Physico-chemical data representative of electrostatic interactions between the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock are measured. At least one additive of the injectate is selected based on the physico-chemical data. The method includes recovering the liquid hydrocarbon from the reservoir rock through secondary extraction using the injectate.

  10. Surface control system for the 15 meter hoop-column antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James B.; Ahl, Elvin L., Jr.; Butler, David H.; Peri, Frank, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The 15-meter hoop-column antenna fabricated by the Harris Corporation under contract to the NASA Langley Research Center is described. The antenna is a deployable and restowable structure consisting of a central telescoping column, a 15-meter-diameter folding hoop, and a mesh reflector surface. The hoop is supported and positioned by 48 quartz cords attached to the column above the hoop, and by 24 graphite cords from the base of the antenna column. The RF reflective surface is a gold plated molybdenum wire mesh supported on a graphite cord truss structure which is attached between the hoop and the column. The surface contour is controlled by 96 graphite cords from the antenna base to the rear of the truss assembly. The antenna is actually a quadaperture reflector with each quadrant of the surface mesh shaped to produce an offset parabolic reflector. Results of near-field and structural tests are given. Controls structures and electromagnetics interaction, surface control system requirements, mesh control adjustment, surface control system actuator assembly, surface control system electronics, the system interface unit, and control stations are discussed.

  11. OVERCOMING THE METER BARRIER AND THE FORMATION OF SYSTEMS WITH TIGHTLY PACKED INNER PLANETS (STIPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boley, A. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Morris, M. A. [Center for Meteorite Studies, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 876004, Tempe, AZ 88287-6004 (United States); Ford, E. B. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We present a solution to the long outstanding meter barrier problem in planet formation theory. As solids spiral inward due to aerodynamic drag, they will enter disk regions that are characterized by high temperatures, densities, and pressures. High partial pressures of rock vapor can suppress solid evaporation, and promote collisions between partially molten solids, allowing rapid growth. This process should be ubiquitous in planet-forming disks, which may be evidenced by the abundant class of Systems with Tightly packed Inner Planets discovered by the NASA Kepler Mission.

  12. Analog/digital pH meter system I.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Paul; Park, Jea

    1992-01-01

    The project utilizes design automation software tools to design, simulate, and fabricate a pH meter integrated circuit (IC) system including a successive approximation type seven-bit analog to digital converter circuits using a 1.25 micron N-Well CMOS MOSIS process. The input voltage ranges from 0.5 to 1.0 V derived from a special type pH sensor, and the output is a three-digit decimal number display of pH with one decimal point.

  13. Investigation of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies for Systems with Over Centre Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    2010-01-01

    of the system and the coupling between the two cylinder chambers. Based on the described controllers the different control strategies are evaluated through via simulations and experimentally on a scale model of an excavator arm. Based on the findings, the performance of the different controllers are discussed...

  14. Aperture and Delivery Precision of the LHC Injection System

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Jeanneret, J B; Kain, V; Lamont, M; Maire, V; Mertens, V; Wenninger, J

    2004-01-01

    The main LHC injection elements in interaction regions 2 and 8 comprise the injection septa (MSI), the injection kickers (MKI), together with three families of passive protection devices (TDI, TCDD and TCLI). The apertures of the two circulating beams are detailed for these elements, together with a summary of recent design modifications. The errors in the SPS, the transfer lines and the injection system are analysed, and the expected performance of the system derived, in terms of the expected delivery precision of the injected beam.

  15. Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring system based on a modern kWh-meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihala, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-01

    Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is a fairly new method to estimate load profiles of individual electric appliances in a small building, like a household, by monitoring the whole load at a single point with one recording device without sub-meters. Appliances have special electrical characteristics, the positive and negative active and reactive power changes during the time they are switched on or off. These changes are called events and are detected with a monitoring device called an event recorder. Different NIALM-concepts developed in Europe and in the United States are generally discussed. The NIALM-concept developed in this study is based on a 3-phase, power quality monitoring kWh-meter and unique load identification algorithms. This modern kWh-meter with a serial data bus to a laptop personal computer is used as die event recorder. The NIALM-concept of this presentation shows for the first time how a kWh-meter can be used at the same time for billing, power quality and appliance end-use monitoring. An essential part of the developed NIALM-system prototype is the software of load identification algorithms which runs in an off-line personal computer. These algorithms are able to identify, with a certain accuracy, both two-state and multi-state appliances. This prototype requires manual-setup in which the naming of appliances is performed. The results of the prototype NIALMS were verified in a large, single family detached house and they were compared to the results of other prototypes in France and the United States, although this comparison is difficult because of different supply systems, appliance stock and number of tested sites. Different applications of NIALM are discussed. Gathering of load research data, verification of DSM-programs, home automation, failure analysis of appliances and security surveillance of buildings are interesting areas of NIALM. Both utilities and customers can benefit from these applications. It is possible to

  16. The development of the 15-Meter Hoop Column deployable antenna system with structural and electromagnetic performance results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, T. G.; Bailey, M. C.; Belvin, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the technical results obtained during the development and engineering tests of a 15-Meter Hoop Column deployable antenna system. An important element of the 15-meter antenna program was the structural tests and the characterization of the surface accuracy of the deployed mesh surface. The overall system performance of the 15-meter antenna was obtained during radio frequency tests conducted in the Martin Marietta Near Field Test Laboratory in Denver, CO. The near field tests verified the electromagnetic performance of the structure which exhibited a surface accuracy of 0.061 in (RMS). Radio frequency tests were conducted at 2.3, 4.3, 7.7, and 11.6 GHz. The experiment and analytical results obtained through the 15-meter antenna program will provide new opportunities for the application of large space antennas for future missions.

  17. Injection system of teh SSC Medium Energy Booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, N.; Gerig, R.; McGill, J.; Brown, K.

    1994-04-01

    The Medium Energy Booster (MEB) is the third of the SSCL accelerators and the largest of the resistive magnet synchrotrons. It accelerates protons from an injection momentum of 12 GeV/c to a top momentum of 200 GeV/c. A beam injection system has been designed to inject the beam transferred from the Low Energy Booster onto the MEB closed orbit in the MEB injection insertion region. The beam is injected via a vertical bending Lambertson septum magnet and a horizontal kicker with appropriate matching and very little beam loss and emittance dilution. The beam optics of the injection system is described in this paper. The required parameters of the Lambertson septum magnet and the injection kicker are given.

  18. Operational considerations for the PSB H- Injection System

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W; Borburgh, J; Carli, C; Fowler, T; Goddard, B

    2010-01-01

    For the LINAC4 project the PS Booster (PSB) injection system will be upgraded. The 160 MeV Hbeam will be distributed to the 4 superimposed PSB synchrotron rings and horizontally injected by means of an H- charge-exchange system. Operational considerations for the injection system are presented, including expected beam losses from unwanted field stripping of H- and excited H0 and foil scattering, possible injection failure cases and expected stripping foil lifetimes. Loading assumptions for the internal beam dumps are discussed together with estimates of doses on various components.

  19. An optimization of injecting system in die casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    After many years of development, die casting technology of metallic materials has been matured. In this paper,the lower-support and its injecting system were created with commercial software. And then the simulation software FLOW3D was applied to study the flow behavior of the melt during injection filling process. Both temperature field and defect distribution were simulated. Based on these results, the better injecting system with two additional overflows was adopted.

  20. An optimization of injecting system in die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei WU

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available After many years of development, die casting technology of metallic materials has been matured. In this paper,the lower-support and its injecting system were created with commercial software. And then the simulation software FLOW3D was applied to study the flow behavior of the melt during injection filling process. Both temperature field and defect distribution were simulated. Based on these results, the better injecting system with two additional overflows wasadopted.

  1. Variable volume combustor with pre-nozzle fuel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-06

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of fuel nozzles, a pre-nozzle fuel injection system supporting the fuel nozzles, and a linear actuator to maneuver the fuel nozzles and the pre-nozzle fuel injection system.

  2. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2008-04-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  3. Postoperative systemic dissemination of injected elemental mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Hyung; Park, Seung Won; Moon, Kyung-Yoon

    2011-04-01

    There were only a few reports of mercury on pulmonary artery. However, there is no data on surgery related mercury dissemination. The objective of the present article is to describe one case of postoperative injected mercury dissemination. A 19-year-old man presented severe neck pain including meningeal irritation sign and abdominal pain after injection of mercury for the purpose of suicide. Radiologic study showed injected mercury in the neck involving high cervical epidural space and subcutaneous layer of abdomen. Partial hemilaminectomy and open mercury evacuation of spinal canal was performed. For the removal of abdominal subcutaneous mercury, C-arm guided needle aspiration was done. After surgery, radiologic study showed disseminated mercury in the lung, heart, skull base and low spinal canal. Neck pain and abdominal pain were improved after surgery. During 1 month after surgery, there was no symptom of mercury intoxication except increased mercury concentration of urine, blood and hair. We assumed the bone work during surgery might have caused mercury dissemination. Therefore, we recommend minimal invasive surgical technique for removal of injected mercury. If open exposures are needed, cautious surgical technique to prohibit mercury dissemination is necessary and normal barrier should be protected to prevent the migration of mercury.

  4. Discussion of Intelligent Ultrasonic Water Meter Remote Meter-reading System based on ZigBee%基于ZigBee的智能超声波水表远程抄表系统探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海波

    2014-01-01

    文章介绍了ZigBee技术的特点和智能超声波水表的计量原理,并对ZigBee技术在智能超声波水表远程抄表系统的应用进行了探讨。该抄表方案借助ZigBee技术在无线通信方面的优势,具有组网迅速、网络容量大、传输可靠、数据安全、实时性强等特点,非常适合智能超声波水表无线组网。该抄表方案也可应用于电表和气表。%This paper introduces the characteristics of ZigBee technology and the measurement principle of intelligent ultrasonic water meter,and the application of ZigBee technology in the intelligent ultrasonic water meter and remote meter-reading system were discussed.The meter-reading scheme using the ZigBee technology in wireless communication advantages, having the characteristics of networking quickly,large network capacity,transmission reliability,data security,real-time,very suitable for intelligent ultrasonic water meter wireless networking.The meter-reading scheme can also be applied to the electric meter and gas meter.

  5. Influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection fuel quantity for an electronically controlled double-valve fuel injection system of diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Enzhe; Fan, Liyun; Chen, Chao; Dong, Quan; Ma, Xiuzhen; Bai, Yun

    2013-09-01

    A simulation model of an electronically controlled two solenoid valve fuel injection system for a diesel engine is established in the AMESim environment. The accuracy of the model is validated through comparison with experimental data. The influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection quantity under different control modes is analyzed. In the spill control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity decreases gradually and then reaches a stable level because of the increase in multi-injection dwell time. In the needle control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity increases with rising multi-injection dwell time; this effect becomes more obvious at high-speed revolutions and large main-injection pulse widths. Pre-injection pulse width has no obvious influence on main-injection quantity under the two control modes; the variation in main-injection quantity is in the range of 1 mm3.

  6. Study on Software Fault Injection Based on Onboard System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGJunjie; HONGBingrong; YUANChengjun; LIAiguo; WEIZhenhua; QIAOYongqiang

    2005-01-01

    Fault injection techniques are the effective methods to evaluate the dependability and validate the fault tolerance mechanisms of computer systems. Among the different fault injection techniques, software implemented fault injection technique is regarded as one of the most promising technique for evaluation of the dependability of computer systems. In this paper, combined the advantages of software fault injection and the particularity of onboard system, a new software fault injection model, which can be used to evaluate the dependability and validate the fault tolerance mechanisms of the onboard system, is put forward. To evaluate the dependability of on boardsystem effectively, the application algorithm on how to use the model is presented. The experimental results show that using the fault injection model and algorithm put forward in this paper, not only most of low-level faults such as processor register faults, memory faults and so on can be injected, but also some high-level faults such as code faults, branch faults etc. can be injected, which can be used to evaluate the dependability of the onboard systems.

  7. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  8. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  9. Layout considerations for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Carli, C; Chanel, M; Fowler, A; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    The layout of the PSB H- injection system is described, including the arguments for the geometry and the required equipment performance parameters. The longitudinal positions of the main elements are specified, together with the injected and circulating beam axes. The assumptions used in determining the geometry are listed.

  10. Screw Extruder for Pellet Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadkumar K. Chhantbar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid hydrogenic pellets are used as fuel for fusion energy reactor. A technique for continuous production of solid hydrogen and its isotopes by a screw extruder is suggested for the production of an unlimited number of pellets. The idea was developed and patented by PELIN laboratories, Inc. (Canada. A Gifford McMahon cryocooler is used for the generation of solid hydrogenic fluid pellets. Requirements of the pellets is depends upon the energy to be produced by tokamak. This review paper focuses on the model for the screw extruder for solidification of hydrogen ice having high injection reliability.

  11. [Development of a novel liquid injection system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Lv, Yong-Gui

    2009-11-01

    A liquid jet injector employs compressed gas or spring to produce a high-velocity stream to deliver liquid drug into human body through skin. There are many clinical jet injection products available, none of which is domestic. A new liquid jet injector is designed based on a comprehensive analysis of the current products. The injector consists of an ejector, trigger and a re-positioning mechanism. The jets characteristics of sample injector are tested, and the results show that the maximum exit pressure is above 15 MPa, a threshold value for penetrating into the skin.

  12. Thirty Meter Telescope narrow-field infrared adaptive optics system real-time controller prototyping results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm; Kerley, Dan; Chapin, Edward L.; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi

    2016-07-01

    Prototyping and benchmarking was performed for the Real-Time Controller (RTC) of the Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS). To perform wavefront correction, NFIRAOS utilizes two deformable mirrors (DM) and one tip/tilt stage (TTS). The RTC receives wavefront information from six Laser Guide Star (LGS) Shack- Hartmann WaveFront Sensors (WFS), one high-order Natural Guide Star Pyramid WaveFront Sensor (PWFS) and multiple low-order instrument detectors. The RTC uses this information to determine the commands to send to the wavefront correctors. NFIRAOS is the first light AO system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The prototyping was performed using dual-socket high performance Linux servers with the real-time (PREEMPT_RT) patch and demonstrated the viability of a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware approach to large scale AO reconstruction. In particular, a large custom matrix vector multiplication (MVM) was benchmarked which met the required latency requirements. In addition all major inter-machine communication was verified to be adequate using 10Gb and 40Gb Ethernet. The results of this prototyping has enabled a CPU-based NFIRAOS RTC design to proceed with confidence and that COTS hardware can be used to meet the demanding performance requirements.

  13. Pounds room metering management system%磅房计量管理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高路

    2012-01-01

    针对企业磅房原物料过磅入库和产品出磅计量管理中出现的问题,提出了一种结合计算机网络技术、视频监控和红外定位等技术,建立远程网络磅房计量管理系统的方案。介绍了系统的结构组成、工作流程和软件实现的功能。作为企业信息化管理的重要组成部分,该系统的运行实践表明,对节约企业管理成本、提高企业工作效率和经营效益具有积极的作用。%Aiming at the problem of the management of the enterprise pound raw material put in storage and product leave factory.a scheme of establishing remote network pounds room metering management system with is put forward combination of the computer network,video monitoring and infrared positioning technology.Then introduce the sytsem structure and composition,workflow and software function.Operating practice of the system show that it has positive effects on the enterprise administrative cost savings,the working efficiency and business operation improvement as the important parts of the corporate information management.

  14. Integration of Behind-the-Meter PV Fleet Forecasts into Utility Grid System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, Thomas Hoff [Clean Power Research, L.L.C., Napa, CA (United States); Kankiewicz, Adam [Clean Power Research, L.L.C., Napa, CA (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Four major research objectives were completed over the course of this study. Three of the objectives were to evaluate three, new, state-of-the-art solar irradiance forecasting models. The fourth objective was to improve the California Independent System Operator’s (ISO) load forecasts by integrating behind-the-meter (BTM) PV forecasts. The three, new, state-of-the-art solar irradiance forecasting models included: the infrared (IR) satellite-based cloud motion vector (CMV) model; the WRF-SolarCA model and variants; and the Optimized Deep Machine Learning (ODML)-training model. The first two forecasting models targeted known weaknesses in current operational solar forecasts. They were benchmarked against existing operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts, visible satellite CMV forecasts, and measured PV plant power production. IR CMV, WRF-SolarCA, and ODML-training forecasting models all improved the forecast to a significant degree. Improvements varied depending on time of day, cloudiness index, and geographic location. The fourth objective was to demonstrate that the California ISO’s load forecasts could be improved by integrating BTM PV forecasts. This objective represented the project’s most exciting and applicable gains. Operational BTM forecasts consisting of 200,000+ individual rooftop PV forecasts were delivered into the California ISO’s real-time automated load forecasting (ALFS) environment. They were then evaluated side-by-side with operational load forecasts with no BTM-treatment. Overall, ALFS-BTM day-ahead (DA) forecasts performed better than baseline ALFS forecasts when compared to actual load data. Specifically, ALFS-BTM DA forecasts were observed to have the largest reduction of error during the afternoon on cloudy days. Shorter term 30 minute-ahead ALFS-BTM forecasts were shown to have less error under all sky conditions, especially during the morning time periods when traditional load forecasts often experience their largest

  15. Closed-Loop Tension Control System for Injection Moulding Machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Closed-Loop Tension Control System for Injection Moulding Machine. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... it demonstrated a new technological advancement and the theory of moulding which prevents possible spillage occurrences.

  16. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author).

  17. Development of Integrated Simulation System for Plastic Injection Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGXue-wen; LIDe-qun; ZHOUHua-min

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulation of injection molding have had success in predicting the behavior of polymer melt in extremely complicated geometries. Most of the current numerical solutions are based on finite-element/finite-difference/boundary-element/volume-control methods and the surface model. This paper discusses the development of an integrated CAE system for injection molding in detail, and presents the mathematics for numerical simulation of filling, packing,cooling, stress and warpage in injection molding. The developed system named as HsCAE3D is introduced at the end.

  18. The Influence of runner system on production of injection molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janostik Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study describes the influence of runner system on rheological properties during the injection molding process. Economic effects on the amount of production are discussed as well. Autodesk Moldflow Synergy 2016 (Moldflow was used for the study of the injection process. Three suggestions of the runner system, cold runner system, hot runner system and the combination of cold–hot runner system have been promoted. These three variants underwent the rheological and economic analysis. As a result, recommendations for the application of the runner system for the required amount of production have been suggested

  19. Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 1 – Laboratory Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, J. Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Turner, W. J. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2012-11-12

    Building codes increasingly require tighter homes and mechanical ventilation per ASHRAE Standard 62.2. These ventilation flows must be measured so that energy is not wasted with over ventilation and occupants’ health is not compromised by under ventilation. Flow hoods are used to measure these ventilation flows, but there is currently no standard specifying the measurement procedure and measurement devices that should be used. This study evaluates the accuracy of six commercially available flow hoods under laboratory conditions configured to emulate a residential mechanical ventilation duct system. The measurements taken with the flow hoods were compared to simultaneous measurements taken by an in-line reference flow meter having a known uncertainty. Results indicate that powered flow hoods yield more accurate measurements than non-powered flow hoods, and that a majority of the flow hoods measured inlet flows more accurately than outlet flows. In several cases, there was little resemblance between the manufacturers’ stated accuracy and the accuracy we found in our laboratory measurements. It is clear that current flow hood calibration procedures may not consider field application variables such as flow asymmetry, flow angle, and flow direction. A new flow hood measurement standard that takes these ‘real world’ conditions into account should be developed to ensure that residential buildings receive the intended ventilation flows.

  20. Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 1 – Laboratory Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, J. Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Turner, W. J. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2012-11-30

    Building codes increasingly require tighter homes and mechanical ventilation per ASHRAE Standard 62.2. These ventilation flows must be measured so that energy is not wasted with over ventilation and occupants’ health is not compromised by under ventilation. Flow hoods are used to measure these ventilation flows, but there is currently no standard specifying the measurement procedure and measurement devices that should be used. This study evaluates the accuracy of six commercially available flow hoods under laboratory conditions configured to emulate a residential mechanical ventilation duct system. The measurements taken with the flow hoods were compared to simultaneous measurements taken by an in-line reference flow meter having a known uncertainty. Results indicate that powered flow hoods yield more accurate measurements than non-powered flow hoods, and that a majority of the flow hoods measured inlet flows more accurately than outlet flows. In several cases, there was little resemblance between the manufacturers’ stated accuracy and the accuracy we found in our laboratory measurements. It is clear that current flow hood calibration procedures may not consider field application variables such as flow asymmetry, flow angle, and flow direction. A new flow hood measurement standard that takes these ‘real world’ conditions into account should be developed to ensure that residential buildings receive the intended ventilation flows.

  1. Isothermal calorimetry: a predictive tool to model drug-propellant interactions in pressurized metered dose systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Jesslynn; Gaisford, Simon; Boyd, Ben J; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2014-01-30

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate gas perfusion isothermal calorimetry (ITC) as a method to characterize the physicochemical changes of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) intended to be formulated in pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) after exposure to a model propellant. Spray dried samples of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) and salbutamol sulphate (SS) were exposed to controlled quantities of 2H,3H-decafluoropentane (HPFP) to determine whether ITC could be used as a suitable analytical method for gathering data on the behavioural properties of the powders in real time. The crystallization kinetics of BDP and the physiochemical properties of SS were successfully characterized using ITC and supported by a variety of other analytical techniques. Correlations between real and model propellant systems were also established using hydrofluoroalkane (HFA-227) propellant. In summary, ITC was found to be suitable for gathering data on the crystallization kinetics of BDP and SS. In a wider context, this work will have implications on the use of ITC for stability testing of APIs in HFA-based pMDIs.

  2. STRATEGY FOR DIESEL ROTARY ENGINE WITH COMMON RAIL INJECTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jinjun; HAI Jingtao; SHI Jianzhong; LI Xuesong; YANG Qing; WANG Shangyong

    2006-01-01

    A direct injection low compression ratios diesel rotary engine is designed and studied to find the appropriate application of the electronic controlled high pressure common rail injection system. Current development focuses on the applied fuel injection and ignition strategies, especially concerning the combustion configurations of injectors, ignition source, and combustion chamber. The prototype engine, equipped with Bosch common rail system and high performance electronic control unit (ECU), is designed correspondingly. Studies show that the integration of a common rail injection system and the main and pilot duel injectors configurations, assisted with glow plug ignition device and flexible ECU, represents a promising approach to improve the potential of the low compression ratios diesel rotary engine. Currently the engine can run at 6 kr · min-1 steadily and the power is about 68 kW/(4 kr · min-1).

  3. Dynamic Particle Injections in the Magnetospheres of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, B.

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of dynamic, planetward injections of plasma and energetic particles on the nightside magnetosphere is one of the defining characteristics of magnetospheric substorms at Earth. And yet, with the exploration of the solar system with planetary probes, it has become clear that dynamic planetward injections are if fact a ubiquitous characteristic of most strongly magnetized planets; only Neptune did not reveal the signatures of such processes when visited. But, within this diversity of magnetospheric environments, it is clear that the driving forces associated with injections can be very different from those at Earth. Jupiter, for example, is known to be powered by planetary rotation rather than the solar wind. Saturn has injections that are clearly powered by rotations, but it also has nightside injections that are, at minimum, triggered by solar wind events if not powered by the solar wind. Even for those magnetospheres clearly powered by rotation, there appears to be substantial similarity between the physical processes involved with the extraterrestrial planetary injections and recent formulations of injections within Earth's near-Earth magnetotail. With a focus on comparisons between Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, I here review the state of understanding generally of injections within extraterrestrial planets and what the comparisons might tell us about our understanding of substorm phenomena at Earth.

  4. Optomechatronic System For Automated Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulev Assen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complex optomechatronic system for In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF, offering almost complete automation of the Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI procedure. The compound parts and sub-systems, as well as some of the computer vision algorithms, are described below. System capabilities for ICSI have been demonstrated on infertile oocyte cells.

  5. Smart metering design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weranga, K S K; Chandima, D P

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the present day trends and the requirements, this Brief focuses on smart metering of electricity for next generation energy efficiency and conservation. The contents include discussions on the smart metering concepts and existing technologies and systems as well as design and implementation of smart metering schemes together with detailed examples.

  6. FPGA-Based Multiprocessor System for Injection Molding Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque A. Osornio-Rios

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The plastic industry is a very important manufacturing sector and injection molding is a widely used forming method in that industry. The contribution of this work is the development of a strategy to retrofit control of an injection molding machine based on an embedded system microprocessors sensor network on a field programmable gate array (FPGA device. Six types of embedded processors are included in the system: a smart-sensor processor, a micro fuzzy logic controller, a programmable logic controller, a system manager, an IO processor and a communication processor. Temperature, pressure and position are controlled by the proposed system and experimentation results show its feasibility and robustness. As validation of the present work, a particular sample was successfully injected.

  7. Transition duct with late injection in turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray; Flanagan, James Scott; Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-15

    A system for supplying an injection fluid to a combustor is disclosed. The system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The passage defines a combustion chamber. The system further includes a tube providing fluid communication for the injection fluid to flow through the transition duct and into the combustion chamber.

  8. Characteristics of pressure wave in common rail fuel injection system of high-speed direct injection diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Herfatmanesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of high-pressure common rail equipment now provides diesel engines possibility to apply as many as eight separate injection pulses within the engine cycle for reducing emissions and for smoothing combustion. With these complicated injection arrangements, optimizations of operating parameters for various driving conditions are considerably difficult, particularly when integrating fuel injection parameters with other operating parameters such as exhaust gas recirculation rate and boost pressure together for evaluating calibration results. Understanding the detailed effects of fuel injection parameters upon combustion characteristics and emission formation is therefore particularly critical. In this article, the results and discussion of experimental investigations on a high-speed direct injection light-duty diesel engine test bed are presented for evaluating and analyzing the effects of main adjustable parameters of the fuel injection system on all regulated emission gases and torque performance. Main injection timing, rail pressure, pilot amount, and particularly pilot timing have been examined. The results show that optimization of each of those adjustable parameters is beneficial for emission reduction and torque improvement under different operating conditions. By exploring the variation in the interval between the pilot injection and the main injection, it is found that the pressure wave in the common rail has a significant influence on the subsequent injection. This suggests that special attentions must be paid for adjusting pilot timing or any injection interval when multi-injection is used. With analyzing the fuel amount oscillation of the subsequent injections to pilot separation, it demonstrates that the frequency of regular oscillations of the actual fuel amount or the injection pulse width with the variation in pilot separation is always the same for a specified fuel injection system, regardless of engine speed

  9. Fiber-Based, Injection-Molded Optofluidic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteucci, Marco; Triches, Marco; Nava, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to fabricate polymer optofluidic systems by means of injection molding that allow the insertion of standard optical fibers. The chip fabrication and assembly methods produce large numbers of robust optofluidic systems that can be easily assembled and disposed of, yet allow...

  10. Study of fault injection system based on software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A software fault injection system SFIS is designed, which consists of the target system plus a fault injector, fault library, workload, data collector, and data analyzer. A serial communication mechanism is adopted to simulate the factual work environment. Then a fault model is built for single particle event, which can be denoted as FM = (FL, FT). FL stands for fault location, and FT stands for fault type. The fault model supports three temporal faults: transient, intermittent, and permanent. During the experiments implemented by SFIS,the software interruption method is adopted to inject transient faults, and step trace method is adopted to inject permanent faults into the target system. The experiment results indicate that for the injected transient code segment faults, 2.8% of them do not affect the program output, 80.1% of them are detected by the built-in error detection in the system, and 17.1% of them are not detected by fault detection mechanism. The experiment results verify the validity of the fault injection method.

  11. Manufacturing Challenges and Benefits When Scaling the HIAD Stacked-Torus Aeroshell to a 15 Meter Class System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, G. T.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Johnson, R. K.; Hughes, S. J.; Calomino, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade of work has been conducted in the development of NASA's Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) deployable aeroshell technology. This effort has included multiple ground test campaigns and flight tests culminating in the HIAD project's second generation (Gen-2) aeroshell system. The HIAD project team has developed, fabricated, and tested stacked-torus inflatable structures (IS) with flexible thermal protection systems (F-TPS) ranging in diameters from 3-6 meters, with cone angles of 60 and 70 degrees. To meet NASA and commercial near-term objectives, the HIAD team must scale the current technology up to 12-15 meters in diameter. Therefore, the HIAD project's experience in scaling the technology has reached a critical juncture. Growing from a 6-meter to a 15-meter class system will introduce many new structural and logistical challenges to an already complicated manufacturing process. Although the general architecture and key aspects of the HIAD design scale well to larger vehicles, details of the technology will need to be reevaluated and possibly redesigned for use in a 15-meter-class HIAD system. These include: layout and size of the structural webbing that transfers load throughout the IS, inflatable gas barrier design, torus diameter and braid construction, internal pressure and inflation line routing, adhesives used for coating and bonding, and F-TPS gore design and seam fabrication. The logistics of fabricating and testing the IS and the F-TPS also become more challenging with increased scale. Compared to the 6-meter aeroshell (the largest HIAD built to date), a 12-meter aeroshell has four times the cross-sectional area, and a 15-meter one has over six times the area. This means that fabrication and test procedures will need to be reexamined to account for the sheer size and weight of the aeroshell components. This will affect a variety of steps in the manufacturing process, such as: stacking the tori during assembly, stitching the

  12. Safety Injection System Filling Using Dynamic Venting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Je; Kim, Wong Bae; Huh, Jin; Lee, Joo Hee; Im, In Young; Kim, Eun kee [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In the APR+, the water-level elevation of the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) is lower than the highest piping of the SIS. Since the gravity filling of water from IRWST cannot fill all SIS piping, an SIP or an SCP test line is newly provided in order to allow the dynamic venting of the SIS. NEI 09-10 Revision 1a-A has concluded that use of dynamic venting is an effective means to remove gas from local high points and traps in piping when correctly based on the dynamic flow rate, void volume, Floude number, and the system water volume. In this study, feasibility of the dynamic vent is investigated. The work presented in this study evaluates the SIS and the SCS filling using the dynamic venting which is supposed to be applied to the APR+. The main ideas are as follows; 1. Dynamic venting using SIPs for the APR+ is not appropriate on the basis of 12 inches in diameter and with the flow rate, 1,460 gpm. 2. Because the high point of the SIS and the SCS is located at the piping that the two systems are sharing, the accumulated gas at the highest point can be removed by using the SCPs, and the dimension of the new piping will be determined by its length of them and the number of elbows. The calculated results are shown in Table 2. 3. The applicability of the dynamic venting methods using the SCPs that are mentioned above should be evaluated in the aspect of the system operation after the piping arrangements are settled in the APR+. The assessments to determine the pump operation time are also required.

  13. A system-on-chip digital pH meter for use in a wireless diagnostic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Paul A; Ali, Danish; Cumming, David R S

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a system-on-chip digital pH meter, for use in a wireless capsule application. The system is organized around an 8-bit microcontroller, designed to be functionally identical to the Motorola 6805. The analog subsystem contains a floating-electrode ISFET, which is fully compatible with a commercial CMOS process. On-chip programmable voltage references and multiplexors permit flexibility with the minimum of external connections. The chip is designed in a modular fashion to facilitate verification and component re-use. The single-chip pH meter can be directly connected to a personal computer, and gives a response of 37 bits/pH, within an operating range of 7 pH units.

  14. A Multiphase Flow Measurement System Comprising an Impedance Cross Correlation (ICC) Device and an Imaging Electromagnetic Flow Meter (IEF).

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Yiqing; Lucas, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Flow measurements are playing increasingly important roles in many different application areas, such as manufacturing processes and the oil & gas industry. Multiphase flow measurement in particular is becoming increasingly important to the oil industry. This project concerns the design and implementation of a two-phase flow measurement system which integrates an impedance cross correlation (ICC) flow meter - which can be utilized for measuring the local dispersed phase volume fraction distrib...

  15. Research of Remote Wireless Meter Reading System%远程无线抄表系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王益祥; 牛江平

    2011-01-01

    The traditional manual meter reading method has many shortcomings such as low efficiency, hard sledding, low accuracy, and not promptly.Based on GPRS network and ZigBee wireless communication technology, the wireless meter reading system is constructed.The system avoids long distance wiring and complicated circuitry intefference, the real-time data can be read and transferred rapidly, and the data transmission is reliable.The result shows that this wireless meter reading system is able to precisely and reliably accomplish data acquisition,processing, and transmission, and fully meets the requirements.%针对传统的手工抄表方式费时、费力,以及准确性和及时性都得不到保障的缺点,基于GPRS网络和ZigBee无线通信技术,构建了一种无线抄表系统.该系统避免了长距离布线和复杂的线路干扰,可以快速抄写并实时上传表上的数据,且数据传输可靠.结果表明,此无线抄表系统能够准确、可靠地完成数据的采集、处理以及传输等功能,完全满足要求.

  16. A hardware-software system for the automation of verification and calibration of oil metering units secondary equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarnikov, A. V.; Boyarnikova, L. V.; Kozhushko, A. A.; Sekachev, A. F.

    2017-08-01

    In the article the process of verification (calibration) of oil metering units secondary equipment is considered. The purpose of the work is to increase the reliability and reduce the complexity of this process by developing a software and hardware system that provides automated verification and calibration. The hardware part of this complex carries out the commutation of the measuring channels of the verified controller and the reference channels of the calibrator in accordance with the introduced algorithm. The developed software allows controlling the commutation of channels, setting values on the calibrator, reading the measured data from the controller, calculating errors and compiling protocols. This system can be used for checking the controllers of the secondary equipment of the oil metering units in the automatic verification mode (with the open communication protocol) or in the semi-automatic verification mode (without it). The peculiar feature of the approach used is the development of a universal signal switch operating under software control, which can be configured for various verification methods (calibration), which allows to cover the entire range of controllers of metering units secondary equipment. The use of automatic verification with the help of a hardware and software system allows to shorten the verification time by 5-10 times and to increase the reliability of measurements, excluding the influence of the human factor.

  17. INJECTION VOLUME CONTROL BY THERMAL WAY IN TRANSGENIC DNA MICRO-INJECTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ling; Zhang Yun; Yang Yimin; Chen Jinghua

    2004-01-01

    Nowdays there are several manual or half-automatic methods developed to drive the DNA micro-fluid of transgenic micro-injection and they often fail to control precisely the injection volume at picolitres level.Micro-size of the injector tip and viscosity of the DNA liquid also lead to dead area of volume control.An adequate way is presented utilizing temperature gradients to direct liquid flow in the pipette from the warmer to the cooler.Compared with the previous ones, this way is helpful in decreasing the dead area of controlling through decreasing the viscous rate of DNA liquid, which changes as the temperature varies.The DNA liquid is pushed by a sheer stress at the liquid-pipette interface, which emerges when viscous rate of the liquid changes.Preliminary experimenting results show the efficiency and convenience of this way in improving the system's characteristics.

  18. A fast injection kicker system for the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris C. Jensen, Robert E. Reilly and Bruce M. Hanna

    2001-07-25

    A new proton injection kicker system is required for the Tevatron in the Run II era. The new system was designed to supply 1.25 kG-m into a magnetic aperture of 48 mm vertical x 71 mm horizontal x 5 m long with a 396 ns bunch spacing. The system was designed to be upgraded to 132 ns bunch spacing with additional pulse supplies. The system design tradeoffs needed to meet these goals is discussed. These include the system topology, the system impedance and the number of magnets. This system has been installed in the Tevatron.

  19. Arrival Metering Precision Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Hunt, Sarah; Gomez, Ashley; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Brasil, Connie; Wu, Minghong, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the background, method and results of the Arrival Metering Precision Study (AMPS) conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center in May 2014. The simulation study measured delivery accuracy, flight efficiency, controller workload, and acceptability of time-based metering operations to a meter fix at the terminal area boundary for different resolution levels of metering delay times displayed to the air traffic controllers and different levels of airspeed information made available to the Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system computing the delay. The results show that the resolution of the delay countdown timer (DCT) on the controllers display has a significant impact on the delivery accuracy at the meter fix. Using the 10 seconds rounded and 1 minute rounded DCT resolutions resulted in more accurate delivery than 1 minute truncated and were preferred by the controllers. Using the speeds the controllers entered into the fourth line of the data tag to update the delay computation in TBFM in high and low altitude sectors increased air traffic control efficiency and reduced fuel burn for arriving aircraft during time based metering.

  20. Injection and acceleration system of pulsed racetrack microtron

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakov, A N; Ishkhanov, B S

    2002-01-01

    Paper describes a pulsed racetrack microtron (RM) with 70 MeV beam maximal power. For this project one designed rare-earth permanent magnet base bending magnets, pattern to inject a bunched electron bean through a compact alpha-magnet and prismatic biperiodic accelerating structure (PBAS) characterized by compact transverse dimensions ensuring bar-free passing of electron beam through the first orbit. Besides, the PBAS has a high-frequency quadrupole focusing. These features facilitate essentially RM design and adjustment. Paper describes tests, technique of adjustment and of measuring of systems to inject and to accelerate a pulsed racetrack microtron

  1. Micro-gen metering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elland, J.; Dickson, J.; Cranfield, P.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to investigate the regulation of domestic electricity metering work and identify the most economic options for micro-generator installers to undertake work on electricity meters. A micro-generation unit is defined as an energy conversion system converting non-electrical energy into electrical energy and can include technologies such as photovoltaic systems, small-scale wind turbines, micro-hydroelectric systems, and combined heat and power systems. Details of six tasks are given and cover examination of the existing framework and legal documentation for metering work, the existing technical requirements for meter operators, meter operator personnel accreditation, appraisal of options for meter changes and for micro-generation installation, document change procedures, industry consultation, and a review of the costs implications of the options.

  2. The Injection Laser System on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, M; Burkhart, S; Cohen, S; Erbert, G; Heebner, J; Hermann, M; Jedlovec, D

    2006-12-13

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is currently the largest and most energetic laser system in the world. The main amplifiers are driven by the Injection Laser System comprised of the master oscillators, optical preamplifiers, temporal pulse shaping and spatial beam formatting elements and injection diagnostics. Starting with two fiber oscillators separated by up to a few angstroms, the pulse is phase modulated to suppress SBS and enhance spatial smoothing, amplified, split into 48 individual fibers, and then temporally shaped by an arbitrary waveform generator. Residual amplitude modulation induced in the preamplifiers from the phase modulation is also precompensated in the fiber portion of the system before it is injected into the 48 pre-amplifier modules (PAMs). Each of the PAMs amplifies the light from the 1 nJ fiber injection up to the multi-joule level in two stages. Between the two stages the pre-pulse is suppressed by 60 dB and the beam is spatially formatted to a square aperture with precompensation for the nonuniform gain profile of the main laser. The input sensor package is used to align the output of each PAM to the main laser and acquire energy, power, and spatial profiles for all shots. The beam transport sections split the beam from each PAM into four main laser beams (with optical isolation) forming the 192 beams of the NIF. Optical, electrical, and mechanical design considerations for long term reliability and availability will be discussed.

  3. Microfluidic system with integrated microinjector for automated Drosophila embryo injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delubac, Daniel; Highley, Christopher B; Witzberger-Krajcovic, Melissa; Ayoob, Joseph C; Furbee, Emily C; Minden, Jonathan S; Zappe, Stefan

    2012-11-21

    Drosophila is one of the most important model organisms in biology. Knowledge derived from the recently sequenced 12 genomes of various Drosophila species can today be combined with the results of more than 100 years of research to systematically investigate Drosophila biology at the molecular level. In order to enable automated, high-throughput manipulation of Drosophila embryos, we have developed a microfluidic system based on a Pyrex-silicon-Pyrex sandwich structure with integrated, surface-micromachined silicon nitride injector for automated injection of reagents. Our system automatically retrieves embryos from an external reservoir, separates potentially clustered embryos through a sheath flow mechanisms, passively aligns an embryo with the integrated injector through geometric constraints, and pushes the embryo onto the injector through flow drag forces. Automated detection of an embryo at injection position through an external camera triggers injection of reagents and subsequent ejection of the embryo to an external reservoir. Our technology can support automated screens based on Drosophila embryos as well as creation of transgenic Drosophila lines. Apart from Drosophila embryos, the layout of our system can be easily modified to accommodate injection of oocytes, embryos, larvae, or adults of other species and fills an important technological gap with regard to automated manipulation of multicellular organisms.

  4. API testing program - calibration of microprocessor based flowmeters for integrated metering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, Kenneth D. [Omni Flow Computers, Inc., Stafford, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Microprocessor based flowmeter technologies for liquids, such as Coriolis mass meters, and Ultrasonic flowmeters hold great promise. These technologies offer many advantages, such as no rotating parts, self-diagnostic checks, which can help anticipate and warn of impending failures before they have a major impact on the measurement. These meters are substantially different though than other primary devices due to their heavy reliance on the accompanying secondary electronics. One method to prove that they are accurate would be proving the flowmeter, using a pipe prover or small volume prover (SVP), but these proving methods are designed to count 'real time' pulses from a turbine or PD meter between a known volume, they are not designed to count 'time delayed' 'manufactured pulses' from a microprocessor. There are limitations of the manufactured pulse train and it affects the ability of the flowmeter to be proved using current proving technology. The author of this paper, a chairman of an American Petroleum Institute working group, investigated how the 'microprocessor generated pulses' produced by these types of flowmeters, interacted with the existing measurement technologies in use today. Several microprocessor based flowmeter technologies have been tested, including; Ultrasonic, Coriolis, and Helical Turbine with pulse multiplying preamplifier. Wherever possible, flowmeters of various sizes, and from several vendors have been tested. A significant amount of data has been collected which sheds light into why these types of flowmeters are sometimes difficult to prove. This paper describes the API testing program, and the methodology behind it. It presents results and findings, and offers specific recommendations that may eventually be incorporated into API documents and/or standards in the future. (author)

  5. 300 GHz Imaging System with 8 Meter Stand-off Distance and One-Dimensional Synthetic Image Reconstruction for Remote Detection of Material Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Andreas; Peuser, Jörn; Loeffler, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    An active stand-off imaging system operating at 230–320 GHz is presented. Imaging is achieved by combining a line array consisting of 8 sources and 16 detectors with a scanning cylindrical mirror system. The stand-off distance is 8 meters and the effective aperture of the system is 0.5 meters by 0.......5 meters. Range and intensity information of the object are obtained using an active FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) radar principle. Data acquisition time for one line is as short as 1 ms. Synthetic image reconstruction is achieved in real-time by an embedded GPU (Graphical Processing Unit...

  6. CENTRAL CONVEYING & AUTO FEEDING SYSTEMS FOR AN INJECTION MOLDING SHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays injection molding is probably the most important method of Processing of consumer and industrial goods, and is performed everywhere in the world. The developing of injection molding becomes a competition from day to day. This Process now integrated with computer control make the production better in quality and Better quantity. The trends of producing a plastics product in injection molding industries are recently changing from traditional method to using the FEA analysis. For injection molding industries, time and cost is very important aspects to consider because these two aspectswill directly related to the profits at a company. The next issue toconsider, to get the best parameter for the injection molding process, plastics has been waste. Through the experiment, operator will use large amount of plastics material to get the possibly parameters to setup the machine.To produce the parts with better quality and quantity these molding defects are the major obstacles in achieving the targets with quality & quantity. Various defects like Short shot, colour streaks and low productivity rates are associated with the material mixing and feeding as molded plastics are often a blend of two or more materials. Colors (master batch and other additives are often mixed (blended with the raw plastic material prior to the molding process in molding plants. So it is very necessary to work out auto blending and auto feeding of plasticgranules to the machine hopper. This paper will cover the studyof automatic blending unit & central conveying system for plasticgranule feeding to machine & will help in optimizing the injection molding process.

  7. DANOS MECÂNICOS OCASIONADOS POR SISTEMAS DOSADORES DE SEMENTES MECHANICAL DAMAGE CAUSED BY SEED METERING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alcanfor Ximenes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos de danos mecânicos ocasionados por cinco sistemas dosadores de sementes, em quatro culturas. Amostras das sementes foram coletadas antes e após passarem pelos sistemas dosadores e foram submetidas a testes de pureza, germinação e vigor. Não houve diferença entre os efeitos de danos mecânicos ocasionados pelos sistemas dosadores empregados nas sementes de milho. Para as sementes de feijão, menores efeitos foram verificados quando da utilização dos dosadores pneumático a vácuo e copo dosador. O sistema rotor acanalado causou menores danos às sementes de arroz e os sistemas disco  horizontal perfurado e copo dosador foram os que menos danificaram as sementes de soja. O sistema dosador pneumático a vácuo ocasionou o maior índice de dano mecânico nas sementes de soja.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Semeadoras; distribuidores de sementes; rotor acanalado.

    Effects of mechanical damage caused by five seed metering systems were evaluated in four crops. Seed samples were collected before and after passing through the measuring systems and submitted to tests of purity, germination and vigor. There was no difference in the level of mechanical damage caused by the metering systems used for maize seeds. For common bean seeds, minor effects were verified when using the vacuum metering disk and the feed cup. The fluted feed system showed the best performance for rice seeds, and the horizontal perforated disk and feed cup systems exhibited the best results for soybean seeds. The vacuum metering disk system caused the highest level of mechanical damage to soybean seeds.

    KEY-WORDS: Planter machine; seed distributor; fluted feed.

  8. Hardware Design of Remote Meter Reading System Based on Zigbee Technology%基于Zigbee技术的远程抄表系统的硬件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向阳

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the design scheme of the remote meter reading system based on Zigbee technology and Zigbee technology, and describes the hardware design and implementation of the meter and the transceiver in the meter reading system.%该文介绍了Zigbee技术及基于Zigbee技术的远程抄表系统设计方案,详细叙述了抄表系统中电能表和集中收发器的硬件设计实现.

  9. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  10. RF Design and Predicted Performance for a Future 34-meter Shaped Dual-reflector Antenna System Using the Common Aperture X-S Feedhorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Networks Consolidation Program (NCP) will utilize 34-meter shaped dual-reflector Cassegrain antennas. The shaping calculations, the X/S-band feedhorn to be used, and the predicted RF performance of this antenna system are discussed.

  11. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    with the complexity of data processing and data analytics. The system offers an information integration pipeline to ingest smart meter data; scalable data processing and analytic platform for pre-processing and mining big smart meter data sets; and a web-based portal for visualizing data analytics results. The system......Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social......-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, data-mining and the emerging cloud computing technologies make the collection, management, and analysis...

  12. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    OpenAIRE

    Madhav, K. V.; Kovacevic, A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an in...

  13. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W.S.; Elischer, V.P.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Jacobson, V.L.; Lou, K.H.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1981-03-01

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs.

  14. LIGHT SOURCE: Conceptual design of Hefei Advanced Light Source (HALS) injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wang, Lin; Feng, Guang-Yao; Wu, Cong-Feng; Li, Wei-Min; Xu, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The Hefei Advanced Light Source(HALS) is a super low emittance storage ring and has a very short beam life time. In order to run the ring stablely, top-up injection will be necessary. The injection system will greatly affect the quality of beam. This article first gives a physics design of the injecting system. Then the injecting system is tracked under different errors. The responses of storage beam and injecting beam are given in the article.

  15. 21-cm Observations with the NASA ADAS 18-meter Antenna System: Baseline Astronomical Observations and Measurements of Performance Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

    2001-12-01

    Herein we report astronomical observations made with the NASA Advanced Data Acquisition System (ADAS). The NASA ADAS antenna, located at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia, is an 18-meter X-band antenna system that has been primarily used for satellite tracking and served as the telecommunication station for the NASA IUE satellite until ca. 1997. A joint NASA-Morehead State University (MSU)-Kentucky NSF EPSCoR venture has been initiated to upgrade and relocate the antenna system to MSU's Astrophysics Laboratory where it will provide a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate students as well as be engaged in satellite tracking missions. As part of the relocation efforts, many systems will be upgraded including replacement of a hydrostatic azimuth bearing with a high-precision electromechanical bearing, a new servo system, and Ku-capable reflector surface. It is widely believed that there are still contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make utilizing three primary observing strategies: 1.) longitudinal studies of RF variations in cosmic phenomena, 2.) surveys of large areas of sky, and 3.) fast reactions to transient phenomena. MSU faculty and staff along with NASA engineers re-outfitted the ADAS system with RF systems and upgraded servo controllers during the spring and summer of 2001. Empirical measurements of primary system performance characteristics were made including G/T (at S- and L bands), noise figures, pointing and tracking accuracies, and drive speeds and accelerations. Baseline astronomical observations were made with the MSU L-band receiver using a 6 MHz bandwidth centered at 1420 MHz (21-cm) and observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz, tunable over the 6 MHz window) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. Baseline observations of radio sources herein reported include Cygnus A, 3C 157, 3C 48 and the Andromeda

  16. An emergency water injection system (EWIS) for future CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Andre L.F. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). E-mail: momarques@uol.com.br; Todreas, Neil E.; Driscoll, Michael J. [Massachusetts Inst.of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2000-07-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the feasibility and effectiveness of water injection into the annulus between the calandria tubes and the pressure tubes of CANDU reactors. The purpose is to provide an efficient decay heat removal process that avoids permanent deformation of pressure tubes severe accident conditions, such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The water injection may present the benefit of cost reduction and better actuation of other related safety systems. The experimental work was conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in a setup that simulated, as close as possible, a CANDU bundle annular configuration, with heat fluxes on the order of 90 kW/m{sup 2}: the inner cylinder simulates the pressure tube and the outer tube represents the calandria tube. The experimental matrix had three dimensions: power level, annulus water level and boundary conditions. The results achieved overall heat transfer coefficients (U), which are comparable to those required (for nominal accident progression) to avoid pressure tube permanent deformation, considering current CANDU reactor data. Nonetheless, future work should be carried out to investigate the fluid dynamics such as blowdown behavior, in the peak bundle, and the system lay-out inside the containment to provide fast water injection. (author)

  17. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  18. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  19. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-02-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  20. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-01-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  1. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  2. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS for interventional tool guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Guo

    Full Text Available Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  3. Use of liposomes as injectable-drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostro, M J; Cullis, P R

    1989-08-01

    The formation of liposomes and their application as delivery systems for injectable drugs are described. Liposomes are microscopic vesicles composed of one or more lipid membranes surrounding discrete aqueous compartments. These vesicles can encapsulate water-soluble drugs in their aqueous spaces and lipid-soluble drugs within the membrane itself. Liposomes release their contents by interacting with cells in one of four ways: adsorption, endocytosis, lipid exchange, or fusion. Liposome-entrapped drugs are distributed within the body much differently than free drugs; when administered intravenously to healthy animals and humans, most of the injected vesicles accumulate in the liver, spleen, lungs, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. Liposomes also accumulate preferentially at the sites of inflammation and infection and in some solid tumors; however, the reason for this accumulation is not clear. Four major factors influence liposomes' in vivo behavior and biodistribution: (1) liposomes tend to leak if cholesterol is not included in the vesicle membrane, (2) small liposomes are cleared more slowly than large liposomes, (3) the half-life of a liposome increases as the lipid dose increases, and (4) charged liposomal systems are cleared more rapidly than uncharged systems. The most advanced application of liposome-based therapy is in the treatment of systemic fungal infections, especially with amphotericin B. Liposomes are also under investigation for treatment of neoplastic disorders. Liposomes' uses in cancer therapy include encapsulation of known antineoplastic agents such as doxorubicin and methotrexate, delivery of immune modulators such as N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine-D-isoglutamine, and encapsulation of new chemical entities that are synthesized with lipophilic segments tailored for insertion into lipid bilayers. Liposomal formulations of injectable antimicrobial agents and antineoplastic agents already are undergoing clinical testing, and most probably will receive

  4. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS) for interventional tool guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  5. Methodology for surge pressure evaluation in a water injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliande, Patricia; Nascimento, Elson A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Mascarenhas, Flavio C.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica Computacional; Dandoulakis, Joao P. [SHELL of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Predicting transient effects, known as surge pressures, is of high importance for offshore industry. It involves detailed computer modeling that attempts to simulate the complex interaction between flow line and fluid in order to ensure efficient system integrity. Platform process operators normally raise concerns whether the water injection system is adequately designed or not to be protected against possible surge pressures during sudden valve closure. This report aims to evaluate the surge pressures in Bijupira and Salema water injection systems due to valve closure, through a computer model simulation. Comparisons among the results from empirical formulations are discussed and supplementary analysis for Salema system were performed in order to define the maximum volumetric flow rate for which the design pressure was able to withstand. Maximum surge pressure values of 287.76 bar and 318.58 bar, obtained in Salema and Bijupira respectively, using empirical formulations have surpassed the operating pressure design, while the computer model results have pointed the greatest surge pressure value of 282 bar in Salema system. (author)

  6. Strontium-rich injectable hybrid system for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Nuno, E-mail: nsmneves@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); INEB — Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal); FMUP — Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Cirurgia, Serviço de Ortopedia, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Campos, Bruno B. [FCUP — Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Centro de Investigação em Química, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Rua do Campo Alegre 1021/1055, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Almeida, Isabel F.; Costa, Paulo C. [FFUP — Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratório de Tecnologia Farmacêutica, Departamento de Ciências do Medicamento, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Cabral, Abel Trigo [FMUP — Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Cirurgia, Serviço de Ortopedia, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2016-02-01

    Current challenges in the development of scaffolds for bone regeneration include the engineering of materials that can withstand normal dynamic physiological mechanical stresses exerted on the bone and provide a matrix capable of supporting cell migration and tissue ingrowth. The objective of the present work was to develop and characterize a hybrid polymer–ceramic injectable system that consists of an alginate matrix crosslinked in situ in the presence of strontium (Sr), incorporating a ceramic reinforcement in the form of Sr-rich microspheres. The incorporation of Sr in the microspheres and in the vehicle relies on the growing evidence that Sr has beneficial effects in bone remodeling and in the treatment of osteopenic disorders and osteoporosis. Sr-rich porous hydroxyapatite microspheres with a uniform size and a mean diameter of 555 μm were prepared, and their compression strength and friability tested. A 3.5% (w/v) ultrapure sodium alginate solution was used as the vehicle and its in situ gelation was promoted by the addition of calcium (Ca) or Sr carbonate and Glucone-δ-lactone. Gelation times varied with temperature and crosslinking agent, being slower for Sr than for Ca, but adequate for injection in both cases. Injectability was evaluated using a device employed in vertebroplasty surgical procedures, coupled to a texture analyzer in compression mode. Compositions with 35% w of microspheres presented the best compromise between injectability and compression strength of the system, the force required to extrude it being lower than 100 N. Micro CT analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of the microspheres inside the vehicle, and a mean inter-microspheres space of 220 μm. DMA results showed that elastic behavior of the hybrid is dominant over the viscous one and that the higher storage modulus was obtained for the 3.5%Alg–35%Sr-HAp-Sr formulation. - Highlights: • We developed a Sr rich viscoelastic hybrid system (alginate matrix crosslinked in

  7. StakeMeter: value-based stakeholder identification and quantification framework for value-based software systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Muhammad Imran; Ghazali, Masitah; Jawawi, Dayang N A; Bin Zaheer, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    Value-based requirements engineering plays a vital role in the development of value-based software (VBS). Stakeholders are the key players in the requirements engineering process, and the selection of critical stakeholders for the VBS systems is highly desirable. Based on the stakeholder requirements, the innovative or value-based idea is realized. The quality of the VBS system is associated with the concrete set of valuable requirements, and the valuable requirements can only be obtained if all the relevant valuable stakeholders participate in the requirements elicitation phase. The existing value-based approaches focus on the design of the VBS systems. However, the focus on the valuable stakeholders and requirements is inadequate. The current stakeholder identification and quantification (SIQ) approaches are neither state-of-the-art nor systematic for the VBS systems. The existing approaches are time-consuming, complex and inconsistent which makes the initiation process difficult. Moreover, the main motivation of this research is that the existing SIQ approaches do not provide the low level implementation details for SIQ initiation and stakeholder metrics for quantification. Hence, keeping in view the existing SIQ problems, this research contributes in the form of a new SIQ framework called 'StakeMeter'. The StakeMeter framework is verified and validated through case studies. The proposed framework provides low-level implementation guidelines, attributes, metrics, quantification criteria and application procedure as compared to the other methods. The proposed framework solves the issues of stakeholder quantification or prioritization, higher time consumption, complexity, and process initiation. The framework helps in the selection of highly critical stakeholders for the VBS systems with less judgmental error.

  8. StakeMeter: value-based stakeholder identification and quantification framework for value-based software systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Babar

    Full Text Available Value-based requirements engineering plays a vital role in the development of value-based software (VBS. Stakeholders are the key players in the requirements engineering process, and the selection of critical stakeholders for the VBS systems is highly desirable. Based on the stakeholder requirements, the innovative or value-based idea is realized. The quality of the VBS system is associated with the concrete set of valuable requirements, and the valuable requirements can only be obtained if all the relevant valuable stakeholders participate in the requirements elicitation phase. The existing value-based approaches focus on the design of the VBS systems. However, the focus on the valuable stakeholders and requirements is inadequate. The current stakeholder identification and quantification (SIQ approaches are neither state-of-the-art nor systematic for the VBS systems. The existing approaches are time-consuming, complex and inconsistent which makes the initiation process difficult. Moreover, the main motivation of this research is that the existing SIQ approaches do not provide the low level implementation details for SIQ initiation and stakeholder metrics for quantification. Hence, keeping in view the existing SIQ problems, this research contributes in the form of a new SIQ framework called 'StakeMeter'. The StakeMeter framework is verified and validated through case studies. The proposed framework provides low-level implementation guidelines, attributes, metrics, quantification criteria and application procedure as compared to the other methods. The proposed framework solves the issues of stakeholder quantification or prioritization, higher time consumption, complexity, and process initiation. The framework helps in the selection of highly critical stakeholders for the VBS systems with less judgmental error.

  9. Competitiveness Level of Photovoltaic Solar Systems in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso: Study Based on the Domestic Electric Meters Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan Lambert Amani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean cost price of electricity in Burkina Faso at the end of the last quarter of 2012 was 158 FCFA/kWh for a country where more than 46% of the population lives below the national poverty threshold. To look for solution to that problem, the resort to photovoltaic solar energy is justified for that country. The purpose of this study is to promote the integration of both technical and economical surveys in solar energy preliminary projects in Ouagadougou. To reach that, investigations were carried out in some households and attention was paid from the calibration of the domestic electric meters. Energy demands collected within each household allow us to design a corresponding solar kit through optimization rules. An estimate was edited and financial viability study for each household was also carried out thereafter. In this study, only households using the national electricity network calibration meter on their disadvantage favorably answered to all financial indicators and appear as the only one that could profit from such project. This work is helpful to note that photovoltaic solar energy still stays at a primitive level of competitiveness compared to conventional energy resources for small systems in Ouagadougou.

  10. On privacy-preserving protocols for smart metering systems security and privacy in smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Borges de Oliveira, Fábio

    2017-01-01

    This book presents current research in privacy-preserving protocols for smart grids. It contains several approaches and compares them analytically and by means of simulation. In particular, the book introduces asymmetric DC-Nets, which offer an ideal combination of performance and features in comparison with homomorphic encryption; data anonymization via cryptographic protocols; and data obfuscation by means of noise injection or by means of the installation of storage banks. The author shows that this theory can be leveraged into several application scenarios, and how asymmetric DC-Nets are generalizations of additive homomorphic encryption schemes and abstractions of symmetric DC-Nets. The book provides the reader with an understanding about smart grid scenarios, the privacy problem, and the mathematics and algorithms used to solve it.

  11. Control System of Neutral Beam Injection on HT-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yongjun; Hu Chundong; Liu Zhimin; Liu Sheng; Song Shihua; Yang Daoye

    2005-01-01

    Neutral Beam Injection control system (NBICS) is constructed to measure the plasma current, Magnet current, vacuum pressure, cryopump temperature, control water cooling, filament voltage, and power supply, etc. The NBICS, consisting mainly of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) subsystem, data acquisition and processing subsystem and cryopump and vacuum pressure monitoring subsystem, has successfully been used on a NBI device. In this article, the design of NBICS on HT-7 is discussed and each subsystem is described in particular.In addition, some experimental results are reported which are very important data for further research related to the HT-7 tokamak.

  12. Injection system for microtron-based terehertz FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakevich, Grigory M.; Kuznetsov, Gennady I.; Pavlov, Viatcheslav M.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Jeong, Young Uk; Park, Seong Hee; Lee, Byung Cheol; /KAERI, Taejon

    2005-09-01

    A reliable injection system of the widely tunable microtron-based terahertz Free Electron Laser (FEL) has been developed and during last few years provides stable operation of the FEL for users. The system is based on the long-life thermionic cathode assembly using 2.5 mm-in diameter monocrystalline LaB{sub 6} emitter, heated by the tungsten cylindrical filament with the power consumption less than 55 W. The cathode emits the macro-pulse current in the range of 1-1.4 A providing operation of the terahertz FEL during more than 1000 h. The cathode assembly is installed on the cover of the I-type microtron accelerating cavity in location providing an efficient injection for the acceleration with variable number of orbits. This variation widely changes the energy of the electron beam and allows on-the-fly retuning of the FEL in the range of 1-3 THz. Pulse-signal system stabilizing the emission current prevents randomized break-downs in the accelerating cavity and decreases fluctuations of the power of the FEL radiation. The standard deviation of the fluctuations was measured to be less than 10% during long-time operation.

  13. Injection System for Microtron-Based Terahertz FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakevich, G M

    2005-01-01

    A reliable injection system of the widely tunable microtron-based terahertz Free Electron Laser (FEL) has been developed and during last few years provides stable operation of the FEL for users. The system is based on the long-life thermionic cathode assembly using 2.5 mm-in diameter monocrystalline LaB6 emitter, heated by the tungsten cylindrical filament with the power consumption less than 50 W. The cathode emits the macro-pulse current in the range of 1-1.4 A providing operation of the terahertz FEL during more than 1000 h. The cathode assembly is installed on the cover of the I-type microtron accelerating cavity in location providing an efficient injection for the acceleration with variable number of orbits. This variation widely changes the energy of the electron beam and allows on-the-fly retuning of the FEL in the range of 1-3 THz. Pulse-signal system stabilizing the emission current prevents randomized break-downs in the accelerating cavity and decreases macro-pulse power fluctuations of the FEL radi...

  14. Linearisation via input-output injection of time delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramírez, Eduardo; Moog, Claude H.; Califano, Claudia; Alejandro Márquez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of linearisation of systems with constant commensurable delays by input-output injection using algebraic control tools based on the theory of non-commutative rings. Solutions for the problem of linearisation free of delays, and with delays of an observable nonlinear time-delay systems are presented based on the analysis of the input-output equation. These results are achieved by means of constructive algorithms that use the nth derivative of the output expressed in terms of the state-space variables instead of the explicit computation of the input-output representation of the system. Necessary and sufficient conditions are established in both cases by means of an invertible change of coordinates.

  15. Control of Surge in Centrifugal Compressor by Using a Nozzle Injection System: Universality in Optimal Position of Injection Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Hirano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The passive control method for surge and rotating stall in centrifugal compressors by using a nozzle injection system was proposed to extend the stable operating range to the low flow rate. A part of the flow at the scroll outlet of a compressor was recirculated to an injection nozzle installed on the inner wall of the suction pipe of the compressor through the bypass pipe and injected to the impeller inlet. Two types of compressors were tested at the rotational speeds of 50,000 rpm and 60,000 rpm with the parameter of the circumferential position of the injection nozzle. The present experimental results revealed that the optimum circumferential position, which most effectively reduced the flow rate for the surge inception, existed at the opposite side of the tongue of the scroll against the rotational axis and did not depend on the compressor system and the rotational speeds.

  16. Development of wide range current signal data acquisition system for reactivity meter using Keithley electrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, S. H.; Kim, H. K.; Chio, Y. S.; Kim, M. J.; Woo, J. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    The reactivity worth of control rods is measured to ensure safety every refueling phase in HANARO, the research reactor in KAERI. Two compensated ion chambers are installed around the outer core to measure the reactor power. The signals from CICs enter the reactivity computer system. The reactivity computer system operated on MS-DOS was developed during the commissioning phase. But it is not so user-friendly, is so outdated and difficult to aquire spare parts. Hence we decided to upgrade the system to utilize MS-Windows {sup TM} operating system and object oriented visual program language. This paper describes the data acquisition system developed for the new reactivity computer system operated on MS-Windows{sup TM} operating system. This data acquisition system uses electrometers for converting low current signal to voltage and measures the current signal accurately even though the electrometer change the range of the output automatically. We verified that the system was stable and acquired the input signals accurately.

  17. Wireless MSEB Meter Reading Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja U.Shinde

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The electricity is very essential in day to day life. Most of industries are running with electricity. In commercial areas also electricity plays very vital role and hence electricity is backbone of any developing nation. To measure the consumed electricity and generate Electricity bill, the energy meters are provided to each and every consumer. This project is use to take meter reading wirelessly by using transceiver which provides accuracy and speed in MSEB meter reading. In this work, Micro controller plays the main role. This circuit contains the LCD, RF transmitter, RF receiver, Energy meter, switch, RS 232 etc. This project uses one Microcontroller, LCD, RF transceiver module, energy meter and relay for connecting load. Meter reading is the technology of automatically collecting data from energy meter and transferring that data to a central database for billing and/or analyzing. This saves employee trips and means that billing can be based on actual consumption rather than on an estimate based on previous consumption, giving customers better control of their use of electric energy. The Transmitter is connected to the meter and it counts the pulses from it and displays it over the LCD. It transmits the data over radio frequency. This network technology overcome all the difficulties of earlier billing system and become more advantageous and accurate.

  18. Microcontroller-driven fluid-injection system for atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasas, S; Alonso, L; Jacquet, P; Adamcik, J; Haeberli, C; Dietler, G

    2010-01-01

    We present a programmable microcontroller-driven injection system for the exchange of imaging medium during atomic force microscopy. Using this low-noise system, high-resolution imaging can be performed during this process of injection without disturbance. This latter circumstance was exemplified by the online imaging of conformational changes in DNA molecules during the injection of anticancer drug into the fluid chamber.

  19. Multiple dopant injection system for small rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakala, G. G.; Raines, N. G.

    1992-07-01

    The Diagnostics Test Facility (DTF) at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) was designed and built to provide a standard rocket engine exhaust plume for use in the research and development of engine health monitoring instrumentation. A 1000 lb thrust class liquid oxygen (LOX)-gaseous hydrogen (GH2) fueled rocket engine is used as the subscale plume source to simulate the SSME during experimentation and instrument development. The ability of the DTF to provide efficient, and low cost test operations makes it uniquely suited for plume diagnostic experimentation. The most unique feature of the DTF is the Multiple Dopant Injection System (MDIS) that is used to seed the exhaust plume with the desired element or metal alloy. The dopant injection takes place at the fuel injector, yielding a very uniform and homogeneous distribution of the seeding material in the exhaust plume. The MDIS allows during a single test firing of the DTF, the seeding of the exhaust plume with up to three different dopants and also provides distilled water base lines between the dopants. A number of plume diagnostic-related experiments have already utilized the unique capabilities of the DTF.

  20. New ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; In, Sang-Ryul

    2012-02-01

    The neutral beam injection system (NBI-1) of the KSTAR tokamak can accommodate three ion sources; however, it is currently equipped with only one prototype ion source. In the 2010 and 2011 KSTAR campaigns, this ion source supplied deuterium neutral beam power of 0.7-1.6 MW to the KSTAR plasma with a beam energy of 70-100 keV. A new ion source will be prepared for the 2012 KSTAR campaign with a much advanced performance compared with the previous one. The newly designed ion source has a very large transparency (∼56%) without deteriorating the beam optics, which is designed to deliver a 2 MW injection power of deuterium beams at 100 keV. The plasma generator of the ion source is of a horizontally cusped bucket type, and the whole inner wall, except the cathode filaments and plasma grid side, functions as an anode. The accelerator assembly consists of four multi-circular aperture grids made of copper and four electrode flanges made of aluminum alloy. The electrodes are insulated using PEEK. The ion source will be completed and tested in 2011.

  1. The One-Meter Dash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Mattie J.

    1977-01-01

    A game for two teams employs dice, meter sticks, and Cuisenaire rods. The game gives practice in number facts, regrouping, and use of rods; it can also serve as an introduction to the metric system. (SD)

  2. Healthcare Energy Metering Guidance (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This brochure is intended to help facility and energy managers plan and prioritize investments in energy metering. It offers healthcare-specific examples of metering applications, benefits, and steps that other health systems can reproduce. It reflects collaborative input from the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories and the health system members of the DOE Hospital Energy Alliance's Benchmarking and Measurement Project Team.

  3. How to Represent 100-meter Spatial Heterogeneity in Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Nathaniel; Shevliakova, Elena; Malyshev, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems play a pivotal role in the Earth system; they have a profound impact on the global climate, food and energy production, freshwater resources, and biodiversity. One of the most fascinating yet challenging aspects of characterizing terrestrial ecosystems is their field-scale (~100 m) spatial heterogeneity. It has been observed repeatedly that the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles at multiple temporal and spatial scales have deep ties to an ecosystem's spatial structure. Current Earth system models largely disregard this important relationship leading to an inadequate representation of ecosystem dynamics. In this presentation, we will show how existing hyperresolution environmental datasets can be harnessed to explicitly represent field-scale spatial heterogeneity in Earth system models. For each macroscale grid cell, these environmental data are clustered according to their field-scale soil and topographic attributes to define unique sub-grid tiles or hydrologic response units (HRUs). The novel Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) LM3-TiHy-PPA land model is then used to simulate these HRUs and their spatial interactions via the exchange of water, energy, and nutrients along explicit topographic gradients. Using historical simulations over the contiguous United States, we will show how a robust representation of field-scale spatial heterogeneity impacts modeled ecosystem dynamics including the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles as well as vegetation composition and distribution.

  4. Propellant Feed System for Swirl-Coaxial Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A propellant feed system for swirl-coaxial injection of a liquid propellant includes a reservoir having a bottom plate and at least one tube originating in the bottom plate and extending therefrom. The tube has rectangular slits defined in and distributed tangentially and evenly about a portion of the tube that is disposed in the bottom plate. Drain holes are provided in the bottom plate and tunnels are defined in the bottom plate. Each tunnel fluidly couples one of the drain holes to a corresponding one of the rectangular slits. Each tunnel includes (i) a bend of at least 90.degree., and (ii) a straight portion leading to its corresponding rectangular slit wherein the straight portion is at least five times as long as a hydraulic diameter of the corresponding rectangular slit.

  5. Performance of the RHIC Injection Line Instrumentation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; Ryan, W. A.; Smith, G.; Zitvogel, E.

    1997-05-01

    The beam injection line from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) transports proton and heavy ion bunches. This line and the RHIC first sextant currently contain thefollowing complement of beam instrumentation: stripline position monitors, ionization loss monitors, video profile monitors, and commercial current transformers. Over several years, these systems have been designed and bench tested to assure a desired performance level. The design criteria will be briefly reviewed. Then, using data from laboratory tests and the recent single pass beam tests, desired performance and attained performance will be compared. Finally, experience from the beam based tests will be applied to the design criteria for the future collider ring instrumentation.

  6. Vacuum systems of linear accelerators of the NICA injection complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosachev, V. V.; Bazanov, A. M.; Butenko, A. V.; Galimov, A. R.; Nesterov, A. V.; Pivin, R. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The NICA project, which includes several accelerators of charged particles, is under construction in the Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna. Obtaining the required vacuum conditions is one of the key points in implementing the project, because reaching the required ion lifetime at all stages of particle acceleration is what determines the effective luminosity of the experiments in the long run. Currently, modernization of the vacuum system of the injection complex of the LU-20 linear accelerator of light ions, one of oldest accelerators in the JINR, is being carried out and the new HILAC linear accelerator for the acceleration of gold ions in the collider mode of the NICA complex is being installed. At the end parts of the linear accelerators, the residual gas pressure must be approximately 10-5 Pa, which is determined by the maximum amplitude of the RF electric field used for the acceleration of ions.

  7. Clinical Application of the Sapphire Unfolder Lens Injection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiai Guo; Danying Zheng; Zhenyu Li; Yiyong Qian; Zhenping Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To summarize the clinical experience of 300 cases using the Sapphire unfloder intraocular lens (IOL) injection system.Methods: After the standard phacoemulsification, an AR40e IOL was implanted using the Sapphire Unfolder. The involved problems during and after the operation were observed and analyzed.Results:The complications occurred during the operation including the crack at the haptic-optic junction in 2 cases, slight kink in the haptic in 5 cases, IOL clamp into the cartridge in 2 cases, posterior capsular rupture in 2 cases and endothelium damage in the central small area in 4 cases. All the patients recovered successfully with IOLs in good position.Conclusion: IOL implantation with the Sapphire Unfolder led to no serious complications and got the satisfactory results.

  8. Web manage system based on intelligent electric meter%基于智能电表的web管理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小雷; 游向东; 邹晓佳; 张栩

    2014-01-01

    The management system designed to achieve the power management scheme for visualization, using B/S design mode, users need only a browser and can implement web management on electric power data. The system uses Oracle as the database, Tomcat as the web server, and SSH (struts2+spring+hibernate) as the framework, stable and reliable. The function of the system includes the privilege management for power users, the smart meter input, single distribution, fault management and so on.%本管理系统旨在实现可视化的电力管理方案,采用B/S设计模式,用户只需要一个浏览器,就可以实现对电力数据的web管理。本系统以oracle为数据库,tomcat为web服务器,采用SSH(struts2+spring+hibernate)框架,可以实现对电力用户的权限管理,智能电表的录入,工单的派发,故障的管理等功能。

  9. Embedded solution for a microwave moisture meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter is based on the free-space transmission measurement technique and uses low-intensity microwaves to measure the attenuation and p...

  10. Experimental investigations of a single cylinder genset engine with common rail fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Paras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance and emissions characteristics of compression ignition (CI engines are strongly dependent on quality of fuel injection. In an attempt to improve engine combustion, engine performance and reduce the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder constant speed genset engine, a common rail direct injection (CRDI fuel injection system was deployed and its injection timings were optimized. Results showed that 34°CA BTDC start of injection (SOI timings result in lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and smoke opacity. Advanced injection timings showed higher cylinder peak pressure, pressure rise rate, and heat release rate due to relatively longer ignition delay experienced.

  11. Core-satellite populations and seasonality of water meter biofilms in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Fangqiong; Hwang, Chiachi; LeChevallier, Mark W; Andersen, Gary L; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-03-01

    Drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) harbor the microorganisms in biofilms and suspended communities, yet the diversity and spatiotemporal distribution have been studied mainly in the suspended communities. This study examined the diversity of biofilms in an urban DWDS, its relationship with suspended communities and its dynamics. The studied DWDS in Urbana, Illinois received conventionally treated and disinfected water sourced from the groundwater. Over a 2-year span, biomass were sampled from household water meters (n=213) and tap water (n=20) to represent biofilm and suspended communities, respectively. A positive correlation between operational taxonomic unit (OTU) abundance and occupancy was observed. Examined under a 'core-satellite' model, the biofilm community comprised 31 core populations that encompassed 76.7% of total 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequences. The biofilm communities shared with the suspended community highly abundant and prevalent OTUs, which related to methano-/methylotrophs (i.e., Methylophilaceae and Methylococcaceae) and aerobic heterotrophs (Sphingomonadaceae and Comamonadaceae), yet differed by specific core populations and lower diversity and evenness. Multivariate tests indicated seasonality as the main contributor to community structure variation. This pattern was resilient to annual change and correlated to the cyclic fluctuations of core populations. The findings of a distinctive biofilm community assemblage and methano-/methyltrophic primary production provide critical insights for developing more targeted water quality monitoring programs and treatment strategies for groundwater-sourced drinking water systems.

  12. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  13. StakeMeter: Value-Based Stakeholder Identification and Quantification Framework for Value-Based Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Muhammad Imran; Ghazali, Masitah; Jawawi, Dayang N. A.; Zaheer, Kashif Bin

    2015-01-01

    Value-based requirements engineering plays a vital role in the development of value-based software (VBS). Stakeholders are the key players in the requirements engineering process, and the selection of critical stakeholders for the VBS systems is highly desirable. Based on the stakeholder requirements, the innovative or value-based idea is realized. The quality of the VBS system is associated with the concrete set of valuable requirements, and the valuable requirements can only be obtained if all the relevant valuable stakeholders participate in the requirements elicitation phase. The existing value-based approaches focus on the design of the VBS systems. However, the focus on the valuable stakeholders and requirements is inadequate. The current stakeholder identification and quantification (SIQ) approaches are neither state-of-the-art nor systematic for the VBS systems. The existing approaches are time-consuming, complex and inconsistent which makes the initiation process difficult. Moreover, the main motivation of this research is that the existing SIQ approaches do not provide the low level implementation details for SIQ initiation and stakeholder metrics for quantification. Hence, keeping in view the existing SIQ problems, this research contributes in the form of a new SIQ framework called ‘StakeMeter’. The StakeMeter framework is verified and validated through case studies. The proposed framework provides low-level implementation guidelines, attributes, metrics, quantification criteria and application procedure as compared to the other methods. The proposed framework solves the issues of stakeholder quantification or prioritization, higher time consumption, complexity, and process initiation. The framework helps in the selection of highly critical stakeholders for the VBS systems with less judgmental error. PMID:25799490

  14. Continuous, pulsed and stopped flow in a u-flow injection system (numerical vs experimental)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Akker, E.B.; Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of continuous, pulsed and stopped flow on the dispersion of a sample injected into a μ-flow injection system were studied. A channel with a volume of 1 μl was used to compare experimental results with numerical results. The injection was 0.067 μl of bromocresolgreen solution into a borax

  15. Continuous, pulsed and stopped flow in a μ-flow injection system (numerical vs experimental)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van E.B.; Bos, M.; Linden, van der W.E.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of continuous, pulsed and stopped flow on the dispersion of a sample injected into a μ-flow injection system were studied. A channel with a volume of 1 μl was used to compare experimental results with numerical results. The injection was 0.067 μl of bromocresolgreen solution into a borax

  16. Flow Injection/Sequential Injection Analysis Systems: Potential Use as Tools for Rapid Liver Diseases Biomarker Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Kradtap Hartwell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow injection/sequential injection analysis (FIA/SIA systems are suitable for carrying out automatic wet chemical/biochemical reactions with reduced volume and time consumption. Various parts of the system such as pump, valve, and reactor may be built or adapted from available materials. Therefore the systems can be at lower cost as compared to other instrumentation-based analysis systems. Their applications for determination of biomarkers for liver diseases have been demonstrated in various formats of operation but only a few and limited types of biomarkers have been used as model analytes. This paper summarizes these applications for different types of reactions as a guide for using flow-based systems in more biomarker and/or multibiomarker studies.

  17. Experiments on Plasma Injection into a Centrifugally Confined System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, S.; Bomgardner, R.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Uzun-Kaymak, I.; Elton, R.; Young, W.; Teodorescu, C.; Morales, C. H.; Ellis, R. F.

    2009-11-01

    We describe the cross-field injection of plasma into a centrifugally-confined system. Two different types of plasma railgun have been installed on the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) in an attempt to drive that plasma's rotation. The initial gun was a coaxial device designed to mitigate the blowby instability. The second one was a MiniRailgun with a rectangular bore oriented so that the MCX magnetic field augments the railgun's internal magnetic field. Tests at HyperV indicate this MiniRailgun reaches much higher densities than the original gun, although muzzle velocity is slightly reduced. We discuss the impact of these guns on MCX for various conditions. Initial results show that even for a 2 kG field, firing the MiniRailgun modifies oscillations of the MCX diamagnetic loops and can impact the core current and voltage. The gun also has a noticeable impact on MCX microwave emissions. These observations suggest plasma enters the MCX system. We also compare diagnostic data collected separately from MCX for these and other guns, focussing primarily on magnetic measurements.

  18. The new control system of the SPS injection kicker

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Marchand, A; Verhagen, H

    2002-01-01

    The SPS accelerator will be used as injector for the LHC and has to be adapted to the LHC requirements. The tight specification on beam blow-up and bunch spacing in the SPS has required an upgrade program of the SPS injection kicker in order to obtain a reduction of the magnetic field ripple to less than ± 0.5% and of the magnet current rise time to less than 145 ns. In this context, the slow control part has been entirely rebuilt on the basis of off-the-shelf industrial components. A hierarchical architecture based on a SIEMENS S7-400 master programmable logic controller interconnected through PROFIBUS-DP to S7-300 deported and decentralised I/Os has been implemented. Integration of in-house specific G-64 hardware systems inside this industrial environment has been done through a PROFIBUS-DP to G-64 intelligent interface based on an OEM fieldbus mezzanine board on one side and an FPGA implementing the required functionality on the other. Simultaneously, the fast timing system has been completely reshuffled ...

  19. Development of radiation detection and measurement systems - The development of a domestic model of portable radiation survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Koo; Choi, Kang; Kim, Jong Nam; Son, Keum Jong; Kim, Ji Kwang [Radiation Technology Research Lab., Seoul (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The internal circuit board and operating program were developed for the portable radiation survey meter with a small GM tube, and then tested for the performance verification. The signal of GM tube in the detection unit is taken form the cathode and pulsed out to be a standard digital pulse by a signal processor. The control and operation unit counts the signals and also calculates the counting errors. The data of signal counts and errors are transferred to the display unit. The LCD panel of the display unit is manufactured as the design resulted from this work. The panel attached with EL back-light displays in multiplex mode. The whole circuit is designed to have a small power consumption sufficiently for the portable instrument. The operating program is coded by C language. The program is on-power performs a self-test on counting circuit and then operates the main functions of the pulse counting, switch scanning, LCD panel controlling and the battery voltage measuring of the detector system with the time-interrupter. The prototype board of the internal circuit is tested with respect to the functional operation, counting performance, signal response characteristics and battery life-time. It was founded that the circuit is operated as the design functions. Also, these test result shows that those performances of the prototype board are better than those of the existing foreign products. 23 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  20. 基于计算机视觉的电能表检测系统%Power Meter Detection System Based on Computer Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮春雷; 姚明海; 黄磊

    2013-01-01

      通过对计算机视觉模板匹配基本算法的研究,改进了基本的模板匹配算法.基于 OpenCV 开源平台,在VC++6.0的开发环境中设计了一套智能电表检测系统,该系统采用了改进的模板匹配算法,可在线有效检测电能表的多处信息,并对缺陷进行统计,有助于厂商改善产品质量,保证了电能表出厂的可靠性.实验表明系统检测速度快、实时性好.%This paper improved the template matching algorithm through the study of the basic algorithm of template matching on computer vision. Based on OpenCV open-source platform, a smart meter detection system is designed by VC++6.0. The system utilizes the improved template matching algorithm and detects multiple information of the power meter in effect and calculates defects. It’s very helpful to improve the quality of the power meter and ensure the reliability of the power meter. The experiments show that the system detects fast and real-time.

  1. Fault Diagnosis Technology Applied in Metering Automation Systems%故障诊断技术在计量自动化系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    危阜胜; 肖勇; 陈锐民

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the development of the remote fault diagnosis technology and the metering automation system home and abroad, and analyzing some fault maintenance problems of the metering automation terminal, this paper puts forward a solution to the field operation metering automation terminal fault remote diagnostic, and independently develops an expert system of the metering automation terminal remote fault diagnosis. The system has realized the field large-scale measurement automation terminal remote fault diagnosis for the first time.%介绍国内外远程故障诊断技术研究的进展情况和计量自动化系统的发展历程,分析计量自动化终端故障维护面临的问题,提出一种现场运行计量自动化终端故障远程诊断的解决方案,自主开发计量自动化终端远程故障诊断专家系统,首次实现对现场大规模计量自动化终端的远程故障诊断。

  2. Multitasking metering enhances generation, transmission operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, E.

    2008-11-15

    The Dairyland Power Cooperative (DPC) which operates from La Crosse, Wisconsin has the capacity to generate and transmit 1000 MW of power to 25 member cooperatives and 20 municipalities who serve over 500,000 customers. When DPC was experiencing diminished service within its analog cellular-based data communications system, it was presented with an opportunity to install a new automated telecommunications system that would provide secure collection of meter readings from all of its substations. DPC decided to evaluate an advanced multifunctional digital meter from Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The SEL-734 Revenue Metering System offers complete instantaneous metering functions, including voltages, currents, power, energy and power factor. Other capabilities include predictive demand, time-of-use metering, automatic voltage monitoring, harmonics metering and synchrophasor measurement. From a metering perspective, DPC wanted to perform daily load profiles and interval-by-interval metering of their delivery points for billing purposes. They also wanted to provide real-time monitoring of electricity being delivered for both generation and transmission purposes and to make that information available to a distribution SCADA system for their members. The SEL-734 Revenue Meter was well suited to those needs. The SEL-734 provides very high-accuracy energy metering, load profile data collection, instantaneous power measurements, power quality monitoring, and communicates simultaneously over a modem, serial ports, and wide area networks (WAN). The meter is backed with a ten-year warranty as well as field support engineers. 5 figs.

  3. DC injection into low voltage AC networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the impact of levels of injected DC current injections on a low voltage AC distribution network systems in order to recommend acceptable limits of DC from microgeneration. Relevant literature is reviewed, and the impact of DC levels in distribution transformers, transformer modelling, and instrumental transformers are discussed. The impact of DC in residual current devices (RCD) and in domestic electricity watt hour meters is examined along with DC enhanced corrosion, corrosion failure, and the measurement of DC current injection. Sources of DC injection outlined include DC from computer power supplies, network faults, geomagnetic phenomena, lighting circuits/dimmers, and embedded generators.

  4. The Expected Performance of the LHC Injection Protection System

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Ducimetière, L; Goddard, B; Lamont, M; Mertens, V

    2004-01-01

    The passive protection devices TDI, TCDD and TCLI are required to prevent damage to the LHC in case of serious injection failures, in particular of the MKI injection kicker. A detailed particle tracking, taking realistic mechanical, positioning, injection, closed orbit and local optical errors into account, has been used to determine the required settings of the absorber elements to guarantee protection against different MKI failure modes. The expected protection level of the combination of TDI with TCLI, with the new TCLI layout, is presented. Conclusions are drawn concerning the expected damage risk level.

  5. Your Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test and record how much sugar (called glucose) is in your ...

  6. Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) real-time controller preliminary architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, Dan; Smith, Malcolm; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi

    2016-08-01

    The Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) is the first light Adaptive Optics (AO) system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). A critical component of NFIRAOS is the Real-Time Controller (RTC) subsystem which provides real-time wavefront correction by processing wavefront information to compute Deformable Mirror (DM) and Tip/Tilt Stage (TTS) commands. The National Research Council of Canada - Herzberg (NRC-H), in conjunction with TMT, has developed a preliminary design for the NFIRAOS RTC. The preliminary architecture for the RTC is comprised of several Linux-based servers. These servers are assigned various roles including: the High-Order Processing (HOP) servers, the Wavefront Corrector Controller (WCC) server, the Telemetry Engineering Display (TED) server, the Persistent Telemetry Storage (PTS) server, and additional testing and spare servers. There are up to six HOP servers that accept high-order wavefront pixels, and perform parallelized pixel processing and wavefront reconstruction to produce wavefront corrector error vectors. The WCC server performs low-order mode processing, and synchronizes and aggregates the high-order wavefront corrector error vectors from the HOP servers to generate wavefront corrector commands. The Telemetry Engineering Display (TED) server is the RTC interface to TMT and other subsystems. The TED server receives all external commands and dispatches them to the rest of the RTC servers and is responsible for aggregating several offloading and telemetry values that are reported to other subsystems within NFIRAOS and TMT. The TED server also provides the engineering GUIs and real-time displays. The Persistent Telemetry Storage (PTS) server contains fault tolerant data storage that receives and stores telemetry data, including data for Point-Spread Function Reconstruction (PSFR).

  7. Core-satellite populations and seasonality of water meter biofilms in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Fangqiong

    2015-08-07

    © 2015 International Society for Microbial Ecology Drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) harbor the microorganisms in biofilms and suspended communities, yet the diversity and spatiotemporal distribution have been studied mainly in the suspended communities. This study examined the diversity of biofilms in an urban DWDS, its relationship with suspended communities and its dynamics. The studied DWDS in Urbana, Illinois received conventionally treated and disinfected water sourced from the groundwater. Over a 2-year span, biomass were sampled from household water meters (n=213) and tap water (n=20) to represent biofilm and suspended communities, respectively. A positive correlation between operational taxonomic unit (OTU) abundance and occupancy was observed. Examined under a ‘core-satellite’ model, the biofilm community comprised 31 core populations that encompassed 76.7% of total 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequences. The biofilm communities shared with the suspended community highly abundant and prevalent OTUs, which related to methano-/methylotrophs (i.e., Methylophilaceae and Methylococcaceae) and aerobic heterotrophs (Sphingomonadaceae and Comamonadaceae), yet differed by specific core populations and lower diversity and evenness. Multivariate tests indicated seasonality as the main contributor to community structure variation. This pattern was resilient to annual change and correlated to the cyclic fluctuations of core populations. The findings of a distinctive biofilm community assemblage and methano-/methyltrophic primary production provide critical insights for developing more targeted water quality monitoring programs and treatment strategies for groundwater-sourced drinking water systems.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 7 August 2015; doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.136.

  8. Blower Gun pellet injection system for W7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibon, M., E-mail: mathias.dibon@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Baldzuhn, J.; Beck, M. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cardella, A. [Lehrstuhl für Nukleartechnik, TU Munich, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Köchl, F. [Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Kocsis, G. [Wigner RCP, RMI, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest-114 (Hungary); Lang, P.T. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Macian-Juan, R. [Lehrstuhl für Nukleartechnik, TU Munich, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ploeckl, B. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Szepesi, T. [Wigner RCP, RMI, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest-114 (Hungary); Weisbart, W. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Operational principle of the ASDEX Upgrade Blower Gun. • Guiding tube properties for pellet guiding according to the requirements of W7-X. • Diagnostics for the characterization of the injection system. • Experimental procedure to investigate the performance of the Blower Gun. • Results concerning pellet speeds, mass loss, delivery efficiency and exit angle. - Abstract: Foreseen to perform pellet investigations in the new stellarator W7-X, the former ASDEX Upgrade Blower Gun was revised and revitalized. The systems operational characteristics have been surveyed in a test bed. The gun is designed to launch cylindrical pellets with 2 mm diameter and 2 mm length, produced from frozen deuterium D{sub 2}, hydrogen H{sub 2} or a gas mixture consisting of 50% H{sub 2} and 50% D{sub 2}. Pellets are accelerated by a short pulse of pressurized helium propellant gas to velocities in the range of 100–250 m/s. Delivery reliabilities at the launcher exit reach almost unity. The initial pellet mass is reduced to about 50% during the acceleration process. Pellet transfer to the plasma vessel was investigated by a first mock up guiding tube version. Transfer through this S-shaped stainless steel guiding tube (inner diameter 8 mm; length 6 m) containing two 1 m curvature radii was investigated for all pellet types. Tests were performed applying repetition rates from 2 Hz to 50 Hz and propellant gas pressures ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 MPa. For both H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}, low overall delivery efficiencies were observed at slow repetition rates, but stable efficiencies of about 90% above 10 Hz. About 10% of the mass is eroded while flying through the guiding tube. Pellets exit the guiding tube with an angular spread of less than 14°.

  9. Central Nervous System Toxicity After Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkhchoui, Yashar; Ghaly, Ramsis F.; Knezevic, N. Nick; Candido, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    Since Its first description of botulism toxicity in 1820s, specific formulations of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) have been introduced with different clinical benefits. However, there is increasing number of adverse events reported to Food and Drug Administration. This report presents the case of 62-year-old woman with Parkinson’s disease who received BoNT injections to treat painful spasticity in her hands. She developed severe generalized dystonia shortly after BoNT injections. PMID:24223367

  10. 天然气长输管道计量系统设计%Design of Metering System in Long-Distance Natural Gas Transportation Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋

    2016-01-01

    计量系统是天然气长输管道中的重要组成部分,介绍了长输管道计量系统中常用流量计特点,给出了计量系统仪表选型及设计的一般过程,详细说明了精度考虑、口径考虑、流速计算及回路配置等问题的设计原则及计算方法。给出了以气体超声流量计、在线气体色谱分析仪、流量计算机等构建的体积流量和能量流量的计量系统的典型配置。%Flow measurement system is an important component in long-distance natural gas transportation pipe; flowmeters usually used in gas metering are introduced and compared in this paper. Meter selection and general design procedure are also given out including accuracy consideration,diameter consideration,velocity calculation,loop configration,etc.A typical metering system based on ultrasonic meter,online chromatographic analyzer,flow computer is constructed.

  11. Micro Injection Molding of Thin Walled Geometries with Induction Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano;

    2014-01-01

    and moulding of smaller and more complex geometries. The last two aspects are very important in micro injection molding. In this paper a new embedded induction heating system is proposed and validated. An experimental investigation was performed based on a test geometry integrating different aspect ratios...... heating system with respect to improvement of replication quality, reduction of injection pressure and injection velocity as well as reduction of cycle time has been verified....

  12. Tracer-Encapsulated Solid Pellet (TESPEL) Injection System for the TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, N. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; McCarthy, K. J. [EURATOM-CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain; Hayashi, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Garcia, R. [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain; Panadero, N. [CIEMAT, Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Spain; Pawelec, E. [Opole University, Poland; Sanchez, J. Hernandez [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain; Navarro, M. [CIEMAT, Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Spain; Soleto, A. [CIEMAT, Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Spain

    2016-01-01

    A tracer-encapsulated solid pellet (TESPEL) injection system for the TJ-II stellarator was recently developed. In order to reduce the time and cost for the development, we combined a TESPEL injector provided by National Institute for Fusion Science with an existing TJ-II cryogenic pellet injection system. Consequently, the TESPEL injection into the TJ-II plasma was successfully achieved, which was confirmed by several pellet diagnostics including a normal-incidence spectrometer for monitoring a tracer impurity behavior.

  13. Differential topological characteristics of the DSR on injection space of electrical power system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余贻鑫; 曾沅; 冯飞

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the differential topological characteristics of the dynamic security region (DSR) on injection space of electrical power system by differential topology theories. It is shown that the boundary of the DSR on injection space has no suspension and is compact, and there are no holes inside the DSR defined based on controlling unstable equilibrium point (UEP) method. The 10-generator, 39-bus New England Test System, is taken as an example to show these characteristics of the DSR on injection space.

  14. Comparison of a needle-free high-pressure injection system with needle-tipped injection of intracavernosal alprostadil for erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, L M; Adeniyi, A; Everson, R; Barker, S; Ralph, D J; Baranowski, A P

    2002-12-01

    Patients identified from hospital records as using alprostadil injections for erectile dysfunction were invited to take part in this open crossover study. On alternate weeks eight patients were given intracavernosal needle injections and transdermal needle-free injection of alprostadil in a randomized order. Efficacy of injection and associated pain were assessed and compared for the two methods. Pain produced during injection was significantly greater with the needle-free system than with the needle-tipped injection whilst efficacy was significantly less. Bruising was reported in all except one patient following needle-free injection only. Patient ratings of the needle-free injector were significantly lower than ratings for needle-tipped alprostadil delivery and when asked to express a preference, every patient chose the needle-tipped injection over the needle-free device.

  15. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  16. Discussion and Design of Gas Ultrasonic Flow Metering System%气体超声波流量计量系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋; 刘少宇

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic flow metering (USM) system is one of the most popular metering systems used in long-distance natural gas transportation. Basic principle, characteristic and type of USM are introduced, and typical pipe configuration of USM loop is put forward. The elements including instrument and noise considered in USM loop system designing are deeply discussed. Noise reduction measure, typical configuration for the flow metering system, and some advices for USM system designing are given.%超声波流量计量系统是天然气长输管道中应用广泛的计量系统之一。介绍了超声波流量计的基本原理、特点、类型,给出了超声波流量计量回路的典型管路配置。探讨了超声波计量回路设计中应考虑的仪表、噪声因素。给出了降噪措施,流量计量系统的典型配置,超声波流量计系统设计中一些建议。

  17. 一种新型低压载波抄表系统的设计%A New Design of Low Voltage Carrier Meter Reading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴庆辉; 王治超

    2011-01-01

    低压载波抄表系统以其高效、便捷的智能化管理,得到日益广泛的应用。低压载波抄表系统用现有的低压电力线作为传输介质,不必另外架设通信电缆,能够大大节省系统的运行成本。在分析低压抄表系统原理及实现方法的基础上,提出一种采用新型芯片的集中器的设计。这种自动抄表系统,大大提高了抄表成功率,实现了数据的实时采集与远程控制,解决了传统抄表技术的根本性问题。%With the excellence of great efficiency and cortvenience,the low voltage power fine carrier communication automatic meter reading system is applied more and more widely. The system uses low power line as corresponding medium to transmit information,there is no need to set up communication cable and save the system operating cost. On the basis of analyzing the principles and methods of traditional meter Reading System ,the design of a concentrator designed by new technology chip was provided. The system can improve the rate of reading meters, achieve real-time acquisition and centralizes control of data, and solve the essential problem for the technology of traditional meter reading system.

  18. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office.

  19. Design of a Remote Meter Reading System Based on ZigBee and GPRS%基于ZigBee和GPRS的远程抄表系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蒙; 高仲合

    2014-01-01

    针对当前传统抄表效率低、成本高、劳动强度大等问题,提出了一种无线远程抄表方案。结合ZigBee无线短距离通信技术和GPRS技术设计了一套抄表系统,该系统广域网采用GPRS技术通信,局域网采用ZigBee无线短距离通信,该系统具有能耗低、稳定性强、成本低、通信安全可靠等特点。经现场试验测试,该系统能够完成数据采集、传输,抄表成功率高,同时该系统在医疗、环境监测等领域应用前景广阔。%Aiming at the problems of low efficiency, high cost, high labor intensity of traditional meter reading, this paper presents a wireless remote meter reading scheme. A set of automatic meter reading system design combining with ZigBee short distance wireless communication technology and GPRS technology. The wide area network of the system uses GPRS technology and the local area network uses ZigBee wireless short distance communication. The system is characterized by low energy consumption, high stability, low cost, safe and reliable communication. Through field test, the system proves being able to complete data acquisition and transmission for meter reading that has high success rate, at the same time, this system has the application prospect in the field of medical, environmental monitoring and so on.

  20. The Design of Intelligent Meter Reading System in Green Sensor Network%绿色传感网中智能抄表系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石彪; 林孝康; 张盛

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent application of electricity is an important aspect of green sensor network, of which AMI technology is the basic step to achieve smart grid. These make new requirements about meter's functionality and performance, so that smart meter technology takes a key part of the AMI technology. In this article, a smart meter design based on the solution of ST chips is proposed, with the measurement chip STPM01 and the controller using STM32F1O3. As for requirements of communications network in the smart metering, the design integrates transceiver based on wirelessHART protocol. This paper introduces the design of the meter system in AMI, gives a detailed description of parts of the circuit, and obtains the advantages of smart reading with integrated wirelessHART transceiver by comparing.%智能用电作为绿色传感器网应用的重要方面,其中的AMI是实现智能电网技术的基础性的一步,对电表的功用和性能提出了新的要求,使智能电表技术成为AMI技术的关键部分.本文基于ST公司的芯片方案,提出了一种智能电表设计方案,计量芯片采用STPM01,控制器采用STM32F103.针对智能抄表的通讯网络要求,该智能抄表方案集成了基于wirelessHART协议的收发模块.文章介绍了AMI中电表系统的设计,详细描述了方案的部分电路,并比较得出了wirelessHART协议抄表方案的优势.

  1. Injection systems for spark ignition engines within the limits of the optimization of particle emissions and CO{sub 2} optimization; Einspritzsysteme fuer Otto-Motoren im Spannungsfeld zwischen Partikelemissions- und CO{sub 2}-Optimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Holger; Roesel, Gerd; Achleitner, Erwin; Baecker, Harald; Tichy, Milos [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The spark ignition engine is worldwide the dominant driving unit. Due to the excellent ratio between cost and performance the spark ignition engine has to be further developed for the future market requirements like ''fun to drive'', low fuel consumption and stringent emission targets especially low particulate number. To reach these contradictory targets the fuel injection sytem, in particular for DI engines, plays a major role. Fuel metering and spray preparation are the key parameters for further improvement. Continental offers sustainable innovations for DI injection systems. This paper deals with requirements and solutions for gasoline fuel metering. Main functional parameters are discussed on market requirements. This is followed by a system approach. (orig.)

  2. Discussion on duplex interactive system construction of smart meter%基于智能电能表双向交互系统构建探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宏宇; 刘冰岩

    2015-01-01

    在电网公司智能电能表应用和用电信息采集系统建设取得了成效的基础上,进一步挖掘智能电能表的支撑能力,实现智能电能表与用户直接交互用电信息,用户与电网的实时互动,满足电力用户日益增长的互动化需求。通过对双向交互内容、现有智能电能表的改造、通讯组网方式、智能用电信息系统的扩展几方面进行探讨,提出了一种依托现有用采系统构建双向交互系统的建设方案。%On basis of the achievemient on the application of smart meter and the construction of power information ac -quisition system , this paper deeply delves the supporting capacity of smart meter to realize the direct information inter -active between smart meter and its users , and the real-time interaction between users and grid , so as to meet the in-creasing interaction requirements of power users .By means of discussing duplex interactive contents , the existing smart meter modification , communication network mode , and the expansion of smart power information system , this paper proposed a construction scheme of building duplex interactive system relying on existing power information ac -quisition system .

  3. Upgrades to the LHC Injection and Beam Dumping Systems for the HL-LHC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, Jan; Goddard, Brennan; Hrivnak, Jan; Lechner, Anton; Maciariello, Fausto; Mereghetti, Alessio; Perillo Marcone, Antonio; Vittal Shetty, N; Shetty, Nikhil Vittal; Steele, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    The HL-LHC project will push the performance of the LHC injection and beam dumping systems towards new limits. This paper describes the systems affected and presents the new beam parameters for these systems. It also describes the studies to be performed to determine which sub-components of these systems need to be upgraded to fulfil the new HL-LHC requirements. The results from the preliminary upgrade studies for the injection absorbers TDI are presented.

  4. 浅析电力计量自动化系统的综合应用%Superficial Analysis of Comprehensive Application of Electric Power Metering Automation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任辉

    2015-01-01

    The power metering automation system is a new mode of electric power measurement, is a fusion of modern advanced technology of the integrated system can be timely to electricity demand for collection, analysis and processing, so as to improve the quality and efficiency of the electric power metering. Therefore, a simple analysis of the integrated application of electric power metering automation system is carried out.%电力计量自动化系统是一种新型的电力计量方式,是融合了现代各种先进技术的综合性系统,可及时对用电需求进行采集、分析和处理,从而提高电力计量的工作质量和效率。因此,主要对电力计量自动化系统的综合应用进行了简单分析。

  5. Self-tuning pressure-feedback control by pole placement for vibration reduction of excavator with independent metering fluid power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ruqi; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Junhui; Cheng, Min

    2017-08-01

    Independent metering control systems are promising fluid power technologies compared with traditional valve controlled systems. By breaking the mechanical coupling between the inlet and outlet, the meter-out valve can open as large as possible to reduce energy consumptions. However, the lack of damping in outlet causes stronger vibrations. To address the problem, the paper designs a hybrid control method combining dynamic pressure-feedback and active damping control. The innovation resides in the optimization of damping by introducing pressure feedback to make trade-offs between high stability and fast response. To achieve this goal, the dynamic response pertaining to the control parameters consisting of feedback gain and cut-off frequency, are analyzed via pole-zero locations. Accordingly, these parameters are tuned online in terms of guaranteed dominant pole placement such that the optimal damping can be accurately captured under a considerable variation of operating conditions. The experiment is deployed in a mini-excavator. The results pertaining to different control parameters confirm the theoretical expectations via pole-zero locations. By using proposed self-tuning controller, the vibrations are almost eliminated after only one overshoot for different operation conditions. The overshoots are also reduced with less decrease of the response time. In addition, the energy-saving capability of independent metering system is still not affected by the improvement of controllability.

  6. Induction Heating System Applied to Injection Moulding of Micro and Nano Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano

    embedded induction heating system with other heating systems suitable for injection moulding already available on the market. The two selected systems were a variothermal system based on the convective/conductive heating principle and one based on infrared light. During the project simulation software...... and for understanding the influence of the main process parameters on the quality of the parts. The experiments were conducted on a manual injection machine for the first campaign and in a second phase on two different completely automatic injection moulding machines. Metrology was performed to characterize the moulded...

  7. Metering in the gas supply sector; Metering in der Gasversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernekinck, U. [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems, Recklinghausen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The new conditions of competition in the gas supply sector have strongly increased the requirements on gas grid operators. Mainly an exact gas metering and -accouting will become more and more important. The systems and procedures are presented in detail in this contribution. (GL)

  8. Manufacturing injection-moleded Fresnel lens parquets for point-focus concentrating photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, E.M.; Masso, J.D. [AOtec, Southbridge, MA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This project involved the manufacturing of curved-faceted, injection-molded, four-element Fresnel lens parquets for concentrating photovoltaic arrays. Previous efforts showed that high-efficiency (greater than 82%) Fresnel concentrators could be injection molded. This report encompasses the mold design, molding, and physical testing of a four-lens parquet for a solar photovoltaic concentrator system.

  9. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  10. 基于物联网的智能电表采集系统设计%Data Acquisition System of Smart Meter Based on IoT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亢红波; 许宏科

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the monitoring of the electric meter,a data acquisition system of smart meter based on Internet of Things is de-signed,which consists of smart electric meter nodes,data acquisition terminal equipment and host computer.As the key part of the sys-tem,data acquisition terminal equipment can accomplish data acquisition of electric meter by supporting Modbus protocol,which has a complete TCP/IP network protocol stack and provides API functions interface.The terminal can also realize bidirectional communication and remote control between networks.The system is suitable for the power management of industry,building automation,intelligent home and other environments,which has good practical prospect.%针对智能电表的监控,设计了一种基于物联网的电表数据采集系统,由智能电表节点、数据采集终端设备及监控上位机组成。数据采集终端设备作为系统核心部分,支持Modbus通信协议,并拥有完全独立的TCP/IP网络协议栈,提供 API函数接口,从而完成智能电表数据的现场采集,实现双向网络传输与远程操控。此系统可适用于工业环境、楼宇自动化及智能家居等多种不同环境下的能耗管理,具有良好的应用前景。

  11. Evaluation of Process Cooling in Subsea Separation, Boosting and Injection Systems (SSBI)

    OpenAIRE

    Gyllenhammar, Svenn Emil

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of subsea process systems will combine the subsea gas compression technology currently under qualification with the previously developed subsea processing technologies, including separation, multiphase pumping and produced water re-injection. These systems will benefit from process cooling. This paper is an evaluation of the use of process cooling in subsea separation, boosting and injection (SSBI) systems including compression. Fouling is the biggest uncertainty, and pote...

  12. An interactive web-based design system for rubber injection mold: Automotive rubber parts

    OpenAIRE

    Chamnarn Thongmark; Jariyaporn Onwong

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at integrating a knowledge-based system and web-based technology to facilitate the rubber and rubber composite injection mold design. The system integrates both of computer-aided design and web-based management by using the application programming interface. The research processes started with gathering data and knowledge concerning on rubber injection mold design and process, with the designed framework of the system included. An example part was demonstrated i...

  13. An interactive web-based design system for rubber injection mold: Automotive rubber parts

    OpenAIRE

    Chamnarn Thongmark; Jariyaporn Onwong

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at integrating a knowledge-based system and web-based technology to facilitate the rubber and rubber composite injection mold design. The system integrates both of computer-aided design and web-based management by using the application programming interface. The research processes started with gathering data and knowledge concerning on rubber injection mold design and process, with the designed framework of the system included. An example part was demonstrated i...

  14. Securing Metering Infrastructure of Smart Grid: A Machine Learning and Localization Based Key Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Parvez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In smart cities, advanced metering infrastructure (AMI of the smart grid facilitates automated metering, control and monitoring of power distribution by employing a wireless network. Due to this wireless nature of communication, there exist potential threats to the data privacy in AMI. Decoding the energy consumption reading, injecting false data/command signals and jamming the networks are some hazardous measures against this technology. Since a smart meter possesses limited memory and computational capability, AMI demands a light, but robust security scheme. In this paper, we propose a localization-based key management system for meter data encryption. Data are encrypted by the key associated with the coordinate of the meter and a random key index. The encryption keys are managed and distributed by a trusted third party (TTP. Localization of the meter is proposed by a method based on received signal strength (RSS using the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE. The received packets are decrypted at the control center with the key mapped with the key index and the meter’s coordinates. Additionally, we propose the k-nearest neighbors (kNN algorithm for node/meter authentication, capitalizing further on data transmission security. Finally, we evaluate the security strength of a data packet numerically for our method.

  15. Improved sample injection and illumination for multicapillary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlaoui, Nidhal; Duval, Marie-Alix; Lefebvre, Françoise; Charon, Yves; Siebert, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    Multicapillary electrophoresis continues to see improvements in speed, robustness, and reliability. This paper reports on our work on two components belonging to a multicapillary sequencer developed in our group. Injection of the DNA samples into the capillaries was optimized to make it reproducible and to reduce the amount of sample volume required. An alternative laser illumination of the capillaries was also developed. Light intensity in the capillaries was increased as a result of a step-by-step scanning of the laser and the use of microlenses in front of the capillaries.

  16. Optical cycle power meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A bicycle power meter for measuring power generated when riding a bicycle, the power meter comprising a position-sensitive radiation detector (409) attachable to a component of a crank set (404) of bicycle, and a radiation source (408) attachable to the component of the crank set and configured...

  17. Ultrasonic flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Snijders, G.J.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an ultrasonic flow meter comprising a flow tube for the fluid whose flow rate is to be determined. The flow meter comprises a transmitting element for emitting ultrasonic waves, which is provided on the outer jacket of the flow tube. A receiving element, which is provided on

  18. Hardware Design of a Smart Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters are electronic measurement devices used by utilities to communicate information for billing customers and operating their electric systems. This paper presents the hardware design of a smart meter. Sensing and circuit protection circuits are included in the design of the smart meter in which resistors are naturally a fundamental part of the electronic design. Smart meters provides a route for energy savings, real-time pricing, automated data collection and eliminating human errors due to manual readings which would ultimately reduce labour costs, diagnosis and instantaneous fault detection. This allows for predictive maintenance resulting in a more efficient and reliable distribution network.

  19. A System Call Randomization Based Method for Countering Code-Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Liang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Code-injection attacks pose serious threat to today’s Internet. The existing code-injection attack defense methods have some deficiencies on performance overhead and effectiveness. To this end, we propose a method that uses system called randomization to counter code injection attacks based on instruction set randomization idea. System calls must be used when an injected code would perform its actions. By creating randomized system calls of the target process, an attacker who does not know the key to the randomization algorithm will inject code that isn’t randomized like as the target process and is invalid for the corresponding de-randomized module. The injected code would fail to execute without calling system calls correctly. Moreover, with extended complier, our method creates source code randomization during its compiling and implements binary executable files randomization by feature matching. Our experiments on built prototype show that our method can effectively counter variety code injection attacks with low-overhead.

  20. Preliminary investigation of interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alesso, H.P.; Lappa, D.A.; Smith, C.F.; Sacks, I.J.

    1983-03-04

    The rich diversity of ideas and techniques for analyzing interconnected systems interaction has presented the NRC with the problem of identifying methods appropriate for their own review and audit. This report presents the findings of a preliminary study using the Digraph Matrix Analysis method to evaluate interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3. The analysis effort in this study was subjected to NRC constraints regarding the use of Boolean logic, the construction of simplified plant representations or maps, and the development of heuristic measures as specified by the NRC. The map and heuristic measures were found to be an unsuccessful approach. However, from the effort to model and analyze the Indian Point-3 safety injection system, including Boolean logic in the model, singleton and doubleton cut-sets were identified. It is recommended that efforts excluding Boolean logic and utilizing the NRC heuristic measures not be pursed further and that the Digraph Matrix approach (or other comparable risk assessment technique) with Boolean logic included to conduct the audit of the Indian Point-3 systems interaction study.

  1. 基于PLC的气表检定控制系统设计%Design of Gas Meter Calibration Control System Based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍庆山

    2016-01-01

    Using sonic nozzle gas flow standard device to calibrate gas meter is a complex control process. When the instrument is verified under the action of water ring vacuum pump, air will respectively flow through the inlet pipe, detected flow meter, nozzle import pipeline, sonic nozzle, nozzle export pipeline, the buffer tank, and in the end the vacuum pump will discharge it.According to the size of the verification flow,choose different pneu-matic valve and different nozzle combination to determine the required verification flow. In order to realize accuracy verification of the gas meter, a set of gas meter calibration control system based on PLC was designed. Considering PLC as the basic control unit, workers can gather system parameters and apply the way of sequential control to realize gas meter calibra-tion process automation,instrument automatic computation coefficient,repeatability and er-rors of indication,and finally reduce workers’labor intensity and ensure accurate verification.%应用音速喷嘴法气体流量标准装置检定气体流量计是一项复杂的过程控制问题,检定仪表时,在水环真空泵的作用下,空气分别流经进气管线、被检流量计、喷嘴进口管线、音速喷嘴和喷嘴出口管线,最后经稳压罐,由真空泵排出。根据检定流量的大小,选择不同的气动阀和不同的喷嘴组合,确定所需的检定流量。为了实现气表精准检定,设计了一套基于PLC的气表检定控制系统。该系统以PLC作为基本控制单元,实时采集系统各项参数,应用顺序控制方式实现气表检定过程自动化,自动计算仪表系数、示值误差和重复性,可减轻操作的劳动强度,保证精准检定。

  2. Detecting Solenoid Valve Deterioration in In-Use Electronic Diesel Fuel Injection Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chyuan-Yow Tseng; Hsun-Heng Tsai

    2010-01-01

    The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC) systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to oc...

  3. THE STUDY OF INTERACTION OF SOLID-LIQUID ADSORPTION SYSTEM BY USING THE FLOW INJECTION-SPECTROPHOTOMETRY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The flow injection analysis was firstly used for studying a solid-liquid adsorption system,and the dynamics process in the adsorption of dyestuff with regenerable chitin was traced by an online method of flow injection-spectrophotometry. Experimental results indicate that there is a linearization between the tested signals and the height of peaks with reciprocity coefficient 0.9999by using the flow injection-spectrophotometry system to study the dynamics adsorption process in solid-liquid system. The method shows a good stability and reproducibility. It provides a new method for the studies on adsorption dynamics in solid- liquid system.

  4. Simplified Processing Method for Meter Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colotelo, Alison H. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Downs, Janelle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ham, Kenneth D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Sadie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vernon, Christopher R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Steven A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Simple/Quick metered data processing method that can be used for Army Metered Data Management System (MDMS) and Logistics Innovation Agency data, but may also be useful for other large data sets. Intended for large data sets when analyst has little information about the buildings.

  5. A more intelligent meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuru, B.

    1996-09-01

    A utility systems analyst viewing a multicolor graph on a computer screen sees something awry in a customer`s home. The furnace is running in the midst of summer. The customer is notified and finds the problem, an air conditioner vent blowing on a thermostat. Next the analyst finds a refrigerator using excessive amounts of electricity. This time it was a leaky gasket and clogged heat exchanger fins. Later a flooded basement is avoided by discovering a faulty sump pump. The analyst was using the Non-Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System (NIALMS). As the name implies, NIALMS allows utilities to learn more about where and when customers use electrical power and how much without entering their homes to install monitoring devices on each appliance. It was developed under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute with assistance from Empire State Electric Energy Research Corp., New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Consolidated Edison Co. and Rochester Gas & Electric Co. The meter is described.

  6. Designing Fault-Injection Experiments for the Reliability of Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Allan L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the long-standing problem of conducting fault-injections experiments to establish the ultra-reliability of embedded systems. There have been extensive efforts in fault injection, and this paper offers a partial summary of the efforts, but these previous efforts have focused on realism and efficiency. Fault injections have been used to examine diagnostics and to test algorithms, but the literature does not contain any framework that says how to conduct fault-injection experiments to establish ultra-reliability. A solution to this problem integrates field-data, arguments-from-design, and fault-injection into a seamless whole. The solution in this paper is to derive a model reduction theorem for a class of semi-Markov models suitable for describing ultra-reliable embedded systems. The derivation shows that a tight upper bound on the probability of system failure can be obtained using only the means of system-recovery times, thus reducing the experimental effort to estimating a reasonable number of easily-observed parameters. The paper includes an example of a system subject to both permanent and transient faults. There is a discussion of integrating fault-injection with field-data and arguments-from-design.

  7. A new shock wave assisted wood preservative injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. S.; Ravikumar, G.; Lai, Ram; Jagadeesh, G.

    Preservative treatment of many tropical hard woods and bamboo pose severe problem. A number of wood preservatives (chemical formulations toxic to wood decay/ destroying organisms like fungi, wood destroying termites, marine borers etc.) and wood impregnating techniques are currently in use for improving bio resistance of timber and bamboo and thereby enhancing service life for different end uses. How ever, some species of tropical hardwoods and many species of bamboo are difficult to treat, posing technical problems. In this paper we report preliminary results of treatment of bamboo with a novel Shockwave assisted injection treatment. Samples (30×2.5×1.00 cm) of an Indian species of bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus prepared from defect free culms of dry bamboo are placed in the driven section of a vertical shock tube filled with the 4Coppepr-Chrome-Arsenic(CCA) preservative solution.The bamboo samples are subjected to repeated shock wave loading (3 shots) with typical over pressures of 30 bar. The results from the study indicate excellent penetration and retention of CCA preservative in bamboo samples. The method itself is much faster compared to the conventional methods like pressure treatment or hot and cold process.

  8. Multipoint Grout Injection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-09-01

    At the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), radioactive waste contained in the 16 cylindrical Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) must retrieved so the tanks can be closed. In many cases, removing the small amounts of sludge that remain in the tank after the bulk of the waste is retrieved is extremely costly and provides little benefit from site health and environmental standpoints. The Tanks Focus Area is working with ORR's M and I contractor (Bechtel-Jacobs), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Ground Environmental Services to demonstrate the application of multi-point-injection (MPI) grout emplacement technology for horizontal cylindrical tanks during a cold demonstration in FY99. GAAT TH-4 has been identified as the tank to be used for the hot demonstration in FY00. Evaluation efforts continue on the effect of slag on strength performance of the grout to be used in TH-4 tank closure. The site must find out what level of slag can be accommodated in the grout while maintaining strength performance requirements. Other efforts in support of the utilization of MPI TM technology in large-scale waste tanks will continue. Also, ORR is collaborating with SRS to evaluate the use this technology to support grouting of the Old Burial Ground tanks at SRS.

  9. Ride-Quality Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.; Clevenson, S. A.; Stephens, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Single- and combined-Axis discomfort are corrected by effects of noise and vibration to yield measure of total discomfort experienced by rider. Three modules transform mathematically-weighted rms accelerations, which represent physical vibration characteristics, into subjective discomfort units. Portable "ride-quality" meter measures passenger discomfort and acceptability of vehicle interior noise and vibration. Meter especially suited for determining vehicle comfort and design tradeoffs and for comparing ride quality of vehicles.

  10. An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer Pack

    2007-12-31

    This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended to enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to reduce the

  11. Net Metering Policy Development and Distributed Solar Generation in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the Minnesota net metering policy is to give the maximum possible encouragement to distributed generation assets, especially solar electric systems (MN 2008). However, according to a published set of best practices (NNEC 2008) that prioritize the maximum development of solar markets within states, the Minnesota policy does not incorporate many of the important best practices that may help other states transform their solar energy markets and increase the amount of grid-connected distributed solar generation assets. Reasons cited include the low system size limit of 40kW (the best practices document recommends a 2 MW limit) and a lack of language protecting generators from additional utility fees. This study was conducted to compare Minnesota's policies to national best practices. It provides an overview of the current Minnesota policy in the context of these best practices and other jurisdictions' net metering policies, as well as a qualitative assessment of the impacts of raising the system size cap within the policy based on the experiences of other states.

  12. Realization of New Agricultural Irrigation Meter and Its Application System%新型农排表及其应用系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪雨; 屈国旺; 赵宏杰; 侯志卫; 李铮; 郝立佳

    2014-01-01

    “新型农排表及其应用系统”中新型农排表增加了远程通讯功能,增加了抗强磁干扰防窃电功能。主站系统对新型农排表进行用电数据远程采集,实现了公平合理的补卡功能,具备与营销SG186系统缴费数据、电能示值的对接,同时可采用3G远程售电终端实现就地购电。%"New agricultural irrigation meter and its application system" increased remote communication function, an increase of anti magnetic interference anti-theft function. Master station system of New agricultural irrigation meter remote data acquisition, the fair and reasonable card function,with marketing SG186 system docking payment data, power indication, alsocan use 3G remote sale of electricity terminal realizes local purchasing power.

  13. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chien-Pei [Clive, IA; Short, John [Norwalk, IA; Klemm, Jim [Des Moines, IA; Abbott, Royce [Des Moines, IA; Overman, Nick [West Des Moines, IA; Pack, Spencer [Urbandale, IA; Winebrenner, Audra [Des Moines, IA

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  14. Development of a plastic injection molding training system using Petri nets and virtual reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this study, Virtual Reality (VR)-based plastic injection molding training system (VPIMTS), which can be modeled as an integrated system with a task planning module, an intelligent instruction module, a simulation module, and virtual environment (VE) module, was developed. Presented in this paper are an architecture of VPIMTS, a practical knowledge modelling approach for modelling the training scenarios of the system by using Petri nets formalism and key techniques (FEM, injection molding procedure modelling) which have been developed independently. The utilization of the Petri net model realized the environment where the trainee can behave freely, and also made it possible to equip the system with the function of showing the next action of the trainee whenever he wants. The overall system is a powerful approach for highly improving the trainee's comprehension and injection molding study-efficiency by building digital, intelligent, knowledgeable, and visual aids.

  15. Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP) system for polymer injection molds manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tepić; V. Todić; Lukić, D.; Milošević, M.; Borojević, S.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-...

  16. Influence of yearlong training on the state of cardiovascular, autonomic nervous system and physical performance in female 400 meters runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. L. Mikhalyuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research – identification and comparison of heart rate variability, central hemodynamics and physical performance in 400 meters runners from the III category to masters of sports of international class (MSIC in the annual cycle of the training process. Materials and methods. The study included 22 female athletes, 400 meters runners between the ages of 14 and 27 years (mean age – 16.8 ± 0.67 years, running experience – from 2 to 13 years (average – 4.4 ± 0.68 years in the preparatory and competitive periods. Body length and weight of athletes were 167.9 ± 0.91 cm and 52.5 ± 0.98 kg, respectively. For the analysis of the autonomic regulation of cardiac activity mathematical methods of HRV analysis were used. Analysis and evaluation of periodic components of heart rate were carried out by means of the research of spectral parameters of autocorrelation functions. Determination of physical performance was carried out under the practical standard on the cycle ergometer. It was established that in high class sportswomen (n=12 and ones with qualifications of the II–III category (n=10 in the competitive period there were strengthening of parasympathetic effects of ANS, transformation of eukinetic circulation type (CT into hypokinetic CT and absence of sportswomen with hyperkinetic CT. In high class sportswomen there were significant increase of the relative value of physical working capacity (PWC170/kg by 12.33% and tendency to increase of index of functional state (IFS by 9.46%, in sportswomen with qualifications of II–III category PWC170/kg significantly increased by 19.26%, and IFS by 17.87%. Correlation analysis conducted in both periods in the group and separately in high class sportswomen and ones with qualifications of II–III category found the relationship indicating that the increase of PWC170/kg and IFS is associated with the prevalence of hypokinetic CT and parasympathetic ANS influences. In the competitive period

  17. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center); Pollard, M. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center)

    2011-09-30

    . Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

  18. Nitrous Oxide Liquid Injection Thrust Vector Control System Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Nitrous Oxide-fed Liquid Thrust Vector Control system is proposed as an efficient method for vehicle attitude control during powered flight. Pulled from a N2O main...

  19. Development of injection gas heating system for introducing large droplets to inductively coupled plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburaki, Yuki; Nomura, Akito; Ishihara, Yukiko; Iwai, Takahiro; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Okino, Akitoshi

    2013-01-01

    We developed an injection gas heating system for introducing large droplets, because we want to effectively to measure elements in a single cell. This system was applied to ICP-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), to evaluate it performance. To evaluate the effect of the emission intensity, the emission intensity of Ca(II) increased to a maximum of tenfold at 147°C and the peak was shifted upstream of the plasma. To investigate in detail the effect of an injection gas heating system, we studied different conditions of the injection gas temperature and droplet volume. When the injection gas temperature was 89°C, smaller droplets were easily ionized. At 147°C, the emission intensity ratio and the absolute amount of the sample including the droplet exhibited close agreement. These results show the advantages of the injection gas heating system for large droplet introduction, and the sufficient reduction in the solvent load. The solvent load could be reduced by heating to 147°C using the system.

  20. Design and development of the helicity injection system in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, JongYoon; An, Younghwa; Jung, Bongki; Lee, Jeongwon; Lee, HyunYoung; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Na, Yong-Su; Hwang, Y.S., E-mail: yhwang@snu.ac.kr

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A high current electron gun with single pulse power for both arc and extraction is developed. • The optimal gun operation is confirmed by impedance matching between the PFN and plasma. • The gun injected currents of 0.95 kA with the voltage of ∼410 V for 5 ms with a 1.2 kV PFN. • The helicity injection system using the gun has been developed and tested successfully in VEST. • Toroidal currents of up to 3.8 kA confirm possible relaxation into tokamak-like plasma. - Abstract: A helicity injection system for the Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) has been successfully developed and commissioned. A high current electron gun utilizing hollow cathode and washer stacks has been designed and constructed with a single pulse power system that can provide voltages for both arc discharge and extraction sequentially. Tests for electron gun operation with the single pulse power system have been conducted under various toroidal and poloidal field strengths. The estimated plasma impedance, depending on the injection magnetic field structure, can be utilized for the optimal gun operation by impedance matching between the pulse power system and plasma. With the charging voltage of 1.2 kV, injection current of 0.95 kA has been obtained with the injection voltage of 410 V for about 5 ms. Initial helicity injection experiments have been conducted under various toroidal and poloidal field strengths and a toroidal plasma current of up to 3.8 kA is observed with the current multiplication larger than the geometric stacking ratio, confirming the possibility of relaxation into tokamak-like plasma with closed flux formation.

  1. Adaption of the power distribution system to a sustainable energy system - Smart meters and intelligent nets; Anpassning av elnaeten, till ett uthaalligt energisystem - Smarta maetare och intelligenta naet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Math

    2010-11-15

    The conversion of the energy system towards sustainability is a major challenge for society. The conversion includes a large-scale introduction of renewable electricity and the electrification of transport. Adaptations of the grid are needed in order to cope with this development: - Facilitate an increased introduction of renewable electricity; - Enabling power reduction at peak load; - Improve incentives for energy efficiency; - Creating conditions for more active purchasers of electricity. Security of supply must be high, although the new production affects the electricity grid in a different way than today. Therefore, new technical solutions, a so-called smart grid, is necessary in order to, inter alia, prevent congestion and over voltages, but also to enhance the operational safety in general. There is new technology that can help adjust the grid in an efficient and flexible way. Intelligent networks, or smart grids, is the collection of new technology, function and regulatory framework in the electricity market, etc. that cost-effectively facilitate introduction and utilization of renewable electricity generation, leading to reduced energy consumption, contributes to power reduction in peak load and creates conditions for active electricity customers. Sweden is one of the countries that score high in terms of active electricity customers and feedback of consumption for electricity customers. There is a direct consequence of introduction of the metering reform and installation of the AMR, in which Sweden was one of the first countries in Europe. As for modern technology to increase transmission capacity of transmission networks such as HVDC and FACTS technology, Sweden is a world leader. This technology will play an important role in enabling large-scale use of renewable electricity generation on European level. The investigation has resulted in the following proposals: - A knowledge platform created to be collect and disseminate relevant knowledge of research

  2. Low emittance pre-injection system for Iranian Light Source Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghipanah, A., E-mail: a.sadeghipanah@ipm.ir [Radiation Applications Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Feghhi, A.H. [Radiation Applications Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahighi, J. [Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF), Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasem, H. [Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF), Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-11

    In this paper, we introduce the Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF) pre-injection system. The optimized parameters of its components, the related beam dynamics issues and the expected performance of the designed system have been described with detail. This paper explains fabrication procedures of some main components and gives the low power microwave measurement results of the constructed RF electron gun. The outcome bunches at the end of the ILSF pre-injection system will have the normalized emittance of 6 mm mrad, length of 1.55 ps and energy spread of 0.06%.

  3. Parallel Damping Injection for the Quarter Car Suspension System.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Jeltsema, Dimitri; Maulny, François

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study an application of Passivity-Based Control (PBC) to a quarter car suspension system. We use Passivity-Based Control in the Brayton-Moser framework (BM-PBC) that has recently been developed for control of switching and non-switching electrical circuits. Via the usual mass-induct

  4. Fertigation - Injecting soluble fertilizers into the irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Jeremy R. Pinto; Anthony S. Davis

    2009-01-01

    Fertigation (fertilization + irrigation) is the newest way for nursery managers to apply fertilizer, and has become a standard practice in container nurseries. Because of the inherent inefficient water distribution patterns in field irrigation systems, fertigation has not been widely used in bareroot nurseries. However, a bareroot nursery with a center-pivot irrigation...

  5. Semicircular lipoatrophy in a child with systemic lupus erythematosus after subcutaneous injections with methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Norbert; Henz, Beate M; Bunikowski, Rita; Keitzer, Rolf

    2002-01-01

    Lipoatrophia semicircularis, a rare entity which presents as atrophic cutaneous indentations exclusively on the anterior thighs of women, is thought to result from physical trauma. Localized lipoatrophies are common following injection with drugs and occur in patients with collagen disease. We report a 10-year-old girl who developed semicircular lipoatrophy on the anterior thighs after treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with subcutaneous injections of methotrexate. Until now, subcutaneously administered methotrexate has not been reported to cause lipoatrophy. Other possible causes include underlying autoimmune disease, the predisposition for females to be affected, and local trauma, also from the injections, at the specific body site. We suggest that subcutaneous injections with methotrexate on the anterior thighs should be avoided or monitored closely in female patients with SLE.

  6. Determining the optimal amount of gas that is injected for the Gaslift system work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Dušan Š.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem that arises in the work of wells in the oil field Gaslift Amal to individual wells do not always have the necessary amount of gas for injection. Therefore, in a borehole at a depth of injection, the operating valve, there is not enough dynamic pressure for the removal of oil on the surface. This is particularly evident in wells with increased production of formation water. For this reason, the paper presents the methodology and drafted model for optimal allocation of the amount of gas injected into each well in the work gaslift of the system. The methodology for the allocation of quantities of gas injection through the so-called cumulative curves based on the dynamic characteristics of each well.

  7. 远程水表数据采集传输系统设计与研究%Design and Research of Remote Meter Data Acquisition Transmission System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣冶

    2012-01-01

    Research long-distance meter reading technology to improve the accuracy of the remote data transmission. In some special environment, water meter data need long distance transmission. Because distance increases, the data easily get lost or loss, causing the problem of inaccurate transmission results. In solving the above -mentioned problems, a remote water meter data transmission system was proposed based on a remote transmission compensation algorithm. The attenuation of an analog data of water meter was calculated and compensated to ensure accurate data transmission. The experimental results show that the algorithm can overcome the problems that the workload of traditional wiring transfer method is heavy and the transmission distance is restricted.%研究远程抄表技术优化问题,以提高远程数据传输的准确性.在一些特殊环境下,水表数据需要进行较远距离的传输,由于距离增加,传输的数据容易发生丢失或者损耗,造成传输结果不准确.为解决上述问题,提出一种远端传输补偿方法的远程水表数据传递系统,计算传输过程中水表的模拟量数据的衰减程度,进行阶梯性的衰减数据补偿,弥补远距离传输中由于数据衰减带来的缺陷,保证数据准确传输.实验结果表明,算法克服传统的布线传递方法中工作量大、传输距离受限制等不利因素,具有结构紧凑、功能合理、工作可靠、抗干扰能力强等优点,为远程水表采集系统设计提供了依据.

  8. System for injecting fuel in a gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2016-10-25

    A combustion system uses a fuel nozzle with an inner wall having a fuel inlet in fluid communication with a fuel outlet in a fuel cartridge. The inner wall defines a mounting location for inserting the fuel cartridge. A pair of annular lip seals around the cartridge outer wall on both sides of the fuel outlet seals the fuel passage between the fuel inlet and the fuel outlet.

  9. Learning Runtime Parameters in Computer Systems with Delayed Experience Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Schaarschmidt, Michael; Gessert, Felix; Dalibard, Valentin; Yoneki, Eiko

    2016-01-01

    Learning effective configurations in computer systems without hand-crafting models for every parameter is a long-standing problem. This paper investigates the use of deep reinforcement learning for runtime parameters of cloud databases under latency constraints. Cloud services serve up to thousands of concurrent requests per second and can adjust critical parameters by leveraging performance metrics. In this work, we use continuous deep reinforcement learning to learn optimal cache expiration...

  10. Performance Evaluation of a Software Engineering Tool for Automated Design of Cooling Systems in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauregui-Becker, Juan M.; Tosello, Guido; van Houten, Fred J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a software tool for automating the design of cooling systems for injection moulding and a validation of its performance. Cooling system designs were automatically generated by the proposed software tool and by applying a best practice tool engineering design approach. The two...

  11. A micro spot injection system for studing the effects of carbonation on fumigant dispersion in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumigant transport to deep soils is needed to control plant parasitic nematodes and soil borne pathogens for perennial crops. Using carbonated fumigants and carbon dioxide (CO2)-pressurized fumigant injection systems may achieve this target when compared to conventional fumigation systems pressurize...

  12. Injectable nanoparticle-loaded hydrogen system for local delivery of sodium alendronate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posadowska, U.; Parizek, M.; Filova, E.; Wlodarczyk-Biegun, M.K.; Kamperman, M.M.G.; Bacakova, L.; Pamula, E.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic administration of bisphosphonates, e.g. sodium alendronate (Aln) is characterized by extremely low bioavailability and high toxicity. To omit aforementioned drawbacks an injectable system for the intra-bone delivery of Aln based on Aln-loaded nanoparticles (NPs-Aln) suspended in a hydrogel

  13. Research on the technology of detecting the SQL injection attack and non-intrusive prevention in WEB system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibin

    2017-05-01

    Among numerous WEB security issues, SQL injection is the most notable and dangerous. In this study, characteristics and procedures of SQL injection are analyzed, and the method for detecting the SQL injection attack is illustrated. The defense resistance and remedy model of SQL injection attack is established from the perspective of non-intrusive SQL injection attack and defense. Moreover, the ability of resisting the SQL injection attack of the server has been comprehensively improved through the security strategies on operation system, IIS and database, etc.. Corresponding codes are realized. The method is well applied in the actual projects.

  14. Systemic effects of epidural methylprednisolone injection on glucose tolerance in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zufferey Pascal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that in diabetic patients, the glycemic profile was disturbed after intra-articular injection of corticosteroids. Little is known about the impact of epidural injection in such patients. The goal of this study was double, at first comparing the glycaemic profile in diabetic patients after a unique injection of 80 mg of acetate methylprednisolone either intra-articular or epidural and secondly to compare the amount of systemic diffusion of the drug after both procedures. Methods Seventeen patients were included. Glycemic changes were compared in 9 diabetic patients following intra-articular (4 patients and epidural injections (5 patients. Epidural injections were performed using the sacral route under fluoroscopic control in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Diabetes control had to stable for more than 10 days and the renal function to be preserved. Blood glucose was monitored using a validated continuous measuring device (GMS, Medtronic the day before and for two days following the injection. Results were expressed in the form of daily glycemic profiles and as by mean, peak and minimal values +/- SD. The urinary excretion of methylprednisolone after the 2 routes of injection was analyzed in 8 patients (4 in each group. Urine samples were cropped one hour before the injections, then 4 times during the first day and 3 times a week for 2 weeks. The measurements included the free and conjugated fraction Results The glycaemic profile remains unchanged with no significant changes in the group of the 5 diabetic patients receiving epidural injections. On the other end, the average peak and and mean values were enhanced up to 3 mmol/l above baseline two days after the infiltration in the groups of the 4 diabetic patients infiltrated intra-articular. The mean urinary excretion of the steroid was about ten times higher in the intra-articular versus epidural group: 7000 ng/ml versus 700 ng/ml. Looking at

  15. Droplet-based microfluidic flow injection system with large-scale concentration gradient by a single nanoliter-scale injection for enzyme inhibition assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Long-Fei; Zhu, Ying; Du, Guan-Sheng; Fang, Qun

    2012-01-03

    We described a microfluidic chip-based system capable of generating droplet array with a large scale concentration gradient by coupling flow injection gradient technique with droplet-based microfluidics. Multiple modules including sample injection, sample dispersion, gradient generation, droplet formation, mixing of sample and reagents, and online reaction within the droplets were integrated into the microchip. In the system, nanoliter-scale sample solution was automatically injected into the chip under valveless flow injection analysis mode. The sample zone was first dispersed in the microchannel to form a concentration gradient along the axial direction of the microchannel and then segmented into a linear array of droplets by immiscible oil phase. With the segmentation and protection of the oil phase, the concentration gradient profile of the sample was preserved in the droplet array with high fidelity. With a single injection of 16 nL of sample solution, an array of droplets with concentration gradient spanning 3-4 orders of magnitude could be generated. The present system was applied in the enzyme inhibition assay of β-galactosidase to preliminarily demonstrate its potential in high throughput drug screening. With a single injection of 16 nL of inhibitor solution, more than 240 in-droplet enzyme inhibition reactions with different inhibitor concentrations could be performed with an analysis time of 2.5 min. Compared with multiwell plate-based screening systems, the inhibitor consumption was reduced 1000-fold.

  16. Computer Aided Design of The Cooling System for Plastic Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan GÜRÜN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of plastic injection molds and their cooling systems affect both the dimension, the shape, the quality of a plastic part and the cycle time of process and the cost of mold. In this study, the solid model design of a plastic injection mold and the design of cooling sysytem were possibly carried out without the designer interaction. Developed program permited the use of three types of the cooling system and the different cavity orientations and the multible plastic part placement into the mold cores. The program which was developed by using Visual LISP language and the VBA (Visual BASIC for Application modules, was applicated in the AutoCAD software domain. Trial studies were presented that the solid model design of plastic injection molds and the cooling systems increased the reliability, the flexibility and the speed of the design.

  17. Design of the Injection and extraction system and related machine protection for the Clic Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Apsimon, Robert; Barnes, Mike; Borburgh, Jan; Goddard, Brennan; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Uythoven, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Linear machines such as CLIC have relatively low rates of collision between bunches compared to their circular counterparts. In order to achieve the required luminosity, a very small spot size is envisaged at the interaction point, thus a low emittance beam is needed. Damping rings are essential for producing the low emittances needed for the CLIC main beam. It is crucial that the beams are injected and extracted from the damping rings in a stable and repeatable fashion to minimise emittance blow-up and beam jitter at the interaction point; both of these effects will deteriorate the luminosity at the interaction point. In this paper, the parameters and constraints of the injection and extraction systems are considered and the design of these systems is optimised within this parameter space. Related machine protection is considered in order to prevent damage from potential failure modes of the injection and extraction systems.

  18. The Curing Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2006-01-01

    Curing technology concerns adjustment and control of temperature and moisture conditions in hardening structures and elements of concrete. The curing technology comprises e.g. measurement, adjustment and control of the moisture conditions during the early hardening phase of the concrete to achiev...... from concrete surfaces in the early hardening phase. The Concrete Curing Meter is designed for simple and reliable monitoring of water loss from a wet surface of fresh concrete. This new measuring technique has been tested with several prototypes of the Curing Meter....

  19. Study on the magnetic measurement results of the injection system for CSNS/RCS

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Huang, Nan; Huo, Li-Hua; Ji, Hong-Fei; Kang, Wen; Liu, Yi-Qin; Peng, Jun; Qiu, Jing; Shen, Li; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xi; Xu, Shou-Yan; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Guo-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    A combination of the H- stripping and phase space painting method is used to accumulate a high intensity beam in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). The injection system for CSNS/RCS consists of three kinds of magnets: four direct current magnets (BC1-BC4), eight alternating current magnets (BH1-BH4 and BV1-BV4), two septum magnets (ISEP1 and ISEP2). In this paper, the magnetic measurements of the injection system were introduced and the data analysis was processed. The field uniformity and magnetizing curves of these magnets were given, and then the magnetizing fitting equations were obtained.

  20. Design of the beam transport line and injection system of the compact storage ring for TTX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present the design of the beam transport line and injection system of the compact storage ring for the Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray (TTX) source. The layout of the beam transport line fits in with the limited available space. The injection system is simplified, consisting of only one single kicker; the stray field on the reference orbit is also reduced without the septum magnet. We choose a travelling wave kicker and present both 2D and 3D simulations for the structure design.

  1. Recovery of injected freshwater from a brackish aquifer with a multiwell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotliński, Konrad; Dillon, Peter J; Pavelic, Paul; Barry, Karen; Kremer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Herein we propose a multiple injection and recovery well system strategically operated for freshwater storage in a brackish aquifer. With the system we call aquifer storage transfer and recovery (ASTR) by using four injection and two production wells, we are capable of achieving both high recovery efficiency of injected freshwater and attenuation of contaminants through adequately long residence times and travel distances within the aquifer. The usual aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) scheme, in which a single well is used for injection and recovery, does not warrant consistent treatment of injected water due to the shorter minimum residence times and travel distances. We tested the design and operation of the system over 3 years in a layered heterogeneous limestone aquifer in Salisbury, South Australia. We demonstrate how a combination of detailed aquifer characterization and solute transport modeling can be used to maintain acceptable salinity of recovered water for its intended use along with natural treatment of recharge water. ASTR can be used to reduce treatment costs and take advantage of aquifers with impaired water quality that might locally not be otherwise beneficially used.

  2. Attack methodology Analysis: SQL Injection Attacks and Their Applicability to Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bri Rolston

    2005-09-01

    Database applications have become a core component in control systems and their associated record keeping utilities. Traditional security models attempt to secure systems by isolating core software components and concentrating security efforts against threats specific to those computers or software components. Database security within control systems follows these models by using generally independent systems that rely on one another for proper functionality. The high level of reliance between the two systems creates an expanded threat surface. To understand the scope of a threat surface, all segments of the control system, with an emphasis on entry points, must be examined. The communication link between data and decision layers is the primary attack surface for SQL injection. This paper facilitates understanding what SQL injection is and why it is a significant threat to control system environments.

  3. Transformer and Meter Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoms, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerically-controlled 5-axis machine tool uses transformer and meter to determine and indicate whether tool is in home position, but lacks built-in test mode to check them. Tester makes possible test, and repair of components at machine rather then replace them when operation seems suspect.

  4. Optical Attenuation Coefficient Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    back scattered light 202. The back scattered light 202 travels to the attenuation meter 10 after scattering by thermodynamic density fluctuations and...invention to the precise form disclosed; and obviously many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching . Such

  5. A harmonic injection SPWM method for the high-responsive PMSM control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wang; Shuanghui, Hao; Minghui, Hao; Baoyu, Song

    2016-01-01

    In a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) control system, usually, the phase voltage instruction is limited independently to prevent a three-phase pulse width modulation (PWM) wave from overflowing. This method decreases the efficiency of the bus voltage and causes voltage vector direction errors. To solve these problems, we propose a harmonic injection sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM). This method uses harmonic injected sinusoidal PWM to improve the utilisation ratio of the bus voltage, and consequently improve system performance. In this paper, we analyse the problem in terms of potential difference. The simulation results show that the proposed method can increase the utilisation ratio of the bus voltage up to 15.4%, and the voltage vector mode obtained with the proposed algorithm is larger than that obtained with the conventional one. The method with harmonic injection consequently improves current response, without affecting voltage vector accuracy. The experiment results validate the proposed method.

  6. An interactive web-based design system for rubber injection mold: Automotive rubber parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamnarn Thongmark

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at integrating a knowledge-based system and web-based technology to facilitate the rubber and rubber composite injection mold design. The system integrates both of computer-aided design and web-based management by using the application programming interface. The research processes started with gathering data and knowledge concerning on rubber injection mold design and process, with the designed framework of the system included. An example part was demonstrated in order to validate the developed system. Based on standardized procedures, the system provides counseling that is able to resolve relevant issues at the early stage of the mold design. The system can be used for both designing and training in rubber mold fabrication.

  7. LGS adaptive optics system with long-pulsed sodium laser on Lijiang 1.8 meter telescope 2014-2016 observation campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kai; Li, Min; Jiang, Changchun; Wei, Ling; Zheng, Wenjia; Li, Wenru; Ma, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Luchun; Jin, Kai; Bo, Yong; Zuo, Junwei; Wang, Pengyuan; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Donghong; Deng, Jijiang; Gao, Yang; Shen, Yu; Bian, Qi; Yao, Ji; Huang, Jiang; Dong, Ruoxi; Deng, Keran; Peng, Qinjun; Rao, Changhui; Xu, Zuyan; Zhang, Yudong

    2016-07-01

    During 2014-2016, the Laser guide star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO) system observation campaign has been carried out on Lijiang 1.8 meter telescope. During the campaign, two generation LGS AO systems have been developed and installed. In 2014, a long-pulsed solid Sodium prototype laser with 20W@400Hz, a beam transfer optical (BTO) system, and a laser launch telescope (LLT) with 300mm diameter were mounted onto the telescope and moved with telescope azimuth journal. At the same time, a 37-elements compact LGS AO system had been mounted on the Bent-Cassegrain focus and got its first light on observing HIP43963 (mV= 8.18mv) and reached Sr=0.27 in J Band after LGS AO compensation. In 2016, the solid Sodium laser has been upgrade to stable 32W@800Hz while D2a plus D2b repumping is used to increase the photon return, and a totally new LGS AO system with 164-elements Deformable Mirror, Linux Real Time Controller, inner closed loop Tip/tilt mirror, Multiple-PMT tracking detector is established and installed on the telescope. And the throughput for the BTO/LLT is improved nearly 20%. The campaign process, the performance of the two LGS AO systems especially the latter one, the characteristics of the BTO/LLT system and the result are present in this paper.

  8. Systemic and local injections of lupeol inhibit tumor growth in a melanoma-bearing mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Makiko; Azuma, Kazuo; Hata, Keishi; Takahashi, Saori; Ogiwara, Kikumi; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Yokoe, Inoru; Osaki, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2013-07-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and it is procured from activated or genetically altered epidermal melanocytes. In the present study, the tumor-suppressive effects of systemic and local injections of lupeol, a triterpene extracted from Indian lettuce (Lactuca indica), in a melanoma-bearing mouse model were evaluated. Mice were injected once with lupeol or olive oil (solvent control) subcutaneously into the skin of the back or into the tumor tissue. Seven days after the injection, the tumor growth rates were calculated and the tumor tissues were collected. Immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were performed. The tumor growth rates in the lupeol-injected group were significantly decreased compared to those observed in the non-treated (NT) and solvent control groups. Lupeol also significantly decreased the areas positively stained for Ki-67 and PCNA in the tumor tissues compared to those in the NT and solvent control groups. The results of the present study demonstrated that systemic and local injections of lupeol suppress tumor growth and induce cell cycle arrest in a melanoma-bearing mouse model. These data suggest that lupeol may be effective as a novel therapeutic option for melanoma patients.

  9. Development of Haptic Needle for VR Based Injection Training System Using Simulated Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Kohei; Nakaguchi, Toshiyia

    2016-01-01

    VR based injection training system using standardized patient was proposed. This system uses haptic needle (HNSP) which can represent haptic force. Since the previously proposed system had a few problems with haptic reproduction, biological reproducibility needed to be improved. In order to solve these problems, we developed a new HNSP to replace the haptic needle. In addition, we conducted two validation studies for the HNSP.

  10. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US Massive Gas Injection Disruption Mitigation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a candidate design for the ITER Disruption Mitigation System. This candidate is the Massive Gas Injection System that provides machine protection in a plasma disruption event. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data as well as some data calculated from operating facilities, and the failure events were ranked for their criticality to system operation.

  11. Three Meter Winch Mandatory InstaIIation of Lubrication System Design%三米绞车强制润滑系统设计安装

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红铭

    2015-01-01

    Auxiliary shaft winch three meters which is re-sponsible for mineral material transportation, the original bear-ing lubrication medium is used gear oil, oil supply distance, oil return pipe diameter, resulting in bearing oil break, caused the accident, therefore the transformation installation forced lu-brication system, ensure the normal production of mine person-nel safety .%副井三米绞车担负着全矿物料运输,原有轴瓦润滑介质是使用齿齿轮油,供油距离远,回油管径细,导致轴瓦断油,造成了事故,因此改造安装强制润滑系统,保证矿井人员安全与正常生产。

  12. Elimination of Fuel Pressure Fluctuation and Multi-injection Fuel Mass Deviation of High Pressure Common-rail Fuel Injection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pimao; ZHANG Youtong; LI Tieshuan; XIE Lizhe

    2015-01-01

    The influence of fuel pressure fluctuation on multi-injection fuel mass deviation has been studied a lot, but the fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet is still not eliminated efficiently. In this paper, a new type of hydraulic filter consisting of a damping hole and a chamber is developed for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation and multi-injection fuel mass deviation. Linear model of the improved high pressure common-rail system(HPCRS) including injector, the pipe connecting common-rail with injector and the hydraulic filter is built. Fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet, on which frequency domain analysis is conducted through fast Fourier transformation, is acquired at different target pressure and different damping hole diameter experimentally. The linear model is validated and can predict the natural frequencies of the system. Influence of damping hole diameter on fuel pressure fluctuation is analyzed qualitatively based on the linear model, and it can be inferred that an optimal diameter of the damping hole for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation exists. Fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation under different damping hole diameters are measured experimentally, and it is testified that the amplitude of both fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation decreases first and then increases with the increasing of damping hole diameter. The amplitude of main injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 73%at most under pilot-main injection mode, and the amplitude of post injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 92%at most under main-post injection mode. Fuel mass of a single injection increases with the increasing of the damping hole diameter. The hydraulic filter proposed by this research can be potentially used to eliminate fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet and improve the stability of HPCRS fuel injection.

  13. Metrological control of instruments, equipment and measurement system for ultrasonic meters of flow; Controle metrologico de instrumentos, equipamentos e sistema de medicao para medidores ultra-sonicos de vazao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Oscar de

    2004-07-01

    Following the actual tendency to obtaining greater precision in Natural Gas measurement, in the past few years the use of Ultrasonic Flow Meters as Custody Transfer applications has grown significantly. There are several units currently operating in Brazil. The legislation for model approval, measure system certification and periodical metrological control of the above mentioned equipment, is currently under elaboration final stage. It was placed under public inquire through the 'Portaria 037' of 2004 of INMETRO, which proposes the authorization to perform the Metrological control by the Operator, once it has a quality system implemented according NBR ISO 9001-2000 and/or ISO 17025. This paper describes the verification procedure adopted by most of ultrasonic meters manufacturers. It also describes the application of the procedure for create the 'Metrological Control System of the Measurement System' of a 12'' Ultrasonic Meter installed and operating, with 3 years operation's data. (author)

  14. Efficacy of INOVOJECT egg injection system for delivering Marek's disease vaccine under hatchery conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T E; Fluke, D K; Villegas, P

    1997-01-01

    The ability of the INOVOJECT egg injection system to effectively deliver the appropriate titer of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) vaccine during normal hatchery operation was evaluated. The INOVOJECT machines configured for the Jamesway and Chickmaster commercial hatchers both maintained the integrity of the HVT vaccine without an appreciable loss in titer from the diluted vaccine to the egg.

  15. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Smolnikovas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  16. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of loxoprofen and naproxen with the acidic permanganate-sulfite system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Juan Wang; Yu-Hai Tang; Yang-Hao Liu

    2011-01-01

    A novel flow injection chemiluminescence(CL)method for the determination of loxoprofen and naproxen was proposed based on the CL system of KMnO4 and Na2SO3 in acid media.The CL intensity of KMnO4-Na2SO3 was greatly enhanced in the presence of loxoprofen a

  17. B and Li isotopes as intrinsic tracers for injection tests in aquifer storage and recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram, E-mail: w.kloppmann@brgm.fr [BRGM, French Geological Survey, 3 Av. Claude Guillemin B.P. 6009, F-45000 Orleans (France); Chikurel, Haim [Mekorot National Water Company, Tel Aviv (Israel); Picot, Geraldine [BRGM, French Geological Survey, 3 Av. Claude Guillemin B.P. 6009, F-45000 Orleans (France); Guttman, Joseph [Mekorot National Water Company, Tel Aviv (Israel); Pettenati, Marie [BRGM, French Geological Survey, 3 Av. Claude Guillemin B.P. 6009, F-45000 Orleans (France); Aharoni, Avi [Mekorot National Water Company, Tel Aviv (Israel); Guerrot, Catherine; Millot, Romain; Gaus, Irina [BRGM, French Geological Survey, 3 Av. Claude Guillemin B.P. 6009, F-45000 Orleans (France); Wintgens, Thomas [Rheinisch Westfaelische Technische Hochschule, RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Boron and Li isotopes have been tested as environmental tracers of treated sewage injected into a sandy aquifer (Shafdan reclamation project, Israel). During a 38 days injection test in a newly dug injection well, a conservative artificial tracer (Br{sup -}) was monitored together with {delta}{sup 11}B and {delta}{sup 7}Li in the injectate, in the unsaturated soil zone (porous cup) and an observation well in the aquifer. In spite of B and Li concentrations in the injectate close to background values, significant shifts of the isotope signatures could be observed over the duration of the injection test. Boron isotope ratios show a breakthrough curve delayed with respect to Br{sup -} breakthrough due to some reversible sorption on the aquifer material. No isotope fractionation was observed in the unsaturated or the saturated zone so that B isotopes can be considered as conservative in the investigated part of the aquifer system. Lithium isotopes are strongly fractionated, probably due to sorption processes. Lithium concentrations point to a Li sink in the system, {delta}{sup 7}Li values vary strongly with a tendency of {sup 7}Li depletion in the liquid phase over the duration of the experiment. This is opposite to the expected preferential sorption of {sup 6}Li onto clay minerals. Boron isotopes reveals a valuable tracer of artificial recharge of freshwaters derived from treated sewage, both for short term tracer tests and for long-term monitoring of artificial recharge, even if in aquifers with higher clay contents, sorption-linked isotope fractionation cannot be excluded. More data are needed on Li isotope fractionation in natural groundwater systems to assess the potential of this tracer as monitoring tool.

  18. 井口称重式计量系统在油田的应用%The Application of Wellhead Weighing Metering System in Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艾萤; 李秋莲; 张岳峰; 李秋香

    2016-01-01

    Put forward the "car tank storage transport" converted into pipeline technology, single- well measurement will become a key technology for pipeline transporting. Wellhead weighing metering system is mainly composed of single well entry line, multichannel valve, weighing sensor, left or right position sensor, tanks, oil and gas separator, single well gas export pipeline, hopper, distributor, skip, float controller, single well pipeline, single well flow export pipeline, etc. Metering system is added a full automatic multi-channel valve on the device, can access to ≤30 single-well respectively, through the computer to realize automatic switching of single well, continuous measurement of each single well pro-duced fluid volume, skip position sensor, automatic detection, recording, printing, dis-play operation parameters of each single well production,which can realize continuous auto-matic metering oil. The metering system can well solve the high viscosity of heavy oil and low oil and gas ratio single well oil well measurement problem,also can meet the thin oil and high oil and gas than single well oil well measurement at the same time,and has wide applica-bility.%自提出将“罐储车运”的原油输送方式改造成管道输送的工艺,单井计量就成为实现管输的关键性技术。井口称重式计量系统主要由单井入口管路、多路阀、称重传感器、左位置传感器、右位置传感器、罐体、油气分离器、单井气出口管路、集料斗、分布器、翻斗、浮子调节器、单井出口管路、单井汇流出口管路等组成。计量系统设置了一个全自动多路阀,最多可以接入30口单井,通过计算机实现单井的自动切换,连续测量每个单井的产液量。位置传感器检测翻斗的状态,自动检测、记录、打印、显示各单井的生产运行参数,可实现连续自动量油。该计量系统能较好地解决高黏度稠油和低油气比油井的单井计量

  19. Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP system for polymer injection molds manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tepić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-aided design (CAD, computer-aided process planning (CAPP and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM technologies.

  20. Calibration and features of air-kerma length product meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merimaa, K; Tapiovaara, M; Kosunen, A; Toroi, P

    2012-12-01

    Pencil-type air-kerma length product meters are generally used for quality control and radiation exposure measurements in computed tomography. To ensure reliable results, these meters should be calibrated so that measurements are traceable to international standards. Suitable calibration procedures, together with the properties of these meters, were examined and compared with the international standards and recommendations. The calibration procedure and setup used in this study were slightly modified compared with international recommendations. The special collimator system was found to cause less scatter than similar setups in earlier studies. The energy dependence of the meter response was investigated for several types of meters with standard radiation qualities. With most tested meter types, the total variation due to energy dependence was importance of a proper calibration. The response of one semiconductor meter type varied up to 8 % when rotating the meter around its axis; this should be taken into account when making calibrations with a static setup.

  1. Electrical spin injection and detection in high mobility 2DEG systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorga, M.

    2016-11-01

    In this review paper we present the current status of research related to the topic of electrical spin injection and detection in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems, formed typically at the interface between two III-V semiconductor compounds. We discuss both theoretical aspects of spin injection in case of ballistic transport as well as give an overview of available reports on spin injection experiments performed on 2DEG structures. In the experimental part we focus particularly on our recent work on all-semiconductor structures with a 2DEG confined at an inverted GaAs/(Al,Ga)As interface and with a ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As employed as a source of spin-polarized electrons.

  2. Investigation of Amourphous Deposits and Potential Corrosion Mechanisms in Offshore Water Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eroini, Violette; Oehler, Mike Christian; Graver, Britt Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    , composed of both organic and inorganic compounds, has caused concerns within operating assets due to the detrimental effect on production and injection, in addition to challenges with intervention and integrity. The variety of deposits and poor understanding of their nature has led to confusion......Increasing incidence of amorphous deposits in both production and water injection systems has caused considerable problems for offshore oil fields. Amorphous deposits, which are a widely recognized, but often poorly explained phenomenon, are typically comprised of both organic (biological...... or hydrocarbons) and inorganic material, but with compositions that vary considerably. One recurrent form of deposits, found in offshore water injection flowlines and wells, consisting mainly of magnetite as the corrosion product, was further investigated with the objectives of explaining its formation...

  3. Development of a High Resolution, Real Time, Distribution-Level Metering System and Associated Visualization, Modeling, and Data Analysis Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bank, J.; Hambrick, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL is developing measurement devices and a supporting data collection network specifically targeted at electrical distribution systems to support research in this area. This paper describes the measurement network which is designed to apply real-time and high speed (sub-second) measurement principles to distribution systems that are already common for the transmission level in the form of phasor measurement units and related technologies.

  4. CRISPR-Cas systems exploit viral DNA injection to establish and maintain adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Joshua W; Jiang, Wenyan; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2017-04-06

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas systems provide protection against viral and plasmid infection by capturing short DNA sequences from these invaders and integrating them into the CRISPR locus of the prokaryotic host. These sequences, known as spacers, are transcribed into short CRISPR RNA guides that specify the cleavage site of Cas nucleases in the genome of the invader. It is not known when spacer sequences are acquired during viral infection. Here, to investigate this, we tracked spacer acquisition in Staphylococcus aureus cells harbouring a type II CRISPR-Cas9 system after infection with the staphylococcal bacteriophage ϕ12. We found that new spacers were acquired immediately after infection preferentially from the cos site, the viral free DNA end that is first injected into the cell. Analysis of spacer acquisition after infection with mutant phages demonstrated that most spacers are acquired during DNA injection, but not during other stages of the viral cycle that produce free DNA ends, such as DNA replication or packaging. Finally, we showed that spacers acquired from early-injected genomic regions, which direct Cas9 cleavage of the viral DNA immediately after infection, provide better immunity than spacers acquired from late-injected regions. Our results reveal that CRISPR-Cas systems exploit the phage life cycle to generate a pattern of spacer acquisition that ensures a successful CRISPR immune response.

  5. [Clinical characteristics research of shenmai injection treating tumor based on hospital information system in real world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuan-Chun; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan; Wang, Lian-Xin; Tang, Hao; Zhuang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    The study was to research the clinical characteristics of Shenmai injection treating tumor based on hospital information system, including the characteristics of the age, the sex, the dosage, the course of the treatment and the combination drugs. The data of tumor patients injected with Shenmai injection was analyzed. The information was collected from the hospital information system (HIS) in twenty hospitals of grade III-A. The method of frequencies and association rules was used in this reaearch. The patients over 45 years old were up to 3 338, about 79.36% of the whole. The ratio of male and female was 1.73: 1. The hospitalization day between 15 and 28 was most. The complications of the hypertension and coronary heart disease happened most. The support was 5.939% and 5.099% respectively. Fifty-five patients had the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome of Qi-Yin deficiency, about 14.78% of the whole. There were 8 491 patients treated with the single dose of 81 to 100 mL, about 48.70% of the whole. The main combination drugs were dexamethasone, tropisetron and maxolon. The confidence was 44.63%, 31.22% and 20.53% respectively. The information from HIS showed that tumor patients used Shenmai injection were most quinquagenarian with smooth condition. The dose of the Shenmai injection sometimes was higher than that of the drug use instructions in clinical. Shenmai injection was most often combined with glucocorticoid, antemetic and nutritional support medicine when treating tumor in clinical.

  6. Scaling of the direct ECC bypass during LBLOCA reflood phase with direct vessel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, B.J.; Kwon, T.S.; Song, C.H.; Jeong, J.J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, H.K.; Park, G.C. [Seoul National Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    As one of the advanced design features of the Korea next generation reactor, direct vessel injection (DVI) system is being considered instead of conventional cold leg injection (CLI) system. It is known that the DVI system greatly enhances the reliability of the emergency core cooling (ECC) system. However, there is still a dispute on its performance in terms of water delivery to the reactor core during the reflood period of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Thus, experimental validation is under progress. In this paper, a new scaling method, using time and velocity reduced linear scaling law, is suggested for the design of a scaled-down experimental facility to investigate the direct ECC bypass phenomena in PWR downcomer. (authors)

  7. Ride quality meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.; Clevenson, S. A.; Stephens, D. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A ride quality meter is disclosed that automatically transforms vibration and noise measurements into a single number index of passenger discomfort. The noise measurements are converted into a noise discomfort value. The vibrations are converted into single axis discomfort values which are then converted into a combined axis discomfort value. The combined axis discomfort value is corrected for time duration and then summed with the noise discomfort value to obtain a total discomfort value.

  8. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  9. Morphologic alterations in rat brain following systemic and intraventricular methotrexate injection: light and electron microscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorios, J B; Gregorios, A B; Mora, J; Marcillo, A; Fojaco, R M; Green, B

    1989-01-01

    To determine the morphological substrate of acute methotrexate (MTX) encephalopathy, light and electron microscopic studies were performed on rat brains after short-term intraperitoneal (IP) and intraventricular (IV) injections of MTX. In both models, Alzheimer type II astrocytosis was the initial and major pathologic alteration seen by light microscopy. The neurons, oligodendrocytes, myelin and endothelial cells were relatively spared. Ultrastructural studies showed pleomorphism and condensation of mitochondria, membrane-bound vacuoles, prominent stacks of sparsely granular, rough endoplasmic reticulum and progressive hydropic swelling of astrocytic perikarya and their processes. The astroglial alterations were reversible after cessation of the drug but persisted for a longer time with repeated IP administration. Gastrointestinal complications and overall mortality were also greater with higher doses and increasing frequency of IP MTX injection. White matter necrosis was noted only after IV injection of high-dose MTX. The neuropathologic changes of MTX leukoencephalopathy can be replicated in an animal model by IV injection of the drug. The reversibility of the changes that were seen following IP administration correlates with the transient neurologic deficits observed in some patients after high-dose systemic MTX therapy. The initially selective astroglial effect suggests that astrocytes might be a target for MTX toxicity, although other central nervous system components may also be adversely affected by the drug.

  10. Vertical migration of municipal wastewater in deep injection well systems, South Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliva, Robert G.; Guo, Weixing; Missimer, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    Deep well injection is widely used in South Florida, USA for wastewater disposal largely because of the presence of an injection zone (“boulder zone” of Floridan Aquifer System) that is capable of accepting very large quantities of fluids, in some wells over 75,000 m3/day. The greatest potential risk to public health associated with deep injection wells in South Florida is vertical migration of wastewater, containing pathogenic microorganisms and pollutants, into brackish-water aquifer zones that are being used for alternative water-supply projects such as aquifer storage and recovery. Upwards migration of municipal wastewater has occurred in a minority of South Florida injection systems. The results of solute-transport modeling using the SEAWAT program indicate that the measured vertical hydraulic conductivities of the rock matrix would allow for only minimal vertical migration. Fracturing at some sites increased the equivalent average vertical hydraulic conductivity of confining zone strata by approximately four orders of magnitude and allowed for vertical migration rates of up 80 m/year. Even where vertical migration was rapid, the documented transit times are likely long enough for the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms.

  11. Enzymatic Microreactors for the Determination of Ethanol by an Automatic Sequential Injection Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff, Eliana M.; Salgado, Andrea M.; Cos, Oriol; Pereira, Nei; Valdman, Belkis; Valero, Francisco

    A sequential injection analysis system with two enzymatic microreactors for the determination of ethanol has been designed. Alcohol oxidase and horseradish peroxidase were separately immobilized on glass aminopropyl beads, and packed in 0.91-mL volume microreactors, working in line with the sequential injection analysis system. A stop flow of 120 s was selected for a linear ethanol range of 0.005-0.04 g/L±0.6% relative standard deviation with a throughput of seven analyses per hour. The system was applied to measure ethanol concentrations in samples of distilled and nondistilled alcoholic beverages, and of alcoholic fermentation with good performance and no significant difference compared with other analytical procedures (gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography).

  12. Investigation of work parameters of SI engine dedicated to energetics aggregates with pneumatic injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, W.; Śliwiński, K.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the possibilities of alternative fuel combustion in the engine four- stroke spark ignition engines. Power of the motor was carried out pneumatic fuel injection system using a hot gas developed by Prof. Stanislaw Jarnuszkiewicz. Presented made the position of the measuring system with the power and results. The engine experimental at the time of the study was powered by a blend of alcohol and gasoline. The main aim of the study was the question of control fuel dosage, taking into account the energy needs of forcing the engine load. During the tests carried load characteristics control the motor using the power control quality. Another issue was the elimination of penetration of fuel to the engine lubrication system, a problem occurred in the initial study on the issue of the pneumatic fuel injection using the hot exhaust gases. In summary we present the findings of this phase of the study.

  13. Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    like what the conventional power plants do today in the grid regulation participation. Requirements of ancillary services like Low-Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) associated with reactive current injection and voltage support through reactive power control, have been in effectiveness in some countries...... possibilities are: a) constant average active power control, b) constant active current control, c) constant peak current control and d) thermal optimized control strategy. All those strategies comply with the currently active grid codes, but are with different objectives. The thermal optimized control strategy....... Those advanced features can be provided by next-generation PV systems, and will be enhanced in the future to ensure an even efficient and reliable utilization of PV systems. In the light of this, Reactive Power Injection (RPI) strategies for single-phase PV systems are explored in this paper. The RPI...

  14. Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    like what the conventional power plants do today in the grid regulation participation. Requirements of ancillary services like Low-Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) associated with reactive current injection and voltage support through reactive power control, have been in effectiveness in some countries, e...... in this paper. The RPI possibilities are: a) constant average active power control, b) constant active current control, c) constant peak current control and d) thermal optimized control strategy. All those strategies comply with the currently active grid codes, but are with different objectives. The proposed.......g. Germany and Italy. Those advanced features can be provided by next generation PV systems, and will be enhanced in the future to ensure an even efficient and reliable utilization of PV systems. In light of this, Reactive Power Injection (RPI) strategies for single-phase PV systems are explored...

  15. Time trend of injection drug errors before and after implementation of bar-code verification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakushima, Ken; Umeki, Reona; Endoh, Akira; Ito, Yoichi M; Nasuhara, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Bar-code technology, used for verification of patients and their medication, could prevent medication errors in clinical practice. Retrospective analysis of electronically stored medical error reports was conducted in a university hospital. The number of reported medication errors of injected drugs, including wrong drug administration and administration to the wrong patient, was compared before and after implementation of the bar-code verification system for inpatient care. A total of 2867 error reports associated with injection drugs were extracted. Wrong patient errors decreased significantly after implementation of the bar-code verification system (17.4/year vs. 4.5/year, pcode medication administration is effective for prevention of wrong patient errors. However, ordinary bar-code verification systems are limited in their ability to prevent incorrect drug preparation in hospital wards.

  16. A hybrid WDM transport system based on mutually injection-locked Fabry Perot laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Cheng-Ling; Lu, Hai-Han; Tzeng, Shah-Jye; Ma, Hsien-Li; Chuang, Yao-Wei

    2007-08-01

    A hybrid wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transport system based on mutually injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes (FP LDs) for CATV, 256-QAM and OC-48 transmission is proposed and demonstrated. Mutually injection-locked FP LDs as broadband light source could be relatively simple and cost-effective compared with other demonstrated light source schemes. The proposed hybrid WDM transport system employs four filtered wavelengths (modes) to transmit 111 AM-VSB channels, four 256-QAM digital passband channels, and one OC-48 digital baseband channel simultaneously. Since our proposed system does not use multiple distributed feedback (DFB) LDs, it reveals a prominent one with simpler and more economic advantages.

  17. HART智能仪表在线管理系统的应用%The Applications of HART Smart Meter Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏长松

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the application of HART Smart Meter management system in Daqing Refining & Chemical Company 300,000 tons / year PPII plant. My unit utilizes the system in the construction stages of commissioning and routine maintenance. It speeds up the construction progress and implements the advance management of equipment. At the same time,the application of management system improves the quality of the instrumentation equipment maintenance and reduces the production fluctuation caused by instrument equipment failure.%本文介绍了HART智能仪表在线管理系统在大庆炼化公司二期30万吨/年聚丙烯装置的工程应用。通过该系统在装置开工调试阶段和日常维护阶段的使用,加快了施工进度,实现了对设备的预支管理,提高了仪表设备维护质量,减少了因仪表设备故障而引起的生产波动。

  18. Delivery of erythropoietin with a needleless injection system during hemodialysis maintains plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J; Jani, A

    2001-01-01

    Recent Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines require the implementation of needleless systems in dialysis units in the state of California. It is not known whether needleless systems deliver medication as well as traditional low dead-space needle/syringes. The purpose of this study was to compare the delivery of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) by a needleless system (Medic Plastic Anti-Stick Needle/Connector, Medisystems, Seattle, WA) with delivery using a traditional low dead-space needle/syringe. We also studied the Medisystems High Flow venous chamber with integral injection site that is designed to prevent the formation of a separate serum layer within which rHuEpo may become trapped. There was no significant difference in the mean serum rHuEpo concentration achieved by either the needleless system, or traditional low dead-space needle/syringe, whether using the venous chamber's integral injection site or the postvenous chamber in-line injection site. This study demonstrates for the first time that a needleless system of delivery can reliably achieve serum rHuEpo comparable to traditional low dead-space needle/syringes.

  19. Simulation of chaotic synchronization communication system based on incoherent optical feedback and injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun-shan; GU Wen-hua

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,we numerically study chaotic synchronization communication system based on incoherent optical feedback and incoherent optical injection.The characteristics of the system,such as synchronization time,synchronization error,chaos shift keying encoding/decoding and modulation rate are analyzed.The results of simulation show that the system has good synchronization quality and good abilities of robust secure.The synchronization time is 1ns and the chaos shift keying encoding can reach a high rate of 1 Gbit/s.The system has a good ability of robust secure.It proves the feasibility of the optical secure communication.

  20. Net metering study of switching effects on electromechanical meters[Report prepared for the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Overberghe, L. [Measurement Canada, London, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-03

    The feasibility of introducing net metering in the electricity sector was evaluated with particular reference to a project administered by Measurement Canada and Electro-Federation Canada (MicroPower Connect) in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project is to identify and eliminate the barriers introduced by the Electricity and Gas Inspection Act regarding the introduction of net metering. The purpose was to design a device that would allow rotation reversal in a residential electromechanical single phase meter. The device should approximate any fluctuations found in a typical net metering system. A series of tests were conducted to understand the influences, on errors, of forward-to-reverse and reverse-to-forward transitions, specifically to find evidence of error migration and mechanical stress. The project was designed to find and measure the effects of forward reverse switching on an electromechanical meter resulting from a change in energy flow. Twenty metres were calibrated in the forward direction in series from light load to high load. Power factor was not adjustable. Test points were then applied in both the forward and reverse directions. The exercise yielded individual errors which were aggregated to show average found errors after 3,000 transitions. Small shifts in errors were apparent and there was no evidence to support a disk flutter theory. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. 基于移动网络及短距离通讯技术的电表数据采集系统%Based on Mobile Network and Short Distance Communication Technology of the Electric Meter Data Acquisition System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇波

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the electric meter data acquisition system.Through the industrial field remote meter reading con-centrator,the short distance wireless communication technology and GPRS wireless network communication technology together,it successful applied to electric power data remote meter reading and realized the power of real-time data acquisition and transmission.Finally,the system software design is introduced.%介绍了电表数据采集系统,它通过工业现场远程抄表集中器,将短距离无线通讯技术和GPRS无线网络通讯技术结合在一起,成功的运用到电力数据远程抄表上,实现了电力数据的实时采集与传输,最后对系统后台软件的设计进行了介绍.

  2. Installation, maintenance and operating manual for the Lucas-type fuel injection system of the 3 B rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The installation procedure, maintenance, adjustment and operation of a Lucas type fuel injection system for 13B rotary racing engine is outlined. Components of the fuel injection system and installation procedure and notes are described. Maintenance, adjustment, and operation are discussed.

  3. Two-phase Flow of Liquid-gas in Diesel Fuel Injection System and Their Effect on Engine Performances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongling He; Zhihe Zhao; Jianxin Liu; Huiyong Du; Min Li; Yongping Zong

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, by using high-speed camera, CCD camera, signal and graph acquisition system, and other experimental instruments, investigation on liquid-gas two-phase flow in diesel fuel injection system and their effect on engine performances were made. Emerging and bursting of cavitation in the cavity above pump delivery valve, in injection pipe, and in fuel trough of injector of the fuel injection system were observed and mechanism of cavitation were discussed. Effects of liquid-gas two-phase flow on propagation velocity of pressure wave of the system and on irregular injection were analyzed. Two types of cavitation, long living time cavitation and short living time cavitation, in the cavity above pump delivery valve of diesel fuel injection system were observed.

  4. Production and quality assurance of bright steel products for high performance components in fuel injection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, P.; Bodenstein, F. [Mittal Steel Ruhrort GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Engineer, S. [EZM Edelstahlzieherei Mark, Wetter (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In the last years the demands on the technological properties of steels in fuel injection systems are constantly increasing. There has been for instance a significant increase in the pressure of fuel injections systems. This means even small imperfections in steels can lead to field failures. The grades 47Pb2 and 42CrMo4 for fuel injection systems have stringent requirements regarding the production and application of the components. In order to obtain the best possible quality all stages of the production system have to be monitored very carefully. The steel making process in the steel plant has to follow strict rules to avoid detrimental oxide inclusions, reduce segregation, improve lead distribution, provide a good surface quality and homogeneous structure. The process of manufacturing bright steel bars from the hot rolled wire rods also involves capable processes with intensive 100% testing of all the bars supplied to the customer. The wire rods are drawn to bars and ground to narrow tolerances. The bars undergo an eddy current test to determine surface defects and also a sophisticated ultra sonic test at a flat bottom hole of 0.7. In spite of all the process monitoring and tests carried out from the melting up to grinding the bars there is still a chance of certain imperfection or defects remaining on the bars, which are more likely detectable on processing the bars to components. Therefore is also a necessity to carry out a test during the stage of component manufacturing. (orig.)

  5. Injectable nanoparticle-loaded hydrogel system for local delivery of sodium alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadowska, Urszula; Parizek, Martin; Filova, Elena; Wlodarczyk-Biegun, Malgorzata; Kamperman, Marleen; Bacakova, Lucie; Pamula, Elzbieta

    2015-05-15

    Systemic administration of bisphosphonates, e.g. sodium alendronate (Aln) is characterized by extremely low bioavailability and high toxicity. To omit aforementioned drawbacks an injectable system for the intra-bone delivery of Aln based on Aln-loaded nanoparticles (NPs-Aln) suspended in a hydrogel matrix (gellan gum, GG) was developed. Aln was encapsulated in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA 85:15) by solid-oil-water emulsification. Drug release tests showed that within 25 days all the encapsulated drug was released from NPs-Aln and the release rate was highest at the beginning and decreased with time. In contrast, by suspending NPs-Aln in a GG matrix, the release rate was significantly lower and more constant in time. The GG-NPs-Aln system was engineered to be easily injectable and was able to reassemble its structure after extrusion as shown by rheological measurements. Invitro studies showed that the GG-NPs-Aln was cytocompatible with MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and it inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclastic differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells. The injectability, the sustained local delivery of small doses of Aln and the biological activity render the GG-NPs-Aln system promising for the local treatment of osteoporosis and other bone tissue disorders.

  6. No-Voltage Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    VW- IKft, 1/4 H4 -Wv- IK!1, I/4W INTERNAL VOLTAGE NOTE ALL TRANSISTORS ARE 2N43A OR EQUIVALENT GERMANIUM ALLOY PNP AA ALKALINE BATTERY...D-,, regardless of polarity. This signal is then full-wave rectified by the diode-connected Germanium transistor bridge, T,, T-,, T3, and T4... Transistor T5 acts as a second current limiter. Resistor R2 was selected to give 90 f# of full-scale meter deflection with an input signal of 115 volts

  7. Direct reading inductance meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, R. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A direct reading inductance meter comprised of a crystal oscillator and an LC tuned oscillator is presented. The oscillators function respectively to generate a reference frequency, f(r), and to generate an initial frequency, f(0), which when mixed produce a difference equal to zero. Upon connecting an inductor of small unknown value in the LC circuit to change its resonant frequency to f(x), a difference frequency (f(r)-f(x)) is produced that is very nearly a linear function of the inductance of the inductor. The difference frequency is measured and displayed on a linear scale in units of inductance.

  8. Design optimisation of a nanofluid injection system for LOCA events in a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Călimănescu, I.; Stan, L. C.; Velcea, D. D.

    2016-08-01

    The safety issues inside a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) are encompassing their capacity to ensure the heat sink, meaning the capacity of the systems to release the heat from the rector to the environment. The nanofluids having good heat transfer properties, are recommended to be used in such applications. The paper is solving the following scenario: considering the Safety Injection tank and the Nanofluid injection Tank, and considering the Nanofluid injection Tank filled with a 10% alumina-water nanofluid, how can we select the best design of the connecting point between the pipes of the SIT and the Nanofluid Tank and the pressures inside of any of these tanks in order to have the biggest density of nanoparticles leaving the tanks toward the cold leg. In conclusion the biggest influence over the rate of disposal of the nanofluid inside ECCS is that of the pressure inside the SIT followed in order by the injection pipe diameter and the pressure inside the nanofluid tank. The optimum balance of these three design parameters may be reached following the procedure shown in this paper.

  9. Wireless Centralized Meter Reading System Based on Short Distance Wireless Communication and 3G%基于短距无线通信与3G的无线集中抄表系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩浩; 屈玉贵

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the shortcomings of existing meter reading systems, proposes a wireless centralized meter reading system based on short distance wireless communication and 3G.The system combines the short distance wireless communication and 3G technology together with the data's collection and transmission through a wireless manner.The collected data of meter are transmitted through the 3G network to the billing department of the data management center.When compared with existing meter reading systems, this system has a more flexible layout, larger coverage, lower power consumption, higher real-time features, less interference and gets better results in practical application.%分析现有抄表系统存在的不足,介绍基于短距无线通信与3G的无线集中抄表系统.结合短距无线通信与3G技术,数据的汇聚与转发均通过无线方式进行.将采集到的计量表数据通过3G网络转发到计费部门的数据管理中心.与现有的抄表系统相比,该系统具有布置灵活、抄表范围大、功耗低、实时性好、干扰小等特点,在实际应用中有较好效果.

  10. Nuclear Safety Functions of ITER Gas Injection System Instrumentation and Control and the Concept Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Maruyama, S.; Fossen, A.; Villers, F.; Kiss, G.; Zhang, Bo; Li, Bo; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Xiangmei

    2016-08-01

    The ITER Gas Injection System (GIS) plays an important role on fueling, wall conditioning and distribution for plasma operation. Besides that, to support the safety function of ITER, GIS needs to implement three nuclear safety Instrumentation and Control (I&C) functions. In this paper, these three functions are introduced with the emphasis on their latest safety classifications. The nuclear I&C design concept is briefly discussed at the end.

  11. Determination of Ciprofloxacin by Flow Injection Analysis Based on Chemiluminescence System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of ciprofloxacin (CPLX) was reported. The proposed method is based on luminescence produced by KMnO4-Na2S2O4-Tb3+-CPLX chemiluminescence (CL) system. The effects of some critical experimental conditions were discussed and the optimization of working condithe recoveries of real sample analyses were in the range from 110 ± 4 to 104 ± 4.

  12. A lactose flow injection analysis biosensor system for monitoring and process control

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this work an enzymatic lactose biosensor composed of the immobilized enzymes E- galactosidase and glucose oxidase was developed. Oxygen consumption during the reaction catalyzed by these enzymes was detected. The biosensor was integrated into an FIA (flow injection analysis) system that allows measurement of lactose on-line in less than three minutes. This biosensor was used to monitor lactose concentration during the production of E-galactosidase by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus from ...

  13. The Curing Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2006-01-01

    Curing technology concerns adjustment and control of temperature and moisture conditions in hardening structures and elements of concrete. The curing technology comprises e.g. measurement, adjustment and control of the moisture conditions during the early hardening phase of the concrete to achiev...... from concrete surfaces in the early hardening phase. The Concrete Curing Meter is designed for simple and reliable monitoring of water loss from a wet surface of fresh concrete. This new measuring technique has been tested with several prototypes of the Curing Meter.......Curing technology concerns adjustment and control of temperature and moisture conditions in hardening structures and elements of concrete. The curing technology comprises e.g. measurement, adjustment and control of the moisture conditions during the early hardening phase of the concrete to achieve...... an optimal development of properties in the hardening concrete – so-called "moisture curing". Proper moisture curing is vital to concrete but laborious to accomplish and difficult to control at the construction site with present methods. This paper concerns a new method for site measurement of evaporation...

  14. Potentiometric electronic tongue-flow injection analysis system for the monitoring of heavy metal biosorption processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D; del Valle, M; Alegret, S; Valderrama, C; Florido, A

    2012-05-15

    An automated flow injection potentiometric (FIP) system with electronic tongue detection (ET) is used for the monitoring of biosorption processes of heavy metals on vegetable wastes. Grape stalk wastes are used as biosorbent to remove Cu(2+) ions in a fixed-bed column configuration. The ET is formed by a 5-sensor array with Cu(2+) and Ca(2+)-selective electrodes and electrodes with generic response to heavy-metals, plus an artificial neural network response model of the sensor's cross-response. The real-time monitoring of both the Cu(2+) and the cation exchanged and released (Ca(2+)) in the effluent solution is performed by using flow-injection potentiometric electronic tongue system. The coupling of the electronic tongue with automation features of the flow-injection system allows us to accurately characterize the Cu(2+) ion-biosorption process, through obtaining its breakthrough curves, and the profile of the Ca(2+) ion release. In parallel, fractions of the extract solution are analysed by spectroscopic techniques in order to validate the results obtained with the reported methodology. The sorption performance of grape stalks is also evaluated by means of well-established sorption models.

  15. Road Maintenance Experience Using Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization as Ground Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar, A. M. M.; Asmaniza, A.

    2016-07-01

    There are many types of ground rehabilation and improvement that can be consider and implement in engineering construction works for soil improvement in order to prevent road profile deformation in later stage. However, when comes to road maintenance especially on operated expressways, not all method can be apply directly as it must comply to opreation's working window and lane closure basis. Key factors that considering ideal proposal for ground rehabilitation are time, cost, quality and most importantly practicality. It should provide long lifespan structure in order to reduce continuous cycle of maintenance. Thus, this paper will present two approaches for ground rehabilitation, namely Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization. The first approach is an injection system which consists two-parts chemical grout of Isocynate and Polyol when mixed together within soil structure through injection will polymerized with volume expansion. The strong expansion of grouting causes significant compression and compacting of the surrounding soil and subsequently improve ground properties and uplift sunken structure. The later is a cold in-place recyclying whereby mixture process that combines in-situ soil materials, cement, white powder (alkaline) additive and water to produce hard yet flexible and durable ground layer that act as solid foundation with improved bearing capacity. The improvement of the mechanical behaviour of soil through these two systems is investigated by an extensive testing programme which includes in-situ and laboratory test in determining properties such as strength, stiffness, compressibility, bearing capacity, differential settlement and etc.

  16. The regulatory system for diabetes mellitus: Modeling rates of glucose infusions and insulin injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2016-08-01

    Novel mathematical models with open and closed-loop control for type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus were developed to improve understanding of the glucose-insulin regulatory system. A hybrid impulsive glucose-insulin model with different frequencies of glucose infusions and insulin injections was analyzed, and the existence and uniqueness of the positive periodic solution for type 1 diabetes, which is globally asymptotically stable, was studied analytically. Moreover, permanence of the system for type 2 diabetes was demonstrated which showed that the glucose concentration level is uniformly bounded above and below. To investigate how to prevent hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia being caused by this system, we developed a model involving periodic intakes of glucose with insulin injections applied only when the blood glucose level reached a given critical glucose threshold. In addition, our numerical analysis revealed that the period, the frequency and the dose of glucose infusions and insulin injections are crucial for insulin therapies, and the results provide clinical strategies for insulin-administration practices.

  17. Effect of semiconductor-controlled voltage injection by UPFC and ULTC on power system stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavian Mehr, Alireza

    Commercial availability of various power semiconductor switches indicates proliferation of power electronic based apparatus in utility power systems. Furthermore, existing power system apparatus, e.g. mechanical phase shifters and mechanical tap changing transformers, will be retrofitted to utilize higher switching speed of semiconductor switches. A group of these apparatus, i.e., unified power flow controller (UPFC), static phase shifter (SPS), under-load tap-changing (ULTC) transformer and static series capacitor (SSC), perform their respective functions by means of injecting series controlled voltages in power systems. This thesis demonstrates that fast series voltage injection, for dynamic power flow regulation, can result in voltage dynamics and even voltage instability. This indicates that fast voltage injection by means of power electronic based apparatus can couple voltage stability and angle stability phenomena. To investigate this coupling phenomena, the voltage dependency of the load must be adequately represented in the load model. The reported studies in this work are based on representing the load by a combination of static and dynamic loads. This thesis primarily investigates impacts of UPFC and semiconductor-controlled ULTC on voltage stability and angle stability phenomena. An eigen analysis approach is used for the studies. The eigen analysis results are validated by digital time-domain simulations using a transient stability software. Both the eigen analysis and the transient stability software tools are tailored to account for angle and voltage stability phenomena.

  18. Local and systemic toxicity of intraoral submucosal injections of phentolamine mesylate (OraVerse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Bruce; Zeller, Jillynne R; Thake, Daryl

    2009-01-01

    OraVerse, an injectable formulation of phentolamine mesylate (PM), was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for reversal of anesthesia of the lip and tongue and associated functional deficits resulting from an intraoral submucosal injection of a local anesthetic containing a vasoconstrictor. Because PM had not been approved previously for submucosal administration, 2 Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) studies in dogs designed to investigate systemic toxicity and the local effects of single and repeated dosing of OraVerse on the inferior alveolar nerve and branches of the superior alveolar nerve and adjacent soft tissues after local administration were conducted. Systemic toxicity was measured by preinjection and postinjection clinical examinations, clinical chemistry, and gross and microscopic examinations of major organs after necropsy. No evidence of systemic toxicity was detected. Local nerve and adjacent tissue damage was assessed by conventional histopathology. Nerve degeneration was evident in 1 animal. Mild perineural inflammation adjacent to the inferior alveolar nerve and inflammatory exudates were observed in submucosal tissues in several animals. No changes were observed in the nerves at injection sites of dogs from any dose group that were considered directly related to the test articles. These data reveal that single and repeated intraoral administrations of OraVerse are well tolerated in beagle dogs.

  19. A Review of Injectable Polymeric Hydrogel Systems for Application in Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondiah, Pariksha J; Choonara, Yahya E; Kondiah, Pierre P D; Marimuthu, Thashree; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-11-21

    Biodegradable, stimuli-responsive polymers are essential platforms in the field of drug delivery and injectable biomaterials for application of bone tissue engineering. Various thermo-responsive hydrogels display water-based homogenous properties to encapsulate, manipulate and transfer its contents to the surrounding tissue, in the least invasive manner. The success of bioengineered injectable tissue modified delivery systems depends significantly on their chemical, physical and biological properties. Irrespective of shape and defect geometry, injectable therapy has an unparalleled advantage in which intricate therapy sites can be effortlessly targeted with minimally invasive procedures. Using material testing, it was found that properties of stimuli-responsive hydrogel systems enhance cellular responses and cell distribution at any site prior to the transitional phase leading to gelation. The substantially hydrated nature allows significant simulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), due to its similar structural properties. Significant current research strategies have been identified and reported to date by various institutions, with particular attention to thermo-responsive hydrogel delivery systems, and their pertinent focus for bone tissue engineering. Research on future perspective studies which have been proposed for evaluation, have also been reported in this review, directing considerable attention to the modification of delivering natural and synthetic polymers, to improve their biocompatibility and mechanical properties.

  20. Development of mediated BOD biosensor system of flow injection mode for shochu distillery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oota, Shinichi; Hatae, Yuta; Amada, Kei; Koya, Hidekazu; Kawakami, Mitsuyasu

    2010-09-15

    Although microbial biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensors utilizing redox mediators have attracted much attention as a rapid BOD measurement method, little attempts have been made to apply the mediated BOD biosensors to the flow injection analysis system. In this work, a mediated BOD sensor system of flow injection mode, constructed by combining an immobilized microbial reactor with an electrochemical flow cell of three electrodes configuration, has been developed to estimate BOD of shochu distillery wastewater (SDW). It was demonstrated consequently that the mediated sensing was realized by employing phosphate buffer containing potassium hexacyanoferrate as the carrier. The output current was found to yield a peak with a sample injection, and to result from reoxidation of reduced mediator at the electrode. By employing the peak area as the sensor response, the effects of flow rate and pH of the carrier on the sensitivity were investigated. The sensor system using a microorganism of high SDW-assimilation capacity showed good performance and proved to be available for estimation of BOD of SDW.

  1. Design of automotive intellectual control meter system based on embedded Linux system%基于嵌入式Linux汽车智能仪表系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓宗权; 蒋向东; 王继岷; 严亮

    2014-01-01

    为了优化汽车仪表系统性能,提高系统智能化、人车交互界面友好度,以 ARM 微处理器S5PV210为控制核心设计了一款汽车智能仪表系统。该系统以嵌入式实时操作系统 Linux 为软件平台,结合 CAN 现场总线技术,并采用开放源代码的图形界面库 QT 开发仪表终端应用程序。经实验验证,系统性能得到了改善。%In order to optimize the performance of the automotive meter system , improve the friendliness degrees of man-vehi-cle interaction interface , and make the system become intelligent , a type of automotive intellectual control meter system is designed in this paper . ARM processor S5PV210 is used as the core of hardware platform and embedded Linux operating system is used as the core of the software platform . The CAN bus is one of the widely applied fieldbus and used in the intellectual control meter system . Additionally , the open source graphical user interface library QT is used to develop the terminal application program . The re-sults of experimental verification shows that the performance of the system is improved .

  2. A hybrid ICT-solution for smart meter data analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    Smart meters are increasingly used worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 min. Smart meter data are typically bundled with social economic data in analytics, such as meter geographic locations, weather...... conditions and user information, which makes the data sets very sizable and the analytics complex. Data mining and emerging cloud computing technologies make collecting, processing, and analyzing the so-called big data possible. This paper proposes an innovative ICT-solution to streamline smart meter data...... analytics. The proposed solution offers an information integration pipeline for ingesting data from smart meters, a scalable platform for processing and mining big data sets, and a web portal for visualizing analytics results. The implemented system has a hybrid architecture of using Spark or Hive for big...

  3. A versatile and reproducible automatic injection system for liquid standard introduction: application to in-situ calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Isaacman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The quantitation of trace organic compounds in ambient organic aerosol is difficult due to the chemical complexity of these mixtures, but is needed to provide insight into their sources and formation processes. Compound-level characterization of organic aerosols is typically performed through sample collection followed by gas or liquid chromatography. With these methods, introduction of liquid standards has long been used as an effective means of quantifying trace compounds, but automating this technique for use with in-situ instrumentation has not previously been achieved. Here we develop an automatic injection system (AutoInject for the introduction of liquids into a custom collection and analysis cell for improved quantitation in chromatographic measurements. The system consists of chilled reservoirs containing liquid standards from which a sample loop is loaded and then injected into the cell. The AutoInject is shown to have reproducibility over 106 injections with a relative standard deviation of 1.5 %, and have negligible injection-to-injection carryover. A 6-port selector allows injection of different liquid standards separately or simultaneously. Additionally, automatic injection of multiple sample loops is shown to generate a linear multi-point calibration curve. Tests conducted in this work focus on use with the Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph (TAG, but the flexibility of the system allows it to be used for a variety of applications.

  4. 基于无线传感器网络的远程自动抄表系统设计%Application of Remote Automatic Meter Reading System Based on Wireless Sensor Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅仁轩

    2011-01-01

    针对居民小区抄表系统的技术要求,设计了一种基于无线传感器网络的的远程自动抄表系统方案,该系统将有线通信与无线通信、ZigBee短距离通信与GPRS/CDMA/3G远距离通信有机地结合起来,实现了居民小区的远程自动抄表.给出了组网结构图,阐述了抄袁管理中心的软件结构框图和主要功能.与传统的实现方案相比,该方案的通信设计有明显的优势.%To satisfy the technical requirement of the meter reading system, a remote automatic meter reading system based on wireless sensor network was designed.The system combined wire communication, wireless communication ZigBee short distance communication and GPRS/CDMA/3G remote communication to achieve the remote automatic meter reading system in a residential area.The network structure is proposed, the software structure diagram and main function of meter management center are elaborated.The communication design of the scheme has obvious advantages compared with the traditional scheme.

  5. Humoral Dysregulation Associated with Increased Systemic Inflammation among Injection Heroin Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Piepenbrink

    Full Text Available Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles.A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19 and healthy control subjects (n = 19. The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy.These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing population.

  6. Anti-Theft Automatic Metering Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Das

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electricity is now more than a necessity and its need is increasing day by day resulting in power theft and power scarcity. The purpose of this project is to provide automatic control and monitoring of the Domestic Energy Meter enabling the Electricity Department to read meter readings without anyone visiting each house and also prevent electricity theft .This can be achieved by the use of a Microcontroller Unit that continuously monitors and records the Energy Meter readings in its permanent memory location. This system also makes use of a GSM module for remote monitoring and control of Energy Meter with the help of an interfacing circuitry. The Microcontroller based system continuously records the readings and the live meter reading can be sent to the Electricity department after a count period or on request. This system also can be used to disconnect the power supply to the house in case of non-payment of electricity bills. The Substation will be the receiving end. The data received is fed to a microcontroller at the Substation which will automatically calculate the bill based on tariff provider and display it.

  7. Coseismic and initial postseismic deformation from the 2004 Parkfield, California, earthquake, observed by global positioning system, electronic distance meter, creepmeters, and borehole strainmeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J.; Murray, J.R.; Snyder, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS), electronic distance meter, creepmeter, and strainmeter measurements spanning the M 6.0 Parkfield, California, earthquake are examined. Using these data from 100 sec through 9 months following the main-shock, the Omori's law, with rate inversely related to time, l/t p and p ranging between 0.7 and 1.3, characterizes the time-dependent deformation during the post-seismic period; these results are consistent with creep models for elastic solids. With an accurate function of postseismic response, the coseismic displacements can be estimated from the high-rate, 1-min sampling GPS; and the coseismic displacements are approximately 75% of those estimated from the daily solutions. Consequently, fault-slip models using daily solutions overestimate coseismic slip. In addition, at 2 months and at 8 months following the mainshock, postseismic displacements are modeled as slip on the San Andreas fault with a lower bound on the moment exceeding that of the coseismic moment.

  8. Reducing water loss in a water supply system using a district metering area (DMA: A case study of the Provincial Waterworks Authority (PWA, Lop Buri Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thee Jitong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Water loss from broken or leaking pipe networks is still a major water management problem for the Provincial Waterworks Authority (PWA in Thailand. To reduce this loss and benefit from the savings, a district metering area (DMA was applied as a management measure to control leaking water losses at the PWA Lop Buri Branch. The DMA was divided into 8 zones, covering about 60.47 % of the total service area. A surveillance system was set up that compared the observed flow rates and the upper limit of warning values for each DMA. Comparison of results before and after implementation of the DMA showed that rate of water loss decreased from 34.55 to 30.87 %. To further reduce these losses, sensitive warning values based on seasonal and daily patterns of water consumption were defined and implemented with an increased number of DMAs covering the entire service area. Financial analysis confirmed that the DMA measures are worth the investment because they significantly reduce the operational costs for water production.

  9. Simple flow injection colorimetric system for determination of paraquat in natural water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuntib, Prakit; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    A simple and low cost flow injection colorimetric system has been developed for determination of paraquat in natural water. The developed method is based on the reduction of paraquat by using sodium dithionite as a reducing agent in an alkaline medium to produce a blue free radical ion that can be detected by a simple light emitting diode-light dependent resistor (LED-LDR) colorimeter. The standard or sample solution was injected via a set of 3-way solenoid valves into a water carrier stream and flowed to merge with reagent to generate a colored product which is proportional to the concentration of paraquat ion in the solution. Under the optimum condition of the system, i.e., mixing coil length 30 cm, flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1), sample volume 100 μL, concentrations of dithionite 0.1% (w/v) and sodium hydroxide 0.06 mol L(-1), a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.2-10.0 mg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996, and a limit of detection of 0.15 mg L(-1) were achieved. Relative standard deviation for 9 replicate injections of 1 mg L(-1) paraquat is 3.7%. A sample throughput of 40 injections h(-1) was achieved. The limit of detection can be improved by off-line preconcentration of paraquat employing a column packed with Dowex 50WX8-100 (H) cation exchange resin and eluted with 10% (w/v) ammonium chloride in ammonium buffer solution pH 10. The eluting solution was then injected into the FI system for paraquat determination. The proposed system did not suffer from interferences of some possible ions in natural water and other herbicides. Recoveries obtained by spiking 0.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) paraquat standard into water samples were in the range of 104-110% and 101-105%, respectively. The developed system can be conveniently applied for screening of paraquat contaminated in natural water.

  10. Pico meter metrology for the GAIA mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.A.; Nijenhuis, J.N.; Vink, R.J.P.; Kamphues, F.G.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Coatantiec, C.

    2009-01-01

    To measure the relative motions of GAIA's telescopes, the angle between the telescopes is monitored by an all Silicon Carbide Basic Angle Monitoring subsystem (BAM OMA). TNO is developing this metrology system. The stability requirements for this metrology system go into the pico meter and pico radi

  11. Ramp Metering by Limitation of Density and Queue Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Boumediene; Benasser, Amar; Jolly, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    As shown by many works and studies, the control of traffic flow remains the best and the efficient solution of the congestion problems. The ramp metering is a means to reduce congestion effects, it has shown his effectiveness to improve the flow and consequently to reduce the total time spent (TTS) by the vehicles in the network. In Kamel et al. [2008] the concept of flatness-based control was applied to regulate the flow at the mainline section of the road on the traffic flow model LWR. This work was preceded by Abouaïssa et al. [2006]. In this article we have proceeded the same way to set the flat output for a second order model METANET. Unfortunately we were unable to prove that the system is flat and therefore define density as flat output, but we manage to define the control laws in order to respect constraints on density and queue length at the on-ramp. The idea is to express the control variable (the outflow of the on-ramp) according to the output (density or queue length at the on-ramp), then inject it in the system. We use this control method in the ramp metering case. The first aim of the control is to keep the density in the segment where the on-ramp is connected below a density (called the target density YT) for which we have the lowest TTS, and the second aim is to keep the queue length at the on-ramp below a maximum value. In order to evaluate the controller's efficiency and applicability, a comparison is made with traditional ALINEA based controller. We illustrate this approach by comparing the cases 'no control' and 'ramp metering' for a simple network.

  12. Development of a novel injectable drug delivery system for subconjunctival glaucoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Karsten; Falke, Karen; Bernsdorf, Arne; Grabow, Niels; Kastner, Christian; Sternberg, Katrin; Minrath, Ingo; Eickner, Thomas; Wree, Andreas; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter; Guthoff, Rudolf; Witt, Martin; Hovakimyan, Marina

    2015-09-28

    In this study we present the development of an injectable polymeric drug delivery system for subconjunctival treatment of primary open angle glaucoma. The system consists of hyaluronic acid sodium salt (HA), which is commonly used in ophthalmology in anterior segment surgery, and an isocyanate-functionalized 1,2-ethylene glycol bis(dilactic acid) (ELA-NCO). The polymer mixtures with different ratios of HA to ELA-NCO (1/1, 1/4, and 1/10 (v/v)) were investigated for biocompatibility, degradation behavior and applicability as a sustained release system. For the latter, the lipophilic latanoprost ester pro-drug (LA) was incorporated into the HA/ELA-NCO system. In vitro, a sustained LA release over a period of about 60days was achieved. In cell culture experiments, the HA/ELA-NCO (1/1, (v/v)) system was proven to be biocompatible for human and rabbit Tenon's fibroblasts. Examination of in vitro degradation behavior revealed a total mass loss of more than 60% during the observation period of 26weeks. In vivo, LA was continuously released for 152days into rabbit aqueous humor and serum. Histological investigations revealed a marked leuko-lymphocytic infiltration soon after subconjunctival injection. Thereafter, the initial tissue reaction declined concomitantly with a continuous degradation of the polymer, which was completed after 10months. Our study demonstrates the suitability of the polymer resulting from the reaction of HA with ELA-NCO as an injectable local drug delivery system for glaucoma therapy, combining biocompatibility and biodegradability with prolonged drug release.

  13. Simulation model for jet flow in liquid injection system of CANDU-6 SDS 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, K. M.; Yoo, S. Y. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B. W.; Choi, H. B. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-10-01

    For the performance analysis of the secondary shutdown system (SDS-2), a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for the poison jet flow is being developed to analyze the flow and poison concentration fields formed inside the moderator tank. As the ratio between Calandria shell and the nozzle hole diameter of the injection system is so big as 1055, it is impractical to develop a full size model encompassing the whole Calandria tank. To reduce the model to a manageable size, a quarter of the five-lattice-pitch length segment of the tank was modeled by using the symmetric nature of the jet and the injected jet was treated as source term to remove the limit caused by the small diameter of the injection nozzle hole, when the grid of the calculation domain was generated. A half model calculation was performed to show the symmetricity of the quarter model. For the validation of the source treatment of the inlet flow condition, the simulation result was compared with the experimental data of the gas jet. The symmetricity was confirmed by the results of simulation the half model calculation on the symmetric line and the result of simulation for the source treatment well agreed with the experiment when a fine mesh grid structure was used near the inlet.

  14. Effectiveness of surface aeration and oxygen injection system in the Athabasca River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima-Neto, I.E.; Zhu, D.Z.; Rajaratnam, N.; Yu, T. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Spafford, M. [Alberta-Pacific Forest Industries Ltd. Boyle, AB (Canada); McEachern, P. [Alberta Environment, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The effectiveness of a pilot oxygen injection program and surface aeration at the open-water lead downstream of the Al-Pac's effluent diffuser was evaluated in this abstract. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is regarded as a proxy for the overall health of a river from the perspectives of organic and nutrient loading. When organic loading is high and DO concentrations become a concern, a mitigation option may be necessary. In this experiment, a modified Streeter-Phelps model described the spatial variation of DO downstream of the diffuser. Reaeration from the open water lead, formed as a result of effluent temperature, was significant. This suggested the importance of accurate prediction of the water lead's size in managing effluent effects. The amount of DO added to the river due to artificial aeration at rates of 3500 and 5000 lbs per day was approximately 55 and 27 per cent of that due to surface reaeration of a 4 and 5 km long open water lead, respectively. The artificial aeration technique evaluated appeared to have higher absorption efficiencies than those for conventional air injection systems. It was concluded that the results of this study will be valuable for future development of accurate DO models for ice-covered rivers as well as in developing and evaluating oxygen injection systems. tabs, figs.

  15. Design of Meter Warehouse Management System Based on RFID%一种仪表仓库自动识别管理系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金作涛

    2011-01-01

    针对仪表仓库的管理效率问题,提出了一种基于RFID技术的自动识别管理系统设计方案;基于RFID中间件技术、嵌入式软件开发和数据库编程技术完成了各子系统的设计;现场试用和实验室测试结果表明,该系统能有效实现仪表仓库的进出存自动识别管理,系统功耗较传统装置降低了26.9%,平均操作效率提高了18.2%,大大增强了仪表仓库管理的自动化、智能化水平,并节约了管理成本;设计方案科学可行,应用前景广阔.%To solve the problem of ihe meter warehouse management, a novel management system is designed based on RFID. The RFID middleware, embedded software and database technology are used to realize the software design. The trial and laboratory testing results show that the novel management system is scientific and feasible. The realization of instrument to save the identification and management is effective. The operation efficiency is improved, system power consumption compared to traditional devices of reduced 26. 9% , average operating efficiency by 18. 2%. The administrative cost is reduced. The detector has an expansive application prospect.

  16. Fault Injection and Monitoring Capability for a Fault-Tolerant Distributed Computation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo; Yates, Amy M.; Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2010-01-01

    The Configurable Fault-Injection and Monitoring System (CFIMS) is intended for the experimental characterization of effects caused by a variety of adverse conditions on a distributed computation system running flight control applications. A product of research collaboration between NASA Langley Research Center and Old Dominion University, the CFIMS is the main research tool for generating actual fault response data with which to develop and validate analytical performance models and design methodologies for the mitigation of fault effects in distributed flight control systems. Rather than a fixed design solution, the CFIMS is a flexible system that enables the systematic exploration of the problem space and can be adapted to meet the evolving needs of the research. The CFIMS has the capabilities of system-under-test (SUT) functional stimulus generation, fault injection and state monitoring, all of which are supported by a configuration capability for setting up the system as desired for a particular experiment. This report summarizes the work accomplished so far in the development of the CFIMS concept and documents the first design realization.

  17. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  18. Generators and automated generator systems for production and on-line injections of pet radiopharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimchuk, G.; Shimchuk, Gr; Pakhomov, G.; Avalishvili, G.; Zavrazhnov, G.; Polonsky-Byslaev, I.; Fedotov, A.; Polozov, P.

    2017-01-01

    One of the prospective directions of PET development is using generator positron radiating nuclides [1,2]. Introduction of this technology is financially promising, since it does not require expensive special accelerator and radiochemical laboratory in the medical institution, which considerably reduces costs of PET diagnostics and makes it available to more patients. POZITOM-PRO RPC LLC developed and produced an 82Sr-82Rb generator, an automated injection system, designed for automatic and fully-controlled injections of 82RbCl produced by this generator, automated radiopharmaceutical synthesis units based on generated 68Ga produced using a domestically-manufactured 68Ge-68Ga generator for preparing two pharmaceuticals: Ga-68-DOTA-TATE and Vascular Ga-68.

  19. Design of Control Server Application Software for Neutral Beam Injection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施齐林; 胡纯栋; 盛鹏; 宋士化

    2012-01-01

    For the remote control of a neutral beam injection (NBI) system, a software NBIcsw is developed to work on the control server. It can meet the requirements of data transmission and operation-control between the NBI measurement and control layer (MCL) and the remote monitoring layer (RML). The NBIcsw runs on a Linux system, developed with client/server (C/S) mode and multithreading technology. It is shown through application that the software is with good efficiency.

  20. Analysis on Pressure Distribution in HT-7 Neutral Beam Injection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Wu; Chen Lian; Hu Chundong; Hu Liqun

    2005-01-01

    Neutral Beam Injection. (NBI) is an effective way to improve the efficiency of tokamak heating system. This article primarily introduces a work on the pressure distribution inside the tank of NBI heating system, especially inside the neutralizer, which is got by selecting a proper mathematical model and constructing a series of rational calculating formulas on pressure distribution. Furthermore, we simulate the pressure distribution by the Monte Carlo method. Comparing the result of simulation with that of theoretical calculation, we find that both the results are very close each other, showing their mutual validity.

  1. Solid state generator for powerful radio frequency ion sources in neutral beam injection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, W.; Fantz, U.; Heinemann, B.; Franzen, P.

    2015-02-15

    Radio frequency ion sources used in neutral beam injection systems (NBI) of fusion machines are currently supplied by self-excited RF generators. These generators have both a low power efficiency and a limited frequency stability, therefore transistorized amplifiers are being considered for the power supply of the next generation of RF sources. A 75 kW generator, originally designed for broadcasting, has been tested with a negative ion source. High operational reliability and a very good matching to the plasma load has been demonstrated. These results make this generator type a very promising candidate for future NBI systems.

  2. Li-ion battery thermal runaway suppression system using microchannel coolers and refrigerant injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhauer, Todd M.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-11-08

    A battery management system with thermally integrated fire suppression includes a multiplicity of individual battery cells in a housing; a multiplicity of cooling passages in the housing within or between the multiplicity of individual battery cells; a multiplicity of sensors operably connected to the individual battery cells, the sensors adapted to detect a thermal runaway event related to one or more of the multiplicity of individual battery cells; and a management system adapted to inject coolant into at least one of the multiplicity of cooling passages upon the detection of the thermal runaway event by the any one of the multiplicity of sensors, so that the thermal runaway event is rapidly quenched.

  3. Li-ion battery thermal runaway suppression system using microchannel coolers and refrigerant injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandhauer, Todd M.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-11-08

    A battery management system with thermally integrated fire suppression includes a multiplicity of individual battery cells in a housing; a multiplicity of cooling passages in the housing within or between the multiplicity of individual battery cells; a multiplicity of sensors operably connected to the individual battery cells, the sensors adapted to detect a thermal runaway event related to one or more of the multiplicity of individual battery cells; and a management system adapted to inject coolant into at least one of the multiplicity of cooling passages upon the detection of the thermal runaway event by the any one of the multiplicity of sensors, so that the thermal runaway event is rapidly quenched.

  4. 基于电话网的多功能煤气管道自动抄表系统%Automatical Reading Meter System of Multifunction Gas Pipings Based on Telephone Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂兰

    2011-01-01

    为了保证远程自动抄表系统的准确性和可靠性,介绍了一种基于电话网用单片机控制的多功能煤气管道远程自动抄表系统.整个系统由主控端和客户多功能煤气表端组成,主控端与客户端通过电话线网实现自动抄表.该系统布线简单,数据传输的可靠性和安全性都较好.%With the development of sensor, electron, automatic control and computer technologies, the long-range automatical reading meter system is emerging rapidly. In order to guarantee its accuracy and reliability, a kind of long-range automatical reading meter system of multifunction gas pipings, controlled by a single chip microcomputer and based on telephone network, is introduced. The overall system consists of the main control terminal and multifunction gas meter at client. The automalic reading meter is realized automatically by telephone wires network.

  5. Analysis of tests of subsurface injection, storage, and recovery of freshwater in the lower Floridan aquifer, Okeechobee County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones-Aponte, Vicente; Kotun, Kevin; Whitley, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    injected water and would represent a mix of water from the different high-permeability zones. A generalized digital model was constructed to simulate the subsurface injection, storage, and recovery of freshwater in the Lower Floridan aquifer at the Lake Okeechobee injection-well site. The model was constructed using a modified version of the Saturated-Unsaturated TRAnsport code (SUTRA), which simulates variable-density advective-dispersive solute transport and variable-density ground-water flow. Satisfactory comparisons of simulated to observed dimensionless chloride concentrations for the deep monitor well were obtained when using the model during the injection and recovery phases of cycle 1, but not for the injection well during the recovery phase of cycle 1 even after several attempts. This precluded the determination of the recovery efficiency values by using the model. The unsatisfactory comparisons of simulated to observed dimensionless chloride concentrations for the injection well and failure of the model to represent the field data at this well could be due to the characteristics of the Lower Floridan aquifer (at the local scale), which is cavernous or conduit in nature. To test this possibility, Reynolds numbers were estimated at varying distances from the injection well, taking into consideration two aquifer types or conceptual systems, porous media and cavernous. For the porous media conceptual system, the Reynolds numbers were greater than 10 at distances less than 1.42 meters from the injection well. Thus, application of Darcy's law to ground-water flow might not be valid at this distance. However, at the deep monitor well (171 meters from the injection well), the Reynolds number was 0.08 which is indicative of laminar porous media flow. For the cavernous conceptual system, the Reynolds numbers were greater than 2,000 at distances less than 1,000 meters from the well. This number represents the upper limit of laminar flow, which is the fundamental assumption

  6. Hybrid wireless-over-fiber transmission system based on multiple injection-locked FP LDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Chu, Chien-An; Ying, Cheng-Ling; Lu, Ting-Chien; Peng, Peng-Chun

    2015-07-27

    A hybrid wireless-over-fiber (WoF) transmission system based on multiple injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes (FP LDs) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Unlike the traditional hybrid WoF transmission systems that require multiple distributed feedback (DFB) LDs to support different kinds of services, the proposed system employs multiple injection-locked FP LDs to provide different kinds of applications. Such a hybrid WoF transmission system delivers downstream intensity-modulated 20-GHz microwave (MW)/60-GHz millimeter-wave (MMW)/550-MHz cable television (CATV) signals and upstream phase-remodulated 20-GHz MW signal. Excellent bit error rate (BER), carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), and composite triple-beat (CTB) are observed over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 4-m radio frequency (RF) wireless transport. Such a hybrid WoF transmission system has practical applications for fiber-wireless convergence to provide broadband integrated services, including telecommunication, data communication, and CATV services.

  7. Application of flow-injection potentiometric system for determination of total concentration of aliphatic carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczkiewicz, Monika; Górski, Łukasz; Zamojska-Jaroszewicz, Anna; Szewczyk, Krzysztof W; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2011-09-30

    In this work, flow-injection system with potentiometric detection was tested for determination of total carboxylic acid concentration. Detection part of the examined system consists of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) with polymer membranes of different compositions. First electrode is based on Zr(IV)-tetraphenylporphyrin as ionophore selective towards carboxylic acid anions, the membrane of second one contains only liphophilic anion exchanger - tridodecylmethylammonium chloride. Final response of the system is a result of combination of EMF signals from both electrodes. Combination of two detectors enables significant decrease of differences between potentiometric signals induced by mixtures of studied anions of various concentrations as compared to results obtained only with metalloporphyrin-based ISE. The use of anion-exchanger based detector allows for elimination of the influence of aliphatic carboxylic acids lipophilicity. Proposed potentiometric flow-injection system was employed for determination of short-chain aliphatic carboxylic acids (so-called VFA - volatile fatty acids) in samples originating from an anaerobic digester. Results obtained for these relatively complicated samples are in good agreement with results obtained with the use of reference colorimetric method. Linear response towards carboxylic acids was observed in the concentration range of 10(-4) to 10(-2)mold m(-3), with the slopes in the range of -110 to -150 mV dec(-1) (for acetate(-) and butyrate(-), respectively). System enables for determination of about 6 samples per hour. Life time of ISEs average about 2 months.

  8. How to use your peak flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak flow meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak flow meter ... If your airways are narrowed and blocked due to asthma, your peak flow values drop. You can ...

  9. Model predictive control of servo motor driven constant pump hydraulic system in injection molding process based on neurodynamic optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-gang PENG; Jun WANG; Wei WEI

    2014-01-01

    In view of the high energy consumption and low response speed of the traditional hydraulic system for an injection molding machine, a servo motor driven constant pump hydraulic system is designed for a precision injection molding process, which uses a servo motor, a constant pump, and a pressure sensor, instead of a common motor, a constant pump, a pressure pro-portion valve, and a flow proportion valve. A model predictive control strategy based on neurodynamic optimization is proposed to control this new hydraulic system in the injection molding process. Simulation results showed that this control method has good control precision and quick response.

  10. [Apply association rules to analysis adverse drug reactions of shuxuening injection based on spontaneous reporting system data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Xie, Yan-Ming; Xiang, Yong-Yang

    2014-09-01

    This research based on the analysis of spontaneous reporting system (SRS) data which the 9 601 case reports of Shuxuening injection adverse drug reactions (ADR) in national adverse drug reaction monitoring center during 2005-2012. Apply to the association rules to analysis of the relationship between Shuxuening injection's ADR and the characteristics of ADR reports were. We found that ADR commonly combination were "nausea + breath + chills + vomiting", "nausea + chills + vomiting + palpitations", and their confidence level were 100%. The ADR and the case reports information commonly combination were "itching, and glucose and sodium chloride Injection, and generally ADR report, and normal dosage", "palpitation, and glucose and sodium chloride injection, and normal dosage, and new report", "chills, and generally ADR report, and normal dosage, and 0.9% sodium chloride injection", and their confidence level were 100% too. The results showed that patients using Shuxuening injection occurred most of ADRs were systemic damage, skin and its accessories damage, digestive system damage, etc. And most of cases were generally and new reports, and patients with normal dosage. The ADR's occurred had little related with solvent. It is showed that the Shuxuening injection occurred of ADR mainly related to drug composition. So Shuxuening injection used in clinical need to closely observation, and focus on the ADR reaction, and to do a good job of drug risk management.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminov, Ildar; Tarasova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Tatyana; Avazov, Artur

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  12. Performance Analysis of AP1000 Passive Systems during Direct Vessel Injection (DVI Line Break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Ekariansyah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Generation II Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs have a design weakness as shown by the Fukushima accident. Therefore, Generation III+ NPPs are developed with focus on improvements of fuel technology and thermal efficiency, standardized design, and the use of passive safety system. One type of Generation III+ NPP is the AP1000 that is a pressurized water reactor (PWR type that has received the final design acceptance from US-NRC and is already under construction at several sites in China as of 2015. The aim of this study is to investigate the behavior and performance of the passive safety system in the AP1000 and to verify the safety margin during the direct vessel injection (DVI line break as selected event. This event was simulated using RELAP5/SCDAP/Mod3.4 as a best-estimate code developed for transient simulation of light water reactors during postulated accidents. This event is also described in the AP1000 design control document as one of several postulated accidents simulated using the NOTRUMP code. The results obtained from RELAP5 calculation was then compared with the results of simulations using the NOTRUMP code. The results show relatively good agreements in terms of time sequences and characteristics of some injected flow from the passive safety system. The simulation results show that the break of one of the two available DVI lines can be mitigated by the injected coolant flowing, which is operated effectively by gravity and density difference in the cooling system and does not lead to core uncovery. Despite the substantial effort to obtain an apropriate AP1000 model due to lack of detailed geometrical data, the present model can be used as a platform model for other initiating event considered in the AP1000 accident analysis.

  13. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward evaluation of the viscosity impacts of lubricity additives, completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  14. Method and apparatus for reading meters from a video image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, T.J.; Ferguson, J.J.

    1995-12-31

    A method and system enable acquisition of data about an environment from one or more meters using video images. One or more meters are imaged by a video camera and the video signal is digitized. Then, each region of the digital image which corresponds to the indicator of the meter is calibrated and the video signal is analyzed to determine the value indicated by each meter indicator. Finally, from the value indicated by each meter indicator in the calibrated region, a meter reading is generated. The method and system offer the advantages of automatic data collection in a relatively non-intrusive manner without making any complicated or expensive electronic connections, and without requiring intensive manpower.

  15. Application of the BacT/ALERTR 3D system for sterility testing of injectable products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bugno

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sterility testing as described in the pharmacopoeia compendia requires a 14-day incubation period to obtain an analytical result. Alternative methods that could be applied to evaluating product sterility are especially interesting due to the possibility of reducing this incubation period and thus the associated costs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of the BacT/ALERTR 3D system in detecting microorganisms in large-volume parenteral solutions that were intentionally contaminated and to compare this system to pharmacopoeia sterility testing using the membrane filtration method. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the methods regarding the ability to detect microbial contamination; however, detection with the BacT/ALERTR 3D system was faster compared to the pharmacopoeia method. Therefore, the BacT/ALERTR 3D system is a viable alternative for assessing the sterility of injectable products.

  16. 基于GPRS的水表远程抄表系统设计%The Design of Long-Range Meter Reading Water Gauge System Based on GPRS Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任亚军; 赵明; 朱文革; 王英

    2015-01-01

    A kind of long-range reading water gauge system based on GPRS is designed. The device can realize network meter reading and USB centralized meter reading by the GPRS module M23 and the MCU C8051F340 .This paper introduces the overall scheme of the system. The hardware and software of the device are introduced. It focuses on the analysis of the AT directive and the embedded TCP/IP protocol instruction format of GPRS communication program. It also introduces the method of USB communication procedures. The system realizes the remote centralized meter reading meter, which can effectively solve the problem of the accuracy of meter reading, It will also improve the water company's management level and management efficiency.%设计了一种基于GPRS的水表远程集中抄表装置,该装置通过GPRS模块M23和单片机C8051F340分别完成网络抄表和USB集中抄表。文中介绍了系统的总体方案及GPRS抄表装置硬件设计和软件设计,着重分析了GPRS通讯程序设计中AT指令和嵌入式TCP/IP协议的指令格式、使用方法以及USB通讯程序设计方法。该系统的设计,实现了水表的远程集中抄表,提高了抄表的准确性及用水管理部门的管理水平和效率。

  17. Improving the operation of the metering section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagoruiko, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The metering section of the coal preparation division at OKhMK (Orsk-Khali-lovo Integrated Iron and Steel Works) has 18 silos each with volume of 780 tons, situated in two rows. Each silo is equipped with a type LDA-100 automatic metering device, consisting of an electromagnetic vibratory feeder and a scale belt conveyor. At a capacity of the charge supply system of 400-450 ton/hr and operation on a 4-component charge practically all the silos are in operation. The absence of reserve capacity and the impossibility of shutdown of any metering device for maintenance created certain difficulties in maintaining an uninterrupted supply of coal charge to the coking division. Stabilizing the operation of the metering section posed the problem of increasing the capacity of the existing metering devices. For this purpose a number of changes were made in their design. A new reducer was installed on the drive of the scale belt conveyor with a more powerful electric motor; the rotation speed of the drive drum rose to 35-40 rpm (the diameter of the drive drum was also increased from 220 to 272 mm). This, in turn, permitted an increase in the belt speed by a factor of 1.5-2.0 times, without a change in its active length.

  18. Wind Power - WINDSPD100_IN: Mean Wind Speed at Height of 100 Meters above Ground, Derived from Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System and WindMap (TrueWind Solutions, 200-Meter Grid)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The following is excerpted from an unpublished report by Michael Brower (2004): "Using the MesoMap system, TrueWind has produced maps of mean wind speed in Indiana...

  19. Wind Power - WINDPWR100_IN: Mean Wind Power at Height of 100 Meters above Ground, Derived from Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System and WindMap(TrueWind Solutions, 200-Meter Grid)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The following is excerpted from an unpublished report by Michael Brower (2004): "Using the MesoMap system, TrueWind has produced maps of mean wind speed in Indiana...

  20. Wind Power - WINDSPD50_IN: Mean Wind Speed at Height of 50 Meters above Ground, Derived from Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System and WindMap (TrueWind Solutions, 200-Meter Grid)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The following is excerpted from an unpublished report by Michael Brower (2004): "Using the MesoMap system, TrueWind has produced maps of mean wind speed in Indiana...

  1. Wind Power - WINDPWR50_IN: Mean Wind Power at Height of 50 Meters above Ground, Derived from Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System and WindMap (TrueWind Solutions, 200-Meter Grid)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The following is excerpted from an unpublished report by Michael Brower (2004): "Using the MesoMap system, TrueWind has produced maps of mean wind speed in Indiana...

  2. Improvement of replication fidelity in injection moulding of nano structures using an induction heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    In today’s industry, applications involving surface pattering with sub-μm scale structures have shown a high interest. The replication of these structures by injection molding leads to special requirements for the mold in order to ensure proper replication and an acceptable cycle time. A tool...... quantitatively characterized by atomic force microscopy comparing the measurement in the nickel insert with the corresponding polymer nano-features. The experimental results show that the use of the induction heating system is an efficient way to improve the pattern replication....

  3. Fault Diagnosis Of A Water For Injection System Using Enhanced Structural Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten; Blanke, Mogens; Düstegör, Dilek

    2008-01-01

    A water for injection system supplies chilled sterile water as solvent to pharmaceutical products. There are ultimate requirements to the quality of the sterile water, and the consequence of a fault in temperature or in flow control within the process may cause loss of one or more batches...... of the production. Early diagnosis of faults is hence of considerable interest for this process. This study investigates the properties of multiple matchings with respect to isolability and it suggests to explore the topologies of multiple use-modes for the process and to employ active techniques for fault...

  4. Potentiometric electronic tongue-flow injection analysis system for the monitoring of heavy metal biosorption processes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    An automated flow injection potentiometric (FIP) system with electronic tongue detection (ET) is used for the monitoring of biosorption processes of heavy metals on vegetable wastes. Grape stalk wastes are used as biosorbent to remove Cu2+ ions in a fixed-bed column configuration. The ET is formed by a 5-sensor array with Cu2+ and Ca2+-selective electrodes and electrodes with generic response to heavy-metals, plus an artificial neural network response model of the sensor's cross-response. The...

  5. LOCA air-injection loads in BWR Mark II pressure suppression containment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukita, Y.; Shiba, M. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki); Namatame, K. (Institute of Nuclear Safety, Tokyo (Japan))

    1984-02-01

    Large-scale blowdown tests were conducted to investigate the thermal-hydrodynamic response of a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark II pressure suppression containment system to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. This paper presents the test results on the early blowdown transients, where air in the drywell is injected into the pressure suppression pool and induces various hydrodynamic loads onto the containment pressure boundary and internal structures. The test data are compared to predictions by analytical models used for the licensing evaluation of the hydrodynamic loads to assess these models.

  6. Improvement of replication fidelity in injection moulding of nano structures using an induction heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    In today’s industry, applications involving surface pattering with sub-μm scale structures have shown a high interest. The replication of these structures by injection molding leads to special requirements for the mold in order to ensure proper replication and an acceptable cycle time. A tool ins...... quantitatively characterized by atomic force microscopy comparing the measurement in the nickel insert with the corresponding polymer nano-features. The experimental results show that the use of the induction heating system is an efficient way to improve the pattern replication....

  7. Chemiluminescence Determination of Molybdenum by on-Line Reduction with a Flow Injection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The chemiluminescence (CL) reaction between lucigenin (Lu) and molybdenum (Ⅲ) produced by a Jones reductor was investigated using a flow injection system. On the basis of this, a novel method for the determination of trace amount of molybdenum has been established. The emission intensity was linear with molybdenum concentration in the range of 0.1-1000 ng/mL; the detection limit was 0.02 ng/mL molybdenum; the relative standard deviation was less than 2% for the determination of 0.1 ng/mL molybdenum (n=11). The method has been applied successfully to the analysis of trace molybdenum in water and steel samples.

  8. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40-180 km h-1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology.

  9. Linear Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Verification of a Pressure Regulator for CNG Injection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hübner

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of motor vehicles powered by internal combustion engines keeps growing despite shrinking oil reserves. As a result, compressed natural gas (CNG is gaining currency as an emerging combustion engine fuel. To this day, CNG systems – e.g., in passenger cars – are not fully integrated into the development process as conducted by vehicle or engine manufacturers. Instead, they are usually "adapted in" at a downstream stage by small, specialized companies. The present paper initially outlines the state of the art in advanced gas injection technologies. Especially the development towards sequential injection systems is described. A pressure regulator for CNG driven combustion engines is examined in detail, given its role as a highly sensitive and critical system component. Based on a precise theoretical analysis, a linear model of this pressure regulator is derived and subjected to dynamic simulation. The analytical approach is accompanied by an experimental investigation of the device. On a test rig developed at the Trier University of Applied Sciences, the static and dynamic features of the pressure regulator can be measured with the requisite precision. The comparison of measured and simulated data yields a validation of the dynamic simulation model. With the approaches developed it is now possible for the first time to model, simulate and optimize single- or multi-stage pressure regulators for CNG driven engines with less effort and higher accuracy.

  10. Detecting Solenoid Valve Deterioration in In-Use Electronic Diesel Fuel Injection Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyuan-Yow Tseng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to occur for in-use diesel engines. According to the previous studies, this failure is a result of the wear of the plunger and sleeve, based on a long period of usage, lubricant degradation, or engine overheating. Due to the difficulty in identifying solenoid valve deterioration, this study focuses on developing a sensor identification algorithm that can clearly classify the usability of the solenoid valve, without disassembling the fuel pump of an EDC system for in-use agricultural vehicles. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed, including a feedback controller, a parameter identifier, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT sensor, and a neural network classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify the usability of solenoid valves.

  11. Detecting solenoid valve deterioration in in-use electronic diesel fuel injection control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsun-Heng; Tseng, Chyuan-Yow

    2010-01-01

    The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC) systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to occur for in-use diesel engines. According to the previous studies, this failure is a result of the wear of the plunger and sleeve, based on a long period of usage, lubricant degradation, or engine overheating. Due to the difficulty in identifying solenoid valve deterioration, this study focuses on developing a sensor identification algorithm that can clearly classify the usability of the solenoid valve, without disassembling the fuel pump of an EDC system for in-use agricultural vehicles. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed, including a feedback controller, a parameter identifier, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensor, and a neural network classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify the usability of solenoid valves.

  12. Feasibility Study of the PS Injection for 2 GeV LIU Beams with an Upgraded KFA-45 Injection Kicker System Operating in Short Circuit Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas; Borburgh, Jan; Ducimetière, Laurent; Feliciano, Luis; Ferrero Colomo, Alvaro; Goddard, Brennan; Sermeus, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Under the scope of the LIU project the CERN PS Booster to PS beam transfer will be modified to match the requirements for the future 2 GeV beams. This paper describes the evaluation of the proposed upgrade of the PS injection kicker. Different schemes of an injection for LIU beams into the PS have been outlined in the past already under the aspect of individual transfer kicker rise and fall time performances. Homogeneous rise and fall time requirements in the whole PSB to PS transfer chain have been established which allowed to consider an upgrade option of the present injection kicker system operated in short circuit mode. The challenging pulse quality constraints require an improvement of the flat top and post pulse ripples. Both operation modes, terminated and short circuit mode are analysed and analogue circuit simulations for the present and upgraded system are outlined. Recent measurements on the installed kickers are presented and analysed together with the simulation data. First measurements verifying...

  13. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, C; Frijns, A J H; Mandamparambil, R; Zevenbergen, M A G; den Toonder, J M J

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30-250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes

  14. 稠油远程自动计量系统设计及应用%Remote Automatic Metering System Design and Application of Heavy Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰明菊; 谢光华; 蒋能记; 蒋其斌

    2016-01-01

    油井产量计量是油田生产管理中的一项重要工作,油井产量计量准确对掌握油藏状况、制定生产方案具有重要的指导意义。目前稠油油井常通过接转站就地人工计量,劳动强度大,计量工作效率低。结合风城油田现场情况,改造稠油单站计量系统,通过统一控制器功能、接口协议,全新开发现场控制程序,建立稠油接转站远程自动计量系统。系统投用后,在厂级监控中心一人可完成油田所有稠油油井的计量任务,实时监控接转站计量过程,有效提高工作效率,保障稠油接转站运行安全。该系统可推广应用到其他稠油油田。%Flow measurement is an important work in oil field production management, the well yield accurate, and timely to grasp the reservoir condition, has important guiding significance to the production plan. At present, heavy oil wells often through block stations on site manual measurement,with high labor intensity,and measuring the low working effi-ciency. This article combine the worksite condition of Fengcheng oil field, transform single heavy oil station measurement system.Through unified controller function and interface pro-tocols, with new development site control program, set up heavy oil block station remote automatic metering system. After the system putting in service proactively, in plant level monitoring center one person can complete all fields of heavy oil wells measurement task,re-al- time monitoring block station measurement process,improve the work efficiency and en-sure safe operation of heavy oil block station.it can be applied to other heavy oil fields.

  15. Long-term pulmonary and systemic toxicity following intravenous mercury injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell`Omo, M.; Muzi, G.; Filiberto, S.; Abbritti, G. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Pharmacology, University of Perugia, Via E. dal Pozzo, 06100 Perugia (Italy); Bernard, A.; Lauwerys, R.R. [Unite de Toxicologie Industrielle et Medicine du Travail, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Clos Chapelle-aux Champs 30 - BTE 30.54, 1200 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1997-12-01

    Long-term pulmonary and systemic toxicity following mercury intravenous injection has rarely been assessed. We present the results of a detailed investigation assessing pulmonary and systemic long-term toxic effects in a subject who had pulmonary and systemic mercury microembolism diagnosed more than 11 years previously. Radiographic examination showed the persistence of mercury microemboli in both lungs and elsewhere in the body. Lung function tests revealed a decreased diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and Po{sub 2} probably indicative of microscopic inflammation of lung interstitium. Electroneuromyography showed signs of mild axonopathy in both legs. At semen analysis, a high proportion of motionless spermatozoa was present. Urinary excretion of mercury was high. Signs of interstitial lung impairment, peripheral axonopathy and asthenozoospermia in a subject who had mercury microembolism persisting for more than 11 years might be evidence of long-term mercury toxicity. (orig.) With 2 figs., 33 refs.

  16. Development of water soluble binder systems for low pressure injection molding of alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakan, H.I.; Gunes, M. [TUBITAK-MRC Materials and Chemical Technologies Research Inst., Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2004-07-01

    Low pressure injection molding of alumina powder using a water-soluble binder system has been carried out successfully. The water-soluble based binder system consisted of poly (2-ethyl-2-oxaline), low density polyethylene and stearic acid. The critical powder loading of the binder-powder mixture was determined based on torque rheometry experiments. The rheological properties of the powder-binder mixture were investigated systematically. The binder system used provides satisfactory mixture stability, excellent mouldability and reasonably fast water leaching and thermal debinding rates. The water-soluble constituent, poly (2-ethyl-2-oxaline), was removed by leaching in convecting water at 60 C within 6 hour. The remaining binder constituents were thermally removed during heating to 450 C. Sintering of the parts was conducted at 1550 C for an hour in air. (orig.)

  17. Acoustic Ground-Impedance Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Helmoltz resonator used in compact, portable meter measures acoustic impedance of ground or other surfaces. Earth's surface is subject of increasing acoustical investigations because of its importance in aircraft noise prediction and measurment. Meter offers several advantages. Is compact and portable and set up at any test site, irrespective of landscape features, weather or other environmental condition.

  18. Construction of Guangdong Provincial Power Grid Centralized Energy Metering Automation System%广东电网省级集中式电能计量自动化系统建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晔; 肖勇; 阙华坤

    2014-01-01

    分析了国内外计量自动化系统的建设现状及应用需求,介绍了计量自动化系统的组成结构,研究了省级集中计量自动化系统海量数据采集、处理、存储、架构设计和模型建立等关键技术,论述了系统主要业务功能和实施后预期带来的管理成效,最后提出了省级集中计量自动化系统推广应用中有待解决的问题。%Construction status quo and application demands of metering automation system at home and abroad were analyzed and constitution structures of the system were introduced. Key technologies including mass data acquisition,disposal,stor-age,framework design and modeling of provincial centralized metering automation system were studied. Main business functions of the system and expectant management performance was discussed. Problems to be solved in popularization and application of the provincial centralized metering automation system were proposed.

  19. Advanced Metering Installations – A Perspective from Federal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earni, Shankar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area

    2016-05-02

    This report is intended to provide guidance to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and other federal agencies to highlight some of the existing practices related to advanced building metering systems. This study identified some of the existing actions related to advanced meter data and proposes how advanced metered data can be employed to develop robust cost effective measurement and verification (M&V) strategies. This report proposes an integrated framework on how advanced meter data can be used to identify energy conservation opportunities and to develop proactive M&V strategies to ensure that the savings for energy projects are being realized. This information will help improve metering, feedback, and dashboard implementations for reducing energy use at DOE facilities, based on lessons learned from various advanced metering implementations.

  20. Yersinia enterocolitica targets cells of the innate and adaptive immune system by injection of Yops in a mouse infection model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Köberle

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye evades the immune system of the host by injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops via a type three secretion system into host cells. In this study, a reporter system comprising a YopE-beta-lactamase hybrid protein and a fluorescent staining sensitive to beta-lactamase cleavage was used to track Yop injection in cell culture and in an experimental Ye mouse infection model. Experiments with GD25, GD25-beta1A, and HeLa cells demonstrated that beta1-integrins and RhoGTPases play a role for Yop injection. As demonstrated by infection of splenocyte suspensions in vitro, injection of Yops appears to occur randomly into all types of leukocytes. In contrast, upon infection of mice, Yop injection was detected in 13% of F4/80(+, 11% of CD11c(+, 7% of CD49b(+, 5% of Gr1(+ cells, 2.3% of CD19(+, and 2.6% of CD3(+ cells. Taking the different abundance of these cell types in the spleen into account, the highest total number of Yop-injected cells represents B cells, particularly CD19(+CD21(+CD23(+ follicular B cells, followed by neutrophils, dendritic cells, and macrophages, suggesting a distinct cellular tropism of Ye. Yop-injected B cells displayed a significantly increased expression of CD69 compared to non-Yop-injected B cells, indicating activation of these cells by Ye. Infection of IFN-gammaR (receptor- and TNFRp55-deficient mice resulted in increased numbers of Yop-injected spleen cells for yet unknown reasons. The YopE-beta-lactamase hybrid protein reporter system provides new insights into the modulation of host cell and immune responses by Ye Yops.

  1. Usability of a real-time tracked augmented reality display system in musculoskeletal injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Zachary; Ungi, Tamas; Lasso, Andras; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2017-03-01

    PURPOSE: Image-guided needle interventions are seldom performed with augmented reality guidance in clinical practice due to many workspace and usability restrictions. We propose a real-time optically tracked image overlay system to make image-guided musculoskeletal injections more efficient and assess its usability in a bed-side clinical environment. METHODS: An image overlay system consisting of an optically tracked viewbox, tablet computer, and semitransparent mirror allows users to navigate scanned patient volumetric images in real-time using software built on the open-source 3D Slicer application platform. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the latency and screen refresh rate of the system using different image resolutions. To assess the usability of the system and software, five medical professionals were asked to navigate patient images while using the overlay and completed a questionnaire to assess the system. RESULTS: In assessing the latency of the system with scanned images of varying size, screen refresh rates were approximately 5 FPS. The study showed that participants found using the image overlay system easy, and found the table-mounted system was significantly more usable and effective than the handheld system. CONCLUSION: It was determined that the system performs comparably with scanned images of varying size when assessing the latency of the system. During our usability study, participants preferred the table-mounted system over the handheld. The participants also felt that the system itself was simple to use and understand. With these results, the image overlay system shows promise for use in a clinical environment.

  2. Improvised Energy Meter Supporting Wireless Data Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aravind

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to design a prototype model of an energy meter which has the ability of wireless data transfer such as sending emails and SMS. In the current energy monitoring scenario, manual energy meter monitoring is a cumbersome and tedious process for the electricity boards. It involves huge manpower and higher expenditure for a simple task. Manual energy meter monitoring is highly erroneous and amounts to great losses for both the consumers and the electricity boards. In this conventional technique, losing the bills and delay in the arrival of the official to note down the reading are common affairs. Complete digitalization of bill delivery and transaction processes eliminates such uneventful circumstances. The manual reading method is inefficient to meet the raising power demands. The invention described here has the potential to wipe of manual energy meter reading from the scene and replace it with a sophisticated automated system facilitating remote monitoring of energy consumption. In this proposed system, the Raspberry Pi performs all the essential functions of a microcontroller and supports features like sending emails and SMS with the aid of Wi-Fi dongle and GSM modem. This automated system enables continuous monitoring of energy consumption.

  3. Distribution of /sup 109/Cd in the nervous system of rats after intravenous injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvidson, B.; Tjaelve, H.

    1985-11-01

    The distribution of intravenously injected /sup 109/Cd in the nervous system was studied in rats twenty-four hr and one week after the injection. Measurements by gamma scintillation showed a high uptake of cadmium in peripheral sensory and autonomic ganglia whereas the uptake was low in the brain, cerebellum and spinal cord. The accumulation of cadmium in the sciatic nerve was significantly higher than in the brain and spinal nerve roots but lower than in ganglia. Autoradiography confirmed that there was no uptake of cadmium in the major part of the brain parenchyma, but showed an accumulation of the metal in areas outside the blood-brain barrier such as the hypophysis, meninges, choroid plexus and pineal gland. Within the peripheral nervous system, the autoradiography showed a localization of cadmium to dorsal root ganglia and, in addition, an uptake was seen in the connective tissue sheaths surrounding the sciatic nerve. The results indicate that the uptake of cadmium is correlated to regional variations in the permeability of blood vessels. The accumulation of cadmium in certain nervous structures may explain some of the neurotoxicological effects which have been demonstrated in animal experiments.

  4. Photoelectrocatalytic determination of NADH in a flow injection system with electropolymerized methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilgin, Yusuf, E-mail: ydilgin@yahoo.co [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Science and Art Faculty, Department of Chemistry, TR-17100 Canakkale (Turkey); Dilgin, Didem Giray [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Biga Vocational College, TR-17200 Biga Canakkale (Turkey); Ege University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, TR-35100 Bornova/Izmir (Turkey); Dursun, Zekerya; Goekcel, H. Ismet [Ege University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, TR-35100 Bornova/Izmir (Turkey); Gligor, Delia [Department of Environmental Physics, Chemistry and Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, 30 Fantanele St., 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Bayrak, Burcu; Ertek, Bensu [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Science and Art Faculty, Department of Chemistry, TR-17100 Canakkale (Turkey)

    2011-01-01

    It was firstly described that a glassy carbon electrode electropolymerized with methylene blue shows an efficient photoelectrocatalytic activity towards NADH oxidation in a phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0). In order to perform the photoelectrocatalytic determination of NADH in a flow injection analysis (FIA) system, a home-made flow electrochemical cell with a suitable transparent window for the irradiation of the electrode surface was constructed. The currents obtained from the photoamperometric measurements in the FIA system at optimum conditions (flow rate of carrier solution, 1.3 mL min{sup -1}; transmission tubing length, 10 cm; injection volume, 100 {mu}L; and constant applied potential, +150 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) were linearly dependent on the NADH concentration and linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 1.0 x 10{sup -7}-2.0 x 10{sup -4} M. The detection limit was found to be 4.0 x 10{sup -8} M for photoamperometric determination of NADH.

  5. A supersonic gas injection system for fuelling and probing fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, Scott [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Howard, John [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Blackwell, Boyd [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Carlsson, Peter [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteburg (Sweden); Abelsson, Mattias [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteburg (Sweden); Powell, Ben [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2006-11-01

    The large gas reservoir surrounding the H-1NF plasma leads to difficulties in achieving the density control required to maximize the plasma temperature. We have designed and tested an alternative fuelling system which uses a double conical nozzle to generate a directed flow of particles into the plasma without adding to the gas inventory in the rest of the vacuum vessel. By using a closed plenum at a programmable pressure and a piezo-electric valve, the particle flux can be dynamically changed in a controlled and quantitative manner. Measurements of the gas jet using constant temperature hot wire anemometry show that, for plenum pressures between 500 and 1000 Torr, the particle injection rate (helium) ranges between 2 x 10{sup 20} and 4 x 10{sup 20} s{sup -1} with half-cone angles between 5 deg. and 20 deg. The system has been installed on the H-1NF device and first plasma results indicate localized gas injection consistent with test tank anemometry measurements.

  6. Low-power wide-locking-range injection-locked frequency divider for OFDM UWB systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Jiangwei; Li Ning; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Ren Junyan, E-mail: lining@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a divide-by-two injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for frequency synthesizers as used in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. By means of dual-injection technique and other conventional tuning techniques, such as DCCA and varactor tuning, the divider demonstrates a wide locking range while consuming much less power. The chip was fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 mum RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the divider achieves a locking range of 4.85 GHz (6.23 to 11.08 GHz) at an input power of 8 dBm. The core circuit without the test buffer consumes only 3.7 mA from a 1.8 V power supply and has a die area of 0.38 x 0.28 mm{sup 2}. The wide locking range combined with low power consumption makes the ILFD suitable for its application in UWB systems.

  7. Study and Effects of UPFC and its Control System for Power Flow Control and Voltage Injection in a Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhor Gupta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance and reliability of the power system has become a major aspect of study. The encouragement to the construction of HV lines, the amount of power transmission/km on HV line and the amount of power transaction as seen from economic side is much responsible for concern towards congestion in power system. The solution is the use of FACTS devices especially the use of UPFC. In this paper the study of UPFC with its various modes of operation is understood. Second, the operation of control system used in its converters is also studied. Finally by help of modeling of a power system in ATLAB, and by installing UPFC in transmission link, its use as power flow controller and voltage injection is seen. Conclusion is made ondifferent results to see the benefit of UPFC in power system.

  8. Cardio-respiratory effects of systemic neurotensin injection are mediated through activation of neurotensin NTS₁ receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Szereda-Przestaszewska, Małgorzata

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of our study was to determine the cardio-respiratory pattern exerted by the systemic injection of neurotensin, contribution of neurotensin NTS(1) receptors and the neural pathways mediating the responses. The effects of an intravenous injection (i.v.) of neurotensin were investigated in anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats in following experimental schemes: (i) control animals before and after midcervical vagotomy; (ii) in three separate subgroups of rats: neurally intact, vagotomized at supranodosal level and initially midcervically vagotomized exposed to section of the carotid sinus nerves (CSNs); (iii) in the intact rats 2 minutes after blockade of neurotensin NTS(1) receptors with SR 142948. Intravenous injection of 10 μg/kg of neurotensin in the intact rats evoked prompt increase in the respiratory rate followed by a prolonged slowing down coupled with augmented tidal volume. Midcervical vagotomy precluded the effects of neurotensin on the frequency of breathing, while CSNs section reduced the increase in tidal volume. In all the neural states neurotensin caused significant fall in mean arterial blood pressure preceded by prompt hypertensive response. The cardio-respiratory effects of neurotensin were blocked by pre-treatment with NTS(1) receptor antagonist. The results of this study showed that neurotensin acting through NTS(1) receptors augments the tidal component of the breathing pattern in a large portion via carotid body afferentation whereas the respiratory timing response to neurotensin depends entirely on the intact midcervical vagi. Blood pressure effects evoked by an intravenous neurotensin occur outside vagal and CSNs pathways and might result from activation of the peripheral vascular NTS(1) receptors.

  9. Fuel injection and mixing systems and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John

    2010-08-03

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided. The system includes an injector body having a fuel inlet and a fuel outlet, and defines a fuel flow path between the inlet and outlet. The fuel flow path may include a generally helical flow passage having an inlet end portion disposed proximate the fuel inlet of the injector body. The flow path also may include an expansion chamber downstream from and in fluid communication with the helical flow passage, as well as a fuel delivery device in fluid communication with the expansion chamber for delivering fuel. Heating means is also provided in thermal communication with the injector body. The heating means may be adapted and configured for maintaining the injector body at a predetermined temperature to heat fuel traversing the flow path. A method of preheating and delivering fuel is also provided.

  10. Rapid antioxidant capacity screening in herbal extracts using a simple flow injection-spectrophotometric system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrazek, Nookrai; Watla-iad, Kanchana; Deachathai, Suwanna; Suteerapataranon, Siripat

    2012-05-01

    A simple flow injection (FI)-spectrophotometric system for the screening of antioxidant capacity in herbal extracts was developed. The analysis was based on the color disappearance due to the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by antioxidant compounds. DPPH and ascorbic acid were used as reagent and antioxidant standard, respectively. Effects of the DPPH concentration, DPPH flow rate, and reaction coil length on sensitivity were studied. The optimized condition provided the linear range of 0.010-0.300mM ascorbic acid with less than 5%RSD(n=10). Detection limit and quantitation limit were 0.004 and 0.013mM, respectively. Comparison of antioxidant capacity in some herbal extracts determined by the FI system and a standard method was carried out and no significant difference was obtained.

  11. Voltage inverter with push-pull topology to inject energy into electrical systems with modulation SPWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Charles M. Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal for a voltage inverter topology based on push-pull converters, switched at high frequency to inject energy into the grid from a source of DC power. A system using two reverse voltage static converters provides the power grid; energy in the form of alternating current, that can work in conjunction with the provision of utility power. Aiming at the possible use of renewable energy sources, that can be stored in the form of voltage continuous, such as wind, solar, hydroelectric and others. The functioning of topology is presented, such as the power and control circuits, as well as sizing components, theoretical and practical results achieved with the assembly of a prototype 100W of power and switching in 40khz, which after filtering provides the frequency of 60Hz, which is compatible with the Brazilian electrical system.

  12. Novel in vivo imaging analysis of an inner ear drug delivery system in mice: comparison of inner ear drug concentrations over time after transtympanic and systemic injections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kanzaki

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Systemic steroid injections are used to treat idiopathic sudden-onset sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL and some inner ear disorders. Recent studies show that transtympanic (TT steroid injections are effective for treating ISSHL. As in vivo monitoring of drug delivery dynamics for inner ear is lacking, its time course and dispersion of drugs is unknown. Here, we used a new in vivo imaging system to monitor drug delivery in live mice and to compare drug concentrations over time after TT and systemic injections. METHODS: Luciferin delivered into the inner ears of GFAP-Luc transgenic mice reacted with luciferase in GFAP-expressing cells in the cochlear spiral ganglion, resulting in photon bioluminescence. We used the Xenogen IVIS® imaging system to measure how long photons continued to be emitted in the inner ear after TT or systemic injections of luciferin, and then compared the associated drug dynamics. RESULTS: The response to TT and IP injections differed significantly. Photons were detected five minutes after TT injection, peaking at ~20 minutes. By contrast, photons were first detected 30 minutes after i.p. injection. TT and i.p. drug delivery time differed considerably. With TT injections, photons were detected earlier than with IP injections. Photon bioluminescence also disappeared sooner. Delivery time varied with TT injections. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that the drug might enter the Eustachian tube from the middle ear. We conclude that inner-ear drug concentration can be maintained longer if the two injection routes are combined. As the size of luciferin differs from that of therapeutics like dexamethasone, combining drugs with luciferin may advance our understanding of in vivo drug delivery dynamics in the inner ear.

  13. Multi-users intelligent electric meter system basing on the content of networking%基于物联网的多用户智能电表系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄相杰; 叶茂先

    2013-01-01

    Basing on the purpose of "Service oriented" of Wisdom Power Grid Development, Multi-users Intelligent Electric Meter System can make the measurement meter much more centralized, automated and functionalized, which is different from the Single User Electricity Measurement Instrument on the widespread market Combining with the Ethernet Network, Multi-user Intelligent Electric Meter System can measure the multi-users' electric quantity and electric charge automatically .It also has the band charging function. What's more ,the Epistatic Machine System can tell the the internal and external data of the Multiuser' Electric Meter in true time: the internal data can be used to realize the power down and the protection of broken brake; the external data can be used to monitor the behavior of stealing electricity. The System also adds wireless GPRS to inform users with messages in special situations, which make the power grid to be intelligentized.%基于智慧电网发展以“服务为导向”的目的,多用户智能电表系统不同于广泛存在市场上的单用户电能计量电表.通过将计量电表集中化,自动化,多功能化的方法,多用户智能电表结合以太网交换数据试验,可以自动计量多用户的电量,电费,拥有分数段计费功能;同时上位机系统可以实时监测到多用户电表的内外数据,内可以实现掉电断闸保护,外可以监测偷电;系统还加入了特殊情况无线GPRS短信通知用户功能,使电网实现智能化.

  14. Thermogelling chitosan–collagen–bioactive glass nanoparticle hybrids as potential injectable systems for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Cheisy D.F.; Carvalho, Sandhra M.; Mansur, Herman S., E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.br; Pereira, Marivalda M., E-mail: mpereira@demet.ufmg.br

    2016-01-01

    Recently, stimuli-responsive nanocomposite-derived hydrogels have gained prominence in tissue engineering because they can be applied as injectable scaffolds in bone and cartilage repair. Due to the great potential of these systems, this study aimed to synthesize and characterize novel thermosensitive chitosan-based composites, chemically modified with collagen and reinforced by bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG) on the development of injectable nanohybrids for regenerative medicine applications. Thus, the composite hydrogels were extensively characterized by structural, morphological, rheological, and biological testing. The composites showed thermosensitive response with the gelation temperature at approximately 37 °C, which is compatible with the human body temperature. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that the chitosan hydrogels exhibited 3D-porous structures, and the incorporation of collagen in the system caused increase on the average pore size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated the main functional groups of each component of the composite system and their chemical interactions forming the scaffold. Moreover, rheological measurements were employed to assess the viscoelastic behavior of the hydrogels as a function of the temperature. The results demonstrated that the addition of collagen and bioactive glass increases the mechanical properties after the gelation process. The addition of 2 wt.% of BG nanoparticles caused an increase of approximately 39% on stiffness compared to pure chitosan and the addition of 30 wt.% collagen caused a further increase on the stiffness by 95%. The cytotoxicity and cell viability of the hydrogels were assessed by MTT and LIVE/DEAD® assays, where the results demonstrated no toxic effect of the composites on the human osteosarcoma cell culture (SAOS) and kidney cells line of human embryo (HEK 293T). Hence, it can be stated that innovative composites were

  15. Design of a microscopic electrical impedance tomography system using two current injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin; Oh, Tong In; Wi, Hun; Lee, Eun Jung; Seo, Jin Keun; Woo, Eung Je

    2011-09-01

    We describe a novel design of a microscopic electrical impedance tomography (micro-EIT) system for long-term noninvasive monitoring of cell or tissue cultures. The core of the micro-EIT system is a sample container including two pairs of current-injection electrodes and 360 voltage-sensing electrodes. In designing the container, we took advantage of a hexagonal structure with fixed dimensions and electrode configuration. This eliminated technical difficulties related to the unknown irregular boundary geometry of an imaging object in conventional medical EIT. Attaching a pair of large current-injection electrodes fully covering the left and right sides of the hexagonal container, we generated uniform parallel current density inside the container filled with saline. The 360 voltage-sensing electrodes were placed on the front, bottom and back sides of the hexagonal container in three sets of 8 × 15 arrays with equal gaps between them. We measured voltage differences between all neighboring pairs along the direction of the parallel current pathway. For the homogeneous container, all measured voltages must be the same since the voltage changes linearly along that direction. Any anomaly in the container perturbed the current pathways and therefore equipotential lines to produce different differential voltage data. For conductivity image reconstructions, we adopted a lately developed image reconstruction algorithm for this electrode configuration to first produce projected conductivity images on the front, bottom and back sides. Using a backprojection method, we reconstructed three-dimensional conductivity images from those projection images. To improve the image quality and also to meet the mathematical requirement on the uniqueness of a reconstructed image, we used a second pair of thin and long current-injection electrodes located at the middle of the front and back sides. This paper describes the design and construction of such a micro-EIT system with experimental

  16. Rheological and thermal performance of newly developed binder systems for ceramic injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Kasparkova, Vera; Hnatkova, Eva

    2016-05-01

    In a novel binder system, carnauba wax was considered to replace the synthetic backbone polymers (polyolefins) enhancing the environmental sustainability of Ceramic Injection Molding (CIM) technology. The paper presents comparison of the rheological performance and thermal behavior of the aluminum oxide CIM feedstocks based on a binder containing carnauba wax with those consisting of a commercial binder. Further, acrawax (N, N'-Ethylene Bis-stearamide) has been considered as another possible substitute of polyolefins. For both proposed substitutes there is a significant reduction in viscosity, and in case of carnauba wax based feedstock also in processing temperature, which is essential for injection molding of reactive powders. Thermal characterization comprised analyses of single neat binders, their mixtures and mixtures with aluminum oxide. The presence of powder lowered melting temperatures of all tested binders except of polyolefin. Further depression in melting point of poly(ethylene glycol) is observed in combination with polyolefin in the presence of powder, and it is related to changes in size of the crystalline domains.

  17. Rabbit IgG distribution in skin, spinal cord and DRG following systemic injection in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonra, J R; Mendell, L M

    1997-12-01

    In order to determine the distribution of antibodies such as anti-NGF following systemic injection in neonates, immunocytochemical techniques were used to examine the localization of rabbit IgG in rat skin, DRG, and spinal cord after treatments with normal rabbit serum or purified rabbit IgG. Daily subcutaneous injections beginning on postnatal day 2 or on day 15 were given for three days. On the fourth day the animals were sacrificed and tissues were processed for rabbit IgG-IR. In the dorsal and ventral spinal cord, staining intensities suggest a substantial increase in the blood-brain barrier during the first two weeks after birth. Staining intensity in the epidermis of the glabrous skin from the hindpaw was substantially lower than in the adjacent dermis. In addition, IgG infrequently accumulated intracellularly in intensely stained patches in the epidermis. IgG was also able to reach relatively high intracellular concentrations in a small number of sensory neurons. The IgG staining pattern in the skin was similar when anti-NGF itself was administered to the animals. The results are discussed in the context of the effects of anti-NGF on the development of nociceptive afferents.

  18. The Portable Metal Detecting Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using backscatter principle of ray, one kind of the portable metal detecting meters, which comprises five parts, i.e., a ray-emitter, a ray acceptor, discriminating and forming pulse circuits, storing and processing data units, a light and sound alarm device, and a power supply, had been invented. It can judge existence of danger articles as weapons and daggers hided inside luggages, pracels, or clothing of passengers or persons without opening packing. The detecting distance between the meter and danger objects, at present, is about one meter, but can be extended adopting improvement for key parts. For comparison, up to now, in the whole world, known information

  19. Processing System of 3-meter-buoy U Disk Data%3m浮标U盘数据处理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 唐明辰

    2015-01-01

    As an important part of the marine automatic monitoring system,the 3-meter data buoy plays an important role in the ocean condition monitoring,marine meteorological forecast and marine environmental protection. As U disk of storing buoy raw data,in which stores the original sampling data of the various hydrological and meteorological elements,are important materials for study of marine fea-tures and data statistics. In order to realize the visualization processing and analysis of buoy U data,design and implement the system. The application development is using C programming language based on the powerful Visual Studio 2008 alongside with using the Access 2003 and ADO database technology to store and process the data has been caught. Furthermore,using the BCG interface library makes the user interface more optimized and data more visible. The software can not only create the visual text documents,but also connect to the database to query and display the hydrometeorological parameters,due to the advantage of Visual Studio 2008,which can read and gener-ate data in Office Excel form. The system uses MATLAB in advantages on mathematical graphics,to plot the hydrometeorological graph. After testing and debugging,the system can successfully and stably read and analyze the data from the USB drive,plot the data and gener-ate the proper Excel files,which are easy to be visualized and read by the users,as expected. All these interfaces and visualizations are done by using hybrid programming method.%直径为3m的海洋资料浮标作为海洋自动监测系统的重要环节,在海况监测、海洋气象预报、海洋环境保护等方面发挥着重要作用。作为存储浮标原始数据的U盘存储器,其中存储了各个水文、气象要素的原始采样数据,是研究海洋特性和数据统计的重要资料。为了实现对浮标U盘中数据的可视化处理和分析,设计和实现了该系统。系统设计采用功能强大的Visual Studio 2008

  20. Thermogelling chitosan-collagen-bioactive glass nanoparticle hybrids as potential injectable systems for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Cheisy D F; Carvalho, Sandhra M; Mansur, Herman S; Pereira, Marivalda M

    2016-01-01

    Recently, stimuli-responsive nanocomposite-derived hydrogels have gained prominence in tissue engineering because they can be applied as injectable scaffolds in bone and cartilage repair. Due to the great potential of these systems, this study aimed to synthesize and characterize novel thermosensitive chitosan-based composites, chemically modified with collagen and reinforced by bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG) on the development of injectable nanohybrids for regenerative medicine applications. Thus, the composite hydrogels were extensively characterized by structural, morphological, rheological, and biological testing. The composites showed thermosensitive response with the gelation temperature at approximately 37 °C, which is compatible with the human body temperature. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that the chitosan hydrogels exhibited 3D-porous structures, and the incorporation of collagen in the system caused increase on the average pore size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated the main functional groups of each component of the composite system and their chemical interactions forming the scaffold. Moreover, rheological measurements were employed to assess the viscoelastic behavior of the hydrogels as a function of the temperature. The results demonstrated that the addition of collagen and bioactive glass increases the mechanical properties after the gelation process. The addition of 2 wt.% of BG nanoparticles caused an increase of approximately 39% on stiffness compared to pure chitosan and the addition of 30 wt.% collagen caused a further increase on the stiffness by 95%. The cytotoxicity and cell viability of the hydrogels were assessed by MTT and LIVE/DEAD® assays, where the results demonstrated no toxic effect of the composites on the human osteosarcoma cell culture (SAOS) and kidney cells line of human embryo (HEK 293 T). Hence, it can be stated that innovative composites were

  1. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt

  2. BCM6: New Generation of Boron Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirat, P. [Rolls-Royce Civil Nuclear SAS (France)

    2010-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of boron meter, based on more than 30 years of experience. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter provides Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators with the boron concentration of the primary circuit. The meter provides continuous and safe measurements with no manual sampling and no human contact. In this paper, technical features, advantages and customer benefits of the use of the new generation of Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter will be detailed. Values and associated alarms are provides over different media: 4-20 mA outputs, relays, displays in the main control room and in the chemical lab, and digital links. A special alarm avoids unexpected homogeneous dilution of the primary circuit, which is a critical operational parameter. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter is fully configurable over a set of parameters allowing adaptation to customer needs. It has a differential capability, thus eliminating neutronic noise and keeping measurements accurate, even in the case of fuel clad rupture. Measurements are accurate, reliable, and have a quick response time. Equipment meets state-of-the-art qualification requests. Designed in 2008, the BCM6 boron meter is the newest equipment of Rolls-Royce boron meters product line. It has been chosen to equip the French EPR NPP and complies with the state-of-the-art of the technology. Rolls-Royce has more than 30 years of experience in Instrumentation and Controls with more than 75 NPP units operating worldwide. All of this experience return has been put in this new generation of equipment to provide the customer with the best operation. About Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce is a global business providing integrated power systems for use on land, at sea and in the air. The Group has a balanced business portfolio with leading market positions. Rolls-Royce has a broad range of civil nuclear expertise, including work related to licensing and safety reviews, engineering design

  3. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  4. Development of laser beam injection system for the Edge Thomson Scattering (ETS) in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Suitoh, S.; Ohara, M.; Hagita, K.; Inoue, K.; Bassan, M.; Walsh, M.; Itami, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design and development of the laser injection system for the ITER Edge Thomson Scattering system (ETS). The ITER ETS achieves a temporal resolution of 100 Hz by firing two 50 Hz laser beams alternatively. The use of dual lasers enables us to perform the Thomson scattering measurements at a temporal resolution of 50 Hz in case that one of the laser systems stops functioning. A new type of beam combiner was developed to obtain a single beam that is collinear and fixed linearly polarized from two laser beams using a motor-driven rotating half-wave plate. The rotating half-wave plate method does not induce misalignment even if the rotating mechanism malfunctions. The combined beam is relayed from the diagnostic hall to the plasma using mirror optics and is absorbed at the beam dump integrated on the inner blanket. The beam alignment system was designed to direct the laser beam onto the center of the beam dump head. The beam position at the beam dump is monitored by four alignment laser beams which propagate parallel to the diagnostic Nd:YAG laser beam and imaging systems installed outside the diagnostic port.

  5. Robust computer-controlled system for intracytoplasmic sperm injection and subsequent cell electro-activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K K; Huang, S; Tang, K Z

    2009-03-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and the subsequent cell electro-activation process is a relatively new enhanced procedure to address male factor infertility. The current method involves the engagement of experienced embryologists for such a purpose. More advanced methodologies, which use high precision instrumentation tools, will speed up the whole procedure. In this paper, the development of a computer-controlled system for ICSI and the subsequent cell electro-activation process is presented. The system is integrated to a microinjection workstation and piezo-actuator to perform the ICSI procedure, with vision capability to automatically position the components precisely. A micro-pump assembly is utilized for automatic medium refreshment and a heater plate assembly provides temperature control during the cell electro-activation process. The overall system is comprehensive, comprising modular functional components integrated within a hardware architecture. Experimental results on mice oocytes verified the effectiveness of the developed system over the current method. Further improvements on the instrumentation tools will improve the robustness and overall performance of the developed system.

  6. A New Four-Barrel Pellet Injection System for the TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; Harris, Jeffrey H [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; McCarthy, K. J. [EURATOM-CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain; Chamorro, M. [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain; Garcia, R. [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain; Hildago, C. [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain; Medrano, M. [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain; Unamuno, R. [Laboratory Nacional de Fusion, Madrid, Spain

    2011-01-01

    A new pellet injection system for the TJ-II stellarator has been developed/constructed as part of a collaboration between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Centro de Investigaciones Energ ticas, Medioambientales y Tecnol gicas (CIEMAT). ORNL is providing most of the injector hardware and instrumentation, the pellet diagnostics, and the pellet transport tubes; CIEMAT is responsible for the injector stand/interface to the stellarator, cryogenic refrigerator, vacuum pumps/ballast volumes, gas manifolds, remote operations, plasma diagnostics, and data acquisition. The pellet injector design is an upgraded version of that used for the ORNL injector installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). It is a four-barrel system equipped with a cryogenic refrigerator for in situ hydrogen pellet formation and a combined mechanical punch/propellant valve system for pellet acceleration (speeds ~100 to 1000 m/s). On TJ-II, it will be used as an active diagnostic and for fueling. To accommodate the plasma experiments planned for TJ-II, pellet sizes significantly smaller than those typically used for the MST application are required. The system will initially be equipped with four different pellet sizes, with the gun barrel bores ranging between ~0.5 to 1.0 mm. The new system is almost complete and is described briefly here, highlighting the new features added since the original MST injector was constructed. Also, the future installation on TJ-II is reviewed.

  7. Demonstration of efficient spin injection and detection in various systems using Fe3O4 based spin injectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwetha G. Bhat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Half-metal based spin injector devices for spin injection and detection application have proven to be efficient owing to their enhanced injection and detection efficiency. In this study, we extend the all-electrical spin injection and detection studies into different systems like Si and GaAs using half-metal Fe3O4 as a spin injector in the presence and absence of tunnel barrier MgO. Injection into GaAs is verified using conventional Fe/MgO/GaAs devices. Room temperature spin injection into both p-type and n-type Si is achieved and the spin injection could be observed down to 100K. Obtained spin relaxation time for these n-type and p-type Si at different temperatures agree well with the existing reports. Further, the temperature dependent spin injection and detection is also successfully achieved in Fe3O4/GaAs (n-type Schottky devices, and a comparison study of the results with control experiment using Fe/MgO/GaAs (n-type devices confirm the relaxation to be similar in the GaAs substrate, as expected. Hence, even Fe3O4 material can be effectively used as an efficient spin injector as well as detector, making it an attractive candidate for the room temperature spintronics device applications.

  8. Measuring methods in power metering 2013; Elektrizitaetsmesstechnik 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahmann, Martin; Zayer, Peter (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The book addresses technical and economic issues of power metering, data communication and data processing. Smart metering is the key issue discussed in all 14 contributions: 1. The perspective of Smart Metering in Europe through 2020; 2. Introduction of Smart Metering in Austria; 3. Metering after the amended EnWG 2011; 4. The FNN project ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Technological requirements of Smart Grid and Smart Market; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomic Aspects of Smart Grids and Electromobility''; 7. Load management as a key element of energy transition; 8. Added value in Smart Metering as a result of Smart Home applications, 9. The main cost factors of the new metering systems; 10. BSI protection profile: Smart Meter Gateway certification; 11. The influence of new boundary conditions in metering on intercompany processes; 12. Reliable time allotment via internet; 13. Recommendations of the EEG Clearing Authority on metering problems; 14. Outline quality management manual for state-authorized test services for electric power, gas, water, and heat. [German] Dieses Buch richtet seinen Blick sowohl auf technische wie auch auf energiewirtschaftliche Themen rund um das Thema Mess- und Zaehltechnik sowie die inzwischen immer bedeutsamer werdende zugehoerige Datenkommunikations- und Datenverarbeitungstechnik. Eine zunehmende Betrachtung des Smart Metering als einen Teilaspekt des grossen Themas Smart Grid bildet die gemeinsame Klammer um die Beitraege. Die Themen der 14 Beitraege sind: 1. Perspektive Smart Metering in Europa bis 2020; 2. Smart-Meter-Einfuehrung in Oesterreich; 3. Das Messwesen nach der EnWG-Novelle 2011; 4. Das FNN-Projekt ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Anforderungen durch Smart Grid und Smart Market an die intelligente Messtechnik; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomie-Aspekte zu Smart Grid und Elektromobilitaet''; 7. Lastverschiebung als Baustein der Energiewende; 8. Mehrwerte beim Smart

  9. Application of an EGR system in a direct injection diesel engine to reduce NOx emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Serio, D.; De Oliveira, A.; Sodré, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the application of an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system in a direct injection diesel engine operating with diesel oil containing 7% biodiesel (B7). EGR rates of up to 10% were applied with the primary aim to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. The experiments were conducted in a 44 kW diesel power generator to evaluate engine performance and emissions for different load settings. The use of EGR caused a peak pressure reduction during the combustion process and a decrease in thermal efficiency, mainly at high engine loads. A reduction of NOx emissions of up to 26% was achieved, though penalizing carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbons (THC) emissions.

  10. Technologies of bearings systems production from composite materials by polyester resin injection into the closed mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аnatoliy M. Turenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of modern technologies for manufacturing components and bearing systems made of composite materials has been conducted. These technologies are based on the polyester resin injection method and do not require high financial costs in manufacturing. The proposed method, due to the low cost of tooling, is convenient to produce a wide range of items made of composite materials, both in large-scale and single-piece production. Composite materials are intensively used in automotive industry, especially for motor racing vehicles’ parts. These technologies allow to solve the problem of creating ultra-light assemblies for modern car bodies, energy-absorbing passive safety elements and other high-loaded parts. They provide better strength and weight characteristics and better specific energy-output ratio of passive safety elements, as compared to conventional materials (metals and plastics. Considering the above, the most appropriate technology for the automotive industry has been assessed with that choice substantiation.

  11. Initial Results in Power System Identification from Injected Probing Signals Using a Subspace Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ning; Pierre, John W.; Hauer, John F.

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, the authors use the Numerical algorithm for Subspace State Space System IDentification (N4SID) to extract dynamic parameters from phasor measurements collected on the western North American Power Grid. The data were obtained during tests on June 7, 2000, and they represent wide area response to several kinds of probing signals including Low-Level Pseudo-Random Noise (LLPRN) and Single-Mode Square Wave (SMSW) injected at the Celilo terminal of the Pacific HVDC In-tertie (PDCI). An identified model is validated using a cross vali-dation method. Also, the obtained electromechanical modes are compared with the results from Prony analysis of a ringdown and with signal analysis of ambient data measured under similar op-erating conditions. The consistent results show that methods in this class can be highly effective even when the probing signal is small.

  12. Injection Bucket Jitter Compensation Using Phase Lock System at Fermilab Booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiya, K. [Fermilab; Drennan, C. [Fermilab; Pellico, W. [Fermilab; Chaurize, S. [Fermilab

    2017-05-12

    The extraction bucket position in the Fermilab Booster is controlled with a cogging process that involves the comparison of the Booster rf count and the Recycler Ring revolution marker. A one rf bucket jitter in the ex-traction bucket position results from the variability of the process that phase matches the Booster to the Recycler. However, the new slow phase lock process used to lock the frequency and phase of the Booster rf to the Recycler rf has been made digital and programmable and has been modified to correct the extraction notch position. The beam loss at the Recycler injection has been reduced by 20%. Beam studies and the phase lock system will be discussed in this paper.

  13. The Savonius Water Current Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-11-03

    the author visited the David Taylor Model Basin for the purpose of calibrating five (5) Savonius water current ,meter rotors in the range of .1 to 1...Iastitution of Oceanography. Figure 1 is a block diagram of the water current meter and its associated equipment. The details of the Savonius rotor are...an amplifier. The Savonius rotor functions as a salt water switch which varies the r-. coupling of the transformer thus it awplitude modulates the 100

  14. Upgrade of the SPS Injection Kicker System for the LHC High Luminosity Operation with Heavy Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Goddard, B; Ducimetière, L; Sermeus, L; Uythoven, J; Velotti, FM

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade project a performance upgrade for heavy ions is envisaged. One of the performance limitations is the rise time of the present SPS injection kicker system MKP. A reduction of the rise time for lead ions was studied in line with a modification of the whole injection system. This paper briefly describes the different rise time options studied for an initially proposed dedicated ion kicker system MKP-I, focuses however on a cost effective alternative using the presently installed 12 MKPS magnets connected to a new fast pulse forming line. As only 12 out of the 16 injection kicker magnets would be fast enough to be used in an upgraded system, additional deflection has to be provided by the septa. The beam optics for that variant is highlighted and first requirements for the septum elements are stipulated. The paper concludes with a failure analysis of the proposed scheme.

  15. Design of an acid stimulation system with chlorine dioxide for the treatment of water-injection wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, A.N.; Baigorria, R.; Curci, E. [Repsol YPF, Buenos Aires, (Argentina)

    2000-06-01

    A method to remove solid residues resulting from formation damage in water-injection wells was presented. The method is based on a chemical stimulation system which uses a treatment fluid comprised of hydrochloric acid and chlorine dioxide. This fluid is more effective than conventional acidizing systems in treating the solid residues that get deposited in fractured reservoirs, particularly when the plugging material contains iron sulfide and bacterial agents. This is because of the high oxidative power of chlorine dioxide. Formation damage is a common occurrence in several secondary recovery oilfields in Argentina, resulting in injectivity losses. Internal or external cake formation is usually the mechanism associated with injection performance. The severity of the damage can be determined by examining the parameters such as particle size, shape and composition, injection rates, pore system properties such as permeability, and pore size. Clean-up treatments raise the injection maintenance costs and water treatment substantially. The system presented here differs from past treatments because the chlorine dioxide is not produced in-situ. Core flooding laboratory tests have been conducted which successfully demonstrate the effectiveness of the system in removing solid residues resulting from formation damage. A pilot study will be conducted in the near future. 7 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  16. Smart Metering in public utilities at Celle; In Celle spielt die (Zukunfts-) Musik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiede, Ingo; Gottschling, Florian; Luckhardt, Sina [EVB Energie AG, Velbert (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Public utilities at Celle have start-up a pilot project to introduce Smart Metering. Presented is the system Meterus of EVB Energie AG by which meter data of power meters can be registered automatically during short time intervals and transmitted via the power grid. It is possible to integrate four meters in the system by the RF system ''M-bus RF receiver E''. (GL)

  17. A spectrophotometric flow injection system for streptomycin determination in veterinary samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frugeri, Pedro Marcos; Lago, Ayla Campos do; Wisniewski, Célio; Luccas, Pedro Orival

    2014-01-01

    In this work a spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system for streptomycin determination in veterinary samples, is being proposed. The method is based on streptomycin alkaline hydrolysis that forms guanidine, followed by the reaction with Fe(II). The colored product has absorption peak at 520 nm. To evaluate and optimize the system parameters, chemometrics tools, such as factorial design, Pareto chart and Doelhert design, were used. The veterinary samples are diluted in water and introduced in the FIA system, therefore no sample preparation is required. The optimized system presented: linear range of 60 up to 1000 mg L-1, limit of detection of 18 mg L-1 and sampling rate of 36 readings per hour. The precision was checked and the CV for veterinary sample readings were always less than 6.5%. The accuracy was studied by comparison with chromatographic method, thus, five samples of pharmaceutical veterinary were determined by HPLC and by the proposed method, and the results are in agreement (t-test, p = 0.05).

  18. Potline dry scrubbing technology : development of an innovative alumina injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendette, H. [Solios Environnement Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Moras, A. [Alcoa Canada, Deschambault, PQ (Canada); Dando, N.R. [Alcoa Technical Center, Alcoa Center, PA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented the first test results of an innovative approach to alumina dry scrubbers used to capture fluoride emissions coming from aluminium electrolysis potlines. The concept behind the development of the new alumina injection system was also presented. The system was created for primary aluminium producers to recover fluoride compounds that are then recycled in the electrolysis cells of the Hall-Heroult potline. This paper described the relationship that exists between the emissions of gaseous fluoride and the fluoride saturation level of the alumina. An efficient air pollution control device was developed in response to concerns regarding fluoride emissions. The challenges facing the integration of this relation into the development of a new generation of alumina dry scrubber was discussed along with the proposed innovative scheme that challenged conventional industry practices. To validate this innovative approach, Solios in partnership with Alcoa Primary Metals, modified one of the Aluminerie de Deschambault's system by providing new temporary equipment to its operating units and submitting the equipment to several test campaigns. During the first trials of the alumina cascade feeding system, reductions in fluoride emissions were about 50 per cent. Although stack emissions account for only 10 to 20 per cent of the total plant fluoride emissions, and are therefore not the primary source of fluoride emissions, such drastic reductions from potline dry scrubbers should help smelter operators to maintain the lowest possible fluoride emissions year round, even during the hottest summer days. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Neutral Beam Injection System for the C-2W Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaevsky, Alexander; Ivanov, Alexander; Kolmogorov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Artem; Korepanov, Sergey; Binderbauer, Michl; TAE Team; BINP Team

    2016-10-01

    C-2U Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) experiment proved substantial reduction in turbulence-driven losses via tangential neutral beam injection (NBI) coupled with electrically biased plasma guns at the plasma ends. Under such conditions, highly reproducible, advanced beam-driven FRCs were produced and sustained for times significantly longer (more than 5 ms) than all characteristic plasma decay times without beams. To further improve FRC sustainment and demonstrate the FRC ramp-up, the C-2U experimental device is undergoing a major upgrade. The upgrade, C-2W, will have a new NBI system producing a record total hydrogen beam power of 20 + MW in a 30ms pulse. The NBI system consists of eight positive-ion based injectors featuring flexible, modular design. Four out of eight NBI injectors have a capability to switch the beam energy during a shot from the initial 15 keV to 40 keV at a constant beam current. This feature allows to increase the beam energy and thereby optimize the beam-plasma coupling during the magnetic field ramp up. This presentation provides an overview of the C-2W NBI system, including the design of the switchable energy injectors, layout of the power supply system, and results of the prototype testing.

  20. Superconducting technology for overcurrent limiting in a 25 kA current injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Hossein; Faghihi, Faramarz; Sharifi, Reza; Poursoltanmohammadi, Amir Hossein

    2008-09-01

    Current injection transformer (CIT) systems are within the major group of the standard type test of high current equipment in the electrical industry, so their performance becomes very important. When designing high current systems, there are many factors to be considered from which their overcurrent protection must be ensured. The output of a CIT is wholly dependent on the impedance of the equipment under test (EUT). Therefore current flow beyond the allowable limit can occur. The present state of the art provides an important guide to developing current limiters not only for the grid application but also in industrial equipment. This paper reports the state of the art in the technology available that could be developed into an application of superconductivity for high current equipment (CIT) protection with no test disruption. This will result in a greater market choice and lower costs for equipment protection solutions, reduced costs and improved system reliability. The paper will also push the state of the art by using two distinctive circuits, closed-core and open-core, for overcurrent protection of a 25 kA CIT system, based on a flux-lock-type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) and magnetic properties of high temperature superconducting (HTS) elements. An appropriate location of the HTS element will enhance the rate of limitation with the help of the magnetic field generated by the CIT output busbars. The calculation of the HTS parameters for overcurrent limiting is also performed to suit the required current levels of the CIT.

  1. High heat flux engineering for the upgraded neutral beam injection systems of MAST-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhalla, F., E-mail: Fahim.dhalla@ccfe.ac.uk; Mistry, S.; Turner, I.; Barrett, T.R.; Day, I.; McAdams, R.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A new Residual Ion Dump (RID) and bend magnet system for the upgraded NBI systems have been designed for the 5 s MAST-U pulse requirements. • Design scoping was performed using numerical ion-tracing analysis software (MAGNET and OPERA codes). • A more powerful bending magnet will separate the residual ions into full, half and third energy components. • Three separate CuCrZr dumps spread the power loading resulting in acceptable power footprints. • FE thermo-mechanical analyses using ANSYS to validate the designs against the ITER SDC-IC code. • New bend magnet coils, yoke and CuCrZr water-cooled plates are in the procurement phase. - Abstract: For the initial phase of MAST-U operation the two existing neutral beam injection systems will be used, but must be substantially upgraded to fulfil expected operational requirements. The major elements are the design, manufacture and installation of a bespoke bending magnet and Residual Ion Dump (RID) system. The MAST-design full energy dump is being replaced with new actively-cooled full, half and third energy dumps, designed to receive 2.4 MW of ion power deflected by an iron-cored electromagnet. The main design challenge is limited space available in the vacuum vessel, requiring ion-deflection calculations to ensure acceptable heat flux distribution on the dump panels. This paper presents engineering and physics analysis of the upgraded MAST beamlines and reports the current status of manufacture.

  2. Effect of Injection Velocity on Structure Part Characteristic in AZ50 Die Casting Process with High Vacuum System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    When diecasting large and thin Mg alloy parts, material defects occur, which include porosity, nonuniform mechanical properties, irregular surfaces, and incomplete filling. To resolve these problems, it is necessary to have uniform injection velocities and temperatures as well as control the melt. This study investigated the feasibility of producing large and thin components using a die caster by attaching a high vacuum system. In particular, the effects of injection velocity on surface quality and the mechanical properties of the products were investigated. Hence, an injection velocity scheme and a die structure capable of casting in a vacuum were proposed. As a result, it was found that the critical low injection velocity was 0.2 m/s to produce large thin Mg alloy structures having good mechanical properties.

  3. Study on a small diesel engine with direct injection impinging distribution spray combustion system. Optimum of injection system and combustion chamber; Shototsu kakusan hoshiki kogata diesel kikan ni kansuru kenkyu. Funshakei to nenshoshitsu no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K.; Kato, S.; Saito, T. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan); Tanabe, H. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This study is concerned with a small bore (93mm) diesel engine using impinged fuel spray, named OSKA system. The higher rate of injection show lower smoke emission with higher NOx Emission. The exhaust emission and performance were investigated under different compression ratio with higher rate of injection. The experimental results show that this OSKA system is capable for reducing the smoke emission without the deterioration of NOx emission and fuel consumption compared with the conventional DI diesel engine. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Effects of injection pressure and injection timing to exhaust gas opacity for a conventional indirect diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiman, Agus; Majid, Akmal Irfan; Pambayun, Nirmala Adhi Yoga; Yuswono, Lilik Chaerul; Sukoco

    2016-06-01

    In relation to pollution control and environmental friendliness, the quality of exhaust gas from diesel engine needs to be considered. The influences of injection pressure and timing to exhaust gas opacity were investigated. A series of experiments were conducted in a one-cylinder conventional diesel engine with a naturally aspirated system and indirect injection. The default specification of injection pressure was 120 kg/cm2. To investigate the injection pressure, the engine speed was retained on 1000 rpm with pressure variations from 80 to 215 kg/cm2. On the other hand, the various injection timing (8, 10, 12, 16 degrees before TDC point and exact 18 degrees before TDC point) were used to determine their effects to exhaust gas opacity. In this case, the engine speed was varied from 1000 to 2400 rpm. The injector tester was used to measure injection pressure whereas the exhaust gas opacity was determined by the smoke meter. Those data were also statistically analyzed by product moment correlation. As the results, the injection pressure of diesel engine had a non-significant positive correlation to the exhaust gas opacity with r = 0.113 and p > 5 %. Injection pressure should be adjusted to the specification listed on the diesel engine as if it was too high or too low will lead to the higher opacity. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between injection timing and the exhaust gas opacity in all engine speeds.

  5. Impact of physical properties of mixture of diesel and biodiesel fuels on hydrodynamic characteristics of fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Ivan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the alternative fuels, originating from renewable sources, is biodiesel fuel, which is introduced in diesel engines without major construction modifications on the engine. Biodiesel fuel, by its physical and chemical properties, is different from diesel fuel. Therefore, it is expected that by the application of a biodiesel fuel, the characteristic parameters of the injection system will change. These parameters have a direct impact on the process of fuel dispersion into the engine cylinder, and mixing with the air, which results in an impact on the quality of the combustion process. Method of preparation of the air-fuel mixture and the quality of the combustion process directly affect the efficiency of the engine and the level of pollutant emissions in the exhaust gas, which today is the most important criterion for assessing the quality of the engine. The paper presents a detailed analysis of the influence of physical properties of a mixture of diesel and biodiesel fuels on the output characteristics of the fuel injection system. The following parameters are shown: injection pressure, injection rate, the beginning and duration of injection, transformation of potential into kinetic energy of fuel and increase of energy losses in fuel injection system of various mixtures of diesel and biodiesel fuels. For the analysis of the results a self-developed computer program was used to simulate the injection process in the system. Computational results are verified using the experiment, for a few mixtures of diesel and biodiesel fuels. This paper presents the verification results for diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel in particular.

  6. 在线pH表在燃机电厂汽水系统的应用%Online Application of PH Meter in Gas Turbine Power Plant System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴光耀

    2016-01-01

    Because of the power plant boiler feed water quality directly affects the quality of the high pressure steam and the safe operation of high pressure boiler, how to use online pH meter to realize the measurement and data processing is particularly important. In this article, through analyzing the working principle of mettler pH meter, for mettler pH meter in datang international jiangshan, zhejiang new thermoelectric limited liability company operating status and effect were discussed, and the common faults in the operation, combined with the actual work put forward solutions, hope that through this article expounds effectively improve the safe and stable operation of the waste heat boiler.%由于电厂锅炉的给水质量直接影响高压蒸汽的品质和高压锅炉的安全运行,如何运用在线pH表实现指标测量和数据处理就显得尤为重要。本文通过分析梅特勒PH表的工作原理,针对梅特勒PH表在浙江大唐国际江山新城热电有限责任公司的运行现状及其效果进行探讨,并就运行中常见故障,结合实际工作提出解决方法,希望通过本文的阐述有效提高余热锅炉的安全稳定运行。

  7. Magnetospheric effects of ion and atom injections by the satellite power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Luhmann, J.G.; Schulz, M.; Cornwall, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year assessment of magnetospheric effects of the construction and operation of a satellite power system. This assessment effort is based on application of present scientific knowledge rather than on original scientific research. As such, it appears that mass and energy injections of the system are sufficient to modify the magnetosphere substantially, to the extent of possibly requiring mitigation measures for space systems but not to the extent of causing major redirection of efforts and concepts. The scale of the SPS is so unprecedentedly large, however, that these impressions require verification (or rejection) by in-depth assessment based on original scientific treatment of the principal issues. Indeed, it is perhaps appropriate to state that present ignorance far exceeds present knowledge in regard to SPS magnetospheric effects, even though we only seek to define the approximate limits of magnetospheric modifications here. Modifications of the space radiation environment, of the atmospheric airglow background, of the auroral response to solar activity and of the fluctuations in space plasma density are identified to be the principal impacts.

  8. Flow-injection determination of isoniazid using sodium dichloroisocyanurate- and trichloroisocyanuric acid-luminol chemiluminescence systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, A; Karimi, M A; Hormozi Nezhad, M R

    2004-06-01

    A chemiluminescent (CL) method for the determination of isoniazid is described. The method is based on the CL generated during the oxidation of luminol by sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SDCC) and trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) in alkaline medium. It was found that isoniazid greatly enhances this CL intensity when present in the luminol solution. Based on this observation, a new flow-injection CL method for the determination of isoniazid has been proposed in this paper. The detection limits were 2 and 3 ng ml(-1) isoniazid for the SDCC-luminol and TCCA-luminol CL systems, respectively. The relative CL intensity was linear with the isoniazid concentration in the range of 4-100 and 100-200 ng ml(-1) for the SDCC-luminol CL system, and 6-200 and 200-1000 ng ml(-1) for the TCCA-luminol CL system. The results obtained for the assay of pharmaceutical preparations compared well with those obtained by the official methods and demonstrated good accuracy and precision.

  9. On the Design of Wireless Meter Reading System Based on GSM and Single- Chip Microcomputer%基于GSM与单片机的无线抄表系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强辉; 燕莎

    2012-01-01

    The design and realization of the remote wireless meter reading terminal hardware is discussed. This system relies on the GSM network platform with a single -chip control unit to realize the electric meter data retrieval and remote wireless transmission. It features low cost, high efficiency and reliability. It can serve as a new platform for the standardization and automation of the wireless remote meter reading and power supply department management. It implies a great marketing potential.%研究远程无线抄表系统终端的硬件设计和实现,系统依靠GSM网络平台,以单片机为主控单元来实现电表数据的采集和远程无线传输,系统成本较低,运行高效可靠,为实施远程无线抄表和供用电部门管理的规范化、自动化提供新的实现平台,有较大的市场发展潜力.

  10. Automated dual capillary electrophoresis system with hydrodynamic injection for the concurrent determination of cations and anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Thi Thanh Thuy; Mai, Thanh Duc [University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, Spitalstrasse 51, Basel 4056 (Switzerland); Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Thanh Dam [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sáiz, Jorge [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering – University of Alcalá, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona km 33.6, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid 28871 (Spain); Pham, Hung Viet, E-mail: phamhungviet@hus.edu.vn [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hauser, Peter C., E-mail: Peter.Hauser@unibas.ch [University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, Spitalstrasse 51, Basel 4056 (Switzerland)

    2014-09-02

    Highlights: • Concurrent determination of cations and anions was carried out by electrophoretic separation. • Optimized conditions for each class of analystes was possible by using separate capillaries. • Simultaneous hydrodynamic injection was carried out. • Pneumatic actuation was used for flushing and sample handling. • The denitrification of drinking water was successfully demonstrated. - Abstract: The capillary electrophoresis instrument developed for the concurrent determination of cations and anions features two separate capillaries and individual detectors to allow independent optimization for each group of ions. The capillaries are joined in a common injector block. The sample is drawn into the injector with a small membrane pump and automated simultaneous injection into both capillaries is achieved by pressurization of the fluid with compressed air. Flushing of the injector and of the capillaries with the background electrolyte is also carried out automatically by the same means. The buffer consisted of 12 mM histidine and 2 mM 18-crown-6 adjusted to pH 4 with acetic acid and was suitable for the contactless conductivity detection employed. The system was optimized for the determination of cationic NH{sub 4}{sup +} and anionic NO{sub 3}{sup −} and NO{sub 2}{sup −}, and linear calibration curves from about 20 μM up to about 1.5 mM were obtained for these ions. In a test run over 8 h, the reproducibility for the peak areas was within ±7%. For demonstration, the instrument was successfully applied to the concurrent monitoring of the concentrations of the three ions during the biological removal of ammonium from contaminated groundwater in a sequencing batch reactor, where NO{sub 3}{sup −} and NO{sub 2}{sup −} are formed as intermediate products.

  11. Systemic injection of kainic acid differently affects LTP magnitude depending on its epileptogenic efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz M Suárez

    Full Text Available Seizures have profound impact on synaptic function and plasticity. While kainic acid is a popular method to induce seizures and to potentially affect synaptic plasticity, it can also produce physiological-like oscillations and trigger some forms of long-term potentiation (LTP. Here, we examine whether induction of LTP is altered in hippocampal slices prepared from rats with different sensitivity to develop status epilepticus (SE by systemic injection of kainic acid. Rats were treated with multiple low doses of kainic acid (5 mg/kg; i.p. to develop SE in a majority of animals (72-85% rats. A group of rats were resistant to develop SE (15-28% after several accumulated doses. Animals were subsequently tested using chronic recordings and object recognition tasks before brain slices were prepared for histological studies and to examine basic features of hippocampal synaptic function and plasticity, including input/output curves, paired-pulse facilitation and theta-burst induced LTP. Consistent with previous reports in kindling and pilocapine models, LTP was reduced in rats that developed SE after kainic acid injection. These animals exhibited signs of hippocampal sclerosis and developed spontaneous seizures. In contrast, resistant rats did not become epileptic and had no signs of cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting. In slices from resistant rats, theta-burst stimulation induced LTP of higher magnitude when compared with control and epileptic rats. Variations on LTP magnitude correlate with animals' performance in a hippocampal-dependent spatial memory task. Our results suggest dissociable long-term effects of treatment with kainic acid on synaptic function and plasticity depending on its epileptogenic efficiency.

  12. Mark IVA DSN 26-meter Subnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Office of Space Tracking and Data Systems' Networks Consolidation Program (NCP), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), includes the implementation of a 26-meter Tracking and Communications Subnet as a part of the Mark IV A Deep Space Network (DSN). The incorporatin of this subnet into the DSN will contribute to the NCP goal of consolidating the two NASA ground tracking networks into one tracking network. The 26-meter Tracking and Communication Subnet was designed to provide the capability to support, at each Deep Space Communication Complex, the tracking and data communication requirements of the earth-orbital missions that cannot be supported by the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System when it becomes operational. Implementation activities and planned capabilities of the subnet are discussed.

  13. WinCE多线程在磨加工主动量仪控制系统中的应用%Application of WinCE Multithreading in Control System of Grinding Initiative Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任冠青; 张琳娜; 郑鹏

    2013-01-01

    For development of embedded grinding initiative Meter,this paper proposes an approach for control system based on WinCE 6.0 Multithreading mechanism.Using thread synchronization technology,the grinding initiative Meter can achieve data acquisition,processing,display in real time,and control grinding process automatically without affecting the front interface switching operation and parameter setting,it enhances real-time and display intuitive of the grinding initiative Meter,makes operation of adjusting and setting parameter more simple,improves the accuracy of measurement.Through the test,we find that various abilities of the grinding initiative Meter used this mechanism are improved,it will have a high cost performance and broad market prospects.%针对嵌入式磨加工主动量仪的开发,本文提出了一种基于WinCE 6.0多线程机制的控制系统实现方法.运用相应的线程同步技术实现了磨加工主动量仪实时地对数据进行采集、处理、显示,自动控制磨削进程,同时又不影响前台界面的切换和参数设定操作,增强了磨加工主动量仪的实时性和显示直观性,使参数设置调整操作更加方便,提高了测量精度.通过测试表明,采用该机制的磨加工主动量仪工作时各方面性能明显改善,性价比较高,市场前景广阔.

  14. Radio frequency and microwave subsystems section. Dual-frequency feed cone assemblies for 34-meter antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    New Cassegrain cone assemblies were designed for the upgrade of three 26 meter-diameter antennas to 34 meter-diameter with improved performance. The new dual-frequency feed cone (SXD) provided both S- and X-band feed systems and traveling wave masers with a reflex reflector system to permit simultaneous operation analogous to the 64-meter antennas.

  15. Framework of smart management system based on real-time GIS for gateway energy metering%基于实时GIS的关口计量智能化管理系统架构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽娟; 许晓慧; 包玉树

    2011-01-01

    在江苏省关口电能计量管理系统运行的基础上,借助地理信息系统(GIS)直观的图形功能来表现相关的信息内容,从设计原则、设计框架以及系统功能等几个方面研究基于实时GIS的江苏关口计量智能化管理系统.系统以原有电能计量管理系统中的数据为基础,通过统一的接口对数据进行提取和分析处理,将地理信息与关口计量信息很好地结合在一起,以更直观形象的方式展示关口计量的相关工作状态.该系统将提供友好的人机界面和丰富翔实的操作手段,显著提高关口管理的效率.%The intuitionistic graphic function of GIS(Geography Information System) is adopted to display the relevant information of the operating management system for Jiangsu gateway energy metering. The smart management system based on real-time GIS is studied in design principle,system framework and functions.It acquires the data from the original Jiangsu energy metering management system via unified interfaces,analyzes and combines them with the geographic information to display the relevant operating states of gateway energy metering in more intuitionistic way,which provides friendly human-machine interfaces and convenient operational means to enhance the gateway management efficiency.

  16. Finger-powered microfluidic systems using multilayer soft lithography and injection molding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Kosuke; Shih, Kuan Cheng; Lin, Xiao; Brubaker, Thomas A; Sochol, Ryan D; Lin, Liwei

    2014-10-07

    Point-of-care (POC) and disposable biomedical applications demand low-power microfluidic systems with pumping components that provide controlled pressure sources. Unfortunately, external pumps have hindered the implementation of such microfluidic systems due to limitations associated with portability and power requirements. Here, we propose and demonstrate a 'finger-powered' integrated pumping system as a modular element to provide pressure head for a variety of advanced microfluidic applications, including finger-powered on-chip microdroplet generation. By utilizing a human finger for the actuation force, electrical power sources that are typically needed to generate pressure head were obviated. Passive fluidic diodes were designed and implemented to enable distinct fluids from multiple inlet ports to be pumped using a single actuation source. Both multilayer soft lithography and injection molding processes were investigated for device fabrication and performance. Experimental results revealed that the pressure head generated from a human finger could be tuned based on the geometric characteristics of the pumping system, with a maximum observed pressure of 7.6 ± 0.1 kPa. In addition to the delivery of multiple, distinct fluids into microfluidic channels, we also employed the finger-powered pumping system to achieve the rapid formation of both water-in-oil droplets (106.9 ± 4.3 μm in diameter) and oil-in-water droplets (75.3 ± 12.6 μm in diameter) as well as the encapsulation of endothelial cells in droplets without using any external or electrical controllers.

  17. Modeling and investigation of refrigeration system performance with two-phase fluid injection in a scroll compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Rui

    Vapor compression cycles are widely used in heating, refrigerating and air-conditioning. A slight performance improvement in the components of a vapor compression cycle, such as the compressor, can play a significant role in saving energy use. However, the complexity and cost of these improvements can block their application in the market. Modifying the conventional cycle configuration can offer a less complex and less costly alternative approach. Economizing is a common modification for improving the performance of the refrigeration cycle, resulting in decreasing the work required to compress the gas per unit mass. Traditionally, economizing requires multi-stage compressors, the cost of which has restrained the scope for practical implementation. Compressors with injection ports, which can be used to inject economized refrigerant during the compression process, introduce new possibilities for economization with less cost. This work focuses on computationally investigating a refrigeration system performance with two-phase fluid injection, developing a better understanding of the impact of injected refrigerant quality on refrigeration system performance as well as evaluating the potential COP improvement that injection provides based on refrigeration system performance provided by Copeland.

  18. Investigation and Comparison of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Skoubo, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    . The possibility to independently control the meter-in and meter-out side not only increase the functionality of the system, but also opens up for better performance and/or lowered energy consumption. The focus of the current paper is therefore on investigation and comparison of what may be obtained using......, the control strategies are discussed and severalH¥ controllers are designed, for which both simulation and experimental results are presented. The controllers are evaluated with regard to performance and robustness and compared to a simple SISO control. Based on the findings, the possibilities and limitations...

  19. Energy saving by smart metering with consumption feedback; Energieeinsparung durch Smart Metering mit Verbrauchs-Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Patrick [Institut fuer ZukunftsEnergieSysteme (IZES), Saarbruecken (Germany); Friedrich, Malte [Institut fuer Soziologische Meinungsforschung (IsoMe), Berlin (Germany); Kerber-Clasen, Stefan [Institut fuer Sozialforschung und Sozialwirtschaft e.V., Saarbruecken (Germany); Frey, Guenther

    2012-08-15

    While the German legislative, e.g. in the EnWG (Power Industry Act) assumes that electricity consumption metering will contribute to energy conservation in any case, many studies have arrived at a different contribution: Only a combination of consumption metering and direct feedback methods will result in significant energy savings. A recent research project (''Moderne Energiesparsysteme fuer Haushalte'') analysed an energy conservation system of this type. The findings will provide socio-economic insight into the background of successful energy conservation, and they will show how feedback methods can be optimised.

  20. Application of a scattered-light radiometric power meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, James N; DiComo, Gregory P; Ting, Antonio C; Fischer, Richard P

    2011-04-01

    The power measurement of high-power continuous-wave laser beams typically calls for the use of water-cooled thermopile power meters. Large thermopile meters have slow response times that can prove insufficient to conduct certain tests, such as determining the influence of atmospheric turbulence on transmitted beam power. To achieve faster response times, we calibrated a digital camera to measure the power level as the optical beam is projected onto a white surface. This scattered-light radiometric power meter saves the expense of purchasing a large area power meter and the required water cooling. In addition, the system can report the power distribution, changes in the position, and the spot size of the beam. This paper presents the theory of the scattered-light radiometric power meter and demonstrates its use during a field test at a 2.2 km optical range. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  1. Data Anomaly Determination for Centralized Metering Systems Based on the Grey Analysis Methods%基于灰色分析的集抄数据异常判定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫公; 牟婷婷; 王兰君; 辛洁晴

    2016-01-01

    review and increasing accounting rate of the centralized meter-ing system. Apart from this, the proposed method can also identify electricity stealing suspects so as to alleviate to a cer-tain extent the concealment of electricity stealing in the environment of centralized metering.

  2. Comparing the survival rate of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through hydropower systems using injectable and surgical acoustic transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z. D.; Martinez, J. J.; Li, H.; Harnish, R. A.; Woodley, C. M.; Hughes, J. A.; Li, X.; Fu, T.; Lu, J.; McMichael, G. A.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, R. L.

    2017-02-21

    Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitters is still the key limiting factor despite that considerable effort has been expended to understand the biological effects of implantation of acoustic transmitters in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first active acoustic tag that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. It also lasts more than four times longer than the commercially-available transmitters. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectable transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the other commercially-available transmitters tested. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable tag had a higher survival probability from release to each of 11 downstream detection arrays than concurrent releases of fish surgically implanted with commercially-available tags. In addition, reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The differences in survival may have been caused by warm water temperatures and higher rates of infection experienced by the surgically implanted group due to the presence of sutures acting as an attachment site for pathogens. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has further reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. The information gathered with this new technology is helping minimize the impact of dams on fish, leading to more environmentally sustainable energy systems.

  3. Development of a Kingdon ion trap system for trapping externally injected highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numadate, Naoki; Okada, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Tanuma, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a Kingdon ion trap system for the purpose of the laboratory observation of the x-ray forbidden transitions of highly charged ions (HCIs). Externally injected Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) with kinetic energies of 6q keV were successfully trapped in the ion trap. The energy distribution of trapped ions is discussed in detail on the basis of numerical simulations. The combination of the Kingdon ion trap and the time-of-flight mass spectrometer enabled us to measure precise trapping lifetimes of HCIs. As a performance test of the instrument, we measured trapping lifetimes of Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) under a constant number density of H2 and determined the charge-transfer cross sections of Ar(q+)(q = 5, 6)-H2 collision systems at binary collision energies of a few eV. It was confirmed that the present cross section data are consistent with previous data and the values estimated by some scaling formula.

  4. Investigation of ecological parameters of four-stroke SI engine, with pneumatic fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, W.; Śliwiński, K.

    2016-09-01

    The publication presents the results of tests to determine the impact of using waste fuels, alcohol, to power the engine, on the ecological parameters of the combustion engine. Alternatively fuelled with a mixture of iso- and n-butanol, indicated with "X" and "END, and gasoline and a mixture of fuel and alcohol. The object of the study was a four-stroke engine with spark ignition designed to work with a generator. Motor power was held by the modified system of pneumatic injection using hot exhaust gases developed by Prof. Stanislaw Jarnuszkiewicz, controlled by modern mechatronic systems. Tests were conducted at a constant speed for the intended use of the engine. The subject of the research was to determine the control parameters such as ignition timing, mixture composition and the degree of exhaust gas recirculation on the ecological parameters of the engine. Tests were carried out using partially quality power control. In summary we present the findings of this phase of the study.

  5. Operating characteristics of a new ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; Chang, Doo-Hee; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang-Ryul

    2014-02-01

    A new positive ion source for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research neutral beam injection (KSTAR NBI-1) system was designed, fabricated, and assembled in 2011. The characteristics of the arc discharge and beam extraction were investigated using hydrogen and helium gas to find the optimum operating parameters of the arc power, filament voltage, gas pressure, extracting voltage, accelerating voltage, and decelerating voltage at the neutral beam test stand at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in 2012. Based on the optimum operating condition, the new ion source was then conditioned, and performance tests were primarily finished. The accelerator system with enlarged apertures can extract a maximum 65 A ion beam with a beam energy of 100 keV. The arc efficiency and optimum beam perveance, at which the beam divergence is at a minimum, are estimated to be 1.0 A/kW and 2.5 uP, respectively. The beam extraction tests show that the design goal of delivering a 2 MW deuterium neutral beam into the KSTAR Tokamak plasma is achievable.

  6. Development of a Twin-Screw D-2 Extruder for the ITER Pellet Injection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; McFee, Marshall T [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Sitterson, R G [ORNL; Sparks, Dennis O [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL

    2009-07-01

    A twin-screw extruder for the ITER pellet injection system is under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The extruder will provide a stream of solid hydrogen isotopes to a secondary section, where pellets are cut and accelerated with single-stage gas gun into the plasma. A one-fifth ITER scale prototype extruder has been built to produce a continuous solid deuterium extrusion. Deuterium gas is precooled and liquefied before being introduced into the extruder. The precooler consists of a copper vessel containing liquid nitrogen surrounded by a deuterium gas filled copper coil. The liquefier is comprised of a copper cylinder connected to a Cryomech AL330 cryocooler, which is surrounded by a copper coil that the precooled deuterium flows through. The lower extruder barrel is connected to a Cryomech GB-37 cryocooler to solidify the deuterium (at approximate to 15 K) before it is forced through the extruder nozzle. A viewport located below the extruder nozzle provides a direct view of the extrusion. A camera is used to document the extrusion quality and duration. A data acquisition system records the extruder temperatures, torque, and speed, upstream, and downstream pressures. This paper will describe the prototype twin-screw extruder and initial extrusion results.

  7. Injected nanoparticles: the combination of experimental systems to assess cardiovascular adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Maria A; Tarasova, Olga S; Riikonen, Joakim; Raula, Janne; Lobach, Anatoly S; Borzykh, Anna A; Smirin, Boris V; Kauppinen, Esko I; Eletskii, Alexander V; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Salonen, Jarno; Tavi, Pasi; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Järvinen, Kristiina

    2014-05-01

    When nanocarriers are used for drug delivery they can often achieve superior therapeutic outcomes over standard drug formulations. However, concerns about their adverse effects are growing due to the association between exposure to certain nanosized particles and cardiovascular events. Here we examine the impact of intravenously injected drug-free nanocarriers on the cardiovasculature at both the systemic and organ levels. We combine in vivo and in vitro methods to enable monitoring of hemodynamic parameters in conscious rats, assessments of the function of the vessels after sub-chronic systemic exposure to nanocarriers and evaluation of the direct effect of nanocarriers on vascular tone. We demonstrate that nanocarriers can decrease blood pressure and increase heart rate in vivo via various mechanisms. Depending on the type, nanocarriers induce the dilation of the resistance arteries and/or change the responses induced by vasoconstrictor or vasodilator drugs. No direct correlation between physicochemical properties and cardiovascular effects of nanoparticles was observed. The proposed combination of methods empowers the studies of cardiovascular adverse effects of the nanocarriers.

  8. Application of Card-less Electricity Prepayment in Automatic Metering System%无卡式预购电在计量自动化系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦卓成

    2012-01-01

    In view of problems such as unreadable card and wrong messages persisted in recently popular IC-card prepayment system, this article describes the design of cardless prepayment system using automatic metering module in power management system to manage non-payment electricity consumer in a cardless prepayment manner. The system is composed of client terminal, server, concentrator, data-collector and electricity meter interchanging data,which implements remote power control, remote metering and remote monitoring. It can complete bulk metering works instantly, avoid the delay power phenomenon caused by heavy workload, and enable real-time accurate line-loss calculation. The system efficiently traces and manages non-payment consumers, greatly improving fees collection, so that the whole system can be controlled by the power company.%针对目前应用的IC卡预购电系统中传递信息出现的不读卡、信息出错等故障情况,本文设计了利用计量自动化系统低压集抄模块功能对欠费的低压用户进行无卡式预购电的管理方案,由客户端、服务器、集中器、采集器和电能表交互处理数据构成无卡式预购电管理系统,实现远程用电控制、远程抄表、远程监测等功能.该系统的应用缩短了抄表周期,避免了因工作量大而导致的时差电量现象,有利于实时线损计算.该方案有效快速对拖欠电费用户进行跟踪管理,提高电费回收率,使得整个系统应用置于电力公司的控管之下.

  9. Effective TDMA protocol for smart meter reading system based on Internet of Things%基于物联网的智能抄表高效TDMA协议设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆瑾; 张可; 王泽阳

    2013-01-01

    Smart meter reading system based on Internet of Things contains large number of nodes, and requires high reliability. In the system, network topology is variable. This paper presents E-TDMA, an efficient TDMA protocol, for the smart meter reading system. Based on Mesh network architecture, E-TDMA partly adjusts the slot allocation by distributed cooperative scheduling, and adjusts network topology if necessary. Besides, E-TDMA provides differentiated services. NS2 simulation results show that E-TDMA outperforms TDMA, and provides efficient channel access and reliable QoS for the smart meter reading system based on Internet of Things.%针对基于物联网的智能抄表系统节点众多、可靠性要求高、网络拓扑多变的特点,提出了一种用于智能抄表系统的高效时分多址E-TDMA协议。该协议基于Mesh网络架构,采用分布式协同调度的方式局部调整节点的时隙分配,并能进行网络拓扑调整。此外,E-TDMA还提供差异服务。采用NS2对协议进行仿真比较,结果显示,E-TDMA具有更好的性能,为基于物联网的智能抄表系统提供了高效的信道接入和可靠的质量保证。

  10. Power Metering Device Operation and Maintenance Management System Based on Mobile Operations Terminal%基于移动作业终端的电力计量装置运维管理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朔宇; 田纯青; 梁超慧

    2014-01-01

    The task of management and maintenance metering equipment of power grid, which spread in vast area of a city in large quantify, is enormous. Workers spend a lot of time to locate these devices and face the following difficulty to get relevant information: keep repairing and patrolling record of the devices in digital format and for future use. Describes the design which can solve the problem mentioned above. The system provides metering equipment management and position locating. Using data integration, mobile technology, through in-tegrating data from Marketing System, GIS, Metering Automation System, the system can provide navigation, device data search, and other on-spot functions.%电网运维需要管理大量城市中的计量装置,由于分布广数量大,在日常的运行维护中,需要在确定计量装置的位置上花费不少时间,工作人员无法在现场了解到装置的相关信息,如检修历史、运行记录等;并在现场把一些巡检情况、检修备忘记下来,并且实现数字化保存。设计及实现一款适用于计量装置管理的坐标定位集成系统。应用数据集成技术、移动应用技术,通过与营销、GIS、计量自动化系统进行数据集成,在该平板电脑上实现计量装置的定位导航、设备信息展示、现场辅助交互功能。

  11. Fault Severity Evaluation and Improvement Design for Mechanical Systems Using the Fault Injection Technique and Gini Concordance Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fault injection and Gini concordance based method has been developed for fault severity analysis for multibody mechanical systems concerning their dynamic properties. The fault tree analysis (FTA is employed to roughly identify the faults needed to be considered. According to constitution of the mechanical system, the dynamic properties can be achieved by solving the equations that include many types of faults which are injected by using the fault injection technique. Then, the Gini concordance is used to measure the correspondence between the performance with faults and under normal operation thereby providing useful hints of severity ranking in subsystems for reliability design. One numerical example and a series of experiments are provided to illustrate the application of the new method. The results indicate that the proposed method can accurately model the faults and receive the correct information of fault severity. Some strategies are also proposed for reliability improvement of the spacecraft solar array.

  12. Phosphite determination in fertilizers after online sequential sample preparation in a flow injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dametto, Patrícia Roberta; Franzini, Vanessa Pezza; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta

    2007-07-25

    A flow injection spectrophotometric system is proposed for phosphite determination in fertilizers by the molybdenum blue method after the processing of each sample two times on-line without and with an oxidizing step. The flow system was designed to add sulfuric acid or permanganate solutions alternately into the system by simply displacing the injector-commutator from one resting position to another, allowing the determination of phosphate and total phosphate, respectively. The concentration of phosphite is obtained then by difference between the two measurents. The influence of flow rates, sample volume, and dimension of flow line connecting the injector-commutator to the main analytical channel was evaluated. The proposed method was applied to phosphite determination in commercial liquid fertilizers. Results obtained with the proposed FIA system were not statistically different from those obtained by titrimetry at the 95% confidence level. In addition, recoveries within 94 and 100% of spiked fertilizers were found. The relative standard deviation (n = 12) related to the phosphite-converted-phosphate peak alone was

  13. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nm.gov.my; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muzakkir, Amir [Sinaran Utama Teknologi Sdn Bhd, 43650, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr{sup −1}). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr{sup −1} determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  14. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Muzakkir, Amir; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr-1). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr-1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  15. Designing remote web-based mechanical-volumetric flow meter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... remote web-based mechanical-volumetric flow meter reading systems based on ... damage and also provides the ability to control and manage consumption. ... existing infrastructure of the telecommunications is used in data transmission.

  16. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a chemical-balance calculation to determine work from brake-specific fuel consumption and fuel... involve a laminar flow element or a thermal-mass meter. Note that your overall system for measuring raw...

  17. Investigating water meter performance in developing countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-07

    Oct 7, 2011 ... in water systems of the developing countries, often with poorly- managed ... the case study, followed by the research methodology used in ..... Utilities must promote and support sub-metering as a ... The decision as to which.

  18. Weak measurements with a qubit meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We derive schemes to measure the so-called weak values of quantum system observables by coupling of the system to a qubit meter system. We highlight, in particular, the meaning of the imaginary part of the weak values, and show how it can be measured directly on equal footing with the real part...... of the weak value. We present compact expressions for the weak value of single qubit observables and of product observables on qubit pairs. Experimental studies of the results are suggested with cold trapped ions....

  19. System approach in the investigation of coolant parametrical oscillations in passive safety injection systems (PSIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskouriakov, K.N. [Moskovskij Ehnergeticheskij Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The use of thermal-hydraulic computer codes is an important part of the work programme for activities in the field of nuclear power plants (NPP) Safety Research as it will enable to define better the test configuration and parameter range extensions and to extrapolate the results of the small scale experiments towards full scale reactor applications. The CATHARE2, RELAP5, the WCOBRA/TRAC, and APROS codes are the estimate thermal hydraulic codes for the evaluation of large and small break loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). The relatively good agreement experimental data with the calculations have been presented. There was shown also some big mistakes in predicting distribution of flow when two phase are present. Model of parametrical oscillation (P.O.) worked out gives explanation for flow oscillations and indicates that the phenomenon of P.O. appears under certain combination of thermal-hydraulic parameters and structure of heat-removal system. (orig.)

  20. Design and Development of Wugang′s Energy Metering NetworK Information Management System%舞钢能源计量网络信息管理系统的设计与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇小静; 李高洋; 林彬

    2014-01-01

    In the case of too many monitoring points,too large information volume and less maintenance person-nel for Wugang′s Energy Metering system,Wugang develops the Energy Metering Network Information Management System,which possesses the features of too many collection data,stable operation and concise HMIs. The actual appli-cation of the system proves that the system not only provides operation data for equipment failure analysis,but also re-serves the necessary basic energy data for the future EPR project.%围绕舞钢公司能源计量监测点多、信息量大、维护人员少的情况,开发了能源计量网络信息管理系统。系统具有采集数据多、运行稳定和画面显示简洁等特点。实践证明,该系统的运行为生产设备故障分析提供了数据依据,为后续建设 ERP 项目需要的能源基础数据做好了前期准备。

  1. MO-FG-BRA-01: Development of An Image-Guided Dosimetric Planning System for Injectable Brachytherapy Using ELP Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafata, K [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Schaal, J; Liu, W [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Cai, J [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    injection placement, and an injection volume-tapering technique, could be used to achieve D95% target coverage. Conclusion: We have preliminarily developed a novel planning framework for ELP brachytherapy. Its dosimetry accuracy has been validated against Monte Carlo, and we have started to investigate the potential advantages of injection-based planning. This system, once fully developed, will serve as the technical foundation for our novel approach.

  2. Heme precursor injection is effective for Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase fusion protein production by a silkworm expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kounosuke; Lee, Jae Man; Tomozoe, Yusuke; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2015-10-01

    Recombinant peroxidase from Arthromyces ramosus, fused with domains of antibody-binding proteins, was successfully obtained by a silkworm larvae expression system. The catalytic activity of the fusion peroxidase was increased 6-fold with the injection of 5-aminolevulinic acid into silkworm larvae as a heme precursor. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. DURIP: Electrokinetic Injection and Separation System for Analysis of Protein and Peptide Transport, Adsorption and Kinetics Instrumentation Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-18

    are investigating fundamental protein transport , adsorption, and kinetic interactions using a novel nanofluidics-based platform. Since nanofluidic... Protein and Peptide Transport , Adsorption and Kinetics Instrumentation Proposal The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of...Injection and Separation System for Analysis of Protein and Peptide Transport , Adsorption and Kinetics Instrumentation Proposal Report Title We requested

  4. Flow injection conductometric system with gas diffusion separation for the determination of Kjeldahl nitrogen in milk and chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junsomboon, Jaroon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2008-10-10

    A simple flow injection (FI) conductometric system with gas diffusion separation was developed for the determination of Kjeldahl nitrogen (or proteins) in milk and chicken meat. The sample was digested according to the Kjeldahl standard method and the digest was diluted and directly injected into the donor stream consisting of 4M NaOH. In alkaline medium, ammonium was converted to ammonia, which diffused through the PTFE membrane to dissolve in an acceptor stream (water). Dissociation of ammonia caused a change in conductance of the acceptor solution, which was linearly proportional to the concentration of ammonium originally present in the injected solution. A conductometric flow through cell and an amplifier circuit was fabricated, which helped improve sensitivity of the conductometric detection system. With using a plumbing Teflon tape as a gas diffusion membrane and without thermostating control of the system, a linear calibration graph in range of 10-100mgL(-1) N-NH(4) was obtained, with detection limit of 1mgL(-1) and good precision (relative standard deviation of 0.3% for 11 replicate injections of 50mgL(-1) N-NH(4)). The developed method was validated by the standard Kjeldahl distillation/titration method for the analysis of milk and chicken meat samples. The proposed system had sample throughput of 35h(-1) and consumed much smaller amounts of chemical than the standard method (275mg vs 17.5g of NaOH per analysis, respectively).

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of phosphorus in iron alloys employing a flow injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervasio Ana P. G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow-injection procedure for spectrophotometric determination of phosphorus in electrolytic iron and iron alloys is proposed. The method is based on the ammonium molybdate reaction followed by stannous chloride reduction in acidic medium. In order to circumvent the severe interference caused by the major constituents such as Fe(III and Cr(III, a mini-column packed with AG50W-X8 resin was coupled to the manifold. A sample throughput of 40 determinations per hour, a dynamical range from P 0.25 to 6.00 mg L-1, a reagent consumption of 25 mg ammonium molybdate and 2 mg stannous chloride per determination, and a relative standard deviation < 1% (n = 10 for a typical sample with 2.20 mg L-1 P were achieved. Three different types of samples were used to evaluate system performance. Accuracy was assessed by comparing the results with certified values and no significant difference at 95 % confidence level was observed.

  6. Study of the various factors influencing deposit formation and operation of gasoline engine injection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Z.

    2016-09-01

    Generally, ethanol fuel emits less pollutants than gasoline, it is completely renewable product and has the potential to reduce greenhouse gases emission but, at the same time can present a multitude of technical challenges to engine operation conditions including creation of very adverse engine deposits. These deposits increasing fuel consumption and cause higher exhaust emissions as well as poor performance in drivability. This paper describes results of research and determination the various factors influencing injector deposits build-up of ethanol-gasoline blends operated engine. The relationship between ethanol-gasoline fuel blends composition, their treatment, engine construction as well as its operation conditions and fuel injectors deposit formation has been investigated. Simulation studies of the deposit formation endanger proper functioning of fuel injection system were carried out at dynamometer engine testing. As a result various, important factors influencing the deposit creation process and speed formation were determined. The ability to control of injector deposits by multifunctional detergent-dispersant additives package fit for ethanol-gasoline blends requirements was also investigated.

  7. Corrosion of carbon steel by bacteria from North Sea offshore seawater injection systems: laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipanicev, Marko; Turcu, Florin; Esnault, Loïc; Rosas, Omar; Basseguy, Régine; Sztyler, Magdalena; Beech, Iwona B

    2014-06-01

    Influence of sulfidogenic bacteria, from a North Sea seawater injection system, on the corrosion of S235JR carbon steel was studied in a flow bioreactor; operating anaerobically for 100days with either inoculated or filtrated seawater. Deposits formed on steel placed in reactors contained magnesium and calcium minerals plus iron sulfide. The dominant biofilm-forming organism was an anaerobic bacterium, genus Caminicella, known to produce hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. Open Circuit Potentials (OCP) of steel in the reactors was, for nearly the entire test duration, in the range -800corrosion rate, expressed as 1/(Rp/Ω), was lower in the inoculated seawater though they varied significantly on both reactors. Initial and final corrosion rates were virtually identical, namely initial 1/(Rp/Ω)=2×10(-6)±5×10(-7) and final 1/(Rp/Ω)=1.1×10(-5)±2.5×10(-6). Measured data, including electrochemical noise transients and statistical parameters (0.0545), suggested pitting on steel samples within the inoculated environment. However, the actual degree of corrosion could neither be directly correlated with the electrochemical data and nor with the steel corrosion in the filtrated seawater environment. Further laboratory tests are thought to clarify the noticed apparent discrepancies. © 2013.

  8. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medroxyprogesterone intramuscular (into a muscle) injection and medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous (under the skin) injection are used to prevent pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which ...

  9. Pentamidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentamidine injection is used to treat pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis carinii. It is in ... Pentamidine injection comes as powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) ...

  10. Beam injection into RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  11. Modeling of the flow continuum and optimal design of control-oriented injection systems in liquid composite molding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Ali

    Several methodologies are presented in this dissertation that aim to ensure successful filling of the mold cavity consistently, during the mold filling stage of Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) processes such as Resin Transfer Molding (RTM), Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) and Seemann Composites Resin Infusion Molding (SCRIMP). Key parameters that affect the resin flow in the mold cavity can be divided into two main groups as continuum-related parameters and injection-related parameters. Flow continuum, which consists of all the spaces resin can reach in the mold cavity, has two major components: the porous medium, which is made up of the fiber reinforcements, and the flow channels that are introduced into the flow continuum unintentionally and offer an easy flow path to the resin. The properties that characterize the porous medium and the unintentional flow channels are continuum-related parameters. The injection-related parameters include resin injection locations (gates), resin injection conditions and air drainage locations (vents). Modeling the flow continuum is crucial in predicting the resin flow in the mold cavity. In this study, permeability, the key property of the porous medium, is predicted using the Method of Cells, a proven method to predict macroscopic properties of heterogeneous materials. Unintentional flow channels, which are also called racetracking channels, are modeled using a probabilistic approach. Injection-related parameters are the key tools to influence the resin flow in the mold cavity. In this study, Branch and Bound Search is modified for single gate optimization. Due to its pertinence to injection system design, the parameters that govern gate effectiveness in steering the resin advance are studied. A combinatorial search algorithm is proposed for vent optimization. Vent optimization and gate optimization algorithms are integrated for simultaneous gate and vent optimization. Overall, these methodologies reduce the cycle

  12. Can the Dupuit-Thiem equation accurately describe the flow pattern induced by injection in a laboratory scale aquifer-well system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Jose; Kalwa, Fritz; Händel, Falk; Binder, Martin; Stefan, Catalin

    2016-04-01

    The Dupuit-Thiem equation is normally used to assess flow towards a pumping well in unconfined aquifers under steady-state conditions. For the formulation of the equation it is assumed that flow is laminar, radial and horizontal towards the well. It is well known that these assumptions are not met in the vicinity of the well; some authors restrict the application of the equation only to a radius larger than 1.5-fold the aquifer thickness. In this study, the equation accuracy to predict the pressure head is evaluated as a simple and quick analytical method to describe the flow pattern for different injection rates in the LSAW. A laboratory scale aquifer-well system (LSAW) was implemented to study the aquifer recharge through wells. The LSAW consists of a 1.0 m-diameter tank with a height of 1.1 meters, filled with sand and a screened well in the center with a diameter of 0.025 m. A regulated outflow system establishes a controlled water level at the tank wall to simulate various aquifer thicknesses. The pressure head at the bottom of the tank along one axis can be measured to assess the flow profile every 0.1 m between the well and the tank wall. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the Dupuit-Thiem equation, a combination of different injection rates and aquifer thicknesses were simulated in the LSAW. Contrary to what was expected (significant differences between the measured and calculated pressure heads in the well), the absolute difference between the calculated and measured pressure head is less than 10%. Beside this, the highest differences are not observed in the well itself, but in the near proximity of it, at a radius of 0.1 m. The results further show that the difference between the calculated and measured pressure heads tends to decrease with higher flow rates. Despite its limitations (assumption of laminar and horizontal flow throughout the whole aquifer), the Dupuit-Thiem equation is considered to accurately represent the flow system in the LSAW.

  13. Dimensioning of components of fuel injection systems for very high pressure applications; Auslegung von Dieseleinspritzkomponenten fuer Hoechstdruckanwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffold, Andreas; Rauscher, Thomas; Haeussler, Peter; Nonhoff, Sven; Maehrle, Thomas [Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Due to the aggravation of the exhaust emission standards and the reduction of the fuel consumption the available injection systems have to be developed with regard to higher injection pressures. Based on the method to ensure the fatigue strength under operational conditions to release the parts for serial production, the dimensioning concept in the early phase of the development will be presented. The main emphasis will be the presentation how to simulate pressure load collectives and the approach how to derivative standardized stress number curves. (orig.)

  14. Effect of dopamine injection on the hemocyte count and prophenoloxidase system of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Luqing; Hu, Fawen; Zheng, Debin

    2011-09-01

    Effects of dopamine injection on the hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, serine proteinase activity, proteinase inhibitor activity and α2-macroglobulin-like activity in L. vannamei were studied. Results showed that dopamine injection resulted in a significant effect on the parameters measured ( P proteinase inhibitor activity reached the minimum in 3 h, and α2-macroglobulin-like activity reached the maximum in 3 h, and all the three parameters became stable after 12 h. The results suggest that the activating mechanisms of the proPO system triggered by dopamine are different from those triggered by invasive agents or spontaneously activated under a normal physical condition.

  15. Design and Realization of Condition Management System of Gateway Electrical Energy Metering Device%一种关口电能计量装置状态管理系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程瑛颖; 侯兴哲; 肖冀

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduced a kind of large and intelligent condition management system of gateway electrical energy metering device with the Windows Server 2008, Oracle and VS. Net software as developing tools, as well as the n-tier architecture and reusable component technology. The key technologies and realization process were also analyzed in this paper. Moreover, a detailed description was given of the application modules such as the GIS smart display of metering point, the condition management of metering devices and the visual monitoring of metering point. The trial operation in the selected transformer substations and the power stations of Chongqing Power Electrical Corp. indicates that the condition management system is very open and safe. According to the data exchange with the production and scheduling platform, the system improves the efficient operation of the electrical energy metering devices. Meanwhile, combined with the real-time visual monitoring, the condition management system improves the prevention ability of electricity filching, and realizes the unified automatic large-scale management of electrical energy metering devices.%介绍了一种选用Windows Server2008操作系统平台、Oracle数据库管理系统和VS.NET系统作为开发工具,采用n层体系结构和可重用组件技术,基于电力信息系统安全分析设计的一套大型的、智能化的“关口电能计量装置状态管理系统”。着重分析了该系统的关键技术和实现过程,详细阐述了系统中计量点运行信息的GIS智能化展示、计量装置状态管理、计量点现场视频监控管理等应用模块。通过在重庆市电力公司的20余个220kV试点变电站及发电厂的试运行表明,该系统具备统一的开放性和安全性,可与计量中心生产调度平台进行有效的数据交互,促进了电能计量装置的高效运行。同时,配合实时视频图像监控措施,极大地提高了电能计量装

  16. Injection and extraction computer control system HIRFL-SSC The HIRFL-SSC is stated for Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou-Separated Sector Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Wei; Chen Yun; Zhang Xia; Hu Jian Jun; Xu Xing Ming

    2002-01-01

    The injection and extraction computer control system of HIRFL-SSC (Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou-Separated Sector Cyclotron) have been introduced. Software is described briefly. Hardware structure is mainly presented. The computer control system realize that the adjustment of injection and extraction can done by PC and operate interface is Windows style. The system can make the adjustment convenient and veracious

  17. Direct-reading inductance meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbly, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Meter indicates from 30 nH to 3 micro H. Reference inductor of 15 micro H is made by winding 50 turns of Number 26 Formvar wire on Micrometal type 50-2 (or equivalent) core. Circuit eliminates requirement for complex instrument compensation prior to taking coil inductance measurement and thus is as easy to operate as common ohmmeter.

  18. Automated monitoring of milk meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Andre, G.

    2009-01-01

    Automated monitoring might be an alternative for periodic checking of electronic milk meters. A computer model based on Dynamic Linear Modelling (DLM) has been developed for this purpose. Two situations are distinguished: more milking stands in the milking parlour and only one milking stand in the m

  19. H$^{-}$ painting injection system for the JKJ 3 GeV high-intensity proton synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, I; Irie, Y; Ishi, Y; Machida, S; Noda, F; Shigaki, K; Shimada, T; Sugai, I; Takeda, Y; Watanabe, Y; Yamamoto, K

    2002-01-01

    The JAERI KEK Joint Project 3 GeV proton synchrotron is designed to accelerate 8.3*l0/sup 13/ protons per pulse at a 25 Hz repetition rate. The incoming beam emittance of the 400 MeV linac is 4 pi .mm.mrad and the acceptance in the 3 GeV synchrotron is 324 pi .mm.mrad in both the horizontal and vertical planes. Painting injection is designed to realize a uniform distribution of charged particles in real space. The bump orbit for painting injection is designed to have a full acceptance of the circulating orbit through the injection period. A full-acceptance bump orbit will enable both correlated and anticorrelated painting injection. (4 refs).

  20. Study on Smart Meter Reading System with Low Voltage Reactive Power Compensation for Electric Power Carrier%低压无功补偿型电力载波智能抄表系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗书克; 张元敏

    2011-01-01

    针对感性负载被低压用户广泛使用并消耗大量无功电能且抄表困难的现象,利用编码技术设计了具有低压无功补偿功能的电力载波智能抄表系统,给出了各组成部分的原理与硬件实现方案.在电能计量部分加入无功补偿单元,实现分户就地补偿,解决了不同电压等级间信号的传输,扩大了传输距离.实际应用表明,系统在大大减少工作量的基础上,提高了用电效率,降低了输电线路的损耗,实现了低压电网的智能化.%Aiming at the situation of inductive load is widely used by low voltage consumers, while large amount of reactive power energy is expended and meter reading is a difficult job, by adopting encoding technology, the smart meter reading system with low voltage reactive power compensation for electric power carrier has been designed. Hie principle of each composition and hardware implementation are given. In power metering section, reactive power compensation unit is added to realize local compensation for each household for resolving signal transmission among different voltage levels and expand transmission distance. Hie practical application shows that the electricity usage efficiency is enhanced and the loss of transmission lines is reduced, while labor is greatly decreased, thus intelligent low voltage power grid system can be implemented.

  1. Design of Data Relay Station for Wireless Heating Network Meter Reading System%一种无线热网抄表的数据中继站设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦飞; 赵建平; 张景顺

    2013-01-01

      设计了一种基于高性能 ARM11处理器 S3C6410和 GPRS 无线远程通信技术的无线热网抄表系统的数据中继站。无线热网抄表系统的数据中继站主要由无线收发单元,数据处理单元,GPRS 远程数据发送单元3个功能部分组成,着重讨论了中继站数据处理单元部分的设计。实验表明,整个系统实时性好,工作可靠,解决了传统无线抄表成本过高的问题,促进了无线热网抄表应用的推广,具有可观的应用前景。%The paper gives the design of data relay station based on S3C6410 — a high-performance ARM11 processor — and GPRS long-distance wireless communication technology for wireless heating network meter reading system. This data relay station mainly consists of three components including wireless transceiver unit, GPRS data transmission unit and data processing unit. This paper focuses on the design of data processing unit. The experment indicates that this base-station system, with fairly good real-time performance and reliability, could solve the problem of high cost for the traditional wireless meter reading, and thus promote the application and developmeent of the wireless heating network meter reading technology.

  2. 电能计量远程集中抄表系统的建设与应用%Electric energy remote concentrated meter reading system construction and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯科群

    2012-01-01

    GPRS based remote wireless automatic meter reading system in technical disputes in constant development, has made considerable progress, is a large area to promote the use of. Low voltage power line carrier automatic meter reading system based on spread .spectrum, frequency hopping, OFDM, adaptive filtering, impedance relay ( carrier sheet can dynamically be local concentrator via power line is set to a router or tran- sponder) technology and special chip, and constantly to overcome our country power network topology complex, serious pollution brings many actu- al problems, the meter reading success rate is greatly improved.%基于GPRS等远程无线自动抄表系统在技术争议中不断发展,取得了长足的进步,正在大面积地推广使用。低压电力线载波自动抄表系统采用扩频、跳频、正交频分复用、阻抗适配滤波、转发中继(载波表可以动态地被本地集中器通过电力线设置为路由器或转发器)等技术及专用芯片,不断克服我国电网拓扑复杂、污染严重带来的诸多实际问题,其抄表成功率大为提高。

  3. Smart metering. Conformance tests for electricity meters; Smart Metering. Konformitaetstests an Stromzaehlern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bormann, Matthias; Pongratz, Siegfried [VDE Pruef- und Zertifizierungsinstitut, Offenbach (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Introduction of communication technologies into today's energy network enables the interworking between the domains of smart metering, smart grid, smart home and e-mobility as well as the creation and provisioning of new innovative services such as efficient load adjustment. Due to this convergence the new energy networks are becoming increasingly complex. Ensuring the interworking between all network elements (e.g. electricity meters, gateways) in these smart energy networks is of utmost importance. To this end conformance and interoperability tests have to be defined to ensure that services work as expected. (orig.)

  4. Onset of liquid droplet entrainment on a direct vessel injection system for APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han-sol; Lee, Jae-Young [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Rok; Euh, Dong-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this research, a series of visualization works was conducted to understand droplet entrainment of the flow pattern generated in direct vessel injection system(DVI) of Korea nuclear power plant, APR 1400. In the emergency situation of a nuclear power plant, reliability of DVI cooling can be an important issue. It is known that, the amount and the rate of entrainment during the DVI cooling process can significantly affect the total heat removal. To visualize the film Reynolds number closely related with onset of droplet entrainment induced by falling film flow and lateral air flow in a small gap, confocal chromatic sensing method for measuring accurately film thickness and depth averaging particle image velocimetry for film velocity were used. The results have been post processed 4G Insight software. By measuring two dimensional film Reynolds number, we can predict the onset of droplet entrainment and obtain visible breakup region intuitively. To visualize the droplet entrainment induced by falling film flow and lateral air flow in a small gap, shadowgraph method with CCD camera (2200fps, 1280 pixel X 800 pixel, ) on coated plate with super water-repellent agent was used. The results have been post processed using 4G Insight software. By measuring two dimensional film Reynolds number, we can predict the onset of droplet entrainment and obtain visible breakup region intuitively. By adopting both super hydrophobic coating method and shadowgraph method, entrainment in a narrow gap was successfully visualized that has rarely performed before and meaningful results for DVI system research fields have been made.

  5. 基于同轴回归激光传感器的水表误差检测系统%Error-detecting system of water-meter based on laser sensor with coaxial optical path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔明; 李轶凡

    2012-01-01

    设计一种针对水表始动元件转速测量的激光传感器检测系统.在传感器光学结构中加入半透半反镜使光路同轴回归,从而对目标准确瞄准定位.处理系统由FPGA和DSP组成进行激光回波信号数字化处理和阈值选取,减小虚预警概率.实验证明:检测系统在校准之后具有较高的检测效率和准确度,能够实现水表实时误差检测.%In view of the water-meter' s tumor-initiating component with revolution,a kind of measurement system with laser sensor is designed. Half transparent and the mirror is used in the optical configuration to make coaxial optical path, and realize accurate aiming and positioning. Processing system is designed with FPGA and DSP that the laser echo signal' s digitallize processing and selection of the threshold value can be carried out to reduce the probability of false alert. The experimental results show that the measurement system has high detection efficiency and accuracy after calibration, which can realize real-time measurement of water-meter' s error.

  6. Planning and Design of the Intelligent Storage System in the Provincial Metering Center%省级计量中心智能化仓储系统的规划设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵成

    2014-01-01

    The intelligent storage system is the core of the provincial metering center of State Grid. Good planning and design of the storage system is particularly important to the overall business operation of the metering center. Based on the construction cases of other units and the designing ideas of Beijing Construction Company, this paper put forward some concerns about the planning and design of the intelligent storage system, with the hope that they could be helpful and beneficial to those units that are carrying out similar projects.%智能化仓储系统是国家电网公司省级计量中心“四线一库”系统的核心和中枢,做好仓储系统的规划设计对计量中心整体业务的运转尤为重要,文章从其他单位建设案例和北京公司设计思路入手,提出智能化仓储系统规划设计需要关注的一些问题,希望对其他单位开展同类项目建设起到借鉴和帮助作用。

  7. Development of the Intelligent Electric Meter System Based on Zigbee and 3G Wireless Network%基于Zigbee和3G无线网络的智能电表系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑源滨

    2013-01-01

      以智能电表为背景,设计开发了一种基于Zigbee和3G技术的无线智能电表数据采集系统。重点介绍了系统构架、智能电表与集中器网关的软硬件设计。最后采用嵌入式单片机3G Internet接入技术和互联网GAE后台应用技术,设计管理系统服务器网站,实现了Zigbee协议与HTTP协议的数据格式转换,为远程数据采集系统的应用提供了一个新的解决方案。%  Based on the intel igent electric meter,a wireless data acquisition system which can be linked to Zigbee and 3G network has been developed.The design principles of both software and hardware in the key circuit of intel igent electric meter and concentrator gateway are mainly elaborated.Using embedded chip 3G internet-connecting and GAE technology,the server website of the management system and the transformation of data form Zigbee protocol to HTTP protocol are achieved.This offers a new technique way to remote data acquisition system design.

  8. Development of a Design Tool for Planning Aqueous Amendment Injection Systems Soluble Substrate Design Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    injection with water to distribute the soluble substrate throughout the treatment zone. Once injected, the soluble substrate is fermented molecular...hydrogen (H2) and acetate by common subsurface microorganisms. This H2 and acetate are then used as electron donors for anaerobic biodegradation of the... fermentable organic substrate is diluted with water and distributed throughout the target treatment zone. The soluble substrate is fermented to molecular

  9. Smart gelation of chitosan solution in the presence of NaHCO3 for injectable drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Tang, Ximin; Wang, Yuanyuan; Guo, Shengrong

    2011-07-29

    In situ gelling systems are attractive as injectable vehicles for drug delivery. The present work described a novel gelation process of acidic chitosan solution in the presence of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)). The NaHCO(3) concentration played an important role in this gelling system. When it came within the appropriate range, the chitosan/NaHCO(3) system would stay at sol state in certain condition and showed sol-gel transition from the top to the bottom after heating. The rheological properties of the gelling system, as well as the morphology and erosion behavior of the formed chitosan hydrogels were evaluated as a function of the NaHCO(3) concentration in sols. The hydrogels showed porous morphologies with some diversification depending on the NaHCO(3) concentration, which also affected their erosion behaviors and drug release rates. Moreover, the gelation mechanism of such chitosan/NaHCO(3) system was studied and proposed as the formation of three-dimensional chitosan network with physical junctions thanks to the deprotonation of -NH(3)(+) in chitosan accompanying with the gradual neutralization between HCO(3)(-) and acid. In vivo gelation test was also performed by the dorsal subcutaneous injection of chitosan/NaHCO(3) solution in rat. The formation of in situ gels suggested such system promising applications in injectable drug delivery system.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminov Ildar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  11. Employing injection-locked FP LDs to set up a hybrid CATV/MW/MMW WDM light wave transmission system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Wu, Po-Yi; Peng, Peng-Chun; Jhang, Tai-Wei; Lin, Che-Yu

    2014-07-01

    A hybrid cable television (CATV)/microwave (MW)/millimeter-wave (MMW) wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) light wave transmission system based on injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes (FP LDs) is proposed and demonstrated. Different from conventional hybrid WDM light wave transmission systems, which need wavelength-selected distributed feedback laser diodes to support various services, the proposed systems employ injection-locked FP LDs to provide multiple applications. Over a 40 km single-mode fiber transport, impressive performances of carrier-to-noise ratio/composite second-order/composite triple-beat/bit error rate are obtained for 550 MHz CATV/20 GHz MW/40 GHz MMW/60 GHz MMW signal transmissions. Such a hybrid WDM light wave transmission system would be attractive for fiber links to provide broadband integrated services.

  12. Measurement strategies for downhole multiphase metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Erling A.; Johansen, Geir Anton; Tollefsen, Jarle; Aabro, Eirik [Bergen Univ.(Norway)

    1997-07-01

    There will be an increasing demand for multiphase subsea and downhole meters in the future. Both at the sea bottom and downhole the flow regimes in the production pipes or in the manifolds at the templates, may differ from the ideal homogeneous mixture. Further, in line mixers should be avoided to reduce pressure drops and maintenance costs. The next generation multiphase meters will therefore call for flow regime independent and non-intrusive sensor systems. Since all sensor principles used in multiphase flowmeters today are highly dependent on the distribution of the components in the mixture, and thus make the measurement range limited, multi-sensor principles may be the solution to obtain better accuracy for larger ranges of component fractions and applications. Both the capacitance-, conductance-, microwave- and gamma-principles can be used in multi-sensor arrangement to provide cross-sectional information about the component distribution. Hence, the meter can be used at all types of flow regimes and at any position without mixers or separators. (author)

  13. Methods, systems and apparatus for optimization of third harmonic current injection in a multi-phase machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel

    2012-10-02

    Methods, system and apparatus are provided for increasing voltage utilization in a five-phase vector controlled machine drive system that employs third harmonic current injection to increase torque and power output by a five-phase machine. To do so, a fundamental current angle of a fundamental current vector is optimized for each particular torque-speed of operating point of the five-phase machine.

  14. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  15. Pre-injection of hyaluronic acid does not affect the systemic effects of intra-articular depot betamethasone injection at the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, George; Khatib, Muhamad; Sakas, Fahed; Artul, Suheil; Jabaly-Habib, Haneen

    2017-01-01

    Intra-articular injection (IAI) of both hyaluronic acid (HA) and depot-steroid preparations had the advantage of quick and prolonged favorable effects on pain relief among patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK). The effect of IAI of HA on the systemic effects of the intra-articular steroids had not been investigated. Non-selected patients attending the rheumatology clinic with symptomatic OAK who failed NSAIDS and physical therapy were offered an IAI of HA at the knee joint followed 20 min later by an IAI of 1 ml of Celestone Chronodose at the same joint (group 1). Morning serum levels of cortisol were obtained just prior to the IAI and 1, 2 and 8 days later. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were obtained also from all the patients. Age- and sex-matched group of patients from the same clinic were recruited as a control group (group 2). Mean baseline serum cortisol levels in group 1 was 381 ± 154 mmol/l vs. 376 ± 119 in group 2 (p = 0.954). Morning serum cortisol levels at day 1 and day 2 were 24 ± 6 and 22 ± 6 mmol/l, respectively, in group 1 patients vs. 27 ± 5.8 (p = 0.214) and 25 ± 5.6 mmol/l (p = 0.200), respectively, in group 2. These levels were significantly lower than baseline levels in each group. Morning serum cortisol levels at day 8 in group 1 and group 2 were 349 ± 128 and 314 ± 99 mmol/l, respectively (p = 0.419). Pre-injection of HA at the knee joint did not affect the systemic effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of IAI of Celestone Chronodose.

  16. The Design of the Hardware Interface Circuit of Remote Meter Reading System Based on GPRS%基于G PRS的远程抄表系统硬件接口电路的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴小红

    2014-01-01

    Data acquisition terminal of remote meter reading system which is based on GPRS has a function of GPRS .It is down to connect smart meters through RS‐485 bus and up to use the GPRS Internet access function and master computer center for data communication .This system selects MSP430F149 microcontroller as the central processor of concentrator while GPRS module uses MC 39i ,unleaded environmental module .%基于 GPRS 技术的远程抄表系统的数据采集终端带有GPRS功能,它向下通过RS‐485总线与智能电表连接,向上利用GPRS的Internet接入功能与主站计算机中心进行数据通信。选用了MSP430F149单片机作为集中器的中心处理器,GPRS 模块采用无铅环保型模块MC39i 。

  17. 基于PSoC3的便携式PH检测仪的设计%The design of portable PH meter system based on PSoC3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彪

    2013-01-01

    本文主要介绍了一款基于PSoC3的便携式PH检测仪的设计,该系统主要由主控芯片、数模转换电路、电容感应模块和液晶显示电路四个部分构成。本文主要介绍了采用PSoC3所设计的便携式PH检测仪的工作原理、系统框图及各个功能模块的软硬件设计,给出了相应的电路原理图和程序流程图。本系统具有结构紧凑、可靠便携等优点,能够很好地满足实际测量的需求。%A portable PH meter based on PSoC3 is presented in this paper.This PH meter is composed of four parts:signal processing circuit,digital-to-analog conversion circuit,cap sense module and LCD circuit.It also introduced:the operating principle, the system chart and the hardware/software design of each module.The schematics and program lfow chart are are described.This system is compact and portable.It can meet the practical measurement needs very well.

  18. Modeling Single Well Injection-Withdrawal (SWIW) Tests for Characterization of Complex Fracture-Matrix Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotte, F.P.; Doughty, C.; Birkholzer, J.

    2010-11-01

    The ability to reliably predict flow and transport in fractured porous rock is an essential condition for performance evaluation of geologic (underground) nuclear waste repositories. In this report, a suite of programs (TRIPOLY code) for calculating and analyzing flow and transport in two-dimensional fracture-matrix systems is used to model single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests. The SWIW test, a tracer test using one well, is proposed as a useful means of collecting data for site characterization, as well as estimating parameters relevant to tracer diffusion and sorption. After some specific code adaptations, we numerically generated a complex fracture-matrix system for computation of steady-state flow and tracer advection and dispersion in the fracture network, along with solute exchange processes between the fractures and the porous matrix. We then conducted simulations for a hypothetical but workable SWIW test design and completed parameter sensitivity studies on three physical parameters of the rock matrix - namely porosity, diffusion coefficient, and retardation coefficient - in order to investigate their impact on the fracture-matrix solute exchange process. Hydraulic fracturing, or hydrofracking, is also modeled in this study, in two different ways: (1) by increasing the hydraulic aperture for flow in existing fractures and (2) by adding a new set of fractures to the field. The results of all these different tests are analyzed by studying the population of matrix blocks, the tracer spatial distribution, and the breakthrough curves (BTCs) obtained, while performing mass-balance checks and being careful to avoid some numerical mistakes that could occur. This study clearly demonstrates the importance of matrix effects in the solute transport process, with the sensitivity studies illustrating the increased importance of the matrix in providing a retardation mechanism for radionuclides as matrix porosity, diffusion coefficient, or retardation

  19. Pharmacokinetic of pseudoephedrine in rat serum with luminol-pepsin chemiluminescence system by flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kai; Li, Yajuan; Zheng, Xiaohui; Song, Zhenghua

    2015-02-01

    Pepsin (Pep) accelerated the electron transferring rate of excited 3-aminophathlate and enhanced luminol-dissolved oxygen chemiluminescence (CL) intensity, and the flow injection (FI) luminol-Pep CL system was first developed. It was found that the CL intensity of luminol-Pep reaction could be remarkably inhibited by pseudoephedrine (PE); the decrement of CL intensity was linear to the logarithm of PE concentration in the range of 0.1∼100.0 nmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.03 nmol mL(-1) (3σ). At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), the complete process including washing and sampling was performed within 40 s, offering a sample throughput of 90 h(-1). This proposed method was successfully applied to determining PE in rat serum for 18 h after intragastric administration with the elimination ratio of 42.34 % and recoveries from 90.3 to 110.6 %. The pharmacokinetic results showed that PE could be rapidly absorbed into serum with peak concentration (C max) of 1.45 ± 0.18 g L(-1) at the time (T max) of 1.49 ± 0.02 h; the absorption half-life (0.35 ± 0.04 h), elimination half-life (1.86 ± 0.24 h), the area under curve (109.81 ± 6.03 mg L(-1) h(-1)), mean residence time (3.82 ± 0.27 h), and elimination rate constant (2.26 ± 0.23 L g(-1) h(-1)) in rats vivo were derived, respectively. The possible CL mechanism of luminol-Pep-PE reaction was discussed by FI-CL, fluorescence, and molecular docking (MD) methods.

  20. Effectiveness and Safety of Computer-controlled Periodontal Ligament Injection System in Endodontic Access to the Mandibular Posterior Teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Jing; Kuo Wan; Xiao-jun Wang; Lin Ma

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a computer-controlled periodontal ligament (PDL) injection system to the local soft tissues as the primary technique in endodontic access to mandibular posterior teeth in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Methods A total of 162 Chinese patients who had been diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis in their mandibular posterior teeth without acute infection or inflammation in the periodontal tissues were enrolled in this clinical study. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the position of the involved tooth:the premolar group (PM, n=38), first molar group (FM, n=66), and second molar group (SM, n=58). All the patients received computer-controlled PDL injection with 4%articaine and 1∶100 000 epinephrine. Immediately after the injection, endodontic access was performed, and the degree of pain during the treatment was evaluated by the patients using Visual Analogue Scale for pain. The success rates were compared among the 3 groups. The responses of local soft tissues were evaluated 3-8 days and 3 weeks after the procedure. Results The overall success rate was 76.5%. There was a significant difference in success rates among the PM, FM, and SM groups (92.1%, 53.0%, 93.1%, respectively;χ2=34.3, P Conclusion The computer-controlled PDL injection system demonstrates both satisfactory anesthetic effects and safety in local soft tissues as primary anesthetic technique in endodontic access to the mandibular posterior teeth in patients with irreversible pulpitis.