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  1. Production of somatic chimera chicks by injection of bone marrow cells into recipient blastoderms.

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    Heo, Young Tae; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Teoan; Kim, Nam Hyung; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2012-01-01

    Several types of cells, including blastoderm cells, primordial germ cells, and embryonic germ cells were injected into early-stage recipient embryos to produce chimera avians and to gain insights into cell development. However, a limited number of studies of avian adult stem cells have also been conducted. This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to evaluate chicken bone marrow cells' (chBMC) ability to differentiate into multiple cell lineages and capability to generate chimera chicks. We induced random differentiation of chBMCs in vitro and injected immunologically selected pluripotent cells in chBMCs into the blastoderms of recipient eggs. The multipotency of BMCs from the barred Plymouth rock (BPR) was confirmed via AP staining, RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and FACS using specific markers, such as Oct-4 and SSEA-1, 3 and 4. Isolated chBMCs were found to be able to induce in vitro differentiation to multiple cell lineages. Approximately 5,000 chBMCs were injected into the blastoderms of white leghorn (WL) recipients and proved able to contribute to the generation of somatic chimera chicks with a frequency of 2.7% (2 of 73). Confirmation of chimerism in hatched chicks was achieved via PCR analysis using D-loop-specific primers of BPR and WL. Our study demonstrated the successful production of chimera chicks using chBMC. Therefore, we propose that the use of adult chBMCs may constitute a new possible approach to the production of chimera poultry, and may provide helpful studies in avian developmental biology.

  2. The Stimulatory Effect of Cerebral Intraventricular Injection of cNPY on Precocial Feeding Behavior in Neonatal Chicks (Gallus domesticus.

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    Guiqian Chen

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY is one of the most potent stimulants of food intake in many animals. Most of the supporting evidence for the effects of NPY has been gathered in mammalian species using porcine NPY. To investigate the effects of NPY on precocial feeding initiation in chicks, we firstly used chicken NPY (cNPY to study its role in food intake and spontaneous activities in 3-day-old male chicks. Food intake was monitored at different times after intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of cNPY (2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 μg/10 μL and anti-cNPY antibody (anti-cNPY (1:9000, 1:3000 or 1:1000 in dilution. cNPY given at different doses significantly increased food intake at 30 min, 60 min, 90 min and 120 min after injection. Chicks treated with 5.0 μg/10 μL of cNPY showed a maximal 4.48 fold increase in food intake comparing to the control at 30 min. There is still more than 2 fold increase in food intake at 120 min after injection of cNPY. Food intake was significantly inhibited by a single ICV injection of anti-cNPY diluted to 1:9000 (60% inhibition, 1:3000 (92% inhibition, and 1:1000 (95% inhibition at 30 min with 1:1000 being the maximally effective concentration. The inhibitory effects of anti-cNPY (diluted to1:9000, 1:3000, 1:1000 at 120 min post ICV injection were 22%, 42% and 46%, respectively. But ICV of anti-cNPY (1:3000 in dilution did not block the orexigenic effect of 2.5 μg/10 μL of cNPY. ICV injection of different concentrations of cNPY increases locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner while ICV anti-cNPY greatly decreased the distance moved by each chick compared to control groups. Taken together, our results demonstrated that cNPY has a promoting effect on chick food intake and locomotor activity, and that endogenous cNPY might play a positive role in regulating precocial feeding behavior in newly hatched chicks.

  3. Peripheral Insulin Doesn’t Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks

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    Lei Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline. The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05. Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p0.05. All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks.

  4. Characterization of a highly virulent and antimicrobial-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain isolated from diseased chicks in China.

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    Liu, Dong; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Hu, Pan; Hui, Qi; Fu, Bao-Quan; Lu, Shi-Ying; Li, Yan-Song; Zou, De-Ying; Li, Zhao-Hui; Yan, Dong-Ming; Ding, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Nan-Nan; Ren, Hong-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Poultry husbandry is a very important aspect of the agricultural economy in China. However, chicks are often susceptible to infectious disease microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses and parasites, causing large economic losses in recent years. In the present study, we isolated an Acinetobacter baumannii strain, CCGGD201101, from diseased chicks in the Jilin Province of China. Regression analyses of virulence and LD50 tests conducted using healthy chicks confirmed that A. baumannii CCGGD201101, with an LD50 of 1.81 (±0.11) × 10(4) CFU, was more virulent than A. baumannii ATCC17978, with an LD50 of 1.73 (±0.13) × 10(7) CFU. Moreover, TEM examination showed that the pili of A. baumannii CCGGD201101 were different from those of ATCC17978. Antibiotic sensitivity analyses showed that A. baumannii CCGGD201101 was sensitive to rifampicin but resistant to most other antibiotics. These results imply that A. baumannii strain CCGGD201101 had both virulence enhancement and antibiotic resistance characteristics, which are beneficial for A. baumannii survival under adverse conditions and enhance fitness and invasiveness in the host. A. baumannii CCGGD20101, with its high virulence and antimicrobial resistance, may be one of the pathogens causing death of diseased chicks. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Direct localised measurement of electrical resistivity profile in rat and embryonic chick retinas using a microprobe

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    Harald van Lintel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an alternative technique to perform a direct and local measurement of electrical resistivities in a layered retinal tissue. Information on resistivity changes along the depth in a retina is important for modelling retinal stimulation by retinal prostheses. Existing techniques for resistivity-depth profiling have the drawbacks of a complicated experimental setup, a less localised resistivity probing and/or lower stability for measurements. We employed a flexible microprobe to measure local resistivity with bipolar impedance spectroscopy at various depths in isolated rat and chick embryo retinas for the first time. Small electrode spacing permitted high resolution measurements and the probe flexibility contributed to stable resistivity profiling. The resistivity was directly calculated based on the resistive part of the impedance measured with the Peak Resistance Frequency (PRF methodology. The resistivity-depth profiles for both rat and chick embryo models are in accordance with previous mammalian and avian studies in literature. We demonstrate that the measured resistivity at each depth has its own PRF signature. Resistivity profiles obtained with our setup provide the basis for the construction of an electric model of the retina. This model can be used to predict variations in parameters related to retinal stimulation and especially in the design and optimisation of efficient retinal implants.

  6. Leucine and valine requirements of the growing germfree chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Teru; Kametaka, Masao; Ozaki, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuzo; Mitsuoka, Tomotari.

    1977-01-01

    To compare the requirements of leucine and valine of the growing germfree and conventional chicks, 7-day-old chicks were fed a diet with graded levels of leucine or valine for 7 days. Daily gains of body weight of the germfree chicks were greater than those of the conventional chicks when the dietary leucine or valine level was higher than the requirement level. Adversely, daily gains of body weight of the germfree chicks were less than those of the conventional chicks when the dietary leucine or valine level was very low. Leucine and valine requirements for maximum growth, however, was the same and estimated to be 0.95 and 0.78%, repectively, of the diet for both groups. After the feeding test, the chicks were injected with L-leucine- and L-valine-U- 14 C and expired carbon dioxide was collected for 2 and 3 hours, respectively. From the percentage of recovery of 14 C in the expired carbon dioxide, the leucine and valine requirements were found to be 0.80 and 0.53% of the diet for both groups, respectively. Three hours after feeding test, the plasma free valine concentration was estimated in the chicks which was not injected the isotope. The requirement of valine was estimated to be 0.59% for the germfree chicks and 0.54% for the conventional chicks. From the above data, it may be concluded that no difference, or very small if any, is found in the requirements of leucine and valine between the germfree chicks and those of the conventional chicks. (auth.)

  7. Pharmacokinetics of paracetamol in chicks treated with metronidazole

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    S.M. Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of metronidazole on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol were examined in chicks. Chicks were dosed orally with metronidazole at 350 mg\\kg of body weight daily (10 -13 days of age. On the last day of metronidazole dosing, chicks injected intraperitoneally with paracetamol at of 50 mg\\kg of body weight. Paracetamol appeared in chick plasma at 52.00, 45.00, 40.75, 32.75, 23.25 µg \\ml after 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 2, 4 hours of injection respectively. A significantly decreased the concentration paracetamol at times of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 4 hours post injection and appeared at concentrations of 36.62, 35.37, 25.62, 20.50, 11.00 µg\\ml. These was reflected by changes in the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol as show by the increase elimination rate constant (48% and decrease in the half-life (32 % and increase in volume distribution (29% and increase in clearance by (96% and decrease in the area under the plasma curve (33% and decrease in the area under moment curve 65% and lack mean residence time (33%. These results indicate that oral dosing of chicks with metronidazole for four consecutive days and this effect increase in the elemination rate of paracetamol and this effect must be considered when therapy with paracetamol when given during metronidazole therapy.

  8. Some effects of prostaglandins E1 and E2 and of endotoxin injected into the hypothalamus of young chicks: dissociation between endotoxin fever and the effects of prostaglandins.

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    Artunkal, A A; Marley, E; Stephenson, J D

    1977-09-01

    Prostaglandins E1 and E2 elevated body temperature of young chicks when injected into the hypothalamus at thermoneutrality (31 degrees C). In contrast, they lowered body temperature when so injected below thermoneutrality (16degreesC): the relation of the fall in body temperature to increased heat loss and decreased heat production was examined. 2 The above effects below thermoneutrality were potentiated by pretreatment with inhibitors of prostaglandin synthetase and possible reasons for this potentation are given. 3 The O-somatic antigen of Shigella dysenteriae consistently evoked hyperthermia when injected into the hypothalamus, irrespective of whether the chicks were within or below thermoneutrality. 4 Pretreatment with prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors failed to prevent the onset of endotoxin fever; however, duration of the fever, induced by intrahypothalamic injection of the O-somatic antigen of Shigella dysenteriae was reduced. 5 The intrahypothalamic injection, belwo thermoneutrality of prostaglandins E1, E2, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine or carbachol reversed endotoxin fever, inducing even substantial falls in body temperature. 6 While the results cast some doubts on the role of prostaglandins of the E series as mediators of endotoxin fever in chicks, they cannot be eliminated as mediators until the significance of the reduction in duration of the pyrexic response by indomethacin and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, and the degree of synthesis inhibition attained, are known.

  9. EFFICACY OF GENTAMICIN AFTER INTRAYOLK ADMINISTRATION IN EXPERIMENT ALLY INDUCED OMPHALITIS IN BROILER CHICKS

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    Muhammad Ashraf, Qamar Arif and Kashif Aziz Khan1

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to observe the effect of intrayolk injection of gentamicin on experimentally induced omphalitis in broiler chicks. Escherichia coli was injected into yolk sac to induce omphalitis and treatment was done by intrayolk injection of gentamicin. Results showed that mortality decreased and feed intake increased after treatment, Intrayolk injection of antibiotics is suggested as an alternative to oral administration for the treatment of omphalitis in chicks.

  10. A comparison of cecal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in white leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice

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    Bogomolnaya Lydia M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial food borne illnesses worldwide. A major source of infection for humans is consumption of chicken or egg products that have been contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, however our knowledge regarding colonization and persistence factors in the chicken is small. Results We compared intestinal and systemic colonization of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028, one of the most commonly studied isolates. We also studied the distribution of wild type serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 and an isogenic invA mutant during competitive infection in the cecum of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and 8-week-old CBA/J mice. We found that although the systemic levels of serotype Typhimurium in both infected animal models are low, infected mice have significant splenomegaly beginning at 15 days post infection. In the intestinal tract itself, the cecal contents are the major site for recovery of serotype Typhimurium in the cecum of 1-week-old chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. Additionally we show that only a small minority of Salmonellae are intracellular in the cecal epithelium of both infected animal models, and while SPI-1 is important for successful infection in the murine model, it is important for association with the cecal epithelium of 1-week-old chicks. Finally, we show that in chicks infected with serotype Typhimurium at 1 week of age, the level of fecal shedding of this organism does not reflect the level of cecal colonization as it does in murine models. Conclusion In our study, we highlight important differences in systemic and intestinal colonization levels between chick and murine serotype Typhimurium infections, and provide evidence that suggests that the role of SPI-1 may not be the same during colonization of both animal models.

  11. Chick Noir”: Shopaholic Meets Double Indemnity

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    Kennedy Victoria

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In early 2014, several articles appeared proclaiming the rise to prominence of a new subgenre of the crime novel: “chick noir,” which included popular books like Gone Girl, The Silent Wife, and Before We Met. However, there was also resistance to the new genre label from critics who viewed it as belittling to women’s writing and to female-focused narratives. Indeed, the separation of female-centred books - whether “chick lit” or “chick noir” - from mainstream fiction remains highly problematic and reflects the persistence of a gendered literary hierarchy. However, as this paper suggests, the label “chick noir” also reflects the fact that in these novels the crime thriller has been revitalized through cross-pollination with the so-called chick lit novel. I contend that chick lit and chick noir are two narrative forms addressing many of the same concerns relating to the modern woman, offering two different responses: humour and horror. Comparing the features of chick noir to those of chick lit and noir crime fiction, I suggest that chick noir may be read as a manifestation of feminist anger and anxiety - responses to the contemporary pressure to be “wonder women.”

  12. Development of a green fluorescent protein metastatic-cancer chick-embryo drug-screen model.

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    Bobek, Vladimir; Plachy, Jiri; Pinterova, Daniela; Kolostova, Katarina; Boubelik, Michael; Jiang, Ping; Yang, Meng; Hoffman, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    The chick-embryo model has been an important tool to study tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, an imageable model with a genetic fluorescent tag in the growing and spreading cancer cells that is stable over time has not been developed. We report here the development of such an imageable fluorescent chick-embryo metastatic cancer model with the use of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Lewis lung carcinoma cells, stably expressing GFP, were injected on the 12th day of incubation in the chick embryo. GFP-Lewis lung carcinoma metastases were visualized by fluorescence, after seven days additional incubation, in the brain, heart, and sternum of the developing chick embryo, with the most frequent site being the brain. The combination of streptokinase and gemcitabine was evaluated in this GFP metastatic model. Twelve-day-old chick embryos were injected intravenously with GFP-Lewis lung cancer cells, along with these two agents either alone or in combination. The streptokinase-gemcitabine combination inhibited metastases at all sites. The effective dose of gemcitabine was found to be 10 mg/kg and streptokinase 2000 IU per embryo. The data in this report suggest that this new stably fluorescent imageable metastatic-cancer chick-embryo model will enable rapid screening of new antimetastatic agents.

  13. In Ovo and dietary administration of oligosaccharides extracted from palm kernel cake influence general health of pre- and neonatal broiler chicks.

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    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Idrus, Zulkifli; Ebrahimi, Rohollah; Liang, Juan Boo

    2017-01-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is the main byproduct from the palm oil industry in several tropical countries that contains considerable amounts of oligosaccharide. We earlier demonstrated beneficial prebiotic effects of oligosaccharides extract of PKC (OligoPKC) in starter and finisher broiler birds. This study was envisaged to elucidate the effects of in ovo and/or oral administration of the OligoPKC on prenatal and post-hatched broiler chicks. A total of 140 broiler (Cobb500) eggs were randomly divided into two groups (n = 70 each), and on day 12 of incubation, eggs in one group received in ovo injection of 0.1 mL (containing 20 mg) of OligoPKC, while those in the other group received 0.1 mL of saline (placebo) solution. Of these in ovo placebo or OligoPKC injected eggs, after hatching, six chicks from each group were sampled for day-one analysis, while 48 chicks from each group were randomly allocated to two dietary regimes involving either no feeding or feeding of OligoPKC through basal diet for a 14 days experiment forming the experimental groups as: (i) saline-injected (Control, C), (ii) OligoPKC-injected (PREBovo), (iii) saline-injected, but fed 1% OligoPKC (PREBd), and (iv) OligoPKC-injected and also 1% OligoPKC (PREBovo+d). In ovo injection of prebiotic OligoPKC had no effect on body weight and serum immunoglobulins concentrations of day old chicks, except for IgG, which was increased significantly (P C and PREBovo), but lesser influenced by in ovo OligoPKC injection. Irrespective of its prior in ovo exposure, chicks fed OligoPKC diets had lower population of pathogenic bacteria. Overall serum immunoglobulin status of birds was improved by feeding of OligoPKC but in ovo OligoPKC injection had minor effect on that. In most cases, in ovo OligoPKC injection and feeding of OligoPKC reduced the expression of nutrient transporters in the intestine and improved antioxidant capacity of liver and serum. It is concluded that in ovo injection of OligoPKC increased Ig

  14. A chick model of retinal detachment: cone rich and novel.

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    Colleen M Cebulla

    Full Text Available Development of retinal detachment models in small animals can be difficult and expensive. Here we create and characterize a novel, cone-rich retinal detachment (RD model in the chick.Retinal detachments were created in chicks between postnatal days 7 and 21 by subretinal injections of either saline (SA or hyaluronic acid (HA. Injections were performed through a dilated pupil with observation via surgical microscope, using the fellow eye as a control. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed at days 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 after retinal detachment to evaluate the cellular responses of photoreceptors, Müller glia, microglia and nonastrocytic inner retinal glia (NIRG. Cell proliferation was detected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU-incorporation and by the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. Cell death was detected with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL. As in mammalian models of RD, there is shortening of photoreceptor outer segments and mis-trafficking of photoreceptor opsins in areas of RD. Photoreceptor cell death was maximal 1 day after RD, but continued until 14 days after RD. Müller glia up-regulated glial fibriliary acidic protein (GFAP, proliferated, showed interkinetic nuclear migration, and migrated to the subretinal space in areas of detachment. Microglia became reactive; they up-regulated CD45, acquired amoeboid morphology, and migrated toward outer retina in areas of RD. Reactive NIRG cells accumulated in detached areas.Subretinal injections of SA or HA in the chick eye successfully produced retinal detachments and cellular responses similar to those seen in standard mammalian models. Given the relatively large eye size, and considering the low cost, the chick model of RD offers advantages for high-throughput studies.

  15. Metabolism of serine in growing rats and chicks at various dietary protein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hideyuki; Yamaguchi, Michio; Kametaka, Masao

    1976-01-01

    The metabolic fate of the carbon skeleton of L-serine-U- 14 C has been investigated, in vivo and in vitro, in growing rats and chicks fed the diets with various protein calories percents (C %) at 410 kcal of metabolizable energy. The incorporation of 14 C into body protein at 12 hr after the injection of serine- 14 C was about 49% of the injected dose in rats fed the 10 or 15 PC% diet, though the value was reduced in rats fed lower and higher protein diets. The 14 CO 2 production was smaller in rats fed the 10 and 15 PC% diet, and it showed an inverse pattern to that of the 14 C incorporation into body protein. Urinary excretion of 14 C was higher in rats fed 10 and higher PC% diets, whose growth rate and net body protein retention were maximum. In contrast to the case of rats, the incorporation of 14 C into body protein of chicks at 6 hr after the injection was rather reduced in the 15 PC% group. The proportion of 14 C excreted as uric acid was remarkably increased above the 10 PC% group, and about 19% of the injected dose was recovered in the 50 PC% group. The catabolic rate of serine in the liver slices of rats and chicks was increased by high protein diets. These results support the concept that the nutritional significance of metabolism of the carbon skeleton of serine in growing rats and chicks is different from each other, especially at high protein diets. (auth.)

  16. Effects of estrogen on very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride metabolism in fed and fasted chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    A single injection of estrogen into growing chicks resulted in a marked elevation in plasma triglyceride (TG) followed by phospholipid (PL) and cholesterol (CH) in both fed and fasted chicks. Estrogen caused a development of massive fatty liver in fed chicks. Hepatic malic enzyme and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities also increased significantly in fed chicks and, to a small extent, in fasted chicks. Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were barely detectable in the fasted control plasma. However, the VLDL concentration increased markedly upon estrogen injection, becoming the most prevalent lipoprotein in the plasma. The administration of estrogen resulted in an increase in oleic acid and a decrease in linoleic acid content except in the cholesteryl ester of VLDL and LDL. VLDL of estrogenized birds had β-mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis, and they eluted in two peaks on agarose gel filtration chromatography. Both peaks on gel filtration exhibited the same β-mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis. Nevertheless, the apoprotein composition of these two peaks were substantially different from each other; apo B was not present in the first peak VLDL. VLDL-TG kinetic studies conducted in vivo, using 14 C-TG-VLDL prepared endogenously from control and estrogenized chicks revealed that VLDL-TG produced from the former had a higher fractional catabolic rate (FCR) than VLDL-TG from the latter

  17. The role of GABAergic system on the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on food intake in neonatal chicks.

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    Jonaidi, H; Abbassi, L; Yaghoobi, M M; Kaiya, H; Denbow, D M; Kamali, Y; Shojaei, B

    2012-06-27

    Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide that has a stimulatory effect on food intake in mammals. In contrast, this peptide decreases food intake in neonatal chicks when injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV). In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY) mediates the orexigenic effect of ghrelin whereas in chicks it appears that corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) is partially involved in the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on food intake. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) has a stimulatory effect on food intake in mammals and birds. In this study we investigated whether the anorectic effect of ghrelin is mediated by the GABAergic system. In Experiment 1, 3h-fasted chicks were given an ICV injection of chicken ghrelin and picrotoxin, a GABA(A) receptors antagonist. Picrotoxin decreased food intake compared to the control chicks indicating a stimulatory effect of GABA(A) receptors on food intake. However, picrotoxin did not alter the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on food intake. In Experiment 2, THIP hydrochloride, a GABA(A) receptor agonist, was used in place of picrotoxin. THIP hydrochloride appeared to partially attenuate the decrease in food intake induced by ghrelin at 30 min postinjection. In Experiment 3, the effect of ICV injection of chicken ghrelin on gene expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)(1) and GAD(2), GABA synthesis enzymes in the brain stem including hypothalamus, was investigated. The ICV injection of chicken ghrelin significantly reduced GAD(2) gene expression. These findings suggest that ghrelin may decrease food intake in neonatal chicks by reducing GABA synthesis and thereby GABA release within brain feeding centers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequency of different congenital anomalies in prenatally valproic acid treated chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, L.; Khan, M.Y.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the frequency of different congenital anomalies in surviving chick embryo on hatching after the prenatal administration of valproic acid by comparing with age-matched controls. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Anatomy Department, College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan (CPSP) Regional Centre, Islamabad, from February 2010 to February 2011. Material and Methods: Thirty fertilized chicken eggs were injected with valproic acid, incubated and then evaluated for different gross congenital anomalies, on hatching or day 22 of incubation whichever was earlier. Chicks of this group were labeled as experimental group-A. Similarly, another group of thirty fertilized chicken eggs labeled as control group-B, underwent sham treatment using normal saline. The weight and length of alive chicks, the total number of chicks with gross anomalies and the number of different types of gross anomalies in both groups were noted and statistically compared. Results: In control group-B, 28 chicks hatch out on 21 day of hatching with no visible gross deformities. Whereas in experimental group-A, 23 chicks were alive, out of which, 9 chicks were with delayed hatching on 22 days of hatching. The chicks with gross deformities were 8 (p=0.0008) which included: limb abnormalities (i.e. inverted feet) in 6 chicks (p=0.006), eye abnormality (i.e. closed palpebral fissure of both eyes) in 2 chick (p=0.2), 1 chick showed multiple deformities including gastroschisis, closed palpebral fissures and inverted foot (p=0.45). There were behavioral changes in 10 chicks (p=0.0001). There was statistically significant difference in their weights (p=0.03). Conclusion: Prenatal exposure of chick embryos to valproic acid increased the incidence of different gross deformities. (author)

  19. Influence of hydrogen peroxide in drinking water on diazepam pharmacokinetics in chicks

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    Yaareb J. Mousa

    Full Text Available Aim: Stressful conditions affect drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. This study examines the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in drinking water on the pharmacokinetics of diazepam in a chick model of oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Day old chicks were either provided with plane tap water (control group or H2O2 in tap water as 0.5% v/v drinking solution for two weeks in order to produce oxidative stress. On treatment days 7–14, the chicks were treated with a sedative dose of diazepam at 10 mg/kg, intramuscularly. Blood samples were obtained from chicks (5/each sampling time at times of between 0.17 to 4 h. The concentrations of diazepam in the plasma were determined by an HPLC method with UV-detector. Pharmacokinetic parameters of diazepam were calculated from the mean drug concentrations in the plasma by a non-compartmental analysis using a Windows-based computer program. Results: Injection of diazepam resulted in the appearance of the drug in the plasma of control and H2O2 -treated chicks at mean concentrations ranging between 0.11 to 0.444 and 0.131 to 0.535 μg/ml, respectively when measured between 0.17 to 4 h after administration. Diazepam concentrations of the H O -treated chicks were significantly higher than those of the control group at the sampling times 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 4 h. The highest concentration of diazepam in the plasma of both the control and H2O2 treated chicks occurred one h after the injection. The elimination half-life, mean residence time, maximum plasma concentration, area under the moment curve and area under plasma concentration-time curve in the H2O2 -treated chicks were higher than those of the control group by 35, 28, 23, 91 and 49%, respectively. Correspondingly, the steady state volume of distribution, elimination rate constant and total body clearance in the H2O2 -treated chicks decreased from those of the respective control values by 15, 24 and 33%. Conclusion: The data suggest that oral

  20. Hepatic glutathione and glutathione S-transferase in selenium deficiency and toxicity in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.

    1989-01-01

    First, the hepatic activity of GSH-T CDNB was increased only under conditions of severe oxidative stress produced by combined Se- and vitamin E (VE)-deficiency, indicating that VE also affects GSH metabolism. Second, the incorporation of 35 S-methionine into GSH and protein was about 4- and 2-fold higher, respectively, in Se- and VE-deficient chick hepatocytes as compared to controls. Third, chicks injected with the glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) inhibitor, aurothioglucose (AuTG), showed increase hepatic GSH-T CDNB activity and plasma GSH concentration regardless of their Se status. Fourth, the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), on GSH metabolism was studied. Chicks fed 1000 ppm AA showed decreased hepatic GSH concentration compared to chicks fed no AA in a Se- and VE-deficient diet. Fifth, chicks fed excess Se showed increase hepatic activity of GSH-T CDNB and GSH concentration regardless of VE status

  1. The occurrence of CTX-M-25-producing Enterobacteriaceae in day-old broiler chicks in Japan.

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    Yossapol, Montira; Sugiyama, Michiyo; Asai, Tetsuo

    2017-10-07

    Day-old chicks from 3 hatcheries were placed on bedding paper and brought to a commercial broiler farm between January and July 2016. Sixty-six samples of the paper, which were stained with meconium droppings of the chicks, were collected and examined for isolation of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (1 isolate) and Enterobacter cloacae (4 isolates) were isolated from 5 (7.58%) of the 66 samples. Conjugation experiments revealed that the bla CTX-M-25 gene conferring CTX resistance was transferred from the K. pneumoniae isolate and 2 of the 4 E. cloacae isolates to Escherichia coli DH5α via IncA/C plasmids carrying the gene. Our results suggested that the bla CTX-M-25 gene originating from chicks may be spread among commercial broiler farms.

  2. Systematic assessment of blood circulation time of functionalized upconversion nanoparticles in the chick embryo

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    Nadort, Annemarie; Liang, Liuen; Grebenik, Ekaterina; Guller, Anna; Lu, Yiqing; Qian, Yi; Goldys, Ewa; Zvyagin, Andrei

    2015-12-01

    Nanoparticle-based delivery of drugs and contrast agents holds great promise in cancer research, because of the increased delivery efficiency compared to `free' drugs and dyes. A versatile platform to investigate nanotechnology is the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane tumour model, due to its availability (easy, cheap) and accessibility (interventions, imaging). In our group, we developed this model using several tumour cell lines (e.g. breast cancer, colon cancer). In addition, we have synthesized in-house silica coated photoluminescent upconversion nanoparticles with several functional groups (COOH, NH2, PEG). In this work we will present the systematic assessment of their in vivo blood circulation times. To this end, we injected chick embryos grown ex ovo with the functionalized UCNPs and obtained a small amount of blood at several time points after injection to create blood smears The UCNP signal from the blood smears was quantified using a modified inverted microscope imaging set-up. The results of this systematic study are valuable to optimize biochemistry protocols and guide nanomedicine advancement in the versatile chick embryo tumour model.

  3. Central L-ornithine, but not polyamines, induces a hypnotic effect in neonatal chicks under acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurauchi, Isao; Shigemi, Kazutaka; Kabuki, Yusuke; Hamasu, Kousuke; Yamane, Haruka; Aoki, Mami; Kawada, Yoko; Morishita, Koji; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2010-02-01

    To clarify whether L-ornithine and/or its metabolite involves sedative and hypnotic effects under social separation stress, the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of L-ornithine and polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) were compared in chicks. Birds were injected i.c.v. with 0.5 mumol of L-ornithine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine or saline (control). After injection, chicks were immediately separated from the flock and monitored for the number of distress vocalizations and various postures. L-Ornithine greatly attenuated the stress response and caused sedative and hypnotic effects. Among the polyamines, only putrescine attenuated distress vocalizations but did not induce sleep. In conclusion, the sedative and hypnotic effect of L-ornithine was mainly induced by L-ornithine itself, while the polyamines contributed to the sedative, but not hypnotic, effect under social separation stress.

  4. Achievements of nuclear applications in chick-pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharwal, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Due to narrow and limited genetic variability available in chick-pea, this crop is ideally suited for genetic improvement through mutation breeding. Thus, the use of nuclear tools for regenerating some of the lost useful variability in this crop particularly for an improved plant type of increased yield and disease resistance appears to offer greater scope and promise. Practical results already achieved through the use of nuclear tools which fulfill these expectations to a large extent are confirmed by the extensive studies on mutation breeding in chick-pea crop carried out at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi; at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan and at the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, Bangladesh

  5. Numerical simulation of injection and resistive trapping of ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankofsky, A.; Friedman, A.; Sudan, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical studies of the injection and resistive trapping efficiency of ion rings, using an improved algorithm are presented. Trapping efficiency is found to be strongly dependent upon the number of particles injected and upon mirror ratios in the system. Wall resistivity and beam divergence affect the process to a lesser extent. (author)

  6. Protection of Broiler Chicks Housed with Immunized Cohorts Against Infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Barfield, Ruth C; Jenkins, Mark C

    2015-03-01

    infection administered on day 14 relative to NIC. In addition, pens of birds where 100% of chicks were immunized were not well protected compared to NIC, and resistance to coccidiosis infection in immunized chicks was less than resistance in chicks challenged at 21 days. These results in total suggest that, when birds are challenged after 21 days, cohorts are protected from detrimental effects of challenge infection. However, when challenge infection is given at 14 days, cohorts are not well protected. The results support a conclusion that protection to coccidiosis is conveyed to cohorts by contact with oocysts shed into the litter by immunized chicks, but this resistance may take 14 days to develop.

  7. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs: impact on multidrug-resistant TB outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falzon, Dennis; Gandhi, Neel; Migliori, Giovanni B.; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Cox, Helen S.; Holtz, Timothy H.; Hollm-Delgado, Maria-Graciela; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Deriemer, Kathryn; Centis, Rosella; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Lange, Christoph G.; Bauer, Melissa; Menzies, Dick; Ahuja, S. D.; Ashkin, D.; Avendaño, M.; Banerjee, R.; Bauer, M.; Becerra, M. C.; Benedetti, A.; Burgos, M.; Centis, R.; Chan, E. D.; Chiang, C. Y.; Cobelens, F.; Cox, H.; D'Ambrosio, L.; de Lange, W. C. M.; DeRiemer, K.; Enarson, D.; Falzon, D.; Flanagan, K. L.; Flood, J.; Gandhi, N.; Garcia-Garcia, M. L.; Granich, R. M.; Hollm-Delgado, M. G.; Holtz, T. H.; Hopewell, P.; Iseman, M. D.; Jarlsberg, L. G.; Keshavjee, S.; Kim, H. R.; Koh, W. J.; Lancaster, J. L.; Lange, C.; Leimane, V.; Leung, C. C.; Li, J.

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis for response to treatment was undertaken using individual data of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) (resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin) patients from 26 centres. The analysis assessed the impact of additional resistance to fluoroquinolones and/or second-line injectable

  8. Recruitment of GABA(A) receptors and fearfulness in chicks: modulation by systemic insulin and/or epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Mariana Paula; Toledo, Carolina Maribel; Salvatierra, Nancy Alicia

    2013-02-01

    One-day-old chicks were individually assessed on their latency to peck pebbles, and categorized as low latency (LL) or high latency (HL) according to fear. Interactions between acute stress and systemic insulin and epinephrine on GABA(A) receptor density in the forebrain were studied. At 10 days of life, LL and HL chicks were intraperitoneally injected with insulin, epinephrine or saline, and immediately after stressed by partial water immersion for 15 min and killed by decapitation. Forebrains were dissected and the GABA(A) receptor density was measured ex vivo by the (3)[H]-flunitrazepam binding assay in synaptosomes. In non-stressed chicks, insulin (non-hypoglycemic dose) at 2.50 IU/kg of body weight incremented the Bmax by 40.53% in the HL chicks compared to saline group whereas no significant differences were observed between individuals in the LL subpopulation. Additionally, insulin increased the Bmax (23.48%) in the HL group with respect to the LL ones, indicating that the insulin responses were different according to the anxiety of each category. Epinephrine administration (0.25 and 0.50mg/kg) incremented the Bmax in non-stressed chicks, in the LL group by about 37% and 33%, respectively, compared to ones injected with saline. In the stressed chicks, 0.25mg/kg bw epinephrine increased the Bmax significantly in the HL group by about 24% compared to saline, suggesting that the effect of epinephrine was only observed in the HL group under acute stress conditions. Similarly, the same epinephrine doses co-administered with insulin increased the receptor density in both subpopulations and also showed that the highest dose of epinephrine did not further increase the maximum density of GABA(A)R in HL chicks. These results suggest that systemic epinephrine, perhaps by evoking central norepinephrine release, modulated the increase in the forebrain GABA(A) receptor recruitment induced by both insulin and stress in different ways depending on the subpopulation

  9. Central pipecolic acid increases food intake under ad libitum feeding conditions in the neonatal chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Tomo; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Saito, Ei-Suke; Tomonaga, Shouzou; Saito, Shin; Bungo, Takashi; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2003-08-21

    It has been demonstrated that L-pipecolic acid (L-PA) is a major metabolic intermediate of L-lysine in the mammalian and chicken brain. A previous study showed that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of L-PA suppressed feeding in neonatal chicks, and the actions were associated with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor activation. It has been reported that endogenous L-PA in the brain fluctuated under different feeding conditions. In the present study, we investigated the effect of i.c.v. injection of L-PA on food intake in the neonatal chick under ad libitum feeding conditions. The food intake was increased by 0.5 or 1.0 mg L-PA under ad libitum feeding conditions contrary to previous studies using fasted birds. A hyperphagic effect of L-PA (0.5 mg) was attenuated by both GABA-A receptor antagonist (picrotoxin, 0.5 microg) and GABA-B receptor antagonist (CGP54626, 21.0 ng). These results indicate that a hyperphagic effect of L-PA is mediated by both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors and L-PA differentially affects food intake under different feeding conditions in the neonatal chick.

  10. Gastrointestinal obstruction in penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpiñán, David; Curro, Thomas G

    2009-12-01

    A 7-day-old gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) was found dead and postmortem examination revealed impaction of the ventriculus with feathers. A review of mortality in gentoo penguin chicks from 1997 to 2007 at that institution revealed another case of feather impaction of the ventriculus in a 4-week-old chick, a sibling of the previous chick. A third case of gastrointestinal impaction occurred in a 24-day-old king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) with omphallitis and enteritis. In this chick, a fibrin mat produced a complete obstruction of the intestine at the level of Meckel's diverticulum.

  11. Chronic prenatal lead exposure impairs long-term memory in day old chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhaoming; Zhang, Chunxiao; Rizak, Joshua D; Cui, Yonghua; Xu, Shiqing; Che, Yi

    2010-05-26

    Environmental exposure to lead during developmental stages has been established as a potential cause of intellectual deficits. The high susceptibility of rapidly developing fetal and infant brains to external factors suggests that impairment of later cognitive functions may arise from relatively minor prenatal exposure to environmental lead levels. In this study, we used the one-trial passive avoidance learning paradigm with day old chicks to evaluate memory function and memory consolidation in response to prenatal lead exposure. Lead acetate (5.5mg/kg, 11mg/kg, 16.5mg/kg) was administered daily from E9 to E16 via direct injection into the airspace in chick eggs. Higher doses of lead acetate (11mg/kg, 16.5mg/kg) administration had significant effects on the hatching success (23.4 and 17, respectively) and hatch weight ( approximately 10% decrease) of chicks when compared to equivalent treatments of sodium acetate (11mg/kg, 16.5mg/kg) (plong-term memory after 120min following training in the one-trial passive avoidance learning task (pmemory processes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Central administration of dipeptides, beta-alanyl-BCAAs, induces hyperactivity in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denbow D Michael

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine is a putative neurotransmitter and has a possible role in neuron-glia cell interactions. Previously, we reported that carnosine induced hyperactivity in chicks when intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v. administered. In the present study, we focused on other β-alanyl dipeptides to determine if they have novel functions. Results In Experiment 1, i.c.v. injection of β-alanyl-L-leucine, but not β-alanyl-glycine, induced hyperactivity behavior as observed with carnosine. Both carnosine and β-alanyl-L-leucine stimulated corticosterone release. Thus, dipeptides of β-alanyl-branched chain amino acids were compared in Experiment 2. The i.c.v. injection of β-alanyl-L-isoleucine caused a similar response as β-alanyl-L-leucine, but β-alanyl-L-valine was somewhat less effective than the other two dipeptides. β-Alanyl-L-leucine strongly stimulated, and the other two dipeptides tended to stimulate, corticosterone release. Conclusion These results suggest that central β-alanyl-branched chain amino acid stimulates activity in chicks through the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. We named β-alanyl-L-leucine, β-alanyl-L-isoleucine and β-alanyl-L-valine as Excitin-1, Excitin-2 and Excitin-3, respectively.

  13. The interaction of central nitrergic and GABAergic systems on food intake in neonatal layer-type chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarpouriani, Kasra; Zendehdel, Morteza; Jonaidi, Hossein; Babapour, Vahab; Shayan, Parviz

    2016-05-01

    Most physiological behaviors such as food intake are controlled by the hypothalamus and its nuclei. It has been demonstrated that injection of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus with nitric oxide (NO) donors elicited changes in the concentration of some amino acids, including GABA. Also, central nitrergic and GABAergic systems are known to provide inputs to the paraventricular nucleus and are involved in food intake control. Therefore, the present study examines the probable interaction of central nitrergic and GABAergic systems on food intake in neonatal layer-type chicks. The results of this study showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of L-arginine (400 and 800 nmol), as a NO donor, significantly decreased food intake (P 0.05). Also, the hypophagic effect of L-arginine (800 nmol) was significantly amplified in ICV co-injection of picrotoxin (0.5 µg), a GABAA antagonist, or CGP54626 (21 ng), a GABAB antagonist, with L-arginine (800 nmol) (P < 0.001). These results probably suggest an interaction of central nitrergic and GABAergic systems on food intake in neonatal layer-type chicks and GABAA receptors play a major role in this interaction.

  14. Effect of different vehicles in carrageenan suspension on the rate of the inflammatory response of chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Maria Backx Noronha Madeira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the pattern of edema, increased vascular permeability and cellular exudation elicited by the injection of different carrageenan suspensions into the foot pad of 80 male chicks, three to four-week old. Carrageenan suspensions at 0.5% were prepared in: Ringer Locke solution (RL, glucose aqueous solution 0.1% (G, demineralized water (W or phosphate buffered saline (PBS. The foot pad volume and vascular permeability were evaluated by pletismography and by Evans blue extravasation, respectively, before and at 0:15, 0:30, 1:00, 1:30, 2:00, 2:30, 3:00, 3:30 and 4:00 hours after injury. Cellular exudation was observed in thin sections of stained tissue 0:30, 1:30, 2:30 and 4:00 hours after injection of the carrageenan or vehicle only. The inflammatory response varied according to the carrageenan suspension used. Suspension C/PBS induced a less intense inflammatory response in foot pads of chicks than C/W, C/G and C/RL suspensions.

  15. Interaction of Salmonella Gallinarum infection and zinc metabolism in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments to be reported was to determine whether or not the response of zinc metabolism to infection in chicks was similar to that reported for mammals and to determine the effect of maintaining serum zinc at normal levels in infected animals on the outcome of infection as determined by mortality. Within 48 hours after administration of the organism serum zinc concentrations declined to ca. half of the control value. The serum zinc concentrations remained depressed throughout the experimental infection (12 days). Isotope studies with 65 Zn indicated that the infection had no effect on absorption. The infection resulted in a sequestering of zinc in the liver, the kidney being relatively inert in this system. Fractionation of liver homogenates by column chromatography with Seph. G-75 revealed that the zinc in the livers of the infected animals eluted in a volume characteristic of metallothionein, while that of the control animals was associated with higher molecular weight proteins. Increasing the serum levels of zinc by injecting 200 μg Zn/100 g body weight twice a day for 5 days had no effect on mortality from the infection. They conclude that zinc metabolism in the chick is affected by infection in a manner similar to that reported for mammals and that the decrease in serum zinc concentration per se has no survival value for the chick in this infection

  16. High dose progesterone effects the growth of early chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.; Qamar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out the effect of high dose progesterone on the development of early chick embryo. Study Design: Lab based randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of study: This study was carried out in Army Medical College and Post Graduate Institute of Poultry Sciences, Rawalpindi from June 2010 - December 2010. Material and Methods: Forty five specific pathogen free, fertile, eggs of Fyoumi species of chick were selected at zero hour of incubation. They were incubated at 37.5oC and 75% relative humidity for 26 hrs until the embryos reached stage 8 of the development. Then on stage 8 the eggs were divided into three groups consisting of 15 eggs per group. The first group (GI) was incubated without any operation. The second (G2) and third groups (G3) were injected with two and twenty times more than physiologic does of progesterone respectively. After 48 hours of incvbation, all embryos were examined for their development under light microscopy. Results: All the embryos of G1 and G2 showed normal development according to their stage of development, while 4 out of 11 embryos of G3 were under developed and their survival rate was also less. Conclusion: Exogenous progesterone at levels twenty times above its physiologic range effects the development of chick embryos. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanisms of this effect. (author)

  17. The Teratogenic Effects of Antiepileptic Drug, Topiramate, on the Development of Chick Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantima Roongruangchai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-epileptic drugs are known to be the risk of teratogenicity. Topiramate (TPM is a new kind of such drug, for which no research has confirmed the incidence of producing congenital abnormalities. Objective: This study was conducted to study the teratogenic effects of TPM by using chick embryos as an animal model and the results can be compared to the human embryo of the same stage. Methods: Fertilized Leghorn hen eggs were injected in ovo with two concentrations of TPM, which were 10mg, and 20mg, in NSS at a volume of 0.1 ml into the yolk sac at 21 hrs of incubation and repeated injections at 72 hrs at a volume of 0.05 ml. The chick embryos on day 3, 6 and 11 of incubation were sacrificed and all living embryos were processed for total mount and serial section. Results: The mortality rate increased corresponding to the concentrations of TPM, and the embryonic stage. The total mount of day 3 showed major abnormalities of the eye and heart, such as microphthalmia and looser of heart looping. The serial section of day 3 showed opening of the anterior neuropore, ectopia viscerae and multiple malformations of the eye and heart. Day 6 chick embryos showed ectopia cordis and ectopia viscerae. Moreover, there were retardation and abnormalities of several organs such as eye, heart, liver, mesonephros and gonads. Day 11 chick embryos showed ectopia viscerae and several growth retardations, retardation of ossification of both limb bones and skull bones. Conclusion: This study showed that TPM might cause embryonic death, growth retardation and abnormalities of the eye, heart, an opening of the anterior neuropore and ectopia viscerae. This might indicate abnormalities to the baby born from mother with gestational epilepsy who was taking this drug continuously, and it might lead to spontaneous abortion or congenital anomalies of the fetus.

  18. Three Dimensional Visualization for the Steam Injection into Water Pool using Electrical Resistance Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khambampati, Anil Kumar; Lee, Jeong Seong; Kim, Sin; Kim, Kyung Youn

    2010-01-01

    The direct injection of steam into a water pool is a method of heat transfer used in many process industries. The amount of research in this area however is limited to the nuclear industry, with applications relating to reactor cooling systems. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT), a low cost, non-invasive and which has high temporal resolution characteristics, can be used as a visualization tool for the resistivity distribution for the steam injection into water pool such as IRWST. In this paper, three dimensional resistivity distribution of the process is obtained through ERT using iterative Gauss-Newton method. Numerical experiments are performed by assuming different resistive objects in the water pool. Numerical results show that ERT is successful in estimating the resistivity distribution for the injection of steam in the water pool

  19. Rearing of germfree chicks in a vinyl isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Teru; Kametaka, Masao; Ozaki, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuzo; Kaneuchi, Choji.

    1977-01-01

    A method of rearing germfree chicks in a vinyl isolator was developed, Hatchability of eggs was higher than 95% when eggs were sterilized in a 1.5% mercuric chloride solution on the 2nd day before hatching. Sterility was 93% when 5 to 10 chicks were reared in a vinyl isolator for 2 weeks. Depression of body weight gain was observed in chicks fed diet irradiated at higher than 4 Mrad. However, no effects of irradiation on chick growth were observed when fat and the other components were sterilized separately and mixed before feeding. The growth rates of germfree chicks were higher than those of the conventional chicks which were supplied a diluted solution of fresh cecum feces of young hens with a normal intestinal flora pattern at the first feeding. (auth.)

  20. Integrating toxicity risk in bird eggs and chicks: using chick down feathers to estimate mercury concentrations in eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2009-03-15

    The concentration of mercury (Hg) in eggs that causes reduced hatching success is regarded as a critical end point for Hg toxicity in birds. However, incorporating effects of in ovo mercury exposure on chick health and survival could improve risk assessment. We developed equations to predict Hg in eggs using Hg in chick down feathers, and vice versa, by assessing the relationship between Hg in feathers (0.5-32.4 microg g(-1) fw) and eggs (0.04-2.79 microg g(-1) fww) for three waterbird species in San Francisco Bay, CA. Feather Hg sampled from embryos of pipping eggs was highly correlated with fresh whole-egg Hg (n=94, r2 = 0.96). Additionally, using an egg microsampling technique, albumen Hg was correlated with feather Hg sampled from chicks in the same nest (n=28, r2 = 0.79). Down feather Hg in recaptured chicks (feather Hg at hatching (feathers of chicks < or =10 days of age to nonlethally predict Hg in eggs and thus provide the ability to develop exposure thresholds for eggs that incorporate in ovo Hg's effects on both egg hatchability and subsequent chick mortality.

  1. Efficacy of using radio transmitters to monitor least tern chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, Joanna B.; Leslie, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about Least Tern (Sterna antillarum) chicks from the time they leave the nest until fledging because they are highly mobile and cryptically colored. We evaluated the efficacy of using radiotelemetry to monitor Interior Least Tern (S. a. athalassos) chicks at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. In 1999, we attached radio transmitters to 26 Least Tern chicks and tracked them for 2-17 days. No adults abandoned their chicks after transmitters were attached. Transmitters did not appear to alter growth rates of transmittered chicks (P = 0.36) or prevent feather growth, although dermal irritation was observed on one chick. However, without frequent reattachment, transmitters generally did not remain on chicks feather growth and transmitter removal, presumably by adult terns. Although the presence of transmitters did not adversely affect Least Tern chicks, future assessments should investigate nonintrusive methods to improve retention of transmitters on young chicks and reduce the number of times that chicks need to be handled.

  2. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Kikuchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. 

  3. Determination of endogenous manganese excretion in broiler chicks by an isotope-dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigand, E.; Kirchgessner, M.; Kilic, A.

    1988-01-01

    A tracer study with broiler chicks was conducted to determine endogenous Mn excretion in response to graded levels of dietary Mn supply by the isotope-dilution method. Starting with 46 day-old chicks, low-Mn diets were fed for 12 days before 8 chicks were slaughtered for assessing the intial Mn status and 38 chicks each were given an intramuscular injection of 555 kBq 54 Mn. Four groups of six birds each were fed, one bird per cage, diets containing 2.8, 9.1, 25.8, and 59.7 ppm Mn for 16 days before slaughter and carcass analyses. Two groups of 7 birds were fed the diets with 9.1 and 25.8 ppm Mn for 8 days. Mn supply significantly affected 54 Mn excretion activity of distribution among various body organs, especially the liver. The specific activity of Mn in excreta and in whole-body declined exponentially with time and differed between groups. Endogenous Mn in excreta was estimated on the basis that the specific activity of excreta Mn from day 9 to 12 and day 13 to 16 was reflected, on the average, by that of liver Mn on day 10 and 14, respectively. It averaged in the order of increasing Mn supply 12.5 vs. 12.0; 7.7 vs. 8.5; 3.9 vs. 4.3, and 2.0 vs. 2.3% of total excreta Mn. Total Mn excretion from day 9 to 16 averaged 88.9, 95.0, 97.9. and 98.9% of Mn intake. (author)

  4. Effect of pre and or post-hatching treatment of broiler eggs with thyroxin and growth hormones on thyroid histology and function of growing chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamal, M.H.; El-Gendi, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    A total number of 1340 eggs from arbor acres parent breed were used in this study. Eggs were divided into two divisions were then sub divided according to the incubation relative humidity (48% and 52%). Eggs of each division were then subdivided into ten groups, eggs of 1 s t, 2 n d groups were injected with 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 MU elroxin, respectively, those of the 4 t h, 5 t h, and 6 t h groups wereinjectived with 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mg carbimazole, respectively, while eggs of the 7 t h, 8 t h and 9 t h groups were injected with 0.005, 0.02 and 0.04 I.U. growth hormone respectively. Eggs of the 10 t h group was injected with distilled water and used as control group. Each group was divided into two divisions, eggs of the first division were injected just before incubation (into the air cell) and those of the second division were injected at the 9 t h day of incubation period (into the embryonic allantoic cavity). A total number of 960 hatched chicks were randomly selected (24chicks of each group)

  5. The Teratogenic Effects of Dichlorvos on the Development of Chick Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantima Roongruangchai, D.D.S., Ph.D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the teratogenic effects of dichlorvos on developing chick embryos. Methods: The fertilized Leghorn hen eggs were divided into two groups: the experimental group which was injected with 0.1 ml of 0.5% and 1% dichlorvos in normal saline and the control group which was injected with 0.1 ml of normal saline after 21 h of incubation. On day 3, 6, and 11, the embryos were collected for studying embryonic dead and abnormalities. Results: The results showed that the mortality rate increased with the increasing concentration of dichlorvos and time of incubation. The total mount of day 3 had only three primary brain vesicles, small and retarded primordial eye, dilated U-shaped heart looping, bifurcation of spinal cord and trunk when compared with the control. The results in the serial section of day 3 and 6 showed several abnormalities especially the retardation of eye and heart. Day 11 embryo revealed morphological anomalies including hematoma and bone deformation. Conclusion: Dichlorvos caused congenital abnormalities in chick embryos in 3 categories, the growth retardation, the malformations and the embryonic death which were predicted to cause the same results in contaminated humans. Dichlorvos exposure increases the risk of malformations and embryonic death. The present study revealed that dichlorvos was a powerful teratogenic compound and therefore its use should be limited and pregnant women should avoid contamination with dichlorvos especially in the first trimester.

  6. IMMUNO-MODULATORY EFFECT OF INACTIVATED EIMERIA TENELLA VACCINE AND LIVE IMPPORTED COCCIDIAL VACCINE ON NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS VACCINA TED BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram Muneer, Haji Ahmad Hashmi, Masood Rabbani, Zahid Munir Chaudhry and Ali M. Bahrami

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 160 one-day-old broiler chicks were used to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of an inactivated Eimeria tenella vaccine and a live polyvalent imported antiococcidial vaccine (Coccivac. This study indicated that both of these vaccines did not adversely affect the development of serum antibody against Newcastle disease virus (NDV and the chicks vaccinated with either of the anticoccidial vaccines resisted the virulent NDV challenge. A study of the lymphoid organs such as bursa of fabricuis: thymus and spleen from the experimental chicks indicated that those organs were comparable with those from the chicks not vaccinated with these coccidial vaccines. The overall findings of this study indicate that anticoccidial vaccines do not have any effects on the immune functions of the vaccinates. In fact these vaccines prevented the occurrence of clinical coccidiosis in the vaccinates.

  7. Ontogeny of thermoregulation and energy metabolism in pygoscelid penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J R

    1985-01-01

    The ontogeny of thermoregulation and energy metabolism of chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (P. papua) penguins was studied on King George Island, South Shetland Island, Antarctica. The major findings of this study are: Chinstrap and gentoo penguin chicks hatched completely poikilothermic, due to their poor heat-production ability at low ambient temperatures. They were able to maintain high body temperatures and metabolic rates only by being brooded by adults. Newly hatched chinstrap penguin chicks had, at a specified ambient temperature, significantly higher metabolic rates than newly hatched gentoos. Moreover, chinstrap chicks maintained a significantly higher body temperature. It is suggested that this is a non-acclimatory metabolic adaptation of chinstrap penguin chicks to the lower mean temperatures of their breeding areas. On the 15th day after hatching, chinstrap chicks were completely, and gentoo chicks almost completely, homeothermic. In spite of their high thermogenic capacity from about day 10, chicks were not at that time capable of controlling heat dissipation, and were still dependent on their parents. In older downy chicks and fledglings, heat loss at low temperatures, expressed as heat conductance (CA), was similar to that found for the adults of other penguin species. Just before moulting the CA of chicks was lower than after moulting. Moulting alone did not cause a clear increase in CA. Towards the end of their stay on land the CA of pre-fledged gentoos decreased by 31%. This decrease was not connected with the development of feathers or growth in the chicks' weight. The combination of the low CA and high SMR of chicks gave very low lower critical temperatures, near -15 degrees C. The wide thermoneutral zones of the chicks covered the whole range of air temperature variations in the breeding colonies of both species studied on King George Island. The CA values of homeothermic chinstrap chicks were not lower than those of gentoos

  8. Angiographic examinations of the circulatory development of living chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeter, P.; Buchhoecker, M.; Bruzek, W.; Drews, U.; Schulze, K.; Tuebingen Univ.; Tuebingen Univ.

    1980-01-01

    In chick embryos of an age of incubation of 5-14 days, the physiological development of the circulation and the morphological differentation of the arterical system were studied by intravital and postmortal angiography. For the examinations of the living embryos, a special radiographic and injection technique had to be developed. The contrast medium was injected into the umbilical veins and transported by the actions of the embryonic heart. Continuous ECG recordings showed no marked interference of the injections with the cardiac activity. According to the angiographic findings, the circulation is relatively fast within the main arteries, but the capillary perfusion is prolonged and lasts up to several minutes. The average circulatory velocity of the blood stream within the carotid artery increases parallel to the arterial enlargement, whereas the circulatory time decreases and the number of heart beats during the period of carotid opacification does not change to a great extent. By this, a steady transport of gas and nutritional material may be achieved in the growing arterial system. (orig.) [de

  9. Effect of coniine on the developing chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, C S; Frank, A A; Watrous, B J; Bohn, A A

    1994-04-01

    Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), has been shown to be teratogenic in livestock. The major teratogenic outcome is arthrogryposis, presumably due to nicotinic receptor blockade. However, coniine has failed to produce arthrogryposis in rats or mice and is only weakly teratogenic in rabbits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of coniine and nicotine in the developing chick. Concentrations of coniine and nicotine sulfate were 0.015%, 0.03%, 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%, and 6% and 1%, 5%, and 10%, respectively. Both compounds caused deformations and lethality in a dose-dependent manner. All concentrations of nicotine sulfate caused some lethality but a no effect level for coniine lethality was 0.75%. The deformations caused by both coniine and nicotine sulfate were excessive flexion or extension of one or more toes. No histopathological alterations or differences in bone formation were seen in the limbs or toes of any chicks from any group; however, extensive cranial hemorrhage occurred in all nicotine sulfate-treated chicks. There was a statistically significant (P < or = 0.01) decrease in movement in coniine and nicotine sulfate treated chicks as determined by ultrasound. Control chicks were in motion an average of 33.67% of the time, while coniine-treated chicks were only moving 8.95% of a 5-min interval, and no movement was observed for nicotine sulfate treated chicks. In summary, the chick embryo provides a reliable and simple experimental animal model of coniine-induced arthrogryposis. Data from this model support a mechanism involving nicotinic receptor blockade with subsequent decreased fetal movement.

  10. Lesions in Broiler Chicks Following Experimental Contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    Average daily food intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and ... that contamination of feed for broilers chicks beyond 0.5% is detrimental to the performance of broiler chicks. Introduction ... nearly all manufacturing industries. Disposal of ...

  11. Involvement of Gaba and Cannabinoid Receptors in Central Food Intake Regulation in Neonatal Layer Chicks: Role of CB1 and Gabaa Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zendehdel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Feeding behavior is regulated via a complex network which interacts via diverse signals from central and peripheral tissues. Endocannabinoids modulate release of GABA in a variety of regions of the central nervous system. Endocannabinoids and GABAergic system have an important role in the central regulation of appetite. Thus, the present study examines the possible interaction of central canabinoidergic and GABAergic systems on food intake in 3-h food-deprived (FD3 neonatal layer-type chicks. The results of this study showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of 2-AG (2-Arachidonoylglycerol, selective CB1 receptors agonist, 2µg significantly increased food intake and this effect of 2-AG was attenuated by Picrotoxin (GABAA antagonist, 0.5µg (P0.05. Also, hyperphagic effect of CB65 (CB2 receptors agonist, 1.25µg was not affected by Picrotoxin or CGP54626 (p>0.05. Moreover, the food intake of chicks was significantly increased by ICV injection of GABAA agonist (Gaboxadol, 0.2 µg and SR141716A (CB1 receptors antagonist, 6.25µg significantly decreased Gaboxadol-induced hyperphagia (P0.05. These data showed there might be an interaction between central cannabinoidergic and GABAergic systems via CB1 and GABAA receptors in control of food intake in neonatal layer chicks.

  12. Automatic monitoring of radial injection tracer tests using a novel multi-electrode resistivity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.S.; Sen, M.A.; Williams, G.M.; Jackson, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    A radial injection tracer test has been carried out in an unconfined fluvial sand and gravel aquifer underlain by low permeability clay. Sodium chloride has been used as an electrolyte tracer and breakthrough has been monitored using a newly developed automatic resistivity system (RESCAN) incorporating six fully penetrating resistivity probes each having 80 electrodes spaced at 5 cm intervals along their length. Each electrode is individually addressable under computer control to either carry current or measure potential. Any four electrodes can be selected in the traditional Wenner configuration to measure formation resistivity. Rapid measurement of changes in resistivity allows a very detailed picture of tracer migration to be obtained. The resistivity probes were placed at 1 and 2 m radii from the central fully-screened tracer injection well along three limbs at 120 degrees. Resistivity measurements were compared with adjacent multi-level samplers. An 8 x 8 m grid of 140 surface electrodes centred on the central well was also installed. The resistivity profiles measured prior to tracer injection were used to infer lithology, particularly layering. Detailed breakthrough curves were obtained at 77 positions along each of the six probes and compared with adjacent multi-level sampler breakthrough curves. The results showed that the aquifer was extremely heterogeneous even on this small scale. Because the system operates automatically without the need to extract and analyse large numbers of water samples, it opens up the possibility of carrying out lots of small scale injection tests within a larger domain likely to be invaded by a tracer or pollution plume. Such detailed information for determining aquifer properties can provide the data set necessary for characterisation of the aquifer to predict dispersion parameters appropriate to the large scale. (Author) (6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.)

  13. Studies on the effects of lead toxicity on glutathione metabolism in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, C.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were performed to investigate certain aspects of lead toxicity in the chick. In the first study, the mechanism of the Pb-induced changes in glutathione (GSH) metabolism was examined by comparing changes in organ non-protein thiol concentrations during the administration of Pb by intraperitoneal injection (acute) or in the diet (chronic). The synthesis of GSH in the liver was increased by both acute and chronic Pb administration when evaluated in terms of the rate of incorporation of [I 14 C]-glycine into hepatic GSH. Total nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) concentrations were also increased by both acute and chronic Pb. However, that portion of NPSH which is GSH was increased only by prolonged (chronic) exposure to Pb. The administration of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, decreased hepatic HPDH and GSH concentrations both in the presence and absence of injected Pb and inhibited the effects of dietary Pb on hepatic NPSH and GSH concentrations. The data suggested an immediate release of NPSH compounds into blood plasma following acute PB injection. Thus, the interorgan translocation system for GSH may be important in acute Pb intoxication in that it facilitates an immediate response to maintain cellular GSH levels being depleted by detoxification reactions by increasing the rate of GSH turnover. The antagonistic relationship between Pb and Se was investigated in terms of chick body weight gain and changes in organ non-protein thiol concentrated when administered with diets containing deficient adequate, and excess amounts of Se. Growth depression by 2000 ppm dietary Pb was observed with diets that were either deficient or adequate in dietary Se

  14. Improvement of electrical resistivity tomography for leachate injection monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, R.; Descloitres, M.; Guenther, T.; Oxarango, L.; Morra, C.; Laurent, J.-P.; Gourc, J.-P.

    2010-01-01

    Leachate recirculation is a key process in the scope of operating municipal waste landfills as bioreactors, which aims to increase the moisture content to optimize the biodegradation in landfills. Given that liquid flows exhibit a complex behaviour in very heterogeneous porous media, in situ monitoring methods are required. Surface time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is usually proposed. Using numerical modelling with typical 2D and 3D injection plume patterns and 2D and 3D inversion codes, we show that wrong changes of resistivity can be calculated at depth if standard parameters are used for time-lapse ERT inversion. Major artefacts typically exhibit significant increases of resistivity (more than +30%) which can be misinterpreted as gas migration within the waste. In order to eliminate these artefacts, we tested an advanced time-lapse ERT procedure that includes (i) two advanced inversion tools and (ii) two alternative array geometries. The first advanced tool uses invariant regions in the model. The second advanced tool uses an inversion with a 'minimum length' constraint. The alternative arrays focus on (i) a pole-dipole array (2D case), and (ii) a star array (3D case). The results show that these two advanced inversion tools and the two alternative arrays remove almost completely the artefacts within +/-5% both for 2D and 3D situations. As a field application, time-lapse ERT is applied using the star array during a 3D leachate injection in a non-hazardous municipal waste landfill. To evaluate the robustness of the two advanced tools, a synthetic model including both true decrease and increase of resistivity is built. The advanced time-lapse ERT procedure eliminates unwanted artefacts, while keeping a satisfactory image of true resistivity variations. This study demonstrates that significant and robust improvements can be obtained for time-lapse ERT monitoring of leachate recirculation in waste landfills.

  15. A new gestational diabetes mellitus model: hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation via inhibition of Pax6 in the chick embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jie Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is one of the leading causes of fetal malformations. However, few models have been developed to study the underlying mechanisms of GDM-induced fetal eye malformation. In this study, a high concentration of glucose (0.2 mmol per egg was injected into the air sac of chick embryos on embryo development day (EDD 1 to develop a hyperglycemia model. Results showed that 47.3% of embryonic eye malformation happened on EDD 5. In this model, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, Six3 and Otx2, were downregulated by hyperglycemia. Among these genes, the expression of Pax6 was the most vulnerable to hyperglycemia, being suppressed by 70%. A reduction in Pax6 gene expression induced eye malformation in chick embryos. However, increased expression of Pax6 in chick embryos could rescue hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. Hyperglycemia stimulated O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation, which caused oxidative stress in chick embryos. Pax6 was found to be vulnerable to free radicals, but the antioxidant edaravone could restore Pax6 expression and reverse eye malformation. These results illustrated a successful establishment of a new chick embryo model to study the molecular mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. The suppression of the Pax6 gene is probably mediated by oxidative stress and could be a crucial target for the therapy of GDM-induced embryonic eye malformation.

  16. A new gestational diabetes mellitus model: hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation via inhibition of Pax6 in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Jie; Li, Yi-Fang; Tan, Rui-Rong; Tsoi, Bun; Huang, Wen-Shan; Huang, Yi-Hua; Tang, Xiao-Long; Hu, Dan; Yao, Nan; Yang, Xuesong; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Wang, Qi; He, Rong-Rong

    2016-02-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the leading causes of fetal malformations. However, few models have been developed to study the underlying mechanisms of GDM-induced fetal eye malformation. In this study, a high concentration of glucose (0.2 mmol per egg) was injected into the air sac of chick embryos on embryo development day (EDD) 1 to develop a hyperglycemia model. Results showed that 47.3% of embryonic eye malformation happened on EDD 5. In this model, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, Six3 and Otx2, were downregulated by hyperglycemia. Among these genes, the expression of Pax6 was the most vulnerable to hyperglycemia, being suppressed by 70%. A reduction in Pax6 gene expression induced eye malformation in chick embryos. However, increased expression of Pax6 in chick embryos could rescue hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. Hyperglycemia stimulated O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation, which caused oxidative stress in chick embryos. Pax6 was found to be vulnerable to free radicals, but the antioxidant edaravone could restore Pax6 expression and reverse eye malformation. These results illustrated a successful establishment of a new chick embryo model to study the molecular mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. The suppression of the Pax6 gene is probably mediated by oxidative stress and could be a crucial target for the therapy of GDM-induced embryonic eye malformation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Chick ex ovo culture and ex ovo CAM assay: how it really works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohle, Daniel S; Pasa, Susanne D; Gustmann, Sebastian; Laub, Markus; Wissler, Josef H; Jennissen, Herbert P; Dünker, Nicole

    2009-11-30

    Chicken eggs in the early phase of breeding are between in vitro and in vivo systems and provide a vascular test environment not only to study angiogenesis but also to study tumorigenesis. After the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) has developed, its blood vessel network can be easily accessed, manipulated and observed and therefore provides an optimal setting for angiogenesis assays. Since the lymphoid system is not fully developed until late stages of incubation, the chick embryo serves as a naturally immunodeficient host capable of sustaining grafted tissues and cells without species-specific restrictions. In addition to nurturing developing allo- and xenografts, the CAM blood vessel network provides a uniquely supportive environment for tumor cell intravasation, dissemination, and vascular arrest and a repository where arrested cells extravasate to form micro metastatic foci. For experimental purposes, in most of the recent studies the CAM was exposed by cutting a window through the egg shell and experiments were carried out in ovo, resulting in significant limitations in the accessibility of the CAM and possibilities for observation and photo documentation of effects. When shell-less cultures of the chick embryo were used(1-4), no experimental details were provided and, if published at all, the survival rates of these cultures were low. We refined the method of ex ovo culture of chick embryos significantly by introducing a rationally controlled extrusion of the egg content. These ex ovo cultures enhance the accessibility of the CAM and chick embryo, enabling easy in vivo documentation of effects and facilitating experimental manipulation of the embryo. This allows the successful application to a large number of scientific questions: (1) As an improved angiogenesis assay(5,6), (2) an experimental set up for facilitated injections in the vitreous of the chick embryo eye(7-9), (3) as a test environment for dissemination and intravasation of dispersed tumor

  18. Predicting chick body mass by artificial intelligence-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and compare 190 artificial intelligence-based models for predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age subjected to different duration and intensities of thermal challenge. The experiment was conducted inside four climate-controlled wind tunnels using 210 chicks. A database containing 840 datasets (from 2 to 21-day-old chicks - with the variables dry-bulb air temperature, duration of thermal stress (days, chick age (days, and the daily body mass of chicks - was used for network training, validation, and tests of models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and neuro-fuzzy networks (NFNs. The ANNs were most accurate in predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age after they were subjected to the input variables, and they showed an R² of 0.9993 and a standard error of 4.62 g. The ANNs enable the simulation of different scenarios, which can assist in managerial decision-making, and they can be embedded in the heating control systems.

  19. Effect of nicotine and preventive role of camellia sinensis on the histomorphology of developing epiphyseal plate of thigh bone of chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, M.; Butt, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of nicotine and camellia sinensis (green tea) on the developing epiphyseal plate of thigh bone of chick. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Army medical college, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from April 2012 to May 2012. Material and Method: Freshly laid fertilized eggs of Fayoumi breed chick eggs were selected at zero hour of incubation. Four groups were made, group G1 was control group treated with normal saline. Experimental group G2 was treated with camellia sinensis extract (green tea), group G3 was given nicotine whereas group G4 was injected with working solution nicotine and camellia sinensis (green tea), in 0.1 ml quantity. Double exposure one at 48 hour of incubation and other at 48 hours after hatching of chicks. SPSS version 15 was used to analyze the data. Results: It was observed that the weight of chick at one month of age and weight of femur of chicks of nicotine treated groups G3 and group G4 were reduced in comparison to control group G1. Mean number of cells in hypertrophy zone of developing epiphyseal plate of thigh bone were reduced of nicotine treated groups in comparison to control group. Conclusion: Camellia sinensis (green tea) helped to reduce the harmful effects of nicotine treated group but cannot reverse the oxidative injury. (author)

  20. Gene transfer to chicks using lentiviral vectors administered via the embryonic chorioallantoic membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Hen

    Full Text Available The lack of affordable techniques for gene transfer in birds has inhibited the advancement of molecular studies in avian species. Here we demonstrate a new approach for introducing genes into chicken somatic tissues by administration of a lentiviral vector, derived from the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, into the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of chick embryos on embryonic day 11. The FIV-derived vectors carried yellow fluorescent protein (YFP or recombinant alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH genes, driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter. Transgene expression, detected in chicks 2 days after hatch by quantitative real-time PCR, was mostly observed in the liver and spleen. Lower expression levels were also detected in the brain, kidney, heart and breast muscle. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analyses confirmed transgene expression in chick tissues at the protein level, demonstrating a transduction efficiency of ∼0.46% of liver cells. Integration of the viral vector into the chicken genome was demonstrated using genomic repetitive (CR1-PCR amplification. Viability and stability of the transduced cells was confirmed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay, immunostaining with anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (anti-PCNA, and detection of transgene expression 51 days post transduction. Our approach led to only 9% drop in hatching efficiency compared to non-injected embryos, and all of the hatched chicks expressed the transgenes. We suggest that the transduction efficiency of FIV vectors combined with the accessibility of the CAM vasculature as a delivery route comprise a new powerful and practical approach for gene delivery into somatic tissues of chickens. Most relevant is the efficient transduction of the liver, which specializes in the production and secretion of proteins, thereby providing an optimal target for prolonged study of secreted hormones and peptides.

  1. Neuronal damage in chick and rat embryos following X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.F.; Norton, S.

    1980-01-01

    Exposure of rat and chick embryos to X-irradiation at the time of development of neurons at the telencephalic-diencephalic border results in prolonged damage to neurons in this area as measured by neuronal nuclear size. A dose of 100 rads to the seven-day-old chick embryo has about the same effect as 125 rads to the 15-day-old rat fetus. The nuclear volume of large, multipolar neurons in the chick paleostriatum primitivum and the rat lateral preoptic area are reduced from 10 to 15%. Larger doses of X-irradiation to the chick (150 and 200 rads) cause progressively greater reductions in nuclear size. The large neurons which were measured in the rat and chick are morphologically similar in the two species. Both contain cytoplasmic acetylcholinesterase and have several branched, spiny dendritic processes. The similarity of response of chick and rat neurons to X-irradiation diminishes the significance of maternal factors as the cause of the effects of fetal irradiation in these experiments

  2. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  3. Tunable Injection Barrier in Organic Resistive Switches Based on Phase-Separated Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, Kamal; de Boer, Tom G.; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2009-01-01

    Organic non-volatile resistive bistable diodes based on phase-separated blends of ferroelectric and semiconducting polymers are fabricated. The polarization field of the ferroelectric modulates the injection barrier at the semiconductor-electrode contact and, hence, the resistance of the comprising

  4. Tunable injection barrier in organic resistive switches based on phase-separated ferroelectric-semiconductor blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, K.; Boer, T.G. de; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2009-01-01

    Organic non-volatile resistive bistable diodes based on phase-separated blends of ferroelectric and semiconducting polymers are fabricated. The polarization field of the ferroelectric modulates the injection barrier at the semiconductor-electrode contact and, hence, the resistance of the comprising

  5. Manipulation of broiler chickens sex differentiation by in ovo injection of aromatase inhibitors, and garlic and tomato extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazli, Nahid; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Mottaghitalab, Majid; Hajati, Hosna

    2015-11-01

    The influence of in ovo administration of aromatase inhibitors, clomiphen citrate, tomoxifen, and garlic and tomato extracts on sex differentiation in broiler chickens were investigated in 2 experiments. Five hundred, and 1,000 fertile eggs from Ross 308 strain were used in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In both experiments, eggs were divided into 5 groups: control group (DW, 0.1 mL/egg), tomoxifen (0.05 mg/egg), clomiphene citrate (0.05 mg/egg), garlic and tomato extracts (0.1 mL/egg). Eggs were sanitized and prepared for incubation in a regular automatic hatchery. Experimental preparations were injected into eggs at day 5 of the incubation period. Injection sites on the eggs were cleaned with 70% ethylic alcohol, bored by a needle, and aromatase inhibitors were injected into the white from the thin end of the eggs by insulin syringe and then sealed by melted paraffin. In experiment 1, hatched one-day-old chicks (mixed-sex) were raised till 42 days of age in 25 floor pens with a completely randomized design. Experiment 2 was designed to investigate the effects of sex and treatments on the feed-to-gain ratio of broiler chicks. In experiment 2, hatched one-day-old chicks were feather sexed and raised till 42 days of age in 50 floor pens. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatments (sex×treatment) was used. Gonads of the chicks were checked to determine their sex on day 42 by optic microscope to make sure feather sexing was correct. At the end of both experiments, on day 42, one bird from each pen was slaughtered for carcass analysis. In experiment 1, hatchability and the one-day-old weight of chicks showed no significant differences among treatments (P > 0.05). However, in ovo administration of garlic and tomato extracts caused the highest percentage of male chicks (P 0.05). © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Lesions in Broiler Chicks Following Experimental Contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of feed contamination with battery waste on the performance, organs weights as well as the histology of some internal organs of broiler chicks. A total of 120 1- d old broiler chicks were allotted to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design.

  7. Improvement of electrical resistivity tomography for leachate injection monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, R; Descloitres, M; Günther, T; Oxarango, L; Morra, C; Laurent, J-P; Gourc, J-P

    2010-03-01

    Leachate recirculation is a key process in the scope of operating municipal waste landfills as bioreactors, which aims to increase the moisture content to optimize the biodegradation in landfills. Given that liquid flows exhibit a complex behaviour in very heterogeneous porous media, in situ monitoring methods are required. Surface time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is usually proposed. Using numerical modelling with typical 2D and 3D injection plume patterns and 2D and 3D inversion codes, we show that wrong changes of resistivity can be calculated at depth if standard parameters are used for time-lapse ERT inversion. Major artefacts typically exhibit significant increases of resistivity (more than +30%) which can be misinterpreted as gas migration within the waste. In order to eliminate these artefacts, we tested an advanced time-lapse ERT procedure that includes (i) two advanced inversion tools and (ii) two alternative array geometries. The first advanced tool uses invariant regions in the model. The second advanced tool uses an inversion with a "minimum length" constraint. The alternative arrays focus on (i) a pole-dipole array (2D case), and (ii) a star array (3D case). The results show that these two advanced inversion tools and the two alternative arrays remove almost completely the artefacts within +/-5% both for 2D and 3D situations. As a field application, time-lapse ERT is applied using the star array during a 3D leachate injection in a non-hazardous municipal waste landfill. To evaluate the robustness of the two advanced tools, a synthetic model including both true decrease and increase of resistivity is built. The advanced time-lapse ERT procedure eliminates unwanted artefacts, while keeping a satisfactory image of true resistivity variations. This study demonstrates that significant and robust improvements can be obtained for time-lapse ERT monitoring of leachate recirculation in waste landfills. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Electrical resistance tomography during gas injection at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Daily, W.D.

    1993-05-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is used to monitor some of the in situ remediation processes being evaluated for removal of volatile organic compounds from subsurface water and soil at the Integrated Demonstration for VOC's in Soils and Groundwater at Non Arid Sites, the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. Air was injected in the saturated zone and the intrained air was tomographically imaged by its effects on the formation electrical resistivity. The authors found that the flow paths are confined to a complex three dimensional network of channels, some of which extend as far as 30 m from the injection well. They conclude, based on these results, that the shape and extent of the air plume are controlled by spatial variations in the local gas permeability. These channels are somewhat unstable over a period of months and new channels appear to form with time

  9. Influence of a mobile robot on the spatial behaviour of quail chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Margerie, E; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Richard Yris, M-A, E-mail: emmanuel.demargerie@univ-rennes1.fr [CNRS UMR 6552 Ethologie Animale et Humaine, Universite Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2011-09-15

    Quail chicks encountered an autonomous mobile robot during their early development. The robot incorporated a heat source that stimulated following of chicks. The spatial behaviour of grown-up chicks was tested in an exploration test and a detour test. Chicks that grew with the mobile robot exhibited better spatial abilities than chicks grown with a static heat source. We discuss these results in the perspective of animal-robot interaction and of the role of early spatial experience on the behavioural development. (communication)

  10. Influence of a mobile robot on the spatial behaviour of quail chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Margerie, E; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Richard Yris, M-A

    2011-01-01

    Quail chicks encountered an autonomous mobile robot during their early development. The robot incorporated a heat source that stimulated following of chicks. The spatial behaviour of grown-up chicks was tested in an exploration test and a detour test. Chicks that grew with the mobile robot exhibited better spatial abilities than chicks grown with a static heat source. We discuss these results in the perspective of animal-robot interaction and of the role of early spatial experience on the behavioural development. (communication)

  11. Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Irradiated Sorghum Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.D.; Farag, M.F. S. El-D.; Afify, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Substitution of yellow corn with raw sorghum grains in chick diets resulted in decreases in live body weight, accumulative feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization as compared with reference diet. Relative to raw sorghum diet, inclusion of sorghum grains irradiated at 60 and 100 kGy and/or supplemented with PEG in chick diets resulted in increases in accumulative feed consumption an efficiency feed utilization. The study suggested that irradiation treatment up to 100 kGy up grade broiler chicks performance and the combinations between radiation and PEG treatments sustain the effect of each other

  12. Responses of commercial broiler chicks to 60Co gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebaita, M.K.; Kamar, G.A.R.; El-Barkouky, E.E.M.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 360 chicks of Nichols line at one-day old were used in this study. Within each sex, the chicks were divided into three exposure treatments (non-irradiated, 400 rads and 800 rads). The source of irradiation was 60 Co gamma-rays. The results can be summarized as follows: Of the 360 chicks used in this study, only 10 chicks died during the experimental period. Radiation induced a reduction in body weight in both sexes during the growth period. Gamma-rays reduce the feed intake in both sexes. Moreover, the feed conversion ratio for the irradiated chicks was higher than that the non-irradiated birds. While red blood cells and hemoglobin content were higher in the irradiated chicks, white blood cells count and especially lymphocytes did not affect by 60 Co gamma-rays. Gamma-rays had no effect on carcass, bone, meat and giblets as fractions of body weight in both sexes. Moreover, meat water content decreased and meat fat content increased in irradiated chicks. The total length and the total weight of the GI tract decreased due to 60 Co gamma-rays. The response of the different regions of the GI tract to this rays is different. Moreover, the effect of this radiation on the GI tract is dependent upon the body weight irrespective of the sex. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Enhanced learning of natural visual sequences in newborn chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Justin N; Prasad, Aditya; Goldman, Jason G; Wood, Samantha M W

    2016-07-01

    To what extent are newborn brains designed to operate over natural visual input? To address this question, we used a high-throughput controlled-rearing method to examine whether newborn chicks (Gallus gallus) show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. We took the same set of images and grouped them into either natural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different viewpoints of the same real-world object) or unnatural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different images of different real-world objects). When raised in virtual worlds containing natural sequences, newborn chicks developed the ability to recognize familiar images of objects. Conversely, when raised in virtual worlds containing unnatural sequences, newborn chicks' object recognition abilities were severely impaired. In fact, the majority of the chicks raised with the unnatural sequences failed to recognize familiar images of objects despite acquiring over 100 h of visual experience with those images. Thus, newborn chicks show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. These results indicate that newborn brains are designed to operate over natural visual input.

  14. Face recognition in newly hatched chicks at the onset of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Samantha M W; Wood, Justin N

    2015-04-01

    How does face recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, we used an automated controlled-rearing method with a newborn animal model: the domestic chick (Gallus gallus). This automated method allowed us to examine chicks' face recognition abilities at the onset of both face experience and object experience. In the first week of life, newly hatched chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained no objects other than a single virtual human face. In the second week of life, we used an automated forced-choice testing procedure to examine whether chicks could distinguish that familiar face from a variety of unfamiliar faces. Chicks successfully distinguished the familiar face from most of the unfamiliar faces-for example, chicks were sensitive to changes in the face's age, gender, and orientation (upright vs. inverted). Thus, chicks can build an accurate representation of the first face they see in their life. These results show that the initial state of face recognition is surprisingly powerful: Newborn visual systems can begin encoding and recognizing faces at the onset of vision. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Teening chick lit?

    OpenAIRE

    Whelehan, Imelda, 1960-

    2009-01-01

    online article - free to access This essay concerns itself with two examples of contemporary teen romance and examines the similarities with adult chick lit. These texts are compared with Judy Blume's classic 'Forever' written in 1975 to emphasis continuities between contemporary teen fiction and its more overty feminist forebears

  16. Effects of in ovo injection of carbohydrates on embryonic metabolism, hatchability, and subsequent somatic characteristics of broiler hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, W; Gerard, P D; Pulikanti, R; Peebles, E D

    2011-10-01

    The effects of the in ovo injection of different carbohydrate solutions on the internal egg temperature (IT), hatchability, and time of hatch of embryonated Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs were determined. In addition, the BW, liver weight, yolk sac weight (YSW), and yolk-free BW (YFBW) of the embryos on d 19.5 of incubation and of the chicks on day of hatch were determined. Eggs containing live embryos were injected in the amnion on d 18.5 of incubation using an automated multiple-egg injector. Solution injections delivered 1.2 mL of physiological saline (0.85%) alone or with a supplemental carbohydrate. The following supplemental carbohydrates were separately dissolved in saline at a concentration of 0.3 g/mL: glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, and dextrin. Temperature transponders were implanted in the air cells of embryonated and nonembryonated eggs after in ovo injection for the detection of IT at 6, 14, and 22 h after injection. The IT of embryonated eggs was significantly greater than that of nonembryonated eggs at all 3 times after the treatment period. Eggs that were injected with saline with or without supplemental carbohydrates experienced a reduction in IT when compared with control eggs whose shells were perforated without solution delivery, and the decrease in IT was associated with a delay in hatch time. Liver weight was negatively related to YSW and positively related to YFBW, and YSW was negatively related to YFBW. Although the saline and carbohydrate solution injections increased chick BW compared with noninjected controls, chick YFBW was decreased in the maltose- and sucrose-injected groups. In conclusion, the injection of 1.2 mL of saline with or without supplemental carbohydrates lowered embryonic metabolism, as reflected by a lower IT and a delay in time of hatch. However, effects of the different carbohydrate solutions on yolk absorption and tissue deposition in yolk-free embryos varied. These results suggest that lower volumes for

  17. Effects of cadmium on chick embryogenesis and some comparisons with lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D W; Chen, D C.C.; Hsu, J L

    1978-07-01

    During the last ten years because of the severity of the problem of pollution and the part that heavy metals play in it we have been doing research on the effects of some heavy metals on chick embryogenesis in order to get a comparative study and to elucidate their mechanisms of action. Experiments were performed using 431 fertilized white Leghorn eggs to study the effect of cadmium on chick embryogenesis. Cadmium acetate at 0.015, 0.030, 0.045, 0.060, 0.12 or 0.24 mg/egg and lead acetate at 0.02, 0.04 or 0.075 mg/egg was injected in ovo on the fourth day of incubation. The embryos were taken out on the 19th day and examined for gross defects. Electrocardiograms were recorded on some embryos. Hemoglobin determinations were done on others. The changes in plasma delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALAD) of the embryos due to cadmium and lead acetate were also determined. It was found that the LD50 of cadmium acetate was close to 0.045 mg. The highest incidence of abnormality, 30.9% of the surviving embryos, appeared in the 0.030 mg group although malformed embryos were also found in the 0.015, 0.045 and 0.060 mg groups. The most common malformations occurred in the liver (58%) and the cardiovascular system, with edema totalling over 90%. Lesser abnormalities were observed in the limbs. Lead acetate affected ALAD more than cadmium acetate. There was no significant difference on hemoglobin concentration or EKG between the distilled water control and either the cadmium or lead treated groups. Thus, embryolethality, embryotoxicity, congenital abnormalities and changes in ALAD were all observed in the cadmium-treated chick embryos although lead acetate seemed to inhibit the ALAD activity more effectively than cadmium acetate.

  18. Late metabolic changes in broiler chicks after irradiation of setting eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falis, M.; Striskova, K.; Dvorak, P.

    2006-01-01

    In our experiment setting eggs of broiler chicks were exposed to single dose of gamma radiation (0.25 Gy) before putting into hatcher. Analyses were performed in chicks, 51-day old, after hatching. Statistically significant decrease in glucose concentration and ALT activity and increase in serum total proteins in chicks that were exposed to irradiation during embryonal stage of development were recorded. Irradiation of chicks in this stage with low doses of ionising radiation may significantly influence the metabolism of individuals in subsequent developmental periods. (authors)

  19. Experimental vaccination of chicks with Plasmodium gallinaceum sporozoites. I. Circumsporozoite proteins are expressed by sporozoites recovered from both salivary glands and midguts of mosquitoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daher, V.R.; Krettli, A.U.

    1987-01-01

    Immunogenicity of Plasmodium gallinaceum sporozoites for chicks and their in vitro reactivity with normal and specific immune sera were studied. Two sporozoite populations recovered from experimentally infected Aedes fluviatilis were used: sporozoites from salivary glands and sporozoites from midgut oocysts. Populations seven to nine days old of sporozoites recovered from salivary glands were infective for all chicks until the chicks were three weeks old; however, sporozoites recovered from midguts containing oocysts infected these chicks only if isolated on days 8-9, but not on day 7 after the mosquitoes' infective blood meal. Infectivity of the sporozoites was lost after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light (30 min) or X-rays (13 krad). Inactivated sporozoites from both sources proved highly immunogenic to chicks that were immunized by several intravenous or intramuscular injections. These parasites elicited a strong humoral immune response in the chicks, as measured by the circumsporozoite precipitation (CSP) reaction. The levels of the CSP antibodies were similar with sporozoites from both sources, there being no detectable differences in the percentage of reactive sporozoites or the intensity of the CSP reaction with sera containing antibodies to either sporozoites from salivary glands or sporozoites from oocysts. These results provide the first evidence that avian malaria sporozoites express the circumsporozoite protein that has been extensively characterized in mammalian malaria (rodent, simian, human sporozoites). Furthermore, we observed that the yields of sporozoites obtained from mosquito midguts, on days 8 and 9 of the P. gallinaceum infection, were at least twice as great as those obtained by salivary gland dissection, even 20 days after a blood meal

  20. Productive Performance of Broiler after Pre and /or Post-hatching Injection of Thyroid and Growth Hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamal, M.H.; El-Gendi, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    A total number of 1340 eggs from Arbor Acres parent breed were used in this study. Eggs were divided into two division according to the incubation relative humidity (48% and 52%). Eggs of each division were than subdivided into ten groups, eggs of 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd groups were injected with 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15μg eltroxin, respectively, those of the 4 th , 5 th and 6 th groups were injected with 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mg Carbimazole, respectively, while eggs of the 7 th , 8 th and 9 th groups were injected with 0.005, 0.02 and 0.04 I.U. growth hormone, respectively. Eggs of the 10 th group were injected with distilled water and used as control group. Each group was divided into two divisions, eggs of the first division were injected just before incubation (into the air cell) and those of the second division were injected at the 9 th day of incubation period (into the embryonic allantoic cavity). A total number of 960 hatched chicks were randomly selected (24 chicks of cach group), wing banded, individually weighted, vaccinated and standard conditions of management, environment, hygiene and nutrition

  1. Irradiated eggs and chicks in broilers: 3- carcass and blood parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebaita, M.K.; Abdelaal, A.E.; Fahmy, M.O.; Ezzat, I.E.; EL-Barkouky, E.E.; Salem, M.A.I.

    1991-01-01

    This study was carried out on 200 broiler chicks (Hcbbard) representing 3 groups of non-irradiated, irradiated eggs and 4-day-old irradiated chicks (exposed to gamma rays of Co-60). The doses used were 500 and 1000 rad.Half the chickens within each group and within each dose level were treated with vitamin C (50 mg/chick/day) in the drinking water. Carcass analysis, giblets weight and some blood parameters were measured individually in five chicks from each group at 2,4,5 and 6 weeks of age. The data revealed that the exposure of either eggs or chicks to gamma-rays induced a highly significant decrease in liver, heart and gizzard weights. The effect was more pronounced in the irradiated chicks than that in the chicks of irradiated eggs particularly at the dose level of 1000 rad. Except few sporadic cases noticed at different age intervals, no appreciable changes in either carcass chemical analysis (water, fat, protein and ash contents) or blood parameters (RBCs, Hb, PCV, Ca, P, cholesterol, total protein, albumin and globulin) were observed. It seems that the giblets were more sensitive to and reflect the hazardous effects of ionizing radiation than carcass chemical analysis and/or Blood parameters

  2. Animal experiment and clinical preliminary application of percutaneous 70% ethanol injection therapy in multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fuquan; Yue Zhendong; Gao Shunyu; Li YanSheng; Wei Guobin; Guo Weiyi; Chen Xijun; Li Baoyu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of percutaneous injection of 70% ethanol in the treatment of multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: Percutaneous and transcatheter absolute ethanol, 70% ethanol, and 60% meglucamine diatrizoate(or distilled water) injection into the lung (25 cases) and the bronchi (25 cases) of healthy rabbits were performed, respectively.All specimens were studied with pathology. On the base of animals experiment, thirty-five patients with multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis were treated with percutaneous 70% ethanol injection. Every patient was treated by the same way for 1-3 times. Results: Pathological findings of the specimens of pulmonary tissue showed nonspecific inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis. The chief pathological changes with percutaneous or transcatheter 70% ethanol injection were slighter than those with absolute ethanol injection. Pathological findings of the specimens of bronchi showed slight mucosal edema, nonspecific inflammation, and focal cytonecrosis. Recovery of the damaged bronchial mucosa occurred within 14-30 days after the treatment. All patients with multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis were followed up for 6 to 33 months. The sputum bacterial conversion to negative rate was 100% within 6 months after the treatment. Cavity closing, shrinking, and no changing rate were 47.1% (16/34), 50.0% (17/34), and 2.9% (1/34), respectively. Radiographic improvement rate was 94.3 % (33/35). No severe complications and adverse reactions occurred. Conclusion: Percutaneous 70% ethanol injection is safe, effective, and easy to perform in the treatment of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. (authors)

  3. Opposing roles for GABAA and GABAC receptors in short-term memory formation in young chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, M E; Johnston, G A R

    2005-01-01

    The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA has both inhibitory and enhancing effects on short-term memory for a bead discrimination task in the young chick. Low doses of GABA (1-3 pmol/hemisphere) injected into the multimodal association area of the chick forebrain, inhibit strongly reinforced memory, whereas higher doses (30-100 pmol/hemisphere) enhance weakly reinforced memory. The effect of both high and low doses of GABA is clearly on short-term memory in terms of both the time of injection and in the time that the memory loss occurs. We argue on the basis of relative sensitivities to GABA and to selective GABA receptor antagonists that low doses of GABA act at GABAC receptors (EC50 approximately 1 microM) and the higher doses of GABA act via GABAA receptors (EC50 approximately 10 microM). The selective GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline inhibited strongly reinforced memory in a dose and time dependent manner, whereas the selective GABAC receptor antagonists TPMPA and P4MPA enhanced weakly reinforced in a dose and time dependent manner. Confirmation that different levels of GABA affect different receptor subtypes was demonstrated by the shift in the GABA dose-response curves to the selective antagonists. It is clear that GABA is involved in the control of short-term memory formation and its action, enhancing or inhibiting, depends on the level of GABA released at the time of learning.

  4. In-vivo effect of Lithospermum ruderale on LHRH activity in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, F.J.; Breneman, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Lithospermum (LSPM) plant extracts can inhibit gonadotropin action in mammals and birds. The experiments reported in this paper were performed to note the possible effect of LSPM on the ability of LHRH to stimulate 32 P testis uptake in immature chicks. LHRH injected 2 h before autopsy significantly increased 32 P uptake in these animals. Water extracts of Lithospermum ruderale roots were administered subcutaneously at various concentrations and times before LHRH. LSPM injections of 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mg equivalents of dried material given 10 h before LHRH significantly suppressed the releasing hormone effect. 4.0 mg LSPM was not inhibitory at 16, 22, 38 or 46 h before LHRH. Interestingly, LHRH had a greater effect, as measured by 32 P testis uptake, when given to these latter 3 groups then when given to controls. This suggests that LSPM may have prevented the release but not the synthesis of anterior pituitary gonadotropins

  5. Chick stem cells: Current progress and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarapat, Sittipon; Stern, Claudio D.

    2013-01-01

    Chick embryonic stem cells (cESCs) can be derived from cells obtained from stage X embryos (blastoderm stage); these have the ability to contribute to all somatic lineages in chimaeras, but not to the germ line. However, lines of stem cells that are able to contribute to the germ line can be established from chick primordial germ cells (cPGCs) and embryonic germ cells (cEGCs). This review provides information on avian stem cells, emphasizing different sources of cells and current methods for derivation and culture of pluripotent cells from chick embryos. We also review technologies for isolation and derivation of chicken germ cells and the production of transgenic birds. PMID:24103496

  6. Heavier chicks at hatch improves marketing body weight by enhancing skeletal muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklan, D; Heifetz, S; Halevy, O

    2003-11-01

    This study examined some of the factors connected with the greater marketing weight observed in chicks hatching with higher BW. Examination of chicks hatching from maternal flocks of different ages indicated that BW at hatch increased quadratically and yolk sac weight linearly with age, whereas components of the gastrointestinal tract showed no significant trend. Growth of pectoralis muscles and gastrointestinal tract were compared in chicks hatching at the same weight from maternal flocks of 28 and 64 wk of age and in chicks from the same maternal flock (44 wk old) hatching at different weights. The results indicated that no differences were found among chicks hatching with the same weight from maternal flocks of different ages. In contrast, in chicks from the same maternal flock hatching at different weights the gastrointestinal tract tended to compose a smaller proportion of BW in large chicks, and its growth was not correlated with performance. Liver proportions were greater in heavier chicks. Pectoralis growth and satellite cell numbers and activity were greater in heavier chicks through 5 d posthatch, and pectoralis muscles were heavier at marketing. Examination of some of the growth factors involved suggested that in heavier chicks satellite cells underwent higher proliferation and earlier differentiation during their critical period of activity in the immediate posthatch days. To determine when these differences in activity were established, examination of 15-d embryonic myoblast activity indicated that at this stage activity was already greater in the heavier eggs. This finding suggests that programming of muscle growth may be completed in late embryonic stages. This study suggests that enhanced satellite cell activity is involved in increased growth of chicks hatching with higher BW.

  7. Proanthocyanidins Prevent High Glucose-Induced Eye Malformation by Restoring Pax6 Expression in Chick Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Rong Tan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is one of the leading causes of offspring malformations, in which eye malformation is an important disease. It has raised demand for therapy to improve fetal outcomes. In this study, we used chick embryo to establish a GDM model to study the protective effects of proanthocyanidins on eye development. Chick embryos were exposed to high glucose (0.2 mmol/egg on embryo development day (EDD 1. Proanthocyanidins (1 and 10 nmol/egg were injected into the air sac on EDD 0. Results showed that both dosages of proanthocyanidins could prevent the eye malformation and rescue the high glucose-induced oxidative stress significantly, which the similar effects were showed in edaravone. However, proanthocyanidins could not decrease the glucose concentration of embryo eye. Moreover, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, was down-regulated by high glucose. Proanthocyanidins could restore the suppressed expression of Pax6. These results indicated proanthocyanidins might be a promising natural agent to prevent high glucose-induced eye malformation by restoring Pax6 expression.

  8. Responses of commercial broiler chicks to /sup 60/Co gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shebaita, M.K.; Kamar, G.A.R.; El-Barkouky, E.E.M.

    1981-12-01

    A total of 360 chicks of Nichols line at one-day old were used in this study. Within each sex, the chicks were divided into three exposure treatments (non-irradiated, 400 rads and 800 rads). The source of irradiation was /sup 60/Co gamma rays. The results can be summarized as follows: Of the 360 chicks used in this study, only 10 chicks died during the experimental period. Radiation induced a reduction in body weight in both sexes during the growth period. Gamma rays reduce the feed intake in both sexes. Moreover, the feed conversion ratio for the irradiated chicks was higher than that the non-irradiated birds. While red blood cells and hemoglobin content were higher in the irradiated chicks, white blood cells count and especially lymphocytes were not affected by /sup 60/Co gamma rays. Gamma rays had no effect on carcass, bone, meat and giblets as fractions of body weight in both sexes. Moreover, meat water content decreased and meat fat content increased in irradiated chicks. The total length and the total weight of the GI tract decreased due to /sup 60/Co gamma rays. The response of the different regions of the GI tract to these rays is different. Moreover, the effect of this radiation on the GI tract is dependent upon the body weight irrespective of the sex.

  9. Growth of Audouin's gull chicks: the role of prehatch and posthatch factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Villuendas

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We compared the growth rates of Audouin´s Gull (Larus audouinii chicks from the Ebro Delta and Columbretes Islands. Chicks from the Columbretes Islands were reared in captivity and fed ad libitum. Wild chicks from the Ebro Delta weighed more than chicks hatched from Columbretes eggs but attained a lower weight at fledging. Chicks from Columbretes eggs hatched with a longer wing length but rates did not differ between samples during the early stages of growth. Eggs from the Ebro Delta were significantly larger than eggs from Columbretes. Hence, differences in growth appeared not to be related to differences in egg size (prehatch factor but only in parental quality (posthatch factor through the amount of food delivered to chicks. These differences could be due to the incapacity of parents to provide enough food during the last stages of chick development, in part because of reduced food availability at the Ebro Delta during the study period. Alternatively, differences could be attributed to a trade-off between present and future reproduction. Demographic consequences of reduced food availability for the 1993 Ebro Delta cohort should be explored in future work.

  10. Temperature manipulation during layer chick embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstra, I; Ten Napel, J; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2010-07-01

    The current study investigated the effects of temperature manipulation (TM) during late embryogenesis on temperature preference, response to high environmental temperature, behavior, and performance in young layer chicks. Control (CC) embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8 degrees C eggshell temperature throughout incubation. Thermally manipulated embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8 degrees C eggshell temperature throughout incubation and were exposed to 40 degrees C for 4 h/d from embryonic d 14 to 18 (TM chicks). After hatch, chicks from each treatment were divided into 3 subgroups (n = 32 per group) and were subjected to a temperature preference test at d 1, 7, or 33. One day after the temperature preference test, each subgroup was exposed to 1 thermal challenge for 4 h (d 2, 40 degrees C; d 8, 40 degrees C; or d 34, 35 degrees C). Effects of TM on (fearfulness) behavior of chicks were investigated in a tonic immobility test and during home pen observations. Temperature manipulation decreased incubation time with 7 h (P preferred a lower ambient temperature in the temperature preference test (P preference and response to high environmental temperatures are only found until d 8 of age. This may suggest 1 of 3 options: a) the timing or the level, or both, of TM and duration were not at the sensitive period of embryogenesis or not sufficient, or both, respectively; b) the level of the postnatal thermal challenge was not strong enough to induce a hyperthermic response; and c) the postnatal effects of TM in layers are limited in time.

  11. The Impact of in ovo Injection of Silver Nanoparticles, Thyme and Savory Extracts in Broiler Breeder eggs on Growth Performance, Lymphoid-Organ Weights, and Blood and Immune Parameters of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki AA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of in ovo injection of nano-silver, thyme and savory extracts in broiler breeder eggs on growth performance, lymphoid organ weights, immune and blood parameters and bone mineral concentration of broiler chicks. A total of 560 fertilized broiler breeder eggs were divided into 7 groups. On d 5 of incubation, eggs were treated with the following groups. Group 1 (control, no injection; group 2 (placebo, 1 mL of 0.9% NaCl; group 3 and 4 (placebo + 30 and 45 mg of nano-silver, respectively; group 5 and 6 (placebo + 75 and 100 mg of thyme, respectively and group 7 (placebo + 75 mg of savory. After hatch, chickens were fed a corn-soybean meal diet under the controlled conditions and slaughtered at 14 and 21 d of age for sample collection and analysis. The lymphoid-organ weights and growth rate were not affected by dietary treatments at 14 and 21 d of age. The results also showed that nano-silver injected into broiler breeder eggs during incubation improved the bone mineral concentration and cell-mediated immunity at 14 and 21 d of age, respectively. Humoral immunity was improved by thyme and savory extracts (P < 0.05. Overall, the effect of in ovo injection of nano-silver, thyme and savory extracts during embryonic development is a potential means to improve immune activities of broiler chickens, while does not have any detrimental effect on embryo hatchability.

  12. Morphogenesis and calcification of the statoconia in the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo - Implications for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    The morphogenesis of the statoconia in the chick, Gallus domesticus, injected with a carbon anhydrase inhibitor is studied. The preparation of the embryo specimens for analysis is described. The early, middle, and late stages of embryonic development are examined. The data reveal that acetozolamide inhibits statoconia formation in the middle stage of development and the calcification process follows statoconia formation. The spatial relationship between the development of type 1 and type 2 hair cells and the appearance and maturation of the statoconia is investigated.

  13. Development of homeothermy in chicks of sub-Antarctic burrowing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On average, chicks of grey petrels, great-winged petrels and Salvin's prions attained homeothermy within five days of hatching, but some individuals exhibited well-developed homeothermy within 24 h of hatching. Chicks demonstrated a high capacity for heat production and maximum cold-induced oxygen consumptions ...

  14. Astrovirus-induced "white chicks" condition - field observation, virus detection and preliminary characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajewicz-Krukowska, Joanna; Pać, Krzysztof; Lisowska, Anna; Pikuła, Anna; Minta, Zenon; Króliczewska, Bożena; Domańska-Blicharz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Chicken astrovirus (CAstV) was recently indicated as the factor of the "white chicks" condition associated not only with increased embryo/chick mortality but also with weakness and white plumage of hatched chicks. In February 2014, organ samples (livers and kidneys) from dead-in-shell embryos, as well as 1-day-old whitish and normal chicks, were delivered from one hatchery in Poland for disease diagnosis. The samples originated from the same 30-week-old breeder flock in which the only observed abnormal signs were 4-5% decrease in the number of hatched chickens and the presence (about 1%) of weaker chicks with characteristic whitish plumage among normal ones. CAstV was detected in submitted samples and was then isolated in 10-day-old embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. We also reproduced an infection model for the "white chicks" condition in SPF layer chickens using the isolated PL/G059/2014 strain as the infectious agent. Results of experimental reproduction of the "white chicks" condition were somewhat more serious than field observation. The administration of the CAstV material into the yolk sac of 8-day-old SPF chicken eggs caused delay and prolongation of hatching, as well as death of embryos/chicks, and also a change of plumage pigmentation. Only two chicks of a total of 10 inoculated SPF eggs survived and were observed for 2 months. A gradual elimination of the CAstV genome was noted in this period. Moreover, a few contact-naive SPF chicks, which had been placed in the same cage, were infected with CAstV. Molecular characterization of detected CAstV was performed by nucleotide sequencing of the full ORF2 region encoding the capsid precursor protein gene. Phylogenetic studies showed that the PL/G059/2014 isolate clustered in the subgroup Aiii of CAstV. In the light of the new classification rules, the Polish PL/G059/2014 CAstV isolate could be assigned to a new species of the Avastrovirus genus.

  15. Sex identification of Nigerian indigenous chicks using Auto-sexing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexing has been a challenging task in Nigerian indigenous chickens due to the monomorphism of chicks which makes it impossible to distinguish the male from the female until eight weeks. . Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the sex of Nigerian indigenous chicks using the common auto-sexing methods.

  16. Development of homeothermy in chicks of sub-Antarctic burrowing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-05-06

    May 6, 1988 ... temperatures at low ambient temperatures soon after hatching (Farner ... intervals during the experiment. Chamber .... chicks in each age class used in the experiments. (figures in ..... dence in chicks at a relatively low metabolic cost com- pared to that which ... knowledge of heat transfer physics. We thank ...

  17. Responses of broiler chicks to radiation processed full-fat rapeseed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, El-Din Diaa.M.; Abd El-Hakeim, N.F.; Ali, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine a safe inclusion for full-fat rapeseed processed through radiation treatment, as a step towards detoxification, in broiler chick's diet. Raw and processed full-fat seeds (10 and 20 KGy) were fed to arbor acres broiler chicks from 7 d of 49 d of age. Body weight of chicks fed the control diet were heaviest followed in order against those fed seed irradiated at 20 and 10 KGy weight depression relative to birds fed, over the experimental duration, of chicks fed diets containing raw and irradiated rapeseed at 10 and 20 KGy were-11.2, - 7.2 and - 0.14%, respectively. In general, the study indicates that processed seeds at 20 KGy fed to broilers resulted in body weights (7 wk) similar to the control birds. leg abnormalities were seen in birds fed raw and irradiated rapeseed at 10 and 20 KGy to be 31.1, 17.8 and 8.9%, respectively. Mortality rate of birds fed raw seeds was more pronounced than those fed the irradiated seeds. Birds fed raw seeds showed thyroid and liver enlargement. Processed seeds at 10 and 20 KGy reduced the effect on these organs. Feeding chicks irradiated seed at 10 and 20 KGy did not normalize the weight of thyroid and liver. Meanwhile, there is no significant difference in relative weight of gizzard, pancreas, heart and kidney of chicks fed control diet and those fed irradiated seeds

  18. Kidnapping of chicks in emperor penguins: a hormonal by-product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Barbraud, Christophe; Lormée, Hervé; Prud'homme, François; Chastel, Olivier

    2006-04-01

    The function and causes of kidnapping juveniles are little understood because individuals sustain some breeding costs to rear an unrelated offspring. Here we focus on the proximal causes of this behaviour in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), whose failed breeders often kidnap chicks. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that kidnapping behaviour was the result of high residual levels of prolactin (PRL), a hormone involved in parental behaviour. Penguins with artificially decreased PRL levels by bromocriptine administration kidnapped chicks less often than control penguins. Within the bromocriptine treated group, kidnapping behaviour was not totally suppressed and the probability of kidnapping a chick was positively correlated to PRL levels measured before treatment. During breeding, emperor penguins have to forage in remote ice-free areas. In these birds, PRL secretion is poorly influenced by chick stimuli and has probably evolved to maintain a willingness to return to the colony after a long absence at sea. Therefore, penguins that have lost their chick during a foraging trip still maintain high residual PRL levels and this, combined with colonial breeding, probably facilitates kidnapping. We suggest that kidnapping in non-cooperative systems may result from a hormonal byproduct of a reproductive adaptation to extreme conditions.

  19. Detour behaviour, imprinting and visual lateralization in the domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, G; Regolin, L; Pagni, P

    1999-01-01

    Detour behaviour was studied in chicks faced with a vertical-bar barrier behind where an imprinting object (a red ball) was located. Right-eyed chicks took less time to detour the barrier than left-eyed chicks, and binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the left side, thus maintaining visual contact with the imprinting object using the lateral field of the right eye, while circling around the barrier. In males, the asymmetries were consistent all along the first two weeks of life, whereas in females they disappeared on days 8 and 11. When tested with a slightly novel version of the original imprinting object (i.e., a ball of a different color), binocular chicks showed a bias to detour the barrier on the right side, thus showing preferential use of the left eye. The same bias occurred when unfamiliar conspecifics were used as goal-objects. Results suggest that cerebral lateralization in birds can directly affect visually-guided motor responses through selective use of the lateral field of vision of the eye contralateral to the hemisphere which has to be put in charge of control of overt behaviour. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmen, Tuula; Rudbaeck, Eeva

    2004-01-01

    The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. - Elevated DDE/PCB ratio correlates with a high rate of chick diseases in the endangered nominate lesser black-backed gull

  1. Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmen, Tuula; Rudbaeck, Eeva

    2004-02-01

    The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. - Elevated DDE/PCB ratio correlates with a high rate of chick diseases in the endangered nominate lesser black-backed gull.

  2. The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination with Newcastle Disease Virus. ... G A El-Tayeb, M Y El-Ttegani, I E Hajer, M A Mohammed ... This study was conducted to determine the persistence of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in newly hatched chicks and the ...

  3. Development of teeth in chick embryos after mouse neural crest transplantations

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsiadis, Thimios A.; Chéraud, Yvonnick; Sharpe, Paul; Fontaine-Pérus, Josiane

    2003-01-01

    Teeth were lost in birds 70–80 million years ago. Current thinking holds that it is the avian cranial neural crest-derived mesenchyme that has lost odontogenic capacity, whereas the oral epithelium retains the signaling properties required to induce odontogenesis. To investigate the odontogenic capacity of ectomesenchyme, we have used neural tube transplantations from mice to chick embryos to replace the chick neural crest cell populations with mouse neural crest cells. The mouse/chick ...

  4. Zinc bioavailability in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempe, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic 65 Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%

  5. Plasma thyroid hormone pattern in king penguin chicks: a semi-altricial bird with an extended posthatching developmental period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherel, Yves; Durant, Joël M; Lacroix, André

    2004-05-01

    Plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones (TH) were investigated during the extended posthatching developmental period (approximately 11 months) of a semi-altricial bird species, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). The first period of growth in summer was marked by a progressive rise in plasma T4 concentration that paralleled rapid increases in body mass and in structural and down growth. By contrast, plasma T3 concentration had already reached adult levels in newly hatched chicks and did not change thereafter. Circulating TH of king penguin chicks thus follow an original pattern when comparing to altricial and precocial species. During the austral winter, the long period of undernutrition of king penguin chicks was characterized by a decrease in circulating TH that can be related to a seasonal stop in growth and energy saving mechanisms. Plasma TH concentrations increased again during the second growth phase in spring, and they reached their highest levels at the end of the fledging period, slightly before juveniles initiated their first foraging trip at sea. As expected, plasma T4 levels were elevated when chicks moulted, developing a true-adult type waterproof plumage. The data also suggest that T4 plays a major role in skeletal development and pectoral muscle maturation in anticipation of marine life. Plasma T3 was at its highest during the period when juveniles improved resistance to cold waters by going back and forth to the sea, suggesting a role for circulating T3 in cold acclimatization occurring at that time.

  6. Effects of Injected Methylmercury on the Hatching of Common Loon (Gavia immer) Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the level of in ovo methylmercury (MeHg) exposure that results in detrimental effects on fitness and survival of loon embryos and hatched chicks, we conducted a field study in which we injected eggs with various doses of MeHg on day 4 of incubation. Eggs were collect...

  7. Survival costs of chick rearing in black-legged kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golet, Gregory H.; Irons, David B.; Estes, James A.

    1998-01-01

    1. We tested for costs of chick rearing in the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus) by removing entire clutches from 149 of 405 randomly selected nests, in which one or both mates was colour-banded. After the manipulation, we monitored adult nest attendance and body condition at unmanipulated and manipulated nests, and measured the survival and fecundity of these adults the following year.2. Late in the chick-rearing period, adults from unmanipulated nests (i.e. with chicks) went on significantly longer foraging trips, and were significantly lighter for their size, than adults from manipulated nests (i.e. without chicks).3. Adults from unmanipulated nests also survived to the following nesting season at a significantly lower rate than those from the manipulated nests (0·898 vs. 0·953), suggesting that attempting to raise chicks can reduce life expectancy by 55%.4. There was a tendency for adults from nests that were unmanipulated in year one to have lower reproductive success in year two, primarily because of reduced fledging success, and a higher incidence of non-breeding.5. These findings suggest that mass loss in kittiwakes during chick rearing may not be adaptive. Raising chicks can lead to reproductive costs, and the causal mechanism appears to be a reduction in body condition.6. We compare our results with previous brood (or clutch) size manipulation experiments that have measured adult body condition, survival and/or future fecundity. Although the empirical evidence suggests that long-lived species are more likely to experience survival costs than short-lived species, we believe the opposite may be true. We suggest that shifting the experimental protocol of cost of reproduction studies from brood enlargements (an approach taken in most prior studies) to brood reductions will provide more accurate quantifications of naturally occurring costs.7. The cost of reproduction is one mechanism proposed to explain the reduced survival rates reported

  8. Effects of L-thyroxine on plasma biochemistry in broiler chicks (Gallus gallus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.A.; Siddiqui, Z.H.; Imran, M.; Ahsan, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of a single intraperitoneal injection of a low dose (1 mu g/g) and a high dose (4 mu /g) of thyroxine (T 4) were investigated with time on plasma metabolites in broiler (Hubbard) chicks. Plasma total proteins, albumin fraction, glucose and triglyceride levels were decreased significantly in both experimental groups. The plasma cholesterol values remained almost comparable with controls during the early stages of the experiment but after 72 hours of the experiment higher dose of T 4 resulted in a significant (p<0.01) decrease followed by significant (p<0.05) increase in the same experimental group. The plasma albumin fraction decreased significantly in animals injected with higher dose of T/sub 4/ after 24 hours and the same trend continue even after 72 hour of the experiment. Plasma uric acid values were significantly decreased in group administered with lower dose of T/sub 4/ after 12 hours of the post injection time. However in animals administered with higher dose of thyroid hormone reflected a significant increase in plasma uric acid levels after 12 hours of the experiment and its levels were significantly decreased after 48 hours. The results are discussed in the light of previous reports of thyroid hormones and their physiological implications in different vertebrate groups. (author)

  9. Performance of broiler chicks fed on irradiated full-fat soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaa El-Din, M.; Farag, H.; Abd El-Hakeim, N.F.; Ali, S.Y.

    1999-01-01

    A N experiment was conducted to evaluate physiological and biochemical responses of arbor chicks from 7 to 49 days fed on diets containing raw and full-fat soybeans processed at 20 and 50 KGy. The results demonstrate that feeding chicks on raw soybeans significantly depressed growth rate and increased feed intake. A significant thyroid, liver, pancreas and gizzard enlargement were also noticed, in addition a significant reduction was found in total plasma protein and albumin during the experimental period. These responses were not as pronounced as when soybeans irradiated at 20 KGy were fad. Soybeans processed at 50 KGy markedly reduced trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinating agent (71% and 87%, respectively) and resulted in improved chick performance and normalized thyroid, liver, pancreas and gizzard weight and total plasma protein and albumin concentrations. Plasma transaminase activities were similar in all chicks during the experimental period. The improvement in performance of groups fed processed soybeans was the correlated with reduction of trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinating agent. It is concluded that the radiation processing of soybeans up to 50 KGy is sufficiently suitable to have potential in the feed industry without any deleterious effect on chicks' performance as evidenced by the physiological and biochemical responses

  10. Spontaneous generalization of abstract multimodal patterns in young domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versace, Elisabetta; Spierings, Michelle J; Caffini, Matteo; Ten Cate, Carel; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2017-05-01

    From the early stages of life, learning the regularities associated with specific objects is crucial for making sense of experiences. Through filial imprinting, young precocial birds quickly learn the features of their social partners by mere exposure. It is not clear though to what extent chicks can extract abstract patterns of the visual and acoustic stimuli present in the imprinting object, and how they combine them. To investigate this issue, we exposed chicks (Gallus gallus) to three days of visual and acoustic imprinting, using either patterns with two identical items or patterns with two different items, presented visually, acoustically or in both modalities. Next, chicks were given a choice between the familiar and the unfamiliar pattern, present in either the multimodal, visual or acoustic modality. The responses to the novel stimuli were affected by their imprinting experience, and the effect was stronger for chicks imprinted with multimodal patterns than for the other groups. Interestingly, males and females adopted a different strategy, with males more attracted by unfamiliar patterns and females more attracted by familiar patterns. Our data show that chicks can generalize abstract patterns by mere exposure through filial imprinting and that multimodal stimulation is more effective than unimodal stimulation for pattern learning.

  11. Simultaneous oral administration of Salmonella Infantis and S. Typhimurium in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koichi; Maeda-Mitani, Eriko; Onozuka, Daisuke; Noda, Tamie; Sera, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Fujimoto, Shuji; Murakami, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    To confirm the hypothesis that Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar ( S. ) Infantis has higher basic reproductive rates in chicks compared with other Salmonella serovars, 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks ( n  = 8) were challenged simultaneously with S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium per os . Challenged chicks (Group A) were then housed with non-infected chicks (Group B, n  = 4) for 6 days (from 2 to 8 days of age). Group B birds were then housed with other non-infected birds (Group C, n  = 4), which were then transferred to cages containing a further group of untreated chicks (Group D, n  = 2). A control group consisting of four non-infected chicks was used for comparison. All chickens were humanely sacrificed at 18 days of age, and Salmonella from bowel and liver samples were enumerated. Both serovars were isolated from all groups except the control group. S. Typhimurium was isolated at a greater frequency than S. Infantis from the bowel samples of chicks from Groups B, C and D, while no differences in colonisation rates were observed between the two serovars in liver samples from Groups B, C and D. S. Typhimurium, but not S. Infantis, was immunohistochemically detected in the lamina propria of the cecum and rectum in five birds of Group A. Despite the competitive administration, neither of the two serovars completely excluded the other, and no differences were observed in basic reproductive rates between the two serovars. These findings, together with data from previous studies, suggest that the initial quantitative domination of S. Infantis in chicken flocks may explain why this serovar is predominant in broiler chickens.

  12. Ethical euthanasia and short-term anesthesia of the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, Ewa; Herr, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized chicken eggs are suggested as an alternative to mammalian models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick embryo is widely used for examination of angiogenesis, xenotransplants and for virus production. Unfortunately, it is mostly not taken into account, that the chick embryo's ability to experience pain starts to develop at day 7 of breeding. In our view, this model is only in accordance with the 3 R principles, if an appropriate anesthesia of the chick embryo in potentially painful procedures is provided. Although many experimental approaches are performed on the none-innervated CAM, the euthanasia of the embryo strongly requires a more human technique than the usually used freezing at -20°C, decapitation or in ovo fixation with paraformaldehyde without prior anesthesia. However, protocols regarding feasible and ethical methods for anesthesia and euthanasia of avian embryos are currently not available. Therefore, we established an easy and reliable method for the euthanasia and short-term anesthesia of the chick embryo.

  13. Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

  14. Correlation between mixed-function oxidase enzyme induction and aflatoxin B1-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in the chick embryo, in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.W.; Bloom, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    The unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) technique has been adapted for use in the chick embryo, in vivo, to determine the relationship between induction of the mixed-function oxidase (MFO) enzyme system and genetic damage from an indirect-acting mutagen-carcinogen. Embryos were injected at 6 days of incubation (DI) with either phenobarbital (PB), a specific inducer of P-450-associated enzyme activities, or 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB), a specific inducer of P 1 -450-associated enzyme activities. Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB1) was injected 24 hr later (7 DI), followed by a 5-hr continuous 3 H-thymidine exposure. The livers were removed, prepared for autoradiography, and hepatocytes were scored for an increase in grains/nucleus, indicative of UDS. Aflatoxin B 1 caused a dose-related increase in UDS in all control and induction groups. Phenobarbital-induced embryos had an increased UDS response while TCB-induced embryos had a decreased UDS response, relative to noninduced embryos, for each dosage of AFB1. This suggests that the genotoxicity of an indirect-acting mutagen-carcinogen can be either increased or decreased, in vivo, depending on the inducer used. The chick embryo provides an excellent system for studying the effect of MFO induction on the genotoxicity of promutagen-carcinogens in a developing system

  15. Corticosteroid injections, eccentric decline squat training and heavy slow resistance training in patellar tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M.; Kovanen, V.; Aagaard, P.

    2009-01-01

    A randomized-controlled single-blind trial was conducted to investigate the clinical, structural and functional effects of peritendinous corticosteroid injections (CORT), eccentric decline squat training (ECC) and heavy slow resistance training (HSR) in patellar tendinopathy. Thirty-nine male...

  16. Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmén, Tuula; Rudbäck, Eeva

    2004-01-01

    The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed.

  17. Chick Development and Asynchroneous Hatching in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Maki; Okanoya, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2017-10-01

    The mode of hatching in birds has important impacts on both parents and chicks, including the costs and risks of breeding for parents, and sibling competition in a clutch. Birds with multiple eggs in a single clutch often begin incubating when most eggs are laid, thereby reducing time of incubation, nursing burden, and sibling competition. In some songbirds and some other species, however, incubation starts immediately after the first egg is laid, and the chicks thus hatch asynchronously. This may result in differences in parental care and in sibling competition based on body size differences among older and younger chicks, which in turn might produce asynchronous development among siblings favoring the first hatchling, and further affect the development and fitness of the chicks after fledging. To determine whether such processes in fact occur in the zebra finch, we observed chick development in 18 clutches of zebra finches. We found that there were effects of asynchronous hatching, but these were smaller than expected and mostly not significant. Our observations suggest that the amount of care given to each chick may be equated with such factors as a camouflage effect of the down feathers, and that the low illumination within the nest also complicates the determination of the hatching order by the parents.

  18. Investigation of an outbreak of craniofacial deformity in yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, K N; Young, M J; Alley, M R

    2014-09-01

    To investigate an outbreak of severe craniofacial deformity in yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes, hōiho) chicks at a single breeding site on the Otago Peninsula in the South Island of New Zealand. Morbidity and mortality of yellow-eyed penguins breeding on the coastal regions of Otago was monitored from November 2008 to March 2009. Dead chicks and unhatched eggs were recovered and examined. Between October and December 2008 32 eggs were recorded at 17 nests in the Okia Reserve. Eleven chicks survived to about 90 days of age, of which eight were found to have moderate to severe craniofacial deformity. The six most severe chicks were subject to euthanasia and examined in detail at necropsy, and the remaining two affected chicks were released to the wild after a period of care in a rehabilitation centre. Post-mortem samples were analysed for inorganic and organic toxins. The six deformed chicks all had severe shortening of the mandible and maxilla by 20-50 mm. The rostral and caudal regions of the skull were approximately 40 and 80% of normal length, respectively. Other, more variable lesions included cross bill deformity, malformed bill keratin, microphthalmia with misshapen scleral ossicles and oral soft tissue excess thought to be secondary to bony malformations. During the same year, mild sporadic bill deformities were also reported in 10 unrelated chicks from >167 chicks at other breeding sites on the southern Otago coast. Concentrations of organic toxins and heavy metals in body tissues from affected chicks were apparently similar to those in unaffected chicks on other beaches. No cause of this outbreak of craniofacial deformity could be established although the high prevalence at a single site suggests that it was due to an unidentified local teratogen.

  19. Ontogeny of thermoregulatory mechanisms in king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchamp, Claude; Rouanet, Jean Louis; Barré, Hervé

    2002-04-01

    The rapid maturation of thermoregulatory mechanisms may be of critical importance for optimising chick growth and survival and parental energy investment under harsh climatic conditions. The ontogeny of thermoregulatory mechanisms was studied in growing king penguin chicks from hatching to the full emancipation observed at 1 month of age in the sub-Antarctic area (Crozet Archipelago). Newly hatched chicks showed small, but significant regulatory thermogenesis (21% rise in heat production assessed by indirect calorimetry), but rapidly became hypothermic. Within a few days, both resting (+32%) and peak (+52%) metabolic rates increased. The first week of life was characterised by a two-fold rise in thermogenic capacity in the cold, while thermal insulation was not improved. During the second and third weeks of age, thermal insulation markedly rose (two-fold drop in thermal conductance) in relation to down growth, while resting heat production was slightly reduced (-13%). Shivering (assessed by electromyography) was visible right after hatching, although its efficiency was limited. Thermogenic efficiency of shivering increased five-fold with age during the first weeks of life, but there was no sign of non-shivering thermogenesis. We conclude that thermal emancipation of king penguin chicks may be primarily determined by improvement of thermal insulation after thermogenic processes have become sufficiently matured. Both insulative and metabolic adaptations are required for the rapid ontogeny of thermoregulation and thermal emancipation in growing king penguin chicks.

  20. Monitoring phthalates in the tissues of broiler chicks with feedstuffs different phthalate contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Jarošová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of phthalic acid esters (PAE in animal tissues, samples of muscle, mesenteric fat (fat, skin and liver from broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were given commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate contents, or animal fat with a high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K, nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oils or animal fat. The N chicks were given the grower (BR2 and finisher (BR3 diets supplemented with 5% and 3% vegetable oil, respectively. The V chicks were given BR2 and BR3 diets with 5% and 3% vegetable oil, respectively. The Z chicks were given BR2 and BR3 diets with 5% and 3% animal fat, respectively. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were found in the tissues of chicks in all the experimental groups. The DBP content in the muscle ranged from 0.03 to 0.55 mg . kg−1, in the adipose tissue from < 0.20 to 2.56 mg . kg−1, in the skin from < 0.20 to 1.49 mg . kg−1, and in the liver from 0.03 to 0.13 mg . kg−1. The content of DEHP in the muscle ranged from 0.03 to 1.15 mg . kg−1, in the adipose tissue from 0.25 to 9.85 mg . kg−1, in the skin from < 0.20 to 4.68 mg . kg−1, and in the liver from 0.16 to 0.24 mg . kg−1. The highest concentrations of DBP of 1.28 ± 1.00 mg . kg−1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 ± 2.87 mg . kg−1 of fresh sample (mean of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. The accumulation of DEHP was 3.2; 2.6 and 2.9 times higher than that of DBP in the muscle, adipose tissue and skin

  1. The influence of electrical resistivity, magnetic field strength, boundary conditions, and injection conditions on the behavior of the magnetically injected plasma in the PBFA-II opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watrous, J.J.; Frese, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Plasma Opening Switch used on PBFA-II uses a source plasma which is injected into the inter-electrode gap along the field lines of a modest-strength applied poloidal magnetic field. The distribution of this plasma within the gap plays an important role in the behavior of the switch. Knowledge of this distribution is critical for performing relevant switch calculations and for interpreting experimental data. In the work reported here, the influence on that distribution of the plasma electrical resistivity, the applied magnetic field strength, and the boundary and injection conditions have been investigated with the 2 1/2-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation code, MACH2. The injected plasma has density in the 10 14 cm -3 range and temperature in the several eV range. In this parameter regime, the classical collision time scale is on the order of 10 ns, which, when compared to the 100 ns time scale of the inflowing plasma, means that the plasma is classically collisionless. However, mechanisms other than classical collisions are likely to contribute to electrical resistivity. The authors have investigated the effect of an anomalous resistivity which scales with the plasma frequency, varying the scaling from the electron plasma frequency to the ion plasma frequency. They will compare these results with results based on the assumption of an ideal plasma, and discuss other anomalous resistivity models

  2. Study on the effect of aromatase inhibitors and antiestrogens on the sex differentiation of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A Valizadeh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During the development of chick embryo, the genotype of the zygote determines the nature of the gonads, which thereafter creates the male or female phenotype. Differentiation of gonads during the period called “critical period for sexual differentiation “is accompanied with beginning of secretion of sexual hormones. Every change in the rate of steroidal hormones concentration during this critical period, affects on the structure of gonads. Therefore, injection of aromatase inhibitors (which blocks the synthesis of estrogen from testostron in 5th day of incubation into the eggs, causes the production of males with female genotype. These sex reversal females have bilateral testes with complete spermatogenesis, having normal physical appearance and behavior. In this study, 14-α-hydroxy 3,6,17, androstan-trion inhibitor (1mg/egg was injected into the eggs. Furthermore, the effect of three anti-estrogens (which blocks the estrogen receptor Tamoxifen, and Clomiphen Citrate and GAR79 were studied. Injection of aromatase inhibitors into the eggs during incubation period caused statistically significant (p

  3. Social facilitation revisited: increase in foraging efforts and synchronization of running in domestic chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko eOgura

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Social influences on foraging efforts were examined in domestic chicks by investigating the frequency of runs made to feeders and the amount of pecking to gain food. Single or paired chicks foraged in an I-shaped maze equipped with a millet feeder on each end, that distributed one or two grains at variable intervals. Regardless of when the grain(s were dispensed, chicks ran back and forth between the feeders. Analyses of their movement patterns revealed: (1 running patterns were not directly synchronized with the dispensing of grain(s, (2 running distance was longer in paired chicks than in single chicks, (3 paired chicks partially synchronized their runs between feeders, and (4 social effects were immediate but cumulative after repeated blocks. We further examined the social effects on running by dividing the I-maze into two parallel lanes separated by a transparent wall, so that kleptoparasitic interference of food did not occur. Again, the chicks increased their running speed and were even more synchronized with their partner’s movements, indicating that food competition alone was not responsible for increased foraging effort. The number of pecks to get grains was also assessed under conditions where the food tray was gradually replaced, from an easy one to more difficult ones. When tested in the separated I-maze, paired chicks pecked more in the difficult food situation without increase in the number of gained grains. Results suggest that (i social facilitation leads to increased foraging efforts and (ii the presence of a conspecific is alone may lead to enhanced foraging efforts in chicks. These findings are discussed in terms of possible ecological background of social facilitation.

  4. Modeling the marine resources consumed in raising a king penguin chick: an energetics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, L G; Butler, P J; Fahlman, A; Bost, C-A; Woakes, A J; Handrich, Y

    2008-01-01

    Accurate estimates of penguin energetics would represent an important contribution to our understanding of the trophodynamics of the Southern Ocean ecosystem and our ability to predict effects of environmental change on these species. We used the heart rate-rate of oxygen consumption technique to estimate rate of energy expenditure in adult king penguins raising a chick, in combination with data from the literature on changes in adult mass, chick energy requirements, and prey energy density. Our model estimated a variety of energetic costs and quantities of prey consumption related to raising a king penguin chick during the austral summer. The total energy requirements of a king penguin chick at the Crozet Archipelago from hatching until reaching a mass of 8 kg 90 d later is 271 MJ, representing the consumption of 38.4 kg of myctophid fish. A successfully breeding male requires 0.78 kg d(-1) of fish during the entirety of the incubation period and 1.14 kg d(-1) during the subsequent 90 d of chick rearing. Assuming the same energy requirements for females, the estimated 580,000 pairs of king penguins that breed successfully at Crozet each year, together with their chicks, consume a total of around 190,000 tons of fish during the incubation and summer rearing periods combined. If, due to depletion of fish stocks, the diet of breeders and chicks during the summer becomes identical to the typical diet of adults during the austral winter, the mass of prey required by both adults and chicks combined (where the chick still reaches 8 kg after 90 d) would increase by more than 25%.

  5. Development of teeth in chick embryos after mouse neural crest transplantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsiadis, Thimios A; Chéraud, Yvonnick; Sharpe, Paul; Fontaine-Pérus, Josiane

    2003-05-27

    Teeth were lost in birds 70-80 million years ago. Current thinking holds that it is the avian cranial neural crest-derived mesenchyme that has lost odontogenic capacity, whereas the oral epithelium retains the signaling properties required to induce odontogenesis. To investigate the odontogenic capacity of ectomesenchyme, we have used neural tube transplantations from mice to chick embryos to replace the chick neural crest cell populations with mouse neural crest cells. The mouse/chick chimeras obtained show evidence of tooth formation showing that avian oral epithelium is able to induce a nonavian developmental program in mouse neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells.

  6. Nonshivering thermogenesis in king penguin chicks. I. Role of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchamp, C; Barré, H; Rouanet, J L; Lanni, A; Cohen-Adad, F; Berne, G; Brebion, P

    1991-12-01

    In cold-acclimatized (CA) king penguin chicks exhibiting nonshivering thermogenesis (NST), protein content and cytochrome oxidase (CO) activity of tissue homogenates were measured together with protein content, CO, and respiration rates of isolated mitochondria from skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius and pectoralis) and liver. The comparison was made with chicks reared at thermoneutrality (TN) for at least 3 wk. In CA chicks showing a NST despite the lack of brown adipose tissue, an increase in thermogenic capacity was observed in skeletal muscle in which the oxidative capacity rose (+28% and +50% in gastrocnemius and pectoralis muscles, respectively), whereas no change occurred in the liver. Oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle increased together with the development of mitochondrial inner membrane plus cristae in muscles of CA chicks contrary to their TN littermates (+30 to +50%). Subsarcolemmal mitochondria of CA chicks had a higher protein content (+65% in gastrocnemius muscle) and higher oxidative capacities than in controls. The lower respiratory control ratio of these mitochondria might result from a low ADP phosphorylation rate. No change occurred in the intermyofibrillar fraction nor in liver mitochondria. These findings together with earlier results obtained in cold-acclimated ducklings indicate the marked and suited adaptation of skeletal muscle and in particular of subsarcolemmal mitochondria allowing them to play a role in NST.

  7. Nonshivering thermogenesis and adaptation to fasting in king penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchamp, C; Barre, H; Delage, D; Rouanet, J L; Cohen-Adad, F; Minaire, Y

    1989-10-01

    The ability to develop nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and the effect of fasting on thermogenic response to cold were studied in winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. Metabolic rate (MR) and integrated electrical muscle activity were measured at different ambient temperatures. In cold-acclimatized (5 degrees C) fed chicks, shivering threshold temperature (STT) was 9.4 degrees C lower than lower critical temperature (LCT), indicating that NST (0.7 W/kg) occurs at moderate cold, whereas in control chicks fed and reared at 25 degrees C for 3 wk, LCT and STT were similar. Chicks reared in the cold and fasting for 3 wk or 4-5 mo (natural winter fast) developed an NST of 0.8 and 2.4 W/kg, respectively, despite the fast. In fasting chicks, the intercept of the metabolic curve with the abscissa at zero MR was far below body temperature, contrasting with the classic model for heat loss. Their low LCT indicates the capacity of a large reduction in convective conductance characteristic of diving animals and allows energy sparing in moderate cold. Below LCT, conductance reincreases progressively, leading to a steeper than expected slope of the metabolic curve and allowing preservation of a threshold temperature in the shell. These results show for the first time in a wild young bird the development of NST after cold acclimatization. Further, at the temperature of cold acclimatization, an energy-sparing mechanism is shown in response to long-term fast adaptation.

  8. Assessment of the Efficiency of Consolidation Treatment through Injections of Expanding Resins by Geotechnical Tests and 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The design and execution of consolidation treatment of settled foundations by means of injection of polyurethane expanding resins require a proper investigation of the state of the foundation soil, in order to better identify anomalies responsible for the instability. To monitor the injection process, a procedure has been developed, which involves, in combination with traditional geotechnical tests, the application of a noninvasive, geophysical technique based on the electrical resistivity, which is strongly sensitive to presence of water or voids. Three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography is a useful tool to produce effective 3D images of the foundation soils before, during, and after the injections. The achieved information allows designing the consolidation scheme and monitoring its effects on the treated volumes in real time. To better understand the complex processes induced by the treatment and to learn how variations of resistivity accompany increase of stiffness, an experiment was carried out in a full-scale test site. Injections of polyurethane expanding resin were performed as in real worksite conditions. Results confirm that the experimented approach by means of 3D resistivity imaging allows a reliable procedure of consolidation, and geotechnical tests demonstrate the increase of mechanical stiffness. PMID:26167521

  9. Sex-based differences in Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chick growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Catherine; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species—one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact

  10. Effect of Low Dose Radiation Upon Antioxidant Parameters in Skeletal Muscle of Chick Embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilic, M.; Pirsljin, J.; Beer Ljubic, B.; Miljanic, S.; Kraljevic, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs with low dose ionizing radiation upon lipid peroxide (TBARS) level, glutathione (GSH) level, activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in skeletal muscle of chick embryo and newly hatched chicks. The eggs of a heavy breeding chickens were irradiated with a dose of 0.3 Gy gamma radiation (60Co source) on the 19th day of incubation. Along with the irradiated chick embryos, there was a control group of non-irradiated chick embryos. The antioxidant parameters were measured in breast muscle (m. pectoralis superficialis) and thigh muscle (m. biceps femoris) of chick embryos on 1, 3, 6, 24 and 72 h after egg irradiation. All parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Lipid peroxidation, GSH level and CAT activity decreased in the breast and thigh muscle of chick embryos on the first hour after irradiation, while the activity of GSH-Px increased in the thigh muscle on the 1st hour after irradiation. CAT activity decreased in the breast muscle of chick embryos on the hour 24 after irradiation. The GSH level increased in the breast and thigh muscle of chick embryos on the hour 72 after irradiation while the activity of GSH-Px increased in the breast muscle. At the same time CAT activity decreased in breast muscle while lipid peroxidation decreased in thigh muscle. The obtained results showed that acute irradiation of chicken eggs on the 19th day of incubation with the dose of 0.3 Gy gamma radiation could be an oxidative stress in both types of muscles immediately after irradiation. However, at the one-day old chicks (72 hours after irradiation) this dose could have a stimulating effect upon GSH level in both breast and thigh muscle.(author)

  11. Effects of egg weight on hatchability, chick hatch-weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg weight was positively and strongly correlated with egg hatchability (r2 = 0.727) and chick hatch-weight (r2 = 0.953). Heavier-sized eggs hatched chicks had higher mortality rates. Growth rate and live weight of the chickens were optimized at different egg weights of 56 (r2 = 0.657) and 60 (r2 = 0.870) g, respectively, ...

  12. Weight Gain Of Broiler Chicks Fed A Maize-Soya bean Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of substituting synthetic methionine with sodium sulphate and sodium sulphite in a maize-soyabean diet fed to broiler chicks. Two hundred and forty (240) unsexed Hubbard day old broiler chicks were fed iso-caloric and iso-trogenous maize-soyabean ...

  13. Hypoxia induces dilated cardiomyopathy in the chick embryo: mechanism, intervention, and long-term consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Tintu

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with an increased future risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Hypoxia in utero is a common clinical cause of fetal growth restriction. We have previously shown that chronic hypoxia alters cardiovascular development in chick embryos. The aim of this study was to further characterize cardiac disease in hypoxic chick embryos.Chick embryos were exposed to hypoxia and cardiac structure was examined by histological methods one day prior to hatching (E20 and at adulthood. Cardiac function was assessed in vivo by echocardiography and ex vivo by contractility measurements in isolated heart muscle bundles and isolated cardiomyocytes. Chick embryos were exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and its scavenger soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sFlt-1 to investigate the potential role of this hypoxia-regulated cytokine.Growth restricted hypoxic chick embryos showed cardiomyopathy as evidenced by left ventricular (LV dilatation, reduced ventricular wall mass and increased apoptosis. Hypoxic hearts displayed pump dysfunction with decreased LV ejection fractions, accompanied by signs of diastolic dysfunction. Cardiomyopathy caused by hypoxia persisted into adulthood. Hypoxic embryonic hearts showed increases in VEGF expression. Systemic administration of rhVEGF(165 to normoxic chick embryos resulted in LV dilatation and a dose-dependent loss of LV wall mass. Lowering VEGF levels in hypoxic embryonic chick hearts by systemic administration of sFlt-1 yielded an almost complete normalization of the phenotype.Our data show that hypoxia causes a decreased cardiac performance and cardiomyopathy in chick embryos, involving a significant VEGF-mediated component. This cardiomyopathy persists into adulthood.

  14. Physiological responses of newly hatched broiler chicks to increasing journey distance during road transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmatollah Khosravinia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects on weight loss (WL, residual yolk (RY utilization and serum biochemical parameters of transport distance (TD in newly hatched broiler chicks. Just after hatching, 200 Ross 308 broiler chicks were traveled over 1000 km. At hatchery and after 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 km journey, a random sample of 20 birds were killed for blood collection, WL and yolk weight assessment. Live weight decreased linearly by 0.42 and 0.48 g per 100 km of journey in males and female chicks, respectively. Yolk sac residual utilized by 0.071 and 0.069 g per 100 km of travel in males and females chicks, respectively, over journey distances up to 800 km. Extended journey from 800 to 1000 km caused a great decline of 0.51 and 0.58 g per 100 km in yolk weight in male and female chicks, respectively. Serum Ca concentration reduced in TDs up to 400 km, then increased for longer journeys (P<0.05. Over 1000 km journey, serum GLU level of 196.24 mg/dL at hatchery was decreased to 117.31 mg/dL at the end of journey. Serum urea, uric acid and cholesterol concentrations were increased with the extended TDs (P<0.05. In conclusion increasing transportation distance causes intensified physiological stress in broiler chicks with varying effect on different stress indicators. Stress indicators in newly hatched chicks in transit may differ from those proposed for replaced chicks and the broiler chicken at later ages.

  15. Immunomodulation in gut-associated lymphoid tissue of neonatal chicks by immunobiotic diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Takahashi, K; Tohno, M; Miura, Y; Kamada, T; Ikegami, S; Kitazawa, H

    2009-12-01

    Developmental changes in immunocompetent cells of the gut during the first week posthatch were determined in broiler chicks fed immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria in the form of Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937-, Lactobacillus gasseri JCM1131(T)-, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus NIAIB6-, or L. gasseri TL2919-supplemented diets. The relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius in chicks fed the immunobiotic diets were slightly higher than the control valued at 1 and 3 d of age, with the exception of spleen weight in the L. gasseri JCM1131(T) at 3 d of age, the bursa of Fabricius weight in the L. gasseri JCM1131(T) at 1 and 3 d of age, and bursa of Fabricius weight in the L. gasseri TL2919 group at 1 d of age. There were no significant differences in body and liver weights among the treatments. When chicks were fed the L. jensenii TL2937- or L. gasseri TL2919-supplemented diets, expression of T cell-related mRNA [cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)] in the foregut was significantly higher than that of control chicks at 3 or 7 d of age. Expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNA tended to increase in the foregut of chicks fed the immunobiotic diets, except for the L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus NIAIB6, compared with expression levels in control chicks. The Bu-1 mRNA expression levels in the bursa of Fabricius were not affected by the supplementations with immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria. These results show that immunobiotics, particularly L. gasseri TL2919, might be useful as immunomodulators to stimulate the gut-associated immune system in neonatal chicks, and thereby protect them from disease without decreasing growth performance as a possible substitution of antibiotics.

  16. Fibrous osteodystrophy in two Northern Royal albatross chicks (Diomedea sanfordi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K J; Alley, M R; Gartrell, B D; Thompson, K G; Perriman, L

    2011-09-01

    In February 2004, two Northern Royal albatross chicks aged 20 and 25 days old were presented for necropsy. Both chicks had been hand-fed in situ at a breeding colony, from 2-3 days post-hatch. The hand-rearing diet consisted of boneless hoki fillets (Macraronus novaezelandiae), electrolytes, and sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) proventricular oil obtained as a by-product of cultural harvest. Routine necropsies on the affected chicks revealed many bones were soft and easily bent. Radiography and histopathology revealed decreased bone density, pathological fractures, and extensive remodelling suggestive of fibrous osteodystrophy. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, resulting from an imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio. The imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio was a result of feeding deboned and eviscerated fish. This investigation also highlighted potential health risks associated with the practice of feeding stored rancid proventricular oil, including the destruction of fat-soluble vitamins. It is therefore possible that oxidative degradation of vitamin D may have contributed to the development of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. Subsequently, dietary recommendations for supplementary feeding of orphaned Northern Royal albatross chicks include the feeding of whole human-grade fish with an appropriate Ca:P ratio, and the exclusion of proventricular oil. These cases highlight the need for scientific input into wildlife conservation projects, as lack of appropriate nutritional advice resulted in the feeding of a nutritionally inadequate diet. Following the recommended changes in diet, no further cases of osteodystrophy have been diagnosed in hand-raised chicks in the albatross colony.

  17. Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM): an alternative predictive model in acute toxicological studies for anti-cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kue, Chin Siang; Tan, Kae Yi; Lam, May Lynn; Lee, Hong Boon

    2015-01-01

    The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a preclinical model widely used for vascular and anti-vascular effects of therapeutic agents in vivo. In this study, we examine the suitability of CAM as a predictive model for acute toxicology studies of drugs by comparing it to conventional mouse and rat models for 10 FDA-approved anticancer drugs (paclitaxel, carmustine, camptothecin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cisplatin, aloin, mitomycin C, actinomycin-D, melphalan). Suitable formulations for intravenous administration were determined before the average of median lethal dose (LD50) and median survival dose (SD(50)) in the CAM were measured and calculated for these drugs. The resultant ideal LD(50) values were correlated to those reported in the literature using Pearson's correlation test for both intravenous and intraperitoneal routes of injection in rodents. Our results showed moderate correlations (r(2)=0.42 - 0.68, PLD(50) values obtained using the CAM model with LD(50) values from mice and rats models for both intravenous and intraperitoneal administrations, suggesting that the chick embryo may be a suitable alternative model for acute drug toxicity screening before embarking on full toxicological investigations in rodents in development of anticancer drugs.

  18. Effect of selenium deficiency on 75Se and 45Ca metabolism in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardly, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Two hundred, 1 day old broiler chicks were used to study the effect of selenium deficiency on 75 Se and 45 Ca metabolism in chicks. The chicks were randomly divided into five groups. One group was fed a purified basal diet low in selenium ( 75 Se or 45 Ca. Levels of radioisotopes in blood and tissue, as well as total body excretion of radioactivity were determined. Whole body retention of 75 Se was significantly higher (p 45 Ca was significantly higher in selenium deficient chicks than in supplemented animals. Total Ca concentration in muscle was also higher in this group. Studies of red cell uptake of 75 Se demonstrated a clear difference between Se repleted and selenium deficient groups. (author)

  19. Perinatal broiler physiology between hatching and chick collection in 2 hatching systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de L.J.F.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Decuypere, E.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about physiological responses of early- versus late-hatching chicks to early posthatch conditions in broiler practice. We investigated effects of hatching time on perinatal broiler physiology in 2 hatching systems, differing in conditions: a conventional hatcher, where chicks are

  20. The effects of alcoholic leaf extract Ocimum basilicum on angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niazi Fateme

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Angiogenesis is an important biological processes of new blood vessels in many pathological stages of development and embryo development occurs and a complex and dynamic phenomenon that is needed for development and other physiological processes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alcoholic Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on angiogenesis chick chorioallantoic membrane is done. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 Ross fertilized eggs were randomly divided into four groups: control, sham-exposed and experimental groups were divided. The second day of incubation the eggs window was opened. Eighth day of the alcoholic extract of basil doses of 50 and 150 mg/kg on chick chorioallantoic membrane was injected. On day 12, embryos length and weight and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM was photographed by photostereomicroscope Then the numbers and lengths of vessels in special area on CAM were measured with Image J. analyzed through by t-test and ANOVA (P<0.05. Results: The data does not show significant difference between embryos length and weight in sham compare to all experimental groups. In the study vessels number just with 150 mg/kg observed significant. Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of basil is an increase in the number of vessels and in this sense the healing and growth processes associated with them as well as effective.

  1. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Klenova

    Full Text Available Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs.

  2. Mitochondrial phenotypic flexibility enhances energy savings during winter fast in king penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Marmillot, Vincent; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien

    2014-08-01

    Energy conservation is a key priority for organisms that live in environments with seasonal shortages in resource supplies or that spontaneously fast during their annual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine whether the high fasting endurance of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is associated with an adjustment of mitochondrial bioenergetics in pectoralis muscle, the largest skeletal muscle in penguins. The rates of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP synthesis and mitochondrial efficiency (ATP/O ratio) were measured in winter-acclimatized chicks. We used pyruvate/malate and palmitoyl-l-carnitine/malate as respiratory substrates and results from naturally fasted chicks were compared to experimentally re-fed chicks. Bioenergetics analysis of pectoralis muscle revealed that mitochondria are on average 15% more energy efficient in naturally fasted than in experimentally fed chicks, indicating that fasted birds consume less nutrients to sustain their energy-demanding processes. We also found that moderate reductions in temperature from 38°C to 30°C further increase by 23% the energy coupling efficiency at the level of mitochondria, suggesting that king penguin chicks realize additional energy savings while becoming hypothermic during winter. It has been calculated that this adjustment of mitochondrial efficiency in skeletal muscle may contribute to nearly 25% of fasting-induced reduction in mass-specific metabolic rate measured in vivo. The present study shows that the regulation of mitochondrial efficiency triggers the development of an economical management of resources, which would maximize the conservation of endogenous fuel stores by decreasing the cost of living in fasted winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Temperature manipulation during layer chick embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, I.; Napel, ten J.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of temperature manipulation (TM) during late embryogenesis on temperature preference, response to high environmental temperature, behavior, and performance in young layer chicks. Control (CC) embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8°C eggshell temperature

  4. Changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain associated with feeding behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong V; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Domesticated chicks are precocial and therefore have relatively well-developed feeding behavior. The role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in food-intake regulation in chicks has been reported for decades. However, we hypothesized that nutrients and their metabolites in the brain may be involved in food intake in chicks because these animals exhibit a very frequent feeding pattern. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the feeding behavior of chicks as well as the associated change...

  5. Proteomic Differences in Feline Fibrosarcomas Grown Using Doxorubicin-Sensitive and -Resistant Cell Lines in the Chick Embryo Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Zabielska-Koczywąs

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic analyses are rapid and powerful tools that are used to increase the understanding of cancer pathogenesis, discover cancer biomarkers and predictive markers, and select and monitor novel targets for cancer therapy. Feline injection-site sarcomas (FISS are aggressive skin tumours with high recurrence rates, despite treatment with surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Doxorubicin is a drug of choice for soft tissue sarcomas, including FISS. However, multidrug resistance is one of the major causes of chemotherapy failure. The main aim of the present study was to identify proteins that differentiate doxorubicin-resistant from doxorubicin-sensitive FISS using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Using the three-dimensional (3D preclinical in ovo model, which resembles features of spontaneous fibrosarcomas, three significantly (p ≤ 0.05 differentially expressed proteins were identified in tumours grown from doxorubicin-resistant fibrosarcoma cell lines (FFS1 and FFS3 in comparison to the doxorubicin-sensitive one (FFS5: Annexin A5 (ANXA5, Annexin A3 (ANXA3, and meiosis-specific nuclear structural protein 1 (MNS1. Moreover, nine other proteins were significantly differentially expressed in tumours grown from the high doxorubicin-resistant cell line (FFS1 in comparison to sensitive one (FFS5. This study may be the first proteomic fingerprinting of FISS reported, identifying potential candidates for specific predictive biomarkers and research targets for doxorubicin-resistant FISS.

  6. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bertin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H and from sham embryos (C that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  7. Cutaneous form of pox infection among captive peafowl (Pavo cristatus) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahrar; Yousaf, Arfan; Khan, M Zargham; Siddique, Muhammad; Gul, S Tehseen; Mahmood, Fazal

    2009-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology and lesions of avian pox in captive peafowl chicks. Overall values of morbidity, mortality and case fatality were 45.2%, 27.1% and 60.0%, respectively. The chicks of 9 to 12 weeks of age showed a significantly (P<0.001) higher prevalence rate than other age groups. The morbidity and mortality due to avian pox in peafowl chicks was significantly (P<0.001) reduced when kept in mosquito-proof cages and hatched under broody chicken hens. Morbidity due to poxvirus infection on the peafowl farm was 82%, 26% and 12% in successive years. This reduction might have been the result of the introduction of mosquito-proof nets after year 1, although this was not the subject of a controlled experiment. All of the peafowl chicks suffering from dry pox showed pustular and nodular lesions on eye lids, beak, legs and toes. Distribution of lesions in different body parts varied significantly (P<0.023). Lesion diameters were less than 1 cm (59.73%), 1 to 2 cm (23.75%) and more than 2 cm (16.87%). Histopathological studies revealed extensive proliferation of subdermal connective tissue and infiltration of heterophils and macrophages. The keratinocytes showed degenerative changes in the form of cytoplasmic vacuolation, ballooning and hyper-chromatic nuclei. Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes were consistently present. It was concluded that avian pox rendered high morbidity, mortality and case fatality in peafowl chicks.

  8. Excess Imidacloprid Exposure Causes the Heart Tube Malformation of Chick Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin-Rui; Li, Shuai; Zhang, Jing; Liang, Chang; Chen, En-Ni; Zhang, Shi-Yao; Chuai, Manli; Bao, Yong-Ping; Wang, Guang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-11-30

    As a neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid is widely used to control sucking insects on agricultural planting and fleas on domestic animals. However, the extent to which imidacloprid exposure has an influence on cardiogensis in early embryogenesis is still poorly understood. In vertebrates, the heart is the first organ to be formed. In this study, to address whether imidacloprid exposure affects early heart development, the early chick embryo has been used as an experimental model because of its accessibility at its early developmental stage. The results demonstrate that exposure of the early chick embryo to imidacloprid caused malformation of heart tube. Furthermore, the data reveal that down-regulation of GATA4, NKX2.5, and BMP4 and up-regulation of Wnt3a led to aberrant cardiomyocyte differentiation. In addition, imidacloprid exposure interfered with basement membrane breakdown, E-cadherin/laminin expression, and mesoderm formation during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in gastrula chick embryos. Finally, the DiI-labeled cell migration trajectory indicated that imidacloprid restricted the cell migration of cardiac progenitors to primary heart field in gastrula chick embryos. A similar observation was also obtained from the cell migration assay of scratch wounds in vitro. Additionally, imidacloprid exposure negatively affected the cytoskeleton structure and expression of corresponding adhesion molecules. Taken together, these results reveal that the improper EMT, cardiac progenitor migration, and differentiation are responsible for imidacloprid exposure-induced malformation of heart tube during chick embryo development.

  9. Elevated temperatures are associated with stress in rooftop-nesting Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Gretchen N; Swanson, David L

    2018-01-01

    Grasslands and riparian forests in southeastern South Dakota have been greatly reduced since historical times, primarily due to conversion to row-crop agriculture. Common Nighthawk ( Chordeiles minor ) nesting habitat includes grasslands, open woodlands and urban rooftops, but nesting sites in southeastern South Dakota are confined to rooftops, as natural nesting habitat is limited. Nighthawks nesting on exposed rooftop habitats may encounter thermal conditions that increase operative temperatures relative to vegetated land cover types. Mean humidity has increased and mean wind speed and cloud cover have decreased during the nighthawk breeding season from 1948 to 2016 in southeastern South Dakota. These changes might contribute to increasing operative temperatures at exposed rooftop nest sites and this could influence chick condition. We studied nest micro-climate and the plasma stress response for 24 rooftop-nesting nighthawk chicks from 17 nests during 2015 and 2016. High humidity prior to blood collection reduced both baseline and stress-induced plasma corticosterone (CORT). In contrast, high maximum temperatures during the day before sampling increased stress-induced CORT. The magnitude of the chick stress response was significantly negatively related to maximum wind speed for the week prior to CORT measurement. Other weather and micro-climate variables were not significant effectors of CORT metrics. Most chicks had low baseline CORT and were able to mount a stress response, but a subset of chicks ( n = 4) showed elevated baseline CORT and a negative association between the magnitude of stress response and ambient temperature. For this subset, mean ambient temperature for the day before sampling was significantly higher (2.3°C) than for chicks with typical baseline CORT levels. These data suggest that regional climate change trends could affect the ability of nighthawk chicks to mount a stress response, which, in turn, might influence the susceptibility of

  10. Comparison of nicotinic receptor binding and biotransformation of coniine in the rat and chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, C S; Speth, R C; Wecker, L; Galey, F D; Frank, A A

    1996-12-31

    Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), is a known teratogen in many domestic species with maternal ingestion resulting in arthrogryposis of the offspring. We have previously shown that rats are not susceptible and rabbits only weakly susceptible to coniine-induced arthrogryposis. However, the chick embryo does provide a reproducible laboratory animal model of coniine-induced teratogenesis. The reason for this cross-species variation is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coniine binding to nicotinic receptors and to measure coniine metabolism in vitro between susceptible and non-susceptible species. Using the chick model, neither the peripheral nicotinic receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine chloride nor the central nicotinic receptor antagonist trimethaphan camsylate blocked the teratogenesis or lethality of 1.5% coniine (50 microliters/egg). Trimethaphan camsylate enhanced coniine-induced lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Neither nicotinic receptor blocker prevented nicotine sulfate-induced malformations but d-tubocurarine chloride did block lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Competition by coniine for [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin to nicotinic receptors isolated from adult rat diaphragm and chick thigh muscle and competition by coniine for [3H]-cytisine to receptors from rat and chick brain were used to assess coniine binding to nicotinic receptors. The IC50 for coniine in rat diaphragm was 314 microM while that for chick leg muscle was 70 microM. For neuronal nicotinic receptors, the IC50s of coniine for maternal rat brain, fetal rat brain, and chick brain were 1100 microM, 820 microM, and 270 microM, respectively. There were no differences in coniine biotransformation in vitro by microsomes from rat or chick livers. Differences in apparent affinity of coniine for nicotinic receptors or differences in the quantity of the nicotinic receptor between the rat and chick may explain, in part, the differences in susceptibility of

  11. Improvement of chick survival and zootechnical performance of the local hen in a village environment in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nahimana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A one-year longitudinal survey was carried out in 45 poultry farms in Salemata Department (Senegal to assess two management methods of the mother-chick couple, with the aim to improve the productivity of family poultry farming. At hatching, the hens belonging to treatment A (HTA were partially reared in confinement (they were removed from the brooder pen after two weeks, whereas the chicks were kept there for up to four weeks of age. In contrast, hens in treatment B (HTB were kept free range. The results showed that the zootechnical performance of HTAs had improved. The duration of the reproductive cycle was reduced from 113.5 to 62.2 days. As a result, the number of breeding cycles increased from 3.4 to 5.6 per year and the annual egg production from 35.3 to 57.6. The rapid return of HTAs to egg laying did not affect the number of eggs laid per brood (10.3 compared to 10.2 and the hatching rate (82.4% compared to 79.5%. The weight growth of chicks from both hen types has been influenced by the breeding type, genotype and sex. The weight of crossbred chicks was higher than that of the local chick except at hatching. After the first month, the weight of male chicks (crossbred or local was still higher than that of female chicks. The average daily weight gain of HTA chicks has always been higher than that of HTB chicks and has been highest between the 13th and 24th week of age. Chick survival was improved by 41.2%, and the most frequent causes of mortality were predators (raptors, cats. This study showed that the farming type where hens and their chicks are semiconfined optimized poultry productivity.

  12. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Impact of transportation duration on stress responses in day-old chicks from young and old breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Buyse, Johan; Tuyttens, Frank Andre Maurice

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the interaction effect of transportation duration and parental age on physiological stress responses and quality in day-old chicks. After hatch, 3240 chicks from either 29-week old (young) or 60-week old (old) broiler breeders were transported for 1.5h (short) or 11h (long). Thereafter, 228 chicks were assessed for quality and blood plasma was assayed for corticosterone (CORT), lactate, glucose, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, increased concentrations can indicate oxidative stress). No interaction effects of parental age and transportation duration were found (all P>0.10). Chicks from young breeders showed higher CORT levels (P=0.007) and were of higher quality (Tona method, Ptransportation, chicks showed increased CORT (Ptransportation. No evidence was provided that long transportation differently affected the quality or stress responses of chicks from breeder flocks of two ages. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Effect Of Pyridoxine Injection In Japanese Quail Eggs On HATCHABILITY, Performance And Some Physiological Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSAYED, M.A.; WAKWAK, M.M.; MAHROSE, KH.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out at the poultry farm found in the Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, during January 2009. A total number of two hundreds and seventy five quail eggs were used in an experiment of a completely randomized design to estimate hatchability percentage, chick weight at hatch, growth performance, some blood parameters and carcass traits of Japanese quails as affected by injecting their eggs with pyridoxine. Eggs were divided into 5 groups (55 eggs each); the first group (without injection) was served as control while the second group was injected in the width end of the egg with 500 μl saline. The third, fourth and fifth groups were injected in the width end of the Japanese quail eggs with 40, 80 and 120 μg pyridoxine, respectively, dissolved in 500 μl saline. Hatchability percentage, live body weight, daily body weight gain and some organ weights (liver, gizzard and heart) were studied. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for analyses. It was observed that the groups of quail eggs received 120 μg pyridoxine injection recorded the highest hatchability percent. Chick weight at hatch was non-significantly affected by saline solution injection. The birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 120μg pyridoxine recorded the highest live body weight, especially during the 2 nd and 3 rd weeks of age. The daily body weight gain was significantly affected by pyridoxine injection only during the intervals of 1 to 2, 3 to 4 and from 1 to 6 weeks of age. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were highly significantly elevated in the birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 120μg pyridoxine than other groups. Serum AST activity was highly significantly increased in the birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 40 μg pyridoxine than other groups while serum ALT activity and calcium concentration were non

  15. Mercury contamination and effects on survival of American avocet and black-necked stilt chicks in San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Takekawa, John Y; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Iverson, Samuel A

    2008-02-01

    We evaluated whether mercury influenced survival of free-ranging American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Using radio telemetry, we radio-marked 158 avocet and 79 stilt chicks at hatching and tracked them daily until their fate was determined. We did not find strong support for an influence of in ovo mercury exposure on chick survival, despite observing a wide range of mercury concentrations in chick down feathers at hatching (0.40-44.31 microg g(-1) fw). We estimated that chick survival rates were reduced by nest monitoring. In contrast to the telemetry results, we found that mercury concentrations in down feathers of dead chicks were higher than those in randomly-sampled live chicks of similar age. However, capture site was the most important variable influencing mercury concentrations, followed by year, species, and hatching date. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated negative effects of environmentally relevant mercury concentrations on chick survival, our results concur with the small number of previous field studies that have not been able to detect reduced survival in the wild.

  16. Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Investigations for Imaging the Grouting Injection in Shallow Subsurface Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The highway of Yongweol-ri, Muan-gun, south-western part of the South Korean Peninsula, is underlain by the abandoned of subsurface cavities, which were discovered in 2005. These cavities lie at shallow depths with the range of 5∼15 meters below the ground surface. Numerous subsidence events have repeatedly occurred in the past few years, damaging infrastructure and highway. As a result of continuing subsidence issues, the Korean Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM was requested by local administration to resolve the issue. The KIGAM used geophysical methods to delineate subsurface cavities and improve more refined understanding of the cavities network in the study area. Cement based grouting has been widely employed in the construction industry to reinforce subsurface ground. In this research work, time-lapse electrical resistivity surveys were accomplished to monitor the grouting injection in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway, which have provided a quasi-real-time monitoring for modifying the subsurface cavities related to ground reinforcement, which would be difficult with direct methods. The results obtained from time-lapse electrical resistivity technique have satisfactory imaged the grouting injection experiment in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway. Furthermore, the borehole camera confirmed the presence of grouting material in the subsurface cavities, and hence this procedure increases the mechanical resistance of subsurface cavities below the highway.

  17. Effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ataş

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections.METHODS:Seventy-two eyes of 36 patients [36 eyes in control group, 36 eyes in intravitreal injection (IVI group] were enrolled in the study. All the eyes had at least one IVI and had diabetic macular edema (DME or age-related macular degeneration (ARMD. Moxifloxacin was prescribed to all the patients four times a day for five days following injection. Conjunctival cultures were obtained from the lower fornix via standardized technique with every possible effort made to minimize contamination from the lids, lashes, or skin. Before the application of any ophthalmic medication, conjunctival cultures were obtained from both eyes using sterile cotton culture. An automated microbiology system was used to identify the growing bacteria and determine antibiotic sensitivity. RESULTS:The bacterial cultures were isolated from 72 eyes of 36 patients, sixteen of whom patients (44.4% were male and twenty (55.6% were female. Average age was 68.4±9.0 (range 50-86. The average number of injections before taking cultures was 3.1+1.0. Forty-eight (66.7% of 72 eyes had at least one significant organism. There was no bacterial growth in 8 (20.5% of IVI eyes and in 16 (44.4% of control eyes (P=0.03. Of the bacteria isolated from culture, 53.8% of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS in IVI eyes and 47.2% CoNS in control eyes. This difference between IVI eyes and control eyes about bacteria isolated from culture was not statistically significant (P=0.2. Eleven of 25 bacteria (44.0% isolated from IVI eyes and 11 (57.9% of 19 bacteria isolated from control eyes were resistant to oxacillin. The difference in frequency of moxifloxacine resistance between two groups was not statistically significant (12.0% in IVI eyes and 21.1% in control eyes (P=0.44. There were no cases of resistance to vancomycin, teicoplanin and

  18. Dietary restriction causes chronic elevation of corticosterone and enhances stress response in red-legged kittiwake chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, John F.

    2001-01-01

    Release of corticosterone in hungry kittiwake chicks facilitates begging and allows them to restore depleted energy reserves by increasing parental food provisioning. However, in order to avoid detrimental effects of chronic elevation of corticosterone, chicks might suppress adrenocortical activity in response to prolonged food shortages. In this study we examined temporal dynamics of corticosterone release in red-legged kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris) chicks exposed to prolonged restrictions in energy content and/or nutritional quality (low versus high lipid content) of their food. Starting at the age of 15 days, chicks were fed either high- or low-lipid fish at 40%, 65%, and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. Body mass measurements and baseline plasma samples were taken on a weekly basis after beginning of the treatment. After 3 weeks of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where in addition to a baseline sample, three plasma samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. We found that food-restricted chicks had lower body mass, chronically (during 2-3 weeks) elevated baseline and higher acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone compared to chicks fed ad libitum. Low lipid content of food further exacerbated these effects. An increase in baseline levels of corticosterone was observed within a week after energy requirements of food-restricted chicks exceeded their daily energy intake. A tendency for suppression of adrenocortical activity was observed in treatments fed low-lipid diets only at the end of the experiment. We suggest that nest-bound chicks, if food-stressed, might suffer deleterious effects of chronic elevation of corticosterone.

  19. Effect of egg storage duration and brooding temperatures on chick growth, intestine morphology and nutrient transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, S; Gursel, I; Bilgen, G; Horuluoglu, B H; Gucluer, G; Izzetoglu, G T

    2017-10-01

    The effects of egg storage duration (ESD) and brooding temperature (BT) on BW, intestine development and nutrient transporters of broiler chicks were investigated. A total of 396 chicks obtained from eggs stored at 18°C for 3 days (ESD3-18°C) or at 14°C for 14 days (ESD14-14°C) before incubation were exposed to three BTs. Temperatures were initially set at 32°C, 34°C and 30°C for control (BT-Cont), high (BT-High) and low (BT-Low) BTs, respectively. Brooding temperatures were decreased by 2°C each at days 2, 7, 14 and 21. Body weight was measured at the day of hatch, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42. Cloacal temperatures of broilers were recorded from 1 to 14 days. Intestinal morphology and gene expression levels of H+-dependent peptide transporter (PepT1) and Na-dependent glucose (SGLT1) were evaluated on the day of hatch and 14. Cloacal temperatures of chicks were affected by BTs from days 1 to 8, being the lowest for BT-Low chicks. BT-High resulted in the heaviest BWs at 7 days, especially for ESD14-14°C chicks. This result was consistent with longer villus and larger villus area of ESD14-14°C chicks at BT-High conditions. From 14 days to slaughter age, BT had no effect on broiler weight. ESD3-18°C chicks were heavier than ESD14-14°C chicks up to 28 days. The PepT1 and SGLT1 expression levels were significantly higher in ESD3-18°C chicks than ESD14-14°C on the day of hatch. There was significant egg storage by BT interaction for PepT1 and SGLT1 transporters at day 14. ESD14-14°C chicks had significantly higher expression of PepT1 and SGLT1 at BT-Low than those at BT-Cont. ESD14-14°C chicks upregulated PepT1 gene expression 1.15 and 1.57-fold at BT-High and BT-Low, respectively, compared with BT-Cont, whereas PepT1 expression was downregulated 0.67 and 0.62-fold in ESD3-18°C chicks at BT-High and BT-Low. These results indicated that pre-incubation egg storage conditions and BTs affected intestine morphology and PepT1 and SGLT1 nutrient transporters

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Flow Characteristics in the Embryonic Chick Heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Christensen, Jesper

    This ph.d. thesis contains the mathematical modeling of fluid dynamical phenomena in the tubular embryonic chick heart at HH-stages 10, 12, 14, and 16. The models are constructed by application of energy bond technique and involve the elasticity of heart walls with elliptic cross-section, Womersley...... modified inertia, and resistance due to friction and curvature of the multilayered tubular heart. Through the modeling, flow conditions in the embryonic heart are characterized. The models suggest that eccentric rather than concentric deformation of the beating heart is optimal for mean flows induced...... the models are not conclusive on this point. In addition the Liebau effect is investigated in a simpler system containing two elastic tubes joined to form a liquid filled ring, with a compression pump at an asymmetric location. Through comparison to other reports the system validates model construction...

  1. Selenium and metal concentrations in waterbird eggs and chicks at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Eichhorst, B.A.; Warburton, D.

    2007-01-01

    Exceptionally high cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were reported in eggs, feathers, or livers of selected waterbird species nesting at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (Agassiz) in 1994. Ten- to 15-day-old Franklin's gull (Larus pipixcan), black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), and eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) chicks were collected in 1998, 1999, and 2001 at Agassiz and analyzed for selenium (Se) and metals including Cd and Cr. Freshly laid eggs were collected in 2001 from Franklin's gull, black-crowned night-heron, eared grebe, and pied-billed grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) nests at Agassiz. Based on a multivariate analysis, the pattern of Se and metal concentrations differed among species for eggs, chick feathers, and chick livers. Low Cd and Cr concentrations were measured in eggs, chick livers, and chick feathers of all four species. Mercury concentrations in black-crowned night-heron and eared grebe eggs collected from Agassiz in 2001 were lower than concentrations reported in 1994. Se and metal concentrations, including Cd and Cr, in waterbird eggs and chicks collected at Agassiz in 1998, 1999, and 2001 were not at toxic levels. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. A Public Survey on Handling Male Chicks in the Dutch Egg Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, H.G.J.; Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Blok, V.; Stassen, E.N.

    2018-01-01

    In 2035 global egg demand will have risen 50% from 1985. Because we are not able to tell in the egg whether it will become a male or female chick, billons of one day-old male chicks will be killed. International research initiatives are underway in this area, and governments encourage the

  3. The Effects of Chicken Box, Chick Paper Type and Flock Age on Sound Level and Leg Abnormalities in One-Day Old Chicks in the Hatchery

    OpenAIRE

    SALAHI, Ahmad; ESMAILIZADEH, ALI K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Chicken box and chick paper are two important factors affecting quality of delivered chicks after hatching and packaging until arrival in rearing farms. In this study, characteristics of 70 samples of chicken boxes collected during two years in four hatcheries in Iran were surveyed. Winter and summer types of chicken boxes each with seven replicates including five chicken boxes were studied. The capacity, length, width, height, weight, area, total ventilation ducts  of  the boxes in...

  4. In ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies depletes CD4+CD25+ T cells in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2013-01-01

    The CD4(+)CD25(+) cells have T regulatory cell properties in chickens. This study investigated the effect of in ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies (0.5 mg/egg) on CD4(+)CD25(+) cell depletion and on amounts of interleukin-2 mRNA and interferon-γ mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(-) cells posthatch. Anti-chicken CD25 or PBS (control) was injected into 16-d-old embryos. Chicks hatched from eggs injected with anti-chicken CD25 antibodies had a lower CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the blood until 25 d posthatch. The anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection nearly depleted CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the blood until 16 d posthatch. At 30 d posthatch, the CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the anti-CD25-antibody-injected group was comparable with the percentage in the control group. At 16 d posthatch, the anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection decreased CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentages in the thymus, spleen, and cecal tonsils. Chickens hatched from anti-CD25-antibody-injected eggs had approximately 25% of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the cecal tonsils and thymus compared with those in the cecal tonsils and thymus of the control group. The CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the spleen and cecal tonsils of chicks hatched from anti-chicken-CD25-injected eggs had higher amounts of interferon-γ and interleukin-2 mRNA than CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the control group. It could be concluded that injecting anti-chicken CD25 antibodies in ovo at 16 d of incubation nearly depleted the CD4(+)CD25(+) cells until 25 d posthatch.

  5. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS FED DIETS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A.O. Ani

    2012-06-15

    Jun 15, 2012 ... ISSN 1684–5315 ©2012 Academic Journals ... Increasing raw bambara nut waste levels also depressed (P < 0.05) nutrient absorption ... Key words: Raw bambara nut waste, enzyme, diets, broiler chicks, growth performance.

  6. Metabolic response to lipid infusion in fasting winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loïc; Tornos, Jérémy; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien

    2013-05-01

    During the cold austral winter, king penguin chicks are infrequently fed by their parents and thus experience severe nutritional deprivation under harsh environmental conditions. These energetic constraints lead to a range of energy sparing mechanisms balanced by the maintenance of efficient thermogenic processes. The present work investigated whether the high thermogenic capacities exhibited by winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks could be related to an increase in lipid substrate supply and oxidation in skeletal muscle, the main site of thermogenesis in birds. To test this hypothesis, we examined i) the effect of an experimental rise in plasma triglyceride on the whole metabolic rate in winter-acclimatized (WA) and de-acclimatized king penguin chicks kept at thermoneutrality (TN), and ii) investigated the fuel preference of muscle mitochondria. In vivo, a perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a small 10% increase of metabolic rate in WA chicks but not in TN group. In vitro, the oxidation rate of muscle mitochondria respiring on lipid-derived substrate was +40% higher in WA chicks than in TN, while no differences were found between groups when mitochondria oxidized carbohydrate-derived substrate or succinate. Despite an enhanced fuel selection towards lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, a rise of circulating lipids per se was not sufficient to fully unravel the thermogenic capacity of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modification of radioresponse of chick spleen with vitamin E treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, K.; Malhotra, N.

    1995-01-01

    Seven days old white leghorn male chicks were exposed to 2.25 Gy whole body gamma radiations with and without vitamin E and studied for histopathological changes in the spleen for a period of twenty eight days postirradiation. The results reveal that the radiation-induced depletion of lymphocytic population in the lymphoid region and the damage to the tissue architecture is comparatively less and reparation of the spleen faster in the vitamin E treated irradiated chicks. (author). 12 refs., 9 figs

  8. Monitoring trace elements in Antarctic penguin chicks from South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez, Silvia; Motas, Miguel; Benzal, Jesús; Diaz, Julia; Barbosa, Andrés

    2013-04-15

    The concentration of human activities in the near-shore ecosystems from the northern Antarctic Peninsula area can cause an increasing bioavailability of pollutants for the vulnerable Antarctic biota. Penguin chicks can reflect this potential impact in the rookeries during the breeding season. They also can reflect biomagnification phenomena since they are on the top of the Antarctic food chain. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were measured by ICP-MS in samples of liver, kidney, muscle, bone, feather and stomach content of gentoo, chinstrap and Adélie penguin chicks (n=15 individuals) collected opportunistically in the Islands of King George and Deception (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). The detected levels of some trace elements were not as low as it could be expected in the isolated Antarctic region. Penguin chicks can be useful indicators of trace elements abundance in the study areas. Carcasses of Antarctic penguin chicks were used to evaluate the bioavailability of trace elements in the Islands of King George and Deception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethanol vapour induced dilated cardiomyopathy in chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, K.; Khan, M.Y.; Minhas, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of ethanol vapour inhalation on the heart chambers of chick embryo. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan regional centre in Islamabad from January to October 2007. Both experimental and control groups were divided into three sub-groups each, based on the day of the sacrifice. Each group was dissected on day 7, day 10 and day 22 or hatching whichever was earlier. The experimental sub-groups sacrificed on day 7, day 10 and on hatching, were exposed to ethanol vapours till day 6, 9 and 9 of incubation respectively. The diameter of all 4 chambers was measured in experimental hearts and compared with age-matched controls. SPSS 10 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Ethanol vapour exposure caused widening of all heart chambers in the experimental chick embryos sacrificed on day 7 and day 10 compared to the controls. The chambers of newly hatched chick hearts showed dilatation in all the chambers except the left ventricle. Conclusion: Ethanol vapour exposure during development affects the heart, resulting in the widening of all heart chambers. The exposure is as dangerous as drinking alcohol. Alcohol vapour exposure during development leads to progressive dilatation in different heart chambers, producing dilated cardiomyopathy. (author)

  10. Orientation in a crowded environment: can King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) chicks find their creches after a displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, Anna P; Mardon, Jérôme; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    For seabird species, the presence of conspecifics in a crowded breeding colony can obstruct locally available orientation cues. Thus, navigation to specific locations can present a challenging problem. We investigated short-range orientation in King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) chicks that live in a large and densely populated colony. The two main objectives were to determine whether chicks displaced to a novel location away from the colony (i) can orient towards the colony and return to their crèche and (ii) rely on visual or non-visual cues for orientation. To address these questions, a circular arena was constructed 100 m away from the colony. Chicks were released in the arena during the day and at night. After the orientation experiment in the arena, chicks were allowed to return to their home crèche, if they could. Our results showed that, during day trials, chicks preferred the half of the arena closer to the colony, but not at night. However, at night, birds spent more time on ;the colony half' of the arena if the wind blew from the colony direction. When animals were allowed to leave the arena, 98% of chicks homed during the day but only 62% of chicks homed at night. Chicks that homed at night also took longer to find their crèche. The experiments suggest that King Penguin chicks can find their crèche from a novel location. Visual cues are important for homing but, when visual cues are not present, animals are able to make use of other information carried by the wind.

  11. Metabolism and biological activity of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holick, M.F.; Baxter, L.A.; Schraufrogel, P.K.; Tavela, T.E.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1976-01-01

    The vitamin, 24R,24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , is capable of inducing a minimal intestinal calcium transport response in chicks when compared to an equal amount of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 . 1,24,25-Trihydroxyvitamin D 3 is also less active than 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , and its activity is much shorter lived than that of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 . A comparison of the metabolism of 25-hydroxy[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D 3 and 24,25-dihydroxy[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D 3 in the rat and chick shows that 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D 3 disappear at least 10 times more rapidly from the blood and intestine of chicks. Furthermore, examination of the excretory products from both of these species demonstrates that chicks receiving a single dose of 24,25-dihydroxy[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D 3 excrete 66% of the total radioactivity by 48 hours, whereas rats receiving the same dose excrete less than one-half that amount. These results demonstrate that 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 is considerably less biologically active in the chick than in the rat, probably due to more rapid metabolism and excretion

  12. TRIVIAL OR COMMENDABLE?: WOMEN'S WRITING, POPULAR CULTURE, AND CHICK LIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ryan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of similarities between popular culture and women's writing: both have been dismissed as trivial and worthless, have traditionally received little respect from critics, and have been scorned because of theis apparently "low-brow" appeal. Additionally, both were long excluded from the literary Canon. In contemporary culture, the intersection of popular culture and women's writing takes the form of chick lit, the contemporary genre of fiction starring female characters in their 20s and 30s as they make their way through their lives and tackle all the obstacles in their way. As well as outlining the characteristics and history of chick lit, this paper will discuss the negative reception that popular culture, women's writing, and chick lit has often been subjected to, and will show how studies are now emerging with the aim of demonstrating how such genres may have more worth and potential than is typically suggested.

  13. Mortality in captive wild-caught horned puffin chicks (Fratercula corniculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocidlowski, M E; Cornish, T E; Loomis, M R; Stoskopf, M K

    1997-09-01

    Sixteen horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata) and six parakeet auklet (Cyclorrhynchus psittacula) chicks of various prefledging ages were caught in Alaska and transported to the North Carolina Zoological Park (USA) in August 1995. Six of the 16 puffin chicks died within a 5-day period beginning 2 days after their arrival into quarantine at the zoo. The birds that died were collected at a young age, weighed 45.4-65.7 g, and had been fed a diet of thawed frozen ocean silversides (Atherinidae) that was not supplemented with vitamins. Clinical signs were nonspecific, and gross necropsies, insecticide toxicology screens, and bacterial cultures were unremarkable. Microscopic examination of tissues from five of the six birds showed myocardial necrosis and degeneration suggestive of vitamin E deficiency and intestinal protozoa resembling Microsporidia. The mortality pattern and histopathologic lesions observed in this case support the use of selective age capture and vitamin supplementation for wild alcid chick collection.

  14. New kid on the block A condor chick takes flight near Fillmore

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-02

    Mar 2, 2007 ... very attentive and caring.” Most first- time condor parents fail in their initial attempts to hatch out that first egg. This chick was born on 2 May, near the service's California Condor Recovery. Program. It is the first chick to fledge in the wild in California since 2004, since captive-bred condors were reintroduced.

  15. Neuro-economics in chicks: foraging choices based on amount, delay and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Toshiya; Kawamori, Ai; Bem-Sojka, Tiaza

    2008-06-15

    Studies on the foraging choices are reviewed, with an emphasis on the neural representations of elementary factors of food (i.e., amount, delay and consumption time) in the avian brain. Domestic chicks serve as an ideal animal model in this respect, as they quickly associate cue colors with subsequently supplied food rewards, and their choices are quantitatively linked with the rewards. When a pair of such color cues was simultaneously presented, the trained chicks reliably made choices according to the profitability of food associated with each color. Two forebrain regions are involved in distinct aspects of choices; i.e., nucleus accumbens-medial striatum (Ac-MSt) and arcopallium intermedium (AI), an association area in the lateral forebrain. Localized lesions of Ac-MSt enhanced delay aversion, and the ablated chicks made impulsive choices of immediate reward more frequently than sham controls. On the other hand, lesions of AI enhanced consumption-time aversion, and the ablated chicks shifted their choices toward easily consumable reward with their impulsiveness unchanged; delay and consumption time are thus doubly dissociated. Furthermore, chicks showed distinct patterns of risk-sensitive choices depending on the factor that varied at trials. Risk aversion occurred when food amount varied, whereas consistent risk sensitivity was not found when the delay varied; amount and delay were not interchangeable. Choices are thus deviated from those predicted as optima. Instead, factors such as amount, delay and consumption time could be separately represented and processed to yield economically sub-optimal choices.

  16. Efficacy of aniseed extract as immune stimulant and growth promoter in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, F R; Sultan, A; Ahmed, Sajjad; Chand, N; Khattak, F M; Durrani, Z

    2007-10-15

    Present research was undertaken to investigate the effect of different level of 6% concentrated (w/v) aniseed extract in broiler chicks at NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar Pakistan. One hundred and sixty, day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments, as A, B, C, receiving 20, 30 and 40 mL of 6% (w/v) concentrated aniseed infusion and D was kept as control group. Each treatment was replicated four times with ten chicks per replicate. Chicks were reared in cages in an open sided house. Vaccination was done against ND and IBD. Data were recorded for growth performance, immunity and economics. The data were subjected to statistical analysis, using Completely Randomized Design and MSTATC programme. Mean feed and water intake was nonsignificant (p > 0.05). Mean weight gain, FCR and dressing percentage was found better (p 0.05) in all groups. Mean antibody titer against IBD was higher (p 0.05), while the gross return was found better (p poultry production under different environmental conditions.

  17. Sex-Based Differences in Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae Chick Growth Rates and Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Jennings

    Full Text Available Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11% as well as bill (~8% and flipper length (~3%. We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d(-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species--one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica, with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors

  18. Cytoplasmic vitamin A binding proteins in chick embryo dermis and epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, R.E.; King, L.E. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Excess vitamin A has striking morphologic and developmental effects on chick embryo skin. While cytoplasmic retinoic acid-binding protein (CRABP) was known to be abundant in chick embryo skin, neither quantitative values nor the distribution between dermis and epidermis have been established. The authors determined CRABP levels in collagenase-separated dermis and epidermis from 8-day-old embryos using specific binding of all-trans-[11- 3 H]retinoic acid in cytosols prepared from gram quantities of these tissues. The level of CRABP in dermis was twice the level in epidermis whether calculated on the basis of wet weight, cytosol protein, or DNA. When averaged over many preparations, 3 times as much dermis as epidermis was recovered from a single piece of skin. Therefore, the dermis contained 85% of the extremely high CRABP levels found in collagenase-treated skin, while epidermis contributed only 15%. Cytoplasmic retinol binding protein (CRBP) was also detected in chick embryo skin, but the binding was low and the levels in epidermis and dermis were not significantly different. The amount of CRABP in chick embryo skin (1600 pmol/g wet weight or 100 pmol/mg cytosol protein) is the highest level reported in any tissue and suggests an important role for vitamin A in the normal development and maturation of skin

  19. Scheduled and unscheduled DNA synthesis in chick embryo liver following X-irradiation and treatment with DNA repair inhibitors in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stammberger, I.; Tempel, K. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie); Schmahl, W. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H. Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pathologie)

    1989-09-01

    Three hours following X-irradiation of chick embryos with doses of 4 and 8 Gy the in vitro incorporation of tritiated thymidine (({sup 3}H)dT) into DNA (scheduled DNA synthesis, ss) of hepatocytes was reduced to about one-third. Within 24 h after the exposure, ss returned to control values. The return of ss to a normal rate could be strongly inhibited by 2', 3'-dideoxythymidine (ddT), and to a lesser extent by 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (araC). In strong contrast to ss, the hydroxyurea (hu)-resistant ({sup 3)H}dT incorporation (unscheduled DNA synthesis, us) showed a highly significant increase 24 h after treatment of the embryos with araC and/or X-irradiation. Autoradiographic studies revealed no change of total ({sup 3}H)dT labelling frequency in the whole chick embryo liver 24 h after treatment with araC and/or X-irradiation, but a persistent depression of ss and a simultaneous increase of us. (author).

  20. Chick development and high dose of bendiocarb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovová, E.; Sedmera, David; Luptáková, L.; Mazenský, D.; Danko, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 9 (2012), s. 1312-1318 ISSN 1093-4529 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Bendiocarb * central nervous system * chick embryo * liver * toxicity Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.252, year: 2012

  1. Trends and tactics of mouse predation on Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena chicks at Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Davies

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The critically endangered Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena breeds almost exclusively on Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic, where breeding success is much lower than other great albatrosses (Diomedea spp. worldwide. Most breeding failures occur during the chick-rearing stage, when other great albatrosses suffer few failures. This unusual pattern of breeding failure is assumed to be largely due to predation by introduced house mice Mus musculus, but there have been few direct observations of mouse attacks. We closely monitored the fates of 20 chicks in the Gonydale study colony (123 chicks in 2014 using motion-activated cameras to determine the causes of chick mortality. Only 5 of 20 chicks survived to fledge, and of the 15 failures, 14 (93% were due to mouse predation. One mouse-wounded chick was killed by a Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus; the rest died outright from their wounds within 3.9 ± 1.2 days of the first attack. Despite this high impact, most chicks were attacked by only 1-2 mice at once (maximum 9. The remaining 103 chicks in the study colony were checked less frequently, but the timing of failures was broadly similar to the 20 closely monitored nests, and the presence of mouse wounds on other chicks strongly suggests that mice were responsible for most chick deaths. Breeding success in the Gonydale study colony averages 28% from 2001 to 2014; far lower than the normal range of breeding success of Diomedea species occurring on islands free from introduced predators. Island-wide breeding success fell below 10% for the first time in 2014, making it even more urgent to eradicate mice from Gough Island.

  2. Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Anjos, F R; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Chimonyo, M

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of bentonite clay (BC), diatomaceous earth (DE) and turmeric powder (TUM) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 250 Ross-308 d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 10 dietary treatments (5 replicates of 5 chicks) from hatch to d 21. Dietary treatments were: basal diet; basal diet plus AFB1 (2 mg) or BC (0.75%), or DE (0.75%), or TUM (200 mg/kg curcuminoids) and different combinations of AFB1, BC, DE and TUM. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed gain (FG) of the birds fed on BC or DE separately were not different from control birds. Birds fed on TUM only had similar FI and FG but lower BWG than control chicks. Aflatoxin B1 reduced FI, BWG and serum concentrations of glucose, albumin, total protein calcium, but increased FG and relative liver and kidney weights. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1 and BC had similar FI and FG to control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of DE and AFB1 had lower FI (23.1%) and BWG (28.6%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of TUM and AFB1 also had decreased FI (26.2 %) and BWG (31%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, BC and TUM consumed significantly higher amounts of feed compared with chicks fed on only AF, but gained less when compared with control diet chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, DE and TUM diet had poorer growth performance than those fed on AFB1 alone. None of the combination diets reduced the severity of liver lesions.

  3. Immunocharacteristics of oestrogen and androgen target cells in the anterior pituitary gland of the chick as embryo demonstrated by a combined method of autoradiography and immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasc, J.-M.; Sar, M.; Stumpf, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of oestrogen and androgen target cells in the anterior pituitary gland of the chick embryo on days 10, 12 and 15 of incubation was studied 1 h after the injection of tritium-labelled steroid hormone using the thaw-mount autoradiographic technique. Oestradiol target cells were localized in the caudal zone that corresponds to the so-called 'caudal lobe', while androgen target cells were found throughout the rostral and caudal lobes of the anterior gland. With a combined autoradiography and immunohistochemistry technique, most of the oestrogen target cells showed immunoreactivity to turkey LH antiserum but not to adrenocorticotrophin (1-24) and β-thyrotrophin antisera. In contrast, androgen target cells did not show positive immunoreactivity to the three antisera used. The results suggested a direct and early involvement of oestrogens but not of androgens in the feedback regulation of pituitary gonadotrophin secretion in the chick embryo. (U.K.)

  4. Single cell transcriptome profiling of developing chick retinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboissonniere, Lauren A; Martin, Gregory M; Goetz, Jillian J; Bi, Ran; Pope, Brock; Weinand, Kallie; Ellson, Laura; Fru, Diane; Lee, Miranda; Wester, Andrea K; Liu, Peng; Trimarchi, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-15

    The vertebrate retina is a specialized photosensitive tissue comprised of six neuronal and one glial cell types, each of which develops in prescribed proportions at overlapping timepoints from a common progenitor pool. While each of these cells has a specific function contributing to proper vision in the mature animal, their differential representation in the retina as well as the presence of distinctive cellular subtypes makes identifying the transcriptomic signatures that lead to each retinal cell's fate determination and development challenging. We have analyzed transcriptomes from individual cells isolated from the chick retina throughout retinogenesis. While we focused our efforts on the retinal ganglion cells, our transcriptomes of developing chick cells also contained representation from multiple retinal cell types, including photoreceptors and interneurons at different stages of development. Most interesting was the identification of transcriptomes from individual mixed lineage progenitor cells in the chick as these cells offer a window into the cell fate decision-making process. Taken together, these data sets will enable us to uncover the most critical genes acting in the steps of cell fate determination and early differentiation of various retinal cell types. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Toxicity of Kalanchoe spp to chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M C; Smith, M C

    1984-03-01

    Leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K tubiflora, K fedtschenkoi, K tomentosa, K tomentosa X K beharensis, and 4 cultivars of K blossfeldiana were tested for toxicity to 2-week-old Leghorn chicks. These species were analyzed for percentage of alkaloids, aliphatic nitro compounds, soluble oxalates, and nitrates and were examined qualitatively for cyanogenic glycosides. The solubility of the toxic principle in K daigremontiana was determined. Leaves of K daigremontiana, K tubiflora, and K fedtschenkoi were toxic to chicks at dosage levels of 8 to 12 mg/g of body weight. Toxic signs included depression, muscular incoordination, twitching and spiraling of the neck, tremors, convulsions, paralysis, and death. Kalanchoe tomentosa, K tomentosa X K beharensis, and 4 cultivars of K blossfeldiana were nontoxic at the highest dosage levels tested. Aliphatic nitro compounds and cyanogenic glycosides were not detected in any species. Alkaloids, nitrates, and soluble oxalates were present only in nontoxic concentrations. The toxic principle in K daigremontiana was soluble in 50%, 80%, and 100% ethanol, slightly soluble in water and acetone, and insoluble in benzene, chloroform, and ether.

  6. Effect of High Incubation Temperature on the Blood Parameters of Layer Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sgavioli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Adequate environmental temperature control is essential for incubation efficiency. Layer breeder eggs (n=360 were weighed and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with two treatments, consisting of two incubation temperatures (T1=37.5 °C, control; and T2=39.0 °C, hot, with two incubators per temperature, and 90 eggs per incubator, totaling 360 eggs. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick cloacal and body surface temperatures were not affected by incubation temperature. Eggs incubated at the hot temperature presented greater egg mass loss and higher eggshell conductance than those incubated at the control temperature. Layer chicks derived from eggs incubated at control temperature showed greater absolute weight, yolk-free egg mass, and heavier hearts than those from eggs submitted to heat stress during incubation. The control group presented lower base excess and ionized calcium blood levels. Incubating eggs at temperatures higher than those recommended compromises body and heart development of layer chicks and negatively affects blood ionized calcium availability, and therefore, bone mineralization during embryo development. Efficient temperature control during the incubation of fertile eggs is essential to obtain good quality layer chicks.

  7. The Pinay as Fun, Fearless Female: Philippine Chick Literature in the Age of the Transnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Stuart Santiago

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes Philippine chick literature by Summit Publishing – the first to come out with local chick literature via the Summit Books – and as a by-product of its magazine Cosmopolitan Philippines.This study delves into chick lit’s existence given these context(s: 1. the dynamics of publication in this country, i.e., the “literary” versus the “popular”, works in English versus works in Filipino, the “artsy” versus the bestseller; 2. the various kinds of feminism(s of which the middle class Filipina of today is necessarily part; and 3. the facts of globalization and the transnation that are the bases of the Summit Books’ existence, given its links to Cosmopolitan Philippines, and the latter’s existence as a local franchise of a transnational magazine. This paper also looks at the marginalization and suppression that is contingent upon these perspectives of the Summit Books with a view of seeing the possibilities of resistance and rebellion within them. This project uses as backbone contemporary third world feminist and current Philippine cultural theories that insist on the urgent tasks of relevance and involvement that all contemporary cultural productions by women must face. More particularly, this study uses notions of subjectivity and agency, and the processes of negotiation these allow, towards an analysis of where these women’s texts necessarily belong to. This kind of analysis is utilized precisely because these texts traverse across the oppressive and the empowering, the status quo and the possibilities of rebellion, and the powerless and the powerful. In the end, such negotiation is seen as Summit Books’ contribution to the contemporary creation of the Philippine feminine – one that demands that no text be reduced to just its class origins, or just the popular.

  8. [State of mitochondrial respiration and calcium capacity in livers of rats with different resistance to hypoxia after injections of L-arginine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhaliuk, N M

    2001-01-01

    In experiments on rats with different resistance to hypoxia are investigated processes of mitochondrial respiration, oxidative phosphorylation and calcium capacity in liver under precursor nitric oxide L-arginine (600 mg/kg) and blockator nitric oxide synthase L-NNA (35 mg/kg) injections. We are used next substrates of oxidation: 0.35 mM succinate, 1 mM alpha-ketoglutarate, 1 mM alpha-ketoglutarate and 2 mM malonic acid. Increasing of ADP-stimulation respiration states under exogenous L-arginine injection, decreasing efficacy of respiration processes (respiration control on Chance and ADP/O) under such substrates oxidation, testify to oxide energy support decreasing and reversing nitric oxide inhibit in such conditions. This will be used as mechanism cell regulation succinate dehydrogenase activity. It has shown that L-arginine injection increase calcium mitochondrial capacity low resistance to hypoxia rats using substrates of oxidation succinate and alpha-ketoglutarate to control meanings of high resistance rats. Effects of nitric oxide precursor influence on this processes limit NO-synthase inhibitor L-NNA.

  9. Familiarity perception call elicited under restricted sensory cues in peer-social interactions of the domestic chick.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamiko Koshiba

    Full Text Available Social cognitive mechanisms are central to understanding developmental abnormalities, such as autistic spectrum disorder. Peer relations besides parent-infant or pair-bonding interactions are pivotal social relationships that are especially well developed in humans. Cognition of familiarity forms the basis of peer socialization. Domestic chick (Gallus gallus studies have contributed to our understanding of the developmental process in sensory-motor cognition but many processes remain unknown. In this report, we used chicks, as they are precocial birds, and we could therefore focus on peer interaction without having to consider parenting. The subject chick behavior towards familiar and unfamiliar reference peers was video-recorded, where the subject and the reference were separated by either an opaque or transparent wall. Spectrogram and behavior correlation analyses based on principal component analysis, revealed that chicks elicited an intermediate contact call and a morphologically different distress call, more frequently towards familiar versus unfamiliar chicks in acoustic only conditions. When both visual and acoustic cues were present, subject chicks exhibited approaching and floor pecking behavior, while eliciting joyful (pleasant calls, irrespective of whether reference peers were familiar or unfamiliar. Our result showed that chicks recognized familiarity using acoustic cues and expressed cognition through modified distress calls. These finding suggests that peer affiliation may be established by acoustic recognition, independent of visual face recognition, and that eventually, both forms of recognition are integrated, with modulation of acoustic recognition.

  10. Immunoreactive cortisone in droppings reflect stress levels, diet and growth rate of gull-billed tern chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Noelia; Santiago-Quesada, Francisco; Masero, José A; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M; Möstl, Erich

    2015-03-01

    Blood levels of corticosterone have been traditionally analyzed to assess stress levels in birds; however, measuring steroid hormone metabolites in feces and droppings has gained much interest as a noninvasive technique successfully used for such purposed in vertebrates. Diet may affect these fecal metabolite levels (e.g., due to nutritional stress), however, this variable has not been taken into account in studies with chicks despite the great dietary flexibility of many avian species. In this study, we addressed for the first time this key issue and validated the technique in wild gull-billed tern chicks (Gelochelidon nilotica). Several enzyme immunoassays were used to determine the most appropriate test to measure the stress response. Subsequently, we performed an experiment in captivity to assess adrenocortical activity in gull-billed tern chicks fed with two diets: piscivorous vs. insectivorous. Finally, the relation between the chicks' growth rate and excreted immunoreactive glucocorticoid metabolites (EGMs) was also evaluated. We found the immunoreactive cortisone metabolites to be a good index of stress (as being an index of adrenocortical reactivity) in chicks of this species. Fish-fed chicks had higher levels of cortisone metabolites when comparing both concentration and total daily excreted metabolites. Within each treatment diet, cortisone metabolite levels and growth rates were negatively correlated. These findings suggest that the diet should be considered when using this technique for comparative purposes and highlight the trade-off between stress levels and chicks growth rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulatory effect of ascorbic acid on physiological responses of transported ostrich chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minka N. Salka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the modulating role of ascorbic acid (AA on rectal temperature (RT, heterophil to lymphocyte (H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours of ostrich chicks transported by road for 4 h during hot-dry conditions. Twenty ostrich chicks aged 2.5 months, of both sexes and belonging to the Red Neck breed, served as subjects of the study. The chicks were assigned randomly to AA-treated and control groups, consisting of 10 chicks each. The AA-treated group was administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of AA dissolved in 5 mL of sterile water 30 min before transportation, whilst the control group was given the equivalent of sterile water only. The thermal load (TL experienced in the vehicle during transportation fluctuated between 31 °C and 89 °C, as calculated from the ambient temperature and relative humidity. Transportation induced hyperthermia, lymphopenia, heterophilia and aberrant behaviours of pecking, wing fluffing and panting, which were ameliorated by AA administration. The relationships between the TL, journey duration and physiological variables of RT, H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours recorded during transportation were significantly and positively correlated in the control group. In AA-treated group the relationships were not significantly correlated. In conclusion, the results showed for the first time that AA ameliorated the adverse effects of stress caused by road transportation on the aberrant behaviours, RT and H to L ratio of ostrich chicks during the hot-dry season.

  12. Benefits and costs of increased levels of corticosterone in seabird chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive compared to controls. These behavioral modifications must be beneficial to chicks as they facilitate acquisition of food from the parents and might trigger brood reduction and reduced competition for food. Cort-implanted chicks also increased food intake; however, their growth rates were similar to controls. To examine the costs of chronically increased circulating levels of cort, we removed cort implants and, after a 10-day recovery period, tested cognitive abilities of young kittiwakes. We found that the ability of kittiwakes to associate a visual cue with the presence of food in a choice situation was compromised by the experimental elevation of cort during development. To examine the long-term costs of increased levels of cort, 8 months later we tested the performance of the same individuals in a spatial task requiring them to make a detour around a barrier in order to escape from an enclosure. Individuals treated with cort during development took significantly more time to solve this task compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that the adrenocortical response of a developing bird to environmental stressors is associated with both benefits (increased food intake, foraging behavior, and aggression) and costs (low growth efficiency and compromised cognitive abilities later in life). This provides an evolutionary framework for relating juvenile physiological traits to fitness of birds in subsequent life-history stages. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourav Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I, paddy straw (Group II, pine leaves (Group III, and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV, each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994 requirement. Results: The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Conclusion: Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur.

  14. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gourav; Khan, Asma; Singh, Surender; Anand, Ashok Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I), paddy straw (Group II), pine leaves (Group III), and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV), each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994) requirement. The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur.

  15. [Breeding biology of the whiskered auklet (Aethia pygmaea): incubation, chick growth, and feather ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniukhov, N B; Zubakin, V A; Williams, J; Fischer, J

    2000-01-01

    This is the second publication on the results of studies of the whiskered auklet breeding biology on Buldir Island. In 1993, according to the time of chick hatching the egg-laying period began in late April-early May. The single egg was incubated by both parents, which relieved each other once a day, usually at early night. Among the chicks under observation, the first hatched on June 11; the median of hatching was on June 17. After hatching, the egg shell usually remained in the nest. The chick was continuously brooded by one of parents for the first several days but since the age of 7-9 days, it stayed in the nest by itself during the daytime. Each parent fed the chick once a day, at early night, although occasional feedings were recorded also during daytime and at dawn. A newly hatched chick was covered by typical embryonal (natal) down. The remiges, rectrices, their coverts, and large feathers on pteryla humeralis had a mesoptile stage during their growth (the second down generation). The juvenile plumage consisted of semiplumes of types I and II and contour feathers of type I and, possibly, type II. In fledglings, the ornamental feathers were underdeveloped: the crest was absent and facial plumes only began growing. By reaching 100 g, the chicks left their nests at the age of about 37 days. A longer nesting period than in other Aethia auklets appears to be related to a low feeding rate due to the nocturnal activity in the colony.

  16. Piracetam, an AMPAkine drug, facilitates memory consolidation in the day-old chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samartgis, Jodi R; Schachte, Leslie; Hazi, Agnes; Crowe, Simon F

    2012-12-01

    Piracetam is an AMPAkine drug that may have a range of different mechanisms at the cellular level, and which has been shown to facilitate memory, amongst its other effects. This series of experiments demonstrated that a 10mg/kg dose of piracetam facilitated memory consolidation in the day-old chick when injected from immediately until 120min after weak training (i.e. using a 20% v/v concentration of methyl anthranilate) with the passive avoidance learning task. Administration of piracetam immediately after training led to memory facilitation which lasted for up to 24h following training. This dose of the AMPAkine was not shown to facilitate memory reconsolidation. These findings support the contention that application of the AMPAkine piracetam facilitates memory using a weak training task, and extend the range of actions previously noted with NMDA-related agents to those which also facilitate the AMPA receptor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A STUDY ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF YOLK RETENTION IN BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Aziz Khan. Shakeel Akhtar Khan, Shahnaz Hamid2. Asim Aslam and Masood

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The present project was designed to identify the factors responsible for yolk retention in broiler chicks. Four different experiments were conducted to find out the effect of four factors (experimental yolk sac infection with Echerichia coli, off-feed period between hatching and housing. first feeding time in the poultry house and type of initial feed on yolk absorption. Results of these experiments showed that yolk sac infection with E. coli led to decrease in rate of yolk absorption. Moisture and protein percentage was increased in infected yolk but fat percentage was not affected by yolk sac infection. On the other hand, post hatch starvation due to delay in housing and delay in first feeding did not affect rate of yolk absorption. Moisture percentage was not affected while fat absorption increased and protein absorption decreased due to fasting. It was also observed that feeding ground corn in early life of chick led to slow absorption of yolk contents as compared to feeding commercial starter ration and 2% sugar solution. Yolk composition was not affected by feeding commercial starter ration, ground corn and 2% sugar solution in early life of chick. It is concluded that experimental infection with E. coli and ground corn as initial feed leads to slow absorption of yolk sac in young broiler chicks.

  18. Xanthophyll supplementation reduced inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in hens and chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y-Y; Jin, L; Ji, J; Sun, B-L; Xu, L-H; Wang, Q-X; Wang, C-K; Bi, Y-Z

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated effects of xanthophylls (containing 40% lutein and 60% zeaxanthin) on gene expression of inflammatory mediators ( [] and []) and apoptosis ( [] and ) of breeding hens and chicks. In Exp. 1, 432 hens were divided into 3 groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (as the control group), 20, or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. The liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were sampled after 35 d. Results showed that 40 mg/kg of xanthophyll addition decreased in the liver, in the liver and duodenum, and in the liver and jejunum while increasing level in the liver and jejunum. Experiment 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from hens fed 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll diets were fed diets containing either 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. The liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were sampled at 0, 7, 14, and 21 d after hatching. Results showed that in ovo xanthophylls reduced inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in the liver, duodenum, and jejunum of chicks mainly within 1 wk after hatching, whereas dietary xanthophylls only decreased expression in the liver from 2 wk onward. These results underlined important anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects of maternal but not progeny dietary xanthophylls. In conclusion, xanthophylls can suppress inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in different tissues of hens and chicks.

  19. Protection of non-immunized broiler chicks housed with immunized cohorts against infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidosis in broiler chicks. Knowledge of the mechanisms of how chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chick...

  20. Coumafuryl (Fumarin) toxicity in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, L L; Su, J J; Barnes, H J

    1993-01-01

    Coumafuryl (Fumarin) toxicity was diagnosed in chickens less than 1 week of age. Mortality rate was 100%. Necropsy showed crops and gizzards to be full of feed. There was diffuse hemorrhage and unclotted blood in the abdomen and thorax. Histological examination showed congestion and hemorrhage. Chemical analysis of crop and gizzard contents contained approximately 340 ppm coumafuryl. The source of the coumafuryl was found to be the wood-straw mats in the chick boxes.

  1. Vitamin E as a radioprotector of bursa of Fabricius in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, N.; Rana, K.; Malhotra, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Radioprotective influence of vitamin E has been studied on the bursa of Fabricius 1 and 7 day old white leghorn chicks exposed to 2.25 Gy whole body γ-radiations. The study has revealed that the loss of lymphocytic population in the bursal follicles due to irradiation was very small in vitamin E treated animals compared to the untreated irradiated chicks. Also, the rate of reparation and lymphocytic repopulation was enhanced with vitamin E administration. (author). 8 refs., 8 figs

  2. Trivial or Commendable? : Women’s Writing, Popular Culture, and Chick Lit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan, Mary

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of similarities between popular culture and women's writing: both have been dismissed as trivial and worthless, have traditionally received little respect from critics, and have been scorned because of theis apparently "low-brow" appeal. Additionally, both were long excluded from the literary Canon. In contemporary culture, the intersection of popular culture and women's writing takes the form of chick lit, the contemporary genre of fiction starring female characters in their 20s and 30s as they make their way through their lives and tackle all the obstacles in their way. As well as outlining the characteristics and history of chick lit, this paper will discuss the negative reception that popular culture, women's writing, and chick lit has often been subjected to, and will show how studies are now emerging with the aim of demonstrating how such genres may have more worth and potential than is typically suggested.

  3. Effect of prenatal phenytion exposure on the apical ectodermal ridges of chick wing buds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, F.; Raza, S.; Shafique, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of sodium phenytoin on the development of the apical ectodermal ridges (AER) in chick wing buds. Study Design: Laboratory based case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the Department of Anatomy located at the Regional Center of College of Physicians and Surgeons Islamabad Pakistan, from Jan 2014 to Jan 2015. Material and Methods: Sixty fertilized chicken eggs of 'Egyptian fayoumi' breed were selected and divided into two subgroups, experimental and control, each having 30 eggs. A single dose of 3.5 mg sodium phenytoin was injected in each egg of the experimental subgroup while controls were administered same volume of normal saline. The embryos were extracted 96 hours (day 4) after incubation. Histological sections were cut at 5 micro m thickness and stained with Feulgen Nuclear and Light Green to measure the maximum thickness of the apical ectodermal ridges. The number of cells and mitoses in each ridges were also counted. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no significant difference between experimental and control subgroups regarding the maximum thickness and number of cells in the apical ectodermal ridge but there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of mitoses in the experimental ridges. Conclusion: The study shows that sodium phenytoin exerts an inhibitory effect on the apical ectodermal ridges of developing limbs evident by the decreased number of mitoses in the AER of wing buds of experimental chick embryos making it a potential target site for limb teratogenicity associated with its maternal intake during pregnancy. (author)

  4. Vaccination of commercial broiler chicks against avian metapneumovirus infection: a comparison of drinking-water, spray and oculo-oral delivery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Kannan; Bufton, Andrew; Pearson, Andrew; Lemiere, Stephane; Jones, Richard C

    2010-05-21

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) has become an important cause of viral respiratory infections in turkey and chickens. Live and inactivated vaccinations are available worldwide for prevention of disease and economic losses caused by this pathogen. The efficacy of these vaccines is vigorously tested under laboratory conditions prior to use in the field. In this study, a live subtype B aMPV vaccine was administered by spray, drinking water or oculo-oral methods to separate groups of broiler chicks under field conditions. Following this, the chicks were immediately transferred to separate rooms in an experimental isolation house, monitored and challenged with virulent subtype B aMPV. No clinical signs were recorded following the vaccination methods. In the oculo-oral vaccinated chicks, 40-60% of the birds were vaccine virus positive by RT-PCR. In addition, in comparison to other groups, statistically higher levels of aMPV ELISA antibodies were detected. After spray vaccination, the number of chicks positive for the vaccine virus increased gradually from 10% at one week to 30% by 3 weeks post vaccination. Following drinking water vaccination, 30% of chicks were aMPV positive at 1 week but negative by 3 weeks post vaccination. In both, spray and drinking water vaccinated groups, no ELISA antibodies were detected, but when challenged all chicks were protected against disease. At 5 days post challenge, 100% of chicks in the unvaccinated and those vaccinated by spray or drinking water routes but only 20% of the oculo-oral-vaccinated chicks were aMPV positive by RT-PCR. At 10 days post challenge, 10% of chicks in each group were aMPV RT-PCR positive. On challenge, all vaccinated chicks were protected against disease. It appears that when aMPV vaccine is accurately applied to chicks by spray or drinking water routes, both are capable of giving protection against clinical disease equal to that induced in those chicks vaccinated individually by the oculo-oral route. Copyright 2010

  5. Changes in acetylcholine release from the chick retina are not associated with myopia development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessey, K.A.; Cotriall, C.L.; McBrien, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The effectiveness of muscarinic receptor antagonists in inhibiting myopia progression in animal models and humans implicates cholinergic signalling in ocular growth regulation. Therefore to determine if changes in the release of acetylcholine from the retina are involved in myopia development, the efflux of acetylcholine from the in vitro retina of normal and myopic chick eyes was investigated. Chicks were monocularly deprived (MD) of pattern vision with translucent occluders for 2 or 7 days and refractive error of MD groups and age matched normals was monitored using retinoscopy (n=6 each group). 3 H-choline-Cl (1 Ci in 7μL) was injected into the vitreous of each eye under 2.5% halothane anaesthesia. After 1hr, the eyes were enucleated, under terminal anaesthesia (sodium pentobarbital, 120 mg/kg, im). Retinas were flat-mounted on acetate filter discs and superfused with oxygenated physiological saline solution (PSS) for 30min at 0.4mL/min. Five baseline fractions were collected (B1-B5), then three stimulated fractions were collected in the presence of PSS containing 50mM KCl (K1-K3) at 2min intervals. 3 H-acetylcholine ( 3 H-ACh) in each fraction was quantified by liquid scintillation counting. Significant amounts of myopia were induced in MD eyes after 2 (-5.1±0.8D) and 7 days (-18.8±2.4D) relative to control eyes (paired t-test p 3 H-ACh release was 146±15% above basal levels (K2/B1%) from retinas of normal animals. After 2 days MD, there was no significant difference between KCl-evoked release of 3 H-ACh from deprived eyes (147 39%) compared to control eyes (198±61%, paired t-test, p=0.27) or the eyes of normal animals (ANOVA, p>0.5). Similar results were obtained following 7 days MD. The results demonstrate that evoked acetylcholine release from the chick retina of myopic eyes is unaltered relative to control or normal eyes using an in vitro approach. Copyright (2002) Australian Neuroscience Society

  6. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan G. Aćimović

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1-2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM, significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water- or non-injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2 and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control.

  7. Effects of acute and repeated oral exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos on open-field activity in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badrany, Y M A; Mohammad, F K

    2007-11-01

    The effects of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos on 5min open-field activity were examined in a 7-15 days old chick model. Chlorpyrifos was acutely administered taking into account cholinesterase inhibition and determination of the acute (24h) median lethal dose (LD50). The oral LD50 value of chlorpyrifos in chicks was 18.14mg/kg, with cholinergic toxicosis observed on intoxicated chicks. Chlorpyrifos at the dose rates of 5,10 and 20mg/kg orally produced within 2h signs of cholinergic toxicosis in the chicks and significantly inhibited plasma (40-70%), whole brain (43-69%) and liver (31-46%) cholinesterase activities in a dose-dependent manner. Chlorpyrifos at 2 and 4mg/kg, orally did not produce overt signs of cholinergic toxicosis, but decreased (30, 60 and 90min after dosing) the general locomotor activity of the chicks as seen by a significant increase in the latency to move from the central square of the open-field arena, decreases in the numbers of lines crossed and vocalization score. Repeated daily chlorpyrifos treatments (2 and 4mg/kg, orally) for seven consecutive days also caused hypoactivity in chicks in the open-field behavioral paradigm. Only the high dose of chlorpyrifos (4mg/kg, orally) given repeatedly for 7 days caused significant cholinesterase inhibition in the whole brain (37%) and the liver (22%). In conclusion, chlorpyrifos at single or short-term repeated doses-induced behavioral changes in 7-15 days old chicks, in a model that could be used for further neurobehavioral studies involving subtle effects of organophosphates on chicks.

  8. Ultradian activity rhythms in large groups of newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, B L; Erhard, H W; Friggens, N C; McLeod, J E

    2008-07-01

    A clutch of young chicks housed with a mother hen exhibit ultradian (within day) rhythms of activity corresponding to the brooding cycle of the hen. In the present study clear evidence was found of ultradian activity rhythms in newly hatched domestic chicks housed in groups larger than natural clutch size without a mother hen or any other obvious external time-keeper. No consistent synchrony was found between groups housed in different pens within the same room. The ultradian rhythms disappeared with time and little evidence of group rhythmicity remained by the third night. This disappearance over time suggests that the presence of a mother hen may be pivotal for the long-term maintenance of these rhythms. The ultradian rhythm of the chicks may also play an important role in the initiation of brooding cycles during the behavioural transition of the mother hen from incubation to brooding. Computer simulations of individual activity rhythms were found to reproduce the observations made on a group basis. This was achievable even when individual chick rhythms were modelled as independent of each other, thus no assumptions of social facilitation are necessary to obtain ultradian activity rhythms on a group level.

  9. Ontogeny of muscle bioenergetics in Adelie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongy, Anaïs; Romestaing, Caroline; Blanc, Coralie; Lacoste-Garanger, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Raccurt, Mireille; Duchamp, Claude

    2013-11-01

    The ontogeny of pectoralis muscle bioenergetics was studied in growing Adélie penguin chicks during the first month after hatching and compared with adults using permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria. With pyruvate-malate-succinate or palmitoyl-carnitine as substrates, permeabilized fiber respiration markedly increased during chick growth (3-fold) and further rose in adults (1.4-fold). Several markers of muscle fiber oxidative activity (cytochrome oxidase, citrate synthase, hydroxyl-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) increased 6- to 19-fold with age together with large rises in intermyofibrillar (IMF) and subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondrial content (3- to 5-fold) and oxidative activities (1.5- to 2.4-fold). The proportion of IMF relative to SS mitochondria increased with chick age but markedly dropped in adults. Differences in oxidative activity between mitochondrial fractions were reduced in adults compared with hatched chicks. Extrapolation of mitochondrial to muscle respirations revealed similar figures with isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers with carbohydrate-derived but not with lipid-derived substrates, suggesting diffusion limitations of lipid substrates with permeabilized fibers. Two immunoreactive fusion proteins, mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were detected by Western blots on mitochondrial extracts and their relative abundance increased with age. Muscle fiber respiration was positively related with Mfn2 and OPA1 relative abundance. Present data showed by two complementary techniques large ontogenic increases in muscle oxidative activity that may enable birds to face thermal emancipation and growth in childhood and marine life in adulthood. The concomitant rise in mitochondrial fusion protein abundance suggests a role of mitochondrial networks in the skeletal muscle processes of bioenergetics that enable penguins to overcome harsh environmental constraints.

  10. Maternally derived anti-fibroblast growth factor 23 antibody as new tool to reduce phosphorus requirement of chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhouzheng; Bütz, Daniel E; Sand, Jordan M; Cook, Mark E

    2017-04-01

    Novel means to reduce phosphate input into poultry feeds and increase its retention would preserve world phosphate reserves and reduce environmental impact of poultry production. Here we show that a maternally derived antibody to a fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) peptide (GMNPPPYS) alleviated phosphorus deficiency in chicks fed low non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) diets. White Leghorn laying hens were vaccinated with either an adjuvant control or the synthetic FGF-23 peptide, and chicks with control or anti-FGF-23 maternal antibodies were fed a diet containing either 0.13 or 0.45% nPP (experiment 1), and 0.20 or 0.45% nPP (experiment 2) for 14 d. In both experiments, decreasing nPP from 0.45 to 0.13 or 0.20% decreased BW gain, G:F, excreta phosphorus, plasma phosphate, and plasma FGF-23 at all time periods examined (nPP main effect, P posture scores (d 7, 14) and bone lesion scores (d 14) decreased and plasma phosphate (d 14) increased in anti-FGF-23 chicks fed 0.13% nPP, compared to those with control antibody on the same diet (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, chicks with maternal anti-FGF-23 antibody had increased tibiotarsi ash (d 14), and plasma phosphate (d 14) and 1,25(OH)2D3 (d 14) levels, compared to chicks with control antibody (antibody main effect, P < 0.05). BW gain and G:F were increased in chicks with anti-FGF-23 antibody fed 0.20% nPP, compared to control antibody chicks on the same diet, at all time periods examined (P < 0.05). In conclusion, maternally-derived anti-FGF-23 antibody increased phosphorus retention in chicks fed diets containing either 0.13 or 0.20% nPP and thereby, reduced signs of phosphorus deficiency. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Homocysteine interference in neurulation: a chick embryo model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afman, L.A.; Blom, H.J.; Put, N.M.J. van der; Straaten, H.W.M. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periconceptional folic acid supplementation reduces the occurrence and recurrence risk of neural tube defects (NTD). Mothers of children with NTD have elevated plasma homocysteine levels. Administering homocysteine to chick embryos is reported to cause 27% NTD. Therefore, elevated plasma

  12. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bacteriological examination of cull chicks from egg-type and meat-type chicken flocks and waterfowl, exhibition poultry, and game bird flocks and poults from turkey flocks for salmonella. (a) For cull chicks, from 25...

  13. Exploration of genetically determined resistance against hepatitis C infection in high-risk injecting drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, P B; Cameron, B; Luciani, F; Lloyd, A R

    2014-08-01

    Genetic resistance to specific infections is well recognized. In hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, genetic polymorphisms in IL-28B and the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and their HLA class I ligands have been shown to affect clearance of the virus following infection. There are limited data regarding resistance to established HCV infection. Reliable quantification of repeated exposure in high-risk populations, such as injecting drug users (IDU), is a key limitation of previous studies of resistance. Behavioural data and DNA from IDU (n = 210) in the Hepatitis C Incidence and Transmission Study in prisons (HITS-p) cohort were genotyped for polymorphisms in: IL-28B, peptidyl-prolyl isomerase A (PPIA), HLA-C and KIR2. To quantify risk, a composite risk index based on factors predictive of incident HCV infection was derived. Logistic regression analysis revealed the risk index was strongly associated with incident HCV infection (P C1, or their combination. A framework for the investigation of genetic determinants of resistance to HCV infection has been developed. Several candidate gene associations were investigated and excluded. Further investigation of genetic determinants of resistance to HCV infection is warranted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Dopaminergic agonists that result in ocular growth inhibition also elicit transient increases in choroidal thickness in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickla, Debora L; Totonelly, Kristen; Dhillon, Balprit

    2010-11-01

    The dopaminergic system has been implicated in ocular growth regulation in chicks and monkeys. In both, dopamine D2 agonists inhibit the development of myopia in response to form deprivation, and in chicks, to negative lenses as well. Because there is mounting evidence that the choroidal response to defocus plays a role in ocular growth regulation, we asked whether the effective agonists also elicit transient thickening of the choroid concomitant with the growth inhibition. Negative lenses mounted on velcro rings were worn on one eye starting at age 8-12 days. Intravitreal injections (20 μl; dose = 10 nmole) of the agonist (dissolved in saline) or saline, were given through the superior temporal sclera using a 30G needle. Eyes were injected daily at noon, for 4 days, and the lenses immediately replaced. Agonists used were apomorphine (non-specific; n = 17), quinpirole (D2; n = 10), SKF-38393 (D1; n = 9), and saline controls (n = 22). For the antagonists, the same protocol was used, but on each day, the lenses were removed for 2 h. Immediately prior to lens-removal, the antagonist was injected (20 μl; dose = 5 nmole). Antagonists used were methylergonovine (non-specific; n = 12), spiperone (D2; n = 20), SCH-23390 (D1; n = 6) and saline controls (n = 27). Comparisons to saline (continuous lens wear) controls were from the agonist experiment. Axial dimensions were measured using high frequency A-scan ultrasonography at the start of lens wear, and on day 4 prior to the injections, and then again 3 h later. Refractive errors were measured using a Hartinger's refractometer at the end of the experiment. Apomorphine and quinpirole inhibited the refractive response to the hyperopic defocus induced by the negative lenses (drug vs saline controls: -1.3 and 1.2 D vs -5.6 D; p effect was axial: both drugs prevented the excessive ocular elongation (change in axial length: 233 and 205 μm vs 417 μm; p effects of periods of vision on lens

  15. SITS-sensitive Cl- conductance pathway in chick intestinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montrose, M.; Randles, J.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The unidirectional influx of 36 Cl - into isolated chick epithelial cells is 30% inhibited by 300 μM SITS. Characteristics of the SITS-sensitive flux pathway were examined in terms of sensitivity to changes in membrane potential and intracellular pH. Potential dependence was evaluated using unidirectional influx of [ 14 C]tetraphenylphosphonium ([ 14 C]-TPP + ) as a qualitative sensor of diffusion potentials created by experimentally imposed gradients of CL - . Steady-state distribution of [ 14 C]methylamine ([ 14 C]MA) was used to examine for Cl - -dependent changes in intracellular pH. Imposed Na + gradients, but not Cl - gradients, induce changes in [ 14 C]MA distribution. SITS does not alter the [ 14 C]MA distribution observed in cells with imposed gradients of Na + and Cl - . Both results suggest that inhibition of Cl - influx. However, if relative permeabilities for ion pairs via conductance pathways are compared, it can be shown that SITS causes a marked reduction of P Cl relative to either P Na or P K . SITS also inhibits electrically induced influx of [ 14 C]TPP + or [ 14 C]α-methylglucoside driven by imposed Cl - influx can be blocked by SITS. These observations are all consistent with a SITS-sensitive Cl - conductance pathway associated with the plasma membrane of chick intestinal cells. No Cl - -OH - exchange capability can be detected for chick intestinal cells

  16. Excess caffeine exposure impairs eye development during chick embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheng-lai; Wang, Guang; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine has been an integral component of our diet and medicines for centuries. It is now known that over consumption of caffeine has detrimental effects on our health, and also disrupts normal foetal development in pregnant mothers. In this study, we investigated the potential teratogenic effect of caffeine over-exposure on eye development in the early chick embryo. Firstly, we demonstrated that caffeine exposure caused chick embryos to develop asymmetrical microphthalmia and induced the orbital bone to develop abnormally. Secondly, caffeine exposure perturbed Pax6 expression in the retina of the developing eye. In addition, it perturbed the migration of HNK-1+ cranial neural crest cells. Pax6 is an important gene that regulates eye development, so altering the expression of this gene might be the cause for the abnormal eye development. Thirdly, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was significantly increased in eye tissues following caffeine treatment, and that the addition of anti-oxidant vitamin C could rescue the eyes from developing abnormally in the presence of caffeine. This suggests that excess ROS induced by caffeine is one of the mechanisms involved in the teratogenic alterations observed in the eye during embryogenesis. In sum, our experiments in the chick embryo demonstrated that caffeine is a potential teratogen. It causes asymmetrical microphthalmia to develop by increasing ROS production and perturbs Pax6 expression. PMID:24636305

  17. Classification of neuromuscular blocking agents in a new neuromuscular preparation of the chick in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezen, H. van

    1968-01-01

    A neuromuscular preparation of the chick is described: 1. 1. The sciatic nerve-tibilis anterior muscle preparation of the 2–10 days old chick fulfils all criteria of an assay preparation and differentiates between curare-like and decamethonium-like agents. 2. 2. The preparation responds to

  18. Premature feather loss among common tern chicks in Ontario: the return of an enigmatic developmental anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Arnold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In July 2014, we observed premature feather loss (PFL among non-sibling, common tern Sterna hirundo chicks between two and four weeks of age at Gull Island in northern Lake Ontario, Canada. Rarely observed in wild birds, to our knowledge PFL has not been recorded in terns since 1974, despite the subsequent banding of hundreds of thousands of tern chicks across North America alone. The prevalence, 5% of chicks (9/167, and extent of feather loss we report is more extreme than in previous reports for common terns but was not accompanied by other aberrant developmental or physical deformities. Complete feather loss from all body areas (wing, tail, head and body occurred over a period of a few days but all affected chicks appeared vigorous and quickly began to grow replacement feathers. All but one chick (recovered dead and submitted for post-mortem most likely fledged 10–20 days after normal fledging age. We found no evidence of feather dystrophy or concurrent developmental abnormalities unusual among affected chicks. Thus, the PFL we observed among common terns in 2014 was largely of unknown origin. There was striking temporal association between the onset of PFL and persistent strong southwesterly winds that caused extensive mixing of near-shore surface water with cool, deep lake waters. One hypothesis is that PFL may have been caused by unidentified pathogens or toxins welling up from these deep waters along the shoreline but current data are insufficient to test this. PFL was not observed among common terns at Gull Island in 2015, although we did observe similar feather loss in a herring gull Larus argentatus chick in that year. Comparison with sporadic records of PFL in other seabirds suggests that PFL may be a rare, but non-specific, response to a range of potential stressors. PFL is now known for gulls, penguins and terns.

  19. Effects of egg storage on hatchability, chick quality, performance and immunocompetence parameters of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliomytis, Michael; Tsipouzian, Theofania; Hager-Theodorides, Ariadne L

    2015-09-01

    Pre-incubation egg storage is a necessity for the poultry industry. This study evaluated the effects of pre-incubation storage length of broiler eggs on hatchability, 1-day-old chick quality, subsequent performance, and immunocompetence. To this end, a total of 360 hatching eggs were stored for 4, 12, or 16 d prior to incubation. Hatchability and chick quality were assessed at hatch, and growth performance and immunocompetence parameters were assessed during a 35 d rearing period. Hatchability of set and fertile eggs, and embryonic mortality, were not affected by egg storage. On the contrary, 1-day-old chick BW and length were linearly negatively correlated with egg storage length (P-linearegg weight prior to setting was unaffected, and corrected chick length was positively affected by storage length. One-day-old chick Tona score, navel quality, and post-hatch growth performance (BW at 7 and 35 d, cumulative feed intake, and feed conversion ratio at 35 d) were unaffected by egg storage (P, P-linear>0.05). Lymphoid organ weights at 2 and 35 d, the titre of maternal anti-NDV antibodies, most of the thymocyte subpopulations defined by CD3, CD4, and CD8 cell surface expression in the thymus of 2-d-old chicks, cellular responses to the PHA skin test, humoral responses to primary SRBC, and NDV immunizations were also not influenced by length of storage (P, P-linear>0.05). On the contrary, the length of egg storage was found to negatively influence the abundance of CD3+CD4-CD8- thymocytes that represent the majority of γδ-T cells in the thymus of 2-day-old chicks, as well as the humoral response to booster NDV immunization of the birds. In brief, pre-incubation storage of broiler hatching eggs for up to 16 d did not affect most developmental and growth parameters investigated, except for BW and length at hatch. Egg storage was found to suppress some aspects of the immunocompetence of the birds, particularly aspects of acquired immunity. © 2015 Poultry Science

  20. Sex-Based Differences in Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) Chick Growth Rates and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Katie M.; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species—one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact the

  1. Sex-Based Differences in Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) Chick Growth Rates and Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Katie M; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G

    2016-01-01

    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d(-1) faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species--one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact

  2. Marine and terrestrial factors affecting Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae chick growth and recruitment off the western Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Erik W.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Patterson, Donna L.; Ribic, Christine A.; Fraser, William R.

    2011-01-01

    An individual-based bioenergetics model that simulates the growth of an Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliaechick from hatching to fledging was used to assess marine and terrestrial factors that affect chick growth and fledging mass off the western Antarctic Peninsula. Simulations considered the effects on Adélie penguin fledging mass of (1) modification of chick diet through the addition of Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum to an all-Antarctic krillEuphausia superba diet, (2) reduction of provisioning rate which may occur as a result of an environmental stress such as reduced prey availability, and (3) increased thermoregulatory costs due to wetting of chicks which may result from increased precipitation or snow-melt in colonies. Addition of 17% Antarctic silverfish of Age-Class 3 yr (AC3) to a penguin chick diet composed of Antarctic krill increased chick fledging mass by 5%. Environmental stress that results in >4% reduction in provisioning rate or wetting of just 10% of the chick’s surface area decreased fledging mass enough to reduce the chick’s probability of successful recruitment. The negative effects of reduced provisioning and wetting on chick growth can be compensated for by inclusion of Antarctic silverfish of AC3 and older in the chick diet. Results provide insight into climate-driven processes that influence chick growth and highlight a need for field research designed to investigate factors that determine the availability of AC3 and older Antarctic silverfish to foraging Adélie penguins and the influence of snowfall on chick wetting, thermoregulation and adult provisioning rate.

  3. Melatonin rescues cardiovascular dysfunction during hypoxic development in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Nozomi; Skeffington, Katie L; Beck, Christian; Niu, Youguo; Giussani, Dino A

    2016-01-01

    There is a search for rescue therapy against fetal origins of cardiovascular disease in pregnancy complicated by chronic fetal hypoxia, particularly following clinical diagnosis of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Melatonin protects the placenta in adverse pregnancy; however, whether melatonin protects the fetal heart and vasculature in hypoxic pregnancy independent of effects on the placenta is unknown. Whether melatonin can rescue fetal cardiovascular dysfunction when treatment commences following FGR diagnosis is also unknown. We isolated the effects of melatonin on the developing cardiovascular system of the chick embryo during hypoxic incubation. We tested the hypothesis that melatonin directly protects the fetal cardiovascular system in adverse development and that it can rescue dysfunction following FGR diagnosis. Chick embryos were incubated under normoxia or hypoxia (14% O2) from day 1 ± melatonin treatment (1 mg/kg/day) from day 13 of incubation (term ~21 days). Melatonin in hypoxic chick embryos rescued cardiac systolic dysfunction, impaired cardiac contractility and relaxability, increased cardiac sympathetic dominance, and endothelial dysfunction in peripheral circulations. The mechanisms involved included reduced oxidative stress, enhanced antioxidant capacity and restored vascular endothelial growth factor expression, and NO bioavailability. Melatonin treatment of the chick embryo starting at day 13 of incubation, equivalent to ca. 25 wk of gestation in human pregnancy, rescues early origins of cardiovascular dysfunction during hypoxic development. Melatonin may be a suitable antioxidant candidate for translation to human therapy to protect the fetal cardiovascular system in adverse pregnancy. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pineal Research. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effects of a combined hatching and brooding system on hatchability, chick weight, and mortality in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2009-11-01

    Chicks hatch over a time window of approximately 36 to 48 h and are removed from the hatchers only when the majority of the chicks has hatched. Consequently, chicks are exposed to prolonged posthatch holding periods and delays in feed and water access, leading to dehydration and impaired posthatch performance. It is questionable whether the physiological requirements of the hatchlings can be met with current hatching systems. An alternative system that may better match the requirements of the hatchlings is a system that combines the hatching and brooding phase, so that feed and water can be provided immediately after hatch. Such a system, named Patio, was developed in the Netherlands and tested from 2006 to 2008, to evaluate effects on hatchability and early performance of broilers. This paper describes the Patio system and the results from these tests. A total of 21 broiler production trials (780,686 eggs) in the Patio system were evaluated at 3 locations and compared with control hatches of eggs of the same parental flock in the hatchery. Hatchability in the Patio was on average 1.45, 1.83, and 1.86% higher at location 1, 2, and 3, respectively. However, in the calculation of the hatchability in the Patio, possible second grade chicks were included, whereas these were excluded in the calculation of hatchability in the hatchery. Additionally, in the hatchery, the hatching process was interrupted earlier than in the Patio, meaning that possible late hatching chicks remained in the flock in the Patio, but not in the hatchery. In 3 trials, the Patio chicks were 11.6 to 16.3% heavier at d 0, when the hatchery chicks were placed in the broiler house. Mean cumulative 7-d mortality was only assessed in the Patio and was 1.27, 1.09, and 1.43% at location 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The Patio system appears to function as an alternative to current hatching and brooding systems. Further studies are required to determine to what extent the higher hatchability is due to second

  5. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  6. Effect of Pigeon pea and Cow pea on the performance and gut immunity of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagoub, Yagoub Magboul

    1998-03-01

    two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of pigeon pea and cow pea on the performance and gut immunity of broiler chicks. In experiment 1, 3 experimental diets were formulated containing graded levels of cow pea were maintained. Diets were prepared containing 18.21, 18.25 and 18.25% crude protein and 3076.41, 3062 Kel/Kg metabolizable energy for experiment 1, while diets of experiment 11 were prepared containing 18.21, 18.22, and 18.22% crude protein and 3076.41, 3080.5 and 3055.89 KEl/Kg metabolized energy. 120 Loghmann broiler chicks were equally allocated into 15 pens (8 chicks/pen). Then the experimental diets were randomly assigned to the pens. feed and water were provided ad libitum in both experiments. In experiment 1, the results showed no significant difference were found in chick performance at day 45. The feed conversation ratio increased with the level of pigeon pea used. The pancreas mass was increased as the level of pigeon pea increase. In experiment 2 the results showed significant decrease in the body weight and feed intake at day 45, while the pancreas mass tend to increase with increasing level of cow pea in the diet. Histological examination of small intestine slides showed no histopathological differences between the control and chicks fed cow pea and/or pigeon pea. Immunological test of the serum and mucous samples using ELISA techniques revealed no significant difference between the control and chicks given cow pea and / or pigeon pea

  7. How the embryonic chick brain twists

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Forsch, Nickolas; Taber, Larry A.

    2016-01-01

    During early development, the tubular embryonic chick brain undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion, one of the earliest organ-level left–right asymmetry events in development. Existing evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for the predominantly rightward torsion of the embryonic brain tube remains poorly understood. Here, we show through a combination of in vitro experiments, a physical model of the embryonic m...

  8. Instantaneous and cumulative influences of competition on impulsive choices in domestic chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi eAmita

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined instantaneous and cumulative effects of competitive interactions on impulsiveness in the inter-temporal choices in domestic chicks. Chicks were trained to peck colored beads to gain delayed food rewards (1 or 6 grains of millet delivered after a delay ranging between 0–4.5 s, and were tested in binary choices between a small-short delay option (SS and a large-long delay alternative (LL. To examine whether competitive foraging instantaneously changes impulsiveness, we intraindividually compared choices between two consecutive tests in different contexts, one with competitors and another without. We found that (1 the number of the choice of LL was not influenced by competition in the tests, but (2 the operant peck latency was shortened by competition, suggesting a socially enhanced incentive for food. To further examine the lasting changes, two groups of chicks were consecutively trained and tested daily for 2 weeks according to a behavioral titration procedure, one with competitors and another without. Inter-group comparisons of the choices revealed that (3 choice impulsiveness gradually decreased along development, while (4 the chicks trained in competition maintained a higher level of impulsiveness. These results suggest that competitive foraging causes impulsive choices not by direct/contextual modification. Causal link between the instantaneous enhancement of incentive and the gradual effects on impulsivity remains to be examined. Some (yet unspecified factors may be indirectly involved.

  9. Enhancement of resistance to coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens by dietary muscadine pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougald, L R; Hofacre, C; Mathis, G; Fuller, L; Hargrove, J L; Greenspan, P; Hartle, D K

    2008-12-01

    Muscadine pomace (MP), a by-product of the production of wine and juice from Vitis rotundifolia, was dried and tested in chickens for effects on primary resistance to coccidiosis, development of protective immunity after vaccination with live coccidia, and resistance to necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by the joint action of Clostridium perfringens and coccidia. To test primary resistance to coccidiosis, 2-wk-old chicks were given 2% or 5% MP in the diet and inoculated with Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima. Birds given MP at either level had significantly (P chickens were given 2% or 5% MP and grown to 42 days to test the palatability of MP. Birds given 2% MP in feed grew similarly to untreated controls, but birds given 5% had poorer average live weight. This suggested a negative effect on feed intake at the higher level. The effects of dietary 0.5% or 2.0% MP on immune protection were tested after live coccidiosis vaccination in the hatchery. Chicks were removed from each pen at 21 days of age and challenged with E acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella. Resistance to infection was improved by MP as suggested by significantly (P chickens. Chicks were inoculated with live coccidia at 14 days of age and dosed orally with live cultures of C perfringens on day 19, day 20, and day 21. Enteritis caused 48% mortality in the first study and 67% mortality in the second study. Dietary MP at 0.5-2.0% significantly (P chickens.

  10. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual’s energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide. PMID:26840252

  11. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Caitlin; Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual's energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide.

  12. Effect of oral dietary supplement for chicks subjected to thermal oscillation on performance and intestinal morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanir Inês Müller Fernandes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nutritional formulation based on amino acids and vitamins supplemented in the drinking water for chicks in the first week of life subjected to thermal oscillation on performance, organ development and intestinal morphometry from 1 to 21 days. 640-male broiler chicks were distributed in a 2x2 factorial completely randomized design (with or without dietary supplementation and at comfort temperature or thermal oscillation. Chicks subjected to thermal oscillation presented worse performance (p < 0.05 than those under thermal comfort of 1 to 7, 1 to 14 and 1 to 21 days. Nutritional supplementation did not alter the performance (p < 0.05 of the birds, but resulted in a higher body weight (p < 0.05 regardless of the environmental thermal condition. At 7 days, chicks under thermal comfort had better intestinal morphometric parameters (p < 0.05, in relation to birds under thermal oscillation. In conclusion, the temperature oscillations caused negative consequences to the productive performance and the intestinal morphology of chicks for which dietary supplementation was not enough to mitigate the effects of the environmental challenge during the first week of life of the birds.

  13. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Astaxanthin on Histamine Induced Lesions in the Gizzard and Proventriculus of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-hyang Ohh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin (ASX is a xanthophyll pigment isolated from crustaceans and salmonids. Owing to its powerful antioxidant activity, ASX has been reported to have the potential to protect against gastric ulcers and a variety of other illnesses. Histamine (His is a dietary factor that causes gastric erosion and ulceration in young chicks. In this study, we examined whether ASX had protective effects on dietary histamine-induced lesions in the gizzard and proventriculus of broiler chickens. Four experimental treatment groups were planned: basal diet (BD, BD+His, BD+ASX, and BD+ASX+His, with four chicks (5 days old in each group and three replications (i.e., a total of 12 chicks per group. The BD was supplemented with either 0.4% His or 100 ppm ASX. The birds were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks, and diets contained no antimicrobial compounds. Supplementing the diet with His significantly decreased body weight gain, but increased the weights of the gizzard and proventriculus of the chicks as compared with those of chicks in the BD group (p<0.05. ASX did not affect His-dependent changes in chick body weight or weights of the gizzard and proventriculus. The loss of gastric glands in the proventriculus, which was observed in His-treated chicks, was not prevented by ASX administration. The frequency of proventricular ulceration, however, was lowered by treatment with ASX, without significant differences between the two supplementation levels. In conclusion, our data showed that ASX might be helpful for alleviating structural damage to the digestive system in poultry under certain stressful conditions.

  14. The invisible cues that guide king penguin chicks home: use of magnetic and acoustic cues during orientation and short-range navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, Anna P; Chiffard, Jules; Couchoux, Charline; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2013-04-15

    King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) live in large and densely populated colonies, where navigation can be challenging because of the presence of many conspecifics that could obstruct locally available cues. Our previous experiments demonstrated that visual cues were important but not essential for king penguin chicks' homing. The main objective of this study was to investigate the importance of non-visual cues, such as magnetic and acoustic cues, for chicks' orientation and short-range navigation. In a series of experiments, the chicks were individually displaced from the colony to an experimental arena where they were released under different conditions. In the magnetic experiments, a strong magnet was attached to the chicks' heads. Trials were conducted in daylight and at night to test the relative importance of visual and magnetic cues. Our results showed that when the geomagnetic field around the chicks was modified, their orientation in the arena and the overall ability to home was not affected. In a low sound experiment we limited the acoustic cues available to the chicks by putting ear pads over their ears, and in a loud sound experiment we provided additional acoustic cues by broadcasting colony sounds on the opposite side of the arena to the real colony. In the low sound experiment, the behavior of the chicks was not affected by the limited sound input. In the loud sound experiment, the chicks reacted strongly to the colony sound. These results suggest that king penguin chicks may use the sound of the colony while orienting towards their home.

  15. Effects of Ascorbic Acid Injection in Incubated Eggs Submitted to Heat Stress on Incubation Parameters and Chick Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sgavioli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dose-dependent positive effects on hatchability and hatchling weight have been attributed to ascorbic acid (AA when eggs were submitted or not to intermittent heat stress during incubation. Fertile breeder (Cobb(r eggs were used to determine if the pre-incubation injection of AA in ovo affects the incubation and hatchling quality of egg incubated under thermoneutral or intermittent heat stress conditions. Eggs were not injected or injected with 0, 2,4, or 6% AA/100µL water and incubated at continuous thermoneutral (37.5ºC or hot (39.0ºC temperature. Eggshell temperature (EST increased in the second half of the incubation period in all experimental groups. The EST of non-injected eggs and of those injected with water was higher when incubated at 39°C than at 37.5°C, but EST was not different among eggs injected with AA. Egg mass loss and eggshell conductance were higher in the eggs incubated at 39°C than at 37.5°C.Hatchability was lower in the eggs injected with AA. Liver and yolk sac weights were higher, whereas heart and liver weights were lower in hatchlings from eggs incubated at 39°C; however, hatchling weight was not affected by incubation temperature. The results showed that AA doses affected egg conductive heat loss and hatchability, and that they did not minimize the effects of high incubation temperature on liver and heart development.

  16. Chick embryo partial ischemia model: a new approach to study ischemia ex vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamantak Majumder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ischemia is a pathophysiological condition due to blockade in blood supply to a specific tissue thus damaging the physiological activity of the tissue. Different in vivo models are presently available to study ischemia in heart and other tissues. However, no ex vivo ischemia model has been available to date for routine ischemia research and for faster screening of anti-ischemia drugs. In the present study, we took the opportunity to develop an ex vivo model of partial ischemia using the vascular bed of 4(th day incubated chick embryo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ischemia was created in chick embryo by ligating the right vitelline artery using sterile surgical suture. Hypoxia inducible factor- 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha, creatine phospho kinase-MB and reactive oxygen species in animal tissues and cells were measured to confirm ischemia in chick embryo. Additionally, ranolazine, N-acetyl cysteine and trimetazidine were administered as an anti-ischemic drug to validate the present model. Results from the present study depicted that blocking blood flow elevates HIF-1alpha, lipid peroxidation, peroxynitrite level in ischemic vessels while ranolazine administration partially attenuates ischemia driven HIF-1alpha expression. Endothelial cell incubated on ischemic blood vessels elucidated a higher level of HIF-1alpha expression with time while ranolazine treatment reduced HIF-1alpha in ischemic cells. Incubation of caprine heart strip on chick embryo ischemia model depicted an elevated creatine phospho kinase-MB activity under ischemic condition while histology of the treated heart sections evoked edema and disruption of myofibril structures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study concluded that chick embryo partial ischemia model can be used as a novel ex vivo model of ischemia. Therefore, the present model can be used parallel with the known in vivo ischemia models in understanding the mechanistic insight of ischemia development and in

  17. DELAYED APPEARANCE OF LACTOBACILLI IN THE INTESTINES OF CHICKS REARED IN A "NEW" ENVIRONMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARE, L N; WISEMAN, R F

    1964-11-01

    Male chicks (1 day old; Vantress x Arbor Acre) were fed a basal folic acid-deficient diet, a 5% uric acid-containing diet with and without 5 mg/lb (453.5 g) of bacitracin and 20 mg/lb of sodium penicillin G, the basal diet supplemented with only the antibiotics, and the basal diet plus 500 mug/lb of folic acid. The chicks were reared in a room which had not been used previously for housing chickens ("new" environment). Bacteriological analyses of the contents of the small intestine revealed a decrease in numbers of streptococci and "anaerobic" bacteria in the chicks receiving dietary antibiotics. No persistent changes were seen in the numbers of coliform bacteria. Lactobacilli were not detected in any of the groups until 3 weeks after feeding.

  18. The effect of a commercial competitive exclusion product on the selection of enrofloxacin resistance in commensal E. coli in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantziaras, Ilias; Smet, Annemieke; Filippitzi, Maria Eleni; Damiaans, Bert; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Boyen, Filip; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2018-06-07

    The effect of a competitive exclusion product (Aviguard ® ) on the selection of fluoroquinolone resistance in poultry was assessed in vivo in the absence or presence of fluoroquinolone treatment. Two experiments using a controlled seeder-sentinel animal model (2seeders:4sentinels per group) with one-day-old chicks were used. For both experiments,as soon as the chicks were hatched, the animals of two groups were administered Aviguard ® and two groups were left untreated. Three days later, all groups were inoculated with an enrofloxacin-susceptible commensal E. coli strain. Five days after hatching, two animals per group were inoculated either with a bacteriologically-fit or a bacteriologically non-fit enrofloxacin-resistant commensal E. coli strain. In experiment 2, all groups were orally treated for three consecutive days (Day 8-10) with enrofloxacin. Throughout the experiments, faecal excretion of all inoculated E. coli strains was determined on days 2-5-8-11-18-23 by selective plating (via spiral plater). Linear mixed models were used to assess the effect of Aviguard ® on the selection of fluoroquinolone resistance. The use of Aviguard® (penrofloxacin-resistant E. coli when no enrofloxacin treatment was administered. However, this beneficial effect disappeared (p=0.37) when the animals were treated with enrofloxacin. Similarly, bacterial fitness of the enrofloxacin-resistant E. coli strain used for inoculation had an effect (penrofloxacin resistance when no treatment was administered, whereas this effect was no longer present when enrofloxacin was administered (p =0.70). Thus, enrofloxacin treatment cancelled the beneficial effects from administrating Aviguard ® in one-day-old broiler chicks and resulted in a enrofloxacin-resistant flora.

  19. Auklet (Charadriiformes: Alcidae, Aethia spp.) chick meals from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, have a very low incidence of plastic marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Jones, Ian L; Williams, Jeffrey C; Byrd, G Vernon

    2010-08-01

    The ingestion of plastic marine debris is a chronic problem for some of the world's seabird species, contributing to reduced chick survival, population declines, and deposition of contaminants via absorption in birds' gastrointestinal tract. We analysed the frequency of ingested plastic in chick meals delivered by adults in four species of auklet - Crested (Aethia cristatella), Least (A. pusilla), Parakeet (A. psittacula), and Whiskered (A. pygmaea) - from three breeding colonies in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA over a 14-year period from 1993 to 2006. Among 2541 chick meals, we found plastic in only one - from a Whiskered Auklet on Buldir Island in 1993. While adult Parakeet Auklets have a high frequency of plastic ingestion (over 90%), no chick meals contained plastic. Unlike other seabirds, the planktivorous auklets do not appear to offload plastic to their chicks, and we conclude that auklet chicks are probably at a low risk of contamination from plastic debris. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Memantine facilitates memory consolidation and reconsolidation in the day-old chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samartgis, Jodi R; Schachte, Leslie; Hazi, Agnes; Crowe, Simon F

    2012-05-01

    Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that has been approved for the treatment of the cognitive deficits noted in Alzheimer's disease. While there is a body of research that supports memantine's facilitative action upon memory compromise, this series of studies aimed to investigate the effects of this drug in healthy animals with intact memory functioning. A 0.1 mM dose of memantine injected immediately after a weakly aversive training event (i.e. 20% v/v methyl anthranilate) was found to enhance passive avoidance learning for this event in day-old chicks up to 24 h following training. The same dose of memantine was also observed to enhance memory for the training event when it was administered in conjunction with a reminder trial. These results suggest that memantine is capable of facilitating both memory consolidation as well as memory reconsolidation. It was concluded that memantine's mechanism may involve the short-term or intermediate memory phases of the Gibbs and Ng model of memory, and that the current findings represent enhancement of intact memory, rather than amelioration of memory compromise. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  2. Effect of Enzyme Supplementation and Irradiation of Barley on Broiler Chicks Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, D.H.M.; Abd El-Hakeim, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    The experiments were conducted to study the influence of irradiation treatment at dose levels of 0.20 and 60 kGy on barley beta-glucan and the effect of enzyme supplementation and irradiation of barley on broiler chicks performance. The amount of total and water-soluble beta-glucan in raw barley was 36 kg -1 , respectively. The effect of irradiation treatment on total beta-glucan was insignificant while the level of soluble beta-glucan was increased with increasing the dose levels of irradiation. The effect of irradiation treatment and enzyme supplementation of barley diets on growth and conversion performance of broiler chicks indicated that birds fed raw barley diet had lower body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion than those fed control diet throughout the experimental period. Irradiation of barley at dose of 20 kGy did not affect the chick performance (feed consumption, weight gain feed-gain ratio) that received the B 20 diet from 7 to 21 days of age, but when bird maintained on B 20 diet from 7 28 days of age, only feed-gain ratio was improved by 14.4%. The results indicate that there was a significant effect of irradiation of barley at 60 kGy (B 60) on feed -gain ratio of chicks when were fed B 60 diet from 7 to 21 days of age. The corresponding improvement in feed-gain ratio was 16.4%. When birds were fed B 60 diet from 7-28 days of age, the improvement in body weight and feed-gain ratio was 25.5 and 19.6%, respectively

  3. Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis infection alters the indigenous microbiota diversity in young layer chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Khine Zar Mon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Avian gastrointestinal tracts are highly populated with a diverse array of microorganisms that share a symbiotic relationship with their hosts and contribute to the overall health and disease state of the intestinal tract. The microbiome of the young chick is easily prone to alteration in its composition by both exogenous and endogenous factors especially during the early post-hatch period. The genetic background of the host and exposure to pathogens can impact the diversity of the microbial profile that consequently contributes to the disease progression in the host. The objective of this study was to profile the composition and structure of the gut microbiota in young chickens from two genetically distinct highly inbred lines. Furthermore, the effect of the Salmonella Enteritidis infection on altering the composition makeup of the chicken microbiome was evaluated through the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. One-day-old layer chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis and the host cecal microbiota profile as well as the degree of susceptibility to Salmonella infection was examined at 2 and 7 days post-infection. Our result indicated that host genotype had a limited effect on resistance to S. Enteritidis infection. Alpha diversity, beta diversity, and overall microbiota composition were analyzed for four factors: host genotype, age, treatment, and post-infection time-points. S. Enteritidis infection in young chicks was found to significantly reduce the overall diversity of the microbiota population with expansion of Enterobacteriaceae family. These changes indicated that Salmonella colonization in the gastrointestinal tract of the chickens has a direct effect on altering the natural development of the gastrointestinal microbiota. The impact of S. Enteritidis infection on microbial communities was also more substantial in late stage of infection. Significant inverse correlation between Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae family in both non

  4. Proton accumulator ring injection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Neil, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Protons may be created in an accelerator or storage ring by stripping electrons from neutral hydrogen atoms that have been injected into the machine. Because Liouville's theorem is violated by this type of injection, particles may be continually injected into a region of phase space that is already populated, and the density in that region increases with time. A computational investigation was made of the evolution of the distribution of particles in longitudinal phase space during such an injection process for a storage ring operating below the transition energy. In one calculation, an rf cavity is present in the ring and particles are injected into the stable phase region once each revolution. The purpose of this calculation is to determine the rf voltage necessary to overcome the longitudinal self-forces and contain the particles within the region of stable phase. In a second calculation, the rf is turned off, so that there is spreading in azimuth of the injected particles (i.e., de-bunching). The de-bunching occurs because of the initial energy spread and the action of the self-forces. One purpose of the calculation is to determine the total energy spread after a given number of revolutions. Another purpose is to elucidate the effect of finite resistance in the vacuum tank walls. For sufficiently high current, the finite resistance can cause bunching of a beam that is initially uniform in azimuth. Therefore it might be expected that the finite resistance would inhibit or prevent de-bunching once the number of particles injected reaches some threshold, and that this threshold would depend upon the energy spread in the beam

  5. Chicks change their pecking behaviour towards stationary and mobile food sources over the first 12 weeks of life: improvement and discontinuities

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Kenneth J.; Hayden, Thomas J.; Kent, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) learn to peck soon after hatching and then peck in rapid bursts or bouts with intervals of non-pecking activity. The food sources may be static such as seeds and chick crumb, or mobile such as a mealworm. Here, changes with age in pecking toward chick crumb and a mealworm were measured. Chicks were reared in pairs and their pecking of crumb food was video recorded in their pair housed environment, from food presentation, every third day from day 8 (wk 2) to d...

  6. Protection conferred by a live avian metapneumovirus vaccine when co-administered with live La Sota Newcastle disease vaccine in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Ganapathy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects on specific pathogen-free (SPF chicks when avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and Newcastle disease virus (NDV La Sota strain vaccines are co-administered. Day-old SPF chicks were divided into five groups. The first group was inoculated with sterile water (SW and the rest of the groups were inoculated with live NDV vaccine VG/GA by the oculo-oral route. At 21 days-old, the unvaccinated chicks were again inoculated with SW. The four VG/GA-vaccinated groups were further inoculated with (i SW, (ii live aMPV vaccine, (iii live NDV La Sota, or (iv combined live NDV La Sota and live aMPV, respectively. Chicks were monitored for post-vaccination reactions and oropharyngeal swabs were collected for vaccines detection. Blood samples were collected to detect aMPV ELISA and NDV haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies. Twenty-one days following the second vaccination, six chicks from each group were challenged with virulent NDV or aMPV respectively. Chicks were monitored for clinical signs and mortality and oropharyngeal swabs collected for aMPV detection. Results showed that, when challenged with a virulent aMPV, both chicks previously vaccinated with VG/GA and subsequently given aMPV vaccine singly or in combination with La Sota were equally protected against clinical signs. Chicks that were vaccinated against NDV either once with VG/GA or followed by La Sota (singly or in combination with aMPV were fully protected when challenged with velogenic NDV. We concluded that simultaneous administration of live aMPV and NDV La Sota vaccines have no adverse effects on protection conferred by either live vaccine.

  7. From soil mechanics to chick development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Lewis

    2018-01-01

    Here, I provide some recollections of my life, starting as a civil engineer in South Africa and how I gradually became interested in biology, particularly pattern formation. In retrospect, I think that my decision to work on chick embryos to study limb development back in 1966 turned out to be the right one. The principles discovered in these 50 years, both by my collaborators and by other colleagues, have established the principles of how the limb develops in higher vertebrates, including humans.

  8. Behavior of the P1.HTR mastocytoma cell line implanted in the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Avram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The P1.HTR cell line includes highly transfectable cells derived from P815 mastocytoma cells originating from mouse breast tissue. Despite its widespread use in immunogenic studies, no data are available about the behavior of P1.HTR cells in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. The objective of the present investigation was to study the effects of P1.HTR cells implanted on the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos. We inoculated P1.HTR cells into the previously prepared chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane and observed the early and late effects of these cells by stereomicroscopy, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. A highly angiotropic and angiogenic effect occurred early after inoculation and a tumorigenic potential with the development of mastocytoma keeping well mast cells immunophenotype was detected later during the development. The P1.HTR mastocytoma cell line is a good tool for the development of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane mastocytoma model and also for other studies concerning the involvement of blood vessels. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model of mastocytoma retains the mast cell immunophenotype under experimental conditions and could be used as an experimental tool for in vivo preliminary testing of antitumor and antivascular drugs.

  9. Arginine and vitamin E improve the immune response after a Salmonella challenge in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Byrd, J A; Farnell, M; Ruiz-Feria, C A

    2014-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Arg, vitamin E (VE), and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the immune response and clearance of Salmonella in broiler chickens. In each experiment, 1-d-old chicks (n = 160) were randomly distributed into 4 groups: antibiotic-free diet (negative control, CTL-), antibiotic-supplemented diet (positive control, CTL+), antibiotic free-diet plus Arg and VE (AVE), or antibiotic-free diet plus Arg, VE, and MOS (AVM). Birds were orally challenged with 10(6) cfu of a novobiocyn and nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain at d 7 (experiment 1) or at d 3 (experiment 2). Heterophil- (HOB) and monocyte- (MOB) oxidative burst and lymphocyte proliferation (LPR), antibody titers, and Salmonella content in the ceca were measured at several intervals postinfection (PI). In experiment 1, both AVM and AVE decreased HOB compared with the controls 5 and 9 d PI, but increased LPR 9 d PI. In the same experiment, birds fed the AVE diet had higher MOB than birds fed CTL+ or the AVM diet at 7 d PI, whereas 9 d PI birds fed the AVM diet had the highest MOB. In experiment 2, birds fed the AVE diet had higher MOB, HOB, and LPR than birds in the other treatments 7 and 14 d PI, except at 7 d PI, when MOB was not different among treatments. Birds fed the AVM diet had the highest IgA antibody titer, and a higher IgM antibody titer than the CTL+ birds. In experiment 1, Salmonella Typhimurium content in the ceca was lower in birds fed the AVM diet compared with birds fed the CTL- diet 3 d PI, but later on (10 and 17 d PI), and in experiment 2 (7, 14, and 21 d PI), Salmonella Typhimurium concentrations were not different among treatments. Thus, Arg and VE improved immune response after a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge in young chicks, and although they did not reduce Salmonella Typhimurium concentrations in the ceca, they may improve bacterial resistance against other pathogens in commercial growing conditions.

  10. Light intensity modulates corneal power and refraction in the chick eye exposed to continuous light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yuval; Belkin, Michael; Yehezkel, Oren; Avni, Isaac; Polat, Uri

    2008-09-01

    Continuous exposure of chicks to light was shown to result in severe hyperopia, accompanied by anterior segment changes, such as severe corneal flattening. Since rearing chicks in complete darkness results only in mild hyperopia and minor changes in corneal curvature, we hypothesized that light intensity may play a role in the development of refractive changes under continuous light illumination. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of rearing chicks under various continuous light intensities. More specifically, we investigated the refractive parameters of the chicks' eyes, and avoided light cycling effects on ocular development. To this end, thirty-eight chicks were reared under 24-h incandescent illumination, at three different light intensities: 10,000 lux (n=13), 500 lux (n=12), and 50 lux (n=13). Their eyes underwent repeated retinoscopy, keratometry, and ultrasound biometry, as well as caliper measurements of enucleated eyes. Both refraction and corneal refractive power were found to be correlated with light intensity. On day 90 after hatching, exposure to light intensities of 10,000, 500, and 50 lux resulted in hyperopia of +11.97+/-3.7 (mean+/-SD) +7.9+/-4.08 and +0.63+/-3.61 diopters (D), respectively. Under those intensities, corneal refractive power was 46.10+/-3.62, 49.72+/-4.16, and 56.88+/-4.92D, respectively. Axial length did not differ significantly among the groups. The vitreous chamber was significantly deeper in the high than in the low-intensity groups. Thus, during the early life of chicks exposed to continuous lighting, light intensity affects the vitreous chamber depth as well as the anterior segment parameters, most notably the cornea. The higher the intensity, the more severe was the corneal flattening observed and the hyperopia that developed, whereas continuous illumination at low intensities resulted in emmetropia. Thus, light intensity is an important factor that should be taken into account when studying refractive

  11. Generation Chick: Reading Bridget Jones’s Diary, Jessica, 30., and Dies ist kein Liebeslied as Postfeminist Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Bethman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Helen Fielding’s, Marlene Streeruwitz’s, and Karen Duve’s novels in the context of the literarisches Fräuleinwunder , the generic conventions of chick lit, and postfeminism, relating all three to the globalization of the book publishing industry and its effects on German-language fiction. I argue that Duve’s and Streeruwitz’s texts can be understood as responses to the Anglo-American chick lit that flooded the German-language book market in the 1990s, of which Fielding’s novel is one of the best-known. Close readings situate both German-language novels firmly within the generic conventions of chick lit, and then look at the ways the texts relate to postfeminism, as well as second- and third-wave feminism. I conclude by arguing that our concept of Frauenliteratur should be expanded to include chick lit as well as more overtly political feminist texts.

  12. Inclusion of 3H-estradiol-17#betta# in the chick embryo ovary in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelova, P.; Martinova, J.; K''ncheva, L.; Jordonov, Zh.; Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia)

    1982-01-01

    Basing on literature data on experimental investigation of genital differentiation of chick embryonal gonad in vitro, the authors have made their proposal that relationship between extragents and androgens in the favour of estradiol is of a great importance for differentiation of the gonad corti-- cal zone and for interruption of the meiosis process in cortical genital cells both genetically female and male (in the case of testis feminization). The autoradiographic investigation on 3 H-estradiol-17#betta# inclusion in an embryonal chick ovary in the period before the beginning of the meiotic prophase in genital cells has been performed in order to prove this hypothesis. The results obtained complement Gasc data on the presence of receptors for steroid hormones in embryonal chick gonads and confirm a conception that the development of indifferent gonad in female line is the same as the differentiation of cortical genital cells to oocyte conditioned by estradiol

  13. Performance characteristics of broiler chicks fed kidney bean as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal and groundnut cake meal with cooked and decorticated kidney bean seed meals on the performance characteristics of broilers. One hundred and eighty day old broiler chicks of Anak strain were raised on six experimental diets.

  14. A new approach to study of seabird-fishery overlap: Connecting chick feeding with parental foraging and overlap with fishing vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Sugishita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Incidental fisheries bycatch is recognised as a major threat to albatross populations worldwide. However, fishery discards and offal produced in large quantities might benefit some scavenging seabirds. Here, we demonstrate an integrated approach to better understand the ecological ramifications of fine-scale overlap between seabirds and fisheries. As a case study, we examined whether foraging in association with a fishing vessel is advantageous for chick provisioning in terms of quantity of food delivered to chicks, in northern royal albatross (Diomedea sanfordi at Taiaroa Head, New Zealand. Fine-scale overlap between albatrosses and vessels was quantified by integrating GPS tracking and Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS. Meal size delivered to chicks was measured using custom-designed nest balances, and monitoring of attendance of adults fitted with radio transmitters was used in conjunction with time-lapse photography at the nest allowed us to allocate each feeding event to a specific parent. The combination of these techniques enabled comparison of meal sizes delivered to chicks with parental foraging trip durations with or without fishing vessels association. A total of 45 foraging trips and associated chick feeding events were monitored during the chick-rearing period in 2012. Differences in the meal size and foraging trip duration relative to foraging overlap with fisheries were examined using a linear mixed-effect model, adjusted for chick age. Our results, based on three birds, suggest that foraging in association with vessels does not confer an advantage for chick feeding for this population that demonstrated low rates of overlap while foraging. The integrated research design presented can be applied to other seabird species that are susceptible to bycatch, and offers a valuable approach to evaluate habitat quality by linking habitat use and foraging success in terms of total amount of food delivered to offspring.

  15. Comparative reproductive biology of sympatric species: Nest and chick survival of American avocets and black-necked stilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hartman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying differences in reproductive success rates of closely related and sympatrically breeding species can be useful for understanding limitations to population growth. We simultaneously examined the reproductive ecology of American avocets Recurvirostra americana and black-necked stilts Himantopus mexicanus using 1274 monitored nests and 240 radio-marked chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Although there were 1.8 times more avocet nests than stilt nests, stilts nonetheless fledged 3.3 times more chicks. Greater production by stilts than avocets was the result of greater chick survival from hatching to fledging (avocet: 6%; stilt: 40%), and not because of differences in clutch size (avocet: 3.84; stilt: 3.77), nest survival (avocet: 44%; stilt: 35%), or egg hatching success (avocet: 90%; stilt: 92%). We reviewed the literature and confirmed that nest survival and hatching success are generally similar when avocets and stilts breed sympatrically. In addition to species, chick survival was strongly influenced by age, site, and year. In particular, daily survival rates increased rapidly with chick age, with 70% of mortalities occurring ≤ 1 week after hatch. California gulls Larus californicus caused 55% of avocet, but only 15% of stilt, chick deaths. Differential use of micro-habitats likely reduced stilt chick’s vulnerability to gull predation, particularly during the first week after hatch, because stilts nested in vegetation 2.7 times more often than avocets and vegetation height was 65% taller at stilt nests compared with avocet nests. Our results demonstrate that two co-occurring and closely related species with similar life history strategies can differ markedly in reproductive success, and simultaneous studies of such species can identify differences that limit productivity.

  16. Neural basis of imprinting behavior in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Tomoharu; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Sato, Katsushige; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Newly hatched chicks memorize the characteristics of the first moving object they encounter, and subsequently show a preference for it. This "imprinting" behavior is an example of infant learning and is elicited by visual and/or auditory cues. Visual information of imprinting stimuli in chicks is first processed in the visual Wulst (VW), a telencephalic area corresponding to the mammalian visual cortex, congregates in the core region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDCo) cells, and transmitted to the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM), a region similar to the mammalian association cortex. The imprinting memory is stored in the IMM, and activities of IMM neurons are altered by imprinting. Imprinting also induces functional and structural plastic changes of neurons in the circuit that links the VW and the IMM. Of these neurons, the activity of the HDCo cells is strongly influenced by imprinting. Expression and modulation of NR2B subunit-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the HDCo cells are crucial for plastic changes in this circuit as well as the process of visual imprinting. Thus, elucidation of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the plastic changes that occurred in the HDCo cells may provide useful knowledge about infant learning. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  17. Method for Dissecting the Auditory Epithelium (Basilar Papilla) in Developing Chick Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levic, Snezana; Yamoah, Ebenezer N

    2016-01-01

    Chickens are an invaluable model for exploring auditory physiology. Similar to humans, the chicken inner ear is morphologically and functionally close to maturity at the time of hatching. In contrast, chicks can regenerate hearing, an ability lost in all mammals, including humans. The extensive morphological, physiological, behavioral, and pharmacological data available, regarding normal development in the chicken auditory system, has driven the progress of the field. The basilar papilla is an attractive model system to study the developmental mechanisms of hearing. Here, we describe the dissection technique for isolating the basilar papilla in developing chick inner ear. We also provide detailed examples of physiological (patch clamping) experiments using this preparation.

  18. Involvement of protein kinase Mζ in the maintenance of long-term memory for taste aversion learning in young chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiunova, A A; Bezryadnov, D V; Anokhin, K V

    2015-03-01

    The effects of an inhibitor of protein kinase Mζ on long-term memory were studied using the model of taste aversion in newborn chicks. Memory was impaired by intracerebral injection of 10 or 20 nmol of ζ-inhibiting peptide 24 h after training. Memory impairment was found 2 h after peptide administration, and repeated examination 24 h after treatment showed no recovery. Memory impairment was not observed 24 h after inhibitor administration if the testing 2 h after treatment was not performed. The results indicate the contribution of protein kinase Mζ in the maintenance of long-term memory in the avian brain. These data confirm the hypothesis of several authors that inhibition of protein kinase Mζ does not abolish memory, but rather interacts with processes of memory retrieval and/or reconsolidation.

  19. The influence of different phosphorus supply on phosphorus turnover in growing broiler chicks by means of 32P isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Masri, M.R.; Guenther, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    In two experiments four diets were fed to male broiler chicks from day 10 to 29 of age ad libitum. The basal diet contained 0,32% P from inorganic origin (group IV). All other diets were supplemented up to 0,65% P with Monocalciumphosphate (MCP, group I), MCP + Na-phytate (group II) and Na-phytate (group III). By addition of CaCO 3 an equal Ca/P ratio of 1,6:1 was adjusted in the diets. At 14 days of age the chicks were injected with 32 P-NaPO 4 in the right leg (1,480 KBq). P retention was calculated following the comparative slaughter technique. Isotope dilution technique was used to determine endogenous fecal and renal P excretion. From retention and endogenous excretion P turnover within the animal was derived. The influence of feed P source on endogenous P excretion is higher than the influence of total P in the diet. Elevated inorganic P content of the diet effects increased P turnover and endogenous excretion. A comparison of relative P excretion and availability of feed P (group I = 100) in the four treatments resulted in: 100, 67, 35, 15 or 100, 72, 36, 59, respectively. 29%, 34%, 35% or 64% of available P were retained, respectively. The ratio of relative retention to relative endogenous excretion of absorbed P was 0,41, 0,52, 0,54, 1,78 in the four treatments. 20 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs. (author)

  20. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Seagull Chicks Is Related to the Consumption of Freshwater Food Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Morera, Virginia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; González-Solís, Jacob; Napp, Sebastian; Ribas, Maria P.; Blanch-Lázaro, Berta; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Antilles, Noelia; López-Soria, Sergio; Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Dubey, Jitender P.; Almería, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in wild birds, particularly in those with opportunistic feeding behavior, is of interest for elucidating the epidemiological involvement of these birds in the maintenance and dissemination of the parasite. Overall, from 2009 to 2011, we collected sera from 525 seagull chicks (Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and Audouin’s gull (L. audouinii)) from 6 breeding colonies in Spain and tested them using the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii. Chick age was estimated from bill length. Main food source of seagull chicks was evaluated using stable isotope analyses from growing scapular feathers. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 21.0% (IC95% 17.5–24.4). A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated that year (2009) and food source (freshwater) were risk factors associated to the individual risk of infection by T. gondii, while age (days) was close to significance. Freshwater food origin was related to the highest seroprevalence levels, followed by marine origin, supporting freshwater and sewages as important routes of dispersion of T. gondii. Year differences could indicate fluctuating rates of exposure of seagull chicks to T. gondii. Age ranged from 4 to 30 days and seropositivity tended to increase with age (P = 0.07), supporting that seropositivity is related to T. gondii infection rather than to maternal transfer of antibodies, which in gulls is known to sharply decrease with chick age. This study is the first to report T. gondii antibodies in Yellow-legged and Audouin’s gulls, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite and underscoring the complexity of its epidemiology. PMID:26974667

  1. Skeletal development and performance of broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Deeb, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of high dietary copper supplementation has been shown to promote growth rate. The results of the experiments reported herein indicated that copper supplementation of 100 ppm with zinc at the requirement level had no effect on growth rate or bone mineralization. However, when various levels of copper and zinc were added to the diet, significant changes in bone mineralization and liver zinc and copper concentrations occurred. In further studies, the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin D 3 or its metabolite 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 on the incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia and related bone abnormalities in broiler chicks was investigated. The results indicated that feeding 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 at 5ug/Kg diet as the sole source of vitamin D 3 steroid was sufficient to maintain a calcium homeostasis in the chicks. The effect of growth hormone (GH) injections on the metabolism of tibial epiphyseal growth plant (EGP) in broiler chicks either genetically susceptible or resistant to tibial dyschondroplasia (HTD and LTD respectively) was investigated. GH injection increased 3 H-thymidine uptake, indicating a direct effect of GH on cell replication in EGP

  2. A Functional Assay for Putative Mouse and Human Definitive Endoderm using Chick Whole-Embryo Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesson, Martina; Semb, Tor Henrik; Serup, Palle

    2012-01-01

    . Thus, the purpose of this study is to describe a method whereby the in vivo functionality of DE derived from ESCs can be assessed. Methods: By directed differentiation, putative DE was derived from human and mouse ESCs. This putative DE was subsequently transplanted into the endoderm of chick embryos...... to determine any occurrence of integration. Putative DE was analyzed by gene and protein expression prior to transplantation and 48 h post transplantation. Results: Putative DE, derived from mouse and human ESCs, was successfully integrated within the chick endoderm. Endoderm-specific genes were expressed...... result show that putative DE integrates with the chick endoderm and participate in the development of the chicken gut, indicating the generation of functional DE from ESCs. This functional assay can be used to assess the generation of functional DE derived from both human and mouse ESCs and provides...

  3. Variation in chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor: note type and individual distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jessica L; Freeberg, Todd M

    2007-08-01

    The chick-a-dee call of chickadee species (genus Poecile) has been the focus of much research. A great deal is known about the structural complexity and the meaning of variation in notes making up calls in these species. However, little is known about the likely homologous "chick-a-dee" call of the closely related tufted titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor. Tufted titmice are a prime candidate for comparative analyses of the call, because their vocal and social systems share many characteristics with those of chickadees. To address the paucity of data on the structure of chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, we recorded birds in field and aviary settings. Four main note types were identified in the call: Z, A, D(h), and D notes. Several acoustic parameters of each note type were measured, and statistical analyses revealed that the note types are acoustically distinct from one another. Furthermore, note types vary in the extent of individual distinctiveness reflected in their acoustic parameters. This first step towards understanding the chick-a-dee call of tufted titmice indicates that the call is comparable in structure and complexity to the calls of chickadees.

  4. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Agrawal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry,viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test. Results: The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05 among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p0.05 difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63- 5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens. Conclusion: No significant difference in the rate of transfer of IgY was observed in four breeds studied (viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown and moderate seropositivity was detected for Salmonella-specific antibodies in progeny chicks.

  5. Effect of transportation duration of 1-day-old chicks on postplacement production performances and pododermatitis of broilers up to slaughter age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergoug, H; Guinebretière, M; Tong, Q; Roulston, N; Romanini, C E B; Exadaktylos, V; Berckmans, D; Garain, P; Demmers, T G M; McGonnell, I M; Bahr, C; Burel, C; Eterradossi, N; Michel, V

    2013-12-01

    This experiment studied the effect of transportation duration of 1-d-old chicks on dehydration, mortality, production performance, and pododermatitis during the growout period. Eggs from the same breeder flock (Ross PM3) were collected at 35, 45, and 56 wk of age, for 3 successive identical experiments. In each experiment, newly hatched chicks received 1 of 3 transportation duration treatments from the hatchery before placement in the on-site rearing facility: no transportation corresponding to direct placement in less than 5 min (T00), or 4 (T04) or 10 h (T10) of transportation. The chicks were housed in 35-m(2) pens (650 birds each) and reared until 35 d old. Hematocrit and chick BW were measured on sample chicks before and after transportation. During the growout period, bird weight, feed uptake, and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly until slaughter. Transportation duration affected BW; T00 groups had a significantly higher BW than T04 and T10 transported birds but this effect lasted only until d 21. No clear effect on hematocrit, feed uptake, feed conversion ratio, or mortality was observed for birds transported up to 10 h. The decrease in weight in T10 birds was associated with less severe pododermatitis. Increasing age of the breeder flock was correlated with reduced egg fertility and hatchability, and also with higher quality and BW of hatched chicks. Chicks from older breeders also exhibited reduced mortality during the growout period.

  6. Eye and heart morphogenesis are dependent on melatonin signaling in chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Renato C; Sampaio, Lucia de Fatima S

    2017-10-15

    Calmodulin is vital for chick embryos morphogenesis in the incubation time 48-66 h when the rudimentary C-shaped heart attains an S-shaped pattern and the optic vesicles develop into optic cups. Melatonin is in the extraembryonic yolk sac of the avian egg; melatonin binds calmodulin. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of melatonin in the formation of the chick embryo optic cups and S-shaped heart, by pharmacological methods and immunoassays. Mel1a melatonin receptor immunofluorescence was distributed in the optic cups and rudimentary hearts. We separated embryonated chicken eggs at 48 h of incubation into basal, control and drug-treated groups, with treatment applied in the egg air sac. At 66 h of incubation, embryos were excised from the eggs and analyzed. Embryos from the basal, control (distilled water), melatonin and 6-chloromelatonin (melatonin receptor agonist) groups had regular optic cups and an S-shaped heart, while those from the calmidazolium (calmodulin inhibitor) group did not. Embryos from the luzindole (melatonin receptor antagonist) and prazosin (Mel1c melatonin receptor antagonist) groups did not have regular optic cups. Embryos from the 4-P-PDOT (Mel1b melatonin receptor antagonist) group did not have an S-shaped heart. Previous application of the melatonin, 6-chloromelatonin or forskolin (adenylate cyclase enhancer) prevented the abnormal appearance of chick embryos from the calmidazolium, luzindole, prazosin and 4-P-PDOT groups. However, 6-chloromelatonin and forskolin only partially prevented the development of defective eye cups in embryos from the calmidazolium group. The results suggested that melatonin modulates chick embryo morphogenesis via calmodulin and membrane receptors. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Hippocampus and medial striatum dissociation during goal navigation by geometry or features in the domestic chick: An immediate early gene study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Uwe; Pecchia, Tommaso; Bingman, Verner Peter; Flore, Michele; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    We employed a standard reference memory task to study the involvement of the hippocampal formation (HF) of domestic chicks that used the boundary geometry of a test environment to orient to and locate a reward. Using the immediate early gene product c-Fos as a neuronal activity marker, we found enhanced HF activation in chicks that learned to locate rewarded corners using the shape of a rectangular arena compared to chicks trained to solve the task by discriminating local features in a square-shaped arena. We also analyzed neuronal activity in the medial part of the medial striatum (mMSt). Surprisingly, in mMSt we observed a reverse pattern, with higher activity in the chicks that were trained to locate the goal by local features. Our results identify two seemingly parallel, memory systems in chicks, with HF central to the processing of spatial-geometrical information and mMSt important in supporting local feature discrimination. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Validating growth and development of a seabird as an indicator of food availability: captive-reared Caspian Tern chicks fed ad libitum and restricted diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    For seabirds raising young under conditions of limited food availability, reducing chick provisioning and chick growth rates are the primary means available to avoid abandonment of a breeding effort. For most seabirds, however, baseline data characterizing chick growth and development under known feeding conditions are unavailable, so it is difficult to evaluate chick nutritional status as it relates to foraging conditions near breeding colonies. To address this need, we examined the growth and development of young Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), a cosmopolitan, generalist piscivore, reared in captivity and fed ad libitum and restricted (ca. one-third lower caloric intake) diets. Ad libitum-fed chicks grew at similar rates and achieved a similar size at fledging as previously documented for chicks in the wild and had energetic demands that closely matched allometric predictions. We identified three general characteristics of food-restricted Caspian Tern chicks compared to ad libitum chicks: (1) lower age-specific body mass, (2) lower age-specific skeletal and feather size, such as wing chord length, and (3) heightened levels of corticosterone in blood, both for baseline levels and in response to acute stress. Effects of diet restriction on feather growth (10-11% slower growth in diet-restricted chicks) were less pronounced than effects on structural growth (37-52% slower growth) and body mass (24% lower at fledging age), apparently due to preferential allocation of food resources to maintain plumage growth. Our results suggest that measurements of chick body mass and feather development (e.g., wing chord or primary length) or measurement of corticosterone levels in the blood would allow useful evaluation of the nutritional status of chicks reared in the wild and of food availability in the foraging range of adults. Such evaluations could also inform demography studies (e.g., predict future recruitment) and assist in evaluating designated piscivorous waterbird

  9. Lipid synthesis in the aorta of chick and other species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    The relative rate of fatty acid biosynthesis from labelled acetate in the adipose tissue of chicken is much lower than that in the rat (O'Hea and Leveille, 1968). To determine similar species differences in lipid synthesis in the aortas of cock, rat, rabbit and monkey, thoracic and abdominal segments of fresh aortas were incubated in vitro with (1- 14 C)-acetate for 3 h. Total lipids and their fractions (free and total cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids) were counted for radioactivity. Incorporation of radioactivity into total as well as all classes of lipids was several times greater in chicken than in other species. Significant and consistent incorporation into cholesterol occurred only in chicks. Synthesis into total lipids and triglycerides was greater in the thoracic segment of chicks. These findings (Rao and Rao, 1968) are consistent with the ready susceptibility of chicken to atherosclerosis. (author)

  10. Tissue-specific expression and regulation by 1,25(OH)2D3 of chick protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, G S; Henry, H L

    1997-02-01

    The heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) protein is a specific and potent competitive inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Previously, it has been shown that vitamin D status affects chick kidney PKI activity: a 5- to 10-fold increase in PKI activity was observed in kidneys of chronically vitamin D-deficient chicks and treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3) in cultured kidney cells resulted in a 95% decrease in PKI activity. The authors have recently cloned the cDNA for chick kidney PKI and have used the coding sequence to study the regulation of PKI mRNA. Northern analysis showed the expression of two PKI messages, which are 2.7 and 3.3 kb in size. These mRNAs are expressed in brain, muscle, testis, and kidney, but not in pancreas, liver, or intestine. PKI mRNA steady-state levels are downregulated by 47% in kidneys from vitamin D-replete chicks as compared to vitamin D-deficient chicks. PKI mRNA levels in brain, muscle, and testis are not affected by vitamin D status. Treatment of primary chick kidney cultures treated with 10(-7) M 1,25(OH)2D3 for 24h resulted in a 20-30% decrease in PKI mRNA. 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment does not affect the stability of PKI mRNA as determined by treatment of cell cultures with actinomycin D. This study shows that 1,25(OH)2D3 directly and tissue-specifically downregulates PKI mRNA in the chick kidney.

  11. Utilization of supplemental methionine sources by primary cultures of chick hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibner, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Utilization of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) as a substrate for protein synthesis was studied by using primary cultures of chick liver cells. Cultures were prepared by enzymatic dissociation of livers from week old Hubbard broiler chicks and were maintained for 4 days under nonproliferative conditions. Hepatocyte differentiation was verified by using dexamethasone induction of tyrosine aminotransferase activity. Conversion of [14C]HMB to L-methionine was shown by chromatographic analysis of hepatocyte protein hydrolysate and incorporation into protein was proven by cycloheximide inhibition of synthesis. When incorporation of HMB was compared to that of DL-methionine (DLM) equimolar quantities of the two sources were found in liver cell protein. These results support, at a cellular level, the conclusion that HMB and DLM are biochemically equivalent sources of methionine for protein synthesis

  12. Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Growth Performance Responses and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Poorghasemi; Alireza Seidavi; Ali Ahmad Alaw Qotbi; Vito Laudadio; Vincenzo Tufarelli

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of three different fat sources and their combination on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared to 42 d of age. Two hundred day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with four replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 4% added fat from three different sources and their combination as follows...

  13. AUGMENTATIVE EFFECT OF PROSTAGLANDIN E1 ON PENTOBARBITAL HYPNOSIS MEDIATED BY 5-HT IN CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalendu Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins (PG are present in different tissues specially in brain tissues endowed with different central nervous system activities. Similarly, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT a biogenic amine with its presence in different central and peripheral tissues as neurotransmitter plays an important role in the regulation of physiological functions specially hypnosis, convulsions, analgesia in rats, mice, cats and chicks etc. Pentobarbitone (PB induced sleep appear to be a serotonergic modulator activity in different animals. PGE1 potentiates the pentobarbitone hypnosis also mediated through serotonin. In the present study, PGE1 induced sleeping time in chicks was evaluated. Drugs affecting 5-HT synthesis, metabolism and receptor activity modulate the potentiating response, while adrenergic receptor antagonists did not showed any response. This study suggest that PGE1 potentiate PB induced sleep through serotonergic signaling pathway as PGE1 increased 5-HT synthesis rate in chick brain.

  14. Catching-up but telomere loss: half-opening the black box of growth and ageing trade-off in wild king penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Sylvie; Le Vaillant, Maryline; Lebard, Thomas; Reichert, Sophie; Stier, Antoine; LE Maho, Yvon; Criscuolo, Francois

    2012-03-01

    One of the reasons for animals not to grow as fast as they potentially could is that fast growth has been shown to be associated with reduced lifespan. However, we are still lacking a clear description of the reality of growth-dependent modulation of ageing mechanisms in wild animals. Using the particular growth trajectory of small king penguin chicks naturally exhibiting higher-than-normal growth rate to compensate for the winter break, we tested whether oxidative stress and telomere shortening are related to growth trajectories. Plasma antioxidant defences, oxidative damage levels and telomere length were measured at the beginning and at the end of the post-winter growth period in three groups of chicks (small chicks, which either passed away or survived the growth period, and large chicks). Small chicks that died early during the growth period had the highest level of oxidative damage and the shortest telomere lengths prior to death. Here, we show that small chicks that grew faster did it at the detriment of body maintenance mechanisms as shown by (i) higher oxidative damage and (ii) accelerated telomere loss. Our study provides the first evidence for a mechanistic link between growth and ageing rates under natural conditions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Imidacloprid Exposure Suppresses Neural Crest Cells Generation during Early Chick Embryo Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Jie; Wang, Guang; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Meng; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; He, Xiao-Song; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-06-15

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide that is widely used in the control pests found on crops and fleas on pets. However, it is still unclear whether imidacloprid exposure could affect early embryo development-despite some studies having been conducted on the gametes. In this study, we demonstrated that imidacloprid exposure could lead to abnormal craniofacial osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo. Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are the progenitor cells of the chick cranial skull. We found that the imidacloprid exposure retards the development of gastrulating chick embryos. HNK-1, PAX7, and Ap-2α immunohistological stainings indicated that cranial NCCs generation was inhibited after imidacloprid exposure. Double immunofluorescent staining (Ap-2α and PHIS3 or PAX7 and c-Caspase3) revealed that imidacloprid exposure inhibited both NCC proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, it inhibited NCCs production by repressing Msx1 and BMP4 expression in the developing neural tube and by altering expression of EMT-related adhesion molecules (Cad6B, E-Cadherin, and N-cadherin) in the developing neural crests. We also determined that imidacloprid exposure suppressed cranial NCCs migration and their ability to differentiate. In sum, we have provided experimental evidence that imidacloprid exposure during embryogenesis disrupts NCCs development, which in turn causes defective cranial bone development.

  16. Monitoring a pilot CO2 injection experiment in a shallow aquifer using 3D cross-well electrical resistance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Lassen, R. N.; Looms, M. C.; Jensen, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Three dimensional electrical resistance tomography (ERT) was used to monitor a pilot CO2 injection experiment at Vrøgum, Denmark. The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of the ERT method for monitoring the two opposing effects from gas-phase and dissolved CO2 in a shallow unconfined siliciclastic aquifer. Dissolved CO2 increases water electrical conductivity (EC) while gas phase CO2 reduce EC. We injected 45kg of CO2 into a shallow aquifer for 48 hours. ERT data were collected for 50 hours following CO2 injection. Four ERT monitoring boreholes were installed on a 5m by 5m square grid and each borehole had 24 electrodes at 0.5 m electrode spacing at depths from 1.5 m to 13 m. ERT data were inverted using a difference inversion algorithm for bulk EC. 3D ERT successfully detected the CO2 plume distribution and growth in the shallow aquifer. We found that the changes of bulk EC were dominantly positive following CO2 injection, indicating that the effect of dissolved CO2 overwhelmed that of gas phase CO2. The pre-injection baseline resistivity model clearly showed a three-layer structure of the site. The electrically more conductive glacial sand layer in the northeast region are likely more permeable than the overburden and underburden and CO2 plumes were actually confined in this layer. Temporal bulk EC increase from ERT agreed well with water EC and cross-borehole ground penetrating radar data. ERT monitoring offers a competitive advantage over water sampling and GPR methods because it provides 3D high-resolution temporal tomographic images of CO2 distribution and it can also be automated for unattended operation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL IM release#: LLNL-PROC-657944.

  17. Economic Impacts of White Chick Syndrome in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kathleen E; Hastie, Gordon M; Ojkić, Davor; Brash, Marina L

    2017-09-01

    A cluster of 12 cases of White Chick Syndrome (WCS) in broiler breeder flocks producing affected progeny occurred from June to November 2015 in two broiler chicken hatcheries owned by a single company in Ontario, Canada. Cases were identified by the presence of typical chicks in the hatchery characterized by pale to white down, enlarged abdomens, and occasionally brown wiry fluff on the dorsum of the neck that were generally weak. Affected broiler breeder flocks experienced egg production drops of 0% to 15% and hatchability drops of 1.8% to 49.1%. Some flocks experienced increased feed clean-up duration and/or reduced hatching egg weight. The financial impacts of WCS to affected hatching egg producers averaged $5,912 CAD (US$4,417) per 10 000 hens and were as great as $16,788 CAD (US$12,544) per 10 000 hens. The financial impacts of WCS to the affected hatcheries averaged $1,723 CAD (US$1,287) per 10 000 broiler breeder hens and were as great as $4,096 (US$3,060) per 10 000 hens.

  18. Effect of zinc injection on BWR fuel cladding corrosion. Pt. 1. Study on an accelerated corrosion condition to evaluate corrosion resistance of zircaloy-2 fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hirotaka; Kanbe, Hiromu; Furuya, Masahiro

    2002-01-01

    Japanese BWR utilities have a plan to apply zinc injection to the primary coolant in order to reduce radioactivity accumulation on the structure. Prior to applying the zinc injection to BWR plants, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of zinc injection on corrosion resistance of fuel cladding. The objective of this report was to examine the accelerated corrosion condition for evaluation of BWR fuel cladding corrosion resistance under non-irradiated conditions, as the first step of a zinc injection evaluation study. A heat transfer corrosion test facility, in which a two phase flow condition could be achieved, was designed and constructed. The effects of heat flux, void fraction and solution temperature on BWR fuel cladding corrosion resistance were quantitatively investigated. The main findings were as follows. (1) In situ measurements using high speed camera and a void sensor together with one dimensional two phase flow analysis results showed that a two phase flow simulated BWR core condition can be obtained in the corrosion test facility. (2) The heat transfer corrosion test results showed that the thickness of the zirconium oxide layer increased with increasing solution temperature and was independent of heat flux and void fraction. The corrosion accelerating factor was about 2.5 times in the case of a temperature increase from 288degC to 350degC. (author)

  19. Chicks prefer to peck at insect-like elongated stimuli moving in a direction orthogonal to their longer axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Elena; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Rogers, Lesley J

    2009-11-01

    Spontaneous preferences towards possible prey have been little investigated using targets in motion. Preferences of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) to peck at video-images of stimuli representing live insects moving along their longer body axis (i.e. "forwards") or along the shorter body axis (i.e. "sideways") were investigated. Chicks presented with both types of stimulus displayed a significant preference for pecking at stimuli moving sideways. This preference was already present on day 1 post-hatching, and it strengthened on day 6 for those chicks that had experienced pecking at live insects. Head angles used to fixate the stimuli prior to pecking were also analysed and were consistent (i.e. 30 degrees -35 degrees and 60 degrees -65 degrees ) with those reported for fixation of non-edible targets (larger stimuli at a distance). In a first control experiment the same video-presented stimuli were used but the insect's legs were removed to reduce flickering. In a second control experiment, paper-printed images of the whole insect were used. In both cases, the sideways direction of movement was clearly preferred. Overall, our data show that chicks have a spontaneous preference to peck at video-images resembling live insects moving along their shorter body axis. Sideways movement may constitute a crucial signal attracting chicks' attention and enhancing predatory responses possibly because of stronger stimulation of motion detectors.

  20. Behavioral and physiological responses to male handicap in chick-rearing black-legged kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, S.; Bourret, V.; Wagner, R.H.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Helfenstein, F.; Chastel, O.; Danchin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Parental investment entails a trade-off between the benefits of effort in current offspring and the costs to future reproduction. Long-lived species are predicted to be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. We tested this hypothesis in black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla by clipping flight feathers of experimental males at the beginning of the chick-rearing period. We analyzed the consequences of this handicap on feeding and attendance behavior, body condition, integument coloration, and circulating levels of corticosterone and prolactin in handicapped males and their mates in comparison to unmanipulated controls. Chicks in both groups were compared in terms of aggressive behavior, growth, and mortality. Handicapped males lost more mass, had less bright integuments, and attended the nest less often than controls. Nevertheless, they fed their chicks at the same rate and had similar corticosterone and prolactin levels. Compared with control females, females mated with handicapped males showed a lower provisioning rate and higher nest attendance in the first days after manipulation. Their lower feeding rate probably triggered the increased sibling aggression and mortality observed in experimental broods. Our findings suggest that experimental females adaptively adjusted their effort to their mate's perceived quality or that their provisioning was constrained by their higher nest attendance. Overall, our results suggest that kittiwake males can decrease their condition for the sake of their chicks, which seems to contradict the hypothesis that kittiwakes should be reluctant to increase parental effort to avoid affecting their survival. ?? 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

  1. Melatonin modulates monochromatic light-induced melatonin receptor expression in the hypothalamus of chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Chen, Funing; Cao, Jing; Dong, Yulan; Wang, Zixu; Chen, Yaoxing

    2017-09-01

    To study the mechanism of the effect of monochromatic light on physiological function in chicken, a total of 192 newly hatched chicks were randomly divided into intact, sham-operated and pinealectomy groups then exposed to white light (WL), red light (RL), green light (GL) and blue light (BL) using a light-emitting diode (LED) system for two weeks. At P14, the hypothalami were immediately collected for immunohistochemical staining of melatonin receptor subtypes (Mel1a and Mel1b) and detection of Mel1a and Mel1b expressions using RT-PCR and western blot. Immunohistochemical staining of the hypothalamus showed that the Mel1a-ir cells were distributed in the preoptic area (POA), nucleus preopticus periventricularis (POP) and suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), and the Mel1b-ir cells were presented in the POA and SCN. Analysis of RT-PCR and western blot showed that the mRNA and protein levels of Mel1a and Mel1b in the hypothalamus of chick exposed to GL were increased by 10.7-29.3%, 9.18-35.9% and 8.97-27.3% compared to those in the chicks exposed to WL (P=0.029-0.002), RL (P=0.027-0.001) and BL (P=0.038-0.007) in the intact group, respectively. After pinealectomy, however, these parameters decreased and there were no significant differences among the WL, RL, GL and BL groups. These findings suggested that melatonin plays a critical role in GL illumination-enhanced Mel1a and Mel1b expressions in the hypothalamus of chicks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. One day-old chicks transport: Assessment of thermal profile in a tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the thermal profile of truck with different levels of box placement during one day-old chicks transport. An experiment was conducted through monitoring of 11 transport loads. A acclimatized truck was used in this research, with maximum capacity of 630 one day-old chicks boxes, totalizing 63,000 animals. The assessment of thermal environment was performed in 5 min intervals, through the following variables: temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. The treatments were registered at two levels of the load (first rack and floor where 17 data loggers were distributed throughout the truck. The experiment used a completely randomized design and geostatistics was used for spatial dependency and Kriging interpolation. The microclimatic conditions of the truck were not as per recommended values, which confirm a heterogeneous distribution of heat and moisture in environment. Regarding the box positioning, the mean values of thermal variables associated with thermal comfort of one day-old chicks was found in the floor area. The most stressful environment for birds inside the truck was located in front and at the center of the truck.

  3. Foraging Habitat and Chick Diets of Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, Breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Rock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding seabirds are threatened by human activities that affect nesting and foraging habitat. In Canada, one of the seabirds most at risk of extirpation is the Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii. Although critical nesting habitat has been identified for the Roseate Tern in Canada, its foraging locations and the diet of its chicks are unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine the foraging locations and diet of chicks of Roseate Tern breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia, which is one of Canada's two main breeding colonies. In 2003 and 2004, we radio-tracked the Roseate Tern by plane to locate foraging areas and conducted feeding watches to determine the diet of chicks. Roseate Tern foraged approximately 7 km from the breeding colony over shallow water < 5 m deep. In both years, sand lance, Ammodytes spp., was the most common prey item delivered to chicks, followed by hake, Urophycis spp. Our results are consistent with previous work at colonies in the northeastern United States, suggesting that throughout its range, this species may be restricted in both habitat use and prey selection. The reliance on a specific habitat type and narrow range of prey species makes the Roseate Tern generally susceptible to habitat perturbations and reductions in the availability of prey.

  4. Ex Ovo Model for Directly Visualizing Chick Embryo Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, Michael I.; Marcacci, Michael; Bravo, Stephen; Kurz, Troy; Tremblay, Jacob; Rusing, Jack C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a technique for removing and growing chick embryos in culture that utilizes relatively inexpensive materials and requires little space. It can be readily performed in class by university, high school, or junior high students, and teachers of any grade level should be able to set it up for their students. Students will be able to…

  5. Transplantation of human neonatal foreskin stromal cells in ex vivo organotypic cultures of embryonic chick femurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    NSSCs in ex vivo organotypic cultures of embryonic chick femurs. Isolated embryonic chick femurs (E10 and E11) were cultured for 10 days together with micro-mass cell pellets of hNSSCs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or a combination of the two cell types. Changes in femurs gross morphology......We have previously reported that human neonatal foreskin stromal cells (hNSSCs) promote angiogenesis in vitro and in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay in vivo. To examine the in vivo relevance of this observation, we examined in the present study the differentiation potential of h......NSSC + HUVEC cultures. Our data suggest that organotypic cultures can be employed to test the differentiation potential of stem cells and demonstrate the importance of stem cell interaction with 3D-intact tissue microenvironment for their differentiation....

  6. Mom's shadow: structure-from-motion in newly hatched chicks as revealed by an imprinting procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalzoni, Elena; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2009-03-01

    The ability to recognize three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional (2-D) displays was investigated in domestic chicks, focusing on the role of the object's motion. In Experiment 1 newly hatched chicks, imprinted on a three-dimensional (3-D) object, were allowed to choose between the shadows of the familiar object and of an object never seen before. In Experiments 2 and 3 random-dot displays were used to produce the perception of a solid shape only when set in motion. Overall, the results showed that domestic chicks were able to recognize familiar shapes from 2-D motion stimuli. It is likely that similar general mechanisms underlying the perception of structure-from-motion and the extraction of 3-D information are shared by humans and animals. The present data shows that they occur similarly in birds as known for mammals, two separate vertebrate classes; this possibly indicates a common phylogenetic origin of these processes.

  7. 3D Electrical resistivity tomography monitoring of an artificial tracer injected within the hyporheic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzé, Clémence; Pessel, Marc; Durand, Veronique

    2016-04-01

    Due to the high complexity level of hyporheic flow paths, hydrological and biogeochemical processes which occur in this mixing place are not fully understood yet. Some previous studies made in flumes show that hyporheic flow is strongly connected to the streambed morphology and sediment heterogeneity . There is still a lack of practical field experiment considering a natural environment and representation of natural streambed heterogeneities will be always limited in laboratories. The purpose of this project is to propose an innovative method using 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) monitoring of an artificial tracer injection directly within the streambed sediments in order to visualize the water pathways within the hyporheic zone. Field experiment on a small stream was conducted using a plastic tube as an injection piezometer and home-made electrodes strips arranged in a rectangular form made of 180 electrodes (15 strips of 12 electrodes each). The injection of tracer (NaCl) lasted approximatively 90 minutes, and 24h monitoring with increasing step times was performed. The physical properties of the water are controlled by CTD probes installed upstream and downstream within the river. Inverse time-lapse tomographs show development and persistence of a conductive water plume around the injection point. Due to the low hydraulic conductivity of streambed sediments (clay and overlying loess), the tracer movement is barely visible, as it dilutes gradually in the pore water. Impact of boundary conditions on inversion results can lead to significant differences on images, especially in the shallow part of the profiles. Preferential paths of transport are not highlighted here, but this experiment allows to follow spatially and temporarily the evolution of the tracer in a complex natural environment .

  8. Immunological evaluation of the intestinal mucosa of broiler chicks treated with Lactobacillus Spp. and challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Okamoto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at the antibody production by intestinal mucosa of broilers chicks were orally inoculated with Lactobacillus spp. at one and/or 21 days of age, and subsequently challenged with Salmonella enterica, subspecies enterica, serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis. A total number of 288 drug-free broiler chicks was divided into 6 groups (groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, according to age at Lactobacillus spp. inoculation and SE challenge. The intestinal mucosa immune response was determined as the production of immunoglobulin A against S. Enteritidis, and evaluated by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA technique in intestinal washing fluid. Groups treated with Lactobacillus spp. presented higher IgA production only when the chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis at 21 days of age. Nevertheless, the expected stimulus for intestinal mucosa antibody production induced by Lactobacillus spp was observed in only some of the treated groups, demonstrating that the protocol utilized in the present experiment resulted in few beneficial effects for chicks, particularly during the first days of life.

  9. Prenatal complex rhythmic music sound stimulation facilitates postnatal spatial learning but transiently impairs memory in the domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauser, H; Roy, S; Pal, A; Sreenivas, V; Mathur, R; Wadhwa, S; Jain, S

    2011-01-01

    Early experience has a profound influence on brain development, and the modulation of prenatal perceptual learning by external environmental stimuli has been shown in birds, rodents and mammals. In the present study, the effect of prenatal complex rhythmic music sound stimulation on postnatal spatial learning, memory and isolation stress was observed. Auditory stimulation with either music or species-specific sounds or no stimulation (control) was provided to separate sets of fertilized eggs from day 10 of incubation. Following hatching, the chicks at age 24, 72 and 120 h were tested on a T-maze for spatial learning and the memory of the learnt task was assessed 24 h after training. In the posthatch chicks at all ages, the plasma corticosterone levels were estimated following 10 min of isolation. The chicks of all ages in the three groups took less (p memory after 24 h of training, only the music-stimulated chicks at posthatch age 24 h took a significantly longer (p music sounds facilitates spatial learning, though the music stimulation transiently impairs postnatal memory. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Automatic system for 3D reconstruction of the chick eye based on digital photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Genest, Reno; Chandrashekar, Naveen; Choh, Vivian; Irving, Elizabeth L

    2012-01-01

    The geometry of anatomical specimens is very complex and accurate 3D reconstruction is important for morphological studies, finite element analysis (FEA) and rapid prototyping. Although magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and laser scanners can be used for reconstructing biological structures, the cost of the equipment is fairly high and specialised technicians are required to operate the equipment, making such approaches limiting in terms of accessibility. In this paper, a novel automatic system for 3D surface reconstruction of the chick eye from digital photographs of a serially sectioned specimen is presented as a potential cost-effective and practical alternative. The system is designed to allow for automatic detection of the external surface of the chick eye. Automatic alignment of the photographs is performed using a combination of coloured markers and an algorithm based on complex phase order likelihood that is robust to noise and illumination variations. Automatic segmentation of the external boundaries of the eye from the aligned photographs is performed using a novel level-set segmentation approach based on a complex phase order energy functional. The extracted boundaries are sampled to construct a 3D point cloud, and a combination of Delaunay triangulation and subdivision surfaces is employed to construct the final triangular mesh. Experimental results using digital photographs of the chick eye show that the proposed system is capable of producing accurate 3D reconstructions of the external surface of the eye. The 3D model geometry is similar to a real chick eye and could be used for morphological studies and FEA.

  11. Effects of various stocking density on productive performance and some physiological traits of broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Ihsan T. Tayeb,; Siamand Nizar Hassan,; Merkhan M. Mustafa,; Shawkat Abdulrazaq M. Sadeq,; Gulizar Issa Ameen,; Asia Mohamed Hassan

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was carried out as a survey at the commercial poultry farm of broiler chickens in Duhok region namely Amedy, Akry and Sumail in order to study the effect of stocking density on the chick performance and some physiological traits. Chicks were divided into three stocking densities namely 8.66, 10.41 and 13.36 birds/m². The results obtained are summarized as follows: Live body weights and feed conversion ratio at 7 weeks of age were non significant differences between different s...

  12. 21 CFR 522.2120 - Spectinomycin dihydrochloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with E. coli. (ii) Baby chicks at the rate of 2.5 to 5 milligrams per chick as an aid in the control of... dihydrochloride pentahydrate used in manufacturing the drug is the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces flavopersicus (var. Abbott) or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other means. Each...

  13. Advanced Oxidation Process sanitization of hatching eggs reduces Salmonella in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkopf, A C; Byrd, J A; Coufal, C D; Duong, T

    2017-10-01

    The microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery is an important critical control point for biosecurity, pathogen reduction, and food safety programs in poultry production. Developing interventions to reduce Salmonella contamination of eggs is important to improving the microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet light (UV) Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) has been previously demonstrated to be effective in reducing Salmonella on the surface of experimentally contaminated eggs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of treating eggs with an egg-sanitizing apparatus using the H2O2/UV AOP on Salmonella contamination during incubation, hatching, and in broiler chicks during grow-out. Experimentally contaminated eggs were treated using the automated H2O2/UV AOP egg sanitizer and incubated for 21 d. AOP sanitization reduced Salmonella up to 7 log10 cfu egg-1 (P Salmonella positive eggs by up to 75% (P Salmonella-positive eggs during incubation. Additionally, Salmonella was recovered from more chicks hatched from untreated eggs than from eggs treated using the H2O2/UV AOP egg sanitizer (P Salmonella contamination on the surface of eggs using the H2O2/UV AOP egg sanitizer prior to incubation may reduce the gastrointestinal colonization of chicks by Salmonella. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Effect of Administration of Withania somnifera on Some Hematological and Immunological Profile of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mushtaq*, F. R. Durrani, N. Imtiaz, Umer Sadique1, A. Hafeez, S. Akhtar2 and S. Ahmad3

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the performance of broiler chickens based on some hematological and immunological profile, upon inclusion of aqueous extract of Withania somnifera (W. somnifera in their drinking water. For this purpose, 240 a-day-old broiler chicks were purchased from a local hatchery and divided into four groups i.e. WST-0, WST-I, WST-II and WST-III. Group WST-0 was kept as control, while chicks in group WST-I, WST-II and WST-III were offered in their drinking water with an extract of W. somnifera at 10, 20 and 30g/L for 35 days, starting from day 1 of age. Feed intake and body weight were recorded on regular basis and hematological and immunological profile of the birds was analyzed at the end of experiment. Administration of W. somnifera extract resulted in significantly higher feed intake and body weight of birds in all treated groups. An increase in the values of Hb, PCV and TLC was noted in the treatment groups. A non significant difference was noted in the counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and monocytes in all treatment groups as compared to control. Antibodies titers against IB and IBD were significantly higher in all treatment groups as compare to the values shown by the chicks in control group. Findings of this study indicated that administration of W. somnifera extract to broiler chicks improve their feed intake, body weight gain, hematological profile and immunological status.

  15. Assessment of hatchling egg losses and two chick sexing methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of hatchling egg losses and two chick sexing methods in the Nigerian indigenous chicken. ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... The aim of the present study is to evaluate hatchling egg loss as well as sex determination methods at day old and sexual dimorphism over 8 weeks in Nigerian ...

  16. AFCF and clinoptilolite use in reduction of (137)Cs deposition in several days' contaminated broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, B; Vitorovic, G; Vitorovic, D; Dakovic, A; Stojanovic, M

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the binding efficiency of AFCF and clinoptilolite, mixed to the feed and administered orally using gastric tube to chronically (137)Cs alimentary contaminated broiler chicks. Seventy-five male Hybro broiler chicks, between 35 and 47 days of age were divided into five groups (15 birds per group) reared in cages (five birds in a cage) and fed a standard diet. Every day during 13 days of the experimental period all chicks received orally 1 ml CsCl water solution with activity of 1310 Bq ml(-1)(137)Cs (gastric tube). Group 1 was the control group and received no binders. The experimental groups received the binders. Group 2 received 0.2 g of AFCF in the form of water solution (gastric tube); group 3 received 0.2% AFCF in the feed; group 4 received 2g clinoptilolite in the form of water suspension (gastric tube) and group 5 received 2% clinoptilolite in the feed. Five chicks from each group were sacrificed on days 4, 10 and 13 of the experimental period. Using gamma spectrometric methods specific activity of (137)Cs was determined in the samples of breast meat, liver and gizzard. The results obtained showed that administering binders to the chronically contaminated broiler chicks significantly (pmeat, liver and gizzard. Decreasing deposition of (137)Cs in breast meat and internal organs increased with time of contamination and binders' administration. With AFCF as a cesium binder, on day 13 of measuring the (137)Cs activity in breast meat was 80-83% lower than that in the control group, 89% in liver and 83-84% in gizzard. Natural clinoptilolite demonstrated lower binding efficiency. On day 13 of measuring the (137)Cs activity in breast meat was 53-69% lower than that in the control group, 67-60% in liver and 59-71% in gizzard.

  17. Effects of graded doses of goitrin, a goitrogen in rapeseed, on synthesis and release of thyroid hormone in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Yukio; Matsumoto, Tatsuro

    1977-01-01

    Intrathyroidal metabolism in synthesis and release of thyroid hormone was investigated in chicks administered three different levels of goitrin (0.0125, 0.025 and 0.05% in the diet) for 14 days. Thyroid glands were enlarged to 2-5 times as large as that of the control in proportion to the goitrin content of the diet. Typical high radioiodine uptake goiter was demonstrated in the goitrin-administered chicks. Total thyroid 125 I content increased about twice as much as that of the control in the goitrin-administered chicks though it was depressed in 0.0065% PUT-administered chicks. Decrease of plasma PB 125 I (approximately a half of the control) was ascertained by the estimation of plasma thyroxine by radiostereoassay. In the intrathyroidal metabolism of iodine, synthesis of iodothyronines and iodination of MIT were suppressed by goitrin, but monoiodination of tyrosine was rather accelerated. The elevated ratio of thyroid iodothyronines/plasma PBI (1.5-1.7 times as much as that of the control) reveals that the depression of plasma level of thyroid hormone is more striking than the decrease in thyroid hormone in the gland in the goitrin-administered chicks. It is, therefore, suggested that goitrin has inhibitory effects not only on the biosynthesis of thyroid hormone in the gland but also on the release of thyroid hormone from the gland. (auth.)

  18. Effect of Administration of Withania somnifera on Some Hematological and Immunological Profile of Broiler Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Mushtaq*, F. R. Durrani, N. Imtiaz, Umer Sadique1, A. Hafeez, S. Akhtar2 and S. Ahmad3

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the performance of broiler chickens based on some hematological and immunological profile, upon inclusion of aqueous extract of Withania somnifera (W. somnifera) in their drinking water. For this purpose, 240 a-day-old broiler chicks were purchased from a local hatchery and divided into four groups i.e. WST-0, WST-I, WST-II and WST-III. Group WST-0 was kept as control, while chicks in group WST-I, WST-II and WST-III were offered in their drinking water with ...

  19. Capture and retention of tritiated serotonin by the chick notochord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, Anne; Gerard, Hubert; Dollander, Alexis

    1978-01-01

    The 3 day old chick notochord capacity to fix tritiated serotonin is maximal in its axis and in cephalic region. Observations permitting to find, the intracellular serotonin binding sites, contribute to an explanation of the capture mechanism and suggest a special direct role of the notochord on the monoaminergic neuron cytodifferentiation [fr

  20. Environmental influences on Adelie penguin breeding schedules, endocrinology, and chick survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninnes, C E; Waas, J R; Ling, N; Nakagawa, S; Banks, J C; Bell, D G; Bright, A; Carey, P W; Chandler, J; Hudson, Q J; Ingram, J R; Lyall, K; Morgan, D K J; Stevens, M I; Wallace, J; Möstl, E

    2011-08-01

    To understand how the social and physical environment influences behaviour, reproduction and survival, studies of underlying hormonal processes are crucial; in particular, interactions between stress and reproductive responses may have critical influences on breeding schedules. Several authors have examined the timing of breeding in relation to environmental stimuli, while others have independently described endocrine profiles. However, few studies have simultaneously measured endocrine profiles, breeding behaviour, and offspring survival across seasons. We measured sex and stress hormone concentrations (oestrogens, testosterone, and corticosterone), timing of breeding, and chick survival, in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) at two colonies in two different years. Clutch initiation at Cape Bird South (CBS; year 1, ~14,000 pairs) occurred later than at Cape Crozier East (CCE; year 2, ~ 25,000 pairs); however, breeding was more synchronous at CBS. This pattern was probably generated by the persistence of extensive sea ice at CBS (year 1). Higher corticosterone metabolite and lower sex hormone concentrations at CBS correlated with later breeding and lower chick survival compared to at CCE - again, a likely consequence of sea ice conditions. Within colonies, sub-colony size (S, 50-100; M, 200-300; L, 500-600; XL, >1000 pairs) did not influence the onset or synchrony of breeding, chick survival, or hormone concentrations. We showed that the endocrine profiles of breeding Adelie penguins can differ markedly between years and/or colonies, and that combining measures of endocrinology, behaviour, and offspring survival can reveal the mechanisms and consequences that different environmental conditions can have on breeding ecology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Distinct spatiotemporal expression of ISM1 during mouse and chick development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Liliana; Wu, Xuewei; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2014-01-01

    Isthmin 1 (ISM1) constitutes the founder of a new family of secreted proteins characterized by the presence of 2 functional domains: thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR1) and adhesion-associated domain in MUC4 and other proteins (AMOP). ISM1 was identified in the frog embryo as a member of the FGF8 synexpression group due to its expression in the brain midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) or isthmus. In zebrafish, ISM1 was described as a WNT- and NODAL-regulated gene. The function of ISM1 remains largely elusive. So far, ISM1 has been described as an angiogenesis inhibitor that has a dual function in endothelial cell survival and cell death. For a better understanding of ISM1 function, we examined its spatiotemporal distribution in mouse and chick using RT-PCR, ISH, and IHC analyses. In the mouse, ISM1 transcripts are found in tissues such as the anterior mesendoderm, paraxial and lateral plate mesoderm, MHB and trunk neural tube, as well as in the somites and dermomyotome. In the newborn and adult, ISM1 is prominently expressed in the lung and brain. In addition to its putative role during embryonic and postnatal development, ISM1 may also be important for organ homeostasis in the adult. In the chick embryo, ISM1 transcripts are strongly detected in the ear, eye, and spinal cord primordia. Remarkable differences in ISM1 spatiotemporal expression were found during mouse and chick development, despite the high homology of ISM1 orthologs in these species.

  2. Is fledging in king penguin chicks related to changes in metabolic or endocrinal status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, Hélène; Morlon, Francis; Groscolas, René

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the possibility that metabolic or endocrinal factors initiate fledging in the king penguin, a semi-altricial seabird species breeding a single chick on the ground. Chick fledging (departure to sea) occurred 5d after completion of the molt. It was preceded by a 16d fasting period and by a 7-fold increase in locomotor activity. From the measurement of the plasma concentration of metabolites and of glucagon and insulin, pre-fledging king penguin chicks were found to adapt to fasting in a classical way, i.e. by sparing body protein and mobilizing fat stores. At fledging, chicks were in phase II of fasting and their departure to sea was not stimulated by reaching critical energy depletion (phase III), in contrast to that which has been reported in breeding-fasting adults. The plasma level of corticosterone remained unchanged throughout the whole pre-fledging period, providing no support for a role of this stress-hormone in the facilitation of fledging. Thus, king penguin fledglings did not appear to be environmentally or nutritionally stressed. The plasma levels of thyroid hormones were elevated during the pre-fledging molt, in accordance with their key role in molt control in adult penguins. These levels declined by the time of the molt end, the plasma level of T4 thereafter being directly related to the time left before fledging. These results do not support the view that chronically elevated levels of thyroid hormones are required for the energy-demanding transition between being ashore and in cold water, but they suggest that the maintenance of high T4 levels may delay fledging.

  3. Bendiocarb effect on liver and central nervous system in the chick embryo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovová, E.; Sedmera, David; Lešník, František; Luptáková, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2009), s. 383-388 ISSN 0360-1234 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Bendiocarb * Chick embryo * Toxicity Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2009

  4. Early expression of hypocretin/orexin in the chick embryo brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle E Godden

    Full Text Available Hypocretin/Orexin (H/O neuropeptides are released by a discrete group of neurons in the vertebrate hypothalamus which play a pivotal role in the maintenance of waking behavior and brain state control. Previous studies have indicated that the H/O neuronal development differs between mammals and fish; H/O peptide-expressing cells are detectable during the earliest stages of brain morphogenesis in fish, but only towards the end of brain morphogenesis (by ∼ 85% of embryonic development in rats. The developmental emergence of H/O neurons has never been previously described in birds. With the goal of determining whether the chick developmental pattern was more similar to that of mammals or of fish, we investigated the emergence of H/O-expressing cells in the brain of chick embryos of different ages using immunohistochemistry. Post-natal chick brains were included in order to compare the spatial distribution of H/O cells with that of other vertebrates. We found that H/O-expressing cells appear to originate from two separate places in the region of the diencephalic proliferative zone. These developing cells express the H/O neuropeptide at a comparatively early age relative to rodents (already visible at 14% of the way through fetal development, thus bearing a closer resemblance to fish. The H/O-expressing cell population proliferates to a large number of cells by a relatively early embryonic age. As previously suggested, the distribution of H/O neurons is intermediate between that of mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates. This work suggests that, in addition to its roles in developed brains, the H/O peptide may play an important role in the early embryonic development of non-mammalian vertebrates.

  5. Toxic effect of ciprofloxacin on some biochemical variables in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Salih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the acute and sub acute toxicity of ciprofloxacin on lipids metabolism ofchicks which included determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, and albuminlevels in serum of chicks. The biochemical changes induced by giving ciprofloxacin as a single dose (200 and 400 mg/kg.body weight intraperitoneally included significant increases of cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein levels inserum, whereas albumin level significantly decreased, and there was no significant changes in high density lipoprotein levelsas compared with control group. Repeated treatment with ciprofloxacin (100 mg/kg. body weight intra peritoneal for 14 dayscaused significant increase in cholesterol level, albumin level significantly decreased as compared with control group, whereasit did not change significantly high density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels, repeated treatment of ciprofloxacin also showedsignificant decrease of the body weights of the chicks as compared with control group. The results suggest that there are toxiceffects of ciprofloxacin on lipids metabolism as seen through changes in cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin and low densitylipoprotein level.

  6. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poisbleau, Maud; Mueller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Martina S.; Roelofs, Yvonne; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Deschner, Tobias; Müller, Wendt; Reina, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive

  7. Toxicity to Chicks of Aspergillus and Penicillium Species Isolated from Moldy Pecans 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doupnik, Ben; Bell, D. K.

    1971-01-01

    Isolates of Aspergillus chevalieri, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. repens, and Penicillium funiculosum and complexes of P. citrinum-P. implicatum isolated from moldy pecan meats were toxic to chicks. PMID:5564681

  8. Improving the Wear Resistance of Moulds for the Injection of Glass Fibre–Reinforced Plastics Using PVD Coatings: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that injection of glass fibre–reinforced plastics (GFRP causes abrasive wear in moulds’ cavities and runners. Physical vapour deposition (PVD coatings are intensively used to improve the wear resistance of different tools, also being one of the most promising ways to increase the moulds’ lifespan, mainly when used with plastics strongly reinforced with glass fibres. This work compares four different thin, hard coatings obtained using the PVD magnetron sputtering process: TiAlN, TiAlSiN, CrN/TiAlCrSiN and CrN/CrCN/DLC. The first two are monolayer coatings while the last ones are nanostructured and consist of multilayer systems. In order to carry out the corresponding tribological characterization, two different approaches were selected: A laboratorial method, using micro-abrasion wear tests based on a ball-cratering configuration, and an industrial mode, analysing the wear resistance of the coated samples when inserted in a plastic injection mould. As expected, the wear phenomena are not equivalent and the results between micro-abrasion and industrial tests are not similar due to the different means used to promote the abrasion. The best wear resistance performance in the laboratorial wear tests was attained by the TiAlN monolayer coating while the best performance in the industrial wear tests was obtained by the CrN/TiAlCrSiN nanostructured multilayer coating.

  9. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2-9 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrose, Kh M; Attia, A I; Ismail, I E; Abou-Kassem, D E; El-Hack, M E Abd

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01) with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm) was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age) could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%).

  10. The chick somitogenesis oscillator is arrested before all paraxial mesoderm is segmented into somites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrew Michael J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somitogenesis is the earliest sign of segmentation in the developing vertebrate embryo. This process starts very early, soon after gastrulation has initiated and proceeds in an anterior-to-posterior direction during body axis elongation. It is widely accepted that somitogenesis is controlled by a molecular oscillator with the same periodicity as somite formation. This periodic mechanism is repeated a specific number of times until the embryo acquires a defined specie-specific final number of somites at the end of the process of axis elongation. This final number of somites varies widely between vertebrate species. How termination of the process of somitogenesis is determined is still unknown. Results Here we show that during development there is an imbalance between the speed of somite formation and growth of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM/tail bud. This decrease in the PSM size of the chick embryo is not due to an acceleration of the speed of somite formation because it remains constant until the last stages of somitogenesis, when it slows down. When the chick embryo reaches its final number of somites at stage HH 24-25 there is still some remaining unsegmented PSM in which expression of components of the somitogenesis oscillator is no longer dynamic. Finally, we identify a change in expression of retinoic acid regulating factors in the tail bud at late stages of somitogenesis, such that in the chick embryo there is a pronounced onset of Raldh2 expression while in the mouse embryo the expression of the RA inhibitor Cyp26A1 is downregulated. Conclusions Our results show that the chick somitogenesis oscillator is arrested before all paraxial mesoderm is segmented into somites. In addition, endogenous retinoic acid is probably also involved in the termination of the process of segmentation, and in tail growth in general.

  11. Growth Retardation of Chick Embryo Exposed to a Low Dose of Electromagnetic Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, N.; Norrish, M.; Heming, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of low dose of the non-ionizing (REW) emitted by a mobile phone on the development of chick embryo. Methods: one hundred and twenty chick fertilized eggs were equally divided into a control and an exposed group. Sixty fertilized eggs were placed in an egg incubator with a mobile phone (SAR US: 1.10W/kg (head) 0.47 W/kg body) in silent mode having vibration disable mode. Mobile was called for a total of 20 minutes in 24 hours. Twenty embryos each were sacrificed at day 5, 10 and 15, mortality, wet body weight, head to rump length, eye diameter and morphological changes were noted. The control group, 60 eggs were incubated in the same conditions, having removed the phone. Results: No mortality was noted. The experimental group exposed to REW showed subcutaneous haemorrhagic areas and significant growth retardation at day 10 as evidence by smaller eye diameter, wet weight and CR length than the control group. There were no significant growth differences at either day 5 or at day 15. Conclusion: Electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones even though for a very short duration of 20 minutes per day have affected the growth of the chick embryo at day 10 of incubation, Hence exposure of these waves are not 100 percent safe. (author)

  12. Growth Retardation Of Chick Embryo Exposed To A Low Dose Of Electromagnetic Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Najam; John C, Muthusami; Norrish, Mark; Heming, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of low dose of the nonionizing (REW) emitted by a mobile phone on the development of chick embryo. one hundred and twenty chick fertilized eggs were equally divided into a control and an exposed group. Sixty fertilized eggs were placed in an egg incubator with a mobile phone (SAR US: 1.10W/kg (head) 0.47 W/kg body) in silent mode having vibration disable mode. Mobile was called for a total of 20 minutes in 24 hours. Twenty embryos each were sacrificed at day 5, 10 and 15, mortality, wet body weight, head to rump length, eye diameter and morphological changes were noted. The control group, 60 eggs were incubated in the same conditions, having removed the phone. No mortality was noted. The experimental group exposed to REW showed subcutaneous haemorrhagic areas and significant growth retardation at day 10 as evidence by smaller eye diameter, wet weight and CR length than the control group. There were no significant growth differences at either day 5 or at day 15. Electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones even though for a very short duration of 20 minutes per day have affected the growth of the chick embryo at day 10 of incubation, Hence exposure of these waves are not 100% safe.

  13. AFCF and clinoptilolite use in reduction of 137Cs deposition in several days' contaminated broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrovic, B.; Vitorovic, G.; Vitorovic, D.; Dakovic, A.; Stojanovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the binding efficiency of AFCF and clinoptilolite, mixed to the feed and administered orally using gastric tube to chronically 137 Cs alimentary contaminated broiler chicks. Seventy-five male Hybro broiler chicks, between 35 and 47 days of age were divided into five groups (15 birds per group) reared in cages (five birds in a cage) and fed a standard diet. Every day during 13 days of the experimental period all chicks received orally 1 ml CsCl water solution with activity of 1310 Bq ml -1 137 Cs (gastric tube). Group 1 was the control group and received no binders. The experimental groups received the binders. Group 2 received 0.2 g of AFCF in the form of water solution (gastric tube); group 3 received 0.2% AFCF in the feed; group 4 received 2 g clinoptilolite in the form of water suspension (gastric tube) and group 5 received 2% clinoptilolite in the feed. Five chicks from each group were sacrificed on days 4, 10 and 13 of the experimental period. Using gamma spectrometric methods specific activity of 137 Cs was determined in the samples of breast meat, liver and gizzard. The results obtained showed that administering binders to the chronically contaminated broiler chicks significantly (p 137 Cs transfer and deposition in breast meat, liver and gizzard. Decreasing deposition of 137 Cs in breast meat and internal organs increased with time of contamination and binders' administration. With AFCF as a cesium binder, on day 13 of measuring the 137 Cs activity in breast meat was 80-83% lower than that in the control group, 89% in liver and 83-84% in gizzard. Natural clinoptilolite demonstrated lower binding efficiency. On day 13 of measuring the 137 Cs activity in breast meat was 53-69% lower than that in the control group, 67-60% in liver and 59-71% in gizzard

  14. Cell Cycle Regulation and Apoptotic Responses of the Embryonic Chick Retina by Ionizing Radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Mayer

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR exerts deleterious effects on the developing brain, since proliferative neuronal progenitor cells are highly sensitive to IR-induced DNA damage. Assuming a radiation response that is comparable to mammals, the chick embryo would represent a lower vertebrate model system that allows analysis of the mechanisms underlying this sensitivity, thereby contributing to the reduction, refinement and replacement of animal experiments. Thus, this study aimed to elucidate the radiation response of the embryonic chick retina in three selected embryonic stages. Our studies reveal a lack in the radiation-induced activation of a G1/S checkpoint, but rapid abrogation of G2/M progression after IR in retinal progenitors throughout development. Unlike cell cycle control, radiation-induced apoptosis (RIA showed strong variations between its extent, dose dependency and temporal occurrence. Whereas the general sensitivity towards RIA declined with ongoing differentiation, its dose dependency constantly increased with age. For all embryonic stages RIA occurred during comparable periods after irradiation, but in older animals its maximum shifted towards earlier post-irradiation time points. In summary, our results are in good agreement with data from the developing rodent retina, strengthening the suitability of the chick embryo for the analysis of the radiation response in the developing central nervous system.

  15. Experimental infection of broiler chicks with Salmonella Typhimurium from pigeon (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Átilla Holanda de Albuquerque

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Several cases of animal and human salmonellosis caused by the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium have been reported. In animals, subclinical infection favors pathogen dissemination through feces. In this context, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia with an asymptomatic condition may play an important role in the transmission of salmonellosis, through the elimination of contaminated feces in commercial aviaries or in poultry feed facilities, causing economic losses to the poultry industry and presenting a risk to public health. This study aimed to evaluate the mortality, clinical signs and the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the feces and organs of chicks previously inoculated with bacteria isolated from a pigeon. One-day-old chicks were distributed in two experimental groups (G1 and G2 of 32 birds each, and a control group of six birds. Two inocula of 0.4 and 0.7 mL with 105 and 106 colony forming units were used in G1 and G2 birds, respectively. At 1, 4, 7 and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi fecal samples were pooled from each cage and individual cloacal swabs were collected. At 14 dpi, all chicks were euthanized and samples were collected from the liver, spleen, lung, cecum and intestine for microbiological analysis. Mortality was only observed among G2 birds (6.25%. Most birds presented clinical signs of diarrhea at 4 dpi and no symptom as observed at 14 dpi. The results from cloacal swabs demonstrated bacterial elimination in 68.8% and 53.1% of G2 and G1 birds, respectively at 1 dpi. Additionally, fecal samples had elevated bacterial shedding in all four periods of observation , with a higher excretion at 4 dpi (62.5% for both groups. Among G2 birds, 74.2% were positive for the pathogen in the intestine; G1 birds presented the lowest rate of lung infection (29%, and both groups had more than 50% positivity for liver and caeca. The results revealed that infected chicks with a Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from pigeons may host the

  16. Resistance against Schistosoma mansoni induced by highly irradiated infections: studies on species specificity of immunization and attempts to transfer resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickle, Q.D.; Andrews, B.J.; Doenhoff, M.J.; Ford, M.J.; Taylor, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Significant levels of resistance against Schistosoma mansoni challenge were developed by mice exposed to highly irradiated (20 krad.) cercariae of the homologous species (53-67%), whereas vaccination with S. bovis, S. haematobium or S. japonicum failed to confer significant levels of resistance (-5-12%), thus confirming the specificity of the immunizing procedure. Attempts to transfer resistance to naive recipients by injection of serum and of spleen or lymph node cells from donor mice vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae were largely unsuccessful. However, significant levels of resistance could be transferred to mice by injection of serum from rabbits exposed to irradiated cercariae. Comparable levels of resistance were conferred by injection of serum at the time of challenge (34-69%) or 5-6 days later (31-56%). In contrast, sera from rabbits injected with soluble egg antigen or homogenized cercariae failed to confer protection upon recipient mice. Sera from vaccinated mice, vaccinated rabbits and antigen-injected rabbits all caused cell adherence to skin-transformed schistosomula but neither the level of adherence nor the serum titre correlated with the ability to confer protection to mice. (author)

  17. Prenatal light exposure affects early feather-pecking behaviour in the domestic chick

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedstra, B; Groothuis, TGG

    Recently we proposed that early feather pecking is a form of social exploration. Social recognition, important for exploration, is a lateralized function in the domestic chick. Lateralization of functions can be influenced by light exposure late in embryonic development. Therefore, we investigated

  18. Expression of the voltage-sensing phosphatase gene in the chick embryonic tissues and in the adult cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Aoki, Naoya; Kitajima, Takaaki; Okamura, Yasushi; Homma, Koichi J

    2014-10-01

    Voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) consists of a transmembrane voltage sensor domain (VSD) and the cytoplasmic domain with phosphoinositide-phosphatase activities. It operates as the voltage sensor and directly translates membrane potential into phosphoinositide turnover by coupling VSD to the cytoplasmic domain. VSPs are evolutionarily conserved from marine invertebrate up to humans. Recently, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of the chick ortholog of VSP, Gg-VSP, in a fibroblast cell line caused characteristic cell process outgrowths. Co-expression of chick PTEN suppressed such morphological change, suggesting that VSP regulates cell shape by increasing PI(3,4)P2. However, the in vivo function of Gg-VSP remains unclear. Here, we showed that in chick embryos Gg-VSP is expressed in the stomach, mesonephros, pharyngeal arch, limb bud, somites, floor plate of neural tube, and notochord. In addition, both Gg-VSP transcripts and the protein were found in the cerebellar Purkinje neurons. These findings provide an insight into the physiological functions of VSP.

  19. Broiler incubation. 1. Effect of elevated temperature during late incubation on body weight and organs of chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, N; Romero-Sanchez, H; Plumstead, P W; Brannan, K E; Brake, J

    2007-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of increased egg temperature during the final third of incubation on BW, yolk sac, heart, and digestive organs of broiler chicks at hatching. Egg temperatures were found to be approximately 1.0 to 1.5 degrees C higher than incubator air temperature. Elevated egg temperature (39.5 degrees C) after embryonic day 14 generally accelerated hatching time but decreased the relative weight of the heart in all 3 experiments, whereas BW and relative weights of the gizzard, proventriculus, and small intestines were significantly smaller in 2 of 3 experiments as compared with the control (approximately 38.2 degrees C). Relative weights of the yolk sac or liver were significantly larger due to elevated egg temperature in single experiments only. A striking feature of the chicks that developed at an elevated egg temperature was their white color as compared with the yellow color of chicks from eggs incubated at more normal temperatures.

  20. Activity of certain enzymes in cadmium-poisoned chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kench, J E; Gubb, P J.D.

    1970-01-01

    Activities of a number of enzymes in the liver and other tissues of newly hatched cadmium poisoned chicks have been compared with those of normal controls before and after incubation with Cd/sup +2/ at a concentration similar to that present in vivo. Concentrations of Cd/sup +2/ in the various cellular fractions were determined, after wet oxidation, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Interaction of Cd/sup +2/ with enzymes may provide information on the localization of enzymes within mitochondria and other cellular structures. 7 references.

  1. Effects of in ovo supplementation of probiotics on performance and immunocompetence of broiler chicks to an Eimeria challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, C M; Kim, S; Potter, T D; Ritzi, M M; Young, M; Dalloul, R A

    2016-11-30

    Coccidiosis is regarded as the parasitic disease with the greatest economic impact on the poultry industry due to reduced performance and increased mortality. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo administration of probiotics on hatchability, performance, immune organ weights, and lesion scores in broiler chicks during a mixed Eimeria infection. At embryonic day 18, 210 eggs were injected with either sterile water or 1×10 6 cfu probiotic bacteria. On day 3 post-hatch, half of the chicks from each treatment group were challenged with a mixed inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella. Measurements and tissue samples were taken on day of hatch (DOH) and days 3, 9 and 15. On day 9, 24 birds per treatment were scored for intestinal Eimeria lesions. No differences were seen among groups for hatchability as well as for body weight (BW), BW gain (BWG), or immune organ weights prior to the Eimeria challenge. On day 9, the non-challenged birds with probiotic supplementation had higher BW and BWG than the non-supplemented controls while no differences were seen among the challenged groups. On day 15, probiotic supplemented birds had improved BW compared to the non-supplemented birds as well as increased BWG from day 9 to 15. Bursa weight was not affected by treatment at any time point while spleen weight was greater in supplemented birds on day 15. Birds receiving the probiotic had significantly lower mortality than non-treated birds. Additionally, gross lesion severity was reduced due to probiotic supplementation in all intestinal segments evaluated. These results suggest that in ovo supplementation of probiotics may improve early performance and provide protection against a mixed Eimeria infection.

  2. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations...

  3. Beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptors activate glucose uptake in chick astrocytes by distinct mechanisms: a mechanism for memory enhancement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Dana S; Summers, Roger J; Gibbs, Marie E

    2007-11-01

    Isoprenaline, acting at beta-adrenoceptors (ARs), enhances memory formation in single trial discriminated avoidance learning in day-old chicks by mechanisms involving alterations in glucose and glycogen metabolism. Earlier studies of memory consolidation in chicks indicated that beta3-ARs enhanced memory by increasing glucose uptake, whereas beta2-ARs enhance memory by increasing glycogenolysis. This study examines the ability of beta-ARs to increase glucose uptake in chick forebrain astrocytes. The beta-AR agonist isoprenaline increased glucose uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, as did insulin. Glucose uptake was increased by the beta2-AR agonist zinterol and the beta3-AR agonist CL316243, but not by the beta1-AR agonist RO363. In chick astrocytes, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction studies showed that beta1-, beta2-, and beta3-AR mRNA were present, whereas radioligand-binding studies showed the presence of only beta2- and beta3-ARs. beta-AR or insulin-mediated glucose uptake was inhibited by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and protein kinase C inhibitors, suggesting a possible interaction between the beta-AR and insulin pathways. However beta2- and beta3-ARs increase glucose uptake by two different mechanisms: beta2-ARs via a Gs-cAMP-protein kinase A-dependent pathway, while beta3-ARs via interactions with Gi. These results indicate that activation of beta2- and beta3-ARs causes glucose uptake in chick astrocytes by distinct mechanisms, which may be relevant for memory enhancement.

  4. Serotonin mediation of early memory formation via 5HT2B receptor-induced glycogenolysis in the day-old chick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Elizabeth Gibbs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the effects of serotonin on memory formation in the chick revealed an action on at least two 5HT receptors. Serotonin injected intracerebrally produced a biphasic effect on memory consolidation with enhancement at low doses and inhibition at higher doses. The non-selective 5HT receptor antagonist methiothepin and the selective 5HT2B/C receptor antagonist SB221284 both inhibited memory, suggesting actions of serotonin on at least 2 different receptor subtypes. The 5HT2B/C and astrocyte-specific 5-HT receptor agonists, fluoxetine and paroxetine, enhanced memory and the effect was attributed to glycogenolysis. Inhibition of glycogenolysis with a low dose of DAB prevented both serotonin and fluoxetine from enhancing memory during short-term memory but not during intermediate memory. The role of serotonin on the 5HT2B/C receptor appears to involve glycogen breakdown in astrocytes during short-term memory, whereas other published evidence attributes the second period of glycogenolysis to noradrenaline.

  5. Premixed direct injection disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  6. Monitoring of Leachate Recirculation in a Bioreactor Using Electrical Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellier, S.; Bureau, N.; Robain, H.; Tabbagh, A.; Camerlynck, C.; Guerin, R.

    2004-05-01

    The bioreactor is a concept of waste landfill management consisting in speeding up the biodegradation by optimizing the moisture content through leachate recirculation. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is carried out with fast resistivity-meter (Syscal Pro, IRIS Instruments, developed in the framework of the research project CERBERE 01V0665-69, funded by the French Research Ministry) to monitor leachate recirculation. During a recirculation period waste moisture increases, so that electrical resistivity may decrease, but at the same time temperature and mineralization of both waste and leachate become intermixed. If waste temperature is much higher than leachate temperature electrical resistivity will not decrease as much as if the temperature difference was smaller. If leachate mineralization (i.e. leachate conductivity) is higher than that of wet waste in the landfill, electrical resistivity will tend to decrease. Otherwise for example after an addition of rain water into the leachate storage or in case of very wet waste, the resistivities of each medium (leachate and wet waste) can be almost the same, so that leachate mineralization will not have a great influence on waste resistivity. Resistivity measurements were performed during 85 minutes injection trials (with a discharge of 20 m3 h-1) where leachate was injected through a vertical borehole perforated between 1.85 and 4.15 m. Three first measurements are made during the injection (3, 30 and 60 minutes from the beginning of the injection) and the two other after the injection period (8 and 72 minutes after the end of the injection). Apparent and interpreted resistivity variations that occurred during injection trials, expressed as the relative differences (in %) between apparent, respectively interpreted, resistivity during injection and apparent, respectively interpreted, resistivity before injection (reference measurement) show the formation of a plume (a negative anomaly: resistivity decreases with

  7. Effects of aqua agar as water replacement for posthatch chicks during transportation on residual yolk-sac and growth performance of young broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tossaporn Incharoen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most essential nutrients for the maintenance of chicks' function, and delayed access to feed and water post hatch has been reported to dehydrate chicks. Aqua agar (AA was formulated to contain more than 95% water and an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of AA as water replacement for posthatch chicks during transportation. During the simulated transport, chicks were held for 24 h with (AA group or without (NO-AA group aqua agar in chick boxes. During the holding period, chicks in the AA group lost less body weight, compared with the NO-AA group. However, the weight of residual yolk tended to be lower in the AA-treated birds. There were no significant differences in the weight of gizzard, proventriculus, and liver, nor in the weights and lengths of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. A higher body weight was also observed in the AA group at 7 days of age. At 21 days of age, weight gain and feed intake were higher (P < 0.05 in the AA group, when compared to that of the NO-AA group. No significant differences were observed in the feed conversion rate (FCR between the two groups. In conclusion, the data suggests that the use of AA as a water replacement could reduce the negative impact of water deficiency in posthatch period during transportation, resulting in greatly improved growth performance of young broilers at 21 days of age.

  8. Lectin histochemistry of goblet cell sugar residues in the gut of the chick embryo and of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, S G; Sgambati, E; Gheri Bryk, G

    1999-04-01

    The anlage of duodenum, ileum and colon were removed from chick embryos of day 8-21 of incubation and from 1-day-old chicks. A battery of seven different horseradish peroxidase-conjugated lectins (PNA, SBA, DBA, Con A, WGA, LTA and UEAI) was used to study the carbohydrate residues of the glycoconjugates in the goblet cells of the three parts of the intestine. The main results can be summarized as follows: differences in lectin binding were absent in the proximal and distal parts of the duodenum, ileum and colon. Lectin histochemistry showed differences among the three intestinal segments for the time of appearance of the oligosaccharides in the goblet mucus. In the colonic goblet cells of 1-day-old chicks, LTA and UEAI lectins showed two different types of linkage of alpha-L-fucose. This is the first demonstration of UEAI reactive sites in Gallus domesticus.

  9. The gga-let-7 family post-transcriptionally regulates TGFBR1 and LIN28B during the differentiation process in early chick development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang In; Jeon, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Jeom Sun; Jeon, Ik-Soo; Byun, Sung June

    2015-12-01

    Early chick embryogenesis is governed by a complex mechanism involving transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, although how post-transcriptional processes influence the balance between pluripotency and differentiation during early chick development have not been previously investigated. Here, we characterized the microRNA (miRNA) signature associated with differentiation in the chick embryo, and found that as expression of the gga-let-7 family increases through early development, expression of their direct targets, TGFBR1 and LIN28B, decreases; indeed, gga-let-7a-5p and gga-let-7b miRNAs directly bind to TGFBR1 and LIN28B transcripts. Our data further indicate that TGFBR1 and LIN28B maintain pluripotency by regulating POUV, NANOG, and CRIPTO. Therefore, gga-let-7 miRNAs act as post-transcriptional regulators of differentiation in blastodermal cells by repressing the expression of the TGFBR1 and LIN28B, which intrinsically controls blastodermal cell differentiation in early chick development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Some statistics from the 2012 Lappet-faced Vulture chick ringing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    The long and the short of it: Some statistics from the 2012. Lappet-faced Vulture chick ringing in the Namib. Holger Kolberg1 and Peter Bridgeford2. Vultures Namibia, P.O. Box 3699, Walvis Bay, Namibia. 1 email: holgerk@mweb.com.na, 2 email: pmbridge@iway.na. Vultures Namibia once again ringed. Lappet-faced.

  11. Acute temperature effects on function of the chick embryonic heart

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vostárek, František; Svatůňková, Jarmila; Sedmera, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 217, č. 4 (2016), s. 276-286 ISSN 1748-1708 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1308; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-12412S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02972S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : arrhythmias * calcium imaging * chick embryo * conduction block * heart development * optical mapping Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 4.867, year: 2016

  12. Injections, cocktails and diviners: therapeutic flexibility in the context of malaria elimination and drug resistance in Northeast Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Gryseels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adherence to effective malaria medication is extremely important in the context of Cambodia's elimination targets and drug resistance containment. Although the public sector health facilities are accessible to the local ethnic minorities of Ratanakiri province (Northeast Cambodia, their illness itineraries often lead them to private pharmacies selling "cocktails" and artemether injections, or to local diviners prescribing animal sacrifices to appease the spirits. METHODS: The research design consisted of a mixed methods study, combining qualitative (in-depth interviews and participant observation and quantitative methods (household and cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: Three broad options for malaria treatment were identified: i the public sector; ii the private sector; iii traditional treatment based on divination and ceremonial sacrifice. Treatment choice was influenced by the availability of treatment and provider, perceived side effects and efficacy of treatments, perceived etiology of symptoms, and patient-health provider encounters. Moreover, treatment paths proved to be highly flexible, changing mostly in relation to the perceived efficacy of a chosen treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Despite good availability of anti-malarial treatment in the public health sector, attendance remained low due to both structural and human behavioral factors. The common use and under-dosage of anti-malaria monotherapy in the private sector (single-dose injections, single-day drug cocktails represents a threat not only for individual case management, but also for the regional plan of drug resistance containment and malaria elimination.

  13. Exposure to excess phenobarbital negatively influences the osteogenesis of chick embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenobarbital is an antiepileptic drug that is widely used to treat epilepsy in a clinical setting. However, a long term of phenobarbital administration in pregnant women may produce side effects on embryonic skeletogenesis. In this study, we aim to investigate the mechanism by which phenobarbital treatment induces developmental defects in long bones. We first determined that phenobarbital treatment decreased chondrogenesis and inhibited the proliferation of chondrocytes in chick embryos. Phenobarbital treatment also suppressed mineralization in both in vivo and in vitro long bone models. Next, we established that phenobarbital treatment delayed blood vessel invasion in a cartilage template, and this finding was supported by the down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in the hypertrophic zone following phenobarbital treatment. Phenobarbital treatment inhibited tube formation and the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In addition, it impaired angiogenesis in chick yolk sac membrane model and chorioallantoic membrane model. In summary, phenobarbital exposure led to shortened lengths of long bones during embryogenesis, which might result from inhibiting mesenchyme differentiation, chondrocyte proliferation, and delaying mineralization by impairing vascular invasion.

  14. An insight into the heat and mass transfer mechanisms of eggshells hatching broiler chicks and its effects to the hatcher environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanini, C E B; Exadaktylos, V; Hong, S W; Tong, Q; McGonnell, I; Demmers, T G M; Bergoug, H; Guinebretière, M; Eterradossi, N; Roulston, N; Verhelst, R; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D

    2015-02-01

    Thermodynamic study of incubated eggs is an important component in the optimisation of incubation processes. However, research on the interaction of heat and moisture transfer mechanisms in eggs is rather limited and does not focus on the hatching stage of incubation. During hatch, both the recently hatched chick and the broken eggshell add extra heat and moisture contents to the hatcher environment. In this study, we have proposed a novel way to estimate thermodynamically the amount of water evaporated from a broken eggshell during hatch. The hypothesis of this study considers that previously reported drops in eggshell temperature during hatching of chicks is the result remaining water content evaporating from the eggshell, released on the inner membrane by the recently hatched wet chick, just before hatch. To reproduce this process, water was sprayed on eggshells to mimic the water-fluid from the wet body of a chick. For each sample of eggshell, the shell geometry and weight, surface area and eggshell temperature were measured. Water evaporation losses and convection coefficient were calculated using a novel model approach considering the simultaneous heat and mass transfer profiles in an eggshell. The calculated average convective coefficient was 23.9 ± 7.5 W/m(2) °C, similar to previously reported coefficients in literature as a function of 0.5-1m/s air speed range. Comparison between measured and calculated values for the water evaporation showed 68% probability accuracy, associated to the use of an experimentally derived single heat transfer coefficient. The results support our proposed modelling approach of heat and mass transfer mechanisms. Furthermore, by estimating the amount of evaporated water in an eggshell post-hatch, air humidity levels inside the hatcher can be optimised to ensure wet chicks dry properly while not dehydrating early hatching chicks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of age of broiler chicks and duration of feeding of their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    22% CP, 3.0 Meal ME/kg) containing either raw or heat-treated full fat soyabeans were fed to 120 Anak broiler Chicks at both starter (10-45 days of age) and finisher (46-66 day of age) phase in a completely randomized design experiment to ...

  16. Presence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhoud, H; Chantziaras, I; Iguer-Ouada, M; Moula, N; Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Touati, A; Smet, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most important global health challenges. Broilers are an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in general and, more particularly, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Since contamination of 1-day-old chicks is a potential risk factor for the introduction of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the broiler production chain, the presence of antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in broiler hatching eggs was explored in the present study. Samples from 186 hatching eggs, collected from 11 broiler breeder farms, were inoculated on MacConkey agar with or without ceftiofur and investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistant lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae, particularly, ESBL/AmpC-producers. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were obtained from the eggshells in 10 out of 11 (10/11) sampled farms. The majority of the isolates were recovered from crushed eggshells after external decontamination suggesting that these bacteria are concealed from the disinfectants in the egg shell pores. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed that approximately 30% of the isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulphonamides, while the majority of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, neomycin and apramycin. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was detected in eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates from five different broiler breeder farms. The ESBL phenotype was confirmed by the double disk synergy test and blaSHV-12, blaTEM-52 and blaACT-39 resistance genes were detected by PCR. This report is the first to present broiler hatching eggs as carriers and a potential source of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae for broiler chicks.

  17. Performance of Chicks Submitted to Fasting Post-Hatching and with Maltodextrine Supplementing to Diet as Hydrating and Energetic Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of maltodextrin on performance of chicks passed through four fasting periods. A completely randomized design was performed, consisting of three treatments (1 - control, 2 - 4% saccharose; 3-4% maltodextrin 20 and four fasting periods after hatching (0, 12, 24 and 36 hours with four replications, totaling 1920 birds of both sexes. The studied variables were: water intake in the first 12 hours, average food intake, average body weight and real feed conversion. Data was submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared with each other by Dunnett test at 5% significance. The use of additives and imposing of different fasting periods did not influence the performance at 42 days old. Therefore, fasted chicks consumed significantly more water. At 7 days old, chicks fasted showed higher body weight and higher feed intake, however, the viability did not suffer any influence, the weight remained higher after 21days with the fast imposition and there was no influence on other variables. There was no effect of fasting on broiler chiken's performance at 42 days old. The inclusion of sucrose and maltodextrin to drinking water stimulated the chick´s water intake and provided higher viability after seven days old.

  18. Development of a green fluorescent protein metastatic-cancer chick-embryo drug-screen model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bobek, V.; Plachý, Jiří; Pintérová, D.; Kološtová, K.; Boubelík, Michael; Jiang, P.; Yang, M.; Hoffman, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2004), s. 347-352 ISSN 0262-0898 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : chick embryo * Lewis lung carcinoma * metastasis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.048, year: 2004

  19. Die Fledermaus: regarding optokinetic contrast sensitivity and light-adaptation, chicks are mice with wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Shi

    Full Text Available Through adaptation, animals can function visually under an extremely broad range of light intensities. Light adaptation starts in the retina, through shifts in photoreceptor sensitivity and kinetics plus modulation of visual processing in retinal circuits. Although considerable research has been conducted on retinal adaptation in nocturnal species with rod-dominated retinas, such as the mouse, little is known about how cone-dominated avian retinas adapt to changes in mean light intensity.We used the optokinetic response to characterize contrast sensitivity (CS in the chick retina as a function of spatial frequency and temporal frequency at different mean light intensities. We found that: 1 daytime, cone-driven CS was tuned to spatial frequency; 2 nighttime, presumably rod-driven CS was tuned to temporal frequency and spatial frequency; 3 daytime, presumably cone-driven CS at threshold intensity was invariant with temporal and spatial frequency; and 4 daytime photopic CS was invariant with clock time.Light- and dark-adaptational changes in CS were investigated comprehensively for the first time in the cone-dominated retina of an avian, diurnal species. The chick retina, like the mouse retina, adapts by using a "day/night" or "cone/rod" switch in tuning preference during changes in lighting conditions. The chick optokinetic response is an attractive model for noninvasive, behavioral studies of adaptation in retinal circuitry in health and disease.

  20. Injection system of teh SSC Medium Energy Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, N.; Gerig, R.; McGill, J.; Brown, K.

    1994-04-01

    The Medium Energy Booster (MEB) is the third of the SSCL accelerators and the largest of the resistive magnet synchrotrons. It accelerates protons from an injection momentum of 12 GeV/c to a top momentum of 200 GeV/c. A beam injection system has been designed to inject the beam transferred from the Low Energy Booster onto the MEB closed orbit in the MEB injection insertion region. The beam is injected via a vertical bending Lambertson septum magnet and a horizontal kicker with appropriate matching and very little beam loss and emittance dilution. The beam optics of the injection system is described in this paper. The required parameters of the Lambertson septum magnet and the injection kicker are given

  1. The increase of Lactobacillus species in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks is associated with weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Angelakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A bacterial role in the obesity pandemic has been suspected based on the ingestion of probiotics that can modify the gut flora. The objective of our study was to determine if increased Lactobacillus sp. in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks could result in weight gain increase. METHODOLOGY: Female broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus and ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica were separated into one control and two experimental groups, and inoculated once or twice with 4x10(10Lactobacillus spp. per animal in PBS, or with PBS alone. Fecal samples were collected before and at 24 hours, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 30 days after the inoculation. DNA was extracted from the stools, and qPCR assays were performed on a MX3000 system for the detection and quantification of Lactobacillus sp., Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, using a quantification plasmid. Animals were measured and sacrificed 60 days after the beginning of the experiment, and livers were collected and measured. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chicks inoculated once and twice with Lactobacillus weighed 10.2% (p = 0.0162 and 13.5% (p = 0.0064 more than the control group animals, respectively. Similarly, ducks inoculated once and twice weighed 7.7% (p = 0.05 and 14% (p = 0.035 more than those in the control group, respectively. Liver mass was also significantly higher in inoculated animals compared to the control group. Inoculation with Lactobacillus sp. increased the DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. and Firmicutes in the stools. Bacteroidetes remained stable, and only the second Lactobacillus sp. inoculation significantly decreased its population in chicks. The ratio of DNA copies of Firmicutes to those of Bacteroidetes increased to as much as 6,4 in chicks and 8,3 in ducks. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the intestinal microbiota may precede weight increase, as we found that an increase of Lactobacillus sp. in newborn ducks and chicks preceded the development of weight gain.

  2. Acoustic mechanisms of a species-based discrimination of the chick-a-dee call in sympatric black-capped (Poecile atricapillus and mountain chickadees (P. gambeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M Guillette

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous perceptual research with black-capped and mountain chickadees has demonstrated that these species treat each other’s namesake chick-a-dee calls as belonging to separate, open-ended categories. Further, the terminal dee portion of the call has been implicated as the most prominent species marker. However, statistical classification using acoustic summary features suggests that all note-types contained within the chick-a-dee call should be sufficient for species classification. The current study seeks to better understand the note-type based mechanisms underlying species-based classification of the chick-a-dee call by black-capped and mountain chickadees. In two, complimentary, operant discrimination experiments, both species were trained to discriminate the species of the signaller using either entire chick-a-dee calls, or individual note-types from chick-a-dee calls. In agreement with previous perceptual work we find that the D note had significant stimulus control over species based discrimination. However, in line with statistical classifications, we find that all note-types carry species information. We discuss reasons why the most easily discriminated note-types are likely candidates to carry species based cues.

  3. EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF NON-STARCH POLYSACCHARIDE DEGRADING ENZYMES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nadeem, M. I. Anjum, A. G. Khan and A. Azim

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the performance and carcass parameters of broilers chicks fed diets with and without supplementing non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzymes (NSPDE at the rate of 0.5 g/kg diet. A total of 300 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 12 sets (replicates each comprising 25 chicks and three sets per treatment group, reared on deep litter from 1-42 days post-hatch. Group A was fed diets without NSPDE supplementation, while group B was fed diets supplemented with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg. Group C was fed diets containing 50 kcal/kg less metabolizable energy (ME without NSPDE and group D was fed diets having 50 kcal/kg less ME with NSPDE (0.5 g/kg supplementation. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR from 1-28 days and 1-42 days was significantly (p<0.05 improved in chicks fed NSPDE supplemented diets (groups B and D compared to non-supplemented diets (groups A and C. However, during 29-42 days of growing period enzymes supplementation did not influence feed intake and FCR. Body weight gain, dressing percentage and relative weights of heart, gizzard and shank at 42 days of age was found to be non-significantly different among all groups. However, liver weight reduced significantly (p<0.05 in NSPDE supplemented groups. The study suggested that NSPDE supplementation was beneficial in enhancing feed utilization during the starter phase, while its effects on weight gain, dressing percentage and weights of organs, except liver weight, were found to be non-significant.

  4. Microarray analysis of normal and abnormal chick ventricular myocardial development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Eliška; Peševski, Živorad; Dealmeida, A.C.; Mrug, M.; Fresco, V.M.; Argraves, W.S.; Barth, J.L.; Cui, X.; Sedmera, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, Suppl.1 (2012), S137-S144 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1308; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : chick embryo * gene chip array * hypoplastic left heart syndrome * hemodynamics * gene expression Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012

  5. The Impact of Intra-articular Depot Betamethasone Injection on Insulin Resistance Among Diabetic Patients With Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, George; Chernin, Mark; Sakas, Fahed; Artul, Suheil; Jabbour, Adel; Jabaly-Habib, Haneen

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intra-articular corticosteroid injection (IACI) of depot betamethasone at the knee joint on insulin resistance (IR). Patients with type 2 diabetes, non-insulin treated, with painful osteoarthritis of the knee were requested to participate in our study. After consent, demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were documented in addition to fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting blood insulin levels just prior to IACI of 1 mL of depot betamethasone. Fasting blood glucose and fasting blood insulin levels were repeated the next day following the IACI and 8 days later. Age- and sex-matched group of patients with type 2 diabetes from the same clinic were recruited as a control group (case-control study). Insulin resistance was calculated using Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance. Mann-Whitney U test, χ test, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used for statistical analysis. Eleven patients were recruited in the patients' group and 10 patients in the control group. Median FBG in the patients' group at baseline was 148 ± 51 mg/dL, and median IR was 5.12 ± 2.46. One day following the IACI, median FBG level was 247 ± 104 mg/dL (P = 0.004, compared with baseline), with median IR of 20.8 ± 7.01 (P = 0.0039). The median ratios of blood glucose and IR 1 day following the IACI compared with baseline were 1.7 and 4.1, respectively. Eight days following the IACI, mean FBG and IR levels were not significantly different from baseline. Intra-articular corticosteroid injection of betamethasone at the knee joint among patients with diabetes was associated with a significant increase in IR levels compared with baseline levels, 1 day following the injection. The mean percentage of increase in IR was higher than that for FBG levels.

  6. Morphological and skeletal abnormalities induced by α/β arteether on developing chick embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishram Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malaria continues to be one of the India's leading public health problem.α/β artether is one of the most common antimalarial drug used worldwide to treat chloroquine resistant malaria and malaria falciparum. The present study was designed to assess the teratogenic effects of α/β artether on developing chick embryo. Material and Methods: The study was performed on 300 fertilized eggs of white leg horn chicken.The eggs were divided in to five experimental groups A, B, C, D, E having 30 eggs each and five control groups a,b,c,d,e one each for every experimental group respectively having 30 eggs each. On 5th day of incubation eggs from experimental groups A, B, C, D and E were exposed to α/β artether with dose of 0.00039 mg, 0.000585 mg, 0.00078 mg, 0.00097 mg and 0.00117 mg whereas the control groups were treated with same amount of normal saline. Results: The results showed growth retardation and some significant morphological abnormalities like scanty feathers, subcutaneous hemorrhage and skeletal abnormalities like poor ossification of the bones, kyphosis and lordosis. Discussion: The drug is toxic specially when used in higher dose and for a long period. At present there is no alternative drug available for the treatment of chloroquine resistant malaria and malaria falciparum except α/β artether. Therefore α/β artether and other artemisinins should be used only after establishment of proper diagnosis in recommended dose only not in higher dose and not for a long duration.

  7. Performance of japanese quail chickens injected with monosodium glutamate in the early post hatch period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.O.; Ezzat, I.E. and others

    2002-01-01

    Neo hatched Japanese quails chicks were divided equally into three groups (G1, G2 and G3) and injected once subcutaneously with monosodium glutamate (MSG) at 0,2 or 4 mg/g body weight for G1, G2 and G3 respectively. The obtained results clear that, 1-At-marketing stage, body weight increased by about 4% and 6%, feed conversion ratio reduced by 8.7% and 5.7% in-groups G2 and G3 respectively. 2-MSG had no significant effect on male and female serum T4 as well as male serum T3. The injection with 2-mg MSG per gram body weight increased female serum T3 significantly. 3-MSG increased significantly fat % DM in the male and female quails. This treatment in was positively correlated with the amount of injected MSG. Ash % DM and protein % DM were decreased significantly in both injected males and females and the reduction was dose dependent. 5-in males, weights of heart, spleen and testes besides weights and lengths of gastrointestinal tract regions were not significantly affected by MSG administration. 6-in females, the injection with MSG (2 mg/g body weight) significantly reduced the weight as percent body weight, moreover, the administration of MSG had no significant effect on the weights or the lengths of the remain parameters of the females gastrointestinal tract regions, ovary, oviduct, heart and spleen

  8. Effect of Calcium and Phosphorus Ratios in Feed on the Specific Radioactivity of 32P Recovered in Excreta and Blood Plasma by Growing Broiler Chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    32 P was injected into male broiler chicks aged 14 days. The experiment lasted until day 29. During the experiment specific radioactivity of 32 P recovered in excreta and in plasma were quantitatively evaluated at different Ca:P ratios (I=1:1; II=1.5:1; III=2:1; IV=2.5:1) in four groups given experimental diets. The phosphorus content was the same in all groups. Specific radioactivity of 32 P in excreta and in plasma amounted to (Bq/mg P):614, 588, 193 and 180; and 928, 964, 1103 and 1136 in groups(I,II,III and IV ) respectively. Widening of the Ca:P ratio in the feed decreased the radio of 32 P specific radioactivity in excreta to 32 P specific radioactivity in plasma

  9. Evaluation of Immunodulatory effect of Stresroak Premix in Broiler Chick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.Gatne

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory efficacy of polyherbal formulation Stresroak along with effect on performance in broiler chicken. Four hundred and fifty healthy days old chicks were randomly divided into three groups (each group consisting of 150 chicks. Group A served as a negative control while group B served as positive control supplemented with levamisole, a known immunomodulator @ 15 mg/kg body weight through water for four consecutive days from third day onwards. Group C birds supplemented with Stresroak were administered @ 1 kg /tone of feed for consecutively for 11 days i.e. 5 days before and 5 days after vaccination. Parameters under study were performance traits viz, body weight gain, feed consumption, FCR, blood samples were collected at weekly interval for evaluation of various haematological, biochemical immunological and histopathological examination parameters. Results revealed that the antibody titre, total proteins and globulins were increased significantly in the birds receiving Stresroak as compared to untreated control group. Performance parameters were improved non-significantly as compared to untreated control (Group A. Histopathologically varying degrees of lympho-proliferative changes noted which reveals increase number of lymphocytes. It was concluded that Stresroak exhibits hematinic, hepato-protective and Immunomodulator properties [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 122-125

  10. Subjective value of risky foods for individual domestic chicks: a hierarchical Bayesian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamori, Ai; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2010-05-01

    For animals to decide which prey to attack, the gain and delay of the food item must be integrated in a value function. However, the subjective value is not obtained by expected profitability when it is accompanied by risk. To estimate the subjective value, we examined choices in a cross-shaped maze with two colored feeders in domestic chicks. When tested by a reversal in food amount or delay, chicks changed choices similarly in both conditions (experiment 1). We therefore examined risk sensitivity for amount and delay (experiment 2) by supplying one feeder with food of fixed profitability and the alternative feeder with high- or low-profitability food at equal probability. Profitability varied in amount (groups 1 and 2 at high and low variance) or in delay (group 3). To find the equilibrium, the amount (groups 1 and 2) or delay (group 3) of the food in the fixed feeder was adjusted in a total of 18 blocks. The Markov chain Monte Carlo method was applied to a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the subjective value. Chicks undervalued the variable feeder in group 1 and were indifferent in group 2 but overvalued the variable feeder in group 3 at a population level. Re-examination without the titration procedure (experiment 3) suggested that the subjective value was not absolute for each option. When the delay was varied, the variable option was often given a paradoxically high value depending on fixed alternative. Therefore, the basic assumption of the uniquely determined value function might be questioned.

  11. Pyrethroid resistance and cross-resistance in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y; Appel, A G; Moar, W J; Liu, N

    2001-11-01

    A German cockroach (Blatella germanica (L)) strain, Apyr-R, was collected from Opelika, Alabama after control failures with pyrethroid insecticides. Levels of resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin in Apyr-R (97- and 480-fold, respectively, compared with a susceptible strain, ACY) were partially or mostly suppressed by piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF), suggesting that P450 monooxygenases and hydrolases are involved in resistance to these two pyrethroids in Apyr-R. However, incomplete suppression of pyrethroid resistance with PBO and DEF implies that one or more additional mechanisms are involved in resistance. Injection, compared with topical application, resulted in 43- and 48-fold increases in toxicity of permethrin in ACY and Apyr-R, respectively. Similarly, injection increased the toxicity of deltamethrin 27-fold in ACY and 28-fold in Apyr-R. These data indicate that cuticular penetration is one of the obstacles for the effectiveness of pyrethroids against German cockroaches. However, injection did not change the levels of resistance to either permethrin or deltamethrin, suggesting that a decrease in the rate of cuticular penetration may not play an important role in pyrethroid resistance in Apyr-R. Apyr-R showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid, with a resistance ratio of 10. PBO treatment resulted in no significant change in the toxicity of imidacloprid, implying that P450 monooxygenase-mediated detoxication is not the mechanism responsible for cross-resistance. Apyr-R showed no cross-resistance to spinosad, although spinosad had relatively low toxicity to German cockroaches compared with other insecticides tested in this study. This result further confirmed that the mode of action of spinosad to insects is unique. Fipronil, a relatively new insecticide, was highly toxic to German cockroaches, and the multi-resistance mechanisms in Apyr-R did not confer significant cross-resistance to this compound. Thus, we propose

  12. Progressive myopia or hyperopia can be induced in chicks and reversed by manipulation of the chromaticity of ambient light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, Wallace S; Barathi, Veluchamy A; Luu, Chi D

    2013-12-09

    To determine whether progressive ametropia can be induced in chicks and reversed by manipulation of the chromaticity of ambient light. One-day-old chicks were raised in red light (90% red, 10% yellow-green) or in blue light (85% blue, 15% green) with a 12 hour on/off cycle for 14 to 42 days. Refraction was determined by streak retinoscopy, and by automated infrared photoretinoscopy and ocular biometry by A-scan ultrasonography. Red light induced progressive myopia (mean refraction ± SD at 28 days, -2.83 ± 0.25 diopters [D]). Progressive hyperopia was induced by blue light (mean refraction at 28 days, +4.55 ± 0.21 D). The difference in refraction between the groups was highly significant at P light (-2.21 ± 0.21 D) was reversed to hyperopia (+2.50 ± 0.29 D) by subsequent 21 days of blue light. Hyperopia induced by 21 days of blue light (+4.21 ± 0.19 D) was reversed to myopia (-1.23 ± 0.12 D) by 21 days of red light. Rearing chicks in red light caused progressive myopia, while rearing in blue light caused progressive hyperopia. Light-induced myopia or hyperopia in chicks can be reversed to hyperopia or myopia, respectively, by an alteration in the chromaticity of ambient light. Manipulation of chromaticity may be applicable to the management of human childhood myopia.

  13. [Reducing fear in preschool children receiving intravenous injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Liu, Hui-Tzu; Cho, Yen-Hua

    2012-06-01

    Our pediatric medical ward administers an average of 80 intravenous injections to preschool children. We found that 91.1% exhibit behavior indicative of fear and anxiety. Over three-quarters (77.8%) of this number suffer severe fear and actively resist receiving injections. Such behavior places a greater than normal burden on human and material resources and often gives family members negative impressions that lower their trust in the healthcare service while raising nurse-patient tensions. Using observation and interviews, we found primary factors in injection fear to be: Past negative experiences, lack of adequate prior communication, measures taken to preemptively control child resistance, and default cognitive behavioral strategies from nursing staff. This project worked to develop a strategy to reduce cases of severe injection fear in preschool children from 77.8% to 38.9% and achieve a capacity improvement target for members of 50%. Our team identified several potential strategy solutions from research papers and books between August 1st, 2009 and April 30th, 2010. Our proposed method included therapeutic games, self-selection of injection position, and cognitive behavioral strategies to divert attention. Other measures were also specified as standard operating procedures for administering pediatric intravenous injections. We applied the strategy on 45 preschool children and identified a post-injection "severe fear" level of 37.8%. This project was designed to reduce fear in children to make them more accepting of vaccinations and to enhance children's positive treatment experience in order to raise nursing care quality.

  14. ROLE OF MONOCYTE PHAGOCYTIC SYSTEM IN FORMATION OF ANTIVIRAL RESISTANCE IN MICE AFTER PRELIMINARY INJECTION OF CRYOPRESERVED CORD BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhina OYu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Now the task of preventive maintenance and search of biologically active substances, capable to make active the nonspecific immune response, remains an actual during flu epidemic. It has been previously established, that cryopreserved leucoconcentrate of human cord blood (cLHCB can act as modulator of activity of immunity. In the given work there was estimated influence of preventive injection of cLHCB and its components on functional activity of monocyte phagocytic system cells (MPSC in mice in the conditions of the induced influenzal infection. Preliminary introduction of cLHCB and its components 6 months prior to infection by flu virus makes 2 times increase of functional activity of macrophages, preventing inhibition of a nonspecific link of immunity. Thus, cLHCB inhibit of secondary immune deficiency development. The found increase in phagocytic activity of peritoneal cavity cells and 3 times increasesing of CD11b-marker expression after preventive injection of cLHCB testifies to rise of adherence and protective potential of MPSC that is one of possible mechanisms of formation of resistance to a flu virus. It is shown, that intranasal cLHCB injection before development of viral infection it can be o recommended as the method of preventive maintenance of flu.

  15. AFCF and clinoptilolite use in reduction of {sup 137}Cs deposition in several days' contaminated broiler chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrovic, B. [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Radiology, 18 Bulevar JA, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia)]. E-mail: radijacija@vet.bg.ac.yu; Vitorovic, G. [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Radiology, 18 Bulevar JA, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vitorovic, D. [Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, 6 Nemanjina, 11 080 Belgrade (Serbia); Dakovic, A. [Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Raw Materials, 86 Franche D' Epere, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Stojanovic, M. [Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Raw Materials, 86 Franche D' Epere, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the binding efficiency of AFCF and clinoptilolite, mixed to the feed and administered orally using gastric tube to chronically {sup 137}Cs alimentary contaminated broiler chicks. Seventy-five male Hybro broiler chicks, between 35 and 47 days of age were divided into five groups (15 birds per group) reared in cages (five birds in a cage) and fed a standard diet. Every day during 13 days of the experimental period all chicks received orally 1 ml CsCl water solution with activity of 1310 Bq ml{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs (gastric tube). Group 1 was the control group and received no binders. The experimental groups received the binders. Group 2 received 0.2 g of AFCF in the form of water solution (gastric tube); group 3 received 0.2% AFCF in the feed; group 4 received 2 g clinoptilolite in the form of water suspension (gastric tube) and group 5 received 2% clinoptilolite in the feed. Five chicks from each group were sacrificed on days 4, 10 and 13 of the experimental period. Using gamma spectrometric methods specific activity of {sup 137}Cs was determined in the samples of breast meat, liver and gizzard. The results obtained showed that administering binders to the chronically contaminated broiler chicks significantly (p < 0.01) reduced {sup 137}Cs transfer and deposition in breast meat, liver and gizzard. Decreasing deposition of {sup 137}Cs in breast meat and internal organs increased with time of contamination and binders' administration. With AFCF as a cesium binder, on day 13 of measuring the {sup 137}Cs activity in breast meat was 80-83% lower than that in the control group, 89% in liver and 83-84% in gizzard. Natural clinoptilolite demonstrated lower binding efficiency. On day 13 of measuring the {sup 137}Cs activity in breast meat was 53-69% lower than that in the control group, 67-60% in liver and 59-71% in gizzard.

  16. The effects of particle size and origin of calcium carbonate on performance and ossification characteristics in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinotte, F; Nys, Y; de Monredon, F

    1991-09-01

    The following physico-chemical characteristics of various calcium sources, differing in origin and particle size were determined: mineral composition, sieve and image analysis, apparent solubility (AS), surface area (SA), porous volume, specific gravity, and compressibility (C). The AS, SA, and C values were related more to the calcium particle size than to its origin and were higher in ground calcium sources. Calcium retention of seashells treated with phosphoric acid, oyster shells, and limestone using two particle sizes, ground or particulate, was assayed in 98 broiler chicks. Particulate marble was also tested in this experiment. Calcium retention expressed as a percentage of calcium ingestion was decreased when coarse particles of calcium were supplied in lieu of pulverized sources (40 versus 49%). An experiment with a 3 x 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments were tested using 576 broiler chicks. Treatments included three calcium sources (phosphorus-treated shell, oyster shell, and marble), three particle sizes [ground (less than .15 mm), medium (.6 to 1.18 mm) and coarse (greater than 1.18 mm)] and three levels of calcium (.5,.7, and .9%) with ground limestone as a reference. Performance, tibial morphometry, breaking strength variables, and ash content were measured at 4 wk of age. Weight gain and feed conversion were ameliorated with ground particles of calcium. Cortical thickness, length of the tibia, stiffness, stress, and tibia ash were diminished when coarse particles of calcium were incorporated in the diets. Conversely, the origin of the calcium source hardly affected these criteria. Additionally, the incorporation of phosphorus-treated shells was assayed in 112 broiler chicks. Coarse particles decreased calcium retention. Consequently, ultimate stress, the modulus of elasticity, and stress were impaired. It is concluded that differences in utilization of calcium carbonate sources by the broiler chick is primarily a result of particle size rather

  17. Estimation of Abdominal Fat by Plasma Triglycerides and Carcass Dry Matter in Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Pour-Reza

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to determine the relationship of plasma triglycerides and carcass dry matter with abdominal fat. One of the problems of broiler is carcass fatness, especially abdominal fat due to rapid growth of broilers which is not the consumer preference. Six hundred one-day-old commercial broiler chicks (Lohman were divided into 40 groups, 15 chicks per group. Each one of the 10 experimental diets, in which barley was substituted for corn at levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40%, was fed to 4 groups of chicks for 56 days. All diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Rice hulls was used to make diets isoenergetic. At days 42, 49 and 56, one male and one female were selected from each pen and after blood sampling, the birds were killed, eviscerated and percentages of carcass and amount of abdominal fats were measured. Blood samples were used to determine plasma triglycerides, cholesterol and total lipids. The results showed that increasing abdominal fat reduced carcass moisture content. Correlation between abdominal fat and plasma triglycerides was positive and significant (p<0.05. Correlation between abdominal fat and carcass moisture was negative and significant (P<0.01. The regression equations indicated that abdominal fat can be estimated from plasma triglycerides and carcass moisture content. The equations also indicated that using several parameters for estimating abdominal fat is better than single parameter estimation.

  18. Xanthophylls increased HDLC level and nuclear factor PPARγ, RXRγ and RARα expression in hens and chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y-Y; Jin, L; Peng, H; Xu, L-H; Wang, Q-X; Ji, J; Wang, C-K; Bi, Y-Z

    2018-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate effects of xanthophylls on serum lipid profile (triglyceride, TG; cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDLC; and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDLC) and nuclear factor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; PPAR gamma coactivator 1 alpha, PGC1α; retinoid X receptor gamma, RXRγ; and retinoic acid receptor alpha, RARα) gene expression of breeding hens and chicks. In experiment 1, 432 hens were divided into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (as control group), 20 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. Blood was sampled at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days of trial. Liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled at 35 days of trial. Results showed that serum HDLC level of hens was increased after dietary 40 mg/kg xanthophyll addition for 21, 28 and 35 days, while serum TG, CHO and LDLC were not affected. Xanthophyll addition also increased PPARγ expression in jejunum, RXRγ expression in duodenum and jejunum, and RARα expression in liver and duodenum. Experiment 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll diet of hens were fed diet containing either 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. Liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days after hatching. Blood samples were also collected at 21 days. Results showed that in ovo xanthophylls elevated PPARγ in duodenum and jejunum, and RXRγ and RARα in liver of chicks mainly within 1 week after hatching, while dietary xanthophylls increased serum HDLC level and PPARγ and RXRγ in liver from 2 weeks onwards. In conclusion, our research suggested xanthophylls can regulate serum lipid profile and nuclear factor expression in hens and chicks. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Pre-treatment with N-acetylcysteine upregulates superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase genes in cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the chick omphalocele model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takashi; Puri, Prem; Bannigan, John; Thompson, Jennifer

    2011-02-01

    In the chick embryo, administration of the heavy metal Cadmium (Cd) induces omphalocele phenotype. Cd is a potent inhibitor of antioxidant enzymes and causes accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) such as hydrogen peroxide. Previous work with the Cd chick model has demonstrated that increased levels of MDA, as a marker for oxidative stress, 24 h post Cd treatment (24H) are identical in chick embryos exposed to Cd. Furthermore, of the several antioxidants assessed, only N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to reduce MDA levels to control values in the Cd-treated chick embryo. However, the molecular mechanisms by which NAC acts to maintain oxidative stress in the Cd-induced ventral body wall defect chick model remains to be unclear. We designed this study to investigate the hypothesis that gene expression levels of antioxidant enzymes are downregulated in malformed embryos exposed to Cd compared to controls and to determine the effect of pre-treatment with NAC on the expression levels of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes. After 60 h incubation, chick embryos were pre-treated with NAC and exposed to either chick saline or Cd. Chicks were then harvested at 24H and divided into five groups: control, Cd group without malformation [Cd(-)], Cd group with malformation [Cd(+)], NAC + Cd(-) and NAC + Cd(+). Real-time PCR was performed to evaluate the relative mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, SOD2, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)-4. Differences between five groups were tested by Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test following one-way ANOVA. Statistical significance was accepted at p < 0.05. Immunohistochemistry was also performed to evaluate protein expression. The mRNA expression levels of SOD2 and CAT were significantly decreased in Cd(+) as compared to controls, whereas there was no significant difference between controls and Cd(-) (p < 0.05 vs. controls). In addition, gene expression levels of

  20. The utilization of niacin in broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jie; Wang Hemin

    1993-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the distribution, storage and utilization of niacin in broilers. 125 Arbor Acre broilers were used for two treatments. For Treatment 1, 80 chicks was injected with 20 μCi of 3 H-niacin when they were 15 days old. For treatment 2, 45 chicks were subdivided into 3 groups with injections of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg niacin diet labeled with 5 μCi 3 H-niacin. Feces were collected 5 ∼ 7 days after injection. The results showed that for three-week-old chicks, the contents of 3 H-niacin in liver and blood dropping to 1/2 of peak value took 19 and 21 hours, and dropping to 1/5 of peak value took 78 and 169 hours, respectively. The supplementation of niacin at the level of 15 ∼ 60 mg/kg diet had no significant effect on niacin availability. The distribution of niacin in chick body was uniform. No true storage organ was found

  1. The Contralateral Connections of Optical Pathway in Chick Brain%鸡脑光信息通路的对侧联系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春凌; 胡满; 王鹏; 张利卫; 杨昊; 刘振斌

    2012-01-01

      Purpose:In order to further understand the nerve regulation mechanism in affect of light on chick pro-duction performance so as to provide some theoretical basis for the application on the using of light to improve the chick production performance and on the veterinary nerve surgery, the contralateral connections of optical pathway in chick brain were observed using HRP tracing method. Methods: Small amount of 3% WGA-HRP was injected into Rt in chicken brain using the stereotaxic instrument. After survival period of 30 hours, the chicks were per-fused to fix the animals. The brains were removed and were sectioned by the cryostat. The HRP labeled nervous cells projecting to contralateral side in the optical pathway were tested using TMB method. Results: After injecting WGA-HRP into nucleus rotundus, besides the numerous labled nervous cells in the ipsilateral SGC and SP/IPS of the chicken tectofugal optical pathway, some HRP labeled nervous cells and fibers were also observed in the con-tralateral SGC, SP/IPS and nucleus rotundus. Their number is fewer than those of the ipsilateral side, having smaller distributing area. The locations of the labeled nervous cells and fibers are different with the regions of the contralateral nucleus rotundus. Their labeled extent showed a spindlye shape from the anterior to the posterior part of the nucleus rotundus. Discussion: The results indicated that the ipsilateral projection is the main projection in the tectofugal optical pathway. There are also some contralateral projections in it. The contralateral projections may play a role by assistant and inhibition process. The projection could make the specific units combined and man-aged the messages came from binoculus, being helpful for the cerebrum to gain more exact and overall messages.%  目的:为了进一步阐明光照对鸡生产性能的神经调节机制,为养鸡生产科学利用光照和兽医神经外科学提供一定的理论依据,用 HRP

  2. Effects of testosterone on growth, plumage pigmentation, and mortality in Black-headed Gull chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, A.F.H.

    In the Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus, sibling chicks defend small territories against conspecifics with testosterone-dependent aggressive behaviour. The energetic requirements for the performance of this behaviour may trade off against the energetic requirements for growth. There are

  3. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, U; Krötz, G; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D

    2008-01-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature

  4. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2008-04-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  5. Postvaccinal reovirus infection with high mortality in breeder chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chénier, Sonia; Boulianne, Martine; Gagnon, Carl A

    2014-12-01

    A broiler breeder flock was subcutaneously vaccinated at the hatchery with a live avian orthoreovirus (ARV) vaccine against viral arthritis. Chicks began to die at 3 days of age and postmortem examination revealed massive subcutaneous hemorrhages and edema on the dorsal aspect of the neck at the site of vaccination, a severe necrotic hepatitis, and pulmonary edema. Microscopically, the main lesion was a multifocal vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of randomly distributed small groups of hepatocytes with presence of apoptotic and multinucleated syncytial cells. Necrotic foci were also found in the lungs as well as a hemorrhagic, granulomatous, and heterophilic cellulitis and myositis of the neck and a generalized depletion and lymphocytolysis of lymphoid organs. At 8 days of age, birds also began to show hock swelling histologically characterized by a fibrinoleucocytic inflammation of the articulation and tendon sheaths, with hyperplasia of the synovial membrane, and lymphoplasmocytic infiltration. PCR and viral culture of livers were positive for ARV. Partial sequencing of the S1 gene from the virus isolate showed 99.2% to 99.8% homology with three vaccinal strains (ARV S1133, 1733, and 2408). Viral particles compatible with reovirus virions were observed at transmission electron microscopy. Investigation at the hatchery revealed that chicks were inadvertently administered an S1133 reovirus vaccine labeled for water administration in 10- to 17-week-old chickens. This human error is most likely the reason for this unusually severe viremic reovirus infection that affected this flock at such an early age.

  6. Uptake of 75Se-selenite by brush border membrane vesicles from chick duodenum stimulated by vitamin D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mykkanen, H.M.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Brush border membrane vesicles were isolated from mucosal homogenates of duodena from normal, rachitic and vitamin D-treated rachitic chicks using a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and further purified by glycerol gradient centrifugation. In vitro uptake of 75Se-selenite by purified brush border membrane vesicles was studied using a rapid filtration technique. The time course of 75Se uptake was non-linear; rapid initial binding was followed by a gradual decrease in the rate of uptake until an equilibrium value was reached at 60-120 min. The initial binding at 36 s was not affected by selenite concentration in the incubation buffer, while the fractional rate of uptake between the 36 s and 2 min time periods was clearly lower with 1 mM Se than with 4-100 microM Se. 75Se uptake did not show any dependency on the external Na-gradient, nor could it be inhibited by other anions (arsenate, phosphate). Treatment of rachitic chicks either with cholecalciferol (500 Iu, 72 h) or with 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol (0.5 microgram given 16 h prior to isolation of the vesicles) significantly enhanced 75Se uptake. A threefold excess of mannitol in the outside buffer reduced 75Se uptake by vesicles from vitamin D-deficient and D-treated chicks 60% and 35% respectively, but had no effect on vesicles from vitamin D-treated chicks preloaded with 75Se. Neither saponin treatment nor excess cold selenite could release the label from the vesicles preloaded with 75Se. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that selenite easily crosses the brush border membrane into the intravesicular space and, once inside, is tightly bound by the membrane

  7. Adenosinetriphosphate content and adenosinetriphosphatase activity in cell fractions of the liver and brain of chick embryos and birds treated with gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, B.

    1977-01-01

    Studies are conducted on the level of ADP and the adenosinetriphosphatase in nuclei, mitochondria, and microsomes taken from the brain and liver of singly gamma-irradiated (1000 rd) chick embryos and birds. As a result of the treatment the ADP content dropped, while the activity of ADP rose. These changes were more strongly expressed in the nuclei, than in the mitochondria, and to a lesser extent - in the microsomes. Twelve-day chick embryos showed more markedly expressed radiosensitivity than newly hatched chicks. This embryonal stage is characterized by intense growth, differentiation and metabolic processes in the liver, which substantiate not only the higher radiosensitivity of this age group but the more strongly expressed changes in the liver as compared with the brain. (author)

  8. Hypoxia induces dilated cardiomyopathy in the chick embryo: mechanism, intervention, and long-term consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tintu, Andrei; Rouwet, Ellen; Verlohren, Stefan; Brinkmann, Joep; Ahmad, Shakil; Crispi, Fatima; van Bilsen, Marc; Carmeliet, Peter; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Tjwa, Marc; Cetin, Irene; Gratacos, Eduard; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Hofstra, Leo; Jacobs, Michael; Lamers, Wouter H.; Morano, Ingo; Safak, Erdal; Ahmed, Asif; le Noble, Ferdinand

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with an increased future risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Hypoxia in utero is a common clinical cause of fetal growth restriction. We have previously shown that chronic hypoxia alters cardiovascular development in chick embryos.

  9. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  10. Impaired imprinting and social behaviors in chicks exposed to mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, during the final week of embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigori, Hideo; Kagami, Keisuke; Nishigori, Hidekazu

    2014-03-15

    The effects of glucocorticoid receptor dysfunction during embryogenesis on the imprinting abilities and social behaviors of hatchlings were examined using "fertile hen's egg-embryo-chick" system. Of embryos treated with mifepristone (0.4μmol/egg) on day 14, over 75% hatched a day later than the controls (day 22) without external anomalies. The mifepristone-treated hatchlings were assayed for imprinting ability on post-hatching day 2 and for social behaviors on day 3. The findings were as follows: imprinting ability (expressed as preference score) was significantly lower in mifepristone-treated hatchlings than in controls (0.65±0.06 vs. 0.92±0.02, P<0.005). Aggregation tests to evaluate the speed (seconds) required for four chicks, individually isolated with cardboard dividers in a box, to form a group after removal of the barriers showed that aggregation was significantly slower in mifepristone-treated hatchlings than in controls (8.7±1.1 vs. 2.6±0.3, P<0.001). In belongingness tests to evaluate the speed (seconds) for a chick isolated at a corner to join a group of three chicks placed at the opposite corner, mifepristone-treated hatchlings took significantly longer than controls (4.5±0.4/40 cm vs. 2.4±0.08/40 cm, P<0.001). In vocalization tests, using a decibel meter to measure average decibel level/30s (chick vocalization), mifepristone-treated hatchlings had significantly weaker vocalizations than controls (14.2±1.9/30s vs. 26.4±1.3/30s P<0.001). In conclusion, glucocorticoid receptor dysfunction during the last week embryogenesis altered the programming of brain development, resulting in impaired behavioral activities in late life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Oral administration of a medium containing both D-aspartate-producing live bacteria and D-aspartate reduces rectal temperature in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, P H; Tran, P V; Bahry, M A; Yang, H; Han, G; Tsuchiya, A; Asami, Y; Furuse, M; Chowdhury, V S

    2017-10-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on the rectal temperature of young chicks of the oral administration of a medium that contained both live bacteria that produce D-aspartate (D-Asp) and D-Asp. 2. In Experiment 1, chicks were subjected to chronic oral administration of either the medium (containing live bacteria and 2.46 μmol D-Asp) or water from 7 to 14 d of age. Plasma-free amino acids as well as mitochondrial biogenic gene expression in the breast muscle were analysed. In Experiment 2, 7-d-old chicks were subjected to acute oral administration of the above medium or of an equimolar amount of D-Asp to examine their effect on changes in rectal temperature. In Experiment 3, after 1 week of chronic oral administration of the medium, 14-d-old chicks were exposed to either high ambient temperature (HT; 40 ± 1°C, 3 h) or control thermoneutral temperature (CT; 30 ± 1°C, 3 h) to monitor the changes in rectal temperature. 3. Chronic, but not acute, oral administration of the medium significantly reduced rectal temperature in chicks, and a chronic effect also appeared under HT conditions. 4. Chronic oral administration of the medium significantly reduced the mRNA abundance of the avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) in the breast muscle, but led to a significant increase in avian adenine nucleotide translocator (avANT) mRNA in the same muscle. 5. (a) These results indicate that the medium can reduce body temperature through the decline in avUCP mRNA expression in the breast muscle that may be involved in reduced mitochondrial proton leaks and heat production. (b) The increase in avANT further suggests a possible enhancement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis.

  12. Effect of phytase supplementation on apparent phosphorus digestibility and phosphorus output in broiler chicks fed low-phosphorus diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ren Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental phytase in broiler chicks fed different low levels of total phosphorus (P on the apparent phosphorus digestibility (APD and phosphorus output (PO in the faeces and ileal digesta. After fed a standard broiler starter diet from day 0 to 14 post-hatch, a total of 144 male broiler chicks were allocated to 6 groups for a 7-d experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design comparing phytase (supplemented without (CTR or with 400 FTU/kg phytase (PHY and total P levels (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/kg. The faecal samples were collected from day 17 to 21 post-hatch. At 22 days of age, all the chicks were slaughtered and collected the ileal digesta. Phytase supplementation significantly (P < 0.01 increased APD and decreased PO in the faeces and ileal digesta in comparison with the CTR group. In addition, PO in the faeces expressed as g/kg DM diets and faeces (Diet × P level, P = 0.047 and < 0.01, respectively as well as PO in the ileal digesta expressed as g/kg DM digesta (Diet × P level, P = 0.04 were affected by diet and P level, which were due to the significant reduction (P < 0.01 by PHY supplementation to the diets with 3.0 g/kg total P. The results evidenced that supplemental phytase improved the APD and PO when chicks was fed 3.0 g/kg total P diet, while lower total P levels may limit exogenous phytase efficacy.

  13. Research on the technology of detecting the SQL injection attack and non-intrusive prevention in WEB system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibin

    2017-05-01

    Among numerous WEB security issues, SQL injection is the most notable and dangerous. In this study, characteristics and procedures of SQL injection are analyzed, and the method for detecting the SQL injection attack is illustrated. The defense resistance and remedy model of SQL injection attack is established from the perspective of non-intrusive SQL injection attack and defense. Moreover, the ability of resisting the SQL injection attack of the server has been comprehensively improved through the security strategies on operation system, IIS and database, etc.. Corresponding codes are realized. The method is well applied in the actual projects.

  14. Anorexia is Associated with Stress-Dependent Orexigenic Responses to Exogenous Neuropeptide Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, J; Delp, M S; Gilbert, E R; Siegel, P B; Cline, M A

    2016-05-01

    Chicken lines that have been divergently selected for either low (LWS) or high (HWS) body weight at 56 days of age for more than 57 generations have different feeding behaviours in response to a range of i.c.v. injected neurotransmitters. The LWS have different severities of anorexia, whereas the HWS become obese. Previously, we demonstrated that LWS chicks did not respond, whereas HWS chicks increased food intake, after central injection of neuropeptide Y (NPY). The present study aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the loss of orexigenic function of NPY in LWS. Chicks were divided into four groups: stressed LWS and HWS on day of hatch, and control LWS and HWS. The stressor was a combination of food deprivation and cold exposure. On day 5 post-hatch, each chick received an i.c.v. injection of vehicle or 0.2 nmol of NPY. Only the LWS stressed group did not increase food intake in response to i.c.v. NPY. Hypothalamic mRNA abundance of appetite-associated factors was measured at 1 h post-injection. Interactions of genetic line, stress and NPY treatment were observed for the mRNA abundance of agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and synaptotagmin 1 (SYT1). Intracerebroventricular injection of NPY decreased and increased AgRP and SYT1 mRNA, respectively, in the stressed LWS and increased AgRP mRNA in stressed HWS chicks. Stress was associated with increased NPY, orexin receptor 2, corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1, melanocortin receptor 3 (MC3R) and growth hormone secretagogue receptor expression. In conclusion, the loss of responsiveness to exogenous NPY in stressed LWS chicks may be a result of the decreased and increased hypothalamic expression of AgRP and MC3R, respectively. This may induce an intensification of anorexigenic melanocortin signalling pathways in LWS chicks that block the orexigenic effect of exogenous NPY. These results provide insights onto the anorexic condition across species, and especially for forms of inducible anorexia

  15. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY STUDY OF ACTIVE FRACTION FROM CHICK WEED PLANTS (Ageratum Conyzoides L. AGAINST Bacillus Subtilis AND Vibrio Cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Anggara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research to determine the fractions of Chick Weed which has strong antibacterial activity  against bacteria test categories of Bacillus subtilis and Vibriocholerae.determine the value of the minimum in hibitory concentration(MIC of the active fraction antibacterial Chick Weed.This research was carried out in August up to November 2016. The method used in this study  were extracted by maceration, fractionation by liquid-liquid fractionation, separation by column chromatography fractions, antibacterial activity test by theKirby-Bauermethod, while the determination of minimum in hibitory concentration by dilution broth,with test bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Vibriocholerae.The data presented in tabular form based on the average value and percent.The results of this study showed that the methanol extract Chick Weed active against test bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Vibrio cholerae. Fractionation which has strong category to standard antibiotics are methanol fraction by fraction column S4.The concentration MIC1000;500;250;125;62.5;31.2515.62; 7.81 ppm. The minimum in hibitory concentration column fractions S4 to test bacteria Vibrio cholerae of 62.5 ppm gives half the antibacterial activity of the antibacterial activity of standard antibiotics streptomycin and penicillin,tetracycline while giving a quarter activity. It can be concluded that the active fraction of methanol extractisa methanol fraction by fraction column S4 to test bacteria Vibrio cholerae. Keywords: Chick Weed, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC, active compound, Bacillus subtilis, Vibriocholera.

  16. Effect of level of dietary protein on the distribution of 14C-activity from exogenous 14C-inosine in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masushige, Shoichi; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Takao; Nakajima, Hisao.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of dietary protein level on the metabolic fate of intraperitoneally administered (exogeneous) 8- 14 C-inosine in chicks was studied. Three different protein level diets (low, standard and high) were prepared. Chicks were fed on these diets for 10 days, respectively and the following results were found: (1) RNA content of liver, small intestine and muscle in chicks fed on a low protein diet was decreased as compared to other diet groups, but no difference was observed in kidney or pancreas. (2) 14 C uptake by organs from exogeneous 8- 14 C-inosine was determined. The uptake of 14 C in kidney, pancreas and small intestine was higher than that in liver and muscle. Moreover, the uptake by tissues in the low protein groups was significantly higher than that in either the standard or high protein groups, but no difference was observed between these latter two groups. (3) The rate of incorporation of 14 C labelled purine by acid soluble materials and RNA was higher in kidney, pancreas and small intestine than in liver and muscle, and also higher in chicks fed on a low protein diet than in either the standard or high protein groups. (4) It was revealed that the 14 C-labelled purine rings from 8- 14 C-inosine were incorporated into AMP and GMP as constituents of RNA. (author)

  17. Spin-injection into epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Keita; Cui, Zhixin; Hiraki, Takahiro; Yoh, Kanji

    2013-09-01

    We have studied the spin-injection properties in epitaxial graphene on SiC. The ferromagnetic metal (FM) electrodes were composed of a tunnel barrier layer AlOx (14 Å) and a ferromagnetic Co (600 Å) layer. We have successfully observed the clear resistance peaks indicating spin-injection both in the "local" and "non-local" spin measurement set-ups at low temperatures. We estimate spin-injection rate of 1% based on "non-local" measurement and 1.6% based on local measurements. Spin-injection rate of multilayer graphene by mechanical exfoliation method was twice as high as single layer graphene on SiC based on "local" measurement.

  18. Differential muscular myosin heavy chain expression of the pectoral and pelvic girdles during early growth in the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbrech, Aude; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Guérin, Nathalie; Groscolas, René; Gilbert, Caroline; Martrette, Jean-Marc

    2011-06-01

    Continuous growth, associated with a steady parental food supply, is a general pattern in offspring development. So that young chicks can acquire their locomotor independence, this period is usually marked by a fast maturation of muscles, during which different myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms are expressed. However, parental food provisioning may fluctuate seasonally, and offspring therefore face a challenge to ensure the necessary maturation of their tissues when energy is limited. To address this trade-off we investigated muscle maturation in both the pectoral and pelvic girdles of king penguin chicks. This species has an exceptionally long rearing period (1 year), which is prolonged when parental food provisioning is drastically reduced during the sub-Antarctic winter. Approximately 1 month post hatching, chicks acquire a functional pedestrian locomotion, which uses pelvic muscles, whereas swimming, which uses the pectoral muscles, only occurs 1 year later. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the MyHC content of the leg muscles reaches a mature state before those of the pectoral muscles. We found that leg muscle MyHC composition changed with the progressive acquisition of pedestrian locomotion, whereas pectoral muscle fibres reached their mature MyHC profile as early as hatching. Contrary to our predictions, the acquisition of the adult profile in pectoral muscles could be related to an early maturation of the contractile muscular proteins, presumably associated with early thermoregulatory capacities of chicks, necessary for survival in their cold environment. This differential maturation appears to reconcile both the locomotor and environmental constraints of king penguin chicks during growth.

  19. Greater sage-grouse apparent nest productivity and chick survival in Carbon County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie A. Schreiber; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Frank R. Thompson; R. Scott Gamo; Jon W. Kehmeier; Nate Wojik

    2016-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus populations across North America have been declining due to degradation and fragmentation of sagebrush habitat. As part of a study quantifying greater sage-grouse demographics prior to construction of a wind energy facility, we estimated apparent net nest productivity and survival rate of chicks associated with...

  20. Comparison of the cell cytoskeleton in migratory and stationary chick fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badley, R A; Couchman, J R; Rees, D A

    1980-01-01

    The organization of the principal cytoskeletal components (actin, tubulin and 10 nm filament protein) have been compared by immunofluorescence microscopy in two populations of chick heart fibroblasts, previously shown to be adapted respectively for rapid, directed migration or adhesion and growth...... bundles. The variety of patients observed in the migratory cells are documented and the possible roles of the different components of the cytoskeleton in cell locomotion are discussed....

  1. Exposure to Excess Phenobarbital Negatively Influences the Osteogenesis of Chick Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Yu; Cheng, Xin; Yang, Ren-Hao; Li, He; Chen, Jian-Long; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Wang, Guang; Chuai, Manli; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-01-01

    Phenobarbital is an antiepileptic drug that is widely used to treat epilepsy in a clinical setting. However, a long term of phenobarbital administration in pregnant women may produce side effects on embryonic skeletogenesis. In this study, we aim to investigate the mechanism by which phenobarbital treatment induces developmental defects in long bones. We first determined that phenobarbital treatment decreased chondrogenesis and inhibited the proliferation of chondrocytes in chick embryos. Phe...

  2. Supplementation of xanthophylls increased antioxidant capacity and decreased lipid peroxidation in hens and chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Yun; Xie, Qing-Mei; Ma, Jing-Yun; Zhang, Xiang-Bin; Zhu, Ji-Mei; Shu, Ding-Ming; Sun, Bao-Li; Jin, Ling; Bi, Ying-Zuo

    2013-03-28

    The present study investigated the effects of xanthophyll supplementation on production performance, antioxidant capacity (measured by glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and reduced glutathione:oxidised glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG)) and lipid peroxidation (measured by malondialdehyde (MDA)) in breeding hens and chicks. In Expt 1, 432 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20 or 40 mg xanthophyll/kg diet. Blood samples were taken at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 d of the trial. Liver and jejunal mucosa were sampled at 35 d. Both xanthophyll groups improved serum SOD at 21 and 28 d, serum T-AOC at 21 d and liver T-AOC, and serum GSH:GSSG at 21, 28 and 35 d and liver GSH:GSSG. Xanthophylls also decreased serum MDA at 21 d in hens. Expt 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from 0 or 40 mg in ovo xanthophyll/kg diet of hens were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg xanthophyll/kg diet. Liver samples were collected at 0, 7, 14 and 21 d after hatching. Blood samples were also collected at 21 d. In ovo-deposited xanthophylls increased antioxidant capacity and decreased MDA in the liver mainly within 1 week after hatching. Maternal effects gradually vanished during 1-2 weeks after hatching. Dietary xanthophylls increased antioxidant capacity and decreased MDA in the liver and serum mainly from 2 weeks onwards. Data suggested that xanthophyll supplementation enhanced antioxidant capacity and reduced lipid peroxidation in different tissues of hens and chicks.

  3. Development of plastic pulley by injection molding; Shashutsu keisei ni yoru jushi pulley no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, F; Funatsu, A; Yazawa, H [Sumitomo Bakelite Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We developed plastic pulley for automobile manufactured by injection molding which will reduce manufacturing cost. We have developed product design, injection molding technology especially to improve mechanical strength and phenolic molding compound with good wear resistance and high mechanical strength. We have established `Injection Compression molding` technology to improve mechanical strength of weld portion. We also developed phenolic molding compound which is composed of one step resin and long organic fiber to obtain good wear resistance and high mechanical strength. Manufacturing cost will be reduced by using injection molding combined with lower material cost of the newly developed compound. 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Toxicity of shoti (Indian arrowroot: Curcuma zedoaria) for rats and chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, M A; Morris, T R; Miah, A H; Hewitt, D; Ford, J E

    1979-01-01

    1. A flour was prepared from rhizomes of shoti(Curcuma zedoaria) in such a way that most of the protein was retained. The crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25) content in this product was 155 g/kg, compared with approximately 10 g/kg in commercial shoti flour. 2. The high-protein flour proved highly toxic to 5-week-old rats and caused 100% mortality within 6 d when given at 320 g/kg diet. 3. Fresh rhizomes were minced and dried, and the resulting meal was given to weanling rats at 400 g/kg diet. All the animals lost weight rapidly, and two of the five rats died within 4 d. 4. This same shoti meal was given to 1-d-old chicks at 100 and 200 g/kg diet. All the chicks survived the test period (20 d), but body-weight, food intake and efficiency of food conversion decreased with increase in the level of shoti meal in the diet. 5. The traditional method of preparing shoti involves prolonged washing in changes of water, which removes most of the protein and other water-soluble nutrients and, presumably, a toxic constituent. Further investigation is needed to identify the toxic principle, and to discover a less wasteful procedure for removing it.

  5. Evaluation of growth performance of broiler chicks fed with raw and processed leucaena eucociphala seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minari, J.B.; Odutuga, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fourty-eight broiler chicks (day-old) were used in a 4 weeks feeding experiment to assess the growth response and the performance of broiler chicks fed raw Leucaena leucociphala seed meal (RLSM), roasted L. leucociphala seed meal (RoLSM) and steamed L. leucociphala seed meal (SLSM). The L. leucociphala seed, which serve as a source of protein were subjected to two treatments (roasting and steaming). Soybean based diet served as the control. There were four (4) experimental groups, each made up of four birds in three replicates allocated to the experimental diets. The results showed that the average final live weight, average weekly weight gain and average feed intake of birds fed with RoLSM performed better than birds fed with RLSM and SLSM. It was observed that the percentage organ to body weight of birds fed with the processed LSM were significantly (P < 0.05), higher as compared to the RLSM. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in the activity of aspartate transferase in the organs (heart, kidney and liver) of broilers fed with RoLSM was observed as compared to those fed with RLSM. The results showed a significant (P < 0.05), reduction in the activity of alanine transferase of organs of broilers chicks fed with processed L. leucociphala compared to the control. It is therefore, concluded that the processing techniques applied were able to improve the nutritional quality of L. leucociphala seed meal but relatively lower to the soybean based meal. (author)

  6. Comparative study on the effect of boiling, autoclaving and irradiation treatments of artichoke by-product on growth perfor mance and digestibility of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekkawy, S.H.; Zakaria, S.M.; El-Faramawy, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Sixty broiler chicks (21 days old) were assigned into six equal groups. artichoke by-product (ABP) was subjected to different treatments (Boiling, autoclaving and gamma irradiation at 75 and 100 kGy). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of using ABP with different treatments on growth performance and their nutrient digestibility. Results revealed that, chicks fed diets containing raw ABP or irradiated with 100 kGy showed the highest values of live body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and dressing percentages compared with those fed a control diet. The lowest values of those parameters resulted by the chicks fed the diets of boiling or autoclaving ABP. Digestibility coefficients of crude protein, nitrogen free extract, crude fiber and organic matter increased by increased by increasing dose level of gamma irradiation. It could be recommended to use ABP in raw state up to 10% replacement of yellow corn without any adverse effects on chick performance. The use of irradiation treatment of ABP at 100 kGy improved remarkable feed utilization and growth performance

  7. Use of a post-production fractionation process improves the nutritional value of wheat distillers grains with solubles for young broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Thacker, Philip; Deep, Aman; Beltranena, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-production fractionation of wheat distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases their crude protein content and reduces their fiber content. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of fractionation of wheat DDGS on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and performance when fed to broiler chicks (0?21 d). Methods A total of 150, day-old, male broiler chicks (Ross-308 line; Lilydale Hatchery, Wynyard, Saskatchewan) weighing an average of 49.6 ? 0.8 g were a...

  8. PREVALENCE AND IN VITRO ANTIBIOGRAM OF BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH OMPHALITIS IN CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. IQBAL, I. A. SHAH, A. ALI, M. A. KHAN AND S. JAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for the isolation of bacterial agents and in vitro antibiogram of the isolates from the yolk and visceral organs of up to one week old broiler and layer chicks suffering from omphalitis. Samples from the yolk and visceral organs were aseptically collected and cultured on various selective and differential media. The isolated organisms were identified and subjected to commonly used antibiotics for determination of antibiogram. During the period of 39 months (May, 2002 to August, 2005, 330 samples from yolk and visceral organs were taken from those chicks which were not medicated with antibiotics, as per history provided by the poultry farmers. Among these, 223(68% showed bacterial growth. Various bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli (47.93%, proteus (5.87%, mixed infection (3.59%, streptococci (2.89%, klebsiella (1.79%, salmonella (0.5%, staphylococci (0.5%, pseudomonas (0.5%, pasteurella (0.5% and yarseinia (0.5%. The antibiotics found most effective were Norfloxacin (45.3%, Enrofloxacin (36.81%, Gentamicin (33.21%, Chloramphenicol (33.21%, Cephradin (25.1%, Augmentine (24.7%, Kanammycin (17.5% and Ampicillin (12.1%.

  9. Detection probability of least tern and piping plover chicks in a large river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Erin A.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Dovichin, Colin M.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the abundance and stability of populations of conservation concern is often complicated by an inability to perfectly detect all members of the population. Mark-recapture offers a flexible framework in which one may identify factors contributing to imperfect detection, while at the same time estimating demographic parameters such as abundance or survival. We individually color-marked, recaptured, and re-sighted 1,635 federally listed interior least tern (Sternula antillarum; endangered) chicks and 1,318 piping plover (Charadrius melodus; threatened) chicks from 2006 to 2009 at 4 study areas along the Missouri River and investigated effects of observer-, subject-, and site-level covariates suspected of influencing detection. Increasing the time spent searching and crew size increased the probability of detecting both species regardless of study area and detection methods were not associated with decreased survival. However, associations between detection probability and the investigated covariates were highly variable by study area and species combinations, indicating that a universal mark-recapture design may not be appropriate.

  10. Interleukin-10 neutralizing antibody for detection of intestinal luminal levels and as a dietary additive in Eimeria challenged broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Maria K; Sand, Jordan M; Marcone, Taylor M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA levels are increased within intestinal mucosa after Eimeria infection. IL-10 apical receptor presence on enterocytes suggests IL-10 is secreted into the intestinal lumen. Increased IL-10 has been shown to be central to the pathogenesis of numerous intracellular pathogens; we hypothesize luminal secretion of IL-10 enables Eimeria spp. infection in chickens. This study examines intestine luminal IL-10 levels and performance in broilers challenged with Eimeria when fed an anti-IL-10 antibody. Chicks were fed a diet (1 to 21 d) with control or anti-IL-10 antibody (0.34 g egg yolk antibody powder/Kg diet) with a saline or 10× dose of Advent coccidiosis vaccine on d 3. One chick per pen was euthanized on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19 post-challenge, bled, and intestines were collected for luminal fluid IL-10 concentrations. Body weight and feed intake were measured on d 21, and oocyst shedding was assessed on d 7 post-challenge. A significant Eimeria × antibody interaction on d 21 body weight (P < 0.05) showed chicks fed control antibody, but not anti-IL-10, had significant reductions in body weight when challenged with Eimeria spp. Oocyst shedding was increased with Eimeria challenge, but dietary antibody had no effect. Plasma carotenoid levels were reduced in Eimeria challenged chicks 4, 7, 10, and 16 days post-challenge compared to unchallenged chicks. Lack of an Eimeria × antibody interaction showed anti-IL-10 was not protective against Eimeria-induced decreases in plasma carotenoids. Eimeria challenge increased intestine luminal IL-10 on days 4 and 7 post-challenge in the cecum and jejunum, respectively, compared to unchallenged. Dietary anti-IL-10 decreased luminal IL-10 in the ileum on day 2 post-challenge when compared to control antibody fed chicks. No interaction between Eimeria challenge and antibody was observed on intestine luminal contents of IL-10, suggesting anti-IL-10 was ineffective at preventing increased Eimeria

  11. Insulin and IGF receptors are developmentally regulated in the chick embry eye lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassas, L.; Zelenka, P.S.; Serrano, J.; de Pablo, F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptors appear to predominate over insulin receptors in early stages of embryogenesis in the chick (days 2-3 whole embryo membranes). Overall, [ 125 I]IGF and II binding to specific receptors was maximal when the rate of brain growth is highest. In the present study they used the embryonic chick lens, a well-defined tissue composed of a single type of cell, to analyze whether changes of insulin and IGFI binding are correlated with changes in growth rate and differentiation state of the cells. They show that both insulin receptors and IGF receptors are present in the lens epithelial cells, and that each type is distinctly regulated throughout development. While there is a direct correlation between IFG-binding capability and growth rate of the cells, there is less relation to differentiation status and embryo age. Insulin receptors, by contrast, appear to be mostly related to the differentiated state of cells, decreasing sharply in fibers, irrespective of their developmental age

  12. Universal diffusion-limited injection and the hook effect in organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Huseynova, Gunel; Xu, Yong; Long, Dang Xuan; Park, Won-Tae; Liu, Xuying; Minari, Takeo; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-01-01

    The general form of interfacial contact resistance was derived for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) covering various injection mechanisms. Devices with a broad range of materials for contacts, semiconductors, and dielectrics were investigated and the charge injections in staggered OTFTs was found to universally follow the proposed form in the diffusion-limited case, which is signified by the mobility-dependent injection at the metal-semiconductor interfaces. Hence, real ohmic contact can hardly ever be achieved in OTFTs with low carrier concentrations and mobility, and the injection mechanisms include thermionic emission, diffusion, and surface recombination. The non-ohmic injection in OTFTs is manifested by the generally observed hook shape of the output conductance as a function of the drain field. The combined theoretical and experimental results show that interfacial contact resistance generally decreases with carrier mobility, and the injection current is probably determined by the surface recombination rate, which can be promoted by bulk-doping, contact modifications with charge injection layers and dopant layers, and dielectric engineering with high-k dielectric materials. PMID:27440253

  13. ChickVD: a sequence variation database for the chicken genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; He, Ximiao; Ruan, Jue

    2005-01-01

    Working in parallel with the efforts to sequence the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, the Beijing Genomics Institute led an international team of scientists from China, USA, UK, Sweden, The Netherlands and Germany to map extensive DNA sequence variation throughout the chicken genome by sampling DN...... on quantitative trait loci using data from collaborating institutions and public resources. Our data can be queried by search engine and homology-based BLAST searches. ChickVD is publicly accessible at http://chicken.genomics.org.cn. Udgivelsesdato: 2005-Jan-1...

  14. Studying the effect of administration route and treatment dose on the selection of enrofloxacin resistance in commensal Escherichia coli in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantziaras, Ilias; Smet, Annemieke; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Boyen, Filip; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2017-07-01

    Factors potentially contributing to fluoroquinolone resistance selection in commensal Escherichia coli strains in poultry were studied through a series of in vivo experiments. The effect of the initial prevalence of enrofloxacin resistance in the E. coli gut microbiota, effect of the bacterial fitness of the enrofloxacin-resistant strain and effect of treatment with enrofloxacin (effect of dose and effect of route of administration) were assessed. Four in vivo studies with broiler chickens were performed. Right after hatching, the chicks were inoculated with either a bacteriologically fit or a bacteriologically non-fit fluoroquinolone-resistant strain as either a minority or the majority of the total E. coli population. Six days later, the chicks were treated for three consecutive days either orally or parenterally and using three different doses (under-, correct- and over-dose) of enrofloxacin. The faecal shedding of E. coli strains was quantified by plating on agar plates either supplemented or not supplemented with enrofloxacin. Linear mixed models were used to assess the effect of the aforementioned variables on the selection of enrofloxacin resistance. The factors that significantly contributed were treatment ( P  <   0.001), bacterial fitness of the resistant donor strain ( P  <   0.001), administration route ( P  =   0.052) and interactions between bacterial fitness and administration route ( P  <   0.001). In the currently used models, fluoroquinolone resistance selection was influenced by treatment, bacterial fitness of the inoculation strain and administration route. The use of oral treatment seems to select more for fluoroquinolone resistance, particularly in the model where a non-fit strain was used for inoculation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Characterisation of genes induced during memory formation in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, K.A.; Luermans, J.; Gibbs, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Memory formation can be divided into short-term and long-term. Short-term memory involves electro-chemical activity in the neurons whereas long-term memory requires a permanent change that includes protein synthesis. One of the problems involved with identifying late memory related genes is determining an optimal system in which to study gene expression. We have used a discriminated passive avoidance task in chicks to identify genes that are differentially regulated during memory formation. A mRNA subtraction method was previously used to specifically identify several genes that are expressed in the chick intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) within two hours of training. Eight bands ranging in size from 400bp to 1100bp were obtained in the initially screen. We are currently cloning these PCR products into suitable vectors for further analysis. Two of these clones have been sequenced and analysed using both the blastn and blastx programs in ANGIS. The first clone was found to correspond to cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2. Cytochrome C oxidase (COX) is a transmembrane protein localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane and forms part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex. The second clone codes for the ferritin heavy chain. Ferritin is a ubiquitous protein that is involved in iron homeostasis. At present it is unclear what role these two proteins play in memory formation but further studies are being undertaken to determine the expression profiles of these genes following memory induction. Copyright (2002) Australian Neuroscience Society

  16. Arginine and vitamin E improve the immune response after a Salmonella challenge in broiler chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of arginine (ARG), vitamin E (VE), and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the immune response and clearance of Salmonella in broiler chickens. In each experiment, chicks were randomly distributed into 4 groups: antibiotic-free diet (negative contro...

  17. Doing What Your Big Sister Does: Sex, Postfeminism and the YA Chick Lit Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Toffoletti, Kim; Parsons, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Mass-marketed teen chick lit has become a publishing phenomenon and has begun to attract critical interest among children's literature scholars. Much of this critical work, however, has shied away from robust critical assessment of the postfeminist conditions informing the production and reception of young adult series like Private, Gossip Girl…

  18. Application of genomic densitometry for calculating the relative population of Escherichia Coli in the intestine of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Seidavi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the densitometry technique for calculating of the relative population of Escherichia coli in various segments of the intestine of broiler chicks was evaluated. Following preparation of the intestinal contents, the process of extraction and purification of DNA from the contents of duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum was undertaken. A specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR using two pairs of primers was employed to detect Escherichia coli and total bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract of the chicks. Specific bands of E.coli were obtained using densitometry and Gel Proc Analyzer software based on linear regression with extrapolation. E.coli populations at different ages were also determined in various segments of the gastrointestinal tract of the chicks. The Results of this experiment indicated that 0.000004%, 0.07%, 0.64% and 2.51% of total bacteria present in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum respectively consisted of E.coli. Also, E.coli constitutes 1.76, 0.01 and 0.80% of the total intestinal bacteria of chicks at 4, 14 and 30 days of age respectively. Furthermore, it was shown that at 4 days of age, 0.30, 2.05 and 3.97% of the total bacteria present in the jejunum, ileum and cecum respectively were from E.coli species and this bacteria was absent in the duodenum. At 14 days of age these figures were 0.000009%, 0.00011% and 0.08% respectively while at 30 days of age 0.00011%, 0.009% and 2.40% of all bacteria in the duodenum, ileum and cecum were E.coli species and this bacteria was absent in the jejunum. In conclusion, the densitometry method based on PCR results can be regarded as a useful tool for densitometry the relative population E.coli in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry.

  19. Differential expression of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits during development of the chick optic tectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate receptors have been often associated with developmental processes. We used immunohistochemical techniques to evaluate the expression of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor (GluR subunits in the chick optic tectum (TeO. Chick embryos from the 5th through the 20th embryonic day (E5-E20 and one-day-old (P1 chicks were used. The three types of immunoreactivity evaluated (GluR1, GluR2/3, and GluR4 had different temporal and spatial expression patterns in the several layers of the TeO. The GluR1 subunit first appeared as moderate staining on E7 and then increased on E9. The mature GluR1 pattern included intense staining only in layer 5 of the TeO. The GluR2/3 subunits presented low expression on E5, which became intense on E7. The staining for GluR2/3 changed to very intense on E14 in tectal layer 13. Staining of layer 13 neurons is the most prominent feature of GluR immunoreactivity in the adult TeO. The GluR4 subunit generally presented the lowest expression starting on E7, which was similar to the adult pattern. Some instances of transient expression of GluR subunits were observed in specific cell populations from E9 through E20. These results demonstrate a differential expression of the GluR subunits in the embryonic TeO, adding information about their possible functions in the developmental processes of the visual system.

  20. Bone densitometry as an indicator of percentage tibia ash in broiler chicks fed varying dietary calcium and phosphorus levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, E M; Hester, P Y; Stroshine, R; Adeola, O

    2003-11-01

    The relative sensitivity of tibia bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), percentage ash (ash), and shear force as indicators for dietary Ca and P was compared in 3-wk-old broiler chicks. One hundred eight 7-d-old chicks were grouped by weight into 6 blocks of 3 cages each with 6 birds per cage. Three corn-soybean meal-based diets were randomly assigned to cages within each block. The diets were low P, medium P, and adequate P and were formulated to contain 4.0, 5.1, and 7.8 g of total P/kg feed, respectively; and 5.1, 6.7, and 10.0 g of Ca/kg feed, respectively. The chicks were fed the experimental diets for 14 d. On d 22, chicks were killed, and tibiae were removed from 3 birds/cage. Weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, BMC, BMD, shear force, and ash were determined. The BMC and BMD were determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Correlations among the various bone status variables and dietary Ca and P were determined. Growth performance criteria and ash increased linearly, and BMC and BMD increased linearly and quadratically as dietary concentrations of Ca and P increased. The correlation coefficient between dietary Ca and BMC, BMD, shear force, or ash was 0.89, 0.91, 0.50, or 0.89, respectively; and between dietary P and BMC, BMD, shear force, or ash was 0.88, 0.91, 0.48, or 0.89, respectively. The correlation coefficient between ash and BMC, BMD, or shear force was 0.92, 0.93, or 0.67, respectively. The correlation coefficients for linear regression between shear force and BMC or BMD was 0.56. The regression model for predicting percentage ash using BMD was as follows: percentage ash = 24 + (240 x BMD) with an r2 of 86%. It is concluded that in broiler chicks, tibia ash, BMC, and BMD may be more sensitive than shear force as indicators of dietary Ca and P concentrations and that BMD as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be used to predict percentage of tibia ash.

  1. Does growth rate determine the rate of metabolism in shorebird chicks living in the arctic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Joseph B.; Tieleman, B. Irene; Visser, G. Henk; Ricklefs, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR, respectively) during development of chicks of seven species of shorebirds: least sandpiper (Calidris minutilla; adult mass 20 22 g), dunlin (Calidris alpina; 56-62 g), lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes; 88-92 g), short-billed dowitcher

  2. Changes in NAD content of liver mitochondria from γ-irradiated chick embryos and chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryanovskij, P.G.; Todorov, B.N.

    1977-01-01

    NAD content of liver mitochondria from chick embryos and chickens has been shown to decrease after irradiation with a dose of 1000 rad. The changes are better pronounced in the content of NAD than in that of NADH. The dynamics of changes in NAD and NADH contents are dependent on the embryo's age

  3. Highly conductive thermoplastic composite blends suitable for injection molding of bipolar plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mighri, F.; Huneault, M.A.; Champagne, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed at developing highly conductive, lightweight, and low-cost bipolar plates for use in proton exchange membranes (PEM) fuel cells. Injection and compression molding of highly filled polypropylene, PP, and polyphenylene sulfide, PPS, based blends were used as a mean for mass production of bipolar plates. Loadings up to 60-wt% in the form of graphite, conductive carbon black and carbon fibers were investigated. The developed formulations have a combination of properties and processability suitable for bipolar plate manufacturing, such as good chemical resistance, sufficient fluidity, and good electrical and thermal conductivity. Electrical resistivities around 0.15 and 0.09 Ohm-cm were respectively achieved for the PP and PPS-based blends, respectively. Two bipolar plate designs were successfully fabricated by molding the gas flow channels over aluminum plates to form a metallic/polymer composite plate, or simply by direct injection molding of the conductive polymer composite. For the first design, overall plate resistivities of 0.2 and 0.1 Ohm-cm were respectively attained using PP and PPS based blends as conductive skin. A lower volume resistivity of around 0.06 Ohm-cm was attained for the second injected plate design with PPS based blend. (author)

  4. Gallium arsenide injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.H.B.

    1975-01-01

    The semiconductor injection laser includes a thin inner GaAs p-n junction layer between two outer GaAlAs layers which are backed by further thin outer GaAlAs layers with a heavier doping of AlAs. This reduces optical losses. Optical energy is further confined within the inner layers and the lasing threshold reduced by added outer GaAs layers of low electrical and thermal resistivity

  5. Transport stress induces heart damage in newly hatched chicks via blocking the cytoprotective heat shock response and augmenting nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F; Zuo, Y-Z; Ge, J; Xia, J; Li, X-N; Lin, J; Zhang, C; Xu, H-L; Li, J-L

    2018-04-20

    Transport stress affects the animal's metabolism and psychological state. As a pro-survival pathway, the heat shock response (HSR) protects healthy cells from stressors. However, it is unclear whether the HSR plays a role in transport stress-induced heart damage. To evaluate the effects of transport stress on heart damage and HSR protection, newly hatched chicks were treated with transport stress for 2 h, 4 h and 8 h. Transport stress caused decreases in body weight and increases in serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, nitric oxide (NO) content in heart tissue, cardiac nitric oxide syntheses (NOS) activity and NOS isoforms transcription. The mRNA expression of heat shock factors (HSFs, including HSF1-3) and heat shock proteins (HSPs, including HSP25, HSP40, HSP47, HSP60, HSP70, HSP90 and HSP110) in the heart of 2 h transport-treated chicks was upregulated. After 8 h of transport stress in chicks, the transcription levels of the same HSPs and HSF2 were reduced in the heart. It was also found that the changes in the HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 protein levels had similar tendencies. These results suggested that transport stress augmented NO generation through enhancing the activity of NOS and the transcription of NOS isoforms. Therefore, this study provides new evidence that transport stress induces heart damage in the newly hatched chicks by blocking the cytoprotective HSR and augmenting NO production.

  6. Chick Hairy1 protein interacts with Sap18, a component of the Sin3/HDAC transcriptional repressor complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Raquel P

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate adult axial skeleton, trunk and limb skeletal muscles and dermis of the back all arise from early embryonic structures called somites. Somites are symmetrically positioned flanking the embryo axial structures (neural tube and notochord and are periodically formed in a anterior-posterior direction from the presomitic mesoderm. The time required to form a somite pair is constant and species-specific. This extraordinary periodicity is proposed to depend on an underlying somitogenesis molecular clock, firstly evidenced by the cyclic expression of the chick hairy1 gene in the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm with a 90 min periodicity, corresponding to the time required to form a somite pair in the chick embryo. The number of hairy1 oscillations at any given moment is proposed to provide the cell with both temporal and positional information along the embryo's anterior-posterior axis. Nevertheless, how this is accomplished and what biological processes are involved is still unknown. Aiming at understanding the molecular events triggered by the somitogenesis clock Hairy1 protein, we have employed the yeast two-hybrid system to identify Hairy1 interaction partners. Results Sap18, an adaptor molecule of the Sin3/HDAC transcriptional repressor complex, was found to interact with the C-terminal portion of the Hairy1 protein in a yeast two-hybrid assay and the Hairy1/Sap18 interaction was independently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. We have characterized the expression patterns of both sap18 and sin3a genes during chick embryo development, using in situ hybridization experiments. We found that both sap18 and sin3a expression patterns co-localize in vivo with hairy1 expression domains in chick rostral presomitic mesoderm and caudal region of somites. Conclusion Hairy1 belongs to the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcriptional repressor proteins. Our results indicate that during chick somitogenesis

  7. Combined steroid and lignocaine injection in resistant cases of tennis elbow: A prospective, interventional study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Marwaha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis is a chronic, painful condition and is often resistant to conventional therapy. We evaluated the benefits of a combined steroid and lignocaine injection in resistant cases of tennis elbow. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, interventional study, we included chronic lateral epicondylitis patients resistant to analgesics and physiotherapy. The pain was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS, and we included patients with a baseline VAS> 4. All patients were given local infiltration at the painful site with methylprednisolone (1 ml and lignocaine (1 ml by the peppering technique. The primary outcome was the change in VAS from the baseline at the end of 7 and 28 days. The improvement is classified as good, moderate, or mild based on the reduction in VAS score by 3, 2, 1, respectively. Descriptive statistics and appropriate tests were used to analyze the results. Results: The study population (n = 63; male: female - 33:30 had a mean age of 36.2 ± 4.5 years and disease duration of 17.4 ± 5.8 weeks. After 1 week, 55 patients showed good improvement, three patients showed moderate improvement, two patients showed mild improvement, and three patients had no improvement. The improvement persisted till 28 days in all the patients and one patient who had not improved after 7 days did not report for 28 days follow-up. Conclusion: Local infiltration with steroids and lignocaine is a useful modality of therapy for tennis elbow, especially in patients where ultrasonic therapy and conservative measures have failed.

  8. Cardiovascular responses to the intracarotid injections of ionic contrast media and iohexol in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, K.; Morris, T.W.; Katzberg, R.W.; Fischer, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    Hypotension and bradycardia are the most significant cardiovascular responses resulting from intracarotid injections of hypertonic contrast media (CM). We have assessed both local and systemic vascular responses to the selective intracarotid injections of ionic and non-ionic CM in twelve pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Alterations in blood pressure, heart rate, and femoral, renal and carotid blood flows were monitored following right common carotid artery injections of ionic contrast media (282-288 mg I/ml), isotonic saline, and iohexol (300 mg I/ml). Ionic CM led to early (0 to 10 s) decreases in blood pressure, heart rate and femoral vascular resistance. Isotonic saline induced no significant early changes in these same parameters while iohexol caused a decrease in heart rate. Our observations suggest that the early (0 to 10 s) decreases in femoral vascular resistance, heart rate and pressure that occur with the intracarotid injection of hypertonic CM are mediated via the autonomic nervous system and initiated from a site in the carotid circulation. During the 15 to 40 s period when the CM has reached the systemic circulation, iohexol produced smaller effects on systemic blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistances than did the ionic CM. During this 15 to 40 s period there were decreased vascular resistances in the carotid and renal vascular beds that probably result from local effects of the CM, however, the femoral resistance was actually increased. This later increase in femoral resistance probably represents the results of increased symphathetic nervous system activity working to offset the decrease in renal and carotid resistances and thus maintain pressure at baseline values. The vascular resistance changes observed demonstrate a complexity of responses to CM not previously appreciated. (orig.)

  9. Effects of Multivitamins and Known Teratogens on Chick Cardiomyocytes Micromass Culture Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Memon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: This study aimed to find out whether the chick cardiomyocyte micromass (MM system could be employed to predict the teratogenecity of common environmental factors. Different multivitamins and over the counter drugs were used in this study.   Materials and Methods: White Leghorn 5-day-old embryo hearts were dissected and trypsinized to produce a cardiomyocyte cell suspension in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium. The cultures were incubated at 370C in 5% CO2 in air, and observations were made at 24, 48 and 144 hr, for the detection of cell beating. Cellular viability was assessed using the resazurin assay and cell protein content was assessed by the kenacid blue assay. It was observed that while not affecting total cell number folic acid, vitamin C, sodium fluoride and ginseng did not significantly reduced cell activity and beating. However cadmium chloride significantly reduced the beating, cell viability and cell protein content in micromass cultures. Results: The results demonstrate the potential of the chick cardiomyocyte MM culture assay to identify teratogens/embryotoxins that alter morphology and function, which may result in either teratogenic outcome or cytotoxicity. Conclusion: This could form part of a screen for developmental toxicity related to cardiac function

  10. Imprinting modulates processing of visual information in the visual wulst of chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchimura Motoaki

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imprinting behavior is one form of learning and memory in precocial birds. With the aim of elucidating of the neural basis for visual imprinting, we focused on visual information processing. Results A lesion in the visual wulst, which is similar functionally to the mammalian visual cortex, caused anterograde amnesia in visual imprinting behavior. Since the color of an object was one of the important cues for imprinting, we investigated color information processing in the visual wulst. Intrinsic optical signals from the visual wulst were detected in the early posthatch period and the peak regions of responses to red, green, and blue were spatially organized from the caudal to the nasal regions in dark-reared chicks. This spatial representation of color recognition showed plastic changes, and the response pattern along the antero-posterior axis of the visual wulst altered according to the color the chick was imprinted to. Conclusion These results indicate that the thalamofugal pathway is critical for learning the imprinting stimulus and that the visual wulst shows learning-related plasticity and may relay processed visual information to indicate the color of the imprint stimulus to the memory storage region, e.g., the intermediate medial mesopallium.

  11. Supplementation of xanthophylls decreased proinflammatory and increased anti-inflammatory cytokines in hens and chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Yun; Xie, Qing-Mei; Jin, Ling; Sun, Bao-Li; Ji, Jun; Chen, Feng; Ma, Jing-Yun; Bi, Ying-Zuo

    2012-11-28

    The present study investigated the effects of xanthophylls (containing 40 % of lutein and 60 % of zeaxanthin) on proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF)) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10) expression of breeding hens and chicks. In Expt 1, a total of 432 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (as the control group), 20 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls (six replicates per treatment). The liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled at 35 d of the trial. The results showed that both levels of xanthophyll addition decreased IL-1β mRNA in the liver and jejunum, IL-6 mRNA in the liver, IFN-γ mRNA in the jejunum and LITAF mRNA in the liver compared to the control group. Expt 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll diet of hens were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. The liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected at 0, 7, 14 and 21 d after hatching. The results showed that in ovo xanthophylls decreased proinflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and LITAF) in the liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-4 and IL-10) in the liver, jejunum and ileum mainly at 0-7 d after hatching. In ovo effects gradually vanished and dietary effects began to work during 1-2 weeks after hatching. Dietary xanthophylls modulated proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ) in the liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in the liver and jejunum mainly from 2 weeks onwards. In conclusion, xanthophylls could regulate proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in different tissues of hens and chicks.

  12. Micro-powder injection moulding of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeep, B.

    2007-12-01

    For He-cooled Divertors as integral components of future fusion power plants, about 300000 complex shaped tungsten components are to be fabricated. Tungsten is the favoured material because of its excellent properties (high melting point, high hardness, high sputtering resistance, high thermal conductivity). However, the material's properties cause major problems for large scale production of complex shaped components. Due to the resistance of tungsten to mechanical machining, new fabrication technologies have to be developed. Powder injection moulding as a well established shaping technology for a large scale production of complex or even micro structured parts might be a suitable method to produce tungsten components for fusion applications but is not yet commercially available. The present thesis is dealing with the development of a powder injection moulding process for micro structured tungsten components. To develop a suitable feedstock, the powder particle properties, the binder formulation and the solid load were optimised. To meet the requirements for a replication of micro patterned cavities, a special target was to define the smallest powder particle size applicable for micro-powder injection moulding. To investigate the injection moulding performance of the developed feedstocks, experiments were successfully carried out applying diverse cavities with structural details in micro dimension. For debinding of the green bodies, a combination of solvent debinding and thermal debinding has been adopted for injection moulded tungsten components. To develop a suitable debinding strategy, a variation of the solvent debinding time, the heating rate and the binder formulation was performed. For investigating the thermal consolidation behaviour of tungsten components, sinter experiments were carried out applying tungsten powders suitable for micro-powder injection moulding. First mechanical tests of the sintered samples showed promising material properties such as a

  13. Chicks change their pecking behaviour towards stationary and mobile food sources over the first 12 weeks of life: improvement and discontinuities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Murphy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus learn to peck soon after hatching and then peck in rapid bursts or bouts with intervals of non-pecking activity. The food sources may be static such as seeds and chick crumb, or mobile such as a mealworm. Here, changes with age in pecking toward chick crumb and a mealworm were measured.Chicks were reared in pairs and their pecking of crumb food was video recorded in their pair housed environment, from food presentation, every third day from day 8 (wk 2 to day 65 (wk 10. Peck rate at crumb food reached maximum levels at day 32 (wk 5, and then declined, fitting a quadratic model, with no sex, sex of cagemate, or box order effects. Within bouts the peck rate was higher and it increased to day 41 (wk 6 and then declined, and here males pecked faster than females. A change in dietary protein concentration from 22% to 18% at day 28 (wk 4 had no effect on subsequent peck rate.Pecking at and consumption of a mealworm in pair housed chicks were measured weekly from wks [5 to 12]. The latency to first worm peck and latency to swallow decreased to wk 8 and increased thereafter. The peck rate to first wormpeck and number of pecks to swallow increased to wk 8 and then declined paralleling the changes with crumb food. The increase in peck rate is coupled with an increase in efficiency in worm catching.The results are consistent with the view that the improvement in pecking ability and accuracy compliments change in nutritional requirement best served by an invertebrate food (IF source requiring speed to achieve feeding success, especially with live prey. When this food source is no longer crucial these associated skill levels decline. An appreciation of the role of domestic fowl in controlling insect populations, at farm level, that are often vectors in disease spread is lacking.

  14. Chicks change their pecking behaviour towards stationary and mobile food sources over the first 12 weeks of life: improvement and discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kenneth J; Hayden, Thomas J; Kent, John P

    2014-01-01

    Chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) learn to peck soon after hatching and then peck in rapid bursts or bouts with intervals of non-pecking activity. The food sources may be static such as seeds and chick crumb, or mobile such as a mealworm. Here, changes with age in pecking toward chick crumb and a mealworm were measured. Chicks were reared in pairs and their pecking of crumb food was video recorded in their pair housed environment, from food presentation, every third day from day 8 (wk 2) to day 65 (wk 10). Peck rate at crumb food reached maximum levels at day 32 (wk 5), and then declined, fitting a quadratic model, with no sex, sex of cagemate, or box order effects. Within bouts the peck rate was higher and it increased to day 41 (wk 6) and then declined, and here males pecked faster than females. A change in dietary protein concentration from 22% to 18% at day 28 (wk 4) had no effect on subsequent peck rate. Pecking at and consumption of a mealworm in pair housed chicks were measured weekly from wks [5 to 12]. The latency to first worm peck and latency to swallow decreased to wk 8 and increased thereafter. The peck rate to first wormpeck and number of pecks to swallow increased to wk 8 and then declined paralleling the changes with crumb food. The increase in peck rate is coupled with an increase in efficiency in worm catching. The results are consistent with the view that the improvement in pecking ability and accuracy compliments change in nutritional requirement best served by an invertebrate food (IF) source requiring speed to achieve feeding success, especially with live prey. When this food source is no longer crucial these associated skill levels decline. An appreciation of the role of domestic fowl in controlling insect populations, at farm level, that are often vectors in disease spread is lacking.

  15. On the value of electrical resistivity tomography for monitoring leachate injection in solid state anaerobic digestion plants at farm scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degueurce, Axelle; Clément, Rémi; Moreau, Sylvain; Peu, Pascal

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural waste is a valuable resource for solid state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) thanks to its high solid content (>15%). Batch mode SSAD with leachate recirculation is particularly appropriate for such substrates. However, for successful degradation, the leachate must be evenly distributed through the substrate to improve its moisture content. To study the distribution of leachate in agricultural waste, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was performed. First, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to check the reliability of this method to monitor infiltration of the leachate throughout the solid. Two representative mixtures of agricultural wastes were prepared: a "winter" mixture, with cattle manure, and a "summer" mixture, with cattle manure, wheat straw and hay. The influence of density and water content on electrical resistivity variations was assessed in the two mixtures. An increase in density was found to lead to a decrease in electrical resistivity: at the initial water content, resistivity decreased from 109.7 to 19.5Ω·m in the summer mixture and from 9.8 to 2.7Ω·m in the "winter" mixture with a respective increased in density of 0.134-0.269, and 0.311-0.577. Similarly, resistivity decreased with an increase in water content: for low densities, resistivity dropped from 109.7 to 7.1Ω·m and 9.8 to 4.0Ω·m with an increase in water content from 64 to 90w% and 74 to 93w% for "summer" and "winter" mixtures respectively. Second, a time-lapse ERT was performed in a farm-scale SSAD plant to monitor leachate infiltration. Results revealed very heterogeneous distribution of the leachate in the waste, with two particularly moist areas around the leachate injection holes. However, ERT was successfully applied in the SSAD plant, and produced a reliable 3D map of leachate infiltration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Resistivity effects in non-inductive RF current drive via helicity injection by Alfven waves: the case of conventional and small aspect ratio Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruma, C.; Cuperman, S.; Komoshvili, K.

    1996-01-01

    Supplementary non-inductive current drive and heating are necessary to bring Tokamak plasmas into the ignition regime. The resonant excitation of shear Alfven waves (SAW) - in the continuum range (CR) or/and in the discrete global Alfven eigenmode spectrum (GAE's) - represents one potential, suitable method for this purpose. Within the framework of ideal MHD, the current drive (CD) via helicity injection in Tokamak plasmas has been considered by Cuperman et al (1996) and Komoshvili et al. (1996). This work is concerned with the investigation of the non-ideal resistive MHD effects on both the excitation of SAW's (CR's and GAE's) and the generation of non-inductive current drive via helicity injection in Tokamak plasmas. The research covers Tokamak aspect ratios ranging between large value cases (R/a = 10) and the very tight value case (R/ a = 1.2). (authors)

  17. The role of Na+/K+-ATPase during chick skeletal myogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taissa Neustadt Oliveira

    Full Text Available The formation of a vertebrate skeletal muscle fiber involves a series of sequential and interdependent events that occurs during embryogenesis. One of these events is myoblast fusion which has been widely studied, yet not completely understood. It was previously shown that during myoblast fusion there is an increase in the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase. This fact prompted us to search for a role of the enzyme during chick in vitro skeletal myogenesis. Chick myogenic cells were treated with the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain in four different concentrations (0.01-10 μM and analyzed. Our results show that 0.01, 0.1 and 1 μM ouabain did not induce changes in cell viability, whereas 10 μM induced a 45% decrease. We also observed a reduction in the number and thickness of multinucleated myotubes and a decrease in the number of myoblasts after 10 μM ouabain treatment. We tested the involvement of MEK-ERK and p38 signaling pathways in the ouabain-induced effects during myogenesis, since both pathways have been associated with Na+/K+-ATPase. The MEK-ERK inhibitor U0126 alone did not alter cell viability and did not change ouabain effect. The p38 inhibitor SB202190 alone or together with 10 μM ouabain did not alter cell viability. Our results show that the 10 μM ouabain effects in myofiber formation do not involve the MEK-ERK or the p38 signaling pathways, and therefore are probably related to the pump activity function of the Na+/K+-ATPase.

  18. Molecular Characterization of the Resistance of Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To characterize the resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to second line drugs using a line probe assay. Methods: Multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated between December 2008 and December 2009 were tested for resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs ...

  19. Influence of maternal immunity on vaccine efficacy and susceptibility of one day old chicks against Egyptian highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwhab, E M; Grund, Christian; Aly, Mona M; Beer, Martin; Harder, Timm C; Hafez, Hafez M

    2012-02-24

    In Egypt, continuous circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses of clade 2.2.1 in vaccinated commercial poultry challenges strenuous control efforts. Here, vaccine-derived maternal AIV H5 specific immunity in one-day old chicks was investigated as a factor of vaccine failure in long-term blanket vaccination campaigns in broiler chickens. H5 seropositive one-day old chicks were derived from breeders repeatedly immunized with a commercial inactivated vaccine based on the Potsdam/H5N2 strain. When challenged using the antigenically related HPAIV strain Italy/98 (H5N2) clinical protection was achieved until at least 10 days post-hatch although virus replication was not fully suppressed. No protection at all was observed against the Egyptian HPAIV strain EGYvar/H5N1 representing a vaccine escape lineage. Other groups of chicks with maternal immunity were vaccinated once at 3 or 14 days of age using either the Potsdam/H5N2 vaccine or a vaccine based on EGYvar/H5N1. At day 35 of age these chicks were challenged with the Egyptian HPAIV strain EGYcls/H5N1 which co-circulates with EGYvar/H5N1 but does not represent an antigenic drift variant. The Potsdam/H5N2 vaccinated groups were not protected against EGYcls/H5N1 infection while, in contrast, the EGYvar/H5N1 vaccinated chicks withstand challenge with EGYvar/H5N1 infection. In addition, the results showed that maternal antibodies could interfere with the immune response when a homologous vaccine strain was used. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Increased ventricular preload is compensated by myocyte proliferation in normal and hypoplastic fetal chick left ventricle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dealmeida, A.; McQuinn, T. C.; Sedmera, David

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, - (2007), s. 1363-1370 ISSN 0009-7330 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : chick embryo * hemodynamics * fetal surgery * hypoplastic left heart syndrome Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 9.721, year: 2007

  1. Effects of methylmercury exposure on glutathione metabolism, oxidative stress, and chromosomal damage in captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenow, Kevin P.; Hoffman, David J.; Hines, Randy K.; Meyer, Michael W.; Bickham, John W.; Matson, Cole W.; Stebbins, Katie R.; Montagna, Paul; Elfessi, Abdulaziz

    2008-01-01

    We quantified the level of dietary mercury (Hg), delivered as methylmercury chloride (CH 3 HgCl), associated with negative effects on organ and plasma biochemistries related to glutathione (GSH) metabolism and oxidative stress, and chromosomal damage in captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks reared from hatch to 105 days. Mercury-associated effects related to oxidative stress and altered glutathione metabolism occurred at 1.2 μg Hg/g and 0.4 μg Hg/g, an ecologically relevant dietary mercury level, but not at 0.08 μg Hg/g. Among the variables that contributed most to dissimilarities in tissue chemistries between control and treatment groups were increased levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH peroxidase, and the ratio of GSSG to GSH in brain tissue; increased levels of hepatic GSH; and decreased levels of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH). Our results also suggest that chronic exposure to environmentally relevant dietary Hg levels did not result in statistically significant somatic chromosomal damage in common loon chicks. - Oxidative stress and altered glutathione metabolism were evident in common loon chicks exposed to ≥0.4 μg Hg as CH 3 HgCl per gram wet food intake

  2. Immunization of mice with gamma-irradiated intramuscularly injected schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.; Doenhoff, M.J.; Nelson, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    The parameters involved in the induction of resistance against Schistosoma mansoni by injection of irradiated, artificially transformed schistosomula were studied in mice. Single intramuscular injections of 500 schistosomula exposed to radiation doses in the range 2.3 to 160 krad. resulted in significant protection ( in the range 20 to 50% as assessed by reduced worm burdens) against a challenge infection administered at intervals from 3 to 24 weeks post-vaccination. However, schistosomular irradiated with 20 krad. consistently resulted in better protection than those exposed to either higher or lower radiation doses despite the persistence of stunted adults from the infections irradiated with 2.3 krad. Vaccination with 40 krad. schistosomula resulted in significant protection in terms of reduced worm and tissue egg burdens and increased survival following lethal challenge. Varying the number of irradiated schistosomula, the frequency and route of their administration, the site of challenge and the strain of host all failed to enhance the level of resistance. However, percutaneously applied, irradiated cercariae were found to be more effective in stimulating resistance (60%) than intramuscularly injected, irradiated schistosomula (40%). (author)

  3. Increasing the calcium content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) to improve their nutritional value for bone mineralization of growing chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasing, K C; Thacker, P; Lopez, M A; Calvert, C C

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the husbandry variables that optimize the Ca content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and to determine the bioavailability of this Ca for bone mineralization in chicks that consume the mealworms. To determine the optimal level of Ca in the substrates used in short-term (mealworms and to determine the length of time that mealworms should be exposed to high-Ca substrates, mealworms were placed in either a wheat bran or a chicken starter substrate supplemented with 0, 4, 8, or 12% Ca from CaCO3. The mealworms were harvested after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, or 14 days. The Ca content of the mealworms was greatest with the use of chicken starter and increased linearly with the Ca content of the substrate. In general, the Ca content of the mealworms increased during the first 24 hr and decreased after > or = 1 wk, especially at the higher levels of Ca supplementation. The chicken starter also resulted in higher levels of vitamin D in mealworms. Mealworms held in wheat bran with 8% Ca were fed to growing chicks. Ca bioavailability was calculated from the chicks' bone ash. The Ca in these mealworms was 76% as bioavailable as the Ca in oyster shell.

  4. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; VanHauten, B.A.M.; Hekking, J.W.M.; Kohler, E.S.; Straaten, van H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed.

  5. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; Vanhauten, B.A.M.; Hekking, J.W.M.; Köhler, E.S.; Straaten, H.W.M. van

    2005-01-01

    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed.

  6. Rediscovering the chick embryo as a model to study retinal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, M Natalia; Canto-Soler, M Valeria

    2012-06-27

    The embryonic chick occupies a privileged place among animal models used in developmental studies. Its rapid development and accessibility for visualization and experimental manipulation are just some of the characteristics that have made it a vertebrate model of choice for more than two millennia. Until a few years ago, the inability to perform genetic manipulations constituted a major drawback of this system. However, the completion of the chicken genome project and the development of techniques to manipulate gene expression have allowed this classic animal model to enter the molecular age. Such techniques, combined with the embryological manipulations that this system is well known for, provide a unique toolkit to study the genetic basis of neural development. A major advantage of these approaches is that they permit targeted gene misexpression with extremely high spatiotemporal resolution and over a large range of developmental stages, allowing functional analysis at a level, speed and ease that is difficult to achieve in other systems. This article provides a general overview of the chick as a developmental model focusing more specifically on its application to the study of eye development. Special emphasis is given to the state of the art of the techniques that have made gene gain- and loss-of-function studies in this model a reality. In addition, we discuss some methodological considerations derived from our own experience that we believe will be beneficial to researchers working with this system.

  7. Rediscovering the chick embryo as a model to study retinal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara M Natalia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The embryonic chick occupies a privileged place among animal models used in developmental studies. Its rapid development and accessibility for visualization and experimental manipulation are just some of the characteristics that have made it a vertebrate model of choice for more than two millennia. Until a few years ago, the inability to perform genetic manipulations constituted a major drawback of this system. However, the completion of the chicken genome project and the development of techniques to manipulate gene expression have allowed this classic animal model to enter the molecular age. Such techniques, combined with the embryological manipulations that this system is well known for, provide a unique toolkit to study the genetic basis of neural development. A major advantage of these approaches is that they permit targeted gene misexpression with extremely high spatiotemporal resolution and over a large range of developmental stages, allowing functional analysis at a level, speed and ease that is difficult to achieve in other systems. This article provides a general overview of the chick as a developmental model focusing more specifically on its application to the study of eye development. Special emphasis is given to the state of the art of the techniques that have made gene gain- and loss-of-function studies in this model a reality. In addition, we discuss some methodological considerations derived from our own experience that we believe will be beneficial to researchers working with this system.

  8. EFFECTS OF FEEDING Moringa stenopetala LEAF MEAL ON NUTRIENT INTAKE AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF RHODE ISLAND RED CHICKS UNDER TROPICAL CLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberra Melesse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Moringa stenopetala leaf meal (MSLM on nutrient intake and weight gain (WG were evaluated. Forty unsexed Rhode Island Red chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups. The control diet (T1 (MSLM 0%, the experimental diets contained MSML at a rate of 2% (T2, 4% (T3, and 6% (T4 of the diets (as fed basis to replace 3%, 5.9% and 8.8% of the crude protein (CP of the control diet. Daily feed, dry matter and CP intake of the chicks fed MSLM diets were higher (p

  9. Chronic Mild Cold Conditioning Modulates the Expression of Hypothalamic Neuropeptide and Intermediary Metabolic-Related Genes and Improves Growth Performances in Young Chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Nguyen

    Full Text Available Low environmental temperatures are among the most challenging stressors in poultry industries. Although landmark studies using acute severe cold exposure have been conducted, still the molecular mechanisms underlying cold-stress responses in birds are not completely defined. In the present study we determine the effect of chronic mild cold conditioning (CMCC on growth performances and on the expression of key metabolic-related genes in three metabolically important tissues: brain (main site for feed intake control, liver (main site for lipogenesis and muscle (main site for thermogenesis.80 one-day old male broiler chicks were divided into two weight-matched groups and maintained in two different temperature floor pen rooms (40 birds/room. The temperature of control room was 32°C, while the cold room temperature started at 26.7°C and gradually reduced every day (1°C/day to reach 19.7°C at the seventh day of the experiment. At day 7, growth performances were recorded (from all birds and blood samples and tissues were collected (n = 10. The rest of birds were maintained at the same standard environmental condition for two more weeks and growth performances were measured.Although feed intake remained unchanged, body weight gain was significantly increased in CMCC compared to the control chicks resulting in a significant low feed conversion ratio (FCR. Circulating cholesterol and creatine kinase levels were higher in CMCC chicks compared to the control group (P<0.05. CMCC significantly decreased the expression of both the hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY and anorexigenic cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART in chick brain which may explain the similar feed intake between the two groups. Compared to the control condition, CMCC increased the mRNA abundance of AMPKα1/α2 and decreased mTOR gene expression (P<0.05, the master energy and nutrient sensors, respectively. It also significantly decreased the expression of fatty

  10. Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-09-24

    A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  11. Power injection performance of the LH antenna tipped with carbon grills in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazuhiro; Seki, Masami; Shinozaki, Shinichi; Hasegawa, Koichi; Hiranai, Shinichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Sato, Fumiaki; Moriyama, Shinichi; Yokokura, Kenji

    2007-07-01

    The lower hybrid (LH) antenna in JT-60U has interaction with plasmas because it should be close to them in order to inject effectively radio frequency (RF) power into them. As a result, it has been a serious problem that the antenna mouth made of stainless steels was damaged due to excessive heat loads of plasmas and RF breakdowns. To solve the problem, a heat-resistant LH antenna was developed tipping carbon grills with fairly high heat resistance on the antenna mouth, and therefore reduction in damages on the mouth was expected. Power injection into plasmas was firstly performed with the heat-resistant antenna. RF conditioning was done carefully in the initial phase because RF breakdown due to outgassing from the grills might be occurred. After sufficient degassing was done through RF conditioning, RF power of about 1.6 MW x 10 sec injection was successfully injected to plasmas. Moreover it was demonstrated that it had comparably high plasma current drive capability (about 1.6 x 10 19 A/W/m 2 ), required as a current drive LH antenna. (author)

  12. Effect of an organic acids based feed additive and enrofloxacin on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in cecum of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Nataliya; Mayrhofer, Sigrid; Gierus, Martin; Weingut, Christine; Schwarz, Christiane; Doupovec, Barbara; Berrios, Roger; Domig, Konrad J

    2017-09-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern. Fluoroquinolones are used to treat and prevent poultry diseases worldwide. Fluoroquinolone resistance rates are high in their countries of use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an acids-based feed additive, as well as fluoroquinolone antibiotics, on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli. A total of 480 broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 3 treatments: a control group receiving a basal diet; a group receiving a feed additive (FA) based on formic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid; and an antibiotic enrofloxacin (AB) group given the same diet, but supplemented with enrofloxacin in water. A pooled fecal sample of one-day-old chicks was collected upon arrival at the experimental farm. On d 17 and d 38 of the trial, cecal samples from each of the 8 pens were taken, and the count of E. coli and antibiotic-resistant E. coli was determined.The results of the present study show a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in one-day-old chicks. Supplementation of the diet with FA and treatment of broilers with AB did not have a significant influence on the total number of E. coli in the cecal content on d 17 and d 38 of the trial. Supplementation with FA contributed to better growth performance and to a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in E. coli resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline compared to the control and AB groups, as well as to a decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli compared to the AB group. Treatment with AB increased (P ≤ 0.05) the average daily weight compared to the control group and increased (P ≤ 0.05) the number of E. coli resistant to ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline; it also decreased (P ≤ 0.05) the number of E. coli resistant to cefotaxime and extended spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing E. coli in the ceca of broilers. © 2017 Poultry Science

  13. Relationships between organohalogen contaminants and blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters in chicks of three raptor species from Northern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Herzke, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    :creatinine were significantly positively correlated to various OHCs (all: praptor chicks of Northern Scandinavia may impact blood plasma biochemistry in a way that indicates impacts on liver, kidney, bone...

  14. Effect of in ovo injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone on the timing of hatching in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yugo; Grommen, Sylvia V H; De Groef, Bert

    2017-09-01

    In chicken embryos, intravenous injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) causes the release of both corticosteroids and thyroid hormones. These hormones initiate and enhance the hatching process, raising the possibility that CRH treatment of the late chicken embryo could accelerate hatching and/or decrease the spread of hatching. We performed a series of exploratory tests to investigate whether in ovo delivery methods of CRH other than intravenous injection that are more practical in a commercial setting, affect hatching time in broilers. Corticotropin-releasing hormone was injected into the air cell, albumen, or amniotic fluid of broiler breeder eggs, in the last week of embryonic development. Average incubation duration was significantly decreased by 22 h when 2 μg of CRH was injected into the air cell on embryonic day 18 (E18) of Cobb eggs. Acceleration of hatching (but only by 8 h) was also seen for Ross chicks when CRH was injected daily into the albumen between E10 and E18. However, repeats of both experiments did not show consistent effects of CRH on hatching time; in most experiments performed, CRH did not affect hatching time. We speculate that the effectiveness of CRH uptake via these delivery methods and/or the duration and magnitude of the thyroxine and corticosterone response to CRH is not sufficient to have a substantial effect on hatching time. We therefore conclude that in ovo CRH treatment does not seem a feasible option as a practical tool to increase hatchery productivity or to investigate the effects of CRH agonists and antagonists on hatching. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Psychological insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients regarding oral antidiabetes treatment, subcutaneous insulin injections, or inhaled insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Frank; Herpertz, Stephan; Stridde, Elmar; Pfützner, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    "Psychological insulin resistance" (PIR) is an obstacle to insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes, and patients' expectations regarding alternative ways of insulin delivery are poorly understood. PIR and beliefs regarding treatment alternatives were analyzed in patients with type 2 diabetes (n=532; mean glycated hemoglobin, 68±12 mmol/mol [8.34±1.5%]) comparing oral antidiabetes treatment, subcutaneous insulin injections, or inhaled insulin. Questionnaires were used to assess barriers to insulin treatment (BIT), generic and diabetes-specific quality of life (Short Form 36 and Problem Areas in Diabetes, German version), diabetes knowledge, locus of control (Questionnaire for the Assessment of Diabetes-Specific Locus of Control, in German), coping styles (Freiburg Questionnaire of Illness Coping, 15-Items Short Form), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, German version), and mental disorders (Patient Health Questionnaire, German version). Patients discussed treatment optimization options with a physician and were asked to make a choice about future diabetes therapy options in a two-step treatment choice scenario. Step 1 included oral antidiabetes drugs or subcutaneous insulin injection (SCI). Step 2 included an additional treatment alternative of inhaled insulin (INH). Subgroups were analyzed according to their treatment choice. Most patients perceived their own diabetes-related behavior as active, problem-focused, internally controlled, and oriented toward their doctors' recommendations, although their diabetes knowledge was limited. In Step 1, rejection of the recommended insulin was 82%, and in Step 2, it was 57%. Fear of hypoglycemia was the most important barrier to insulin treatment. Patients choosing INH (versus SCI) scored higher regarding fear of injection, expected hardship from insulin therapy, and BIT-Sumscore. The acceptance of insulin is very low in type 2 diabetes patients. The option to inhale insulin increases the acceptability for some but

  16. Glycoconjugate sugar residues in the chick embryo developing lung: a lectin histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheri, G; Sgambati, E; Bryk, S G

    2000-03-01

    A lectin histochemical study was performed to investigate the distribution and changes of the oligosaccharidic component of the glycoconjugates in the lung of chick embryos, of 1-day-old chick, and of the adult animal. For this purpose, a battery of seven horseradish peroxidase-conjugated lectins (PNA, SBA, DBA, WGA, Con A, LTA, and UEA I) were employed. During the first phase of parabronchi and atria formation, D-galactose-(beta1-->3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-glucosamine, alpha-D-mannose, and sialic acid, present at the level of the surface and of cytoplasmic granules of the lining epithelial cells, seem to play a role in regulating morphogenetic phenomena. In the subsequent phases, the parabronchial lumen and the atrial cavities were characterized by the presence of lectin-reactive material rich in terminal D-galactose-(beta1-->3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-glucosamine and alpha-D-mannose. From day 18 onwards and immediately after hatching, the free border of the cells lining the air capillaries was characterized by the presence of beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and alpha-D-mannose. The appearance of these sugar residues was concomitant with the beginning of respiratory activity. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. The chick eye in vision research: An excellent model for the study of ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisely, C Ellis; Sayed, Javed A; Tamez, Heather; Zelinka, Chris; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H; Fischer, Andy J; Cebulla, Colleen M

    2017-11-01

    The domestic chicken, Gallus gallus, serves as an excellent model for the study of a wide range of ocular diseases and conditions. The purpose of this manuscript is to outline some anatomic, physiologic, and genetic features of this organism as a robust animal model for vision research, particularly for modeling human retinal disease. Advantages include a sequenced genome, a large eye, relative ease of handling and maintenance, and ready availability. Relevant similarities and differences to humans are highlighted for ocular structures as well as for general physiologic processes. Current research applications for various ocular diseases and conditions, including ocular imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, are discussed. Several genetic and non-genetic ocular disease models are outlined, including for pathologic myopia, keratoconus, glaucoma, retinal detachment, retinal degeneration, ocular albinism, and ocular tumors. Finally, the use of stem cell technology to study the repair of damaged tissues in the chick eye is discussed. Overall, the chick model provides opportunities for high-throughput translational studies to more effectively prevent or treat blinding ocular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Available and unavailable carbohydrate content of black gram(Vigna Mungo) and chick-pea (Cicer Arietinum) as affected by soaking and cooking processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia-ur-Rehman; Rashid, M.; Salariya, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of soaking (Tap water, sodium bicarbonate solution) and cooking in tap water were investigated on available and unavailable carbohydrate contents and starch digestibility of black grams and chick-peas. Available carbohydrates including total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch contents of these two legumes decreased to various extents as a result of soaking and cooking. From 3.43 - 25.63% total soluble sugars and 4.26 - 22.70% starch contents were lost on soaking black grams and chick-peas in tap water and sodium bicarbonate solution. Maximum amounts of total soluble sugars (28.43 - 59.64%) and starch contents (29.93 - 67.40%) were lost on cooking the water and alkali soaked legumes. However, these losses were comparatively less in case of water soaking process. Soaking and cooking processes also brought about some changes in the profile of unavailable carbohydrates of black grams and chick-peas. Soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution led to an appreciable increase of hemicellulose (42.50 - 54.31%) and NDF (28.69 - 30.68%) but not in legumes soaked in tap water. However, cooking process caused reduction in NDF (19.25 - 41.04%), ADF (5.48 - 25.31%), cellulose (12.88 - 28.42%) and hemicellulose (31.86 - 59.37%). Lignin contents of these legumes increased to some extents on cooking whereas it remained unchanged as a result of soaking. Starch digestibility of black grams and chick peas was markedly improved after cooking. However, no appreciable improvement in starch digestibility was observed after soaking these legumes in tap water or alkaline solution.(author)

  19. Effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and vitamin E on histopathological lesions induced in bursa of Fabricius of broiler chicks by salinomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayrafi, Reza; Mirzakhani, Navideh; Mobaseri, Reza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of the turmeric in comparison to vitamin E on bursal damages induced by salinomycin in broiler chickens. In this study, forty one day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatment groups: 1- basal diet as control, 2- basal diet plus salinomycin, 3- basal diet plus salinomycin (SLM) and vitamin E (Vit. E) and 4- basal diet plus salinomycin and turmeric powder. The chicks were treated for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, the bursal tissues were removed and fixed in 10% formalin solution. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain for histopathological studies. Light microscopic observations showed that, SLM diminished cortex thickness of bursal tissue, enhanced its medulla zone and caused severe lymphocytic necrosis. In addition, SLM led to fibrosis of interstitium along with sever edema of medulla zone in the bursal tissue of the chicken. Administration of Vit. E and TP significantly inhibited the SLM-induced derangements and comparing the Vit. E and TP showed no significant differences. The results of this study indicated that the turmeric may protect bursa of Fabricius against toxicity induced by salinomycin in chicks.

  20. How microelectrode array-based chick forebrain neuron biosensors respond to glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist AP5 and GABAA receptor antagonist musimol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Y. Kuang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We have established a long-term, stable primary chick forebrain neuron (FBN culture on a microelectrode array platform as a biosensor system for neurotoxicant screening and for neuroelectrophysiological studies for multiple purposes. This paper reports some of our results, which characterize the biosensor pharmacologically. Dose-response experiments were conducted using NMDA receptor antagonist AP5 and GABAA receptor agonist musimol (MUS. The chick FBN biosensor (C-FBN-biosensor responds to the two agents in a pattern similar to that of rodent counterparts; the estimated EC50s (the effective concentration that causes 50% inhibition of the maximal effect are 2.3 μM and 0.25 μM, respectively. Intercultural and intracultural reproducibility and long-term reusability of the C-FBN-biosensor are addressed and discussed. A phenomenon of sensitization of the biosensor that accompanies intracultural reproducibility in paired dose-response experiments for the same agent (AP5 or MUS is reported. The potential application of the C-FBN-biosensor as an alternative to rodent biosensors in shared sensing domains (NMDA receptor and GABAA receptor is suggested. Keywords: Biosensor, Microelectrode array, Neurotoxicity, Chick forebrain neuron, AP5, Musimol

  1. Effect of Long-Term Hypodynamy on Alkaline Phosphatase Activity of Small Intestine in Japanese Quail Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľ. Lenhardt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The functional development of the small intestine was investigated in Japanese quail chicks subjected to simulated microgravity (hypodynamy on the second day after hatching and reared under these conditions to 63 days of age. On days 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 56 and 63 the activity of brush-border-bound alkaline phosphatase (AP in the duodenum and jejunum were determined in experimental animals as well as in control quail chicks housed in a floor box during these periods. As compared with control quails the experimental animals displayed a significantly increased enzyme activity until day 42 in the duodenum and day 35 in the jejunum (P < 0.001 whereas in older quails no significant enzymatic differences between these groups was found. However, a decrease in food consumption due to a partial physical constraint cannot be excluded. Moreover, the results suggested that the activity of AP in the control birds did not change substantially during all the periods examined. In contrast, in older hypodynamy quail the AP activity significantly decreased in the duodenum on days 56 and 63 and in the jejunum on days 42, 56 and 63, respectively. These results indicate that a the enhanced intestinal function in early periods of life may reflect the higher sensitivity of small intestine to simulated weightlessness, b the decrease of the AP activity in older animals to the level of controls might be considered as a part of intestinal mechanisms involved in adaptation of quail chicks to long-term hypodynamy, c different activity of AP in the small intestine of Japanese quail may not have resulted only from hypodynamy but also due to decreased food intake.

  2. Competitor suppresses neuronal representation of food reward in the nucleus accumbens/medial striatum of domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amita, Hidetoshi; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2014-07-15

    To investigate the role of social contexts in controlling the neuronal representation of food reward, we recorded single neuron activity in the medial striatum/nucleus accumbens of domestic chicks and examined whether activities differed between two blocks with different contexts. Chicks were trained in an operant task to associate light-emitting diode color cues with three trial types that differed in the type of food reward: no reward (S-), a small reward/short-delay option (SS), and a large reward/long-delay alternative (LL). Amount and duration of reward were set such that both of SS and LL were chosen roughly equally. Neurons showing distinct cue-period activity in rewarding trials (SS and LL) were identified during an isolation block, and activity patterns were compared with those recorded from the same neuron during a subsequent pseudo-competition block in which another chick was allowed to forage in the same area, but was separated by a transparent window. In some neurons, cue-period activity was lower in the pseudo-competition block, and the difference was not ascribed to the number of repeated trials. Comparison at neuronal population level revealed statistically significant suppression in the pseudo-competition block in both SS and LL trials, suggesting that perceived competition generally suppressed the representation of cue-associated food reward. The delay- and reward-period activities, however, did not significantly different between blocks. These results demonstrate that visual perception of a competitive forager per se weakens the neuronal representation of predicted food reward. Possible functional links to impulse control are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of monochromatic light on circadian rhythmic expression of clock genes in the hypothalamus of chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Dong, Yulan; Chen, Yaoxing

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the effect of monochromatic light on circadian clock gene expression in chick hypothalamus, a total 240 newly hatched chickens were reared under blue light (BL), green light (GL), red light (RL) and white light (WL), respectively. On the post-hatched day 14, 24-h profiles of seven core clock genes (cClock, cBmal1, cBmal2, cCry1, cCry2, cPer2 and cPer3) were measured at six time points (CT 0, CT 4, CT 8, CT 12, CT 16, CT 20, circadian time). We found all these clock genes expressed with a significant rhythmicity in different light wavelength groups. Meanwhile, cClock and cBmal1 showed a high level under GL, and followed a corresponding high expression of cCry1. However, RL decreased the expression levels of these genes. Be consistent with the mRNA level, CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins also showed a high level under GL. The CLOCK-like immunoreactive neurons were observed not only in the SCN, but also in the non-SCN brain region such as the nucleus anterior medialis hypothalami, the periventricularis nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus and the median eminence. All these results are consistent with the auto-regulatory circadian feedback loop, and indicate that GL may play an important role on the circadian time generation and development in the chick hypothalamus. Our results also suggest that the circadian clock in the chick hypothalamus such as non-SCN brain region were involved in the regulation of photo information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Formation of Youth Identity in Indonesian Islamic Chick Lit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Dewi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to argue that literature studies may help reveal the formation of young Indonesian female Muslim identity by looking at the books they read and write. It will particularly discuss two popular Islamic Chick Lit Santri Semelekete [Funky Islamic Boarding School Girl] (2005 by Ma’rifatun Baroroh and Jilbab Britney Spears: Catatan Harian Sabrina [Britney Spears’ Headscarf: Sabrina’s Diary] (2004 by Herlinatiens. The first part of the discussion will examine some external aspects such as physical presentation, biographical details of the authors, and publication-related matters. Then, using such side-line information, the next part will discuss the novels’ contents to see in what way they offer some cultural analysis of youth identity in contemporary Indonesian society.

  5. Effects of methylmercury exposure on glutathione metabolism, oxidative stress, and chromosomal damage in captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenow, Kevin P. [U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, 2630 Fanta Reed Road, La Crosse, WI 54603 (United States)], E-mail: kkenow@usgs.gov; Hoffman, David J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)], E-mail: djhoffman@usgs.gov; Hines, Randy K. [U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, 2630 Fanta Reed Road, La Crosse, WI 54603 (United States)], E-mail: rkhines@usgs.gov; Meyer, Michael W. [Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 107 Sutliff Avenue, Rhinelander, WI 54501 (United States)], E-mail: michael.meyer@dnr.state.wi.us; Bickham, John W. [Center for the Environment and Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)], E-mail: bickham@purdue.edu; Matson, Cole W. [Integrated Toxicology and Environmental Health Program, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)], E-mail: matson@duke.edu; Stebbins, Katie R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Montagna, Paul [Texas A and M University-Corpus Christi, Harte Research Institute, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)], E-mail: paul.montagna@tamucc.edu; Elfessi, Abdulaziz [University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI 54601 (United States)], E-mail: elfessi.abdu@uwlax.edu

    2008-12-15

    We quantified the level of dietary mercury (Hg), delivered as methylmercury chloride (CH{sub 3}HgCl), associated with negative effects on organ and plasma biochemistries related to glutathione (GSH) metabolism and oxidative stress, and chromosomal damage in captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks reared from hatch to 105 days. Mercury-associated effects related to oxidative stress and altered glutathione metabolism occurred at 1.2 {mu}g Hg/g and 0.4 {mu}g Hg/g, an ecologically relevant dietary mercury level, but not at 0.08 {mu}g Hg/g. Among the variables that contributed most to dissimilarities in tissue chemistries between control and treatment groups were increased levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH peroxidase, and the ratio of GSSG to GSH in brain tissue; increased levels of hepatic GSH; and decreased levels of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH). Our results also suggest that chronic exposure to environmentally relevant dietary Hg levels did not result in statistically significant somatic chromosomal damage in common loon chicks. - Oxidative stress and altered glutathione metabolism were evident in common loon chicks exposed to {>=}0.4 {mu}g Hg as CH{sub 3}HgCl per gram wet food intake.

  6. Fostering efficacy and toxicity evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine and natural products: Chick embryo as a high throughput model bridging in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Yu, Gui-Yuan; Xiao, Jia; Yan, Chang; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Li, Yi-Fang; So, Kwok-Fai; He, Rong-Rong

    2018-04-19

    Efficacy and safety assessments are essential thresholds for drug candidates from preclinical to clinical research. Conventional mammalian in vivo models cannot offer rapid pharmacological and toxicological screening, whereas cell-based or cell-free in vitro systems often lead to inaccurate results because of the lack of physiological environment. Within the avian species, gallus gallus is the first bird to have its genome sequencing. Meantime, chick embryo is an easily operating, relatively transparent and extensively accessible model, whose physiological and pathological alterations can be visualized by egg candler, staining and image technologies. These features facilitate chick embryo as a high-throughput screening platform bridging in vivo and in vitro gaps in the pharmaceutical research. Due to the complicated ingredients and multiple-targets natures of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), testing the efficacy and safety of TCM by in vitro methods are laborious and inaccurate, while testing in mammalian models consume massive cost and time. As such, the productive living organism chick embryo serves as an ideal biological system for pharmacodynamics studies of TCM. Herein, we comprehensively update recent progresses on the specialty of chick embryo in evaluation of efficacy and toxicity of drugs, with special concerns of TCM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Minority-carrier injection-enhanced annealing of radiation damage to InGaP solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Okuda, T.; Taylor, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The observation of minority-carrier injection-enhanced annealing of radiation-induced defects in InGaP is reported. 1-MeV electron irradiation results demonstrate superior radiation-resistance of InGa 0.5 P 0.5 solar cells compared to GaAs-on-Ge cells. Moreover, minority-carrier injection under forward bias conditions is shown to enhance defect annealing in InGaP and to result in the recovery of InGaP solar cell properties. These results suggest that the radiation-resistance of InGaP-based devices such as InGaP/GaAs(/Ge) multijunction solar cells and InGaP(As) light-emitting devices is further improved under minority-carrier injection condition. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Membrane properties of chick semicircular canal hair cells in situ during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetto, S; Perin, P; Malusà, A; Zucca, G; Valli, P

    2000-05-01

    The electrophysiological properties of developing vestibular hair cells have been investigated in a chick crista slice preparation, from embryonic day 10 (E10) to E21 (when hatching would occur). Patch-clamp whole-cell experiments showed that different types of ion channels are sequentially expressed during development. An inward Ca(2+) current and a slow outward rectifying K(+) current (I(K(V))) are acquired first, at or before E10, followed by a rapid transient K(+) current (I(K(A))) at E12, and by a small Ca-dependent K(+) current (I(KCa)) at E14. Hair cell maturation then proceeds with the expression of hyperpolarization-activated currents: a slow I(h) appears first, around E16, followed by the fast inward rectifier I(K1) around E19. From the time of its first appearance, I(K(A)) is preferentially expressed in peripheral (zone 1) hair cells, whereas inward rectifying currents are preferentially expressed in intermediate (zone 2) and central (zone 3) hair cells. Each conductance conferred distinctive properties on hair cell voltage response. Starting from E15, some hair cells, preferentially located at the intermediate region, showed the amphora shape typical of type I hair cells. From E17 (a time when the afferent calyx is completed) these cells expressed I(K, L), the signature current of mature type I hair cells. Close to hatching, hair cell complements and regional organization of ion currents appeared similar to those reported for the mature avian crista. By the progressive acquisition of different types of inward and outward rectifying currents, hair cell repolarization after both positive- and negative-current injections is greatly strengthened and speeded up.

  9. The influence of different Ca and P ratios in feed on phosphorus turnover and endogenous excretion in growing broiler chicks by means of 32 P isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1994-04-01

    Endogenous excretion and absorption (turnover) of phosphorus by male broiler chicks (14-29 day old) were quantitatively evaluated in relation to different Ca: P ratios in four groups of experimental diets: (I=1:1, II=1.5:1, III=2:1, IV=2.5:1), adlibitum. The feed mixtures contained 0.6% P in DM. in all groups. Dicalcium phosphate and calcium-Carbonate were added as sources of supplemental P and Ca in experimental diets. At 14 days of age, the chicks were injected with 32 P-Na Po 4 intramuscularly in the right leg (6.037 MBq). Isotope dilution technique was used to determine endogenous fecal and renal P excretion. Calcium and phosphorus retentions in the whole-body were calculated according to the comparative slaughter technique. From retention and endogenous excretion, P turnover within the animal was determined. The following results were obtained: Turnover and endogenous excretion of phosphorus amounted (mgP/day/animal): 304, 270, 160 and 158 and 135, 109, 31 and 30 in groups (I, II, III and IV) respectively. The efficiency of utilization of feed phosphorus and calcium retention in the body amounted 36%, 34%, 26% and 24% and 43%, 29%, 21% and 17% in the four groups, respectively. A comparison of relative endogenous excretion of availability of feed phosphorus (group I=100) in the four treatments resulted in: 100:83:24:23 or 100:86:48:45, respectively 56%(I), 60%(II), 81%(III,IV) of P-turnover were retained, respectively. The ratio of relative retention to relative endogenous excretion of absorbed phosphorus was 1.27(I), 1.50(II), 4.26(III and IV), and the ratio of calcium retention to phosphorus retention in the whole body was 1.21(I), 1.25(II), 1.70(III) and 1.71(IV). (author). 47 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs

  10. Distribution of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits in the chick visual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Several glutamate receptor (GluR subunits have been characterized during the past few years. In the present study, subunit-specific antisera were used to determine the distribution of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits GluR1-4 in retinorecipient areas of the chick brain. Six white leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus, 7-15 days old, unknown sex were deeply anesthetized and perfused with 4% buffered paraformaldehyde and brain sections were stained using immunoperoxidase techniques. The AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2/3 and GluR4 were present in several retinorecipient areas, with varying degrees of colocalization. For example, perikarya in layers 2, 3, and 5 of the optic tectum contained GluR1, whereas GluR2/3 subunits appeared mainly in neurons of layer 13. The GluR4 subunit was only detected in a few cells of the tectal layer 13. GluR1 and GluR2/3 were observed in neurons of the nucleus geniculatus lateralis ventralis, whereas GluR4 was only present in its neuropil. Somata in the accessory optic nucleus appeared to contain GluR2/3 and GluR4, whereas GluR1 was the dominant subunit in the neuropil of this nucleus. These results suggest that different subpopulations of visual neurons might express different combinations of AMPA-type GluR subunits, which in turn might generate different synaptic responses to glutamate derived from retinal ganglion cell axons

  11. Lectin histochemistry of enterocytes sugar residues in the gut of the chick embryo and of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, S Gheri; Gheri, G

    2002-01-01

    The glycoconjugates sugar residues content, distribution and changes in the enterocytes of different tracts of the developing intestine of the chick embryo and of 1-day-old chick were investigated, using a battery of seven HRP-conjugated lectins (DBA, SBA, PNA, WGA, ConA, LTA and UEAI). The results of the present research have shown the presence of a large amount of glycoconjugates sugar residues in the enterocytes of duodenal, ileal and colonic anlage, starting from the beginning of the second week of incubation. Differences were detected among the three investigated intestinal segments, as to the time of appearance of the glycoconjugates sugar residues in the enterocytes. The duodenal enterocytes showed the most precocious appearance of lectin-reactive material, followed by the ileal enterocytes and afterwards by colonic enterocytes. The duodenal enterocytes were characterised by the presence of SBA binding sites, which were not detectable in the duodenal enterocytes of the adult animal.

  12. Prenatal acoustic stimulation influences neuronal size and the expression of calcium-binding proteins (calbindin D-28K and parvalbumin) in chick hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sraboni; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2006-12-01

    Prenatal auditory enrichment by species-specific sounds and sitar music enhances the expression of immediate early genes, synaptic proteins and calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) as well as modifies the structural components of the brainstem auditory nuclei and auditory imprinting area in chicks. There is also facilitation of postnatal auditory preference of the chicks to maternal calls following both types of sound stimulation indicating prenatal perceptual learning. To examine whether the sound enrichment protocol also affects the areas related to learning and memory, we assessed morphological changes in the hippocampus at post-hatch day 1 of control and prenatally sound-stimulated chicks. Additionally, the proportions of neurons containing calbindin D-28K and parvalbumin immunoreactivity as well as their protein levels were determined. Fertilized eggs of domestic chick were incubated under normal conditions of temperature, humidity, forced draft of air as well as light and dark (12:12h) photoperiods. They were exposed to patterned sounds of species-specific and sitar music at 65 dB for 15 min per hour over a day/night cycle from day 10 of incubation till hatching. The hippocampal volume, neuronal nuclear size and total number of neurons showed a significant increase in the music-stimulated group as compared to the species-specific sound-stimulated and control groups. However, in both the auditory-stimulated groups the protein levels of calbindin and parvalbumin as well as the percentage of the immunopositive neurons were increased. The enhanced proportion of CaBPs in the sound-enriched groups suggests greater Ca(2+) influx, which may influence long-term potentiation and short-term memory.

  13. Comparison of antibody titer against the infectious bursal disease virus following the disease with that obtained from live intermediate vaccines using indirect hemagglutination (IHA test in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Feizi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antibody titer obtained from the outbreak of the infection bursal disease (IBD was compared with the titer obtained from live intermediate vaccines by indirect haemagglutination (IHA test in broiler chicks. A total of 450 one day old Cobb chicks were divided into 3 groups each containing 150 chicks and were kept for 42 days in the same rearing conditions. Chicks in groups 1 and 2 received Bursin-2 and D-78 vaccines respectively via drinking water n days 14 and 21. The rest of the chicks were kept as the controls (group 4 and did not receive any vaccine against the IBD. Serum samples were collected from all birds 2 weeks after the second IBD vaccination. Additional 150 serum samples were also collected from 3 broiler flocks that were affected by IBD and had a history of vaccination by the previously mentioned method, two weeks after the last clinical sings were observed (group 3. Antibody titer of the samples against the IBD virus were determined by the IHA test and the results were evaluated using ANOVA and SPSS software. The mean antibody titer obtained from Bursin-2 and D-78 vaccines were 3.19 and 3.21 respectively which is less than the titer of 6 needed for protection against the disease. The antibody titer in affected flocks was 7.19. comparison of the mean titer of the two vaccines did not show any significant difference but there was significant difference between the titer obtained from each vaccine and that of the effected flock (p

  14. Effect of cholecalciferol and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on the intestinal absorption of zinc in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, S.I.; Fullmer, C.S.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of cholecalciferol on the intestinal absorption of 65 Zn was assessed in zinc-deficient and zinc-replete rachitic chicks, using the in situ ligated loop techniques. Cholecalciferol did not significantly affect 65 Zn absorption in either group, although the synthesis of the intestinal calcium-binding protein (CaBP) in both groups was similar. In an analogous study, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol increased 47 Ca absorption and induced the synthesis of CaBP but exerted no effect on 65 Zn absorption in zinc-deficient rachitic chicks. When fed a diet adequate in cholecalciferol, more CaBP was present in the intestine of the zinc-adequate group than in the zinc-deficient group, possibly due to the greater rate of growth and therefore the greater need for calcium by the former group. These results suggest that cholecalciferol and its most active metabolite do not directly affect zinc absorption and, by inference, that the vitamin D-dependent transport mechanism is not involved in zinc homeostasis, or in the interaction between calcium and zinc

  15. Recurrence of primary aldosteronism after percutaneous ethanol injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Chi Chang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenalectomy is the definite treatment for aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA. Percutaneous ethanol or acetic acid injection with computed tomography (CT guidance has been described as a safe, noninvasive, and effective alternative treatment modality in patients with high surgical risk. We report on a man who was 49 years of age and presented with treatment-resistant hypertension and was later diagnosed with APA. CT-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI was performed for this high surgical risk patient. He had aldosteronism recurrence 4 years after the ethanol injection, so a second PEI was performed. The tumor size was reduced and his blood pressure was normalized. Therefore, we suggest that clinicians should closely check aldosterone to renin ration and potassium level if percutaneous chemical ablation is considered in functioning adrenal adenomas.

  16. Variation in growth in sandwich tern chicks Sterna sandvicensis and the consequences for pre- and post-fledging mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, E.W.M.; Brenninkmeijer, A.

    2002-01-01

    Fitness consequences of variation in body mass growth and body condition were studied in a sandwich tern Sterna sandvicensis colony on Griend, Dutch Wadden Sea, during 1990-2000. Body mass increment during the linear growth phase predicted nestling survival probabilities accurately. Chicks growing

  17. Variation in growth in Sandwich Tern chicks Sterna sandvicensis and the consequences for pre- and post-fledging mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, EWM; Brenninkmeijer, A

    2002-01-01

    Fitness consequences of variation in body mass growth and body condition were studied in a Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis colony on Griend, Dutch Wadden Sea, during 1990-2000. Body mass increment during the linear growth phase predicted nestling survival probabilities accurately. Chicks growing

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on the immune system of the chick embryo and the induction of tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harateh, M.; Okla, S.; Rizk, H.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of low doses of gamma ray (1, 2.5 and 5 gray) irradiation on the lymphoid organs (bursa of fabricius - BF-, the thymus- Thy - and the bone marrow) of the developing chick were investigated.The embryos were irradiated at stage 34 (about 8 days of incubation)

  19. Intravenous vs. left ventricular injection of ionic contrast material: hemodynamic implications for digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, G.B.; Ostrander, D.R.; Slutsky, R.A.; Shabetai, R.; Higgins, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Because of the increased use of intravenous injection of contrast material for the evaluation of cardiac structure and function by digital subtraction techniques, a study was done to assess the hemodynamic effects of contrast material when used in this fashion in man. In 10 patients, with each serving as his own control, the effects of intravenous and intraventricular injections of sodium meglumine diatrizoate (Renografin 76) in the same dose were compared. There was no difference between these two methods with respect to changes in pulmonary wedge pressures, systemic pressures, and pulmonary vascular resistance. The elevation of mean pulmonary artery and right atrial pressure was greater after the intraventricular injection (p <0.05). The elevated cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance returned to control values somewhat more quickly after the intravenous injection (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively); and the increase in cardiac output was greater after the intravenous injection at 1 min (p<0.05), but less than after the intraventricular injection at 2 min (p<0.05). Despite the detection of these statistically significant differences, the magnitude and timing of these differences are too small to justify the notion that imaging by intravenous injections of standard ionic contrast media provides any substantial hemodynamic benefits or decreased risk to the patient

  20. Preliminary study on functional performance of compound type multistage safety injection tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Functional performance of compound type multistage safety injection tanks is studied. • Effects of key design parameters are scrutinized. • Distinctive flow features in compound type safety injection tanks are explored. - Abstract: A parametric study is carried out to evaluate the functional performance of a compound type multistage safety injection tank that would be considered one of the components for the passive safety injection systems in nuclear power plants. The effects of key design parameters such as the initial volume fraction and charging pressure of gas, tank elevation, vertical location of a sparger, resistance coefficient, and operating condition on the injection flow rate are scrutinized along with a discussion of the relevant flow features. The obtained results indicate that the compound type multistage safety injection tank can effectively control the injection flow rate in a passive manner, by switching the driving force for the safety injection from gas pressure to gravity during the refill and reflood phases, respectively

  1. Expression of neuronal antigens and related ventral and dorsal proteins in the normal spinal cord and a surgically induced open neural tube defect of the spine in chick embryos: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do-Hun; Phi, Ji Hoon; Chung, You-Nam; Lee, Yun-Jin; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Dong Won; Park, Moon-Sik; Wang, Kyu-Chang

    2010-05-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate the processes of neuronal differentiation and ventrodorsal patterning in the spinal cord of the chick embryo from embryonic day (E) 3 to E17 and to study the effect of a prenatal spinal open neural tube defect (ONTD) on these processes. Expression patterns of neuronal antigens (neuronal nuclear antigen, neurofilament-associated protein (NAP), and synaptophysin) and related ventral markers [sonic hedgehog, paired box gene (PAX)6, and islet-1], and dorsal markers (bone morphogenetic protein, Notch homolog 1, and PAX7) were investigated in the normal spinal cord and in a surgically induced spinal ONTD in chick embryos. Four normal and ONTD chick embryos were used for each antigen group. There were no differences in the expression of neuronal and ventrodorsal markers between the control and ONTD groups. NAP and synaptophysin were useful for identifying dorsal structures in the distorted anatomy of the ONTD chicks.

  2. Transient performance analysis of pressurized safety injection tank with a partition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Functional performance of safety injection tanks with a partition is evaluated. • Effects of key design parameters are scrutinized. • Distinctive features of the flow in multi-unit safety injection tanks are explored. - Abstract: A parametric study has been performed to evaluate the functional performance of a pressurized multi-unit safety injection tank, which would be considered as one of the candidates for a passive safety injection system in a nuclear power plant. The influences of key design parameters including the orifice size, initial gas fraction, and resistance coefficients and operating condition on the injection flow rate are scrutinized with a discussion of the relevant flow features such as the choked flow of gas through an orifice and two interconnected regions of differing gaseous pressure. The obtained results indicate that a multi-unit safety injection tank can passively control the injection flow rate and provide a stable safety injection over a relatively long period even in the case of drastic depressurization of a reactor coolant system

  3. Prenatal loud music and noise: differential impact on physiological arousal, hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial behavior in one day-old chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Tania; Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jain, Suman; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation.

  4. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count, and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976 and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84, respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight, and HCT and PP values. Moreover, 72 hours of fasting affected more intensely HCT and MCV values.

  5. Prenatal loud music and noise: differential impact on physiological arousal, hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial behavior in one day-old chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Sanyal

    Full Text Available Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation.

  6. MgO by injection CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrutis, A.; Kubilius, V.; Teiserkis, A.; Bigelyte, V.; Vengalis, B.; Jukna, A.; Butkute, R.

    1997-01-01

    Epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 layers with 45 in-plane orientation have been grown by injection CVD on MgO substrates polished off-axis to within 1.4-1.9 of the [100] direction. This new single-source CVD process is based on computer-controlled injection of precise microdoses of a metal-organic precursor solution into a CVD reactor. A wide range of solution compositions was tested to investigate compositional effects on phase purity, surface morphology, texturing and superconducting properties of the prepared films. The highest quality films with pure 45 texture had a smooth surface, zero resistance T c (R=0) of 88-89 K, and critical current density J c (77 K) above 10 6 A/cm 2 . (orig.) and critical current density J c (77 K) above 10 6 A/cm 2 . (orig.)

  7. The nervus terminalis in the chick: a FMRFamide-immunoreactive and AChE-positive nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsig-Wiechmann, C R

    1990-07-16

    The chick terminal nerve (TN) was examined by immunocytochemical and histochemical methods. Molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide-immunoreactive (FMRFamide-ir) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-positive TN perikarya and fibers were distributed along olfactory and trigeminal nerves. FMRFamide-ir TN fibers terminated in the olfactory lamina propria and epithelium and in ganglia along the rostroventral nasal septum. This initial description of several populations of avian TN neurons should provide the foundation for future developmental studies of this system.

  8. Energetics of growth in semi-precocial shorebird chicks in a warm environment : The African black oystercatcher, Haematopus moquini

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjorve, Kathleen M. C.; Underhill, Les G.; Visser, G. Henk

    2007-01-01

    We studied prefledging growth, energy expenditure and time budgets of African Black Oystercatcher, Haematopus moquini, chicks on Robben Island, Western Cape, South Africa. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of parental feeding on the growth and energetics of semi-precocial shorebird

  9. Polymeric microchip for the simultaneous determination of anions and cations by hydrodynamic injection using a dual-channel sequential injection microchip electrophoresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Adam J; Nai, Yi Heng; Guijt, Rosanne M; Breadmore, Michael C

    2014-04-01

    A dual-channel sequential injection microchip capillary electrophoresis system with pressure-driven injection is demonstrated for simultaneous separations of anions and cations from a single sample. The poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchips feature integral in-plane contactless conductivity detection electrodes. A novel, hydrodynamic "split-injection" method utilizes background electrolyte (BGE) sheathing to gate the sample flows, while control over the injection volume is achieved by balancing hydrodynamic resistances using external hydrodynamic resistors. Injection is realized by a unique flow-through interface, allowing for automated, continuous sampling for sequential injection analysis by microchip electrophoresis. The developed system was very robust, with individual microchips used for up to 2000 analyses with lifetimes limited by irreversible blockages of the microchannels. The unique dual-channel geometry was demonstrated by the simultaneous separation of three cations and three anions in individual microchannels in under 40 s with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 1.5 to 24 μM. From a series of 100 sequential injections the %RSDs were determined for every fifth run, resulting in %RSDs for migration times that ranged from 0.3 to 0.7 (n = 20) and 2.3 to 4.5 for peak area (n = 20). This system offers low LODs and a high degree of reproducibility and robustness while the hydrodynamic injection eliminates electrokinetic bias during injection, making it attractive for a wide range of rapid, sensitive, and quantitative online analytical applications.

  10. Properties of the chromatin assembled on DNA injected into Xenopus oocytes and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, G.; Wasserman, W.; Worcel, A.

    1983-01-01

    The onset of DNA synthesis occurs between 10 and 30 minutes after activation of the egg and thus the transition from nuclease-sensitive to nuclease-resistant supercoils may take place on the newly replicated DNA. To test this possibility, the nonradioactive circular 5-kb DNA carrying the Drosophila histone gene repeat and [α -32 P]dCTP were coinjected into fertilized eggs. Such protocol labels both the injected, replicated heterologous DNA and the replicated endogenous, maternal Xenopus DNA. The labeled, presumably replicated, supercoiled DNA is resistant to micrococcal nuclease as expected. The endogenous, high-molecular-weight Xenopus DNA is degraded to 180-bp nucleosomal DNA. Thus, the nuclease resistance is not a general property of chromatin during the cleavage stage of the Xenopus embryo but is a peculiar feature of the injected DNA. 42 references, 5 figures

  11. Studies on the cytodifferentiation of the neuroblasts and visual cells in the chick embryo retina, using the electron-microscopic autoradiography of 3H-thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, H.; Fujita, H.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on the histogenetic analysis of cytodifferentiation of the neuroblast and visual cell in the chick embryo retina were made using the autoradiography of 3 H-thymidine. The posterior pole region of the eyeball was observed in all the animals used. The retina in a 4-day-old chick embryo consists exclusively of matrix cells forming the matrix layer. In a 5-day-old chick embryo retina, neuroblasts first differentiated from the matrix cells migrate into the outer part of the matrix layer, forming the mantle layer. The matrix cell is a homogeneous epithelial cell containing abundant free ribosomes and a poorly developed cytoplasmic membrane system in the cytoplasm. The characteristic sign of differentiation of the neuroblast is an appearance of elements of rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and an indentation of the nucleus. The primitive visual cell having just lost its ability to synthesize DNA appears just beneath the pigment epithelium in a 7-day-old chick embryo, and all the cells lying beneath the pigment epithelium lose the ability to synthesize DNA at 10 days of incubation. The cytoplasmic process of the matrix cell is in contact with the adjacent one, making an apicolateral junction. When the matrix cell loses its ability to synthesize DNA, a big tentlike process extending over the level of the apicolateral junction appears. This phenomenon is considered to be a sign of differentiation from matrix cell to primitive visual cell, and this big tentlike process containing 2 centrioles is a primordium of the inner segment of the visual cell. (orig.) [de

  12. Effect van kruiden en kuikenkwaliteit op de respons van biologische leghenkuikens na een coccidiosebesmetting = Effect of herbal treatments and chick quality on the response of young organic layer poults after infection with coccidiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of herbal treatments and chick quality on the response of young organic layer poults to an infection with coccidiosis was studied. Alternative treatments had no effect on Eimeria lesion scores or technical results. Chick quality had no effect on Eimeria lesion scores, but influenced

  13. How the embryonic chick brain twists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Forsch, Nickolas; Taber, Larry A

    2016-11-01

    During early development, the tubular embryonic chick brain undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion, one of the earliest organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Existing evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for the predominantly rightward torsion of the embryonic brain tube remains poorly understood. Here, we show through a combination of in vitro experiments, a physical model of the embryonic morphology and mechanics analysis that the vitelline membrane (VM) exerts an external load on the brain that drives torsion. Our theoretical analysis showed that the force is of the order of 10 micronewtons. We also designed an experiment to use fluid surface tension to replace the mechanical role of the VM, and the estimated magnitude of the force owing to surface tension was shown to be consistent with the above theoretical analysis. We further discovered that the asymmetry of the looping heart determines the chirality of the twisted brain via physical mechanisms, demonstrating the mechanical transfer of left-right asymmetry between organs. Our experiments also implied that brain flexure is a necessary condition for torsion. Our work clarifies the mechanical origin of torsion and the development of left-right asymmetry in the early embryonic brain. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  15. Treatment of the Infection after Fat Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For recent years, use of autologous fat injection has increased significantly in facial contouring surgery. Along with such increase in use, complications like atypical mycoplasma infection have been also on the increasing trend. The authors report two cases of Mycobacterium chelonae infection that occurred after autologous fat injection. Patients were treated as infection that resistant to common antibiotics and results were negative to routine culture and Gram staining. Acid-fast bacillus stain, polymerase chain reaction (PCR test and mycobacterial cultures were conducted for diagnosis under suspicion of atypical mycoplasma infection. Then, combination antibiotics therapy, surgical treatment, and steroid injection were performed for treatment. Both patients were diagnosed with Mycobacterium chelonae in PCR test. They were positive to mycobacterial cultures. Combination antibiotics therapy was repeated to improvement of symptom. However, they could not be free from side effects such as deformation in facial contour, scar and pigmentation even after full recovery. When chronic wound infections after autologous fat injection, we must suspect atypical or mycobacterial infection and conduct examinations for a early diagnosis and proper antibiotic therapy that is effective to the nontuberculous mycobacteria.

  16. Injection dynamics of gelled propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Changjin

    Gel propellants have been recognized as attractive candidates for future propulsion systems due to the reduced tendency to spill and the energy advantages over solid propellants. One of strong benefits emphasized in gel propellant applications is a throttling capability, but the accurate flow control is more complicated and difficult than with conventional Newtonian propellants because of the unique rheological behaviors of gels. This study is a computational effort directed to enhance understanding of the injector internal flow characteristics for gel propellants under rocket injection conditions. In simulations, the emphasized rheology is a shear-thinning which represents a viscosity decrease with increasing a shear rate. It is described by a generalized Newtonian fluid constitutive equation and Carreau-Yasuda model. Using this rheological model, two injection schemes are considered in the present study: axially-fed and cross-fed injection for single-element and multi-element impinging injectors, respectively. An axisymmetric model is developed to describe the axially-fed injector flows and fully three-dimensional model is utilized to simulate cross-fed injector flows. Under axially-fed injection conditions investigated, three distinct modes, an unsteady, steady, and hydraulic flip mode, are observed and mapped in terms of Reynolds number and orifice design. In an unsteady mode, quasi-periodic oscillations occur near the inlet lip leading mass pulsations and viscosity fluctuations at the orifice exit. This dynamic behavior is characterized using a time-averaged discharge coefficient, oscillation magnitude and frequency by a parametric study with respect to an orifice design, Reynolds number and rheology. As a result, orifice exit flows for gel propellants appear to be significantly influenced by a viscous damping and flow resistance due to a shear thinning behavior and these are observed in each factors considered. Under conditions driven by a manifold crossflow

  17. The changes of spontaneous motility in chick embryos after blockade of NO-synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlácek, J

    1996-01-01

    The consequences of the blockade of NO-synthase (NOS) for the development, frequency and reactivity of spontaneous motility were investigated in chick embryos aged 4-19 day of incubation. 1. Acute NOS blockade evoked by N-nitro-L-arginine- methylester (L-NAME) (20 mg/kg egg weight-e.w.) caused on day 17 of incubation the short-lasting depression of spontaneous motility to 50% of resting motor activity. L-NAME was in spinal embryos without any effect. Chronic application of L-NAME (1.70 mg/kg e.w./24 h) from day 4 of incubation led after the first 4 days of continual supply to the development of reduced spontaneous motility on one hand, on the other hand it changed the efficacy of central activatory (NMDA, pentylenetetrazole) and inhibitory drugs (ketamine, glycine). L-NAME and L-arginine in different mutual combinations manifested in 17-day-old embryos their typical effect, though the depressory effect of L-NAME took a swifter course than the activatory effect of L-arginine. 2. Aminoguanidine (AmG) (9.8 and 20 mg/kg e.w.) evoked from day 17 of incubation the significant biphasic change of spontaneous motility only: initial depression was replaced by later activation. AmG was in spinal embryos without effect again. Chronic application of AmG (5.29 +/- 0.51 mg/kg e.w./24 h) showed in 17-day-old embryos a reduction of resting motility dependent on the duration of AmG influence during incubation. Another expression was the changed reactivity of spontaneous motility to some centrally effective drugs (ketamine, NMDA, D-cycloserine, glycine, pentylenetetrazole). 3. 7-nitroindazole (7-NIZ) (15 and 30 mg/kg e.w.) caused the significant decrease of spontaneous motility in chick embryos already from day 15 of incubation; the depression after the lower dosis had an interrupted course, whereas after the higher dosis it was a continuous one. 7-NIZ blocked in 17-day-old embryos the activatory effect of L-arginine, reduced the paroxysmal activation of motility evoked by NMDA and

  18. The oral bioavailability and toxicokinetics of methylmercury in common loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Hines, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    We compared the toxicokinetics of methylmercury in captive common loon chicks during two time intervals to assess the impact of feather growth on the kinetics of mercury. We also determined the oral bioavailability of methylmercury during these trials to test for age-related changes. The blood concentration-time curves for individuals dosed during feather development (initiated 35 days post hatch) were best described by a one-compartment toxicokinetic model with an elimination half-life of 3 days. The data for birds dosed following completion of feather growth (84 days post hatch) were best fitted by a two-compartment elimination model that includes an initial rapid distribution phase with a half-life of 0.9 days, followed by a slow elimination phase with a half-life of 116 days. We determined the oral bioavailability of methylmercury during the first dosing interval by comparing the ratios of the area under the blood concentration-time curves (AUC0→∞) for orally and intravenously dosed chicks. The oral bioavailability of methylmercury during the first dosing period was 0.83. We also determined bioavailability during both dosing periods using a second measure because of irregularities with intravenous results in the second period. This second bioavailability measure estimated the percentage of the dose that was deposited in the blood volume (f), and the results show that there was no difference in bioavailability among dosing periods. The results of this study highlight the importance of feather growth on the toxicokinetics of methylmercury.

  19. 2-keto-4-(methylthio)butyric acid (keto analog of methionine) is a safe and efficacious precursor of L-methionine in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Ryan N; Kobler, Christoph; Weckbecker, Christoph; Hoehler, Dirk; Baker, David H

    2007-08-01

    Relative bioefficacy and toxicity of Met precursor compounds were investigated in young chicks. The effectiveness of DL-Met and 2-keto-4-(methylthio)butyric acid (Keto-Met) to serve as L-Met precursors was quantified using Met-deficient diets of differing composition. Efficacy was based on slope-ratio and standard-curve methodology. Using L-Met as a standard Met source added to a purified diet, DL-Met and Keto-Met were assigned relative bioefficacy values of 98.5 and 92.5%, respectively, based on weight gain. Relative bioefficacy values of 98.5 and 89.3% were assigned to DL-Met and Keto-Met, respectively, when chicks were fed a Met-deficient, corn-soybean meal-peanut meal diet. Thus, both DL-Met and Keto-Met are effective Met precursor compounds in chicks. Additionally, growth-depressing effects of L-Met, DL-Met, and Keto-Met were compared using a nutritionally adequate corn-soybe