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Sample records for injectable rapid gelling

  1. Structure-property evaluation of thermally and chemically gelling injectable hydrogels for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenseair, Adam K; Boere, Kristel W M; Tzouanas, Stephanie N; Vo, Tiffany N; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2012-09-10

    The impact of synthesis and solution formulation parameters on the swelling and mechanical properties of a novel class of thermally and chemically gelling hydrogels combining poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based thermogelling macromers containing pendant epoxy rings with polyamidoamine-based hydrophilic and degradable diamine cross-linking macromers was evaluated. Through variation of network hydrophilicity and capacity for chain rearrangement, the often problematic tendency of thermogelling hydrogels to undergo significant syneresis was addressed. The demonstrated ability to tune postformation dimensional stability easily at both the synthesis and formulation stages represents a significant novel contribution toward efforts to utilize poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based polymers as injectable biomaterials. Furthermore, the cytocompatibility of the hydrogel system under relevant conditions was established while demonstrating time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity at high solution osmolality. Such injectable in situ forming degradable hydrogels with tunable water content are promising candidates for many tissue-engineering applications, particularly for cell delivery to promote rapid tissue regeneration in non-load-bearing defects.

  2. Injectable pectin hydrogels produced by internal gelation: pH dependence of gelling and rheological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena R; Munarin, Fabiola; Gentilini, Roberta; Visai, Livia; Granja, Pedro L; Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Petrini, Paola

    2014-03-15

    The production of injectable pectin hydrogels by internal gelation with calcium carbonate is proposed. The pH of pectin was increased with NaOH or NaHCO3 to reach physiological values. The determination of the equivalence point provided evidence that the pH can be more precisely modulated with NaHCO3 than with NaOH. Degradation and inability to gel was observed for pectin solutions with pH 5.35 or higher. Therefore, pectin solutions with pH values varying from 3.2 (native pH) to 3.8 were chosen to produce the gels. The increase of the pH for the crosslinked hydrogels, as well as the reduction of the gelling time and their thickening, was dependent upon the amount of calcium carbonate, as confirmed by rheology. Hydrogel extracts were not cytotoxic for L-929 fibroblasts. On the overall, the investigated formulations represent interesting injectable systems providing an adequate microenvironment for cell, drug or bioactive molecules delivery.

  3. Rapid injection of rocuronium reduces withdrawal movement on injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Cheol; Jang, Young Ho; Kim, Jin Mo; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2009-09-01

    To test whether rapid injection of rocuronium reduces withdrawal movement on injection. Randomized, prospective trial. Operating room in a university hospital. 150 ASA physical status I and II patients aged 18 to 60 years, undergoing general anesthesia. Patients were randomized to three groups. After undergoing anesthesia induction with thiopental sodium, then 5 seconds later receiving a rubber tourniquet applied to the mid-forearm to stop intravenous (IV) flow by gravity, the pretreatment drug was injected. The tourniquet was held for 15 seconds then released, and 1.0 mg/kg of 1% rocuronium was injected IV. Group C patients (n = 50) were pretreated with 0.1 mL/kg of 0.9% NaCl and then injected with rocuronium slowly within 10 seconds. Group L patients (n = 50) were pretreated with 0.1 mL/kg of preservative-free 1% lidocaine and then injected with rocuronium slowly within 10 seconds. Group R patients (n = 50) were pretreated with 0.1 mL/kg of 0.9% NaCl and then rapidly injected with rocuronium within approximately one second (as quickly as possible). After injection of the patient with the study drug, a single anesthesiologist with no knowledge of the study protocol graded each patient's response as follows: 0 = no response; 1 = mild movement limited to the wrist only; 2 = moderate movement involving the elbow and shoulder; and 3 = severe movement involving more than one extremity. Group C had the most intense and frequent withdrawal response. The frequency and intensity of withdrawal movement was significantly less in Groups L and R than Group C. No significant difference in withdrawal response between Groups L and R was noted. Withdrawal response can be significantly reduced for rocuronium injection without lidocaine pretreatment, simply through rapid injection.

  4. Performance of a new gelled nested PCR test for the diagnosis of imported malaria: comparison with microscopy, rapid diagnostic test, and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Nuria; Subirats, Mercedes; Trevisi, Patricia; Ramírez-Olivencia, Germán; Castán, Pablo; Puente, Sabino; Toro, Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the techniques commonly used for malaria diagnosis but they are usually insensitive at very low levels of parasitemia. Nested PCR is commonly used as a reference technique in the diagnosis of malaria due to its high sensitivity and specificity. However, it is a cumbersome assay only available in reference centers. We evaluated a new nested PCR-based assay, BIOMALAR kit (Biotools B&M Labs, Madrid, Spain) which employs ready-to-use gelled reagents and allows the identification of the main four species of Plasmodium. Blood samples were obtained from patients with clinical suspicion of malaria. A total of 94 subjects were studied. Fifty-two (55.3%) of them were malaria-infected subjects corresponding to 48 cases of Plasmodium falciparum, 1 Plasmodium malariae, 2 Plasmodium vivax, and 1 Plasmodium ovale. The performance of the BIOMALAR test was compared with microscopy, rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (BinaxNOW® Malaria) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The BIOMALAR test showed a sensitivity of 98.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.7-100), superior to microscopy (82.7% [95% CI, 69.7-91.8]) and RDT (94.2% [95% CI, 84.1-98.8]) and similar to qPCR (100% [95% CI, 93.2-100]). In terms of specificity, the BIOMALAR assay showed the same value as microscopy and qPCR (100% [95% CI, 93.2-100]). Nine subjects were submicroscopic carriers of malaria. The BIOMALAR test identified almost all of them (8/9) in comparison with RDT (6/9) and microscopy (0/9). In conclusion, the BIOMALAR is a PCR-based assay easy to use with an excellent performance and especially useful for diagnosis submicroscopic malaria.

  5. Cure Studies and Cured Properties of Diglycidyl Ether of 4- Methylolresorcinol (A Rapid-Gelling Epoxy Resin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    potassium iodide method. A resin sample of were determined by the 1.0 to 1.5 g was weighed Erlenmeyer flask, mixture was then To the held at...bromophenol blue in 99.9 g n-propanol) and 3.0 g of potassium iodide in 5 ml of distilled water were added rapidly. The titrated with 1 N...increase its shelf life , the resin should therefore be stored at lower temperatures. At -14"C ាF), no viscosity increase was noticed over 6 months

  6. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Susan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%, HCV (6.5%, and HIV (2.6% infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500, the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85% of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60 reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60, 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53% of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe

  7. Rapid Self-Integrating, Injectable Hydrogel for Tissue Complex Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Sen; Wang, Xuefei; Park, Sean; Jin, Xiaobing; Ma, Peter X

    2015-07-15

    A novel rapid self-integrating, injectable, and bioerodible hydrogel is developed for bone-cartilage tissue complex regeneration. The hydrogels are able to self-integrate to form various structures, as can be seen after dying some hydrogel disks pink with rodamine. This hydrogel is demonstrated to engineer cartilage-bone complex.

  8. Novel injectable, self-gelling hydrogel-microparticle composites for bone regeneration consisting of gellan gum and calcium and magnesium carbonate microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Łapa, Agata; Reczyńska, Katarzyna; Krok-Borkowicz, Małgorzata; Pietryga, Krzysztof; Samal, Sangram Keshari; Declercq, Heidi A; Schaubroeck, David; Boone, Marijn; Van der Voort, Pascal; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Stevens, Christian V; Bliznuk, Vitaliy; Balcaen, Lieve; Parakhonskiy, Bogdan V; Vanhaecke, Frank; Cnudde, Veerle; Pamuła, Elżbieta; Skirtach, Andre G

    2016-11-21

    The suitability of hydrogel biomaterials for bone regeneration can be improved by incorporation of an inorganic phase in particle form, thus maintaining hydrogel injectability. In this study, carbonate microparticles containing different amounts of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were added to solutions of the anionic polysaccharide gellan gum (GG) to crosslink GG by release of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) from microparticles and thereby induce formation of hydrogel-microparticle composites. It was hypothesized that increasing Mg content of microparticles would promote GG hydrogel formation. The effect of Mg incorporation on cytocompatibility and cell growth was also studied. Microparticles were formed by mixing Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and [Formula: see text] ions in varying concentrations. Microparticles were characterized physiochemically and subsequently mixed with GG solution to form hydrogel-microparticle composites. The elemental Ca:Mg ratio in the mineral formed was similar to the Ca:Mg ratio of the ions added. In the absence of Mg, vaterite was formed. At low Mg content, magnesian calcite was formed. Increasing the Mg content further caused formation of amorphous mineral. Microparticles of vaterite and magnesium calcite did not induce GG hydrogel formation, but addition of Mg-richer amorphous microparticles induced gelation within 20 min. Microparticles were dispersed homogeneously in hydrogels. MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were cultured in eluate from hydrogel-microparticle composites and on the composites themselves. All composites were cytocompatible. Cell growth was highest on composites containing particles with an equimolar Ca:Mg ratio. In summary, carbonate microparticles containing a sufficient amount of Mg induced GG hydrogel formation, resulting in injectable, cytocompatible hydrogel-microparticle composites.

  9. Gelled Electrolytes For Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Attia, Alan; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Gelled polymer electrolyte consists of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), LiBF4, and propylene carbonate (PC). Thin films of electrolyte found to exhibit stable bulk conductivities of order of 10 to the negative 3rd power S/cm at room temperature. Used in thinfilm rechargeable lithium batteries having energy densities near 150 W h/kg.

  10. A microbial trigger for gelled polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, S.; Bryant, R.; Zhu, T.

    1995-12-31

    A process using a microbially gelled biopolymer was developed and used to modify permeability in coreflood experiments. Alkaline-soluble curdlan biopolymer was mixed with microbial nutrients and acid-producing alkaliphilic bacteria, and injected into Berea sandstone cores. Concurrent bottle tests with the polymer solution were incubated beside the core. Polymer in the bottle tests formed rigid gel in 2-5 days at 27{degree}C. After 7 days incubation, 25-35 psi fluid pressure was required to begin flow through the cores. Permeability of the cores was decreased from 852 md to 2.99 md and from 904 md to 4.86 md, respectively, giving residual resistance factors of 334 and 186.

  11. Simulation and analysis of injection moulding and rapid prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Murti, Bimo

    2010-01-01

    Injection Moulding is the one of the most common methods in producing plastic products for many purposes ranging from a daily product to high-tech equipments. This thesis studies the possibility of incorporating the Injection Moulding simulation software into the mould design process in order to analyze the product, foresee the possible defects, and optimize the design to achieve the maximum outcome of the products with minimum cycle time in each production cycle. The Autodesk MoldFlow P...

  12. Rapid and simple determination of delivery after iontophoretic and pressure injections of radiolabeled tracer substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, H.; Steindler, D.A.; Kitai, S.T. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1983-04-01

    A fluorographic method is described using X-ray film analysis for the determination of delivery of radiolabeled tracer substances both in Agar plates and in tissue sections. This method is most useful in neuroanatomical autoradiographic studies for providing rapid identification of delivery, placement and extent of an injection site after iontophoresis or pressure injections of radiolabeled axonal tracer substances.

  13. The dual temperature/pH-sensitive multiphase behavior of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) microgels for potential application in in situ gelling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Gao, Xiang; Zhao, Yanbing; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2011-05-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) microgels (PNA) may be an excellent formulation for in situ gelling system due to their high sensitivity and fast response rate. Four monodispersed PNA microgels with various contents of acrylic acid (AA) were synthesized by emulsion polymerization in this paper. Their hydrodynamic diameters decreased reversibly with both decreasing pH and increasing temperature. The dual temperature/pH-sensitivity was influenced by many factors such as AA content, cross-link density and ion strength. In addition, high concentration PNA dispersions underwent multiple phase transition according to different temperatures, pHs and concentrations, which were summarized in a 3D sol-gel phase diagram in this study. According to the sol-gel phase transition, 8% PNA-025 dispersion maintained a relatively low viscosity and favorable fluidity at pH 5.0 in the temperature range of 25-40°C, but it rapidly increased in viscosity at pH 7.4 and gelled at 37°C. This feature enabled the dual temperature/pH-sensitive microgels to overcome the troubles in syringing of temperature sensitive materials during the injection. Apart from this, PNA could form gel well in in vitro (e.g., medium and serum) and in in vivo with low cytotoxicity. Therefore, it is promising for PNA to be applied in the in situ gelling system.

  14. Gelled Propellants for Reduced Temperature Operation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is responsive to NASA 2004 SBIR objectives (under Topic X6.05) seeking gelled propellant formulations "for long-duration missions involving low-power...

  15. Rapid control of mold temperature during injection molding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liparoti, Sara; Titomanlio, Giuseppe [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Hunag, Tsang Min; Cakmak, Mukerrem [Department of Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325 (United States); Sorrentino, Andrea [Institute for Polymers, Composite and Biomaterials (IPCB) - CNR, P. Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2015-05-22

    The control of mold surface temperature is an important factor that determines surface morphology and its dimension in thickness direction. It can also affect the frozen molecular orientation and the mold surface replicability in injection molded products. In this work, thin thermally active films were used to quickly control the mold surface temperature. In particular, an active high electrical conductivity carbon black loaded polyimide composites sandwiched between two insulating thin polymeric layers was used to condition the mold surface. By controlling the heating time, it was possible to control precisely the temporal variation of the mold temperature surface during the entire cycle. The surface heating rate was about 40°C/s and upon contact with the polymer the surface temperature decreased back to 40°C within about 5 s; the overall cycle time increased only slightly. The effect on cross section sample morphology of samples of iPP were analyzed and discussed on the basis of the recorded temperature evolution.

  16. Food gels: gelling process and new applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumya; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2012-01-01

    Food gels are viscoelastic substances and several gelled products are manufactured throughout the world. The gelling agents in foods are usually polysaccharides and proteins. In food gels, the polymer molecules are not cross-linked by covalent bonds with the exception of disulphide bonds in some protein gels. Instead, the molecules are held together by a combination of weak inter-molecular forces like hydrogen bonds, electrostatic forces, Van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic interactions. Polysaccharides including hydrocolloids are strongly hydrated in aqueous medium but they tend to have less ordered structures. The mechanism of gelation depends on the nature of the gelling agent(s) and on the conditions of gel formation like the temperature, the presence of ions, the pH, and the concentration of gelling agents, etc. Characterization of gels can be performed in several ways of which rheological measurements are frequently practiced. Multi-component or mixed gel system is an important area of interest in which two or more gelling components are simultaneously used to achieve certain specific structural and functional characteristics. We here discuss about the different gels and gelling agents, the characterization of gels, and the mechanism of gelation with an emphasis on mixed or multi-component gels that would have significant commercial applications.

  17. Electrospray formation of gelled nano-aluminum microspheres with superior reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyang; Jian, Guoqiang; Yan, Shi; DeLisio, Jeffery B; Huang, Chuan; Zachariah, Michael R

    2013-08-14

    Nanometallic fuels with high combustion enthalpy, such as aluminum, have been proposed as a potential fuel replacement for conventional metallic fuel to improve propellant performance in a variety of propulsive systems. Nevertheless, nanometallic fuels suffer from the processing challenges in polymer formulations such as increased viscosity and large agglomeration, which hinder their implementation. In this letter, we employ electrospray as a means to create a gel within a droplet, via a rapid, solvent evaporation-induced aggregation of aluminum nanoparticles, containing a small mass fraction of an energetic binder. The gelled aluminum microspheres were characterized and tested for their burning behavior by rapid wire heating ignition experiments. The gelled aluminum microspheres show enhanced combustion behavior compared to nanoaluminum, which possibly benefits from the nitrocellulose coating and the gelled microstructure, and is far superior to the corresponding dense micrometer-sized aluminum.

  18. Rivastigmine-loaded in situ gelling nanostructured lipid carriers for nose to brain delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wavikar, Preeti R; Vavia, Pradeep R

    2015-01-01

    In the current research work, rivastigmine (RV)-loaded in situ gelling nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were developed for nose to brain delivery. NLCs were fabricated by ethanol injection method using glyceryl monosterate, Capmul MCM C8, Lecithin and Tween 80. NLCs showed average particle size of 123.2 ± 2.3 nm with entrapment efficiency of 68.34 ± 3.4%. DSC, XRD and IR studies showed complete amorphization and incorporation of the drug into nanoparticles. NLCs were incorporated into an in situ gelling system using 0.8% gellan gum and 15% Lutrol F 127. RV in situ gel showed excellent elasticity, rheology, mucoadhesion and adhesiveness to facilitate its adhesion to the upper nasal mucosa. NLC-based in situ gel showed a 2-fold increase in nasal permeation of the drug over plain RV solution. In situ gelling NLCs showed a 3-fold increase in enzyme inhibition efficacy.

  19. Evaluation of biocompatible stabilised gelled soya bean oil nanoparticles as new hydrophobic reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudier, Ariane; Kirilov, Plamen; Franceschi-Messant, Sophie; Belkhelfa, Haouaria; Hadioui, Laila; Roques, Christine; Perez, Emile; Rico-Lattes, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Based on the organogel concept, in which an oil is trapped in a network of low-molecular-mass organic gelator fibres creating a gel, a formulation of gelled soya bean oil nanoparticles was evaluated for its capacity to form biocompatible hydrophobic reservoirs. The aqueous dispersions of nanoparticles were prepared by hot emulsification (T° > Tgel) and cooling at room temperature in the presence of polyethyleneimine (PEI). The dispersions were stabilised by the electrostatic interactions between the positively charged amino groups of the PEI and the negatively charged carboxylates of the gelator fibres present at the surface of the particles. The aqueous dispersions were highly stable (several months) and the gelled particles were able to entrap a hydrophobic fluorescent model molecule (Nile red), allowing testing in cells. The gelled oil nanoparticles were found to be biocompatible with the tested cells (keratinocytes) and had the ability to become rapidly internalised. Thus, organogel-based nanoparticles are a promising hydrophobic drug delivery system.

  20. Murray Gell-Mann, A Short Appreciation

    CERN Document Server

    Hartle, James B

    2015-01-01

    On September 25, 2014 Murray Gell-Mann was presented with the Helmholz Medal of the Berlin Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities in a ceremony at the Santa Fe Institute. The author, among others, was asked to speak for fifteen minutes on Murray and his accomplishments. The following is an edited transcription of the author's speaking text.

  1. Study on a noninvasive method for rapid screening Human Serum albumin injectables by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human serum albumin (HSA injectable product is a severely afflicted area on drug safety due to its high price and restricted supply. Raman spectroscopy performances high specificity on HSA detection and it is even possible to determine HSA injectable products noninvasively. In this study, we developed a noninvasive rapid screening method for of HSA injectable products by using portable Raman spectrometer. Qualitative models were established by using principal component analysis combined with classical least squares (PCA-CLS algorithm, while quantitative model was established by using partial least squares (PLS algorithm. Model transfer in different instruments of both the same and different apparatus modules was further discussed in this paper. A total of 34 HSA injectable samples collected from markets were used for verification. The identification results showed 100% accuracy and the predicted concentrations of those identified as true HSA were consistent with their labeled concentrations. The quantitative results also indicated that model transfer was excellent in the same apparatus modules of Raman spectrometer at all concentration levels, and still good enough in the different apparatus modules although the relative standard deviation (RSD value showed a little increasing trend at low HSA concentration level. In conclusion, the method was proved to be feasible and efficient for screening HSA injections, especially on its screening speed and the consideration of glass containers. Moreover, with inspiring results on the model transfer, the method could be used as a universal screening mean to different Raman instruments.

  2. Flow visualization of a rocket injector spray using gelled propellant simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James M.; Rapp, Douglas C.; Roncace, James

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted at NASA-Lewis to compare the atomization characteristics of gelled and nongelled propellant simulants. A gelled propellant simulant composed of water, sodium hydroxide, and an acrylic acid polymer resin (as the gelling agent) was used to simulate the viscosity of an aluminum/PR-1 metallized fuel gel. Water was used as a comparison fluid to isolate the rheological effects of the water-gel and to simulate nongelled RP-1. The water-gel was injected through the central orifice of a triplet injector element and the central post of a coaxial injector element. Nitrogen gas flowed through the outer orifices of the triplet injector element and through the annulus of the coaxial injector element and atomized the gelled and nongelled liquids. Photographs of the water-gel spray patterns at different operating conditions were compared with images obtained using water and nitrogen. A laser light was used for illumination of the sprays. The results of the testing showed that the water sprays produced a finer and more uniform atomization than the water-gel sprays. Rheological analysis of the water-gel showed poor atomization caused by high viscosity of water-gel delaying the transition to turbulence.

  3. Gelling nature of aluminum soaps in oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaorong; Rackaitis, Mindaugas

    2009-03-15

    Aluminum soaps are notable for their ability to form soap-hydrocarbon gels of high viscosity. For more than half a century, it has been believed that the gelling mechanism is due to a formation of polymeric chains of aluminum molecules with the aluminum atoms linking along the axis and with the fatty acid chain extended sideways. Here we report results from an investigation using high-resolution electron microscopy and rheology measurements that clearly resolve the ambiguity. Our results reveal that the gelling mechanism stems from the formation of spherical nano-sized micelles from aluminum soap molecules, and those colloidal micelle particles then aggregate into networks of highly fractal and jammed structures. The earlier proposed polymer chain-like structure is definitely incorrect. The discovery of aluminum soap particles could expand application of these materials to new technologies.

  4. In-situ gelling polymers for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the research involving in situ gelling polymers and can be used as a guidebook for academics, industrialists and postgraduates interested in this area. This work summaries the academic contributions from the top authorities in the field and explore the fundamental principles of in situ gelling polymeric networks, along with examples of their major applications. This book aims to provide an up-to-date resource of in situ gelling polymer research.

  5. Monitoring collagen gelling by elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS)

    OpenAIRE

    Jawad, H.; Austwick, M.; MacRobert, S.; Kuraishi, A.; Tully, F.; Alkseeva, T.; Brown, R.

    2011-01-01

    Collagen is being used extensively in tissue engineering and on a larger scale in the field of cosmetic surgery. It is either used as a gel or plastically compressed sheet. The fundamental science behind collagen gelling has been studied but little is known about the precise timing of gelling and the variables that affect gelling in the first 30 minutes. Critically, before collagen can be engineered as a predictable functional material we must be able to control fibril aggregation and gel for...

  6. Improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of rapid-acting insulin using needle-free jet injection technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, E.E.; Abbink, E.J.; Tack, C.J.J.; Galan, B.E. de

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Insulin administered by jet injectors is dispensed over a larger subcutaneous area than insulin injected with a syringe, which may facilitate a more rapid absorption. This study compared the pharmacologic profile of administration of insulin aspart by jet injection to that by conventional

  7. Development of in situ gelling and bio adhesive 5-Fluorouracil enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Shao-Hua; Fang, Xia-Qin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) enema with good bio adhesion and temperature sensitivity was developed using in situ gelling technology. The preparation was formulated as a free-flowing liquid before use, while a layer of gel film was quickly formed when administered in the rectum, with a large contact surface area. It also demonstrated good biocompatibility, appropriate gel strength and bio adhesive force with excellent adhesion to rectal mucosa and prolonged action time, allowing more effective drug absorption and diffusion to surrounding tissues. Poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 were applied to adjust the gelling temperature. With the addition of carbopol and polycarbophil (bio adhesive substances), the solubility of 5-FU and gel strength increased, the temperature of gelation and the surface area of drug contact on mucous epithelium decreased. Decreased adhesive force between the preparation and the mucous membrane of the rectum was demonstrated with improving carbopol and polycarbophil's concentration. In vitro release demonstrated that 5-FU in situ gelling enema with different bases had a rapid and almost complete drug release. We used an optimized formulation of P407/P188/polycarbophil/5-FU (17/2.5/0.2/1.0) for animal experiments. The result showed that the drug evenly covered the surface of the rectum and there was no leakage in 6 hours. The in situ gelling enema showed significantly higher rectal tissue levels of 5-FU compared with suppository and intravenous administration, indicating that 5-FU could be well absorbed due to the enlarged releasing area, longer retention time and larger amount of dissolved active ingredients. Systemically, 5-FU levels in the enema group were similar to those in the suppository group and significantly lower than the intravenous group. The enema was not associated with morphological damage to rectal tissue. These results suggest that the bio adhesive and in situ gelling enema could be a more effective rectal

  8. Development of in situ gelling and bio adhesive 5-Fluorouracil enema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Lu Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU enema with good bio adhesion and temperature sensitivity was developed using in situ gelling technology. The preparation was formulated as a free-flowing liquid before use, while a layer of gel film was quickly formed when administered in the rectum, with a large contact surface area. It also demonstrated good biocompatibility, appropriate gel strength and bio adhesive force with excellent adhesion to rectal mucosa and prolonged action time, allowing more effective drug absorption and diffusion to surrounding tissues. Poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 were applied to adjust the gelling temperature. With the addition of carbopol and polycarbophil (bio adhesive substances, the solubility of 5-FU and gel strength increased, the temperature of gelation and the surface area of drug contact on mucous epithelium decreased. Decreased adhesive force between the preparation and the mucous membrane of the rectum was demonstrated with improving carbopol and polycarbophil's concentration. In vitro release demonstrated that 5-FU in situ gelling enema with different bases had a rapid and almost complete drug release. We used an optimized formulation of P407/P188/polycarbophil/5-FU (17/2.5/0.2/1.0 for animal experiments. The result showed that the drug evenly covered the surface of the rectum and there was no leakage in 6 hours. The in situ gelling enema showed significantly higher rectal tissue levels of 5-FU compared with suppository and intravenous administration, indicating that 5-FU could be well absorbed due to the enlarged releasing area, longer retention time and larger amount of dissolved active ingredients. Systemically, 5-FU levels in the enema group were similar to those in the suppository group and significantly lower than the intravenous group. The enema was not associated with morphological damage to rectal tissue. These results suggest that the bio adhesive and in situ gelling enema could be a more

  9. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO

  10. Heather Gell and Music Education in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Kindergartener and Dalcroze teacher, Heather Gell (1896-1988), brought music to thousands of Australian children and adults. The community touched by Gell was vast: it included her classes in studios and teacher training colleges, "listeners in" to her radio programs, viewers of her television programs, Dalcroze trainees, and people in…

  11. Gelled Complex Fluids: Combining Unique Structures with Mechanical Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Cosima; Gießelmann, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Gelled complex fluids are soft materials in which the microstructure of the complex fluid is combined with the mechanical stability of a gel. To obtain a gelled complex fluid one either adds a gelator to a complex fluid or replaces the solvent in a gel by a complex fluid. The most prominent example of a "natural" gelled complex fluid is the cell. There are various strategies by which one can form a gelled complex fluid; one such strategy is orthogonal self-assembly, that is, the independent but simultaneous formation of two coexisting self-assembled structures within one system. The aim of this Review is to describe the structure and potential applications of various man-made gelled complex fluids and to clarify whether or not the respective system is formed by orthogonal self-assembly.

  12. Bienzymatic Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Aspartame by Flow Injection Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Cristina Radulescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX, carboxyl esterase (CaE and bovine serum albumin (BSA were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC. The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA system was 40 h−1 with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 µM for methanol and 0.2 µM for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement.

  13. Bienzymatic biosensor for rapid detection of aspartame by flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Bucur, Bogdan; Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2014-01-09

    A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX), carboxyl esterase (CaE) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA) onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC). The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was 40 h⁻¹ with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 µM for methanol and 0.2 µM for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples) without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement.

  14. Comparative Pharmacokinetics and Insulin Action for Three Rapid-Acting Insulin Analogs Injected Subcutaneously With and Without Hyaluronidase

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, Linda; Muchmore, Douglas B.; Hompesch, Marcus; Ludington, Elizabeth A.; Vaughn, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the pharmacokinetics and glucodynamics of three rapid-acting insulin analogs (aspart, glulisine, and lispro) injected subcutaneously with or without recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This double-blind six-way crossover euglycemic glucose clamp study was conducted in 14 healthy volunteers. Each analog was injected subcutaneously (0.15 units/kg) with or without rHuPH20. RESULTS The commercial formulations had comparable insulin time-expo...

  15. Rapid and low-cost prototyping of medical devices using 3D printed molds for liquid injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Philip; Heller, J Alex; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Ottoson, Paige E; Liu, Jonathan A; Rand, Larry; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-06-27

    Biologically inert elastomers such as silicone are favorable materials for medical device fabrication, but forming and curing these elastomers using traditional liquid injection molding processes can be an expensive process due to tooling and equipment costs. As a result, it has traditionally been impractical to use liquid injection molding for low-cost, rapid prototyping applications. We have devised a method for rapid and low-cost production of liquid elastomer injection molded devices that utilizes fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as an injection system. Low costs and rapid turnaround time in this technique lower the barrier to iteratively designing and prototyping complex elastomer devices. Furthermore, CAD models developed in this process can be later adapted for metal mold tooling design, enabling an easy transition to a traditional injection molding process. We have used this technique to manufacture intravaginal probes involving complex geometries, as well as overmolding over metal parts, using tools commonly available within an academic research laboratory. However, this technique can be easily adapted to create liquid injection molded devices for many other applications.

  16. Flow Injection/Sequential Injection Analysis Systems: Potential Use as Tools for Rapid Liver Diseases Biomarker Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Kradtap Hartwell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow injection/sequential injection analysis (FIA/SIA systems are suitable for carrying out automatic wet chemical/biochemical reactions with reduced volume and time consumption. Various parts of the system such as pump, valve, and reactor may be built or adapted from available materials. Therefore the systems can be at lower cost as compared to other instrumentation-based analysis systems. Their applications for determination of biomarkers for liver diseases have been demonstrated in various formats of operation but only a few and limited types of biomarkers have been used as model analytes. This paper summarizes these applications for different types of reactions as a guide for using flow-based systems in more biomarker and/or multibiomarker studies.

  17. Rapid deglacial injection of nutrients into the tropical Atlantic via Antarctic Intermediate Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggemann, David-Willem; Hathorne, Ed C.; Nürnberg, Dirk; Frank, Martin; Bruhn, Imke; Reißig, Stefan; Bahr, André

    2017-04-01

    As part of the return flow of the Atlantic overturning circulation, Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) redistributes heat, salt, CO2 and nutrients from the Southern Ocean to the tropical Atlantic and thus plays a key role in ocean-atmosphere exchange. It feeds (sub)tropical upwelling linking high and low latitude ocean biogeochemistry but the dynamics of AAIW during the last deglaciation remain poorly constrained. We present new multi-decadal benthic foraminiferal Cd/Ca and stable carbon isotope (δ13 C) records from tropical W-Atlantic sediment cores indicating abrupt deglacial nutrient enrichment of AAIW as a consequence of enhanced deglacial Southern Ocean upwelling intensity. This is the first clear evidence from the intermediate depth tropical W-Atlantic that the deglacial reconnection of shallow and deep Atlantic overturning cells effectively altered the AAIW nutrient budget and its geochemical signature. The rapid nutrient injection via AAIW likely fed temporary low latitude productivity, thereby dampening the deglacial rise of atmospheric CO2.

  18. Needle-free jet injection of rapid-acting insulin improves early postprandial glucose control in patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, E.E.; Tack, C.J.J.; Galan, B.E. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clamp studies have shown that the absorption and action of rapid-acting insulin are faster with injection by a jet injector than with administration by conventional pen. To determine whether these pharmacokinetic changes also exist in patients with diabetes and benefit postprandial glucos

  19. Rapid detection of pesticides not amenable to multi-residue methods by flow injection-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.G.J.; Dam, van R.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Flow injection combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was investigated for the rapid detection of highly polar pesticides that are not amenable to multi-residue methods because they do not partition into organic solvents and require dedicated chromatographic conditions. The pesticides includ

  20. Gelling properties of microparticulated whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Muditha; Kelly, Alan L; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2010-06-09

    Subjecting whey proteins to high-pressure shearing with or without heating, commonly termed microparticulation, results in novel ingredients with modulated functionalities. Gelling properties of microparticulated whey proteins (MWP) were specifically assessed in this study. MWP powders were produced from commercial cheese whey retentate, standardized to 10% (w/w) protein, and subjected to microfluidization (MFZ) at 140 MPa either with or without prior heat-induced denaturation, followed by spray-drying. Gels were created from aqueous MWP dispersions either by heating at 90 degrees C for 20 min or by allowing gels to form at ambient temperature through addition of glucano-delta-lactone and/or NaCl. MWP powders produced from unheated WP dispersions created firm gels upon heating, whereas those produced from denatured WP gave only cold-set gels. Covalent and noncovalent protein-protein interactions were involved during both heat- and cold-induced gelation. Hydrophobic interactions were more pronounced during aggregation of bovine serum albumin. In conclusion, microparticulation of WP resulted in heat- and cold-set gels with different molecular and physical characteristics from those of untreated controls.

  1. Gelucire Based In Situ Gelling Emulsions: A Potential Carrier for Sustained Stomach Specific Delivery of Gastric Irritant Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are commonly prescribed medications to the geriatric patients for the treatment of arthritis and other painful disorders. The major side effects of NSAIDs are related to their effects on the stomach and bowels. The present study concerns assessment of the potential of liquid in situ gelling emulsion formulations (emulgels as patient compliant stomach specific sustained release carrier for the delivery of highly gastric irritant drug, Piroxicam. Emulgels were prepared, without using any emulgent, by mixing different concentrations of molten Gelucire 39/01 with low viscosity sodium alginate solution prepared in deionized water at 50°C. CaCO3 was used as buoyancy imparting as well as crosslinking agent. Emulgels so prepared were homogenous, physically stable, and rapidly formed into buoyant gelled mass when exposed to simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.2. Drug release studies carried out in SGF revealed significant retardation (P<0.05 of Piroxicam release from emulgels compared to conventional in situ gelling formulations prepared without Gelucire 39/01. Pharmacodynamic studies carried out in albino rats revealed significantly increased analgesic/anti-inflammatory response from in situ emulgels compared to conventional in situ gelling formulations. Further, in vivo toxicity studies carried out in albino rats revealed no signs of gastric ulceration upon prolonged dosing.

  2. Acceptability of rapid oral fluid HIV testing among male injection drug users in Taiwan, 1997 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Shu-Yu; Morisky, Donald E; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Twu, Shiing-Jer; Peng, Eugene Yu-Chang; Malow, Robert M

    2011-04-01

    Rapid oral fluid HIV testing (rapid oral testing) is in the process of being adapted in Taiwan and elsewhere given its advantages over prior HIV testing methods. To guide this process, we examined the acceptability of rapid oral testing at two time points (i.e., 1997 and 2007) among one of the highest risk populations, male injection drug users (IDUs). For this purpose, an anonymous self-administered survey was completed by HIV-negative IDUs involved in the criminal justice system in 1997 (N (1)=137 parolees) and 2007 (N (2)=106 prisoners). A social marketing model helped guide the design of our questionnaire to assess the acceptability of rapid oral testing. This included assessing a new product, across four marketing dimensions: product, price, promotion, and place. Results revealed that in both 1997 and 2007, over 90% indicated that rapid oral testing would be highly acceptable, particularly if the cost was under US$6, and that a pharmacy would be the most appropriate and accessible venue for selling the rapid oral testing kits. The vast majority of survey respondents believed that the cost of rapid oral testing should be federally subsidized and that television and newspaper advertisements would be the most effective media to advertise for rapid oral testing. Both the 1997 and 2007 surveys suggested that rapid oral HIV testing would be particularly accepted in Taiwan by IDUs after release from the criminal justice system.

  3. Using bio-impedance for rapid screening of water injection into chicken filets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simeone, F.C.; Brouwer, S.E.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Injecting chicken products with water has emerged as a considerably spread method for increasing the weights of the product in order to increase profits. Due to the huge number of products that are retailed daily, it is out of reach to test them with conventional methods for water injection. Here we

  4. Using bio-impedance for rapid screening of water injection into chicken filets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simeone, F.C.; Brouwer, S.E.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Injecting chicken products with water has emerged as a considerably spread method for increasing the weights of the product in order to increase profits. Due to the huge number of products that are retailed daily, it is out of reach to test them with conventional methods for water injection. Here we

  5. Experimental comparative study of doublet and triplet impinging atomization of gelled fuel based on PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-lu; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-sheng

    2016-10-01

    Gelled propellant is promising for future aerospace application because of its combination of the advantages of solid propellants and liquid propellants. An effort was made to reveal the atomization properties of gelled fuel by particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. The gelled fuel which was formed by gasoline and Nano-silica was atomized using a like-doublet impingement injector and an axisymmetric like-triplet impingement injector. The orifice diameter and length of the nozzle used in this work were of 0.8mm, 4.8mm, respectively. In the impinging spray process, the impingement angles were set at 90° and 120°, and the injection pressures were of 0.50MPa and 1.00MPa. The distance from the exit of the orifice to the impingement point was fixed at 9.6mm. In this study, high-speed visualization and temporal resolution particle image velocimetry techniques were employed to investigate the impingement atomization characteristics. The experimental investigation demonstrated that a long narrow high speed droplets belt formed around the axis of symmetry in the like-doublet impinging atomization area. However, there was no obvious high-speed belt with impingement angle 2θ = 90° and two high-speed belts appeared with impingement angle 2θ = 120° in the like-doublet impingement spray field. The high droplet velocity zone of the like-doublet impingement atomization symmetrically distributed around the central axis, and that of the like-triplet impingement spray deflected to the left of the central axis - opposite of injector. Although the droplets velocity distribution was asymmetry of like-triplet impingement atomization, the injectors were arranged like axisymmetric conical shape, and the cross section of spray area was similar to a circle rather than a narrow rectangle like the like-doublet impingement atomization.

  6. Usefulness of vernakalant hydrochloride injection for rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratt, Craig M.; Roy, Dennis; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of vernakalant hydrochloride injection (RSD1235), a novel antiarrhythmic drug, for the conversion of atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter to sinus rhythm (SR). Patients with either AF or atrial flutter were random...

  7. A rapid and accurate method for determining protein content in dairy products based on asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qin-Qin; Li, Yong-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    An accurate and rapid method and a system to determine protein content using asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry based on reaction between coomassie brilliant blue G250 (CBBG) and protein was established. Main merit of our approach is that it can avoid interferences of other nitric-compounds in samples, such as melamine and urea. Optimized conditions are as follows: Concentrations of CBBG, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), NaCl and HCl are 150 mg/l, 30 mg/l, 0.1 mol/l and 1.0% (v/v), respectively; volumes of the sample and reagent are 150 μl and 30 μl, respectively; length of a reaction coil is 200 cm; total flow rate is 2.65 ml/min. The linear range of the method is 0.5-15 mg/l (BSA), its detection limit is 0.05 mg/l, relative standard deviation is less than 1.87% (n=11), and analytical speed is 60 samples per hour.

  8. Rats markedly escalate their intake and show a persistent susceptibility to reinstatement only when cocaine is injected rapidly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ken T; Weiss, Mark J; Pickup, Kristen N; Robinson, Terry E

    2010-08-25

    When drugs enter the brain rapidly, liability for addiction is increased, but why this is the case is not well understood. Here we examined the influence of varying the speed of intravenous cocaine delivery on self-administration behavior in rats given limited or extended opportunity to take drug. The speed of cocaine delivery had no effect on self-administration behavior when rats were given only 1 h each day to take cocaine. When given sixfold more time to take cocaine, rats that received cocaine rapidly (5-45 s) increased their total intake eightfold. However, rats that received cocaine more slowly (>90 s) did not avail themselves of the opportunity to take much more drug: they increased their intake only twofold. Furthermore, when tested 45 d after the last self-administration session, a drug-priming injection reinstated drug-seeking behavior only in rats that in the past had cocaine injected rapidly (5 s), and this was associated with a persistent suppression in the ability of cocaine to induce immediate early gene expression. Cocaine may be potentially more addictive when it reaches the brain rapidly because (1) this promotes a marked escalation in intake and (2) it renders individuals more susceptible to relapse long after the discontinuation of drug use. This is presumably because the rapid uptake of drug to the brain preferentially promotes persistent changes in brain systems that regulate motivation for drug, and continuing exposure to large amounts of drug produces a vicious cycle of additional maladaptive changes in brain and behavior.

  9. Dynamics Research on the Gelling Course of Silica Sol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUYi-chun; LIZai-geng

    1995-01-01

    Dreipping electrolytes into silica sol ,gelling reaction will occur,The research indicates:this is a complicated physicemistry course,which consists of a pre-reaction and a polymerizaion,The former controls the whole course,and in which electronic layers of the sol's particles be-come more and more thiner,but with incresing of the sol concentration,its control force will be diminished ,till the fast-coagulation ,the gelling couse becomes o-controlled,The latter is an in-finite polymeric chani-reaction.The result of gelatination is to produce a very big plymeric molecule-gel,which involves in all space,includes all water ,and its molecular weight is in-definite big.The researh also indicates:the dy-namic course of the gelling could be described quantitaively by an experience formula:lgt=-nlgc+B,All of the characteristic values have definite physical meaning,Electronic value of the contrary-inos is the biggest influential factor ,the natures of the contrary-ions and the natures of the same-electronic-inos have a few influential forces on the characteristic values,The temperature increasing makes the gelling reaction fast.

  10. Particle tracking study of the injection process with field interferences in a rapid cycling synchrotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Shirakata

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The large-bore magnets in the injection system of a high-intensity proton synchrotron are placed close to each other as compared to their bore sizes. In such cases, the magnetic cores interfere with the fringe fields of adjacent magnets. Moreover, the incoming beam passes through several kinds of time-varying fields along the injection line and the nonlinear field region of the ring quadrupole magnet. The beam behavior under these conditions is analyzed by using the Runge-Kutta method. Although the interference of the magnetic fields does not result in emittance growth, it produces a closed-orbit distortion. Field fluctuations of the time-varying field cause an emittance growth and the nonlinear field deforms the beam profile in phase space of the incoming beam. These effects lead to the modification of the injection scheme. This study focuses on the particle tracking with magnetic field interferences during the early stage of beam commissioning, when the space charge force is not important.

  11. Flow injection based microfluidic device with carbon nanotube electrode for rapid salbutamol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuwan, Chanpen; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Maturos, Thitima; Phokharatkul, Disayut; Sappat, Assawapong; Jaruwongrungsee, Kata; Lomas, Tanom; Tuantranont, Adisorn

    2009-09-15

    A microfabicated flow injection device has been developed for in-channel electrochemical detection (ECD) of a beta-agonist, namely salbutamol. The microfluidic system consists of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) microchannel and electrochemical electrodes formed on glass substrate. The carbon nanotube (CNT) on gold layer as working electrode, silver as reference electrode and platinum as auxiliary electrode were deposited on a glass substrate. Silver, platinum, gold and stainless steel catalyst layers were coated by DC-sputtering. CNTs were then grown on the glass substance by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with gravity effect and water-assisted etching. 100-microm-deep and 500-microm-wide PDMS microchannels fabricated by SU-8 molding and casting were then bonded on glass substrate by oxygen plasma treatment. Flow injection and ECD of salbutamol was performed with the amperometric detection mode for in-channel detection of salbutamol. The influences of flow rate, injection volume, and detection potential on the response of current signal were optimized. Analytical characteristics, such as sensitivity, repeatability and dynamic range have been evaluated. Fast and highly sensitive detection of salbutamol have been achieved. Thus, the proposed combination of the efficient CNT electrode and miniaturized lab-on-a-chip is a powerful platform for beta-agonists detection.

  12. Application of Rapid Prototyping and Wire Arc Spray to the Fabrication of Injection Mold Tools (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, K. G.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is a layer-by-layer-based additive manufacturing process for constructing three-dimensional representations of a computer design from a wax, plastic, or similar material. Wire arc spray (WAS) is a metal spray forming technique, which deposits thin layers of metal onto a substrate or pattern. Marshall Space Flight Center currently has both capabilities in-house, and this project proposed merging the two processes into an innovative manufacturing technique, in which intermediate injection molding tool halves were to be fabricated with RP and WAS metal forming.

  13. Time-dependent injection as a model for rapid blazar flares

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharias, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Time-dependent injection can cause non-linear cooling effects, which lead to a faster energy loss of the electrons in jets. The most obvious result is the appearance of unique breaks in the SED, which would normally be attributed to a complicated electron distribution. The knowledge of the observation time and duration is important to interpret the observed spectra, because of the non-trivial evolution of the SED. Intrinsic gamma-gamma absorption processes in the emission region are only of minor importance.

  14. Hydrosoluble, UV-crosslinkable and injectable chitosan for patterned cell-laden microgel and rapid transdermal curing hydrogel in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoqiang; Wang, Lei; Xu, Feng; Gang, Xiaomin; Demirci, Utkan; Wei, Daqing; Li, Ying; Feng, Yujie; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu

    2015-08-01

    Natural and biodegradable chitosan with unique amino groups has found widespread applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery. However, its applications have been limited by the poor solubility of native chitosan in neutral pH solution, which subsequently fails to achieve cell-laden hydrogel at physiological pH. To address this, we incorporated UV crosslinking ability in chitosan, allowing fabrication of patterned cell-laden and rapid transdermal curing hydrogel in vivo. The hydrosoluble, UV crosslinkable and injectable N-methacryloyl chitosan (N-MAC) was synthesized via single-step chemoselective N-acylation reaction, which simultaneously endowed chitosan with well solubility in neutral pH solution, UV crosslinkable ability and injectability. The solubility of N-MAC in neutral pH solution increased 2.21-fold with substitution degree increasing from 10.9% to 28.4%. The N-MAC allowed fabrication of cell-laden microgels with on-demand patterns via photolithography, and the cell viability in N-MAC hydrogel maintained 96.3 ± 1.3% N-MAC allowed rapid transdermal curing hydrogel in vivo within 60s through minimally invasive clinical surgery. Histological analysis revealed that low-dose UV irradiation hardly induced skin injury and acute inflammatory response disappeared after 7 days. N-MAC would allow rapid, robust and cost-effective fabrication of patterned cell-laden polysaccharide microgels with unique amino groups serving as building blocks for tissue engineering and rapid transdermal curing hydrogel in vivo for localized and sustained protein delivery.

  15. Current Injection Provokes Rapid Expansion of the Guard Cell Cytosolic Volume and Triggers Ca(2+) Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lena J; Hedrich, Rainer; Roelfsema, M Rob G

    2016-03-07

    High-resolution microscopy opens the door for detailed single-cell studies with fluorescent reporter dyes and proteins. We used a confocal spinning disc microscope to monitor fluorescent dyes and the fluorescent protein Venus in tobacco and Arabidopsis guard cells. Multi-barreled microelectrodes were used to inject dyes and apply voltage pulses, which provoke transient rises in the cytosolic Ca(2+) level. Voltage pulses also caused changes in the distribution of Lucifer Yellow and Venus, which pointed to a reversible increase of guard cell cytosolic volume. The dynamic cytosolic volume changes turned out to be provoked by current injection of ions. A reduction of the clamp current, by blocking K(+) uptake channels with Cs(+), strongly suppressed the cytosolic volume changes. Cs(+) not only inhibited the expansion of the cytosol, but also inhibited hyperpolarization-induced elevations of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. A complete loss of voltage-induced Ca(2+) signals occurred when Ca(2+)-permeable plasma membrane channels were simultaneously blocked with La(3+). This shows that two mechanisms cause hyperpolarization-induced elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+)-concentration: (i) activation of voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-permeable channels, (ii) osmotically induced expansion of the cytosol, which leads to a release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores.

  16. Injection to rapid diffusive shock acceleration at perpendicular shocks in partially ionized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Ohira, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional hybrid simulation of a collisionless perpendicular shock in a partially ionized plasma for the first time. In this simulation, the shock velocity and the upstream ionization fraction are Vsh ~ 1333 km/s and fi ~ 0.5, that are typical values for isolated young supernova remnants in the interstellar medium. We confirm previous two-dimensional simulation results that downstream hydrogen atoms leak into the upstream region, they are accelerated by the pickup process in the upstream region, and large magnetic field fluctuations are generated both in the upstream and downstream regions. In addition, we find that the magnetic field fluctuations have three-dimensional structures and the leaking hydrogen atoms are injected to the diffusive shock acceleration at the perpendicular shock after the pickup process. The observed diffusive shock acceleration can be interpreted as the shock drift acceleration with scattering. Particles are accelerated to v ~ 100 Vsh ~ 0.3c within ~ 100 gyroperio...

  17. Rapid antioxidant capacity screening in herbal extracts using a simple flow injection-spectrophotometric system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrazek, Nookrai; Watla-iad, Kanchana; Deachathai, Suwanna; Suteerapataranon, Siripat

    2012-05-01

    A simple flow injection (FI)-spectrophotometric system for the screening of antioxidant capacity in herbal extracts was developed. The analysis was based on the color disappearance due to the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by antioxidant compounds. DPPH and ascorbic acid were used as reagent and antioxidant standard, respectively. Effects of the DPPH concentration, DPPH flow rate, and reaction coil length on sensitivity were studied. The optimized condition provided the linear range of 0.010-0.300mM ascorbic acid with less than 5%RSD(n=10). Detection limit and quantitation limit were 0.004 and 0.013mM, respectively. Comparison of antioxidant capacity in some herbal extracts determined by the FI system and a standard method was carried out and no significant difference was obtained.

  18. Ectopic bone formation in rapidly fabricated acellular injectable dense collagen-Bioglass hybrid scaffolds via gel aspiration-ejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Amir K; Muja, Naser; Kamranpour, Neysan O; Lepry, William C; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Clarke, Susan A; Nazhat, Showan N

    2016-04-01

    Gel aspiration-ejection (GAE) has recently been introduced as an effective technique for the rapid production of injectable dense collagen (IDC) gel scaffolds with tunable collagen fibrillar densities (CFDs) and microstructures. Herein, a GAE system was applied for the advanced production and delivery of IDC and IDC-Bioglass(®) (IDC-BG) hybrid gel scaffolds for potential bone tissue engineering applications. The efficacy of GAE in generating mineralizable IDC-BG gels (from an initial 75-25 collagen-BG ratio) produced through needle gauge numbers 8G (3.4 mm diameter and 6 wt% CFD) and 14G (1.6 mm diameter and 14 wt% CFD) was investigated. Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of as-made gels revealed an increase in collagen fibril alignment with needle gauge number. In vitro mineralization of IDC-BG gels was confirmed where carbonated hydroxyapatite was detected as early as day 1 in simulated body fluid, which progressively increased up to day 14. In vivo mineralization of, and host response to, acellular IDC and IDC-BG gel scaffolds were further investigated following subcutaneous injection in adult rats. Mineralization, neovascularization and cell infiltration into the scaffolds was enhanced by the addition of BG and at day 21 post injection, there was evidence of remodelling of granulation tissue into woven bone-like tissue in IDC-BG. SHG imaging of explanted scaffolds indicated collagen fibril remodelling through cell infiltration and mineralization over time. In sum, the results suggest that IDC-BG hybrid gels have osteoinductive properties and potentially offer a novel therapeutic approach for procedures requiring the injectable delivery of a malleable and dynamic bone graft that mineralizes under physiological conditions.

  19. Thermal analysis of injection beam dump of high-intensity rapid-cycling synchrotron in J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, J.; Saha, P. K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kinsho, M.; Nihei, T.

    2017-10-01

    The beam dump at the beam injection area in the J-PARC 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) accepts beams that pass through the charge exchange foil without ideal electron stripping during the multi-turn beam injection. The injection beam dump consists of the beam pipe, beam stopper, radiation shield, and cooling mechanism. The ideal beam power into the injection beam dump is 400 W in the case of design RCS extraction beam power of 1 MW with a healthy foil, which has 99.7 % charge stripping efficiency. On the other hand, as a radiation generator, the RCS is permitted to be operated with maximum average beam power of 4 kW into the injection beam dump based on the radiation shielding calculation, in consideration of lower charge stripping efficiency due to the foil deterioration. In this research, to evaluate the health of the RCS injection beam dump system from the perspective of the heat generation, a thermal analysis was performed based on the actual configuration with sufficiently large region, including the surrounding concrete and soil. The calculated temperature and heat flux density distribution showed the validity of the mesh spacing and model range. The calculation result showed that the dumped 4 kW beam causes the temperature to increase up to 330, 400, and 140 °C at the beam pipe, beam stopper, and radiation shield, respectively. Although these high temperatures induce stress in the constituent materials, the calculated stress values were lower than the ultimate tensile strength of each material. Transient temperature analysis of the beam stopper, which simulated the sudden break of the charge stripper foil, demonstrated that one bunched beam pulse with the maximum beam power does not lead to a serious rise in the temperature of the beam stopper. Furthermore, from the measured outgassing rate of stainless steel at high temperature, the rise in beam line pressure due to additive outgassing from the heated beam pipe was estimated to have a negligible

  20. Rapid 90Sr/90Y determination in water samples using a sequential injection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos; Gomez; Garcias; Casas; Cerda

    2000-07-01

    We have developed a semiautomatic procedure based on a sequential injection method for 90Sr/90Y determination that allows their radiochemical separation in about 30 min. The method has been tested using 90Sr/90Y solutions with activities lower than 12 Bq. The source is eluted in a pH = 6.5 medium through a MnO2-impregnated cotton filter, where 9OY is preconcentrated in preference by adsorption. 90Y is extracted from the column with hydroxylamine, some 90Sr in the leached solution has also been found. After the radiochemical separation, the total beta-activity of the leached solution has been determined using a low background alpha-beta proportional counter and, assuming the presence of 90Sr and 90Y at t = 0, the solution of the Bateman equations allows the initial concentration of both isotopes to be obtained. We have verified that the addition of some ions usually found in water samples (Cl-, HCO3-, NO3-, SO4(2-), Ca2+, Mg2+) does not interfere with the yield of the radiochemical process, (90 +/- 10)%. The method has been applied to 90Sr/90Y determination in mineral waters, and even in thermal waters, where the salt concentration can be about 3500 mg/l, the radiochemical yield remains greater than 80%.

  1. 一种胶体电解液胶凝时间的测定方法%The method measuring the gelling time of gelled electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代少振; 王亚斌; 徐丹; 万南红; 刘孝伟

    2015-01-01

    The turbidimetry method measuring the gelling time of gelled electrolyte has been established in this paper. The gelling time of gelled electrolyte can be measured simply, intuitively and accurately by this method, which provides the support of experimental method for development of gelled lead-acid battery.%本文建立了浊度法测定胶体电解液胶凝时间的方法。该方法能简便、直观、准确地测定胶体电解液的胶凝时间,为胶体电池的电解液研制提供实验方法支持。

  2. The agency of Gell in the anthropology of art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Faria Alves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available While delineating the parameters for an anthropology of art, Alfred Gell's famous book, Art and Agency, overlooked, for the most part, anthropological tradition. This raises questions as embarrassing as they are ignored: is it possible to produce good theory with no references to achieved knowledge in this particular field? Are the subjects within anthropology so differently pursued that it is not possible to refer to a common way of approaching them? What exactly do we lose with such a self-centered narrative? My point of view is that theory cannot be treated like a list of sentences that can be added to one another, according to their isolated importance. This article proposes an analysis of Alfred Gell's narrative, of how he connects its propositions. I will examine, overall, his readings, the authors he quotes like Peirce, Sally Price and others, and how he fits them along his argumentation. The objective of this exercise is to put in evidence, beyond Gell's definitions, some conceptions about art contained in his formulations, and to enlarge the range of potential references available for an anthropology of art.

  3. Design and characteristics of electric supercharger for diesel engine acceleration by additional rapid air injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Chun-de; ZHOU Hong-xiu

    2006-01-01

    The ES (electric supercharger) driven by a high-speed brushless motor was developed to solve the problem of smoke caused by the turbocharger's sluggish response during acceleration.Its rotation speed was from 6 000 r/min to 24 000 r/min,and the maximum flux was 0.1 kg/s.The structural design of the electric supercharger is novel,which makes it easier to set the lubricating installation and to assemble.The velocity distribution at the outlet of the electric supercharger is determined by hot-wire anemometry under various rotation speeds in steady state.Furthermore,the trends of the flux and charge rate with various speeds were analyzed.In addition,the transient response was detected from the motor setup to smooth running within 10 s,15 s,20 s and 25 s respectively,and the characteristic of the transient flux is under pilot study.Research results indicate that the electric supercharger can respond rapidly with the great flux,and it is independent of the operating conditions of a diesel engine.Therefore,it is a feasible way to reduce smoke emission and improve the acceleration performance.

  4. Rapid analytical assessment of the mechanical perturbations induced by non-isothermal injection into a subsurface formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Silvia; Carrera, Jesús; María Gómez Castro, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Fluid injection into geological formations is required for several engineering operations, e.g. geothermal energy production, hydrocarbon production and storage, CO2 storage, wastewater disposal, etc. Non-isothermal fluid injection causes alterations of the pressure and temperature fields, which affect the mechanical stability of the reservoir. This coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior has become a matter of special interest because of public concern about induced seismicity. The response is complex and its evaluation often requires numerical modeling. Nevertheless, analytical solutions are useful in improving our understanding of interactions, identifying the controlling parameters, testing codes and in providing a rapid assessment of the system response to an alteration. We present an easy-to-use solution to the transient advection-conduction heat transfer problem for parallel and radial flow. The solution is then applied to derive analytical expressions for hydraulic and thermal driven displacements and stresses. The validity is verified by comparison with numerical simulations and yields fairly accurate results. The solution is then used to illustrate some features of the poroelastic and thermoelastic response and, in particular, the sensitivity to the external mechanical constraints and to the reservoir dimension.

  5. A study on the use of near-infrared spectroscopy for the rapid quantification of major compounds in Tanreqing injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenlong; Cheng, Zhiwei; Wang, Yuefei; Qu, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the strategy used in the development and validation of a near infrared spectroscopy method for the rapid determination of baicalin, chlorogenic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), and the total solid contents (TSCs) in the Tanreqing injection. To increase the representativeness of calibration sample set, a concentrating-diluting method was adopted to artificially prepare samples. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to establish calibration models, with which the five quality indicators can be determined with satisfied accuracy and repeatability. In addition, the slope/bias (S/B) method was used for the models transfer between two different types of NIR instruments from the same manufacturer, which is contributing to enlarge the application range of the established models. With the presented method, a great deal of time, effort and money can be saved when large amounts of Tanreqing injection samples need to be analyzed in a relatively short period of time, which is of great significance to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) industries.

  6. Flow Injection Analysis with Electrochemical Detection for Rapid Identification of Platinum-Based Cytostatics and Platinum Chlorides in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marketa Kominkova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Platinum-based cytostatics, such as cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin are widely used agents in the treatment of various types of tumors. Large amounts of these drugs are excreted through the urine of patients into wastewaters in unmetabolised forms. This phenomenon leads to increased amounts of platinum ions in the water environment. The impacts of these pollutants on the water ecosystem are not sufficiently investigated as well as their content in water sources. In order to facilitate the detection of various types of platinum, we have developed a new, rapid, screening flow injection analysis method with electrochemical detection (FIA-ED. Our method, based on monitoring of the changes in electrochemical behavior of analytes, maintained by various pH buffers (Britton-Robinson and phosphate buffer and potential changes (1,000, 1,100 and 1,200 mV offers rapid and cheap selective determination of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides, which can also be present as contaminants in water environments.

  7. Flow injection analysis with electrochemical detection for rapid identification of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominkova, Marketa; Heger, Zbynek; Zitka, Ondrej; Kynicky, Jindrich; Pohanka, Miroslav; Beklova, Miroslava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2014-02-04

    Platinum-based cytostatics, such as cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin are widely used agents in the treatment of various types of tumors. Large amounts of these drugs are excreted through the urine of patients into wastewaters in unmetabolised forms. This phenomenon leads to increased amounts of platinum ions in the water environment. The impacts of these pollutants on the water ecosystem are not sufficiently investigated as well as their content in water sources. In order to facilitate the detection of various types of platinum, we have developed a new, rapid, screening flow injection analysis method with electrochemical detection (FIA-ED). Our method, based on monitoring of the changes in electrochemical behavior of analytes, maintained by various pH buffers (Britton-Robinson and phosphate buffer) and potential changes (1,000, 1,100 and 1,200 mV) offers rapid and cheap selective determination of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides, which can also be present as contaminants in water environments.

  8. Cues paired with either rapid or slower self-administered cocaine injections acquire similar conditioned rewarding properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Noël Samaha

    Full Text Available The faster drugs of abuse reach the brain, the more addictive they can be. It is not known why this is. Environmental stimuli associated with drugs can promote the development and persistence of addiction by invigorating and precipitating drug-seeking behaviour. We determined, therefore, whether cues associated with the self-administration of rapidly delivered cocaine (injected intravenously over 5 versus 90 seconds would acquire greater conditioned rewarding properties, as assessed by the performance of an operant response reinforced solely by the cues. Rats nose-poked for intravenous cocaine infusions delivered either over 5 or 90 seconds. Discrete visual cues accompanied each infusion. The rats could then press a lever to obtain the cues--now a conditioned reward--or an inactive lever. Rats in both the 5- and 90-second groups pressed more on the active versus inactive lever following extensive (24 sessions but not following limited (3 sessions self-administration training. There were no group differences in this behaviour. Following withdrawal from cocaine self-administration, lever discrimination progressively abated in both groups and was lost by withdrawal day 30. However, the rewarding properties of the cues were not "forgotten" because on withdrawal days 32-33, amphetamine selectively enhanced active-lever pressing, and did so to a similar extent in both groups. Thus, cues paired with rapid or slower cocaine delivery acquire similar conditioned rewarding properties. We conclude, therefore, that the rapid delivery of cocaine to the brain promotes addiction by mechanisms that might not involve a greater ability of drug cues to control behaviour.

  9. A novel in-situ-gelling liquid suppository for site-targeting delivery of anti-colorectal cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong-Ru; Tseng, Chao-Chih; Lin, Yiu-Jiuan; Ling, Ming-Hung

    2012-01-01

    In order to avoid anti-cancer drugs undergoing a first-pass effect and reduce their toxicity, and to solve conventional suppositories defects, we developed an in-situ-gelling and injectable Pluronic-poly(acrylic acid) (Pluronic-PAA) liquid suppository, which could gel fast in the physiological state and had suitable gel strength and bioadhesive force. The liquid suppositories were inserted into the rectum of rabbits without difficulty and leakage, and retained in the rectum for at least 6 h and while releasing the drug. The toxicity and cytotoxic tests indicated that Pluronic and PAA were non-toxic materials and could inhibit colon cancer cells when oxaliplatin was incorporated. C max and AUC0→12h values of oxaliplatin after rectal administration of a oxaliplatin suppository were higher than those for an oxaliplatin solution administered orally. These results suggest that an in-situ-gelling and injectable liquid suppository for humans can be further developed as a more convenient and effective rectal dosage form.

  10. Rheological properties of reversible thermo-setting in situ gelling solutions with the methylcellulose-polyethylene glycol-citric acid ternary system (2): Effects of various water-soluble polymers and salts on the gelling temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Ken-ichi; Saegusa, Katsuhiko; Ishii, Fumiyoshi

    2009-11-01

    The influences of various salts and water-soluble polymers on the phase transition temperature of thermo-setting gels prepared by combining methylcellulose (MC)-sodium citrate (SC)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) at appropriate ratios (the MC-SC-PEG system) were investigated. Concerning cations, comparison of the phase transition temperature between SC and tripotassium citrate (PC) showed a rapid increase in the viscosity of SC between 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C and an increase in the viscosity of PC between 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C. Concerning the valency of anions, comparisons among SC, disodium tartrate dihydrate (ST), disodium maleate hemihydrates (SM), and sodium sulfate (SS) showed a rapid increase in the viscosity of trivalent SC between 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C and changes in the viscosity of the three bivalent sodium salts (ST, SM, and SS) at > or =30 degrees C. Thus the phase transition temperature decreased with an increase in the valency of anions. Subsequently, the influences of various water-soluble polymers on the gelling temperature were compared. Using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) instead of PEG, the gelling temperature decreased with an increase in the PVP concentration even without the addition of SC. Unlike PVP, the addition of xanthan gum as a viscosity-increasing polysaccharide did not reduce the gelling temperature irrespective of its concentration. Temperature-associated changes in viscosity were observed at a fixed SC concentration with changes in the concentration of PVP or PEG. The gel phase transition temperature increased from 46 degrees C to 50 degrees C in gels not containing PVP or PEG. The viscosity did not differ between the addition of PVP or PEG at a low concentration and its absence. However, the viscosity clearly changed after the addition of each agent at a high concentration.

  11. Formulation & Storage Studies on Hydrazine-Based Gelled Propellants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Verma

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The current trend in the area of high energy storable liquid rocket propellant research is to develop gelled/metallized systems and to explore the feasibility of their application in rocket motors. The idea stems from the fact that the conversion of a conventional liquid propellant to a gelled state and its subsequent metallization has the potential to significantly enhance the performance and density specific impulse. However, it is mandatory that the gelation of the liquid propellant be brought about with a minimum concentration of gellant and the gel formed should show a shear-thinning behaviour and good storage life. Keeping this in view, an experimental program to prepare thixotropic gels of hydrazine and its methyl substitutedderivatives like monomethyl hydrazineand unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazinewas conducted under ambient conditions. The gellants investigated included particulate, chemical and synthetic materials. The gelation of the liquid fuels ..ould be brought about with gellant concentration as low as I wt per cent in some cases. Metallized gels using up to 40 wt per cent of AlIMg metal powders could be formulated. These heterogeneous systems showed a reduction in critical gellant concentration with degree of metallization. Further, less gelation time is observed if the gellant concentration is kept fixed and metal content is increased. The storage studies on gelled systems conducted over a period of three months showed good stability. The metallized systems, however, showed the settling of metal powders in meagre concentration which does not pose a major problem as these gels could be re-homogenized with stirring.

  12. Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1 Rapidly Inhibits Complement Activation after Intravascular Injection in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Sharp

    Full Text Available The complement system has been increasingly recognized to play a pivotal role in a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Consequently, therapeutic modulators of the classical, lectin and alternative pathways of the complement system are currently in pre-clinical and clinical development. Our laboratory has identified a peptide that specifically inhibits the classical and lectin pathways of complement and is referred to as Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1. In this study, we determined that the lead PIC1 variant demonstrates a salt-dependent binding to C1q, the initiator molecule of the classical pathway. Additionally, this peptide bound to the lectin pathway initiator molecule MBL as well as the ficolins H, M and L, suggesting a common mechanism of PIC1 inhibitory activity occurs via binding to the collagen-like tails of these collectin molecules. We further analyzed the effect of arginine and glutamic acid residue substitution on the complement inhibitory activity of our lead derivative in a hemolytic assay and found that the original sequence demonstrated superior inhibitory activity. To improve upon the solubility of the lead derivative, a pegylated, water soluble variant was developed, structurally characterized and demonstrated to inhibit complement activation in mouse plasma, as well as rat, non-human primate and human serum in vitro. After intravenous injection in rats, the pegylated derivative inhibited complement activation in the blood by 90% after 30 seconds, demonstrating extremely rapid function. Additionally, no adverse toxicological effects were observed in limited testing. Together these results show that PIC1 rapidly inhibits classical complement activation in vitro and in vivo and is functional for a variety of animal species, suggesting its utility in animal models of classical complement-mediated diseases.

  13. Designing and comparison study of rapid detection methods of resistance to injectable drugs in clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Salehi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this study, some molecular methods were designed for rapid detection of resistance to kanamycin and amikacin.Materials and methods: Among 120 clinical isolates of mycobacterium tuberculosis, 70 strains were selected for evaluation of possible mutations. A PCR-RFLP method was designed for detection of wild type (using enzyme ajii and mutant from (BstFNI enzyme of the isolates. Furthermore, allele specific method (as PCR was designed for detection mutations in codons 1401 and 1402 gene rrs. Some selected isolates were sequenced.Results: In PCR-RFLP method, among the 70 strains examined by BstFNI enzyme, could detect 17 mutant strains among 24 phenotypicaly resistant and 44 non-mutant isolates from 46 susceptible isolates. The sensitivity of this method was %70.83 and specificity was %95.65 on the other hand, 12 mutant from 20 resistant strains and 29 non-mutant strains from 32 susceptible strains were detected by AjiI enzyme. The sensitivity and specificity of this method was 60 and %90.62, respectively. In MAS PCR, 3 mutants from 6 resistant strains and 12 non-mutants from 17 resistant strains were detected. The sensitivity of this method was 50 and specificity was 70.58. Results of sequencing method confirmed the results of molecular methods.Discussion and conclusion: PCR-RFLP method by BstFNI enzyme was the best method for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to second-line injectable drugs and was recommended for routine use.

  14. Rapid Identification and Assignation of the Active Ingredients in Fufang Banbianlian Injection Using HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sensen; Lin, Zongtao; Jiang, Haixiu; Tong, Lingkun; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2016-08-01

    Fufang Banbianlian Injection (FBI) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine formula composed of three herbal medicines. However, the systematic investigation on its chemical components has not been reported yet. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode-array detector, and coupled to an electrospray ionization with ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MS) method, was established for the identification of chemical profile in FBI. Sixty-six major constituents (14 phenolic acids, 14 iridoids, 20 flavonoids, 2 benzylideneacetone compounds, 3 phenylethanoid glycosides, 1 coumarin, 1 lignan, 3 nucleosides, 1 amino acids, 1 monosaccharides, 2 oligosaccharides, 3 alduronic acids and citric acid) were identified or tentatively characterized by comparing their retention times and MS spectra with those of standards or literature data. Finally, all constituents were further assigned in the individual herbs (InHs), although some of them were from multiple InHs. As a result, 11 compounds were from Lobelia chinensis Lour, 33 compounds were from Scutellaria barbata D. Don and 38 compounds were from Hedyotis diffusa Willd. In conclusion, the developed HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MS method is a rapid and efficient technique for analysis of FBI sample, and could be a valuable method for the further study on the quality control of the FBI.

  15. High Energy, Low Temperature Gelled Bi-Propellant Formulation for Long-Duration In-Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a candidate bi-propellant system consisting of a gelled hydrocarbon fuel coupled with a highly energetic gelled oxidizer suitable for outer planetary...

  16. Bead Injection Extraction Chromatography using High-capacity Lab-on-Valve as a Front End to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Urine Radiobioassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2013-01-01

    A novel bead injection (BI) extraction chromatographic microflow system exploiting high-capacity lab-on-valve (LOV) platform coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection is developed for rapid and automated determination of plutonium in human urine. A microconduit (1 mL) i...

  17. Rapid and simultaneous determination of neptunium and plutonium isotopes in environmental samples by extraction chromatography using sequential injection analysis and ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports an automated analytical method for rapid and simultaneous determination of plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) and neptunium (237Np) in environmental samples. An extraction chromatographic column packed with TrisKem TEVA® resin was incorporated in a sequential injection (SI...

  18. A agência de Gell na antropologia da arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Faria Alves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ao delinear os parâmetros para uma antropologia da arte, o famigerado livro de Alfred Gell, Art and Agency, deixou de lado boa parte da antropologia, o que coloca algumas questões tão embaraçosas quanto pouco tratadas: pode-se fazer boa teoria sem contar com o acúmulo de conhecimento nessa área? Ou os temas recebem tratamento tão díspar que realmente não faz sentido falar mais em princípios teóricos comuns que podem e devem ser aplicados a qualquer objeto? O que perdemos com uma narrativa tão autocentrada? Partindo do pressuposto de que não é possível tratar teoria enquanto um conjunto de máximas que se somam ou se substituem, ou como um tabuleiro de peças que se acomodam umas às outras segundo sua validade isolada, este artigo procede a um exame da narrativa contida no livro de Gell, das articulações que realiza entre suas proposições. Examinarei, sobretudo, a leitura que faz dos autores que cita, como Peirce, Sally Price, e outros, e como os encaixa na sua argumentação. O objetivo desse exercício é evidenciar, para além de suas próprias definições, certas concepções sobre arte contidas na abordagem que Gell sugere e ampliar as referências para uma antropologia da arte.While delineating the parameters for anthropology of art, the famous Alfred Gell's book, Art and Agency, left apart most of the anthropology authors, what arises some embarrassing and rarely dealt with questions: is it possible to produce good theory with no references to achieved knowledge in this particular field? The subjects within anthropology are so differently undertaken that doesn't make any sense to refer to common ways of approaching them? What exactly we loose which a narrative so self centered? Is my point of view that theory cannot be treated like a list of sentences that can be added to one another according to its isolated importance. This article proposes an analysis of Alfred Gell's narrative, of how he connects its propositions

  19. Progress in the development of gelling agents for improved culturability of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabajit eDas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gelling agents are required for formulating both solid and semisolid media, vital for the isolation of microorganisms. Gelatin was the first gelling agent to be discovered but it soon paved the way for agar, which has far superior material qualities. Source depletion, issues with polymerase-chain-reaction and inability to sustain extermophiles etc., necessitate the need of other gelling agents. Many new gelling agents, such as xantham gum, gellan gum, carrageenan, isubgol and guar gum have been formulated, raising the hopes for the growth of previously unculturable microorganisms. We evaluate the progress in the development of gelling agents, with the hope that our synthesis would help accelerate research in the field.

  20. Rapid determination of benzodiazepines, zolpidem and their metabolites in urine using direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yu-Dong; Kim, Min Kyung; Suh, Sung Ill; In, Moon Kyo; Kim, Jin Young; Paeng, Ki-Jung

    2015-12-01

    Benzodiazepines and zolpidem are generally prescribed as sedative, hypnotics, anxiolytics or anticonvulsants. These drugs, however, are frequently misused in drug-facilitated crime. Therefore, a rapid and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for identification and quantification of benzodiazepines, zolpidem and their metabolites in urine using deuterium labeled internal standards (IS). Urine samples (120 μL) mixed with 80 μL of the IS solution were centrifuged. An aliquot (5 μL) of the sample solution was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system for analysis. The mobile phases consisted of water and acetonitrile containing 2mM ammonium trifluoroacetate and 0.2% acetic acid. The analytical column was a Zorbax SB-C18 (100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5 μm, Agilent). The separation and detection of 18 analytes were achieved within 10 min. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges of 0.5-20 ng/mL (zolpidem), 1.0-40 ng/mL (flurazepam and temazepam), 2.5-100 ng/mL (7-aminoclonazepam, 1-hydroxymidazolam, midazolam, flunitrazepam and alprazolam), 5.0-200 ng/mL (zolpidem phenyl-4-carboxylic acid, α-hydroxyalprazolam, oxazepam, nordiazepam, triazolam, diazepam and α-hydroxytriazolam), 10-400 ng/mL (lorazepam and desalkylflurazepam) and 10-100 ng/mL (N-desmethylflunitrazepam) with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) above 0.9971. The dilution integrity of the analytes was examined for supplementation of short linear range. Dilution precision and accuracy were tested using two, four and ten-folds dilutions and they ranged from 3.7 to 14.4% and -12.8 to 12.5%, respectively. The process efficiency for this method was 63.0-104.6%. Intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 11.8% and 9.1%, while intra- and inter-day accuracies were less than -10.0 to 8.2%, respectively. The lower limits of quantification were lower than 10 ng/mL for each analyte. The applicability of the developed method was successfully

  1. Selected gelling agents in canned dog food affect nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics of ileal cannulated dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karr-Lilienthal, L.K.; Merchen, N.R.; Grieshop, C.M.; Smeets-Petersen, M.J.E.; Fahey, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of gelling agents in canned dog food on nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics. Dogs were fed canned diets with either no gelling agent (control) or one of three gelling agents, wheat starch, a guar gum/carrageenan mixture (50:50), and a locust bean meal

  2. A Novel Pectin Material: Extraction, Characterization and Gelling Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Rascón-Chu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel pectin was acid extracted from chickpea husk (CHP. CHP presented a 67% (w/w of galacturonic acid, an intrinsic viscosity of 374 mL/g and a viscosimetric molecular weight of 110 kDa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of CHP indicated a degree of esterification of about 10%. The CHP-calcium system formed ionic gels with a storage (G’ modulus of 40 Pa and gel set time (G’ > G’’ of 3 min at 1% (w/v, and a G’ of 131 Pa and gel set time of 1 min at 2% (w/v. The G’ of CHP gels was not greatly affected by temperature. The results attained suggest that chickpea husk can be a potential source of a gelling pectin material.

  3. On the behaviour of gelled fibre suspensions in steady shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Bettina [Unilever Corporate Research, Bedford (United Kingdom); University of Nottingham, Division of Food Sciences, Loughborough (United Kingdom); White, Duncan; Melrose, John R.; Frith, William J. [Unilever Corporate Research, Bedford (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    The shear rheological properties of suspensions of gelled agar fibres in a low viscosity Newtonian matrix fluid were investigated. Two classes of fibres, low aspect ratio fibres and high aspect ratio fibres with an aspect ratio of the order of 10 and 100 respectively were included in the investigations. For all fibre phase volumes investigated, from as low as 0.01 upwards, the flow curves are characterised by an apparent yield stress followed by shear-thinning which was independent of the fibre aspect ratio. Based on our analysis of the flow curves, we conclude that the high aspect ratio fibres behave like flexible threads in contrast to the low aspect ratio fibres whose high shear relative viscosity is successfully described by a relation for long rigid rods. These findings are supported by flow visualisation using an optical shearing stage coupled to a light microscope. (orig.)

  4. Gelled colloidal crystals as tunable optical filters for spectrophotometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugao, Yukihiro; Onda, Sachiko; Toyotama, Akiko; Takiguchi, Yoshihiro; Sawada, Tsutomu; Hara, Shigeo; Nishikawa, Suguru; Yamanaka, Junpei

    2016-08-01

    We examined the performance of charged colloidal crystals immobilized in a polymer gel as tunable optical filters. The colloidal crystals of charged silica particles (particle diameter = 121 nm; particle concentration = 3.5 vol %; and Bragg wavelength λB = 630-720 nm) were produced by unidirectional crystallization under a temperature gradient. Photocurable gelation reagents were dissolved in the sample beforehand; this enabled gel immobilization of the crystals under ultraviolet illumination. The crystals had dimensions of more than 25 mm2 in area and 1 mm in thickness, and spatial λB variations of less than 1%. Upon mechanical compression, λB values shifted linearly and reversibly over almost the entire visible spectrum. Using the gelled crystals as tunable optical filters, we measured the transmittance spectra of various samples and found them to be in close agreement with those determined using a spectrophotometer equipped with optical gratings.

  5. A novel pectin material: extraction, characterization and gelling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urias-Orona, Vania; Rascón-Chu, Agustin; Lizardi-Mendoza, Jaime; Carvajal-Millán, Elizabeth; Gardea, Alfonso A; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín

    2010-09-28

    A novel pectin was acid extracted from chickpea husk (CHP). CHP presented a 67% (w/w) of galacturonic acid, an intrinsic viscosity of 374 mL/g and a viscosimetric molecular weight of 110 kDa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of CHP indicated a degree of esterification of about 10%. The CHP-calcium system formed ionic gels with a storage (G') modulus of 40 Pa and gel set time (G' > G″) of 3 min at 1% (w/v), and a G' of 131 Pa and gel set time of 1 min at 2% (w/v). The G' of CHP gels was not greatly affected by temperature. The results attained suggest that chickpea husk can be a potential source of a gelling pectin material.

  6. In situ gelling systems of ofloxacin: Comparative performance of in vivo precorneal drainage and pharmacokinetic study

    OpenAIRE

    Vrushali S Kashikar; Indrajeet D Gonjari

    2013-01-01

    Our present work describes the formulation and evaluation of an ocular deliver system of ofloxacin based on the concept of temperature-and ion-activated in situ gelling system. A combination of Pluronic F-127 and Pluronic F-68 along with chitosan, (pH-sensitive polymer also acts as a permeation enhancer) was used in temperature and pH-triggered in situ gelling systems while gellan alone was used in ion-activated in situ gelling system. The formulation allows its easy instillation into the eye...

  7. Study and Application of Gelling Water Shutoff and Profile Control Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongguan; Yu Liancheng; Tian Hongkun; Xu Yanxing

    1997-01-01

    @@ Oilfield Chemistry Department, Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, has made great efforts to study and develop oil chemicals since 1976.For many years, the systematic research has been done on the styles of polymers,crosslinking agents and addtional agents, which are primary components of the gelling systems,the chemical reaction process, the physical and chemical performance of final gelling forms,and the compatibility of chemicals with the different strata. The gelling systems adaptable to the different formations have been formed through these studies.

  8. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-induced rapid gelation of silk fibroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xilong; Hou, Jing; Li, Mingzhong; Wang, Jiangnan; Kaplan, David L; Lu, Shenzhou

    2012-07-01

    The in situ formation of injectable silk fibroin (SF) hydrogels have potential advantages over various other biomaterials due to the minimal invasiveness during application. Biomaterials need to gel rapidly under physiological conditions after injection. In the current paper, a novel way to accelerate SF gelation using an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), as a gelling agent is reported. The mechanism of SDS-induced rapid gelation was determined. At low surfactant concentrations, hydrophobic interactions among the SF chains played a dominant role in the association, leading to decreased gelation time. At higher concentrations of surfactant, electrostatic repulsive forces among micellar aggregates gradually became dominant and gelation was hindered. Gel formation involves the connection of clusters formed by the accumulation of nanoparticles. This process is accompanied by the rapid formation of β-sheet structures due to hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. It is expected that the silk hydrogel with short gelation time will be used as an injectable hydrogel in drug delivery or cartilage tissue engineering.

  9. Injectable hydrogels as unique biomedical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Ding, Jiandong

    2008-08-01

    A concentrated fish soup could be gelled in the winter and re-solled upon heating. In contrast, some synthetic copolymers exhibit an inverse sol-gel transition with spontaneous physical gelation upon heating instead of cooling. If the transition in water takes place below the body temperature and the chemicals are biocompatible and biodegradable, such gelling behavior makes the associated physical gels injectable biomaterials with unique applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering etc. Various therapeutic agents or cells can be entrapped in situ and form a depot merely by a syringe injection of their aqueous solutions at target sites with minimal invasiveness and pain. This tutorial review summarizes and comments on this soft matter, especially thermogelling poly(ethylene glycol)-(biodegradable polyester) block copolymers. The main types of injectable hydrogels are also briefly introduced, including both physical gels and chemical gels.

  10. Use of psyllium (isubgol) husk as an alternative gelling agent for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... microalgae (Cyanobacteria) Chroococcus limneticus and eukaryotic green ... psyllium husk were far lower than 722000 cells mL-1 on agar gelled ..... Evidence for the recognition of a secondary structure of carrageenan.

  11. Osteogenic efficiency of in situ gelling poloxamine systems with and without bone morphogenetic protein-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rey-Rico

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In situ gelling solutions for minimally invasive local application of bone growth factors are attracting increasing attention as efficient and patient-friendly alternative to bone grafts and solid scaffolds for repairing bone defects. Poloxamines, i.e., X-shaped poly(ethylene oxide-poly(propylene oxide block copolymers with an ethylenediamine core (Tetronic®, were evaluated both as an active osteogenic component and as a vehicle for rhBMP-2 injectable implants. After cytotoxicity screening of various poloxamine varieties, Tetronic 908, 1107, 1301 and 1307 solutions were chosen as the most cytocompatible and their sol-to-gel transitions were rheologically characterized. Viscoelastic gels, formed at 37 ºC, sustained protein release under physiological-like conditions. Formulations of rhBMP-2 led to differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts, quantified as alkaline phosphatase activity with a maximum at day 7, and to mineralized nodules. Interestingly, poloxamine solely gels led to an initial proliferation of the mesenchymal stem cells (first week, followed by differentiation to osteoblasts (second to third week. Histochemical analysis revealed that Tetronic 908 is only osteoinductive; Tetronic 1107 is mostly osteoinductive, although its use leads to a minor differentiation to adipocytes; Tetronic 1307, solely or loaded with rhBMP-2, causes differentiation of both osteoblasts and adipocytes. Enhanced expression levels of CBFA-1 and collagen type I were observed for Tetronic 908, 1107 and 1307, both solely and combined with rhBMP-2. The intrinsic osteogenic activity of poloxamines (not observed for Pluronic F127 offers novel perspectives for bone regeneration using minimally invasive procedures (i.e., injectable scaffolds and overcoming the safety and the cost/effectiveness concerns associated with large scale clinical use of recombinant growth factors.

  12. Evaluation of gelling agents on anther culture : response of two soybean cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Barcelos Cardoso; Maria Helena Bodanese-Zanettini; Elsa Cristina de Mundstock; Eliane Kaltchuk-Santos

    2007-01-01

    Anthers of two soybean cultivars were cultured in B5 long basal culture media gelled with agarose or PhytagelTM. Cytological examinations of the anthers were carried out during the first 45 days of culture to assay the viability and developmental stage of microspores. Frequency of callus formation was recorded at 45 days of culture. The analysis of variance of the microspore viability assay showed significant Cultivar X Gelling Agent X Day of Culture interactions. The frequencies of viable mi...

  13. Effects of carbon fibres on the life cycle assessment of additively manufactured injection moulding inserts for rapid prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Bey, Niki; Mischkot, Michael

    2017-01-01

    properties and lifetime. The additively manufactured inserts are compared to the standard materials steel, aluminium and brass. The investigated part of the production and prototyping phase considers the insert itself, the moulded part, and resulting waste material of the injection moulding process....

  14. Rapid Quantitation of Ascorbic and Folic Acids in SRM 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets using Flow-Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Deepak [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: Ascorbic acid (AA) and folic acid (FA) are water-soluble vitamins and are usually fortified in food and dietary supplements. For the safety of human health, proper intake of these vitamins is recommended. Improvement in the analysis time required for the quantitative determination of these vitamins in food and nutritional formulations is desired. METHODS: A simple and fast (~5 min) in-tube sample preparation was performed, independently for FA and AA, by mixing extraction solvent with a powdered sample aliquot followed by agitation, centrifugation, and filtration to recover an extract for analysis. Quantitative detection was achieved by flow-injection (1 L injection volume) electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) in negative ion mode using the method of standard addition. RESULTS: Method of standard addition was employed for the quantitative estimation of each vitamin in a sample extract. At least 2 spiked and 1 non-spiked sample extract were injected in triplicate for each quantitative analysis. Given an injection-to-injection interval of approximately 2 min, about 18 min was required to complete the quantitative estimation of each vitamin. The concentration values obtained for the respective vitamins in the standard reference material (SRM) 3280 using this approach were within the statistical range of the certified values provided in the NIST Certificate of Analysis. The estimated limit of detections of FA and AA were 13 and 5.9 ng/g, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Flow-injection ESI-MS/MS was successfully applied for the rapid quantitation of FA and AA in SRM 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets.

  15. Evaluation of Flow-Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Rapid and High-Throughput Quantitative Determination of B-Vitamins in Nutritional Supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Deepak [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The use of flow-injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for rapid and high-throughput mass spectral analysis of selected B-vitamins, viz. B1, B2, B3, B5, and B6, in nutritional formulations was demonstrated. A simple and rapid (~5 min) in-tube sample preparation was performed by adding extraction solvent to a powdered sample aliquot followed by agitation, centrifugation, and filtration to recover an extract for analysis. Automated flow injection introduced 1 L of the extracts directly into the mass spectrometer ion source without chromatographic separation. Sample-to-sample analysis time was 60 s representing significant improvement over conventional liquid chromatography approaches which typically require 25-45 min, and often require more significant sample preparation procedures. Quantitative capabilities of the flow-injection analysis were tested using the method of standard additions and NIST standard reference material (SRM 3280) multivitamin/multielement tablets. The quantity determined for each B-vitamin in SRM 3280 was within the statistical range provided for the respective certified values. The same sample preparation and analysis approach was also applied to two different commercial vitamin supplement tablets and proved to be successful in the quantification of the selected B-vitamins as evidenced by an agreement with the labels values and the results obtained using isotope dilution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  16. Beam loss reduction by injection painting in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex was commissioned in October 2007. Via the initial beam tuning and a series of underlying beam studies with low-intensity beams, since December 2009, we have intermittently been performing beam tuning experiments with higher-intensity beams including the injection painting technique. By optimizing the injection painting parameters, we have successfully achieved a 420 kW-equivalent output intensity at a low-level intensity loss of less than 1%. Also the corresponding numerical simulation well reproduced the observed painting parameter dependence on the beam loss, and captured a characteristic behavior of the high-intensity beam in the injection painting process. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained in the course of the RCS beam power ramp-up, especially on the beam loss reduction achieved by employing the injection painting, together with the numerical simulation results.

  17. Rapid and sensitive determination of benzaldehyde arising from benzyl alcohol used as preservative in an injectable formulation solution using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Hossein Ali; Rezaee, Mohammad; Garmaroudi, Shirin Sadeghi; Montazeri, Naser; Ahmadi, Seyed Javad

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method has been developed for the determination of benzaldehyde, a toxic oxidation product of the widely used preservative and co-solvent benzyl alcohol in injectable formulations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac, vitamin B-complex and Voltaren injection solutions by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography. This method involves the use of an appropriate mixture of extraction solvent (43.0 µL 1,2-dichloroethane) and disperser solvent (1.0 mL acetonitrile) for the formation of a cloudy solution in a 5.0-mL aqueous sample containing benzaldehyde. The linear range was 1.0-1000 µg L(-1), and the limit of detection was 0.2 µg L(-1) for benzaldehyde.

  18. Chemically Methylated and Reduced Pectins: Preparation and Characterisation by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy, Enzymatic Degradation and Gelling Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbohm, Christoph; Lundt, Inge; Christensen, T.M.I.E.;

    2003-01-01

    The gelling properties of pectin are known to be closely related to the degree of methylation (DM) and the distribution of the ester groups. In order to investigate this dependency, a natural citrus pectin (DM=64%) has been methylated to pectins with higher DM’s or saponified to achieve pectins...... than with unmodified pectin. The new reduced pectins exhibit high gelling properties. Keywords: Pectin; Methylation; Deesterification; Reduction; DM and DR by 1H-NMR spectroscopy; Reduced Pectin; Pectinases; Gelling properties....

  19. First demonstration of rapid shutdown using neon shattered pellet injection for thermal quench mitigation on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commaux, N.; Shiraki, D.; Baylor, L. R.; Hollmann, E. M.; Eidietis, N. W.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Jernigan, T. C.; Meitner, S. J.; Combs, S. K.; Foust, C. R.

    2016-04-01

    Shattered pellet injection (SPI) is one of the prime candidates for the ITER disruption mitigation system because of its deeper penetration and larger particle flux than massive gas injection (MGI) (Taylor et al 1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 1872) using deuterium (Commaux et al 2010 Nucl. Fusion 50 112001, Combs et al 2010 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38 400, Baylor et al 2009 Nucl. Fusion 49 085013). The ITER disruption mitigation system will likely use mostly high Z species such as neon because of more effective thermal mitigation and pumping constraints on the maximum amount of deuterium or helium that could be injected. An upgrade of the SPI on DIII-D enables ITER relevant injection characteristics in terms of quantities and gas species. This upgraded SPI system was used on DIII-D for the first time in 2014 for a direct comparison with MGI using identical quantities of neon. This comparison enabled the measurements of density perturbations during the thermal quench (TQ) and radiated power and heat loads to the divertor. It showed that SPI using similar quantities of neon provided a faster and stronger density perturbation and neon assimilation, which resulted in a lower conducted energy to the divertor and a faster TQ onset. Radiated power data analysis shows that this was probably due to the much deeper penetration of the neon in the plasma inducing a higher core radiation than in the MGI case. This experiment shows also that the MHD activity during an SPI shutdown (especially during the TQ) is quite different compared to MGI. This favorable TQ energy dissipation was obtained while keeping the current quench (CQ) duration within acceptable limits when scaled to ITER.

  20. INCREASED OIL RECOVERY FROM MATURE OIL FIELDS USING GELLED POLYMER TREATMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.P. Willhite; D.W. Green; C.S. McCool

    2003-05-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a three-year research program aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. The work focused on the gel system composed of polyacrylamide and chromium acetate. The molar mass of the polymer was about six million. Chromium(III) acetate reacted and formed crosslinks between polymer molecules. The crosslinked polymer molecules, or pre-gel aggregates, combine and grow to eventually form a 3-dimensional gel. A fundamental study to characterize the formation and growth of pre-gel aggregates was conducted. Two methods, flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) were used. Studies using FFFF were inconclusive. Data taken using MALLS showed that at the gel time the average molar mass of gel aggregates increased by a factor of about three while the average size increase was approximately 50%. Increased acetate concentration in the gelant increases the gel time. The in situ performance of an added-acetate system was investigated to determine the applicability for in-depth treatments. Increased acetate concentrations delayed the development of increased flow resistance during gelant injection in short sandpacks. The development of increased flow resistance (in situ gelation) was extended from 2 to 34 days by increasing the acetate-to-chromium ratio from 38 to 153. In situ gelation occurred at a time that was approximately 22% of the bulk gelation time. When carbonate rocks are treated with gel, chromium retention in the rock may limit in

  1. Rapid determination of piracetam in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with sample direct injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsin-Hua; Yang, Yuan-Han; Ko, Ju-Yun; Chen, Su-Hwei

    2006-07-07

    A simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method with UV detection at 200 nm for analysis of piracetam in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by direct injection without any sample pretreatment is described. The separation of piracetam from biological matrix was performed at 25 degrees C using a background electrolyte consisting of Tris buffer with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the electrolyte solution. Several parameters affecting the separation of the drug from biological matrix were studied, including the pH and concentrations of the Tris buffer and SDS. Under optimal MEKC condition, good separation with high efficiency and short analyses time is achieved. Using imidazole as an internal standard (IS), the linear ranges of the method for the determination of piracetam in plasma and in CSF were all between 5 and 500 microg/mL; the detection limit of the drug in plasma and in CSF (signal-to-noise ratio=3; injection 0.5 psi, 5s) was 1.0 microg/mL. The applicability of the proposed method for determination of piracetam in plasma and CSF collected after intravenous administration of 3g piracetam every 6h and oral administration 1.2g every 6h in encephalopathy patients with aphasia was demonstrated.

  2. Rapid and sensitive solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography for the analysis of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in cardboard and dried foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2012-06-22

    A rapid off-line solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (SPE-LVI-GC-FID) method, based on the use of silver silica gel and low solvent consumption, was developed for mineral oil saturated hydrocarbon (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbon (MOAH) determination in cardboard and dried foods packaged in cardboard. The SPE method was validated using LVI with a conventional on-column injector and the retention gap technique (which allowed to inject up to 50 μL of the sample). Detector response was linear over all the concentration range tested (0.5-250 μg/mL), recoveries were practically quantitative, repeatability was good (coefficients of variation lower than 7%) and limit of quantification adequate to quantify the envisioned limit of 0.15 mg/kg proposed in Germany for MOAH analysis in food samples packaged in recycled cardboard. Rapid heating of the GC oven allowed to increase sample throughput (3-4 samples per hour) and to enhance sensitivity. The proposed method was used for MOSH and MOAH determination in selected food samples usually commercialised in cardboard packaging. The most contaminated was a tea sample (102.2 and 7.9 mg/kg of MOSH and MOAH below n-C25, respectively), followed by a rice and a sugar powder sample, all packaged in recycled cardboard.

  3. Modeling the Rapid Boil-Off of a Cryogenic Liquid When Injected into a Low Pressure Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Many launch vehicle cryogenic applications require the modeling of injecting a cryogenic liquid into a low pressure cavity. The difficulty of such analyses lies in accurately predicting the heat transfer coefficient between the cold liquid and a warm wall in a low pressure environment. The heat transfer coefficient and the behavior of the liquid is highly dependent on the mass flow rate into the cavity, the cavity wall temperature and the cavity volume. Testing was performed to correlate the modeling performed using Thermal Desktop and Sinda Fluint Thermal and Fluids Analysis Software. This presentation shall describe a methodology to model the cryogenic process using Sinda Fluint, a description of the cryogenic test set up, a description of the test procedure and how the model was correlated to match the test results.

  4. On-line simultaneous and rapid separation of anions and cations from a single sample using dual-capillary sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Adam J; Guijt, Rosanne M; Macka, Mirek; Hutchinson, Joseph P; Johns, Cameron; Hilder, Emily F; Dicinoski, Greg W; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Haddad, Paul R; Breadmore, Michael C

    2013-06-05

    A novel capillary electrophoresis (CE) approach has been developed for the simultaneous rapid separation and identification of common environmental inorganic anions and cations from a single sample injection. The method utilised a sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis instrument (SI-CE) with capacitively-coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) constructed in-house from commercial-off-the-shelf components. Oppositely charged analytes from a single sample plug were simultaneously injected electrokinetically onto two separate capillaries for independent separation and detection. Injection was automated and may occur from a syringe or be directly coupled to an external source in a continuous manner. Software control enabled high sample throughput (17 runs per hour for the target analyte set) and the inclusion of an isolation valve allowed the separation capillaries to be flushed, increasing throughput by removing slow migrating species as well as improving repeatability. Various environmental and industrial samples (subjected only to filtering) were analysed in the laboratory with a 3 min analysis time which allowed the separation of 23 inorganic and small organic anions and cations. Finally, the system was applied to an extended automated analysis of Hobart Southern Water tap water for a period of 48 h. The overall repeatability of the migration times of a 14 analyte standard sample was less than 0.74% under laboratory conditions. LODs ranged from 5 to 61 μg L(-1). The combination of automation, high confidence of peak identification, and low limits of detection make this a useful system for the simultaneous identification of a range of common inorganic anions and cations for discrete or continuous monitoring applications.

  5. Poly(ethylene oxide/propylene oxide) copolymer thermo-reversible gelling system for the enhancement of intranasal zidovudine delivery to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ved, Parag M; Kim, Kwonho

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the olfactory transfer of zidovudine (ZDV) after intranasal (IN) administration and to assess the effect of thermoreversible gelling system on its absorption and brain uptake. The nasal formulation was prepared by dissolving ZDV in pH 5.5 phosphate buffer solution comprising of 20% polyethylene oxide/propylene oxide (Poloxamer 407, PLX) as thermoreversible gelling agent and 0.1% n-tridecyl-β-D-maltoside (TDM) as permeation enhancer. This formulation exhibited a sufficient stability and an optimum gelation profile at 27-30 °C. The in vitro permeation studies across the freshly excised rabbit nasal mucosa showed a 53% increase in the permeability of ZDV from the formulation. For in vivo evaluation, the drug concentrations in the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and six different regions of the brain tissues, i.e. olfactory bulb (OB), olfactory tract (OT), anterior, middle and posterior segments of cerebrum (CB), and cerebellum (CL) were determined by LC/MS method following IV and IN administration in rabbits at a dose of 1mg/kg. The IN administration of Poloxamer 407 and TDM based formulation showed a systemic bioavailability of 29.4% while exhibiting a 4 times slower absorption process (t(max) = 20 min) than control solution (t(max) = 5 min). The CSF and brain ZDV levels achieved after IN administration of the gelling formulation were approximately 4.7-56 times greater than those attained after IV injection. The pharmacokinetic and brain distribution studies revealed that a polar antiviral compound, ZDV could preferentially transfer into the CSF and brain tissue via an alternative pathway, possibly olfactory route after intranasal administration.

  6. Evaluation of guar gum derivatives as gelling agents for microbial culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangotri, Waikhom; Jain-Raina, Ruchi; Babbar, Shashi B

    2012-05-01

    Guar gum, a galactomannan, has been reported to be an inexpensive substitute of agar for microbial culture media. However, its use is restricted probably because of (1) its highly viscous nature even at high temperatures, making dispensing of the media to Petri plates difficult and (2) lesser clarity of the guar gum gelled media than agar media due to impurities present in guar gum. To overcome these problems, three guar gum derivatives, carboxymethyl guar, carboxymethyl hydroxypropyl guar and hydroxypropyl guar, were tested as gelling agents for microbial growth and differentiation. These were also evaluated for their suitability for other routine microbiological methods, such as, enumeration, use of selective and differential media, and antibiotic sensitivity test. For evaluation purpose, growth and differentiation of eight fungi and eight bacteria grown on the media gelled with agar (1.5%), guar gum (4%) or one of the guar gum derivatives (4%), were compared. All fungi and bacteria exhibited normal growth and differentiation on all these media. Generally, growth of most of the fungi was better on guar gum derivatives gelled medium than on agar medium. The enumeration carried out for Serratia sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by serial dilution and pour plate method yielded similar counts in all the treatments. Likewise, the selective succinate medium, specific for P. aeruginosa, did not allow growth of co-inoculated Bacillus sp. even if gelled with guar gum derivatives. The differential medium, Congo red mannitol agar could not differentiate between Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium meliloti on color basis, if gelled with guar gum or any of its derivatives However, for antibiotic sensitivity tests for both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, guar gum and its derivatives were as effective as agar.

  7. Gelling and curing behaviors of benzoxazine/epoxy formulations containing 4,4 Prime -thiodiphenol accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, W.S., E-mail: chowwenshyang@yahoo.com [Institut fuer Verbundwerkstoffe GmbH (Institute for Composite Materials), Kaiserslautern University of Technology, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal 14300, Penang (Malaysia); Grishchuk, S.; Burkhart, T. [Institut fuer Verbundwerkstoffe GmbH (Institute for Composite Materials), Kaiserslautern University of Technology, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Karger-Kocsis, J. [Polymer Technology, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-09-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gelling and curing behaviors of benzoxazine/epoxy with accelerator were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The activation energy of gelling was assessed by Arrhenius equation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The activation energy of curing was determined from dynamic DSC scans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4,4 Prime -Thiodiphenol can act as co-reactive accelerator for benzoxazine/epoxy blends. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4,4 Prime -Thiodiphenol markedly reduced the gel time and the activation energy. - Abstract: Benzoxazine (BOX)/diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) based epoxy resins (BOX/DGEBA = 100/0, 75/25 and 50/50 wt.%) with and without 4,4 Prime -thiodiphenol accelerator (DT300) were prepared. The gelling and curing behaviors of the BOX and BOX/DGEBA mixtures in presence and absence of DT300 (10 parts per hundred resin, phr) were investigated using plate-plate rheometry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The gel time was determined in isothermal scans at three different temperatures (T = 180, 200, and 220 Degree-Sign C). Dynamic DSC scans were registered at four heating rates ({beta} = 5, 10, 15, and 20 Degree-Sign C min{sup -1}, respectively). The activation energy of gelling was assessed by an Arrhenius, whereas that of the curing by the Kissinger and Ozawa methods. Combination of BOX with DGEBA delayed the gel formation and increased the activation energy of both gelling and curing processes compared to neat BOX resin. By contrast, addition of 4,4 Prime -thiodiphenol as co-reactive accelerator markedly reduced the gel time and the activation energy of both gelling and curing of BOX and BOX/DGEBA formulations.

  8. Papaya pulp gelling: is it premature ripening or problems of water accumulation in the apoplast?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Gelled aspect in papaya fruit is typically confused with premature ripening. This research reports the characterization of this physiological disorder in the pulp of papaya fruit by measuring electrolyte leakage, Pi content, lipid peroxidation, pulp firmness, mineral contents (Ca, Mg and K - in pulp and seed tissues, and histological analysis of pulp tissue. The results showed that the gelled aspect of the papaya fruit pulp is not associated with tissue premature ripening. Data indicate a reduction of the vacuole water intake as the principal cause of the loss of cellular turgor; while the waterlogged aspect of the tissue may be due to water accumulation in the apoplast.

  9. Rapid Determination of Plutonium Isotopes in Environmental Samples Using Sequential Injection Extraction Chromatography and Detection by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2009-01-01

    by detection of isolated analytes with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method has been devised for the determination of Pu isotopes at environmentally relevant concentrations, whereby it has been successfully applied to the analyses of large volumes/amounts of samples, for example......This article presents an automated method for the rapid determination of 239Pu and 240Pu in various environmental samples. The analytical method involves the in-line separation of Pu isotopes using extraction chromatography (TEVA) implemented in a sequential injection (SI) network followed....... The analytical results of Pu isotopes in the reference materials showed good agreement with the certified or reference values at the 0.05 significance level. Chemical yields of Pu ranged from 80 to 105%, and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium, mercury and lead were all above 104. The duration...

  10. Rapid evaluation of doping-spike carrier concentration levels in millimetre-wave GaAs Gunn diodes with hot-electron injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, N. E. S.; Carr, M. W.; Missous, M.

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes a novel method for fast, accurate evaluation of doping-spike carrier concentrations in hot-electron injected GaAs Gunn diodes. The technique relies on current asymmetry measurements obtained using pulsed-dc testing of on-wafer quasi-planar Gunn diode test structures, which removes the need for full device fabrication. Small changes in carrier concentration can easily be detected (at a nominal value of 1 × 1018 cm-3) and a greater sensitivity than conventional techniques is demonstrated at the doping levels used. In addition, test structure fabrication can be integrated into the initial Gunn diode front side production process allowing a rapid in-process test to be carried out thus leading to a significant reduction in material characterization cycle time.

  11. A simple and rapid flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of noscapine with Ru(phen)3(2+)-Ce(IV) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Behzad; Mokhtari, Ali; Khayamian, Taghi

    2007-08-01

    A new flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) system was used for the determination of noscapine. This technique is based on the reduction effect of noscapine on the Ru(phen)3(3+), which is produced by reaction between Ru(phen)3(2+) and acidic Ce(IV) solutions, and this rapid reduction produces strong CL. Calibration plots were linear over the range of 3.0 x 10(-7) - 2.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1) and 2.0 x 10(-6) - 2.0 x 10(-4) mol L(-1). The CL intensity was so high, that it is able to produce a detection limit of 6.6 x 10(-8) M noscapine (3sigma). The relative standard deviation of 2.0 x 10(-6) M noscapine was 1.0% (n=10). The proposed method was successfully applied for the flow injection determination of noscapine in cough and Tonin syrup samples. The results of real sample analyses show good recovery percentages (97.3-102.4%). The minimum sampling rate was 100 samples per hour.

  12. Rapid screening of haloacetamides in water using salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled injection-port silylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Tzing, Shin-Hwa; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2015-11-27

    The rapid screening of trace amounts of the nitrogenous disinfection by-products, haloacetamides (HAcAms), in drinking and swimming pool water was performed by a simple and reliable procedure based on salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) combined with injection-port silylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (IPS-GC-MS) method. The optimal SALLE conditions involved the injection of 4-mL of ethyl acetate into a 10-mL water sample (pH 7) containing 3-g of sodium sulfate. After vortex extraction for 1min and centrifugation, 10μL of the extract (mixed with 1μL of MTBSTFA) was directly determined by IPS-GC-MS. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were determined to be 0.03-0.3μg/L. Precision, as indicated by relative standard deviations (RSDs), was less than 10% for both intra- and inter-day analysis. Accuracy, expressed as the mean extraction recovery, was between 76% and 94%. The SALLE plus IPS-GC-MS was successfully applied to quantitatively determine HAcAms from drinking and swimming pool water samples, and the total concentrations of the compounds ranged from 0.43 to 4.03μg/L.

  13. Rapid determination of zinc and iron in foods by flow-injection analysis with flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry and slurry nebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, J C; Strong, F C; Martin, N J

    1990-07-01

    A rapid method of determining zinc and iron in food by flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with slurry nebulization into an air-acetylene flame has been developed. A V-groove, clog-free Babington-type nebulizer, coupled to a single-line flow-injection analysis (FIA) system, was employed to introduce the slurry into the spray chamber. Under the FIA conditions described, an injection frequency of 120/hr is possible, with negligible carry-over and memory effects. The calibration graphs were obtained by using various concentrations (up to 0.1 g/ml) of white bean homogenate as standards, rather than solutions. The method has been applied to various kinds of foods, including grains, vegetables, fruits and sausage. Homogenization of semi-prepared samples to form slurries took only 4 min. Relative deviations between results by the slurry and solution methods for both elements averaged 2-3%. Detection limits by the slurry method were 0.3 mug/ml Zn and 0.6 mug/ml Fe.

  14. Gelling ability and crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant waxes can effectively form organogels with vegetable oils and these organogels have drawn considerable interests as alternatives to solid fats containing trans fats and saturated fats in margarines and spreads. Among them sunflower wax showed the most pronounced gelling ability. In an attempt ...

  15. Cassava starch as an alternative cheap gelling agent for the in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-03

    Jul 3, 2007 ... Potato transplants from the liquid medium and cassava starch gelled medium had .... cant interactions during the three generations of sub- .... biodegradable and poses no threat to the environment on ... provision of potato genotypes and facilities for the ... BSc Dissertation University of Malawi, Bunda.

  16. Experimental Study on the Combustion and Microexplosion of Freely Falling Gelled Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine (UDMH Fuel Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Wu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for high energy density fuels and the concern for their safety have propelled research in the field of gelled propellants, where understanding the combustion of single gelled fuel droplets is the first stage to predict the spray combustion characteristics. The experiments utilized single-isolated freely falling gelled unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH droplets instead of the conventional suspended droplet approach, in order to eliminate the perturbation associated with the suspension mechanism. Morphological transformations of the gelled droplet involved in the combustion processes were monitored by employing a high-speed digital camera, while the effects of ambient pressure and oxygen concentration on burning rate constants were also studied. The experimental results show that four main phenomena (droplet deformation, bubble formation and growth, vapor jetting and luminous jetting flame with “horn” shape and three distinct phases were identified in the droplet combustion process; the high yield stress and polymer chain structure of polymer gellant are responsible for the appearance of bubbles with almost the same order of magnitude as the droplets. Increasing the ambient pressure can increase the burning rate, postpone the appearance of microexplosions, and weaken microexplosion intensity; while increasing the ambient oxygen concentration can promote the appearance of microexplosions, strengthen microexplosion intensity and increase the burning rate.

  17. A new approach to model strain change of gelled waxy crude oil under constant stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Lei; Song, Changyu; Yan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Deformation of gelled waxy crude oil with loaded stress is worthy of research for the flow assurance of pipelining system. A dispersion parameter was introduced to characterize the disruption degree of wax crystal structure in crude oil with shear action. Based on fractional calculus theory, a rh...

  18. Effect of various gelling cations on the physical properties of "wet" alginate films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, B Allison; Barbut, Shai; Lim, Loong-Tak; Marcone, Massimo F

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the physical properties of "wet" alginate films gelled with various divalent cations (Ba(2+) , Ca(2+) , Mg(2+) , Sr(2+) , and Zn(2+) ) were explored. Additionally, the effect of adding NaCl to the alginate film-forming solution prior to gelling was evaluated. Aside from Mg(2+) , all of the divalent cations were able to produce workable "wet" alginate films. Films gelled with BaCl2 (without added NaCl) had the highest (P alginate and Sr-alginate films had the highest elongation at break values. Adding NaCl to the alginate film-forming solution increased the viscosity of the solution. Films with added NaCl were less transparent and had lower tensile strength, elongation, and puncture strength than films formed without NaCl in the film-forming solution. ATR-FTIR results showed a slight shift in the asymmetric COO(-) vibrational peak of the alginate when the "wet" alginate films were gelled with Zn(2+) .

  19. Effect of molecular characteristics of Konjac glucomannan on gelling and rheological properties of Tilapia myofibrillar protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wenjie; Wu, Huayi; Wu, Lanlan; Wu, Yunhui; Jia, Lina; Pang, Jie; Sun, Yuan-Ming

    2016-10-05

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is an important gelling agent in composite gels. This study aimed to investigate the effects of KGM molecular characteristics (molecular weight, size and conformation) on gelling properties of Tilapia myofibrillar protein (TMP). In this work, TMP composite gels were prepared under neutral pH with varying KGM (native KGM, 10kGy-KGM, 20kGy-KGM, and 100kGy-KGM) of different molecular characteristics. Native KGM, 10kGy-KGM, and 20kGy-KGM exerted negative effect on gel strength or whiteness of TMP gels. Interestingly 100kGy-KGM improved gelling properties and whiteness of TMP gels. Such effects presented by varying KGM were attributed the physical filling behaviors and the interaction between KGM and TMP. These behaviors or interactions are resulted from different molecular size and conformation. Smaller molecular size (root-mean square radius, Rz 20.2nm) and approximated spherical conformation in 100kGy-KGM enhanced its interaction with TMP and maintained its compact and smooth structure, but the larger molecular size (Rz≥40.2nm) and random coil conformation in other KGMs inhibited part of actins from gelling and deteriorated the network structure. Our study provided principle knowledge to understand the structure-functions relationships of KGM-TMP composite gels. These results can be used to provide theoretical guidance for surimi gel processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In situ gelling systems of ofloxacin: Comparative performance of in vivo precorneal drainage and pharmacokinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali S Kashikar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our present work describes the formulation and evaluation of an ocular deliver system of ofloxacin based on the concept of temperature-and ion-activated in situ gelling system. A combination of Pluronic F-127 and Pluronic F-68 along with chitosan, (pH-sensitive polymer also acts as a permeation enhancer was used in temperature and pH-triggered in situ gelling systems while gellan alone was used in ion-activated in situ gelling system. The formulation allows its easy instillation into the eye as a liquid (drops, forms transparent gel, and spreads over the corneal surface. At the formulation pH, transcorneal permeation profile of ofloxacin was comparable to that of in vitro release profile. In situ gel-forming ability of the developed systems significantly controls precorneal drainage as studied by gamma scintigraphy. Thus, increased residence time in the eye would help to increase the ocular bioavailability. The formulation was also found to be nonirritant and well tolerable. Cmax of in situ gelling formulation was found to be 1.5 times higher than marketed eye drops solution at the similar Tmax of 1 h.

  1. Strategy to identify and quantify polysaccharide gums in gelled food concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grün, C.H.; Sanders, P.; Burg, van der M.; Schuurbiers, E.; Adrichem, van L.; Velzen, van E.J.J.; Roo, de N.; Brunt, K.; Westphal, Y.; Schols, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    A strategy for the unambiguous identification and selective quantification of xanthan gum and locust bean gum (LBG) in gelled food concentrates is presented. DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed to be a fast, sensitive, and selective method that can be used as a first screening to

  2. Understanding the differences in gelling properties between lupin protein isolate and soy protein isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, J.A.M.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The gelling properties of lupin protein isolate (LPI) were compared with those of soy protein isolate (SPI). It was found that LPI behaves fundamentally different than SPI, evidenced by the formation of weaker and deformable gels. Further investigation shows that both protein isolates can be conside

  3. Metallized Gelled Propellants: Oxygen/RP-1/Aluminum Rocket Heat Transfer and Combustion Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan; Zakany, James S.

    1996-01-01

    A series of rocket engine heat transfer experiments using metallized gelled liquid propellants was conducted. These experiments used a small 20- to 40-lb/f thrust engine composed of a modular injector, igniter, chamber and nozzle. The fuels used were traditional liquid RP-1 and gelled RP-1 with 0-, 5-, and 55-percentage by weight loadings of aluminum particles. Gaseous oxygen was used as the oxidizer. Three different injectors were used during the testing: one for the baseline O(2)/RP-1 tests and two for the gelled and metallized gelled fuel firings. Heat transfer measurements were made with a rocket engine calorimeter chamber and nozzle with a total of 31 cooling channels. Each chamber used a water flow to carry heat away from the chamber and the attached thermocouples and flow meters allowed heat flux estimates at each of the 31 stations. The rocket engine Cstar efficiency for the RP-1 fuel was in the 65-69 percent range, while the gelled 0 percent by weight RP-1 and the 5-percent by weight RP-1 exhibited a Cstar efficiency range of 60 to 62% and 65 to 67%, respectively. The 55-percent by weight RP-1 fuel delivered a 42-47% Cstar efficiency. Comparisons of the heat flux and temperature profiles of the RP-1 and the metallized gelled RP-1/A1 fuels show that the peak nozzle heat fluxes with the metallized gelled O2/RP-1/A1 propellants are substantially higher than the baseline O2/RP-1: up to double the flux for the 55 percent by weight RP-1/A1 over the RP-1 fuel. Analyses showed that the heat transfer to the wall was significantly different for the RP-1/A1 at 55-percent by weight versus the RP-1 fuel. Also, a gellant and an aluminum combustion delay was inferred in the 0 percent and 5-percent by weight RP-1/A1 cases from the decrease in heat flux in the first part of the chamber. A large decrease in heat flux in the last half of the chamber was caused by fuel deposition in the chamber and nozzle. The engine combustion occurred well downstream of the injector face

  4. Suitability of various plant derived gelling agents as agar substitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... of three test fungi (Trichoderma harzianum, Alternaria alternata and Alternaria solani) as good as agar. Guar gum .... validate the available data and to look for additional cheap and .... A revised medium for rapid growth and.

  5. Total phosphorus recovery in flowback fluids after gelled hydrocarbon fracturing fluid treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyten, G.; Houle, P.; Taylor, R.S. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stemler, P.S. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lemieux, A. [Omnicon Consultants Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Carbon dioxide miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids are used in unconventional gas reservoirs such as tight gas, shale gas, and coalbed methane. These fracturing fluids address phase trapping concerns by using oil-based fracturing fluid technology for use in reservoirs that are water sensitive. This paper addressed the problem of refinery tower fouling caused by volatile phosphorous components found in phosphate ester oil gellants. In order to address costly unplanned refinery shutdowns, a maximum 0.5 ppm volatile phosphorus in crude specification has been proposed. However, this specification is based on average concentrations of phosphorus added to the oil to gel it. The specification also falsely assumes that the oil is phosphorus free to begin with. The authors noted that refinery tower fouling is actually the result of total phosphorus throughput rather than peak concentrations at any one point. This paper focused on the total phosphorus recovery in addition to peak concentrations. It also examined what percentage of the total recovered phosphorus is in fact volatile, since this is the material that plugs the trays. The total per cent recovery of phosphorus originally added as phosphorus based gellant was examined along with the total percent recovery of volatile phosphorus as a function of total phosphorus. The phosphorus concentrations in both new and reused fracturing fluids before addition of gellants was also examined along with the potential explanations for phosphorus concentrations higher than those originally added. It was shown that the first 50 per cent of a hydraulic fracturing fluid flowback can result in recovery of greater than or less than the amount of phosphorus added to that portion of the fracturing fluid. The initial high concentrations of total and volatile phosphorus are greater than the phosphorus concentrations inherent in the system. Therefore, as flowback continues, there would be a rapid decline in the concentration of phosphorus

  6. Injecting drug use is associated with a more rapid CD4 cell decline among treatment naïve HIV-positive patients in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinta Meijerink

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It remains unclear whether the natural course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV differs in subjects infected through injecting drug use (IDU and no data have been published from low- or middle-income countries. We addressed this question in an urban cohort in Indonesia, which is experiencing a rapidly growing HIV epidemic strongly driven by IDU. Methods: All antiretroviral treatment (ART naïve HIV-positive patients who had at least two subsequent CD4 cell counts available before starting ART were included in this study. We examined the association between IDU and CD4 cell decline using a linear mixed model, with adjustment for possible confounders such as HIV viral load and hepatitis C antibodies. Results: Among 284 HIV-positive ART naïve patients, the majority were male (56% with a history of IDU (79% among men. People with a history of IDU had a statistically significant faster decline in CD4 cells (p<0.001. Based on our data, patients with a history of IDU would have an average 33% decline in CD4 cells after one year without ART, compared with a 22% decline among non-users. At two years, the decline would average 66 and 40%, respectively. No other factor was significantly associated with CD4 cell decline. Conclusions: We show that a history of IDU is associated with a more rapid CD4 cell natural decline among HIV-positive individuals in Indonesia. These findings have implications for monitoring ART naïve patients with a history of IDU and for starting ART in this group.

  7. Addressing the need for rapid treatment of agitation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: focus on inhaled loxapine as an alternative to injectable agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citrome L

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leslie CitromeDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USAAbstract: Agitation (excessive motor or verbal activity can be associated with schizophrenia or bipolar mania, and can further escalate into aggressive behavior and potentially lead to injuries in patients and staff. Medications used to treat agitation include antipsychotics and benzodiazepines, usually administered intramuscularly when rapid action is desired. Loxapine, a first-generation antipsychotic, has recently been reformulated into an inhaled powder that allows for direct administration to the lungs, resulting in rapid absorption into the systemic circulation. Administered via a single-use device, inhaled loxapine was tested in randomized controlled trials in agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar mania; doses of 5 mg and 10 mg were found to be efficacious, with an apparent dose response. In the Phase III studies, number needed to treat versus placebo for a ≥40% reduction from baseline on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale – Excited Component (PANSS-EC at 2 hours was three for patients with bipolar disorder, and five for 5 mg and four for 10 mg for patients with schizophrenia, with effect sizes comparable to what has been observed in analogous studies of intramuscular injection of antipsychotics or lorazepam. Separation from placebo on the PANSS-EC was as early as 10 minutes postinhalation, the first time point where this was measured. Dysgeusia was the most commonly encountered spontaneously reported adverse event. Adverse events related to extrapyramidal symptoms and akathisia were relatively rare. Spirometry studies identified the potential for bronchospasm particularly in persons with asthma. Because of concerns over pulmonary safety, inhaled loxapine is restricted to use in hospitals and patients need to be prescreened for the presence of pulmonary disease, as well as monitored for signs and symptoms of

  8. High Energy, Low Temperature Gelled Bi-Propellant Formulation for Long-Duration In-Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The use of gelled propellants for deep space planetary missions may enable adoption of high performance (Isp-vac>360 sec) propellant combinations that do not...

  9. Rapid determination of plutonium isotopes in environmental samples using sequential injection extraction chromatography and detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per; Miró, Manuel

    2009-10-01

    This article presents an automated method for the rapid determination of 239Pu and 240Pu in various environmental samples. The analytical method involves the in-line separation of Pu isotopes using extraction chromatography (TEVA) implemented in a sequential injection (SI) network followed by detection of isolated analytes with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method has been devised for the determination of Pu isotopes at environmentally relevant concentrations, whereby it has been successfully applied to the analyses of large volumes/amounts of samples, for example, 100-200 g of soil and sediment, 20 g of seaweed, and 200 L of seawater following analyte preconcentration. The investigation of the separation capability of the assembled SI system revealed that up to 200 g of soil or sediment can be treated using a column containing about 0.70 g of TEVA resin. The analytical results of Pu isotopes in the reference materials showed good agreement with the certified or reference values at the 0.05 significance level. Chemical yields of Pu ranged from 80 to 105%, and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium, mercury and lead were all above 10(4). The duration of the in-line extraction chromatographic run was determination of Pu isotopes in environmental risk assessment and emergency preparedness scenarios.

  10. Simple and rapid determination of thiabendazole, imazalil, and o-phenylphenol in citrus fruit using flow-injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuko; Goto, Tomomi; Oka, Hisao; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Yutaka; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2003-02-12

    A simple and rapid analytical method for thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMA), and o-phenylphenol (OPP) in citrus fruit has been developed by using flow-injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. The method involves the combined use of stable isotopically labeled internal standards (thiabendazole-(13)C(6), imazalil-d(5), and p-phenylphenol-d(9)) and a multiple reaction monitoring technique. The average recoveries for the fungicides at the tolerance levels (TBZ and OPP, 10 mg/kg; IMA, 5 mg/kg) ranged from 77 to 101%, with the coefficients of variation (CVs) ranging from 0.7 to 4.2% (n = 5). At half the tolerance levels (TBZ and OPP, 5 mg/kg; IMA, 2.5 mg/kg), the average recoveries ranged from 62 to 112%, with the CVs ranging from 0.7 to 8.4% (n = 5). The CVs of the average recoveries, obtained from lemon samples fortified with three fungicides at the tolerance levels, obtained on three different days over two weeks, ranged within 2%. The analysis time, including sample preparation and determination, is only 15 min.

  11. Rapid isolation of plutonium in environmental solid samples using sequential injection anion exchange chromatography followed by detection with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Jixin, E-mail: jixin.qiao@risoe.d [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hou Xiaolin; Roos, Per [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Miro, Manuel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears (Spain)

    2011-01-31

    This paper reports an automated analytical method for rapid determination of plutonium isotopes ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu) in environmental solid extracts. Anion exchange chromatographic columns were incorporated in a sequential injection (SI) system to undertake the automated separation of plutonium from matrix and interfering elements. The analytical results most distinctly demonstrated that the crosslinkage of the anion exchanger is a key parameter controlling the separation efficiency. AG 1-x4 type resin was selected as the most suitable sorbent material for analyte separation. Investigation of column size effect upon the separation efficiency revealed that small-sized (2 mL) columns sufficed to handle up to 50 g of environmental soil samples. Under the optimum conditions, chemical yields of plutonium exceeded 90% and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium and lead ranged from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4}. The determination of plutonium isotopes in three standard/certified reference materials (IAEA-375 soil, IAEA-135 sediment and NIST-4359 seaweed) and two reference samples (Irish Sea sediment and Danish soil) revealed a good agreement with reference/certified values. The SI column-separation method is straightforward and less labor intensive as compared with batch-wise anion exchange chromatographic procedures. Besides, the automated method features low consumption of ion-exchanger and reagents for column washing and elution, with the consequent decrease in the generation of acidic waste, thus bearing green chemical credentials.

  12. Rapid isolation of plutonium in environmental solid samples using sequential injection anion exchange chromatography followed by detection with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per; Miró, Manuel

    2011-01-31

    This paper reports an automated analytical method for rapid determination of plutonium isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) in environmental solid extracts. Anion exchange chromatographic columns were incorporated in a sequential injection (SI) system to undertake the automated separation of plutonium from matrix and interfering elements. The analytical results most distinctly demonstrated that the crosslinkage of the anion exchanger is a key parameter controlling the separation efficiency. AG 1-×4 type resin was selected as the most suitable sorbent material for analyte separation. Investigation of column size effect upon the separation efficiency revealed that small-sized (2 mL) columns sufficed to handle up to 50 g of environmental soil samples. Under the optimum conditions, chemical yields of plutonium exceeded 90% and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium and lead ranged from 10(3) to 10(4). The determination of plutonium isotopes in three standard/certified reference materials (IAEA-375 soil, IAEA-135 sediment and NIST-4359 seaweed) and two reference samples (Irish Sea sediment and Danish soil) revealed a good agreement with reference/certified values. The SI column-separation method is straightforward and less labor intensive as compared with batch-wise anion exchange chromatographic procedures. Besides, the automated method features low consumption of ion-exchanger and reagents for column washing and elution, with the consequent decrease in the generation of acidic waste, thus bearing green chemical credentials.

  13. Générateur de timing local pour l'acquisition des transformateurs rapides (LEIR, LINAC 3, LINAC 2, Ligne d'injection PSB)

    CERN Document Server

    Schnell, J D

    2006-01-01

    Dans le cadre des acquisitions des transformateurs rapides des deux LINACS, de la ligne d'injection PSB et de la machine LEIR, un nouveau hardware a été mis en opération [1]. Celui-ci assure la digitalisation des signaux analogiques et aussi de certains signaux de timing devant cadrer la mesure. Pour ce faire des ADC SIS3300 (SIS3320) et des DPRAM 80408 sont mis en service. Ces unités nécéssitent pour leur fonctionnement des horloges et des timings qui normalement sont intégralement fournis par l'équipement standard CO, notamment des CTRV et autres TG8. Suite à des problèmes d'approvisionnement, il existe des cas où l'on ne dispose pas (du moins pour le court terme) de suffisemment de ressources standard pour pourvoir au timing mentionné plus haut. Le tiroir qui fait l'objet de la présente description assure, avec certaines limitations, la génération des timings et autres horloges utilisées par les DPRAM 80408 et les ADC SIS3300.

  14. Layered double hydroxides as an effective additive in polymer gelled electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsu-Wen; Cheng, Wei-Yun; Lo, Yu-Chun; Wei, Tzu-Chien; Lu, Shih-Yuan

    2014-10-22

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH), a class of anionic clay materials, were developed as an effective additive for polymer gelled electrolytes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Carbonate and chloride intercalated Zn-Al LDHs, ZnAl-CO3 LDH, and ZnAl-Cl LDH were prepared with coprecipitation methods. The addition of the two LDHs significantly improved, in terms of power conversion efficiency (PCE), over the plain poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) gelled electrolyte and competed favorably with the liquid electrolyte based DSSCs, 8.13% for the liquid electrolyte, 7.48% for the plain PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte, 8.11% for the ZnAl-CO3 LDH/PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte, and 8.00% for the ZnAl-Cl LDH/PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte based DSSCs. The good performance in PCEs achieved by the LDH-loaded DSSCs came mainly from the significant boost in open circuit voltages (Voc), from 0.74 V for both the liquid electrolyte and PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte based DSSCs to 0.79 V for both the ZnAl-CO3 LDH/PVDF-HFP and ZnAl-Cl LDH/PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte based DSSCs. The boost in Voc was contributed mainly by the positive shift in redox potential of the redox couple, I(-)/I3(-), as revealed from cyclic voltammetry analyses. As for the long-term stability, PCE retention rates of 96 and 99% after 504 h were achieved by the ZnAl-CO3 LDH/PVDF-HFP and ZnAl-Cl LDH/PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte based DSSCs, respectively, appreciably better than 92% achieved by the liquid electrolyte based one after 480 h.

  15. In situ permeability modification using gelled polymer systems. Annual report, April 11, 1997--April 10, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; McCool, C.S.; Heppert, J.A.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.J.

    1998-09-01

    Results from a research program on the application of gelled polymer technology for in situ permeability modification are presented in this report. The objective of this technology when used with displacement processes such as waterflooding is to reduce the permeability in fractures and/or high permeability matrix zones to improve volumetric sweep efficiency of the displacement process. In production wells, the objective is to reduce water influx. The research program focused on five areas: Gel treatment in fractured systems; Gel treatment in carbonate rocks; In-depth placement of gels; Gel systems for application in carbon dioxide flooding; and Gel treatment in production wells. The research program is primarily an experimental program directed toward improving the understanding of gelled polymer systems and how these systems can be used to increase oil recovery from petroleum reservoirs. A summary of progress for research conducted in the second 12 month period of a 28 month program is described.

  16. In situ permeability modification using gelled polymer systems. Topical report, June 10, 1996--April 10, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; McCool, C.S.; Heppert, J.A.; Vossoughi, S.

    1997-10-01

    Results from a research program on the application of gelled polymer technology for in situ permeability modification are presented in this report. The objective of this technology when used with displacement processes such as waterflooding is to reduce the permeability in fractures and/or high permeability matrix zones to improve volumetric sweep efficiency of the displacement process. In production wells, the objective is to reduce water influx. The research program is focused on five areas: gel treatment in fractured systems; gel treatment in carbonate rocks; in-depth placement of gels; gel systems for application in carbon dioxide flooding; and gel treatment in production wells. The research program is primarily an experimental program directed at improving the understanding of gelled polymer systems and how these systems can be used to increase oil recovery from petroleum reservoirs. A summary of progress for research conducted in the first 10 months of a 28 month program is described in the following sections.

  17. Effect of gelling agents on shoot growth and multiple shoot formation of mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Te-chato

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Apomict seeds of mangosteen were cultured as a whole or half seed on MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA. The medium was solidified with various gelling agents. After culture for 2 months, multiple shoot formation, morphological and physiological characters of the shoot were investigated. The results revealed that 1.5% agarose gave the highest seed forming shoot (98% and number of shoots per culture seed (20.7. Wounding the seed by sectioning into half promoted higher callus formation (47-88% in all gelling agents. Phytagel (0.17% resulted in the highest callus formation (100% and hyperhydric shoots (11-31%. Those shoots produced translucent, thin and brittle leaves and stems, and malformed stoma. Those leaves had the lowest content of chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll.

  18. Gelling process of sodium alginate with bivalent ions rich microsphere: Nature of bivalent ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Marco; Vicini, Silvia; Castellano, Maila

    2016-05-01

    In the paper we present a new approach for obtaining a controlled gelling process of sodium alginate, based on the quantity of bivalent ions rich alginate micro-beads added as crosslinkers. Typically, calcium ions are used in gelation of alginate solutions. In this study we present different gelling systems realized with alginate microspheres, made by electrospinning methodology, enriched with different bivalent ions (Ca2+, Ba2+ and Mg2+). The microspheres were characterized under the point of view of the morphology by OM and as the ions content. Realized gels were characterized in light of the amount of the ions added to the alginate solution, and in light of the different dimensions of the micro-beads, using rheological measurements to assess the variation in the storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G″) and complex viscosity (η*).

  19. Stabilization of green bodies via sacrificial gelling agent during electrophoretic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Rose, Klint A.

    2016-03-22

    In one embodiment, a method for electrophoretic deposition of a three-dimensionally patterned green body includes suspending a first material in a gelling agent above a patterned electrode of an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) chamber, and gelling the suspension while applying a first electric field to the suspension to cause desired patterning of the first material in a resulting gelation. In another embodiment, a ceramic, metal, or cermet includes a plurality of layers, wherein each layer includes a gradient in composition, microstructure, and/or density in an x-y plane oriented parallel to a plane of deposition of the plurality of layers along a predetermined distance in a z-direction perpendicular to the plane of deposition.

  20. The flow and spray characteristics of gelled fluids; Die Stroemungs- und Verspruehungseigenschaften gelfoermiger Fluide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madlener, K.

    2008-07-01

    In the present study gelled fluids are investigated concerning their application as propellants in storable and thrust controllable rocket propulsion systems. The correlations between the non-Newtonian viscosity properties and the flow and spray characteristics are discussed. Based on the proposed viscosity model Herschel-Bulkley-Extended (HBE) the laminar pipe flow is calculated for the investigated propellants. With the introduction of a generalized form of the Reynolds number and the presentation of a possibility to determine the critical values of this number it is possible to calculate the laminar-turbulent transition in a pipe flow. The theoretical results are evaluated with experimental data. The spray characteristics of various gelled fluids are examined using an experimental setup with impinging-jet-injectors. (orig.)

  1. Correlation of the protein structure and gelling properties in dried egg white products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, A; Hayashi, K; Shidara, H; Kuroda, N

    2001-08-01

    The relationship between protein structure and aggregation, as well as heat-induced gelling properties, of seven dried egg white (DEW) products was investigated. Strong correlations were found between average molecular weight and hydrophobicity plus surface SH groups of DEW-soluble protein aggregate (SPA). This suggests that hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bond formation between protein molecules were involved in the aggregation. The average molecular weight of DEW products with alkaline pHs was relatively higher than those with neutral pHs and the same degree of protein unfolding, probably because of more disulfide bond formation between protein molecules. In addition, strong correlations were found between hydrophobicity, surface SH groups plus average molecular weight of DEW-SPA, and physical properties of the gels from DEW products. These data indicated that controlling the aggregation of DEW proteins in the dry state is crucial to controlling the gelling properties of DEW.

  2. Rheological profiling of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations of natural waxes in a triacylglycerol solvent

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ashok; Babaahmadifooladi, Mehrnoosh; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use a detailed rheological characterization to gain new insights into the gelation behavior of natural waxes. To make a comprehensive case, six natural waxes (differing in the relative proportion of chemical components: hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, and wax esters) were selected as organogelators to gel high-oleic sunflower oil. Flow and dynamic rheological properties of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations (Cg) of waxes were studied...

  3. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, C.S.

    2001-01-22

    This report describes the progress of the first year of a three-year research program. This program is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production.

  4. Design and Characterization of Bioadhesive In-Situ Gelling Ocular Inserts of Gatifloxacin Sesquihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra D.N.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Several polymeric systems have been used to fabricate ocular inserts for better ocular bioavailability and retention to drug of which gelling systems have shown advantages of convenient administration and increased contact time. The purpose of the present study was to develop a bioadhesive in-situe gelling ocular insert of Gatifloxacin using polymeric system of sodium alginate as gelling and chitosan as bioadhesive agent.Materials and methods: Polymeric ocular inserts of Gatifloxacin sesquehydrate (GS were composed using sodium alginate and chitosan with glycerin as plasticizer by solvent casting method. The ocular inserts were investigated for physicochemical properties (thickness, weight variation, folding endurance and surface pH, mechanical strength (tensile strength, elongation at break, swelling index, and bioadhesion parameters. In vitro release studies were carried using a fabricated donor-receptor compartment model. Results: Cumulative drug released from the formulation ranged from 95-99% within 8-12h. The formulation D (2% sodium alginate and 1% chitosan sustained the drug release for the longest period of time (12h. Zero-order release of the drug was from optimized formulation D. A high correlation coefficient (r=0.9845 was recorded between in vitro and in vivo drug release.Conclusion: Gatifloxacin sesquehydrate inserts have appreciable film forming properties and were found to posses good antimicrobial efficacy.

  5. Gelled membranes for Li and Li-ion batteries prepared by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, D.; Meyer, B.; Salomon, M.

    Composite polymer gelled membranes have been prepared an electrospinning technique. Electrospinning of polymer fibers or electrospraying of particles is typically accomplished by applying a strong electric field (ca. 1-25 kV cm -1) to a polymer solution or slurry of solids in an appropriate solvent. The fibers are collected as a mat (membrane) on a grounded target such as Al, Cu, Ni, etc. Typical membranes (mats) consist of nanometer size fibers and have porosities of 65-85%. In the present paper, we describe the fabrication of electrospun membranes for use as gelled electrolytes in Li and Li-ion batteries. The electrospun polymer membranes used in this work are based on the polyimides (PIs) Matrimid and Ultem 1000. Pure PI membranes have been prepared, and blends of Matrimid and Ultem with PVdF-HFP and PAN have been studied in 250 mAh and 7 Ah Li-ion cells. Fully imidized polyimides such as Matrimid and Ultem 1000 do not form gels, and are used as a host matrix of high mechanical strength to immobilize the gelling constituents PVdF or PAN.

  6. Gelled membranes for Li and Li-ion batteries prepared by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, D.; Meyer, B.; Salomon, M. [MaxPower, Inc., 141 Christopher Lane, Harleysville, PA 19438 (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Composite polymer gelled membranes have been prepared an electrospinning technique. Electrospinning of polymer fibers or electrospraying of particles is typically accomplished by applying a strong electric field (ca. 1-25 kV cm{sup -1}) to a polymer solution or slurry of solids in an appropriate solvent. The fibers are collected as a mat (membrane) on a grounded target such as Al, Cu, Ni, etc. Typical membranes (mats) consist of nanometer size fibers and have porosities of 65-85%. In the present paper, we describe the fabrication of electrospun membranes for use as gelled electrolytes in Li and Li-ion batteries. The electrospun polymer membranes used in this work are based on the polyimides (PIs) Matrimid and Ultem 1000. Pure PI membranes have been prepared, and blends of Matrimid and Ultem with PVdF-HFP and PAN have been studied in 250 mAh and 7 Ah Li-ion cells. Fully imidized polyimides such as Matrimid and Ultem 1000 do not form gels, and are used as a host matrix of high mechanical strength to immobilize the gelling constituents PVdF or PAN. (author)

  7. Performance characteristics of a gelled-electrolyte valve-regulated lead-acid battery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Martha; B Hariprakash; S A Gaffoor; A K Shukla

    2003-08-01

    12 V/25 AH gelled-electrolyte valve-regulated lead-acid batteries have been assembled in-house and their performance studied in relation to the absorptive glass-microfibre valve-regulated and flooded-electrolyte counterparts at various discharge rates and temperatures between –40°C and 40°C. Although the performance of the gelled-electrolyte valve-regulated battery is similar to both the absorptive glass-microfibre valve-regulated and flooded-electrolyte lead-acid batteries at temperatures above 0°C, it is superior to both the flooded-electrolyte and absorptive glass-microfibre valve-regulated lead-acid batteries at temperatures between 0°C and -40°C. The latter characteristic is attractive for expanding the application regime of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. The corrosion rate for the positive grids in the gelled-electrolyte is also lower than both the flooded-electrolyte and absorptive glass-microfibre configurations.

  8. [Rapid screening and quality evaluation for the harmful substance 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection using LC-MS/MS method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Qing-ce; He, Jing-jing; Bai, Jin-fa; Zheng, Ya-jie; Zhang, Rui-ping; Li, Tie-gang; Wang, Zhong-hua; He, Jiu-ming; Abliz, Zeper

    2013-11-01

    To screen the harmful substance 5-hydroxymethyl furfural content in commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection which are commonly used, and to preliminarily evaluate the quality of these injections, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural was taken as an index. The contents of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in 56 samples which consist of 23 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine injections and glucose injection were determined using LC-MS/MS, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural was detected in 52 of these samples. The minimal content was 0.0038 microg x L(-1) and the maximum content was 1420 microg x mL(-1). The contents of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural were significantly different in traditional Chinese medicine injection which came from different kinds, manufacturers or batches. The results showed the quality difference of commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection is significant taking 5-hydroxymethyl furfural content as assessment index. More attention should be paid to the safety of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in traditional Chinese medicine injection, and unified limitation standard should be set to improve medication safety of traditional Chinese medicine injection.

  9. Formulation and evaluation of microemulsion-based in situ ion-sensitive gelling systems for intranasal administration of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Chen, Ping; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Chunfen; Zhai, Guangxi

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to develop a microemulsion-based in situ ion-sensitive gelling system for intranasal administration of curcumin. A new microemulsion composition for curcumin was optimized with the simple lattice design. And the microemulsion-based in situ ion-sensitive gelling system consisted of Capryol 90 as oil phase, Solutol HS15 as surfactant, Transcutol HP as cosurfactant and 0.3% DGG solution as water phase. The physicochemical properties such as morphology, droplet size distribution, zeta value and the in vitro release were investigated. In addition, the histological section studies on the reaction between the obtained formulation and nasal mucosa showed that the microemulsion-based in situ ion-sensitive gelling system could not produce obvious damage to nasal mucosa. The pharmacokinetics results showed that the absolute bioavailability of curcumin in the microemulsion-based in situ ion-sensitive gelling system was 55.82% by intranasal administration. And the brain targeting index (BTI) was 6.50, and in the tissue distribution experiment, the value of (AUC(brain)/AUC(blood)) following intranasal administration was higher than that following intravenous administration, suggesting that the obvious brain targeting property by nasal delivery be attributed to a direct nose-to-brain drug transport. It can be concluded that the microemulsion-based in situ gelling as an effective and safe vehicle could greatly enhance the in vivo absorption and facilitate the delivery of curcumin to brain by intranasal administration.

  10. Ensete ventricosum (WELW. CHEESMAN: A CHEAP AND ALTERNATIVE GELLING AGENT FOR PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus VAR. SMOOTH CAYENNE IN VITRO PROPAGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk Ayenew

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Different mechanisms are tried so far to reduce the production cost of plant tissue culture through increasing multiplication rate and/or substituting expensive components for wider usage of the technology. Subsequently, replacing the most common gelling agent, agar, took an attention since higher proportion of media cost comes from it. Up to now different alternatives were tried though they have drawbacks due to their inherent chemical characteristics. Therefore the search for new alternatives like Enset ventricosum is important. Enset flour, ‘Bulla’, has been tried in this study for the first time to substitute agar and showed no significant difference for shoots number, root number, shoot height, leaf number and an associated fresh weight of the plantlets besides good gelling ability than Agar. Subsequently, ‘Bulla’ at 80g L-1 gelled well and gave 11.8 shoots with 0.95g and 13.33 roots having 1.37 cm length. This rate can also save up to 76 % cost of gelling though significant difference was found for root length of 3.23 cm with Agar, 8 g L-1. This indicates further study on biochemical and/ or hormonal activity and across crop genotypes to use ‘Bulla’ as a cheap alternative commercial gelling agent.

  11. A Semi-Analytical Method for Rapid Estimation of Near-Well Saturation, Temperature, Pressure and Stress in Non-Isothermal CO2 Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForce, T.; Ennis-King, J.; Paterson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir cooling near the wellbore is expected when fluids are injected into a reservoir or aquifer in CO2 storage, enhanced oil or gas recovery, enhanced geothermal systems, and water injection for disposal. Ignoring thermal effects near the well can lead to under-prediction of changes in reservoir pressure and stress due to competition between increased pressure and contraction of the rock in the cooled near-well region. In this work a previously developed semi-analytical model for immiscible, nonisothermal fluid injection is generalised to include partitioning of components between two phases. Advection-dominated radial flow is assumed so that the coupled two-phase flow and thermal conservation laws can be solved analytically. The temperature and saturation profiles are used to find the increase in reservoir pressure, tangential, and radial stress near the wellbore in a semi-analytical, forward-coupled model. Saturation, temperature, pressure, and stress profiles are found for parameters representative of several CO2 storage demonstration projects around the world. General results on maximum injection rates vs depth for common reservoir parameters are also presented. Prior to drilling an injection well there is often little information about the properties that will determine the injection rate that can be achieved without exceeding fracture pressure, yet injection rate and pressure are key parameters in well design and placement decisions. Analytical solutions to simplified models such as these can quickly provide order of magnitude estimates for flow and stress near the well based on a range of likely parameters.

  12. Microcosmos the world of elementary particles : fictional discussions between Einstein, Newton, and Gell-Mann

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction into the field of particle physics for the general reader through virtual discussions among prominent physicists, Albert Einstein, Murray Gell-Mann, Issac Newton and a modern physicists. Matter is composed of quarks and electrons. The electrons interact with the atomic nuclei by the exchange of photons. The forces between the quarks are generated by the exchange of gluons, which leads to the confinement of the quarks. The weak bosons provide the weak forces among the leptons and quarks. The book is suitable for non-experts in physics. Readership: General readers, students and researchers in physics.

  13. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, S.

    2001-03-28

    Gelled polymer treatments were applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. Procedures were developed to determine the weight-average molecular weight and average size of polyacrylamide samples in aqueous solutions. Sample preparation techniques were key to achieving reproducible results.

  14. Hydroponics gel as a new electrolyte gelling agent for alkaline zinc-air cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, R.; Basirun, W. J.; Yahaya, A. H.; Arof, A. K.

    The viability of hydroponics gel as a new alkaline electrolyte gelling agent is investigated. Zinc-air cells are fabricated employing 12 wt.% KOH electrolyte immobilised with hydroponics gel. The cells are discharged at constant currents of 5, 50 and 100 mA. XRD and SEM analysis of the anode plates after discharge show that the failure mode is due to the formation of zinc oxide insulating layers and not due to any side reactions between the gel and the plate or the electrolyte.

  15. Gelling preparation of starting materials for dry and wet syntheses of silicate minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Ko

    1985-01-01

    Gelling technique on the preparation of starting materials of silicates for both dry and wet (hydrothermal) syntheses has been fundamentally reinvestigated on the following components, SiO_2, Al_2O_3, Fe_2O_3, Cr_20_3, MgO, FeO, NiO and CaO by precipitating with excess ammonia water in ethyl alcohol solutions. On the basis of solubilities at each pH for each component, a general procedure for the preparation of starting materials including Na_2O and K_2O has been proposed.

  16. Influence of the concentration of locust bean gum on the gelling ability of whey peptic hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Cristina M. R.; Hilliou, L.; Teixeira, J. A.; M. P. Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    The gelling ability of whey proteins can be changed by limited hydrolysis and by the presence of other components such as polysaccharides; depending on the environmental conditions it can either be improved or impaired. In this work the effect of LBG on the heat-set gelation of aqueous whey protein hydrolysates (10 % w/w) from pepsin was assessed at pH 7.0 by small deformation rheology. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysates with a degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 1.5, ...

  17. A Green Antioxidant Activity-Integrated Dual-Standard Method for Rapid Evaluation of the Quality of Traditional Chinese Medicine Xuebijing Injection by On-Line DPPH-CE-DAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Liu, Jiao; Liu, Wei; Yu, Xie-an; An, Mingrui; Gao, Xiu-mei

    2016-01-01

    Much attention has been focused on treatment of sepsis which leads to high mortality all over the world in every year. Antioxidant activity seems to play a prominent role in the treatment of sepsis exhibited by Xuebijing injection. The aim of the present research was to develop an on-line 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl- (DPPH-) capillary electrophoresis-diode array detector (on-line DPPH-CE-DAD) method for rapidly assessing antioxidant properties and efficacious material basis of antioxidant activity as a way of quality control of Xuebijing injection. Several parameters affecting the separation were investigated, including the pH and concentrations of buffer, SDS, β-CD, and organic modifier as well as voltage and cassette temperature. Compared to previous traditional method, this improved method shortened the experimental cycle and became more efficient because it was successfully applied to analyze total antioxidant activity and contents of twelve antioxidants of Xuebijing injection under the same condition. The results revealed that the on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was a reagent-saving, rapid, feasible, and green technique for quality control of Xuebijing injection in terms of pharmacological activity and contents of active ingredients. It also offered new opportunities for the analysis of antioxidant activity of complex matrix. PMID:27872649

  18. The Gell-Mann - Okubo Mass Relation among Baryons from Fully-Dynamical, Mixed-Action Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantinos Orginos; Silas Beane; Martin Savage

    2007-10-01

    We explore the Gell-Mann - Okubo mass relation among the octet baryons using fully-dynamical, mixed-action (domain-wall on rooted-staggered) lattice QCD calculations at a lattice spacing of b {approx} 0.125 fm and pion masses of m{sub pi} {approx} 290 MeV, 350 MeV, 490 MeV and 590 MeV. Deviations from the Gell-Mann - Okubo mass relation are found to be small at each quark mass.

  19. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Eleventh quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1995-07-24

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems -- an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSP1) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium(III)-polyacrylamide system and the aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide system. Laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Technical progress is described for the following tasks: physical and chemical characterization of gel systems; mechanisms of in situ gelation; and mathematical modelling of the gel systems.

  20. Thiolated poly(aspartic acid) as potential in situ gelling, ocular mucoadhesive drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvát, Gabriella; Gyarmati, Benjámin; Berkó, Szilvia; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Szilágyi, Barnabás Áron; Szilágyi, András; Soós, Judit; Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Ferrari, Franca; Caramella, Carla; Csányi, Erzsébet; Budai-Szűcs, Mária

    2015-01-25

    The ophthalmic formulations on the market suffer from poor bioavailability, and it would therefore be useful to design a new formulation which is able to prolong the residence time and reduce the administration frequency. Polymer matrices which exhibit strong mucoadhesion are promising platforms in ocular drug delivery from the aspect of improved bioavailability. In the present study, an in situ gelling, mucoadhesive drug delivery system was fabricated from thiolated poly(aspartic acid) (ThioPASP). The thiol groups of ThioPASP are able to form disulphide linkages with the mucin glycoproteins and prolong the residence time on the eye. The effects of the thiol groups on the structure, swelling behaviour and mucoadhesive character of the gel and on the drug release profile were determined. The gel structure was characterized by means of rheology. The ThioPASP gel was demonstrated by rheology, tensile test and 'wash away' measurements to display strong mucoadhesion. The drug release from the ThioPASP gel was studied on a vertical Franz diffusion cell: a burst release of sodium diclofenac occurred in the first hour, followed by sustained release of the encapsulated drug for up to 24h. The results proved the importance of the presence of the thiol groups and suggested that a ThioPASP formulation can be useful as an in situ gelling, ocular dosage form. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of olive oil-in-water gelled emulsions in model turkey breast emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, M.; Öztürk, B.

    2017-09-01

    Today, gelled emulsion systems offer a novel possibility in lipid modification of meat products. In this study, we aimed to investigate the quality characteristics of model turkey emulsions that were prepared with olive oil-in-water gelled emulsion (GE) as partial or total beef fat replacer. The results indicated that while most of the GE treatments showed equivalent emulsion characteristics in terms of emulsion stability, water-holding capacity and cook yield, utilization of 100% GE as the lipid source could increase total expressible fluid of the model turkey emulsion and thus negatively affect the quality. Utilization of GE was effective in total fat reduction, as the model turkey emulsions formulated with more than 50% GE had significantly lower fat content compared to full-beef fat control model emulsion. However, beef fat replacement with GE produced considerable changes in colour parameters. Finally, it was concluded that utilization of GE as a partial beef fat replacer has good potential to enhance stability and reduce total fat in turkey meat emulsion products.

  2. Nanosuspension based in situ gelling nasal spray of carvedilol: development, in vitro and in vivo characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saindane, Nilesh S; Pagar, Kunal P; Vavia, Pradeep R

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to develop in situ gelling nasal spray formulation of carvedilol (CRV) nanosuspension to improve the bioavailability and therapeutic efficiency. Solvent precipitation-ultrasonication method was opted for the preparation of CRV nanosuspension which further incorporated into the in situ gelling polymer phase. Optimized formulation was extensively characterized for various physical parameters like in situ gelation, rheological properties and in vitro drug release. Formation of in situ gel upon contact with nasal fluid was conferred via the use of ion-activated gellan gum as carrier. In vivo studies in rabbits were performed comparing the nasal bioavailability of CRV after oral, nasal, and intravenous administration. Optimized CRV nanosuspension prepared by combination of poloxamer 407 and oleic acid showed good particle size [d (0.9); 0.19 μm], zeta potential (+10.2 mV) and polydispersity (span; 0.63). The formulation containing 0.5% w/v gellan gum demonstrated good gelation ability and desired sustained drug release over period of 12 h. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed that the absolute bioavailability of in situ nasal spray formulation (69.38%) was significantly increased as compared to orally administered CRV (25.96%) with mean residence time 8.65 h. Hence, such in situ gel system containing drug nanosuspension is a promising approach for the intranasal delivery in order to increase nasal mucosal permeability and in vivo residence time which altogether improves drug bioavailability.

  3. Extraction, characterization and gelling behavior enhancement of pectins from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefsih, Khalef; Delattre, Cédric; Pierre, Guillaume; Michaud, Philippe; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M; Dahmoune, Farid; Madani, Khodir

    2016-01-01

    Total Pectins Fraction (TPF) was extracted at room temperature from dried cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica. TPF is constituted of three pectic fractions WSP, CSP and ASP, which are made up of 66.6%, 44.3% and 81.1% (w/w) of galacturonic acid, respectively. The antioxidant ability of TPF increased with the concentration increasing. It scavenged hydroxyl radical by 90% and chelated 90% of ferrous ions at 5 g/L. FTIR study was carried out. Strong characteristic absorption peaks at 1,618 cm(-1) assigned to the vibration of COO(-) group of galacturonic acid. In the fingerprint region, we noticed three well-defined peaks at 1054, 1085, and 1,154 cm(-1) characteristic of pectic polysaccharides. TPF are non-gelling pectins. The co-crosslinking of TPF with carrageenan was carried out and the gelling behavior was successfully improved. Thermo-sensitive hydrogel was obtained with 82% of TPF and 18% of carrageenan (w/w).

  4. Self-cross-linking biopolymers as injectable in situ forming biodegradable scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Biji; Jayakrishnan, A

    2005-06-01

    The injectable polymer scaffolds which are biocompatible and biodegradable are important biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Hydrogels derived from natural proteins and polysaccharides are ideal scaffolds for tissue engineering since they resemble the extracellular matrices of the tissue comprised of various amino acids and sugar-based macromolecules. Here, we report a new class of hydrogels derived from oxidized alginate and gelatin. We show that periodate-oxidized sodium alginate having appropriate molecular weight and degree of oxidation rapidly cross-links proteins such as gelatin in the presence of small concentrations of sodium tetraborate (borax) to give injectable systems for tissue engineering, drug delivery and other medical applications. The rapid gelation in the presence of borax is attributed to the slightly alkaline pH of the medium as well as the ability of borax to complex with hydroxyl groups of polysaccharides. The effect of degree of oxidation and concentration of alginate dialdehyde, gelatin and borax on the speed of gelation was examined. As a general rule, the gelling time decreased with increase in concentration of oxidized alginate, gelatin and borax and increase in the degree of oxidation of alginate. Cross-linking parameters of the gel matrix were studied by swelling measurements and trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) assay. In general, the degree of cross-linking was found to increase with increase in the degree of oxidation of alginate, whereas the swelling ratio and the degree of swelling decreased. The gel was found to be biocompatible and biodegradable. The potential of the system as an injectable drug delivery vehicle and as a tissue-engineering scaffold is demonstrated by using primaquine as a model drug and by encapsulation of hepatocytes inside the gel matrix, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of gelling agents on anther culture: response of two soybean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Barcelos Cardoso

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthers of two soybean cultivars were cultured in B5 long basal culture media gelled with agarose or PhytagelTM. Cytological examinations of the anthers were carried out during the first 45 days of culture to assay the viability and developmental stage of microspores. Frequency of callus formation was recorded at 45 days of culture. The analysis of variance of the microspore viability assay showed significant Cultivar X Gelling Agent X Day of Culture interactions. The frequencies of viable microspores decreased significantly with time of culture, within each cultivar and gelling agent tested. The interaction Day X Cultivar was significant for the frequencies of binucleate symmetrical grains and multinucleate/multicellular structures. The effect of gelling agents on the frequency of binucleate symmetrical pollens grains and multinucleate/multicellular structures was not significant. About the frequencies of calli and embryogenic calli formed, a significant difference was detected between the cultivars (IAS5= 14.8% and BRS 133=6.6%. Gelling agents showed no effect over these frequencies.Anteras de duas cultivares de soja foram cultivadas em meio de cultura basal B5 longo gelificado com agarose ou Phytagel®. Análises citológicas das anteras foram conduzidas durante os primeiros 45 dias de cultura para avaliar a viabilidade e o estágio de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos. A freqüência de formação de calos foi analisada após 45 dias do início da cultura. A análise da variância da viabilidade do micrósporo mostrou interações significativas de Cultivar X Agente Gelificante X Dias de Cultura. As freqüências de grãos de pólen viáveis diminuíram significativamente com o tempo de cultura, dentro de cada cultivar e agente gelificante testado. A interação Dia X Cultivar foi significante para as freqüências de grãos de pólen binucleados simétricos e estruturas multinucleados/multicelulares. O efeito do agente gelificante na freq

  6. Beam loss caused by edge focusing of injection bump magnets and its mitigation in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchi, H.; Tani, N.; Watanabe, Y.; Harada, H.; Kato, S.; Okabe, K.; Saha, P. K.; Tamura, F.; Yoshimoto, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, transverse injection painting is utilized not only to suppress space-charge induced beam loss in the low energy region but also to mitigate foil scattering beam loss during charge-exchange injection. The space-charge induced beam loss is well minimized by the combination of modest transverse painting and full longitudinal painting. But, for sufficiently mitigating the foil scattering part of beam loss, the transverse painting area has to be further expanded. However, such a wide-ranging transverse painting had not been realized until recently due to beta function beating caused by edge focusing of pulsed injection bump magnets during injection. This beta function beating additionally excites random betatron resonances through a distortion of the lattice superperiodicity, and its resultant deterioration of the betatron motion stability causes significant extra beam loss when expanding the transverse painting area. To solve this issue, we newly installed pulse-type quadrupole correctors to compensate the beta function beating. This paper presents recent experimental results on this correction scheme for suppressing the extra beam loss, while discussing the beam loss and its mitigation mechanisms with the corresponding numerical simulations.

  7. Beam loss caused by edge focusing of injection bump magnets and its mitigation in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, transverse injection painting is utilized not only to suppress space-charge induced beam loss in the low energy region but also to mitigate foil scattering beam loss during charge-exchange injection. The space-charge induced beam loss is well minimized by the combination of modest transverse painting and full longitudinal painting. But, for sufficiently mitigating the foil scattering part of beam loss, the transverse painting area has to be further expanded. However, such a wide-ranging transverse painting had not been realized until recently due to beta function beating caused by edge focusing of pulsed injection bump magnets during injection. This beta function beating additionally excites random betatron resonances through a distortion of the lattice superperiodicity, and its resultant deterioration of the betatron motion stability causes significant extra beam loss when expanding the transverse painting area. To solve this issue, we newly installed pulse-type quadrupole correctors to compensate the beta function beating. This paper presents recent experimental results on this correction scheme for suppressing the extra beam loss, while discussing the beam loss and its mitigation mechanisms with the corresponding numerical simulations.

  8. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments, Annual Report, June 16,2000-June 15, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, C.S.

    2002-05-22

    This program was aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production.

  9. Deformation and fracture of emulsion-filled gels: Effect of gelling agent concentration and oil droplet size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Vliet, van T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Velde, van de F.; Aken, van G.A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the ratio between the modulus of the oil droplets and that of the gel matrix (varied by changing gelling agent concentration and oil droplet size) on the large deformation properties of gelatine, ¿-carrageenan and whey protein isolate (WPI) gels was studied at different compression spe

  10. Injectable self-gelling composites for bone tissue engineering based on gellan gum hydrogel enriched with different bioglasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, T.E.; Piwowarczyk, W.; Pamula, E.; Liskova, J.; Schaubroeck, D.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.; Brackman, G.; Balcaen, L.; Detsch, R.; Declercq, H.; Cholewa-Kowalska, K.; Dokupil, A.; Cuijpers, V.M.; Vanhaecke, F.; Cornelissen, R.; Coenye, T.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Dubruel, P.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels of biocompatible calcium-crosslinkable polysaccharide gellan gum (GG) were enriched with bioglass particles to enhance (i) mineralization with calcium phosphate (CaP); (ii) antibacterial properties and (iii) growth of bone-forming cells for future bone regeneration applications. Three biog

  11. Injectable hyaluronic acid/PEG-p(HPMAm-lac)-based hydrogels dually cross-linked by thermal gelling and Michael addition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbini, Alessandra; Censi, Roberta; Butini, Maria Eugenia; Sabbieti, Maria Giovanna; Agas, Dimitrios; Vermonden, Tina; Di Martino, Piera

    2015-01-01

    Fast in situ forming thermosensitive hydrogels consisted of vinyl sulfone bearing p(HPMAm-lac(1-2))-PEG-p(HPMAm-lac(1-2)) triblock copolymers and thiol modified hyaluronic acid were prepared via a dual cross-linking strategy based on thermal gelation at 37 degrees C and simultaneous Michael addition

  12. Applications of Optical Sensors to the Detection of Light Scattered from Gelling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulone, Donatella; Manno, Mauro; San Biagio, Pier Luigi; Martorana, Vincenzo

    Visible light, scattered within an angle of few degrees, (Small Angle Light Scattering, SALS) yields information on the spatial correlations and dynamical properties on the scale of the micrometers. In this way a quick and non-invasive characterization of a variety of samples is feasible. Lately the SALS instruments have been built around multielement optical sensors (CCD, CMOS), allowing the simultaneous measurement of the complete structure factor even during fast kinetics. An assessment of some sensor matrices of different technology will be presented. The omolecular assemblies produced by polysaccharides or proteins can be functional or dysfunctional, their properties being either desirable or detrimental. Anyhow, their morphology often depends, in a very delicate way, on the presence of cosolutes, on the thermal history, on the biopolymer concentration etc. We present some applications of low angle dynamic and static light scattering to the study of gelling systems (agarose, pectin, insulin).

  13. COMIC AGENTS: FROM A POETIC TO AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PARADIGM OF COMEDY (ARISTOTLE AND ALFRED GELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA KAWALEC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle was concerned with the comedy genre as a kind of poetry. Its creators, the comic poets, interested him only marginally. This genological approach to its subject-matter dominated the theory and philosophy of art for subsequent centuries as evidenced by the subsequent elaborations of interpretations of Aristotle’s catharsis. The alternative approach focused instead on subjects as creators of art. As a consequence of the long-term development of anthropocentrism in the humanities, however, this approach took over. The “ performative turn” represents its more recent version. It allows one to interpret Poetics and other classical works not in the context of an object (comedy, but in the context of the acting subject. I claim that social anthropology further explores the concept of comedy and itself presumes it in its conceptual foundations and research approach. I elaborate the argument on the basis of the concept of the “spirit of comedy” coined by Alfred Gell .

  14. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medroxyprogesterone intramuscular (into a muscle) injection and medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous (under the skin) injection are used to prevent pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which ...

  15. Pentamidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentamidine injection is used to treat pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis carinii. It is in ... Pentamidine injection comes as powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) ...

  16. Nanospray technology for an in situ gelling nanoparticulate powder as a wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cicco, Felicetta; Porta, Amalia; Sansone, Francesca; Aquino, Rita P; Del Gaudio, Pasquale

    2014-10-01

    In the current study the feasibility of the novel nano spray drying technique for the production of stable nanoparticulate dry powder, able to gel when administered locally on a wound, is explored. Gentamicin sulphate (GS) was loaded into alginate/pectin nanoparticles as highly soluble (hygroscopic) model drug with wide range antibacterial agent for wound dressing. The influence of process variables, mainly spray mesh size and feed concentration, on particle size and morphology, powder wound fluid uptake ability and gelling rate, as well as hydrogel water vapour transmission at wound site were studied. Particles morphology was spherical with few exceptions as slightly corrugated particles when the larger nozzle was used. Production of spherical nanoparticles (d50 ∼ 350 nm) in good yield (82-92%) required 4 μm spray mesh whereas 7 μm mesh produced larger wrinkled particles. Nano spray-dried particles showed high encapsulation efficiency (∼ 80%), good flowability, high fluid uptake, fast gel formation (15 min) and proper adhesiveness to fill the wound site and to remove easily the formulation after use. Moreover, moisture transmission of the in situ formed hydrogel was between 95 and 90 g/m(2)/h, an optimum range to avoid wound dehydration or occlusion phenomena. Release of the encapsulated GS, monitored as permeation rate using Franz cells in simulated wound fluid (SWF) was related to particle size and gelling rate. Sustained permeation profiles were obtained achieving total permeation of the drug between 3 and 6 days. However, all nano spray-dried formulations presented a burst effect, suitable to prevent infection spreading at the beginning of the therapy. Antimicrobial tests against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed stronger and prolonged antimicrobial effect of the nanoparticles compared to pure GS both shortly after administration and over time (till 12 days).

  17. FORMULATION AND ASSESSMENT OF GEMIFLOXACIN MESYLATE OCULAR IN SITU GELLING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalakshmi R

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In situ gels are one of the most successful means of delivering the drug at ocular site with maximum bioavailability, which undergoes gelation upon instillation as drops into the eye due to physicochemical changes inherent to the biological fluids. The main aim of the present investigation was to obtain an ophthalmic drug delivery system with improved mucoadhesive and mechanical properties that could provide extended retention time for the treatment of ocular infections. For this in situ gels of Gemifloxacin Mesylate comprised of the combination of a thermosetting polymer, polaxamer with a mucoadhesive agent chitosan was developed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry techniques (DSC were performed to know the compatibilities between drug and polymer. FTIR spectra and DSC thermograph of Gemifloxacin Mesylate formulations showed that there is no chemical interaction between drug and polymer and confirmed the stability of the drug. The gels were evaluated for pH, Gel strength, Gelling capacity, Rheology, Drug content uniformity and Ocular irritancy studies. In vitro drug release studies reveal that all the formulations showed sustained release of the drug in the range of 70.82 to 76.43 % for a period of 8 h. The optimized formulation was tested for ocular irritation study on male albino rabbit and the result indicated that the formulation was well tolerated, non-irritating and therapeutically efficacious. In conclusion in situ gelling systems containing polaxamer / chitosan solution are viable alternative to enhance bioavailability thus leads to an excellent potential alternative ophthalmic sustained-release formulation of Gemifloxacin Mesylate in ocular infections.

  18. Formulation and evaluation of in situ gelling systems for intranasal administration of gastrodin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zheng; Song, Xiangrong; Sun, Feng; Yang, Zhaoxiang; Hou, Shixiang; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2011-12-01

    Gastrodin is the major bioactive constituent of the traditional Chinese drug "Tianma." It is used in the treatment of some nervous system diseases and can be transported to the brain via intranasal administration. In the current paper, the development of a novel ion-activated in situ gelling system for the nasal delivery of gastrodin is discussed. An in situ perfusion model was used to determine the absorption-rate constant of gastrodin through rat nasal mucosa. The optimal formulation was determined by measuring the critical cation concentration, anti-dilution capacity, gel expansion coefficient, water-holding capacity, and adhesive capacity. The best formulation consisted of 10% gastrodin, 0.5% deacetylated gellan gum as the gelatinizer, and 0.03% ethylparaben as the preservative. The rheological properties of gastrodin nasal in situ gels were also investigated. The viscosity and elasticity sharply increased at temperatures below 25°C. When physiological concentrations of cations were added into the preparation, the mixture gelled into a semi-solid. The results of an accelerated stability test show that gastrodin nasal in situ gels can be stable for more than 2 years. Mucociliary toxicity was evaluated using the in situ toad palate model and the rat nasal mucociliary method; both models demonstrated no measurable ciliotoxicity. Pharmacodynamic studies suggest that similar acesodyne and sedative effects were induced following intranasal administration of 50 mg/kg gastrodin nasal in situ gels or oral administration of 100 mg/kg gastrodin solution. The in situ gel preparation is a safe and effective nasal delivery system for gastrodin.

  19. New formulation of in situ gelling Metolose-based liquid suppository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, E; Makó, A; Csóka, G; Fenyvesi, Zs; Benko, R; Prosszer, M; Marton, S; Antal, I; Klebovich, I

    2011-01-01

    An in situ gelling liquid suppository is liquid at room temperature but forms a gel at body temperature. In our work, Metolose® SM-4000 (methylcellulose) is studied that basically shows thermal gelation at 68°C (2%, w/w). The objective was to study the potency of different factors (concentration, pH, additives) to change the value of thermal gelation temperature (T (t)) for Metolose® to form an in situ gelling liquid suppository. We studied the effect of Metolose® concentration, pH, and salts (sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium hydrogen carbonate, and sodium monohydrogen phosphate) on T (t) by viscosimetry. To choose the appropriate compound, in vitro drug release was examined. Rectal safety test was performed on rats in vivo after 12-hour application. Increasing the Metolose® concentrations (0.5-4%, w/w), T (t) can be decreased, but it also altered the consistency of gel. pH does not affect the T (t). The water-soluble salts allowed reducing the gelation temperature to 37°C. Sodium monohydrogen phosphate in 4.5% concentration was found to be the most appropriate. The impact of examined factors on in vitro drug release of piroxicam from the in situ-formed gel was characterized according to Fickian diffusion. Metolose® and the chosen salt did not cause any morphological damage on the rectal tissues. According to our study, Metolose® has the physical and chemical potential to be used as base for liquid suppositories.

  20. The use of rapid assessment methodology to compliment existing national assessment and surveillance data: a study among injecting drug users in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicknasingam, B; Navaratnam, V

    2008-02-01

    The study explores how data collated from rapid assessment can enhance those produced by national level surveillance systems, in this case the national drug information (NADI) system in Malaysia. Qualitative data were collected in keeping with internationally accepted guidance on rapid assessment methods in the field of substance use. An inductive research strategy was employed. The rapid assessment produced multiple data on local drug use practices and how these were influenced by the contexts of use. The assessment points to the importance of collecting data not only on patterns of drug use but also on the health and social consequences of drug use. We suggest that the current national drug information system places greater emphasis on behavioural and health-related variables in order to better understand the potential relationships between drug use and health-related risk, including HIV/AIDS.

  1. Self-crosslinked oxidized alginate/gelatin hydrogel as injectable, adhesive biomimetic scaffolds for cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Biji; Joshi, Nitin; Jayakrishnan, Athipettah; Banerjee, Rinti

    2014-08-01

    Biopolymeric hydrogels that mimic the properties of extracellular matrix have great potential in promoting cellular migration and proliferation for tissue regeneration. The authors reported earlier that rapidly gelling, biodegradable, injectable hydrogels can be prepared by self-crosslinking of periodate oxidized alginate and gelatin in the presence of borax, without using any toxic crosslinking agents. The present paper investigates the suitability of this hydrogel as a minimally invasive injectable, cell-attractive and adhesive scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Time and frequency sweep rheology analysis confirmed gel formation within 20s. The hydrogel integrated well with the cartilage tissue, with a burst pressure of 70±3mmHg, indicating its adhesive nature. Hydrogel induced negligible inflammatory and oxidative stress responses, a prerequisite for the management and treatment of osteoarthritis. Scanning electron microscopy images of primary murine chondrocytes encapsulated within the matrix revealed attachment of cells onto the hydrogel matrix. Chondrocytes demonstrated viability, proliferation and migration within the matrix, while maintaining their phenotype, as seen by expression of collagen type II and aggrecan, and functionality, as seen by enhanced glycosoaminoglycan (GAG) deposition with time. DNA content and GAG deposition of chondrocytes within the matrix can be tuned by incorporation of bioactive signaling molecules such as dexamethasone, chondroitin sulphate, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) and combination of these three agents. The results suggest that self-crosslinked oxidized alginate/gelatin hydrogel may be a promising injectable, cell-attracting adhesive matrix for neo-cartilage formation in the management and treatment of osteoarthritis.

  2. Sequential Injection Method for Rapid and Simultaneous Determination of 236U, 237Np, and Pu Isotopes in Seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Steier, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    An automated analytical method implemented in a novel dual-column tandem sequential injection (SI) system was developed for simultaneous determination of 236U, 237Np, 239Pu, and 240Pu in seawater samples. A combination of TEVA and UTEVA extraction chromatography was exploited to separate and purify...... target analytes, whereupon plutonium and neptunium were simultaneously isolated and purified on TEVA, while uranium was collected on UTEVA. The separation behavior of U, Np, and Pu on TEVA–UTEVA columns was investigated in detail in order to achieve high chemical yields and complete purification...... for the radionuclides of interest. 242Pu was used as a chemical yield tracer for both plutonium and neptunium. 238U was quantified in the sample before the separation for deducing the 236U concentration from the measured 236U/238U atomic ratio in the separated uranium target using accelerator mass spectrometry...

  3. A green analytical method for rapid determination of pectin degree of esterification using micro sequential injection lab-on-valve system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghshineh, Mahsa; Larsen, Jan; Georgiou, Constantinos; Olsen, Karsten

    2016-08-01

    A novel method for automated determination pectin degree of esterification (DE) using micro sequential injection lab-on-valve (μSI-LOV) system is developed. A face-centered central composite response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimise system parameters. A calibration graph for determination of non-esterified galacturonic acid (GalA) content in pectin solutions with linear range of 0.08-0.34% (w/v) and the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.057% (w/v) under optimal condition was achieved. The difference between concentrations (w/v, %) of total GalA and non-esterified GalA was applied to estimate DE (%) of pectin samples. Results indicated a good agreement (tstatmanual reference method. The current method provided precision of less than 6% RSD, (n=10) with sample throughput of 15 samples h(-1). The presented method requires remarkably low consumption of sample and reagents and is thereby environmental friendly.

  4. Internal stresses analysis in telectroformed nickel shells for thermoplastics injection mold core (rapid tooling); Analisis de las tensiones internas en las cascaras de niquel electroconformadas que se utilizan como inserto de un molde de inyeccion de termoplasticos (rapid tooling)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzon, M. D.; Marrero, M. D.; Benitez, A. N.; Hernandez, P. M.

    2005-07-01

    This study deals with a research field started at the LFI (Laboratorio de Fabricacion Integrada) of the ULPGC (Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria). Its aim is to analyse and propose improvements in the electroformed nickel cores manufacture. The main application of these cores is to be used as plastic injection molds. It has been considered an important part of this study taking under consideration internal stresses that appear in the nickel electroformed core. These stresses play a determinant role towards reaching a dimensional and resistant quality standard of the shells, which will be later transformed into cores. The investigation includes not only a theoretic study but also an experimental one. the testing method has the remarkable advantage of a wide industrial application because of its simplicity, low cost and reproducibility of the electrolytic bath actual conditions. (Author) 7 refs.

  5. Experiment of detonation characteristics of gelled gasolines in pulse detonation engine%凝胶汽油在脉冲爆轰发动机中的爆轰特性实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡洪波; 翁春生; 白桥栋; 杨建鲁

    2014-01-01

    An experimental system of pulse detonation rocket engine using gelled fuels was established to explore the feasibility of application of gelled fuels on pulse detonation engines.The hot state tests were accomplished on multi-cycle pulse detonation rock-et engine at different oxygen concentration and supply conditions of gelled fuels.The influences of oxygen concentration and fuel sup-ply conditions on pressure and wave propagation velocity of detonation wave were analyzed. The experimental results indicate that pulse detonation rocket engine can work stably with gelled fuels.With 42% oxygen in filling gases and injection pressure coefficients of fuel and atomizing air at 2.5 and 1,the average value of detonation pressure and wave velocity were 2.02 MPa and 1 124 m/s re-spectively.The pressure and wave velocity of detonation increase with oxygen addition under the same fuel supply conditions.The re-sults have some significant references for application investigation on gelled fuels and pulse detonation engines.%为探索凝胶燃料在脉冲爆轰发动机中应用的可行性,设计了凝胶汽油脉冲爆轰火箭发动机实验系统。对不同氧含量和凝胶汽油供给工况下的多循环脉冲爆轰发动机进行了热态实验,分析了氧含量和燃料供给工况对爆轰段爆轰压力和波传播速度的影响。实验结果表明,使用凝胶汽油的脉冲爆轰火箭发动机能稳定工作;在氧气质量百分比为42%、凝胶汽油/雾化空气喷射压力系数为2.5/1工况下,距离发动机点火位置770 mm处的爆轰压力均值为2.02 MPa,爆轰波速度均值为1124 m/s。在相同凝胶汽油供给条件下,增加氧含量能够获得更大的爆轰压力和爆轰波速度。研究结果对凝胶燃料和脉冲爆轰发动机应用研究具有参考意义。

  6. Development and Validation of a Rapid Turbidimetric Assay to Determine the Potency of Cefuroxime Sodium in Powder for Dissolution for Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. M. Vieira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cefuroxime sodium is a second generation cephalosporin indicated for infections caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Although this drug is highly studied and researched regarding the antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, there are few studies regarding the development of analytical methodology for this cephalosporin. Thus, research involving analytical methods is essential and highly relevant to optimize its analysis in the pharmaceutical industry and guarantee the quality of the product already sold. This study describes the development and validation of a microbiological assay applying the turbidimetric method for the determination of cefuroxime, using Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 as micro-organism test and 3x3 parallel line assay design, with nine tubes for each assay, as recommended by the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. The developed and validated method showed excellent results of linearity, seletivity, precision and robustness, in the concentration range from 30.0 to 120.0 mg/mL, with 100.21% accuracy and content 99.97% to cefuroxime sodium in injectable pharmaceutical form.

  7. 胺碘酮联合美托洛尔静注治疗快速心律失常的临床观察%Clinical observation of amiodarone combined with metoprolol injection in the treatment of rapid arrhythmia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴志刚

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨胺碘酮联合美托洛尔静脉注射治疗快速心律失常的临床疗效。方法:2009年1月-2013年8月收治快速心律失常患者60例,对照组给予胺碘酮治疗,研究组给予胺碘酮联合美托洛尔静注治疗。结果:研究组临床治疗效果明显优于对照组,两组差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);研究组与对照组均未发生严重的不良反应,两组差异不具备统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:研究胺碘酮联合美托洛尔静脉注射治疗快速心律失常的临床疗效好于单用胺碘酮治疗,安全性、有效性较高,值得在临床治疗中推广使用。%Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy of amiodarone combined with metoprolol injection in the treatment of rapid arrhythmia.Methods:60 patients with rapid arrhythmia were selected from January 2009 to August 2013.The control group received the treatment of amiodarone,while the research group were treated with amiodarone combined with metoprolol injection therapy.Results:The clinical effect of the treatment group was better than that of the control group,and the difference was statistically significant between two groups(P0.05).Conclusion:The therapeutic effect of amiodarone combined with metoprolol injection is better than single amiodarone in the treatment of rapid arrhythmia.This treatment has high safety,and it also effective,so it worth to be popularized in clinical treatment.

  8. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such ... if you are allergic to doripenem injection; other carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem/cilastatin (Primaxin) or meropenem ( ...

  9. Methotrexate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methotrexate injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat gestational trophoblastic tumors (a ... in bones) after surgery to remove the tumor. Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis ( ...

  10. Bendamustine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendamustine injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white ... injection. You should use birth control to prevent pregnancy in yourself or your partner during your treatment ...

  11. Caspofungin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspofungin injection is used in adults and children 3 months of age and older to treat yeast ... people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Caspofungin injection is in a class of antifungal medications ...

  12. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temozolomide is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Temozolomide is in a class of medications called alkylating ... Temozolomide injection comes as a powder to be added to fluid and injected over 90 minutes intravenously ( ...

  13. Pembrolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with ... who have a specific type of melanoma tumor. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain ...

  14. Lacosamide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants like lacosamide injection to treat various conditions during ...

  15. Midazolam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called benzodiazepines. It works by slowing activity in the brain ... breast-feeding.talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of receiving midazolam injection if you ...

  16. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  17. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  18. Etanercept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will be using the prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, tell your doctor if you or the person who will be injecting the medication for you are allergic to rubber or latex.tell your doctor and pharmacist what ...

  19. Cyclosporine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyclosporine injection is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by ... who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat people ...

  20. Estrogen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estradiol cypionate and estradiol valerate forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot ... should consider a different treatment. These forms of estrogen injection are also sometimes used to treat the ...

  1. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefotaxime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory ... skin, blood, bone, joint, and urinary tract infections. Cefotaxime injection may also be used before surgery, and ...

  2. Beam emittance control by changing injection painting area in a pulse-to-pulse mode in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, P. K.; Harada, H.; Hayashi, N.; Horino, K.; Hotchi, H.; Kinsho, M.; Takayanagi, T.; Tani, N.; Togashi, T.; Ueno, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Irie, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) simultaneously delivers high intensity beam to the Material and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) as well as to the main ring (MR) at a repetition rate of 25 Hz. The RCS is designed for a beam power of 1 MW. RCS has to meet not only the need of power upgrade but also the specific requirement of each downstream facility. One of the issues, especially for high intensity operation, is to maintain two different transverse sizes of the extracted beam for MLF and MR; namely, a wider beam for MLF in order to reduce damage on the neutron production target but reversely a narrower one for the MR in order to ensure a permissible beam loss in the beam transport line of 3-GeV to MR and also in the MR. We proposed pulse-to-pulse direct control of the transverse painting area during the RCS beam injection process in order to get an extracted beam profile as desired. In addition to two existing dc septum magnets used for fixing injected beam trajectory for MLF beam, two additional dipoles named pulse steering magnets are designed for that purpose in order to control injected beam trajectory for a smaller painting area for the MR. The magnets are already installed in the injection beam transport line and successfully commissioned well in advance before they will be put in normal operation in 2014 for the 400 MeV injected beam energy upgraded from that of the present 181 MeV. Their parameters are found to be consistent to those expected in the corresponding numerical simulations. A trial one cycle user operation run for a painting area of 100πmmmrad for the MR switching from the MLF painting area of 150πmmmrad has also been successfully carried out. The extracted beam profile for the MR is measured to be sufficiently narrower as compared to that for the MLF, consistent with numerical simulation successfully demonstrating validity of the present principle.

  3. Emission Characteristics of Direct Injection Natural Gas Engine Using Rapid Compression Machine%用快速压缩装置研究直喷式天然气发动机排放特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佐华; 曾科; 杨中乐

    2002-01-01

    使用快速压缩装置进行了直喷式天然气发动机排放特性的研究.测量了三种不同方式下的排放,并与均相混合气燃烧情况进行了对比.实验结果表明,在宽广的当量比范围内,天然气直喷方式的燃烧效率高于0.95.由于混合气的分层燃烧,天然气喷射方式在宽广的当量比范围内保持较低的HC排放量,同等功率下的低CO2排放量,低NOx排放量,其NOx排放在理论当量比处的降低更为明显.直喷天然气发动机既具备柴油机发动机效率高的特点,又具备预混燃烧发动机排放低的特点.%Investigation of emission characteristics of a direct injection natural gas engine is carried out using a rapid compression machine.The emissions of three injection modes are measured and compared with that of the homogeneous combustion mode.The experimental results show that the combustion efficiency of the direct injection natural gas combustion is above 0.95 for all fuel supplying modes in the wide range of overall equivalence ratio.Fuel injection can operate within a wide range of equivalence ratio and has low unburned hydrocarbon emission (HC),low CO2 emission for the same power output,low NOx emission due to the mixture stratification compared with homogeneous combustion engine,especially in the range near the stoichiometric equivalence ratio where engine power output is needed.Consequently,the direct injection natural gas engine has the advantages of high thermal efficiency like diesel engine and low emission of premixed mixture combustion.

  4. Beam emittance control by changing injection painting area in a pulse-to-pulse mode in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Saha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC simultaneously delivers high intensity beam to the Material and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF as well as to the main ring (MR at a repetition rate of 25 Hz. The RCS is designed for a beam power of 1 MW. RCS has to meet not only the need of power upgrade but also the specific requirement of each downstream facility. One of the issues, especially for high intensity operation, is to maintain two different transverse sizes of the extracted beam for MLF and MR; namely, a wider beam for MLF in order to reduce damage on the neutron production target but reversely a narrower one for the MR in order to ensure a permissible beam loss in the beam transport line of 3-GeV to MR and also in the MR. We proposed pulse-to-pulse direct control of the transverse painting area during the RCS beam injection process in order to get an extracted beam profile as desired. In addition to two existing dc septum magnets used for fixing injected beam trajectory for MLF beam, two additional dipoles named pulse steering magnets are designed for that purpose in order to control injected beam trajectory for a smaller painting area for the MR. The magnets are already installed in the injection beam transport line and successfully commissioned well in advance before they will be put in normal operation in 2014 for the 400 MeV injected beam energy upgraded from that of the present 181 MeV. Their parameters are found to be consistent to those expected in the corresponding numerical simulations. A trial one cycle user operation run for a painting area of 100π  mm mrad for the MR switching from the MLF painting area of 150π  mm mrad has also been successfully carried out. The extracted beam profile for the MR is measured to be sufficiently narrower as compared to that for the MLF, consistent with numerical simulation successfully demonstrating validity of the

  5. Linseed oil gelled emulsion: A successful fat replacer in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandre, Marta; Poyato, Candelaria; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2016-11-01

    Different levels of animal fat replacement by a high omega-3 content carrageenan gelled emulsion in dry fermented sausages were studied in order to improve their fatty acid composition. Percentages of fat replacement were 26.3% (SUB1), 32.8% (SUB2) and 39.5% (SUB3). α-linolenic acid (ALA) content increased up to 1.81, 2.19 and 2.39g/100g (SUB1, SUB2, and SUB3 products) as compared to the Control (0.35g/100g), implying an increment in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supply (up to 10.3%) and reductions in omega-6/ omega-3 ratio (75, 82 and 84%, respectively). Peroxides and TBARs values were not affected (P>0.05) by the fat modification and a slight low formation of volatile aldehydes derived from lipid oxidation was detected. Fat replacement did not cause relevant modifications on the instrumental color properties and no sensory differences (P>0.05) were found between Control and SUB2 products (32.8%) for taste and juiciness, pointing out the viability of this formulation for human consumption.

  6. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Annual report, September 25, 1992--September 24, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1994-08-01

    The general objectives of the research program are to (1) identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focuses on three types of gel systems-an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSPI) that gels as a function of pH, polyacrylamide or xanthan crosslinked by CR(III) and a polyacrylamide-aluminum citrate system. Work to date has focused primarily on development of a database, selection of systems, and work to characterize the gel/polymer physical properties and kinetics. The use of ester hydrolysis to control the rate of pH change of a gel system has been investigated and this approach to gel-time control shows promise. Extensive kinetic data were taken on the uptake of CR(III) oligomers by polyacrylamide. A model was developed which describes very well the monomer uptake rates. The model described the dimer uptake data less well and the trimer uptake data poorly. Studies of the flow and gelation in rock materials have been initiated. A mathematical model of rock-fluid interaction during flow of high pH solutions has been developed.

  7. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Annual report, September 15, 1993--September 24, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of the research program are to (1) identify and develop polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focuses on three types of aqueous gel systems - a polysaccharide (KUSP1) that gels as a function of pH, a polyacrylamide-chromium(III) system and a polyacrylamide-aluminum citrate system. This report describes work conducted during the second year of a three-year program. Progress was made in the utilization of KUSP1 as a gelling agent. It was shown that gels can be formed in situ in porous media using CO{sub 2} or ester hydrolysis to lower pH. An ester was identified that could be used in field-scale operations. It was determined that KUSP1 will form strong gels when ortho boric acid is added to the system. It was also determined, in cooperation with Abbott Laboratories, that KUSP1 can be produced on a commercial scale. Rheological studies showed that shear rate significantly affects gelation time and gel strength. The effect of rock-fluid interactions at alkaline conditions was examined experimentally and through mathematical modeling. A model was developed that treats non-equilibrium conditions and this is an improvement over previously published models.

  8. Gelling process for sodium alginate: New technical approach by using calcium rich micro-spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicini, Silvia; Castellano, Maila; Mauri, Marco; Marsano, Enrico

    2015-12-10

    Alginate based materials have become an important class of products in many fields from the pharmaceutical industry to tissue engineering, because of their ability to create stimuli responsive hydrogels. We present a new technical approach for obtaining a controlled gelling process, based on the quantities of Ca(2+) rich alginate micro-beads added as crosslinkers. The gels have been evaluated in light of the amount of Ca(2+) added to the alginate solution, and in light of the different dimensions of the micro-beads, using rheological measurements to assess the variation in the storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G'') and complex viscosity (η(*)) as well as swelling and deswelling tests. The methodology was developed to obtain a material with specific characteristics for application in the field of conservation. The material had to be able to create a stable gel after being applied on the artwork surface and to confine the solvent action at the interface during cleaning operations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Extraction and Characterization of Highly Gelling Low Methoxy Pectin from Cashew Apple Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beda M. Yapo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation on the pectic substances of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. apple under different acid-extraction conditions (pH 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 showed that more than 10%–25% of A. occidentale pectins (AOP could be extracted, depending on the extractant strength. The extracted AOP contained high amounts of galacturonic acid (GalA: 69.9%–84.5% with some neutral sugars of which rhamnose (Rha: 1.3%–2.5%, arabinose (Ara: 2.6%–5.4%, and galactose (Gal: 4.7%–8.6% were the main constituents. The degree of methoxylation (DM was in the range of 28%–46% and was only slightly affected by the extractant strength, thereby indicating isolation of naturally low methoxy pectins (LMP. In terms of gelling capability, AOP yielded firmer Ca2+-mediated LMP gels than commercial citrus LMP with comparable DM. Cashew apple pomace, therefore, appears to be a potentially viable source for possible production of “non-chemically or enzymatically-tailored” LMP.

  10. Art-matrix theory and cognitive distance: Farago, Preziosi, and Gell on art and enchantment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Stejskal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Theories that treat art objects primarily as agents embedded in a causal nexus of agent–patient relationships, as opposed to studying them as expressions or symbols encoding meanings, tend to identify art’s agency with its power to enchant recipients. I focus on two such approaches, the art-matrix theory of Claire Farago and Donald Preziosi and the art-nexus theory of Alfred Gell. Their authors stress the potential of art to make its enchanting power the topic of our experience with it, that is, to disenchant its own enchantment. This raises the following question: If artworks are to be understood as agents enchanting their recipients, how can they become forces of disenchantment? I argue that the shift in perspective from perceiving art objects as indices of agency within a matrix/nexus to approaching them as possible means of gaining cognitive distance is inadequately addressed by both theories; this is due to features inherent to their respective theoretical outlooks.

  11. From short to long distances with Gell-Mann--Low Renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vanja; Olshanii, Maxim

    2004-05-01

    Computing correlation functions is an important and formidable problem of many-body physics. For 1D gapless systems, Haldane's theory gives exponents of large distance expansions, model details entering through speed of sound. The prefactors depend on high-energy cutoffs, and it is unclear which model-dependent parameters set them. ..We present a method very well-suited for the approximate computation of the leading order prefactor, with short-distance expansion as an input. Our basis is the Gell-Mann--Low Renormalization Group, and optimism about sufficient analyticity of correlation functions. In the test case of Tonks-Girardeau gas, a rare model where both short and long-distance expansions are known, already the first non-zero subleading term of the short-distance expansion gives the long-distance prefactor to within 15%. ..While Wilson's Renormalization Group makes high energy cutoffs irrelevant, we actually determine them for Haldane model. A byproduct of our method is an interpolation between short and long-distance behaviors, which we use to treat interaction-induced decoherence in atom interferometers.

  12. Enzymatically degradable temperature-sensitive polypeptide as a new in-situ gelling biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yuri; Joo, Min Kyung; Bahk, Kyung Hyun; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Ho-Tae; Kim, Won-Ki; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Sohn, Youn Soo; Jeong, Byeongmoon

    2009-07-01

    We are reporting a poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly(alanine-co-phenyl alanine) (PEG-PAF) aqueous solution that undergoes sol-to-gel transition as the temperature increases. The sol-to-gel transition was observed at as low a concentration as 3.0-7.0 wt.%. Micellar aggregation accompanying small conformational changes of the peptide from random coils to beta-sheets is suggested as the sol-to-gel transition mechanism of the PEG-PAF aqueous solution. The PEG-PAF is stable in phosphate buffered saline, however, it degraded in the subcutaneous layer of rats. In vitro study showed that proteolytic enzymes such as cathepsin B, cathepsin C, and elastase that are present in the subcutaneous layer of the mammalian tissue might be responsible for the degradation of the polymer in rats. As a feasibility study of this material, a single shot of an aqueous insulin formulation (13.8 mg insulin/kg) showed a hypoglycemic effect over 18 days in rats. The current functional polypeptide may be very promising as an in-situ gelling system for tissue engineering, cell/stem cell therapy, and drug delivery.

  13. Successful disinfection protocol for orchid seeds and influence of gelling agent on germination and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž JEVŠNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial propagation of endangered orchid species is one of the most important actions of conservationists often jeopardized by low numbers of acquired seed, its contamination and viability. Disinfection and chemical composition of media are two of the most important factors contributing to better germination in temperate orchid species. The article deals with three world genera (Epidendrum nocturnum, Prosthechea garciana, Maxillaria rufescens and one commercial hybrid (Zygopetalum and describes an effective method of orchid seed disinfection carried out in a centrifuge. Germination percentages of all three genera and one hybrid were between 60 and 90 % from which we concluded that the risk of physical damage to the seeds by centrifugation is not significant. The time needed for disinfected seeds (E. nocturnum, P. garciana, M. rufescens to swell-form protocorms was 10 days shorter compared to undisinfected seeds (Zygopetalum hybrid - green capsule method and some other studies. Adequate wetting and stratification of the seed is very important for successful germination, which resembles processes in natural environment. Additionally, this method solves the problems of collecting and transferring the seeds after disinfection. It is also important that the time needed for disinfection is shorter, which is desirable for some sensitive species. Our study also focuses on importance of gelling agent, namely Gellan gum and agar, since we noticed an obvious superiority of the former in all phases of in vitro development.

  14. Generalized isospin, generalized mass groups, and generalized Gell-Mann--Okubo formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Beaudoin, N; Sandapen, R

    2013-01-01

    The current concepts of isospin and baryon mass groups are only well-adapted to deal with baryon multiplets involving both the u and d quarks, and some other quark k. In this paper, we generalize isospin and mass groups to accommodate baryon multiplets involving quarks of any flavor, and the Gell-Mann--Okubo (GMO) formalism is generalized accordingly. Generalized isospin proves to be a simple and valuable framework when working in non-udk baryon multiplets, and provides new quantum numbers that allows us to distinguish \\Lambda-like baryons from \\Sigma-like baryons in the non-udk multiplets. The generalized GMO formalism allows us to quantify the quality of flavor symmetries seen in baryon multiplets, and also allows us to predict the masses of all observable J^P = 1/2^+ and 3/2^+ baryons with an estimated accuracy on the order of 50 MeV in the worst cases, on mass scales that span anywhere from 1000 MeV to 15000 MeV.

  15. Ustekinumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do not inject into an area where the skin is tender, bruised, red, or hard or where you have scars or stretch marks.Your doctor or pharmacist will ... injection.you should know that ustekinumab injection may decrease your ability ... new or changing skin lesions, minor infections (such as open cuts or ...

  16. Ranitidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranitidine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be mixed with another fluid and injected intravenously (into a vein) over 5 to 20 minutes. Ranitidine may also be injected into a muscle. It is usually given every 6 to 8 hours, but may also be given ...

  17. Rapid and massive carbon injections of the Early Paleogene: The carbonate and planktonic foraminifera records at ODP Site 1215 (Equatorial Pacific Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon Rodriguez, L.; Dickens, G. R.

    2010-12-01

    record, either because of ecological reasons or because their susceptibility to dissolution. We conclude that the overall ecological conditions favored muricate taxa after the PETM, and that intermediate dwellers were only able to re-occupy their niche when waters cooled. The carbonate record at the ODP Site 1215 is complex but foraminiferal assemblage analyses allow us to distinguish carbonate dissolution and preservation during and following the postulated Early Eocene massive carbon injections as well as to show possible ecological changes within and after each event.

  18. 急性心肌梗死急诊诊断与治疗分析%Clinical effect of intravenous injection of amiodarone in treatment of acute heart failure with rapid atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许敏

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析研究AMI(急性心肌梗死)的临床诊断以及治疗效果。方法抽取近年来在我院收治的80例患有急性心肌梗塞的患者,随机分为实验组和对照组,每组各40例患者,其中实验组对患者采取尿激酶溶栓治疗,对照组对患者采取传统常规治疗。结果实验组患者的临床治疗效果明显优于对照组患者,两组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论采取及时有效的临床干预以及治疗对治疗急性心肌梗塞的患者起到至关重要的作用,具有临床推广价值应用。%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of intravenous injection of amiodarone in the treatment of acute heart failure with rapid atrial fibrillation.Methods A total of 172 patients with acute heart failure and rapid atrial fibrillation who were admitted to our hospital from October 2011 to July 2013 were randomly divided into heart failure and atrial fibrillation group and amiodarone group. The heart failure and atrial fibrillation group received conventional treatment, while the amiodarone group received conventional treatment plus injection of amiodarone. The treatment outcomes of the two groups were compared.Results After 7 d of treatment, the amiodarone group had a significant more improvement in cardiac function, a significantly better heart rate control, and a significantly lower mortality rate, as compared with the heart failure and atrial fibrillation group (P<0.05 for all comparisons). ConclusionConventional treatment plus injection of amiodarone can improve cardiac function and control heart rate in the treatment of heart failure.

  19. Research on key technology of rapid manufacture of light-cured cores in injection moulds%注射模光固化型芯快速制造关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永信; 刘光辉; 梁晋; 冯路开

    2015-01-01

    Injection mould cores with required shape can be made of high temperature resis⁃tant photosensitive resin by the means of light-cured rapid forming. Study was made on the key technology of light-cured core design and manufacture from aspects of core warp⁃age and design of gate, micro-structure and conformal cooling channels and on the basis of characteristics of light-cured moulding and resin material properties, in order to de⁃crease the defect and rapidly develop practical high precision and long life light-cured cores.%以耐高温光敏树脂为材料,采用光固化快速成型方法制作具有所需形状的注射模型芯,根据光固化成型和树脂材料性能的特点,从光固化型芯的翘曲变形、浇口设计、微结构设计、随形冷却水道设计方面对光固化型芯设计和制造中的关键技术进行了研究,以改善光固化型芯的缺陷,实现快速开发出高精度、长使用寿命、实用化的光固化型芯的研究目标。

  20. A simple, rapid and sensitive ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric technique for the determination of ultra-trace copper based on injection-ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaoxiang; Liang, Bing; Li, Zhenzhen; Li, Yanfang

    2011-11-07

    In this work, a simple, rapid and sensitive UV-visible spectrophotometric technique for the determination of copper based on injection-ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IUSA-DLLME) was developed, using sodium diethyl-dithiocarbamate (Na-DDTC) as a complexing agent. The fabrication of a home-made microporous plastic tip was first reported, and by using it, contamination from a metallic tip was avoided; moreover cloudy solutions were easily obtained. Several parameters were investigated including the extraction solvent type and volume, pH of the reaction solution, concentration of DDTC, salt addition, reaction time and temperature, and sonication and centrifugation time. The results showed that carbon tetrachloride was a better extraction solvent. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.5-50 ng mL(-1) of copper with a R(2) of 0.9996. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the determination of 0.5 ng mL(-1) copper was ±3.3% (n = 7), and the detection limit (3*Sb*c/m) was 0.05 ng mL(-1) in the original solution. An enrichment factor of 222 was obtained. The developed method was validated by analysis of a certified reference solution and applied successfully to the determination of copper in tap water, bottled pure water and river water. The advantages of the IUSA-DLLME method are simplicity of operation, rapidity, low cost, low LOD and high enrichment factor.

  1. Rapid non-invasive quality control of semi-finished products for the food industry by direct injection mass spectrometry headspace analysis: the case of milk powder, whey powder and anhydrous milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, Salim; Yener, Sine; Khomenko, Iuliia; Capozzi, Vittorio; Cappellin, Luca; Aprea, Eugenio; Scampicchio, Matteo; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the suitability of direct injection mass spectrometry headspace analysis for rapid non-invasive quality control of semi-finished dairy ingredients, such as skim milk powder (SMP), whole milk powder (WMP), whey powder (WP) and anhydrous milk fat (AMF), which are widely used as ingredients in the food industry. In this work, for the first time, we applied proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) with a time-of-flight (ToF) analyzer for the rapid and non-invasive analysis of volatile compounds in different samples of SMP, WMP, WP and AMF. We selected different dairy ingredients in various concrete situations (e.g. same producer and different expiration times, different producers and same days of storage, different producers) based on their sensory evaluation. PTR-ToF-MS allowed the separation and characterization of different samples based on the volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles. Statistically significant differences in VOC content were generally coherent with differences in sensory evaluation, particularly for SMP, WMP and WP. The good separation of SMP samples from WMP samples suggested the possible application of PTR-ToF-MS to detect possible cases of adulteration of dairy ingredients for the food industry. Our findings demonstrate the efficient and rapid differentiation of dairy ingredients on the basis of the released VOCs via PTR-ToF-MS analysis and suggest this method as a versatile tool (1) for the facilitation/optimization of the selection of dairy ingredients in the food industry and (2) and for the prompt innovation in the production of dairy ingredients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Rheological profiling of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations of natural waxes in a triacylglycerol solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashok R; Babaahmadi, Mehrnoosh; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen

    2015-05-20

    The aim of this study was to use a detailed rheological characterization to gain new insights into the gelation behavior of natural waxes. To make a comprehensive case, six natural waxes (differing in the relative proportion of chemical components: hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, and wax esters) were selected as organogelators to gel high-oleic sunflower oil. Flow and dynamic rheological properties of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations (Cg) of waxes were studied and compared using drag (stress ramp and steady flow) and oscillatory shear (stress and frequency sweeps) tests. Although, none of the organogels satisfied the rheological definition of a "strong gel" (G″/G' (ω) ≤ 0.1), on comparing the samples, the strongest gel (highest critical stress and dynamic, apparent, and static yield stresses) was obtained not with wax containing the highest proportion of wax esters alone (sunflower wax, SFW) but with wax containing wax esters along with a higher proportion of fatty alcohols (carnauba wax, CRW) although at a comparatively higher Cg (4%wt for latter compared to 0.5%wt for former). As expected, gel formation by waxes containing a high proportion of lower melting fatty acids (berry, BW, and fruit wax, FW) required a comparatively higher Cg (6 and 7%wt, respectively), and in addition, these gels showed the lowest values for plateau elastic modulus (G'LVR) and a prominent crossover point at higher frequency. The gelation temperatures (TG'=G″) for all the studied gels were lower than room temperature, except for SFW and CRW. The yielding-type behavior of gels was evident, with most gels showing strong shear sensitivity and a weak thixotropic recovery. The rheological behavior was combined with the results of thermal analysis and microstructure studies (optical, polarized, and cryo-scanning electron microscopy) to explain the gelation properties of these waxes.

  3. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...

  4. Smart gelation of chitosan solution in the presence of NaHCO3 for injectable drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Tang, Ximin; Wang, Yuanyuan; Guo, Shengrong

    2011-07-29

    In situ gelling systems are attractive as injectable vehicles for drug delivery. The present work described a novel gelation process of acidic chitosan solution in the presence of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)). The NaHCO(3) concentration played an important role in this gelling system. When it came within the appropriate range, the chitosan/NaHCO(3) system would stay at sol state in certain condition and showed sol-gel transition from the top to the bottom after heating. The rheological properties of the gelling system, as well as the morphology and erosion behavior of the formed chitosan hydrogels were evaluated as a function of the NaHCO(3) concentration in sols. The hydrogels showed porous morphologies with some diversification depending on the NaHCO(3) concentration, which also affected their erosion behaviors and drug release rates. Moreover, the gelation mechanism of such chitosan/NaHCO(3) system was studied and proposed as the formation of three-dimensional chitosan network with physical junctions thanks to the deprotonation of -NH(3)(+) in chitosan accompanying with the gradual neutralization between HCO(3)(-) and acid. In vivo gelation test was also performed by the dorsal subcutaneous injection of chitosan/NaHCO(3) solution in rat. The formation of in situ gels suggested such system promising applications in injectable drug delivery system.

  5. EFFECT OF PERMEABLE VESSEL CLOSURE AND GELLING AGENT ON REDUCTION OF HYPERHYDRICITY IN IN VITRO CULTURE OF CARNATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Winarto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhydricity, an abnormal morphological appearance and physiologicalfunction, is an important problem in carnation tissue culture. The problem causes premature flowering, high occurrence of abnormal shoots, difficulty in transferring hyperhydric plantlets to soil, and low survival rate of plantlets. High relative humidity and the water potential are considered as the key factors involved in the abnormality. Furthermore, permeable culture vessel and gelling agent were assured to be high potential treatment to eliminate it. Objective of this research was to reduce  hyperhydricity in regenerants of carnation using different permeable vessel closures and gelling agents and to assess the multiplication and  acclimatization abilities of recovered shoots. Experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with four replications. First factor was different types of closure, i.e. cotton wool, plastic wrap, parafilm and aluminium foil, while second one was gelling agents, i.e. bacto agar, phytagel, swallow agar, and Type 900 agar. The recovered shoots were then multiplied, rooted, and acclimatized. The results showed that hyperhydricity was successfully reduced by applying permeable closure (cotton wool and plastic wrap in combination with Type 900 agar. The combination of plastic wrap and Type 900 agar was the most appropriate treatment in reducing hyperhydricity and producing good quality shoots. The treatment reduced the problem down to 23% of total condition of hyperhydricity (100% and increased leaf chlorophyll content from 0.0883 to 0.1288 mg mg-1. The plastic wrap was easily applied and cheaper material compared to cotton wool. The recovered shoots were able to produce 1-3 healthy axillary shoots and easily rooted on half-strength MS. The recovered plantlets were simply acclimatized with survival rate up to 100% on kossas peat + soil (1:1, v/v and flowered 4-5 months after acclimatization with decreasing in number and size of flower.

  6. Emulsifying and gelling properties of weakfish myofibrillar proteins as affected by squid mantle myofibrillar proteins in a model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mariel Suarez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to investigate the physicochemical, biochemical and functional characteristics of both the myofibrils (MF and actomyosin (AM of squid mantle (Illex argentinus and weakfish (Cynoscion guatucupa muscles, and evaluate the influence of the addition of myofibrilar proteins from the squid mantle on the physicochemical and functional properties of those of the weakfish. After extraction, purification and characterization of the MF and AM of both species, emulsions of each protein fraction from each muscle were formulated. Mixtures of the MF or AM of both species were also analyzed. The emulsifying properties were monitoring using the Emulsifying Activity Index (EAI and Emulsion Stability (ES. In addition, gel pastes were formulated from the squid mantle, weakfish muscle and the mixture of both species, and the following functional properties of the gels assessed: water holding capacity, colour, textural profile analysis (TPA (hardness, elasticity, cohesiveness, gumminess and gel strength. The EAI values of emulsions formulated with the MF of the mantle were significantly (p<0.05 higher than those formulated from those of weakfish. The incorporation of squid MF in the mixture increased the EAI values. Conversely, the highest ES values were obtained with weakfish MF, and the incorporation of MF weakfish in the mixture increased the ES values. Similar EAI and ES behaviours were observed for the AM of the corresponding species. Irrespective of the thermal treatment, the gel strength of the gelled paste of squid muscle was significantly (p<0.05 lower than that of weakfish muscle and of those obtained with the different mixtures. The behaviours of the expressible moisture (EM from the gelled pastes were similar to those of gel strength. Irrespective of the thermal treatment, the pastes formulated with a high weakfish: mantle ratio showed less water loss. The gelled pastes of squid mantle showed the highest values for whiteness

  7. Injection MD

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Drosdal, L; Gianfelice, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Papaphilippou, Y; Vanbavinckhove, G

    2012-01-01

    This note summarizes the results obtained at injection during the 2nd MD block and the floating MD block in July. Highlights are presented for injection in the LHC with the Q20 SPS optics, influence of the supercycle and injection with 25 ns bunch spacing. Beams were successfully injected into the LHC using the Q20 optics [1, 3]. Small corrections were needed to steer the beam in the transfer lines. Dispersion measurements were conducted for both beams. The horizontal normalized dispersion in TI2 was a factor 2 smaller for Q20 with respect to Q26, for TI8 on the other hand the opposite was observed. The results for injection loss dependency on super cycle composition show only a small increase in losses for beam 2. The losses observed must therefore mainly come from other sources such as shot-by-shot stability or quality of scraping. For the injection with 25 ns bunch spacing bunches were injected for both beams. For B1 up to the maximum of 288 bunches. For B2 on the other only up to 144 bunches were injected...

  8. Floating drug delivery of a locally acting H2-antagonist: an approach using an in situ gelling liquid formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohith, Ganapati; Sridhar, Bhimagoni Keshavamurthy; Srinatha, Anegundha

    2009-09-01

    In the present work, a gastroretentive in situ gelling liquid formulation for controlled delivery of ranitidine was formulated using sodium alginate (low, medium and high viscosity grades), calcium carbonate (source of cations) and ranitidine. Prepared formulations were evaluated for viscosity, buoyancy lag time and buoyancy duration, drug content and in vitro drug release. Formulation variables such as concentration of sodium alginate, calcium carbonate and drug significantly affected the formulation viscosity, floating behavior and in vitro drug release. Analysis of the release pattern showed that the drug release from in situ gel followed a diffusion mechanism.

  9. Banquet Speech at the Singapore Conference in Honour of Murray Gell-Mann on His 80th Birthday

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    It was about 60 years ago in 1951 that I first met in Princeton, at the Institute for Advanced Study, our Honoree tonight, Murray Gell-Mann. In the intervening 60 years, man's understanding of the fundamental structure of matter has made great historic advances. At this wonderful Conference, we have the opportunity to review some of these historic advances. It is a little like looking over an old album of memorable photographs in one's lifetime. In many of these photographs, Murray appears either in the foreground, or as the photographer snapping the picture. We know he is pleased with the album...

  10. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  11. Experimental research on characteristic of start-up pressure wave propagation in gelled crude oil by large-scale flow loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔秀国; 艾慕阳; 姜保良; 霍连风; 张立新

    2008-01-01

    In order to research start-up pressure wave propagation mechanism and determine pressure wave speed in gelled crude oil pipelines accurately,experiment of Large-scale flow loop was carried out.In the experiment,start-up pressure wave speeds under various operation conditions were measured,and effects of correlative factors on pressure wave were analyzed.The experimental and theoretical analysis shows that thermal shrinkage and structural properties of gelled crude oils are key factors influencing on start-up pressure wave propagation.The quantitative analysis for these effects can be done by using volume expansion coefficient and structural property parameter of gelled crude oil.A new calculation model of pressure wave speed was developed on the basis of Large-scale flow loop experiment and theoretical analysis.

  12. Influence of gelling additives in the green properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} bodies obtained by aqueous gel casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, A.J. [IUT, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. Materiales; Baudin, C.; Moreno, R.; Nieto, M.I. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Ist. de Ceramica y Vidrio

    2002-07-01

    The use of gelling additives, as polysaccharides, in colloidal processing provides adequate mechanical properties to the green bodies to be handled. In this work, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gel casting is studied by using agar, agarose and carrageenan as gelling additives. The rheological behaviour of the gel casting slurries on cooling is studied. The green characteristics of the gel cast bodies prepared at different conditions are characterised in terms of density, microstructure and mechanical behaviour (bend strength, elastic modulus) at room temperature. A correlation between the obtained results is established and the best compositions and processing conditions are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Development of rectal delivered thermo-reversible gelling film encapsulating a 5-fluorouracil hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Shao-Hua; Han, Yan-Xing; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2016-02-10

    We have developed a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) formulation for rectal application to improve its therapeutic efficiency in colorectal cancer. The results indicated that 5FU formed an inclusion complex with Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD). The stoichiometry of the complex was 1:1, with apparent stability constant of 100.4M(-1). After investigating physicochemical properties of the 5FU-HP-β-CD complex encapsulated with thermo-reversible gelling film, the optimized formulation P407/P188/HPMC/5FU-HP-β-CD (18.5/2.5/0.2/15%) was selected and evaluated. The result showed that the 5FU-HP-β-CD complex increased the solubility of 5FU, prolonged and enhanced its releasing. As compared to the raw drug, the transport efficiency of the 5FU-HP-β-CD complex itself or entrapped in thermo-reversible gelling film were respectively 7.3- and 6.8-fold increased, and the cellular uptake of 5-FU 4.9- and 5.4-fold elevated. There was no irritation or damage to rectal sites in the 10h treatment period. Therefore, this HP-β-CD based formulation might improve the therapeutic effect of 5FU on colon-rectal cancer.

  14. Preparation of a Novel Calcium Phosphate Cement Using N-methylene Phosphonic Chitosan as a Gelling Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A modified chitosan ( N-methylene phosphonic Chitosan, NMPC ) was synthesized to improve solubility and ability to bind calcium ion. The properties of the raw material chitosan and its derivative NMPC were characterized using FTIR, 1 H-NMR. The aim of this study was to enhance the compressive CPC by reinforcing with NMPC. A formulation consisting of CPC powder, buffer solution and gelling agent was used for preparation of the CPC. CPC powder consisted of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous ( DCPA ). NMPC which acted as the gelling agent was dissolved iuto KH2 PO4 -Na2 HPO4 buffer solution. Each specimen in the mold was sandwiched between two fritted glass sides and kept for 24 hours. Compressive strengths were determined, the setting product was identified using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the hydroxyapatite particles size and porosity. The experimental results showed that the dominating influence on the compressive strengths of CPC-NMPC was the HA particle size, its uniformity and appropriate porosity.

  15. Thermoresponsive gelling behavior of concentrated alumina suspensions containing poly(acrylic acid) and PEO-PPO-PEO copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Akira; Xu, Hui; Abe, Hiroya; Naito, Makio

    2012-05-01

    Thermoresponsive gelling behavior of concentrated alumina suspensions with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and triblock copolymer (PEO(101)-PPO(56)-PEO(101), Pluronic F127) was investigated as a function of PAA concentration (0.4-1.2 mass%) for ceramic solid free forming. The copolymer species assemble into micelles at temperatures above 15°C, yielding aqueous physical gel. In this study, the concentrated alumina aqueous suspensions (φ=35 vol%) were first prepared using the anionic dispersant of PAA, and then the copolymer species (10 mass%) were dissolved at a cooled temperature at 10°C. The addition of the copolymer species had a negligible influence on the adsorption state of PAA onto the alumina surfaces. The PAA concentration needed for the saturation adsorption on the alumina surfaces was ~0.6 mass%. When the PAA concentration was this value or slightly less, the suspension became gel state at 30°C from low viscous state at 10°C. The thermally induced alumina gel had excellent viscoelastic properties, and thereby the three dimensional periodic ceramic structures were successfully fabricated by a direct colloidal printing method that using the gels as "solid" inks at the room temperature. On the other hand, when it exceeded the saturation adsorption limit, the gelling behavior was not observed, indicating that the non-adsorbing PAA species may partly suppress the micellization of the copolymer on the heating.

  16. Mepolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or do not go away: pain, redness, swelling, warmth, burning, or itching in the place mepolizumab was injected headache dry and itchy skin with or without red, scaly rashes back pain muscle spasms Some side ...

  17. Metoclopramide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and feeling of fullness that lasts long after meals. Metoclopramide injection is also used to prevent nausea ... tranylcypromine (Parnate); narcotic medications for pain; sedatives; sleeping pills; tetracycline (Bristacycline, Sumycin); tranquilizers. Your doctor may need ...

  18. Ramucirumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dose of ramucirumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse if you experience any of the following while you receive ramucirumab: uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body; back pain or spasms; chest pain and tightness; chills; flushing; ...

  19. Alemtuzumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemtuzumab injection is used to treat B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (a slowly developing cancer in which ... of white blood cell accumulate in the body). Alemtuzumab is in a class of medications called monoclonal ...

  20. Ferumoxytol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  1. Fludarabine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludarabine injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white ... a reliable method of birth control to prevent pregnancy during this time. Talk to your doctor for ...

  2. Insulin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or buttocks. Do not inject insulin into muscles, scars, or moles. Use a different site for each ... you are using insulin.Alcohol may cause a decrease in blood sugar. Ask your doctor about the ...

  3. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a person who was not in the hospital), skin infections, and infections of the abdomen (area between the ... that developed in people who were in a hospital or foot infections in people who have diabetes. Tigecycline injection is ...

  4. Golimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimumab injection is used alone or with other medications to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders ( ... did not help or could not be tolerated. Golimumab is in a class of medications called tumor ...

  5. Albiglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will develop tumors of the thyroid gland, including medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). ... symptoms or those listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, stop using albiglutide injection and call your doctor ...

  6. Dexamethasone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body tissues,) gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Dexamethasone injection is also used for diagnostic testing. ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  7. Hydrocortisone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Hydrocortisone injection is also used to treat certain ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  8. Methylprednisolone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Methylprednisolone injection is also used to treat certain ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  9. Glatiramer Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To inject glatiramer, follow these steps: Remove one blister pack from the carton of glatiramer syringes and place ... paper label and remove the syringe from the blister pack. Check your prefilled syringe to be sure it ...

  10. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are ...

  11. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... autoinjector in hot water, microwave, or place in sunlight.Before you use evolocumab injection, look at the ... chills pain or burning during urination muscle or back pain dizziness stomach pain Some side effects can be ...

  12. Cidofovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidofovir injection is used along with another medication (probenecid) to treat cytomegaloviral retinitis (CMV retinitis) in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Cidofovir is in a class of medications called antivirals. ...

  13. Brivaracetam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older. Brivaracetam in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants like brivaracetam injection to treat various conditions during ...

  14. Diphenhydramine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not to use diphenhydramine injection if you are breastfeeding because of the risk of harm to infants.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had asthma or other types of lung disease; glaucoma (a ...

  15. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valve, respiratory tract (including pneumonia), biliary tract, and urinary tract infections. Cefazolin injection also may be used before, during, ... to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website ( ...

  16. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin, blood, bone, joint, female genital tract, and urinary tract infections. Ceftazidime injection is in a class of medications ... to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website ( ...

  17. Fluconazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fungal infections of the eye, prostate (a male reproductive organ), skin and nails. Fluconazole injection is ... Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan); oral contraceptives (birth control pills); oral medication for diabetes such ...

  18. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available.Moxifloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause ... you are allergic to moxifloxacin, other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  19. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available. Levofloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ... severe reaction to levofloxacin; any other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  20. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available. Ciprofloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ... reaction to ciprofloxacin or any other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available in the ...

  1. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  2. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an arm or leg sudden changes in vision pain with eye movement Chloramphenicol injection may cause a condition called gray syndrome in premature and newborn infants. There have also been reports of gray ...

  3. Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

  4. Lax-Phillips evolution as an evolution of Gell-Mann-Hartle-Griffiths histories and emergence of the Schr\\"oedinger equation for a stable history

    CERN Document Server

    Bar, D

    2002-01-01

    Using the Gell-Mann-Hartle-Griffiths formalism in the framework of the Flesia-Piron form of the Lax-Phillips theory we show that the Schr\\"oedinger equation may be derived as a condition of stability of histories. This mechanism is realized in a mathematical structure closely related to the Zeno effect.

  5. Visit of the ATLAS cavern by Prof. Murray Gell-Mann, Physics Nobel 1969. With Dr Peter Jenni and Dr Alison Lister

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Murray Gell-Mann, well known for proposing the quark model and as a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1969, came to CERN on 23 January. During his visit he gave a theoretical physics seminar on decoherent histories in quantum mechanics.

  6. Immunization of chickens with an agonistic monoclonal anti-chicken CD40 antibody-hapten complex: rapid and robust IgG response induced by a single subcutaneous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Hsin; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Waghela, Suryakant D; Chou, Wen-Ko; Farnell, Morgan B; Mwangi, Waithaka; Berghman, Luc R

    2012-04-30

    Producing diagnostic antibodies in chicken egg yolk represents an alternate animal system that offers many advantages including high productivity at low cost. Despite being an excellent counterpart to mammalian antibodies, chicken IgG from yolk still represents an underused resource. The potential of agonistic monoclonal anti-CD40 antibodies (mAb) as a powerful immunological adjuvant has been demonstrated in mammals, but not in chickens. We recently reported an agonistic anti-chicken CD40 mAb (designated mAb 2C5) and showed that it may have potential as an immunological adjuvant. In this study, we examined the efficacy of targeting a short peptide to chicken CD40 [expressed by the antigen-presenting cells (APCs)] in enhancing an effective IgG response in chickens. For this purpose, an immune complex consisting of one streptavidin molecule, two directionally biotinylated mAb 2C5 molecules, and two biotinylated peptide molecules was produced. Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with doses of this complex ranging from 10 to 90 μg per injection once, and relative quantification of the peptide-specific IgG response showed that the mAb 2C5-based complex was able to elicit a strong IgG response as early as four days post-immunization. This demonstrates that CD40-targeting antigen to chicken APCs can significantly enhance antibody responses and induce immunoglobulin isotype-switching. This immunization strategy holds promise for rapid production of hapten-specific IgG in chickens.

  7. A novel method for the rapid determination of polyethoxylated tallow amine surfactants in water and sediment using large volume injection with high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Andrew R S; Liao, Xiangjun

    2015-08-19

    Polyethoxylated tallow amine (POEA) surfactants have been used in many glyphosate-based herbicide formulations for agricultural, industrial and residential weed control. The potential for release of these compounds into the environment is of increasing concern due to their toxicity towards aquatic organisms. Current methods for analysis of POEA surfactants require significant time and effort to achieve limits of quantification that are often higher than the concentrations at which biological effects have been observed (as low as 2 ng mL(-1)). We have developed a rapid and robust method for quantifying the POEA surfactant mixture MON 0818 at biologically relevant concentrations in fresh water, sea water and lake sediment using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Water samples preserved by 1:1 v/v dilution with methanol are analyzed directly following centrifugation. Sediment samples undergo accelerated solvent extraction in aqueous methanol prior to analysis. Large volume (100 μL) sample injection and multiple reaction monitoring of a subset of the most abundant POEA homologs provide limits of quantification of 0.5 and 2.9 ng mL(-1) for MON 0818 in fresh water and sea water, respectively, and 2.5 ng g(-1) for total MON 0818 in lake sediment. Average recoveries of 93 and 75% were achieved for samples of water and sediment, respectively spiked with known amounts of MON 0818. Precision and accuracy for the analysis of water and sediment samples were within 10 and 16%, respectively based upon replicate analyses of calibration standards and representative samples. Results demonstrate the utility of the method for quantifying undegraded MON 0818 in water and sediment, although a more comprehensive method may be needed to identify and determine other POEA mixtures and degradation profiles that might occur in the environment.

  8. Liquid methane gelled with methanol and water reduces rate of nitrogen absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwall, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Dilution of gelant vapor with inert carrier gas accomplishes gelation. Mixture is injected through heated tube and orifice into liquid methane for immediate condensation within bulk of liquid. Direct dispersion of particles in liquid avoids condensation on walls of vessel and eliminates additional mixing.

  9. Sarilumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the needle. Do not try to warm the medication by heating it in a microwave, placing it in warm water or in direct sunlight, or through any other method.Before injecting, check the prefilled syringe to be sure that the expiration date printed on the package has not passed. Look ...

  10. Enfuvirtide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inject enfuvirtide into any skin that has a tattoo, scar, bruise, mole, a burn site, or has ... Enfuvirtide may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: itching, swelling, pain, tingling, discomfort, ...

  11. Fluorouracil Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer. Treatment with fluorouracil injection may cause serious side effects. ... this medication.If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor ... (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/ ...

  12. Lanreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanreotide injection is used to treat people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features; joint pain; and other symptoms) who have not successfully, or cannot be treated ...

  13. Paliperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body slow movements or shuffling walk painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours cough, chills and/or other signs of infection Paliperidone injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.If you experience a ...

  14. Ziprasidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stiffness falling confusion sweating loss of consciousness painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours Ziprasidone injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while receiving this medication.If you experience a ...

  15. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control slow movements or shuffling walk falling painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours Risperidone extended-release injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while receiving this medication.If you experience a ...

  16. Calculations of influence of electric field on proton magnetic shielding in molecule, by means of Gell-Mann-Feynman theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volodicheva, M.I.; Rebane, T.K.

    1986-01-01

    A method is proposed for calculating the electric-field-linear contribution to the processional magnetic shielding of the nucleus, based on application on the Gell-Mann-Feyman theorem, using the Pade approximant. Calculational formulas have been derived for the first derivatives of the precessional magnetic shielding of the nucleus with respect to the electric field strength, these formulas containing either experimentally determinable characteristics of the molecules or characteristics obtained by interpolation of the observed properties of isoelectronic molecules. No calculations of wavefunctions are required. For hydrogen and hydrogen halide molecules, values have been calculated for the derivatives, with respect to electric field strength, of the precessional sigma/sub H//sup (1)/ prec and total sigma/sub H//sup (1)/ proton magnetic shielding. The results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  17. Restart of circulation of gelled drilling fluids; Estudo do inicio da recirculacao de fluidos de perfuracao gelificados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Gabriel M. de [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Leandro L.V. da; Franco, Admilson T.; Negrao, Cezar O.R. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais; Martins, Andre L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model that simulates the start-up flow of gelled drilling fluids in annular spaces with the purpose to predict pressure peaks at the beginning of the flow. The model comprises the one-dimensional conservation equations of mass and momentum, which are discretized by Finite Volume Method. Fully implicit and up-wind discretization schemes are used and the resultant algebraic equations are solved iteratively by developing a FORTRAN algorithm. The model has the potentiality to be easily adapted to a flow inside a tube. Cases studies are conducted to evaluate the temporal variation of velocity and pressure fields inside both the annular space and a tube. One observed that increasing fluid compressibility or viscosity leads to a reduction of the pressure peaks. (author)

  18. Influence of 6-Benzyladenine and gelling agent on the reduction of hyperhydricity in Tectona grandis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Quiala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Running title: Controlling hyperhydricity in teakInfluencia de la 6-Bencilaminopurina y el agente gelificante en la reducción de la hiperhidricidad en Tectona grandis L. Abstract:  The influence of different factors on shoot proliferation and the occurrence of hyperhydricity in teak (Tectona grandis L. have been studied. Four concentrations of BA (2.22, 4.44, 6.66 and 8.88 µM and a control treatment with 0 BA were examined. Aiming at reducing the costs during commercial propagation by using gelrite in stead of agar, the use of both gelling agent in the proliferation and hyperhydricity was tested. In order to evaluate if hyperhydricity can be reduced by increasing the gelrite concentration in the culture medium, three concentrations (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g l-1 were tested in combination with 4.44 µM BA.  The proliferation and occurrence of hyperhydricity during 21 successive subcultures were evaluated. The highest proliferation was achieved in the treatments with 6.66 or 8.88 µM BA. They yielded 5.22 and 5.56 shoots/explant, respectively. But also, the highest percent of hyperhydric shoots was achieved in this treatment. Gelrite resulted in a higher proliferation, but also an almost two times higher hyperhydricity as compared to agar-solidified media. Satisfactory reduction in hyperhydricity (18% was achieved with 3.0 g l-1 gelrite. However, the successive subcultures onto proliferation in this treatment favored hyperhydricity compromising shoot quality and its competence to proliferate. In vitro teak plants were ex vitro rooted and then transferred to greenhouse conditions for acclimatization; ten weeks after transfer they were ready for field plantation.Key words: cytokinin; forestry; micropropagation; morpho-physiological disorder; teakAbbreviations: BA- 6-Benzyladenine, MS- Murashige and Skoog basal medium, IBA- Indole-3-butyric acid, ANA-Naphtalene acetic acidResumen: Se estudió la influencia de diferentes factores en la proliferaci

  19. Subcutaneous (SQ) injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    SQ injections; Sub-Q injections; Diabetes subcutaneous injection; Insulin subcutaneous injection ... NIH. Giving a subcutaneous injection . Rockville, MD. National ... of Health and Human Services NIH publications; 2015. Available ...

  20. Development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for orthopedic and dental applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj Komath; H K Varma

    2003-06-01

    A study on the development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for orthopedic and dental applications is presented. The paper describes its characteristic properties including results of bio- compatibility studies. A conventional two-component calcium phosphate cement formulation (having a powder part containing dry mixture of acidic and basic calcium phosphate particles and a liquid part containing phosphate solution) is modified with a biocompatible gelling agent, to induce flow properties and cohesion. The quantity of the gelling agent is optimized to get a viscous paste, which is smoothly injectable through an 18-gauge needle, with clinically relevant setting parameters. The new formulation has a setting time of 20 min and a compressive strength of 11 MPa. The X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and energy dispersive electron microprobe analyses showed the phase to be hydroxyapatite, the basic bone mineral. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous structure with particle sizes of a few micrometers. The cement did not show any appreciable dimensional or thermal change during setting. The injectability is estimated by extruding through needle and the cohesive property is assessed by water contact method. The cement passed the in vitro biocompatibility screening (cytotoxicity and haemolysis) tests.

  1. Furosemide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... se mide)Furosemide can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: decreased urination; dry mouth; thirst; nausea; vomiting; weakness; drowsiness; confusion; muscle pain or cramps; or rapid or pounding heartbeats.

  2. PCL-based thermo-gelling polymers for in vivo delivery of chemotherapeutics to tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaohui; Gao, Hongzhi; Yang, Da-Peng; Liu, Minghuan; Cheng, Hongwei; Wu, Yun-Long; Loh, Xian Jun

    2017-05-01

    The synthesis of a multiblock poly(ether ester urethane)s comprising poly(ε-caprolactone), poly(ethylene glycol), and poly(propylene glycol) segments is described. We found that this polymer possessed a critical thermo-gelation concentration of 4wt%. Molecular characterization of the polymer was performed in terms of molecular weight determination, chemical composition elucidation and functional group determination using GPC, NMR, and FTIR. We carried out in vitro paclitaxel and doxorubicin release studies and demonstrated that sustained therapeutic release of about 2weeks can be obtained with this system. A nude mice model of tumor was developed and intratumoral injection of therapeutic-loaded thermo-gel demonstrated that PTX-loaded thermo-gel effectively inhibited the growth of tumors.

  3. Optimization of a gelled emulsion intended to supply ω-3 fatty acids into meat products by means of response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyato, Candelaria; Ansorena, Diana; Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2014-12-01

    The optimization of a gelled oil-in-water emulsion was performed for use as fat replacer in the formulation of ω-3 PUFA-enriched cooked meat products. The linseed oil content, carrageenan concentration and surfactant-oil ratio were properly combined in a surface response design for maximizing the hardness and minimizing the syneresis of the PUFA delivery system. The optimal formulation resulted in a gelled emulsion containing 40% of oil and 1.5% of carrageenan, keeping a surfactant-oil ratio of 0.003. The gel was applied as a partial fat replacer in a Bologna-type sausage and compared to the use of an O/W emulsion also enriched in ω-3. Both experimental sausages contributed with higher ω-3 PUFA content than the control. No sensory differences were found among formulations. The selected optimized gelled oil-in-water emulsion was demonstrated to be a suitable lipophilic delivery system for ω-3 PUFA compounds and applicable in food formulations as fat replacer.

  4. Response of Syngonium podophyllum L. ‘White Butterfly’ shoot cultures to alternative media additives and gelling agents, and flow cytometric analysis of regenerants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Teixeira da Silva JA. 2015. Response of Syngonium podophyllum L. ‘White Butterfly’ shoot cultures to alternative media additives and gelling agents, and flow cytometric analysis of regenerants. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 26-32. Syngonium podophyllum L. (arrowhead vine is a popular leafy indoor pot plant whose tissue culture has been established, primarily through in vitro shoot culture, but several interesting aspects have not yet been explored. In this study, cv. ‘White Butterfly’ was used to investigate the response of shoot formation to alternative gelling agents and media additives. Gellan gum (Gelrite® at 2 g/L resulted in greater leaf production, plantlet fresh weight and higher chlorophyll content (SPAD value than all other gelling agents tested, including agar, Bacto agar, phytagel, oatmeal agar, potato dextrose agar, barley starch and corn starch, when on a basal Hyponex® (NPK = 6.5: 6: 19; 3 g/L medium. Several alternative liquid medium additives tested (low and full fat milk, Coca-Cola®, coffee, Japanese green, Oolong and Darjeeling teas negatively impacted plant growth, stunted roots and decreased chlorophyll content (SPAD value of leaves. Plant growth on medium with refined sucrose or table sugar responded similarly. Poor growth was observed when crude extract from a high rebaudioside-containing stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni line - an artificial sweetener - was used. Leaf tissue from the control did not show any endopolyploidy but low levels of endopolyploidy (8C were detected in some treatments.

  5. Preparation of Thermosensitive Chitosan Formulations Containing 5-Fluorouracil/Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate Microparticles Used as Injectable Drug Delivery System%氟脲嘧啶微粒-壳聚糖微敏性水凝胶复合释药系统的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝佳; 朱德权; 谭丰苹; 蒋国强; 林莹; 丁富新

    2006-01-01

    The auto-gelling and drug release properties of the thermosensitive chitosan-β-glycerophosphate formulation were investigated. According to rheological study, gelation lag time of chitosan/β-glycerophosphate (GP)solutions varied from 2 to 60min with different deacetylation degree of chitosan, pH, gelation temperature, and the particles in the sol. The gelation properties were also found to influence the release profiles of a hydrophilic drug,5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Morphological examination by scanning electron microphotography demonstrated that large "pores" occurred during the gel-forming process, which created hydrophilic environment and led to the rapid initial release of the drug (85% in first 8h). Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable material, was applied here as scaffold to capture 5-FU into microparticles with high encapsulation efficiency by solvent-nonsolvent method.Combination of these microparticles into the chitosan-β-GP formulation could drop the rapid initial release from 85% down to 29% in the optimized PHB content (75%, by mass). The release could sustain for about 10 months.This study provided an understanding of the potential of injectable implant using thermosensitive chitosan-β-GP formulation containing PHB based particles for the water soluble drugs that need the property of long-term delivery.

  6. Helpful tips for performing musculoskeletal injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, John P

    2010-01-01

    Injections are valuable procedures for managing musculoskeletal conditions commonly encountered by family physicians. Corticosteroid injections into articular, periarticular, or soft tissue structures relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and improve mobility. Injections can provide diagnostic information and are commonly used for postoperative pain control. Local anesthetics may be injected with corticosteroids to provide additional, rapid pain relief. Steroid injection is the preferred and definitive treatment for de Quervain tenosynovitis and trochanteric bursitis. Steroid injections can also be helpful in controlling pain during physical rehabilitation from rotator cuff syndrome and lateral epicondylitis. Intra-articular steroid injection provides pain relief in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. There is little systematic evidence to guide medication selection for therapeutic injections. The medication used and the frequency of injection should be guided by the goal of the injection (i.e., diagnostic or therapeutic), the underlying musculoskeletal diagnosis, and clinical experience. Complications from steroid injections are rare, but physicians should understand the potential risks and counsel patients appropriately. Patients with diabetes who receive periarticular or soft tissue steroid injections should closely monitor their blood glucose for two weeks following injection.

  7. Musculoskeletal injections: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mark B; Beutler, Anthony I; O'Connor, Francis G

    2008-10-15

    Injections are valuable procedures for managing musculoskeletal conditions commonly encountered by family physicians. Corticosteroid injections into articular, periarticular, or soft tissue structures relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and improve mobility. Injections can provide diagnostic information and are commonly used for postoperative pain control. Local anesthetics may be injected with corticosteroids to provide additional, rapid pain relief. Steroid injection is the preferred and definitive treatment for de Quervain tenosynovitis and trochanteric bursitis. Steroid injections can also be helpful in controlling pain during physical rehabilitation from rotator cuff syndrome and lateral epicondylitis. Intra-articular steroid injection provides pain relief in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. There is little systematic evidence to guide medication selection for therapeutic injections. The medication used and the frequency of injection should be guided by the goal of the injection (i.e., diagnostic or therapeutic), the underlying musculoskeletal diagnosis, and clinical experience. Complications from steroid injections are rare, but physicians should understand the potential risks and counsel patients appropriately. Patients with diabetes who receive periarticular or soft tissue steroid injections should closely monitor their blood glucose for two weeks following injection.

  8. Study of hydroxy propyl guar derivative for its gelling property and it's use in the formulation of tenoxicam gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, N G N; Dharmarajan, T S; Paranjothi, K L K

    2007-01-01

    Gels of tenoxicam 1% w/w were formulated using 2% w/w hydroxy propyl guar derivative and 3% w/w sodium carboxy methyl cellulose as gelling agents. A detailed rheological investigation was carried out to study the influence of preservative, drug and preservative, solvent system and the preservative, drug, solvent system and the preservative on the pseudoplastic behaviour of polymers. Hydroxy propyl guar derivative in 2% w/w strength resulted in gels with a higher pseudoplastic index value of 3.383 in contrast to an index value of 1.797 for a 3% w/w sodium carboxy methyl cellulose gels of a similar composition. The gels were stored at different temperatures and variations in pH values were recorded. Hydroxy propyl guar derivative based gels revealed variations in pH values over a narrow range in contrast to sodium carboxy methyl cellulose gels. The gels were subjected to short term stability studies by storing gels at refrigerated temperature, lab temperature, at 37 degrees C and at 45 degrees C. Gels based on hydroxy propyl guar derivative revealed better drug keeping qualities in contrast to sodium carboxy methyl cellulose stabilized gels. Release studies of tenoxicam from formulations across hairless albino mice skin revealed a zero order drug release pattern from both the formulations.

  9. Thermosensitive and pH induced in situ ophthalmic gelling system for ciprofloxacin hydrochloride: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Berrin; Bozkir, Asuman

    2012-01-01

    The prolonged residence of drug formulation in the ocular cavity is important for ocular drug delivery. The purpose of the present study was to develop ophthalmic in situ gelling systems of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride with reduced pre-corneal elimination in order to improve the bioavailability and therapeutic response. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin was used in order to increase the stability of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride. In situ gels were prepared based on the concept of thermosensitive and pH induced in situ gelation. The inclusion complex of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin was prepared at a 1:1 molar ratio. The complex formation was thoroughly confirmed using various techniques, including (1)H NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectrophotometry and differential scanning calorimetry. Both pure ciprofloxacin HCI and the inclusion complex were individually used in the formulations. Formulations were successfully prepared which were liquid at room temperature and exhibited viscosity increase and gelation at ophthalmic temperature. As a result of antimicrobial efficacy and in vitro release experiments, the developed formulations were found therapeutically efficient and provided sustained release of the drug over an 8 h period. These systems can be more advantageous than conventional eye drops.

  10. Moxifloxacin-Gelrite in situ ophthalmic gelling system against photodynamic therapy for treatment of bacterial corneal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Laithy, Hanan M; Nesseem, Demiana I; El-Adly, Amira A; Shoukry, Meriana

    2011-10-01

    In this study, six in situ gelling formulations based on Gelrite were prepared and evaluated for the retained ophthalmic delivery of Moxifloxacin (Mox). The effectiveness of the best developed formula G5 was compared with photodynamic therapy (PDT), the recent expanding approach for the treatment of ophthalmologic disorders after the assessment of optimum photodynamic inactivation parameters that permit efficient pathogens eradication. It was found that, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (Gram-positive) was more susceptible to effective lethal photosensitization that reaches 93.5% reduction in viable count than Escherichia coli (E. coli) (Gramnegative) of 76.1% using 3 mg/mL Hematoporphyrin (HP), illuminated by 630 nm Light Emitting Diode (LED) at 9 J/cm(2) and incubated for 15 min. Following topical instillation of G5 to rabbits corneas, higher amount of Mox was retained in the aqueous humor up to 24 h with significant 6-fold increase in the C(max) and AUC((0-∞)) compared to vigamox commercial eye drops. After post corneal infection with S. aureus, both approaches were effectively treating the infection without causing ocular irritation or collateral damage to corneal tissue where G5 showed remarkable improvement after four days compared to seven days of PDT treatment.

  11. Improvement in the in situ gelling properties of deacetylated gellan gum by the immobilization of thiol groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauland, Alexander H; Leitner, Verena M; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2003-06-01

    The rheological properties of an in situ crosslinking thiolated deacetylated gellan gum were examined in vitro. Mediated by a carbodiimide, L-cysteine was covalently bound to deacetylated gellan gum (DGG). The deacetylated gellan gum-cysteine (DGG-Cys) conjugate displayed 216.53 +/- 59.54 micromol thiol groups per gram polymer (means +/- SD, n = 3). The thiolated polymer was capable of forming inter- and/or intramolecular disulfide bonds in aqueous solution (1.5%; m/m) at pH 7. After 6 h of incubation at room temperature, storage modulus, loss modulus, and complex viscosity increased 300-, 6.4-, and 26.6-fold, respectively, relative to the unthiolated polymer. Loss tangent of DGG-Cys was gel, whereas the corresponding unmodified polymer had a loss tangent of >1, indicating a fluid. Frequency sweep measurements demonstrated an increase in crosslinking of the thiolated polymer as a function of time. DGG-Cys appeared to be superior to the unmodified polymer also in the presence of physiological cation concentrations found (e.g., in tear fluid and nasal secretion), which is referred to rheological properties. The polymer generated within this study represents a promising novel excipient for various drug delivery systems in which in situ gelling properties are favorable.

  12. Sorption of Cu(II Ions on Chitosan-Zeolite X Composites: Impact of Gelling and Drying Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Djelad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan-zeolite Na-X composite beads with open porosity and different zeolite contents were prepared by an encapsulation method. Preparation conditions had to be optimised in order to stabilize the zeolite network during the polysaccharide gelling process. Composites and pure reference components were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD; scanning electron microscopy (SEM; N2 adsorption–desorption; and thermogravimetric analysis (TG. Cu(II sorption was investigated at pH 6. The choice of drying method used for the storage of the adsorbent severely affects the textural properties of the composite and the copper sorption effectiveness. The copper sorption capacity of chitosan hydrogel is about 190 mg·g−1. More than 70% of this capacity is retained when the polysaccharide is stored as an aerogel after supercrititcal CO2 drying, but nearly 90% of the capacity is lost after evaporative drying to a xerogel. Textural data and Cu(II sorption data indicate that the properties of the zeolite-polysaccharide composites are not just the sum of the properties of the individual components. Whereas a chitosan coating impairs the accessibility of the microporosity of the zeolite; the presence of the zeolite improves the stability of the dispersion of chitosan upon supercritical drying and increases the affinity of the composites for Cu(II cations. Chitosan-zeolite aerogels present Cu(II sorption properties.

  13. In situ gelling, bioadhesive nasal inserts for extended drug delivery: in vitro characterization of a new nasal dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Ulrike; Bodmeier, Roland

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the preparation and characterization of sponge-like, in situ gelling inserts based on bioadhesive polymers. Hydrophilic polymers (carrageenan, Carbopol, chitosan, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K15M and E5, sodium alginate, sodium carboxy methylcellulose (NaCMC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) 90, xanthan gum) were dissolved with/without the model drug oxymetazoline HCl in demineralized water and lyophilized into small inserts. The drug release, water uptake, mechanical properties, X-ray diffraction and bioadhesion potential of the nasal inserts were investigated. A sponge-like structure of nasal inserts was formed with amorphous, but not with crystalline polymers during the freeze-drying process. The insert hardness increased with the glass transition temperature of the polymer (PVP25HPMC E5, Na-alginate, PVP90). The drug release from inserts prepared from high molecular weight polymers (carrageenan, Carbopol, chitosan, HPMC K15M, NaCMC, xanthan gum) was a complex interplay of osmotic forces, water uptake and electrostatic interactions between drug and polymer. The drug release decreased with higher polymer content and increased drug loading of the insert. Bioadhesive nasal inserts have a high potential as new nasal dosage form for extended drug delivery.

  14. INJECTION CHOICE FOR SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE RING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRODOWSKI,J.; FEDOTOV,A.; GARDNER,C.; LEE,Y.Y.; RAPARIA,D.; DANILOV,V.; HOLMES,J.; PRIOR,C.; REES,G.; MACHIDA,S.

    2001-06-18

    Injection is key in the low-loss design of high-intensity proton facilities like the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). During the design of both the accumulator and the rapid-cycling-synchrotron version of the SNS, extensive comparison has been made to select injection scenarios that satisfy SNS's low-loss design criteria. This paper presents issues and considerations pertaining to the final choice of the SNS injection systems.

  15. Characterization of slow-gelling alginate hydrogels for intervertebral disc tissue-engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growney Kalaf, Emily A; Flores, Reynaldo; Bledsoe, J Gary; Sell, Scott A

    2016-06-01

    Reversal of intervertebral disc degeneration can have a potentially monumental effect on spinal health. As such, the goal of this research is to create an injectable, cellularized alginate-based nucleus pulposus that will restore disc function; with the primary goal of creating an alginate gel with tailorable rates of gelation to improve functionality over standard CaCl2 crosslinking techniques. Gelation characteristics of 1% sodium alginate were analyzed over various molar concentrations of a 1:2 ratio of CaCO3:glucono-δ-lactone (GDL), with 10% CaCl2 as the control crosslinker. Alginate construct characterization for all concentrations was performed via ultimate and cyclic compressive testing over a 28day degradation period in PBS. Dehydration, swell testing, and albumin release kinetics were determined, and cytotoxicity and cell homogeneity tests showed promise for cellularization strategies. Overall, the 30 and 60mM GDL alginate concentrations presented the most viable option for use in further studies, with a gelation time between 10 and 30min, low hysteresis over control, low percent change in thickness and weight under both PBS degradation and swelling conditions, and stable mechanical properties over 28days in vitro.

  16. In situ gelling stimuli-sensitive block copolymer hydrogels for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chaoliang; Kim, Sung Wan; Lee, Doo Sung

    2008-05-08

    Stimuli-sensitive block copolymer hydrogels, which are reversible polymer networks formed by physical interactions and exhibit a sol-gel phase-transition in response to external stimuli, have great potential in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, especially in site-specific controlled drug-delivery systems. The drug may be mixed with a polymer solution in vitro and the drug-loaded hydrogel can form in situ after the in vivo administration, such as injection; therefore, stimuli-sensitive block copolymer hydrogels have many advantages, such as simple drug formulation and administration procedures, no organic solvent, site-specificity, a sustained drug release behavior, less systemic toxicity and ability to deliver both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. Among the stimuli in the biomedical applications, temperature and pH are the most popular physical and chemical stimuli, respectively. The temperature- and/or pH-sensitive block copolymer hydrogels for biomedical applications have been extensively developed in the past decade. This review focuses on recent development of the preparation and application for drug delivery of the block copolymer hydrogels that respond to temperature, pH or both stimuli, including poly(N-substituted acrylamide)-based block copolymers, poloxamers and their derivatives, poly(ethylene glycol)-polyester block copolymers, polyelectrolyte-based block copolymers and the polyelectrolyte-modified thermo-sensitive block copolymers. In addition, the hydrogels based on other stimuli-sensitive block copolymers are discussed.

  17. Injectable Hydrogel Scaffold from Decellularized Human Lipoaspirate

    OpenAIRE

    Young, D. Adam; Ibrahim, Dina O.; Hu, Diane; Christman, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Soft tissue fillers are rapidly gaining popularity for aesthetic improvements or repair of adipose tissue deficits. Several injectable biopolymers have been investigated for this purpose but often face rapid resorption or limited adipogenesis, and do not mimic the native adipose extracellular matrix (ECM). We have generated an injectable adipose matrix scaffold by efficiently removing both the cellular and lipid contents of human lipoaspirate. The decellularized material retained a complex co...

  18. Homicide by intravenous injection of naphtha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, M E; Poklis, A; Mackell, M A

    1985-01-01

    A case of homicide by the intravenous injection of Energine, a petroleum distillate spot remover, is presented. This case is the only known homicide committed with naphtha. This elderly man had severe natural disease in addition to chest trauma sustained in the assault leading to death; however, the rapid injection of approximately 25 mL of Energine was the overwhelming cause of death.

  19. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Final report, September 25, 1992--July 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1997-06-01

    The objectives of the research program were to (1) identify and develop polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focused on four types of gel systems--KUSP1 systems that contain an aqueous polysaccharide designated KUSP1, phenolic-aldehyde systems composed of resorcinol and formaldehyde, colloidal-dispersion systems composed of polyacrylamide and aluminum citrate, and a chromium-based system where polyacrylamide is crosslinked by chromium(III). Gelation behavior of the resorcinol-formaldehyde systems and the KUSP1-borate system was examined. Size distributions of aggregates that form in the polyacrylamide-aluminum colloidal-dispersion gel system were determined. Permeabilities to brine of several rock materials were significantly reduced by gel treatments using the KUSP1 polymer-ester (monoethyl phthalate) system, the KUSP1 polymer-boric acid system, and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system were also shown to significantly reduce the permeability to supercritical carbon dioxide. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the behavior of a chromium redox-polyacrylamide gel system that is injected through a wellbore into a multi-layer reservoir in which crossflow between layers is allowed. The model describes gelation kinetics and filtration of pre-gel aggregates in the reservoir. Studies using the model demonstrated the effect filtration of gel aggregates has on the placement of gel systems in layered reservoirs.

  20. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Annual report, September 25, 1994--September 24, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1996-05-01

    The objectives of the research program are to (1) identify and develop polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focused on four types of gel systems -- KUSP1 systems which contain an aqueous polysaccharide designated KUSP1, phenolic-aldehyde systems composed of resorcinol and formaldehyde, colloidal-dispersion systems composed of polyacrylamide and aluminum citrate, and a chromium-based system where polyacrylamide is crosslinked by chromium(III). Gelation behavior of the resorcinol-formaldehyde systems and the KUSP1-borate system was examined. Size distributions of aggregates that form in the polyacrylamide-aluminum colloidal-dispersion gel system were determined. Permeabilities to brine of several rock materials were significantly reduced by gel treatments using the KUSP1 polymer-ester (monoethylphthalate) system, the KUSP1 polymer-boric acid system, and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system. The KUSP1 polymer-ester system and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system were also shown to significantly reduce the permeability to super-critical carbon dioxide. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the behavior of a chromium redox-polyacrylamide gel system that is injected through a wellbore into a multi-layer reservoir in which crossflow between layers is allowed. The model describes gelation kinetics and filtration of pre-gel aggregates in the reservoir. Studies using the model demonstrated the effect filtration of gel aggregates has on the placement of gel systems in layered reservoirs.

  1. Rapid determination of 30 bioactive constituents in XueBiJing injection using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry coupled with principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lihua; Sun, Zhi; Hu, Yurong; Sun, Ya; Xue, Wenhua; Zhou, Lin; Zhang, Jun; Bao, Xiaoyue; Zhu, Zhenfeng; Suo, Guanglu; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2017-04-15

    Xuebijing injection (XBJ) is a traditional Chinese herbal prescription widely used in the treatment of sepsis. Extensive chemical studies revealed that XBJ injection contains amino acids, phenolic acids, flavonoid glycosides, terpeneglycosides and phthalides. In this study, the applicability of ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution hybrid quadruple-orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS) for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of 30 bioactive constituents in XueBiJing injection (XBJ) was investigated. The mass spectrometer was operated in full MS scan mode. The use of 70,000FWHM mass resolution and narrow mass windows (5ppm) could effectively improve the selectivity of the method. Separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC(®) HSS C18 column (2.1mm×100mm, 1.8μm) with a gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water (containing 10mM ammonium acetate) at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. Satisfactory linearity was achieved within wide linear range and all correlation coefficients (r) of analytes were more than 0.9996. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.1180-27.82ng/mL for different analytes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of inter- and intra-day precisions were less than 3.0% and the recoveries of the assay were in the range of 98.5%-101.5%. The validated method was successfully applied for simultaneous determination of 30 bioactive compounds in XueBiJing injection from 10 batches samples by UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS within 10min. Moreover, the results were evaluated principal component analysis and two compounds might be the most important chemical markers for chemical quality control of XBJ injection. The novel Q-Orbitrap mass spectrometry has been proved to be a very promising and powerful tool for routine screening of bioactive compounds in traditional Chinese medicine injection, ensuring drug safety and public health.

  2. Characterization of pectins extracted from pomegranate peel and their gelling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Mouna; Cheikhrouhou, S; Renard, Catherine M G C; Bureau, Sylvie; Cuvelier, Gérard; Attia, Hamadi; Ayadi, M A

    2017-01-15

    The composition of pomegranate peel, the main by-product during pomegranate processing, and some of the characteristics of the water-soluble pectins were investigated. Four tunisian pomegranate peels were subjected to hot aqueous extractions (86°C, 80min, 20mM nitric acid). Pomegranate peels yielded between 6.8% and 10.1% pectins. The extracted pectins were low methylated and were characterized by the predominance of homogalacturonan regions. Principal component analysis applied on FT-IR spectral data in the region between 4000 and 650cm(-1) differentiated the samples according to their degree of methylation. At pH 3, in the presence of 0.7% pectin, all solutions showed a rapid gel formation with G'>G″. With decreasing temperature from 90°C to 10°C, G' increased to reach a plateau at 10°C. The variation in the pectin gel formation between varieties was attributed to difference in pectin characteristics particularly the hydrodynamic volume and the neutral sugar content.

  3. Rheological characterization of an injectable alginate gel system

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Benjamin E; Bjørnstad, Jorunn; Pettersen, Erik O.; Hanne H. Tønnesen; Melvik, Jan E

    2015-01-01

    Background This work investigates a general method for producing alginate gel matrices using an internal mode of gelation that depends solely on soluble alginate and alginate/gelling ion particles. The method involves the formulation of two-component kits comprised of soluble alginate and insoluble alginate/gelling ion particles. Gelling kinetics, elastic and Young’s moduli were investigated for selected parameters with regard to soluble alginate guluronate content, molecul...

  4. 原位胶原凝胶对大鼠脊髓损伤后功能恢复的影响%Effect of in situ gelling collagen on restoration of function after spinal cord injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长文; 郑启新; 吴永超; 郭晓东; 李景峰

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of in situ gelling collagen on restoration of neuron function after spinal cord injury in rats. Methods Fifteen healthy female SD rats were randomly divided into collagen group, control group and sham operation group. Contusive spinal cord injury models were made by improved Allen's weight drop method. In collagen group and control group, collagen and PBS solutions were respectively injected into epicenter using micro-syringes, and allowed for gel formation in situ at body temperature. BBB loco-motion scores were tested once per week for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, immunohistochemistry was carried out to as-sess glial scar formation and axon regeneration. Results BBB scores of collagen group were significantly higher than that of control group from 5th week. Fewer glial scars were found in injured area in collagen group and more axons regenerated into injured area than that of control group. Conclusion In situ gelling collagen can inhibit the formation of glial scars in injured area and promote axon regeneration into injured area. Collagen might be a promising injectable material for the repairing of spinal cord injury.%目的:研究脊髓损伤后原位形成胶原凝胶对神经功能恢复的影响.方法:15只健康雌性SD大鼠随机分为胶原组、对照组和假手术组,Allen撞击法制作脊髓损伤模型.用微量注射器将胶原溶液注入损伤部位,在体温作用下让其原位形成凝胶,对照组注入PBS溶液,每周进行运动评分,6周后取脊髓组织进行免疫荧光染色,观察损伤部位的胶质瘢痕和轴突生长情况.结果:胶原组大鼠第5周起BBB评分显著高于对照组,免疫荧光显示损伤部位胶质瘢痕少于对照组,且长入损伤部位的轴突也多于对照组.结论:原位形成的胶原凝胶能抑制损伤部位胶质瘢痕的形成,并能促进轴突再生长入损伤部位.证明胶原是一种较好的能用于修复脊髓损伤的可注射材料.

  5. Intravenous injections in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombash Lampe, Sara E; Kaspar, Brian K; Foust, Kevin D

    2014-11-11

    Intravenous injection is a clinically applicable manner to deliver therapeutics. For adult rodents and larger animals, intravenous injections are technically feasible and routine. However, some mouse models can have early onset of disease with a rapid progression that makes administration of potential therapies difficult. The temporal (or facial) vein is just anterior to the ear bud in mice and is clearly visible for the first two days after birth on either side of the head using a dissecting microscope. During this window, the temporal vein can be injected with volumes up to 50 μl. The injection is safe and well tolerated by both the pups and the dams. A typical injection procedure is completed within 1-2 min, after which the pup is returned to the home cage. By the third postnatal day the vein is difficult to visualize and the injection procedure becomes technically unreliable. This technique has been used for delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, which in turn can provide almost body-wide, stable transgene expression for the life of the animal depending on the viral serotype chosen.

  6. Preparation of demipermanent and semipermanent hair dyes gels from ethanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan L. using carbomer as gelling agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, T.; Syahrin, A.; Irpan

    2017-07-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (Cs L) contains of essential oils, saponin, brazilin, brazilein, alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins that have a function as cationic natural dyes. The aim of this research was to prepare the ethanol extract of Cs L wood and to prepare demi-permanent and semi-permanent of hair dye gels by using Carbomer of 2 % and 1.5 % as gelling agent and Cs L extract as cationic dyes. The Extract of Cs L was macerated by using ethanol of 96 % as the solvent, and then thickened. Three formula of demi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 3 %, 6% and 9 %. Three formula of semi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 2.50 %, 7.00 % and 10.50 %. Those hair dyes gels were prepared by swelling and mixing methods. All products of hair dyes gels were evaluated with organoleptic test, homogeneity test, pH test, consistency test, rheological properties test and dyeing effect test. The demi-permanent hair dye gels products had brown to brown dark black colors, pH of 5.05-5.43, homogeny, specific Cs L odor, and had pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristic. The semi-permanent hair dye gels products had red color pH of 6.5-6.25, homogeny, Cs L odor, and have pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristics. The optimum formula of demi-permanent was formula gel that contained of 6 % extract of Cs L and the optimum formula of permanent hair dyes gel was formula that contained of 10.50 % extract of Cs L.

  7. Intranasal delivery of Norwalk virus-like particles formulated in an in situ gelling, dry powder vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Lissette S; Shira, Samantha; Berta, Alice N; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Medi, Babu M; Tizard, Ian; Ni, Yawei; Arntzen, Charles J; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2011-07-18

    The development of a vaccine to prevent norovirus infections has been focused on immunization at a mucosal surface, but has been limited by the low immunogenicity of self-assembling Norwalk virus-like particles (NV VLPs) delivered enterically or at nasal surfaces. Nasal immunization, which offers the advantage of ease of immunization, faces obstacles imposed by the normal process of mucociliary clearance, which limits residence time of applied antigens. Herein, we describe the use of a dry powder formulation (GelVac) of an inert in situ gelling polysaccharide (GelSite) extracted from Aloe vera for nasal delivery of NV VLP antigen. Powder formulations, with or without NV VLP antigen, were similar in structure in dry form or when rehydrated in simulated nasal fluids. Immunogenicity of the dry powder VLP formulation was compared to equivalent antigen/adjuvant liquid formulations in animals. For the GelVac powder, we observed superior NV-specific serum and mucosal (aerodigestive and reproductive tracts) antibody responses relative to liquid formulations. Incorporation of the TLR7 agonist gardiquimod in dry powder formulations did not enhance antibody responses, although its inclusion in liquid formulations did enhance VLP immunogenicity irrespective of the presence or absence of GelSite. We interpret these data as showing that GelSite-based dry powder formulations (1) stabilize the immunogenic structural properties of VLPs and (2) induce systemic and mucosal antibody titers which are equal or greater than those achieved by VLPs plus adjuvant in a liquid formulation. We conclude that in situ gelation of the GelVac dry powder formulation at nasal mucosal surfaces delays mucociliary clearance and thereby prolongs VLP antigen exposure to immune effector sites.

  8. Research Situation and Prospect of Rapid Heat Cycle Molding Injection Technology%快速热循环注塑技术的研究现状与前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓丽霞

    2013-01-01

    This article carried on the system analysis on the rapid heat cycle molding process mechanism,main features and other aspects.The domestic research situation of rapid heat cycle molding technology was summarized.This article made the prediction to the prospect for development of rapid heat cycle molding technology.%对快速热循环注塑技术的工艺原理、主要特点等方面进行了系统分析;总结了目前国内在快速热循环注塑技术方面的研究现状;最后对快速热循环注塑技术的发展前景进行了预测.

  9. Indirect rapid manufacture of injection mould with conformal cooling channels based on SLS%基于SLS的随形冷却通道注射模间接快速制造技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程蓉; 伍晓宇; 郑建平

    2011-01-01

    介绍了在广泛考察国内外制造随形冷却通道注射模技术的基础上,摈弃普遍采用的直接制模技术,提出将选择性激光烧结(SLS)技术和铸造工艺相结合,间接快速制造随形冷却通道注射模的新的制造工艺方法.利用SLS技术对腹膜砂和环氧树脂混加的材料成型注射模的布尔结构铸造砂型,对砂型进行后处理后,浇注铝合金形成模具铸件,最后对模具铸件进行清粉和后处理,完成注射模制造.同传统的随形水路模具制造技术相比较,本方法能成型较为复杂的随形冷却通道,并且由于直接用铝合金铸造成模具,其致密度、强度和尺寸精度相比较传统的脱脂、高温烧结和低温浸渍改性的环氧树脂等工艺方法得到的模具性能大幅度提高.该注射模寿命可达50 000次/副,强度可达588MPa.从塑件质量可以得出,此工艺是一种快速制造适合小批量生产注射模的切实可行的方法.%Based on extensive survey of the manufacturing technology at home and abroad for injection mould with conformal cooling channels, a widely adopted direct molding technology was abandoned and a new indirect manufacturing process combining selective laser sintering (SLS) technology and casting technology was put forwarded for injection mould with conformal cooling channels. SLS technology was used in peritoneal and epoxy resin sand mixed material for forming Boolean stucture of sand of injection mould; after post-processing of sand casting, alimium alloy was applied and mould casting was formed, finally the powder of casting was cleaned and the last post-processing process for manufacturing an injection mould was completed. Compared with Waditional conformal cooling channels mould manufacturing technology, this method can form more complex conformal cooling channels; and because of the direct mould forming by aluminium alloy casting, the densitY, strength and dimension precision of the mould are increased

  10. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to treat ... in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications ...

  11. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allergic to iron dextran injection; any other iron injections such as ferric carboxymaltose (Injectafer), ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit);any other ...

  12. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipuleucel-T injection is used to treat certain types of advanced prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T injection is in a class of medications called ... Sipuleucel-T injection comes as a suspension (liquid) to be injected over about 60 minutes into a vein ...

  13. Research and development of 6-DZMJ-12 gelled lead-acid battery%6-DZMJ-12全胶体铅酸蓄电池的研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂发; 郭志刚; 刘玉; 邓成智; 周文渭

    2016-01-01

    本文围绕电动自行车用全胶体铅酸蓄电池的研发,从电池内部结构设计、生极板预处理工艺、胶体配方和分散方式及充电化成工艺四个方面进行了研究。实验结果表明:全胶体电池可以满足电动自行车的使用需求,能够很大程度上解决酸分层等问题,进而延长电池的循环使用寿命。%The 6-DZMJ-12 gelled lead-acid batteries for E-bikes were studied from the aspects of internal structure design, plate pretreatment process, gel formula, dispersion, and charging of the formation process. Experimental results showed that the gelled batteries could fully meet the demands of electric bicycle power batteries, because stratiifcation of sulfuric acid electrolyte and other problems were solved largely to extend the life of battery.

  14. Aqueous two-phase system cold-set gelation using natural and recombinant probiotic lactic acid bacteria as a gelling agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, Lucie; Husson, Florence; Langella, Philippe; Châtel, Jean-Marc; Saurel, Rémi

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to entrap probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in a sodium alginate and sodium caseinate aqueous two-phase gel system. The natural acidifying properties of two therapeutic probiotic LAB were exploited to liberate calcium ions progressively from calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which caused the gelation of the co-existing phases. Bi-biopolymeric matrix gelation of GDL/CaCO3 or LAB/CaCO3 was monitored by dynamic rheological measurements, and the final gels were characterized by frequency dependence measurements and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Weak to strong gels were formed with an elastic modulus G' from 10 to 1.000Pa, respectively. After cold-set gelation of our system, confocal laser scanning microscopy showed spherical protein microdomains trapped within a calcium alginate network. LAB cells were stained to study their partition in the self-gelling matrices. Our LAB strains showed two different behaviors, which may relate to the exopolysaccharide production: (i) Lactobacillus plantarum CNRZ1997 cells were found mainly in continuous alginate networks, whereas (ii) Lactococcus lactis cells were localized in protein microdomains. This alginate-caseinate phase-separated system that was self-gelled by LAB cells may be an innovative approach for immobilizing and protecting LAB cells.

  15. 大豆素火腿加工的凝胶工艺研究%Gelling technology of soybean vegetarian ham

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓源喜; 马龙; 李妍; 许晖; 徐世晶

    2011-01-01

    凝胶过程是决定素火腿品质的关键工序.采用单因素试验、正交试验,研究了素火腿加工的凝胶工艺,并对关键参数进行了优化.结果表明,选择浓度为0.25mol/L的CaSO4及浓度为2.0mol/L的卤水作为凝固剂,凝固温度为85℃,大豆蛋白含量为14%,此时形成的蛋白凝胶硬度为351g,加工的素火腿有很好的咀嚼性和粘弹性.%Gelling was considered as the key processing stage in the production of vegetarian ham.A new gelling technology of vegetarian ham was studied and optimized by single factor and orthogonal tests.The results showed that when 0.25mol/L CaSO4 and 2.0mol/L Lushui were used as coagulants, the coagulation temperature was 85℃ and the soybean protein content was 14%, the firmness of the protein gel was 351g, and the vegetarian ham was chewy and viscoelastic.

  16. Comparison of ion-activated in situ gelling systems for ocular drug delivery. Part 1: physicochemical characterisation and in vitro release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupenthal, Ilva D; Green, Colin R; Alany, Raid G

    2011-06-15

    Conventional eye drops can result in poor drug bioavailability due to the unique ocular anatomy and physiology. Ion-activated in situ gelling systems are able to crosslink with cations present in the tear fluid, therefore forming a gel on the ocular surface, which results in prolonged corneal contact time. The present study compared a number of anionic polysaccharides (gellan gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan and alginate) to an uncharged (HPMC) and a positively charged (chitosan) polymer system with emphasis on the gelling behaviour, rheological and textural properties, gel microstructure, contact angle and in vitro release characteristics. All systems exhibited physically entangled polymer networks that were able to disentangle upon shear stress and significantly prolonged the in vitro release of a model hydrophilic drug compared to a solution. While systems based on HPMC and chitosan showed no structural changes upon addition of cations, formulations based on gellan gum and carrageenan demonstrated a remarkable increase in viscosity, pseudoplasticity and hardness upon addition of Ca(2+) and K(+) respectively. This renders them favourable for ocular use as they would gel once in contact with the cations of the tear fluid, thus reducing nasolacrimal drainage, but would thin upon shearing, preventing ocular irritation and therefore induced lacrimation.

  17. Comparative study of polymer matrices for gelled electrolytes of lithium batteries; Etude comparative de matrices polymeres pour electrolytes gelifies de batteries au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Pasquier, A.; Sarrazin, C.; Fauvarque, J.F. [CNAM, 75 - Paris (France); Andrieu, X. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1996-12-31

    A solid electrolyte for lithium batteries requires several properties: a good ionic conductivity of about 10{sup -3} S/cm at 298 deg. K, a high cationic transport number (greater than 0.5), a redox stability window higher than 4.5 V, a good stability of the interface with the lithium electrode, and a sufficient mechanical stability. The family of gelled or hybrid electrolytes seems to meet all these requirements. Thus, a systematic study of the gelling of an ethylene carbonate and lithium bistrifluorosulfonimide (LiTFSI) based electrolyte has been carried out. The polymers used for gel or pseudo-gel synthesis are POE, PMMA and PAN which represent 3 different cases of interaction with the electrolyte. All the properties mentioned above have been studied according to the nature of the polymer and to the concentration of lithium salt, showing the advantages and drawbacks of each polymer. The possibility of using some of these gels in lithium-ion batteries has been tested by lithium intercalation tests in UF2 graphite at the C/10 regime and by the cycling of LiCoO{sub 2}/UF{sub 2} batteries at the C/5 regime. Interesting performances have been obtained on Li/PPy batteries which can operate at the 7.5 C regime. (J.S.)

  18. Oil-in-water emulsion gels stabilized with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) and cold gelling agents: Technological and infrared spectroscopic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintado, T; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Carmona, P; Herrero, A M

    2015-10-15

    This paper reports on the development of olive oil-in-water emulsion gels containing chia (Salvia hispanica L.) (flour or seed) and cold gelling agents (transglutaminase, alginate or gelatin). The technological and structural characteristics of these emulsion gels were evaluated. Both structural and technological changes in emulsion gels resulting from chilled storage were also determined. The color and texture of emulsion gels depend on both the cold gelling agents used and chilled storage. Lipid oxidation increased (p < 0.05) during storage in emulsion gels containing transglutaminase or alginate. Analyses of the half-bandwidth of the 2923 cm(-1) band and the area of the 3220 cm(-1) band suggest that the order/disorder of the oil lipid chain related to lipid interactions and droplet size in the emulsion gels could be decisive in determining their textural properties. The half-bandwidth of 2923 cm(-1) band and area of 3220 cm(-1) band did not show significant differences during chilled storage.

  19. 流动注射分光光度法快速测定乳制品中的蛋白质含量%Rapid Determination of Real Protein Content in Dairy Products by Flow Injection-Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁琴琴; 李永生

    2011-01-01

    Based on asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone technology, a flow-injection spetrophotometry for fast determination of real protein content in dairy products was established. Sample and coomassie brilliant blue G250(CBBG) solution were loaded into loops simultaneously and automatically, injected into two carriers, respectively, then merged and reacted in manner of sample enwrapping reagent, and the formed blue complex was determined at 595 nm. Optimized conditions were as follows: concentrations of CBBG, NaCl and HCl were 150 mg/L, 0. 1 mol/L and 1. 0% (V/V) , respectively; volumes of the sample and reagent were 150 μL and 30 μL, respectively; length of a reaction coil was 200 cm; total flow rate was 2. 65 mL/min. The linear range of the method was 0. 5 -15. 0 mg/L, relative standard deviation was less than 1. 87% (n=11), its detection limit was 0. 05 mg/L, and analytical speed was 60 samples per hour. Merits of the system were less error, high automation, good reproducibility, fast analysis speed, and less cost. Moreover, the determination results of this method were not interfered by some pseudo protein such as melamine and urea. The method has been applied to the determination of real protein in dairy products.%建立了快速测定乳制品中真蛋白质含量的交替合并带异步注入流动注射分光光度法.样品和试剂自动同时定量,分别同时被注入到超纯水和缓冲液中,以合并带中试样包裹试剂的方式进行汇合、反应,生成的蓝色络合物进入流通检测器,在595 nm下进行定量分析.得到的最佳测定条件为:反应试剂中考马斯亮蓝的浓度为150 mg/L,缓冲液中HCI的浓度为1.0% (V/V),NaCl的浓度为0.1 mol/L,采样体积为150 μL,显色剂注入体积为30 μL,反应盘管长度为200 cm,系统总流量为2.65 mL/min,分析速度为60样/h,方法的线性范围为0.5~15.0 mg/L;相对标准偏差小于1.9%(n=11),检出限为0.05 mg/L,回收率为93.9%~107.3%;.本

  20. Modulating rheological and degradation properties of temperature-responsive gelling systems composed of blends of PCLA-PEG-PCLA triblock copolymers and their fully hexanoyl-capped derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Audrey; Müller, Benno; Bruin, Peter; Meyboom, Ronald; Piest, Martin; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M J; de Leede, Leo G J; Hennink, Wim E; Vermonden, Tina

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the ability to modulate rheological and degradation properties of temperature-responsive gelling systems composed of aqueous blends of poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide) (PCLA-PEG-PCLA) triblock copolymers (i.e. uncapped) and their fully capped derivatives was investigated. Uncapped and capped PCLA-PEG-PCLA triblock copolymers, abbreviated as degree of modification 0 and 2 (DM0 and DM2, respectively), were composed of identical PCLA and PEG blocks but different end groups: namely hydroxyl and hexanoyl end groups. DM0 was synthesized by ring opening polymerization of l-lactide and ε-caprolactone in toluene using PEG as initiator and tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate as the catalyst. A portion of DM0 was subsequently reacted with an excess of hexanoyl chloride in solution to yield DM2. The cloud point and phase behaviour of DM0 and DM2 in buffer as well as that of their blends were determined by light scattering in a diluted state and by vial tilting and rheological measurements in a concentrated state. Degradation/dissolution properties of temperature-responsive gelling systems were studied in vitro at pH 7.4 and 37°C. The cloud points of DM0/DM2 blends were ratio-dependent and could be tailored from 15 to 40°C for blends containing 15 to 100wt.% DM0. Vial tilting and rheological experiments showed that, with solid contents between 20 and 30wt.%, DM0/DM2 blends (15/85 to 25/75w/w) had a sol-to-gel transition temperature at 10-20°C, whereas blends with less than 15wt.% DM0 formed gels below 4°C and the ones with more than 25wt.% DM0 did not show a sol-to-gel transition up to 50°C. Complete degradation of temperature-responsive gelling systems took ∼100days, independent of the DM0 fraction and the initial solid content. Analysis of residual gels in time by GPC and (1)H-NMR showed no chemical polymer degradation, but indicated gel degradation by dissolution. Preferential dissolution of lactoyl

  1. Influência do desempenho térmico de moldes fabricados com compósito epóxi/alumínio nas propriedades de pp moldado por injeção Thermal behavior of epoxy/aluminum rapid tooling composite during injection molding of polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gean V. Salmoria

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O surgimento das tecnologias de prototipagem rápida (RP e de ferramental rápido (RT tem despertado interesse da indústria de moldes de injeção. O vazamento de termofixos com cargas metálicas possibilita a construção de moldes usando materiais compósitos, os quais apresentam maior resistência que os utilizados por outras técnicas RT. Neste trabalho foi estudado o comportamento térmico de moldes fabricados em epóxi/alumínio durante a injeção de polipropileno através de avaliações da estrutura e de propriedades mecânicas utilizando difração de raio X e ensaios de dureza e de tração. Os corpos-de-prova injetados no molde em compósito epóxi/alumínio apresentaram pequenas diferenças no grau de cristalinidade das superfícies analisadas e propriedades mecânicas semelhantes aos corpos-de-prova injetados em molde de aço. O estudo mostrou um razoável desempenho térmico do molde compósito durante a injeção de polipropileno evidenciando a viabilidade de utilização destes moldes na produção de pequenas séries de protótipos e de produtos neste termoplástico.rapid prototyping (RP and rapid tooling (RT technologies are gaining increasing importance in the injection molding industry. Casting of resin/metal composites allows the construction of molds with greater resistance than those manufactured by other RT techniques such as Stereolithography. In this work, the thermal behavior of molds manufactured in epoxy/aluminum during the injection molding of polypropylene specimens was investigated. Structural and mechanical characterization of the molded specimens included X ray analysis, hardness and tensile testing. The samples presented small differences in the degree of crystallinity and similar mechanical properties in comparison with samples injected into steel molds. This study showed a reasonable thermal performance of the epoxy/aluminum mold during the injection molding of polypropylene, thus demonstrating the

  2. On Maximal Injectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.

  3. In situ gelling pH- and temperature-sensitive biodegradable block copolymer hydrogels for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra K; Lee, Doo Sung

    2014-11-10

    Stimuli-sensitive injectable polymeric hydrogels have been extensively investigated during the past decade as bioactive agent delivery vehicles and for tissue engineering applications. An aqueous solution of these polymers undergoes a sol-to-gel phase transition in response to external stimuli such as pH, temperature, salt, light, biomolecules, electromagnetic field, etc. Bioactive molecules or cells can be mixed into the low-viscosity state of the polymer solution and injected into the body at a target site, forming an in situ hydrogel depot, which can then serve as bioactive-molecule-releasing carriers or a cell-growing microenvironment. This review systematically summarizes the recent progress in biodegradable and injectable block copolymer hydrogels, giving special attention to the novel and promising pH- and temperature-sensitive injectable block copolymer hydrogels for biomedical applications. The gelation mechanism, formation of ionic complexes, and biodegradation are highlighted as key factors responsible for controlled protein/drug delivery. The advantages and perspectives of pH- and temperature-sensitive injectable block copolymer hydrogels are also highlighted.

  4. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Combivir), a medication used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Epoetin alfa injection is also used before ... inject epoetin alfa, as directed by your doctor. Write down the date, time, dose of epoetin alfa ...

  5. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is used to treat Dupuytren's contracture (a painless thickening and tightening of tissue [cord] beneath ... of tissue can be felt upon examination. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is also used to treat Peyronie's ...

  6. Iron Sucrose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called iron ...

  7. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or ICSI, is a form of in vitro fertilization in which fertilization occurs outside of the ... laboratory dish. Within a few hours, a single sperm is injected through a fine needle into the ...

  8. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  9. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  10. Other Injectable Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... July 17, 2013 Last Edited: February 22, 2017 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: cg-infusion-sets,meds-bg-injectables,cg-injection-aids, In this section Treatment and Care Medication Insulin & ...

  11. Injection losses and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Dehning, B; Di Mauro, A; Drosdal, L; Emery, J; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Höfle, W; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Radaelli, S; Shaposhnilova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2012-01-01

    Injection losses are compared for 2010 and 2011 operation. Mitigation techniques which were put in place in 2010 to reduce losses at injection are described. Issues in 2011 operation, their potential improvements and the performance reach for 2012 are shown.

  12. Beam injection into RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  13. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  14. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  15. Novel injectable neutral solutions of chitosan form biodegradable gels in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenite, A; Chaput, C; Wang, D; Combes, C; Buschmann, M D; Hoemann, C D; Leroux, J C; Atkinson, B L; Binette, F; Selmani, A

    2000-11-01

    A novel approach to provide, thermally sensitive neutral solutions based on chitosan/polyol salt combinations is described. These formulations possess a physiological pH and can be held liquid below room temperature for encapsulating living cells and therapeutic proteins; they form monolithic gels at body temperature. When injected in vivo the liquid formulations turn into gel implants in situ. This system was used successfully to deliver biologically active growth factors in vivo as well as an encapsulating matrix for living chondrocytes for tissue engineering applications. This study reports for the first time the use of polymer/polyol salt aqueous solutions as gelling systems, suggesting the discovery of a prototype for a new family of thermosetting gels highly compatible with biological compounds.

  16. Summation of divergent series of perturbation theory in the limit of strong bind. Function of Gell-Mann-Low theory psi sup 4

    CERN Document Server

    Suslov, I M

    2001-01-01

    Algorithm for ascertaining the asymptotics of a series sum in the perturbation theory in the strong bond limit according to preset values of its coefficients was suggested. The algorithm was illustrated using test examples, methods of error estimation and optimization procedure were developed. Application of the algorithm to theory psi sup 4 provides behavior beta(g) approx = 7.4g sup 0 sup . sup 9 sup 6 at high g for its Gell-Mann-Low function. The index similarity to unity can be interpreted as manifestation of logarithmic branching of the beta(g) approx g(lng) sup - supgamma type with gamma approx = 0.14, independent arguments in favor of the assumption being available. In any case, theory psi sup 4 is intrinsically consistent. The procedure of summation of series of the perturbation theory at random values of expansion parameters is discussed

  17. Technical note: PaGELL v.1.5: A flexible parametric program for the Bayesian analysis of longevity data within the context of animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, J; Brito, L C

    2017-10-01

    This technical note presents the program PaGELL v.1.5 (Parametric Genetic Evaluation of Lifespan in Livestock), a flexible software program to analyze (right-censored) longevity data in livestock populations, with a special emphasis on the genetic evaluation of the breeding stock. This software relies on a parametric generalization of the proportional hazard model; more specifically, the baseline hazard function follows a Weibull process and flexibility is gained by including an additional time-dependent effect with the number of change points defined by the user. The program can accommodate 3 different sources of variation (i.e., systematic, permanent environmental, and additive genetic effects) and both fixed and time-dependent patterns (only for systematic and permanent environmental effects). Analyses are performed within a Bayesian context by sampling from the joint posterior distribution of the model, and model fit can be easily determined by the calculation of the deviance information criterion. Although this software has already been used on field data sets, its performance has been double-checked on simulated data set, and results are presented in this technical note. PaGELL v.1.5 was written in Fortran 95 language and, after compiling with the GNU Fortran Compiler v.4.7 and later, it has been tested in Windows, Linux, and MacOS operating systems (both 32- and 64-bit platforms). This program is available at http://www.casellas.info/files/pageII.zip. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Backfire prediction in a manifold injection hydrogen internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xing-hua; Liu, Fu-shui; Zhou, Lei; Sun, Bai-gang [School of Mechanical and Vehicular Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Schock, Harold J. [Engine Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Hydrogen internal combustion engine (H2ICE) easily occur inlet manifold backfire and other abnormal combustion phenomena because of the low ignition energy, wide flammability range and rapid combustion speed of hydrogen. In this paper, the effect of injection timing on mixture formation in a manifold injection H2ICE was studied in various engine speed and equivalence ratio by CFD simulation. It was concluded that H2ICE of manifold injection have an limited injection end timing in order to prevent backfire in the inlet manifold. Finally, the limit of injection end timing of the H2ICE was proposed and validated by engine experiment. (author)

  19. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... be pregnant What medicines you are taking, including herbs, supplements, and other drugs you bought without a ...

  20. Underground Injection Control (UIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provide information on: individual injection well classes; regulations specific to each well class; technical guidance; compliance assistance; federal, state, and tribal/territory roles and responsibilities.

  1. Ferric Carboxymaltose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pharmacist if you are allergic to ferric carboxymaltose injection, ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron dextran (Dexferrum, Infed), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit); any other ...

  2. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  3. Transient characteristics for working process of pulse detonation engine with aluminized gelled fuels%含铝凝胶燃料脉冲爆轰发动机工作过程瞬态特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡洪波; 翁春生

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the transient mechanism of pulse detonation engine with gelled fuels during the working process,the mathematical and physical model of pulse detonation engine with aluminized gelled fuels was established.The flow field of a single cycle pulse detonation engine with aluminized gelled fuels was simulated numerically by using the conservation element and solution element method,and the transient characteristics during the detonation reaction and impulse generation processes were analyzed.The calculation results show that the strip of the aluminized gelled fuels droplet under the detonation wave is predominant. The aluminum particles scatter into the detonation tube accompanying with the strip of droplets,and participate in reaction,so the a⁃luminum quantity accumulated in the final stage is small.And the process of the gelled fuels'detonation exhaust can be divided into three typical stages,which are expansion stage attached to detonation,gas"choked" expansion stage and weaken expansion stage in sequence.The results have some significant references for application research on pulse detonation engine with gelled fuels.%为了解含铝凝胶燃料脉冲爆轰发动机工作过程的瞬态机理,建立了含铝凝胶燃料脉冲爆轰发动机数学物理模型。采用守恒元与求解元数值计算方法,对单循环含铝凝胶燃料脉冲爆轰发动机流场进行了数值仿真,分析了其爆轰反应过程与冲量产生过程的瞬态特征。计算结果表明,爆轰波作用下,凝胶燃料液滴变化以剥离破碎为主,燃料液滴中铝颗粒随液滴剥离弥散于爆轰管内并参与反应,累积在最后阶段反应的铝颗粒较少。凝胶燃料爆轰燃气排放过程可划分为爆轰附着膨胀、燃气“壅塞”膨胀和膨胀减弱等3个典型特征阶段。研究结果对凝胶燃料脉冲爆轰发动机的应用研究具有参考意义。

  4. [Intra-articular injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Ch

    2015-09-01

    It is not unusual for a specialist or general practitioner to be presented with a pathology which necessitates the use of an intra-articular injection of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid or a local anaesthetic. It would seem to be interesting to update and to precise the techniques and methods of intraarticular injections which have appeared in recent international publications, when we know that 30 % of the injections given into the knee and so called "dry" are incorrect and, therefore, inefficient. The indication of an articular injection depends, firstly, on the diagnosis which should be done with great care; after which should be an objective analysis complete with secondary effects linked to both the injection and the product used. The conditions of asepsis, the choice of needles and quantities of the injection and even the ways of the injections should be reviewed in detail. The last studies clearly question the secondary effects of the cartilage degradations of the cortisone given as an intra-articular injection and shows its efficiency on the pain and inflammatory phenomonen in osteoarthritis. Studies on hyaluronic acid are often contradictory going from a modest result to an important pain relief but it is necessary to be aware that the objective criteria are difficult to interpret. The use of local anaesthetics in intra-articular is limited by the few indications in view of the major risk of aggravating the pre-existing lesions by the disappearing signs of pain.

  5. Injection of Deuterium Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Andersen, P.; Andersen, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Some details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated...

  6. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.P. Acthar Gel® ... Corticotropin repository injection comes as a long acting gel to inject under the skin or into a ... prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, or herbal products you are taking or plan to take. ...

  7. Separably injective Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Avilés, Antonio; Castillo, Jesús M F; González, Manuel; Moreno, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    This monograph contains a detailed exposition of the up-to-date theory of separably injective spaces: new and old results are put into perspective with concrete examples (such as l∞/c0 and C(K) spaces, where K is a finite height compact space or an F-space, ultrapowers of L∞ spaces and spaces of universal disposition). It is no exaggeration to say that the theory of separably injective Banach spaces is strikingly different from that of injective spaces. For instance, separably injective Banach spaces are not necessarily isometric to, or complemented subspaces of, spaces of continuous functions on a compact space. Moreover, in contrast to the scarcity of examples and general results concerning injective spaces, we know of many different types of separably injective spaces and there is a rich theory around them. The monograph is completed with a preparatory chapter on injective spaces, a chapter on higher cardinal versions of separable injectivity and a lively discussion of open problems and further lines o...

  8. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    effects of DME in high pressure injection have also been observed. DME has a higher compressibility than diesel fuel, resulting in larger pressure oscillations in the injection system during the injection process. The oscillations with DME also have a slower delay rate than those of diesel fuel......A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump...... in the same system. As a first attempt to simulate combustion of DME in Diesel engines, the results of the spray studies have been incorporated into a simplified spray combustion model. A turbulent jet structure was adjusted to fit the penetration rates of the observed sprays. The observed spray widths agreed...

  9. Effect of polymer composition on rheological and degradation properties of temperature-responsive gelling systems composed of acyl-capped PCLA-PEG-PCLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Audrey; Müller, Benno; Meijboom, Ronald; Bruin, Peter; van de Manakker, Frank; Versluijs-Helder, Marjan; de Leede, Leo G J; Doornbos, Albert; Landin, Mariana; Hennink, Wim E; Vermonden, Tina

    2013-09-09

    In this study, the ability to modulate the rheological and degradation properties of temperature-responsive gelling systems composed of acyl-capped poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide) (PCLA-PEG-PCLA) triblock copolymers was investigated. Eight polymers with varying molecular weight of PCLA, caproyl/lactoyl ratio (CL/LA) and capped with either acetyl- or propionyl-groups were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide and ε-caprolactone in toluene using PEG as initiator and tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate as catalyst, and subsequently reacted in solution with an excess of acyl chloride to yield fully acyl-capped PCLA-PEG-PCLA. The microstructure of the polymers was determined by (1)H NMR, and the thermal properties and crystallinity of the polymers in dry state and in 25 wt % aqueous systems were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Rheological and degradation/dissolution properties of aqueous systems composed of the polymers in 25 wt % aqueous systems were studied. (1)H NMR analysis revealed that the monomer sequence in the PCLA blocks was not fully random, resulting in relatively long CL sequences, even though transesterification was demonstrated by the enrichment with lactoyl units and the presence of PEG-OH end groups. Except the most hydrophilic polymer composed of acetyl-capped PCLA1400-PEG1500-PCLA1400 having a CL/LA molar ratio of 2.5, the polymers at 25 wt % in buffer were sols below room temperature and transformed into gels between room temperature and 37 °C, which makes them suitable as temperature-responsive gelling systems for drug delivery. Over a period of weeks at 37 °C, the systems containing polymers with long CL sequences (~8 CL) and propionyl end-groups became semicrystalline as shown by X-ray diffraction analysis. Degradation of the gels by dissolution at 37 °C took 100-150 days for the amorphous gels and 250-300 days for the semicrystalline gels

  10. Exploring a direct injection method for microfluidic generation of polymer microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihe; Tumarkin, Ethan; Velasco, Diego; Abolhasani, Milad; Lau, Willie; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2013-07-07

    Microfluidics (MFs) offers a promising method for the preparation of polymer microgels with exquisite control over their dimensions, shapes and morphologies. A challenging task in this process is the generation of droplets (precursors for microgels) from highly viscous polymer solutions. Spatial separation of MF emulsification and gelation of the precursor droplets on chip can address this challenge. In the present work, we explored the application of the "direct injection" method for the preparation of microgels by adding a highly concentrated polymer solution or a gelling agent directly into the precursor droplets. In the first system, primary droplets were generated from a dilute aqueous solution of agarose, followed by the injection of the concentrated agarose solution directly in the primary droplets. The secondary droplets served as precursors for microgels. In the second system, primary droplets were generated from the low-viscous solution of methyl-β-cyclodextrin and poly(ethylene glycol) end-terminated with octadecyl hydrophobic groups. Addition of surfactant directly into the primary droplets led to the binding of methyl-β-cyclodextrin to the surfactant, thereby releasing hydrophobized poly(ethylene glycol) to form polymer microgels. Our results show that, when optimized, the direct injection method can be used for microgel preparation from highly viscous liquids and thus this method expands the range of polymers used for MF generation of microgels.

  11. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...... index of the nanostructured surfaces was estimated from atomic force micrographs and the theoretical reflectance was calculated using the transfer matrix method and effective medium theory. The measured reflectance shows good agreement with the theory of graded index antireflective nanostructures...

  12. ALICE Injected Beam Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE (point 2) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for ALICE are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the ALICE vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  13. LHCb Injected Beam Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb (point 8) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for LHCb are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the LHCb vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  14. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) based thermosensitive injectable hydrogels for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Amit; Ajazuddin; Khan, Junaid; Saraf, Swarnlata; Saraf, Shailendra

    2014-11-01

    Protein and peptide delivery by the use of stimuli triggered polymers remains to be the area of interest among the scientist and innovators. In-situ forming gel for the parenteral route in the form of hydrogel and implants are being utilized for various biomedical applications. The formulation of gel depends upon factors such as temperature modulation, pH changes, the presence of ions and ultra-violet irradiation, from which drug is released in a sustained and controlled manner. Among various stimuli triggered factors, thermoresponsive is the most potential one for the delivery of protein and peptides. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based copolymers play a crucial role as a biomedical material for biomedical applications, because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability, thermosensitivity and easy controlled characters. This review, stresses on the physicochemical property, stability and compositions prospects of smart thermoresponsive polymer specifically, PEG/Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) based thermoresponsive injectable hydrogels, recently utilized for biomedical applications. PEG-PNIPAAm based hydrogel exhibits good gelling mechanical strength and minimizes the initial burst effect of the drug. In addition, upon changing the composition and proportion of the copolymer molecular weight and ratio, the gelling time can be reduced to a great extent providing better sol-gel transition. The hydrogel formed by the same is able to release the drug over a long duration of time, meanwhile is also biocompatible and biodegradable. Manuscript will give the new researchers an idea about the potential and benefits of PNIPAAm based thermoresponsive hydrogels for the biomedical application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

    2013-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed.

  16. Physically Gelled Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid-Based Composite Membranes for CO2/N-2 Separation: Effect of Composition and Thickness on Membrane Properties and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, PT; Voss, BA; Wiesenauer, EF; Gin, DL; Nobe, RD

    2013-07-03

    An aspartame-based, low molecular-weight organic gelator (LMOG) was used to form melt-infused and composite membranes with two different imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for CO2 separation from N-2. Previous work demonstrated that LMOGs can gel RTILs at low, loading levels, and this aspartame-based LMOG was selected because it has been reported to gel a large number of RTILs. The imidazolium-based RTILs were used because of their inherent good properties for CO2/light gas separations. Analysis of the resulting bulk RTIL/LMOG physical gels showed that these materials have high sol-gel transition temperatures (ca. 135 degrees C) suitable for flue gas applications. Gas permeabilities and burst pressure measurements of thick, melt infused membranes revealed a trade-off between high CO2 permeabilities and good mechanical stability as a function of the LMOG loading. Defect-free, composite membranes of the gelled RTILs were successfully fabricated by choosing an appropriate porous membrane support (hydrophobic PTFE) using a suitable coating technique (roller coating). The thicknesses of the applied composite gel layers ranged from 10.3 to 20.7 mu m, which represents an order of magnitude decrease in active layer thickness, compared to the original melt-infused gel RTIL membranes.

  17. INFLUENCE OF MEDIA GELLING AGENTS ON ROOT BIOMASS AND IN VITRO VA-MYCORRfflZAL SYMBIOSIS OF CARROT WITH GIGASPORA MARGARITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANJALI VERMA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro study with Ri-TDNA transformed roots of carrot (Daucus carota was carried out to evaluate the role of macro-elements contributed as impurities in the gelling agent (phytagel over and above those present in the minimal (M medium. Production of root biomass was taken as a measure to quantify the influence of macro-elements added to the minimal medium. The levels of phosphorus when adjusted to 1.19 mg/1 and 1.09 mg/l, lead to dry root biomass production at par with the control. Attempts made to lower the amount of impurities in phytagel by de-ionization using different alkalies, proved NaOH to give the best results in terms of relatively high amount of root biomass. In an in vitro dual culture system with carrot as host and Gigaspora margarita as the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, phytagel impurities helped to produce maximum number of infection units and auxiliary cells when phytagel was added to the minimal medium.

  18. La antropología, el arte y la vida de las cosas. Una aproximación desde "Art and Agency" de Alfred Gell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Martínez Luna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El arte ha sido un concepto controvertido para la teoría antropológica desde sus inicios. La Antropología se situó a menudo entre el reconocimiento de la singularidad cultural de objetos y prácticas a los que no se podía calificar como artísticos sin caer en el etnocentrismo y el esfuerzo por componer marcos comparativos tan amplios como para incluir una variedad de prácticas humanas relativas a la experiencia estética. Para salir del espacio definido por esos dos discursos, Alfred Gell sugirió que la experiencia del arte tiene que ver con una especial forma de atribución de agencia a los objetos y las imágenes. Considerar este fenómeno puede ser el punto de partida para elaborar una genuina teoría antropológica del arte, construida sobre la especificidad de la disciplina y sus herramientas conceptuales. Tal enfoque plantea cuestiones acerca de la definición de los conceptos de agencia, personalidad y materialidad que comprometen a otras versiones del análisis y la crítica cultural.

  19. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  20. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injected into a muscle, it blocks the nerve signals that cause uncontrollable tightening and movements of the ... any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.if ...

  1. Amphotericin B Liposomal Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lining of the spinal cord and brain) and visceral leishmaniasis (a parasitic disease that usually affects spleen, ... complex injection: fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, flushing, back pain with or without chest tightness, chest pain, shortness ...

  2. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    To the right is the PS ring viewed along the direction of the protons. At the left the injection line coming from the 50 MeV Linac 1 (bottom) and going towards the 800 MeV booster, or deflected to the right to be injected directly into straight section 16. The drumlike element behind the (blue) dipole magnet is a 'debuncher' (a 200 MHz cavity). See photos 7409014X and 7409009.

  3. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  4. Gelling characteristics of whey protein concentrate partially hydrolyzed by alcalase%碱性蛋白酶限制性酶解乳清浓缩蛋白成胶特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊星星; 毛学英; 谷俊男; 任发政

    2012-01-01

    The effect of partial hydrolysis of whey protein concentrate (WPC) by alcalase on the gelling characteristics,gelling temperature, the particle size, and degradation of whey protein was investigated.Results showed that the gelling characteristics, especially elastic property improved.The hydrolysate obtained at 70min with hydrolysis degree of 7.22% possessed the best gelling properties.The gelling temperature of all the WPC hydrolysates obtained at different hydrolysis time was 80℃.Compared with unhydrolyzed whey protein,the particle size reduced by more than 90%.Part of β-lactoglobulin and rarely part of bovine serum albumin were degraded after partial hydrolysis by Alcalase,while almost all of α-lactalbumin was hydrolyzed.%研究了利用碱性蛋白酶限制性酶解乳清蛋白对其凝胶特性、成胶温度、凝胶粒径和蛋白组分水解情况的影响,结果表明,酶解可以提高乳清蛋白的凝胶特性,在酶解70min时达到最大值,此时乳清蛋白的水解度为7.22%,当酶解时间超过70min后随着水解时间的延长凝胶特性略有下降;各水解时间点乳清蛋白成胶温度均为80℃;酶解后乳清蛋白凝胶的粒径值下降了90%以上,且酶解30min后形成的凝胶粒径值都在50um以内;在碱性蛋白酶的限制性酶解作用下,仅部分β-乳球蛋白和很少部分牛血清白蛋白被酶解,而大部分α-乳白蛋白被酶解。

  5. Method for testing porosity of gelled cement slurry based on soil science%基于土壤学的胶凝态水泥浆孔隙度测试方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李早元; 李进; 刘健; 董广超; 张凯; 郭小阳

    2015-01-01

    The porosity of gelled cement slurry is one of the important parameters in evaluating the gelling performance in the process of cement slurry gelling. This article compared and analyzed the gelled cement slurry and soil in macro and micro scales by means of qualitative analysis and experimental demonstration, and the result shows that these two have similar‘framework-pore structure’, both showing certain porosity and permeability. Therefore, by introducing the method of soil porosity testing in soil science, and combining the hydration properties of gelled cement slurry, the drying method in the soil porosity test principle is changed to freeze drying by liquid nitrogen, vacuum negative pressure drying or heated and dried after hydration is terminated by soaking in absolute ethyl alcohol which can inhibit hydration. And research was conducted on the porosity of slurry at speciifc hydration time, which provides reference for detection of porosity of cement slurry.%胶凝态水泥浆孔隙度是水泥浆凝结过程中评价胶凝态性能的重要参数之一。通过定性分析、实验验证的方法,对胶凝态水泥浆和土壤进行了宏观及微观等对比分析,两者具有相类似的“骨架-孔隙结构”,均表现出一定的孔隙性和渗透性。因此,引入土壤学中土壤孔隙度测试方法,同时结合胶凝态水泥浆的水化特性,将土壤孔隙度测试原理中烘干方式改进为液氮冷冻干燥、真空负压干燥或用无水乙醇浸泡终止水化后再升温干燥等可抑制水化反应的烘干方式。应用该方法对特定水化时间下的浆体开展了孔隙度探索实验,为检测水泥浆体的孔隙度提供了可借鉴的方法。

  6. Enzymatically crosslinked carboxymethyl-chitosan/gelatin/nano-hydroxyapatite injectable gels for in situ bone tissue engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Debasish; Bhunia, Bibhas; Banerjee, Indranil [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Datta, Pallab; Dhara, Santanu [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Maiti, Tapas K., E-mail: maititapask@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India)

    2011-10-10

    Present study reports synthesis and characterization of an enzymatically crosslinked injectable gel (iGel) suitable for cell based bone tissue engineering application. The gel comprises of carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC)/gelatin/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) susceptible to tyrosinase/p-cresol mediated in situ gelling at physiological temperature. Study revealed that a combination of tyrosinase (60U) and p-cresol (2 mM) as crosslinking agents yield rigid gels at physiological temperature when applied to CMC/gelatin within 35 min in presence or absence of nHAp. Rheological study in conjugation with FT-IR analysis showed that an increase in CMC concentration in the gel leads to higher degree of crosslinking and higher strength. Scanning electron microscopy showed that pore sizes of iGels increased with higher gelatin concentration. In vitro study of osteoblast cell proliferation and differentiation showed that, although all iGels are supportive towards the growth of primary osteoblast cells, GC1:1 supported cellular differentiation to the maximum. Application of iGels in mice revealed that stability of the in situ formed gels depends on the degree of crosslinking and CMC concentration. In conclusion, the iGels may be used in treating irregular small bone defects with minimal clinical invasion as well as for bone cell delivery. - Research Highlights: {yields} Enzymatically crosslinked injectable gel made up of CM-chitosan (C)/gelatin (G)/nHAp. {yields} Tyrosinase/p-cresol used for crosslinking and in situ gelling of polymers at 37deg. C. {yields} 60U tyrosinase and 2mM p-cresol is needed for gelation in 35 min. {yields} Higher GC ratio manifests lower crosslinking and gel strength but higher porosity. {yields} GC1:1 shows maximum in vivo gel stability and in vitro osteoblast differentiation.

  7. 琥珀酰明胶注射液快速输注对低血容量性休克患者血清电解质及凝血功能的影响%EFFECTS OF SUCCINYLATED GELATIN INJECTION RAPID INFUSION ON SERUM ELECTROLYTES AND BLOOD COAGULATION FUNCTION IN HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡军涛; 李超乾; 汤展宏

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effects of early, rapid intravenous infusion of succinylated gelatin injection on serum electrolytes and blood coagulation function in 120 patients with hypovolemic shock. Methods: A total of 120 patients with hypovolemic shock admitted to the ICU, were randomly divided into succinylated gelatin and dextran 40 groups ( n =60 for each). After intravenous infusion of 500 ml balanced salt solution, succinylated gelatin injection or dextran 40 glucose injection were fastly infused. Serum electrolytes, blood coagulation function, mean arterial blood pressure and urine volume were compared before and after the fluid infusion. Results: Compared -with before infusion of succinylated gelatin, serum Na , Cl- , Ca2+ , PT and PLT have no significant difference ( P >0. 05 for all) , while serum K decreased significantly (3. 81±0. 06 vs. 3. 96±0. 06 mmol/L, P 0.05),而血清K+水平下降[(3.81±0.06)mmol/L比(3.96±0.06)mmol/L(P<0.05)],但尚在正常范围内;与低右组输入前比较,低右输入后血清Cl-水平增加[(104.75±1.32)mmol/L比(104.28±1.05)mmol/L(P<0.05)]、血清Ca2+水平增加[(2.46±0.08)mmol/L比(2.36±0.07)mmol/L(P<0.05)]、PT时间延长[(14.25±2.3)s比(12.8±0.98)s(P<0.05)],PLT计数明显下降[(115±40)×109/L比(189±46)×109/L (P<0.05)];与低右组输入后比较,琥珀酰明胶组输入后血清Ca2+水平下降[(2.12±0.06)mmol/L比(2.46±0.08)mmol/L(P<0.05)]、PT时间缩短[(12.9±1.9)s比(14.25±2.3)s(P<0.05)],PLT计数明显增加[(150±54)×109/L比(115±40)×109/L(P<0.05)];琥珀酰明胶组较低右组在输入后6 h时患者平均动脉压及尿量改善更明显(均P<0.01).结论:对低血容量性休克患者早期大剂量使用琥珀酰明胶注射液对血清电解质水平及凝血功能影响小,对低血容量性休克患者使用琥珀酰明胶注射液较低右更安全、效果更好.

  8. Rheological characterization and in vivo evaluation of thermosensitive poloxamer-based hydrogel for intramuscular injection of piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Jing-Ji; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yeo, Woo Hyun; Park, San Man; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2010-08-16

    To develop an industrially practical thermosensitive injectable hydrogel that is easy to administer, gels quickly in the body and allows sustained release of the drug, poloxamer-based hydrogels containing piroxicam as a model drug were prepared with poloxamer, sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride using the cold method. Their rheological characterization, dissolution and pharmacokinetics after intramuscular administration to rabbits were evaluated. Among the ingredients tested, sodium hydroxide and piroxicam decreased the viscosity and retarded the gelation time of the injectable gel. However, sodium chloride did the opposite. The thermosensitive injectable gel composed of 2.5% piroxicam, 15% P 407, 17% P 188, 0.01% sodium hydroxide and 1.6% sodium chloride was instantly applied to practical industrial product, since it was easy to administer intramuscularly and gelled quickly in the body. The drug was dissolved out of the hydrogels by Fickian diffusion through the extramicellar aqueous channels of the gel matrix. Sodium chloride barely affected the dissolution mechanism or dissolution rate of the drug from the injectable gels. Furthermore, it maintained the plasma concentrations of drug for 4 days and gave a 150-fold higher AUC compared to piroxicam solution. Thus, it would be practically useful for delivering piroxicam in a pattern that allows sustained release for a long time, leading to better bioavailability.

  9. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  10. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  11. Detection Block Model for SQL Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diksha G. Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of Internet, more and more organizations connect their databases to the Internet for resource sharing. However, due to developers' lack of knowledge of all possible attacks, web applications become vulnerable to multiple attacks. Thus the network databases could face multiple threats. Web applications generally consist of a three tier architecture where database is in the third pole, which is the most valuable asset in any organization. SQL injection is an attack technique in which specially crafted input string is entered in user input field. It is submitted to server and result is returned to the user. In SQL injection vulnerability, the database server is forced to execute malicious operations which may cause the data loss or corruption, denial of access, and unauthentic access to sensitive data by crafting specific inputs. An attacker can directly compromise the database, and that is why this is a most threatening web attack. SQL injection attack occupies first position in top ten vulnerabilities as specified by Open Web Application Security Project. It is probably the most common Website vulnerability today. Current scenarios which provide solutions to SQL injection attack either have limited scope i.e. can’t be implemented across all platforms, or do not cover all types of SQL injection attacks. In this work we implement Message Authentication Code (MAC based solution against SQL injection attacks. The model works both on client and server side. Client side implements a filter function and server side is based on information theory. MAC of static and dynamic queries is compared to detect SQL injection attack.

  12. Investigation of in situ gelling alginate formulations as a sustained release vehicle for co-precipitates of dextromethrophan and Eudragit S 100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghraby Gamal Mohamed El

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alginate vehicles are capable of forming a gel matrix in situ when they come into contact with gastric medium in the presence of calcium ions. However, the gel structure is pH dependent and can break after gastric emptying, leading to dose dumping. The aim of this work was to develop modified in situ gelling alginate formulations capable of sustaining dextromethorphan release throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Alginate solution (2 %, m/m was used as a vehicle for the tested formulations. Solid matrix of the drug and Eudragit S 100 was prepared by dissolving the drug and polymer in acetone. The organic solvent was then evaporated and the deposited solid matrix was micronized, sieved and dispersed in alginate solution to obtain candidate formulations. The release behavior of dextromethorphan was monitored and evaluated in a medium simulating the gastric and intestinal pH. Drug-polymer compatibility and possible solid-state interactions suggested physical interaction through hydrogen bonding between the drug and the polymer. A significant decrease in the rate and extent of dextromethorphan release was observed with increasing Eudragit S 100 concentration in the prepared particles. Most formulations showed sustained release profiles similar to that of a commercial sustained-release liquid based on ion exchange resin. The release pattern indicated strict control of drug release both under gastric and intestinal conditions, suggesting the potential advantage of using a solid dispersion of drug-Eudragit S 100 to overcome the problem of dose dumping after the rupture of the pH dependent alginate gels

  13. Investigation of in situ gelling alginate formulations as a sustained release vehicle for co-precipitates of dextromethrophan and Eudragit S 100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maghraby, Gamal Mohamed; Elzayat, Ehab Mostafa; Alanazi, Fars Kaed

    2014-03-01

    Alginate vehicles are capable of forming a gel matrix in situ when they come into contact with gastric medium in the presence of calcium ions. However, the gel structure is pH dependent and can break after gastric emptying, leading to dose dumping. The aim of this work was to develop modified in situ gelling alginate formulations capable of sustaining dextromethorphan release throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Alginate solution (2 %, m/m) was used as a vehicle for the tested formulations. Solid matrix of the drug and Eudragit S 100 was prepared by dissolving the drug and polymer in acetone. The organic solvent was then evaporated and the deposited solid matrix was micronized, sieved and dispersed in alginate solution to obtain candidate formulations. The release behavior of dextromethorphan was monitored and evaluated in a medium simulating the gastric and intestinal pH. Drug-polymer compatibility and possible solid-state interactions suggested physical interaction through hydrogen bonding between the drug and the polymer. A significant decrease in the rate and extent of dextromethorphan release was observed with increasing Eudragit S 100 concentration in the prepared particles. Most formulations showed sustained release profiles similar to that of a commercial sustained-release liquid based on ion exchange resin. The release pattern indicated strict control of drug release both under gastric and intestinal conditions, suggesting the potential advantage of using a solid dispersion of drug-Eudragit S 100 to overcome the problem of dose dumping after the rupture of the pH dependent alginate gels.

  14. Visual combustion research using the rapid compression expansion machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, Dino; Takasaki, Koji [Kyushu Univ. (Japan). Lab. of Engine and Combustion (ECO)

    2012-08-15

    A large Rapid Compression Expansion Machine (RCEM) has been built at Kyushu University, Japan, for research on large marine engines. Three focal points of research are testing light cycle oil using a multiple injection to establish its potential as a low sulphur fuel; abnormal combustion caused by lubricating oil in lean burn gas engines; visualising high pressure natural gas injection (GI). (orig.)

  15. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sperm must attach to the outside of the egg. Once attached, the sperm pushes through the outer layer to the inside ... in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help fertilize the egg. During ICSI, a single sperm is injected directly into the cytoplasm the egg. ...

  16. Water injection dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and

  17. Giving an insulin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an alcohol wipe on your injection site. The insulin needs to go into the fat layer under the skin. Pinch the skin and put the needle in at a 45º angle. If your tissues are thick enough, you may be able to ...

  18. Study on the Gelling Properties of k Carrageenan with Textural Analyzer and Rheometer%质构仪及流变仪研究k-卡拉胶的凝胶特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟都; 朱慧; 王雅琼; 李言郡; 李卫群; 赵益臻

    2016-01-01

    本文研究了1.5%k-卡拉胶溶液(质量浓度)的粘度以及水凝胶与钾凝胶的凝胶特性,分别从凝胶强度、弹性模量及动态粘度等指标进行考察。同时,研究了卡拉胶自身含有的离子对粘度以及凝胶特性的影响。实验结果表明k-卡拉胶中K、Na、Ca、Mg含量存在差异性,这些元素含量,特别是K、Ca含量的高低影响卡拉胶溶液的粘度以及水凝胶的凝胶强度、弹性模量值、动态粘度值。水凝胶在凝胶强度测定中出现脆性,增加钾离子明显提高凝胶体的凝胶强度、弹性模量及动态粘度,形成的钾凝胶易析水收缩而未出现脆性。水凝胶耐剪切能力强于钾凝胶,流动时应变高于钾凝胶,应力亦相应低于钾凝胶。另外,水凝胶与钾凝胶的弹性模量基本不随频率增加而增加,而动态粘度却随频率出现明显的剪切稀化现象。%In this paper the viscosity of 1.5%k Carrageenan solution (m/m)as well as the gelling properties of hydro-gel and potassium-gel were studied separately,investigated from the gelling strength,elastic modulus and dynamic viscosity etc. The influences of ion content contained in carrageenan on viscosity and gelling properties were studied. The experimental results showed that there existed the difference on K,Na,Ca and Mg content in k Carrageenan,which would affect the viscosity of carrageenan solution and gelling strength,elastic modulus and dynamic viscosity of hydro-gel especially the content of K and Ca. In the determination of gelling strength of hydro-gel the brittleness occurred. The increase of potassium in the carrageenan solution would significantly improve the gelling strength,elastic modulus and dynamic viscosity of gel which were easy to show syneresis and not brittleness. The hydro-gel was more resistant to shear and the value of strain was higher than that of the potassium-gel on the occurrence of flow while the value of stress was lower

  19. 柱前在线衍生-HPLC内标法快速测定脑蛋白水解物注射液中的氨基酸%RAPID DETERMINATION OF AMINO ACIDS IN CEREBROPROTEIN HYDROLYSATE INJECTION BY HPLC USING INTERNAL STANDARD METHOD WITH ONLINE PRE-COLUMN DERIVATIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉; 董祥君; 吴焱; 孙海侠

    2011-01-01

    A HPLC for rapid determination of amino acids in cerebroprotein hydrolysate injection was developed. Norvaline was added to samples before preparation as internal standard. Then online derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde(OPA) and 9-fluore-nylmethyl chloroformate( FMOC - Cl) was performed automatically by the autosampler, and analyzed on a C18 short column using gradient elution with diode array detector(for Iysine) and fluorescence detector(for other amino acids except lysine) combined detection. The analytical time was 14 min. The peak area of amino acids versus their concentration had a good linearity (correlation coefficients were 0.9987 -0.9999) in the range of 4.5 -900 μmol/L. Limits of detection (LOD) were in the range of0.032 -0.578 mg/L, limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the range of 0. 105 - 1.929 mg/L. The recoveries of standard spiking of 16 amino acids were in the range of 95.39% - 105.33%. The relative standard deviations(n =7) of intraday and interday were in the range of 1.95% -4.81% and 3. 14% -6.70% , respectively.%建立了利用高效液相色谱仪快速测定脑蛋白水解物注射液中氨基酸含量的方法.样品处理采用先提取后水解转化的方法,色谱分离使用反相C18分析柱二元高压梯度洗脱;使用二极管阵列检测器检测,波长为260 nm;分析时间为14 min.各氨基酸在4.5-900μmol/L范围内线性关系良好,相关系数为0.998 7-0.9999;检出限为0.032 -0.578 mg/L,定量限为0.105 -1.929 mg/L;16种氨基酸回收率为95.39% -105.33%,日内和日间分析的相对标准偏差(n=7)分别为1.95% -4.81%和3.14%-6.70%.

  20. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  1. SPS injection kicker magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    One of the first-generation SPS injection kicker magnets, view of the complete tank. First proton beam from the PS was injected into the SPS in 1976, at a beam momentum of 10 GeV/c. These kickers served until the end of 1979 and were replaced at the beginning of 1980 by stronger ones, in preparation for the SPS as a proton-antiproton collider. For this, transfer momentum from the PS to the SPS was raised to 26 GeV/c, so as to avoid acceleration of the dense p and pbar bunches through SPS transition energy. Bearded Roland Tröhler is at the left, Giacomo Busetta smiles at the right. See also 7502073X, 7502074X and Annual Report 1975, 162.

  2. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Looking against the direction of protons in the main ring (left): the beam coming from the linac 1 either goes to the booster (on the right) or is deflected towards the PS to be directly injected into section 26 (facing the camera). Also shown the start of the TT2 line, ejected from straight section 16 to go towards the ISR passing over the beam line from the linac. (see Photo Archive 7409009)

  3. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  4. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  5. Injection-induced earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  6. Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007678.htm Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint To use the sharing features on ... painful. It can be injected into a joint, tendon, or bursa. Description Your health care provider inserts ...

  7. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond ... to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications ...

  8. Injection treatments for patellar tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Objective Injection treatments are increasingly used as treatment for patellar tendinopathy. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the different injection treatments, their rationales and the effectiveness of treating patellar tendinopathy. Methods A computerised search of the Medline,

  9. Stepwise injection spectrophotometric determination of epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatov, Andrey V; Petrova, Anastasiia V; Vishnikin, Andriy B; Moskvin, Aleksey L; Moskvin, Leonid N

    2012-07-15

    Simple, rapid and fully automated methods for the manual and automated spectrophotometric determination of epinephrine have been developed by using schemes of stepwise injection (SWIA) and sequential injection analysis (SIA) implemented in the same manifold. The determination is based on the formation of reduced form of 18-molybdodiphosphate heteropoly anion by its reaction with epinephrine. Using of the reaction vessel in the general SWIA configuration instead of a holding and reaction coil in the SIA manifold provides several essential advantages, including higher sensitivity and lower reagent consumption. The linear dependence of the analytical signal on the epinephrine concentration was preserved over the range of 1.5-30, 3.0-30, and 1.5-25μmolL(-1) by using of SWIA, SIA and spectrophotometric analysis, respectively. The relative standard deviation for the SWIA determination of 10μmolL(-1) epinephrine was 1.8% (n=10). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  11. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI) technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method. PMID:28326222

  12. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input–output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy.

  13. Dialogue posthume avec Alfred Gell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Heinich

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Presented as an imaginary dialogue with the author of Art and Agency, this paper displays a number of methodological shared positions: the contextualist nature of his epistemology, his focus on relations rather than on objects, his sense of pragmatism, his proximity with the notion of “person-objects” such as developed by the author of the present paper, his attention to the meso-social level and, eventually, his neutral standing in front of research objects. In spite of a few disagreements, all these properties bring to light a convergence between Gell’s anthropological approach and the kind of sociological methodology presently practiced in certain trends of French sociology.

  14. SQL Injection Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nystrom, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut introduces you to how SQL injection vulnerabilities work, what makes applications vulnerable, and how to protect them. It helps you find your vulnerabilities with analysis and testing tools and describes simple approaches for fixing them in the most popular web-programming languages. This Short Cut also helps you protect your live applications by describing how to monitor for and block attacks before your data is stolen. Hacking is an increasingly criminal enterprise, and web applications are an attractive path to identity theft. If the applications you build, manage, or guar

  15. MKI UFOs at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Drosdal, L; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

    2011-01-01

    During the MD, the production mechanism of UFOs at the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) was studied. This was done by pulsing the MKIs on a gap in the circulating beam, which led to an increased number of UFOs. In total 43 UFO type beam loss patterns at the MKIs were observed during the MD. The MD showed that pulsing the MKIs directly induces UFO type beam loss patterns. From the temporal characteristics of the loss profile, estimations about the dynamics of the UFOs are made.

  16. INJECTION PROFILE MODIFICATION IN A HOT, DEEP MINNELUSA WATER INJECTION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2001-09-01

    As oil fields in the United States age, production enhancements and modifications will be needed to increase production from deeper and hotter oil reservoirs. New techniques and products must be tested in these areas before industry will adapt them as common practice. The Minnelusa fields of northeastern Wyoming are relatively small, deep, hot fields that have been developed in the past ten to twenty years. As part of the development, operators have established waterfloods early in the life of the fields to maximize cumulative oil production. However, channeling between injectors and producers does occur and can lead to excessive water production and bypassed oil left in the reservoir. The project evaluated the use of a recently developed, high-temperature polymer to modify the injection profiles in a waterflood project in a high-temperature reservoir. The field is the Hawk Point field in Campbell County, Wyoming. The field was discovered in 1986 and initially consisted of eight producing wells with an average depth of 11,500 feet and a temperature of 260 F (127 C). The polymer system was designed to plug the higher permeable channels and fractures to provide better conformance, i.e. sweep efficiency, for the waterflood. The project used a multi-well system to evaluate the treatment. Injection profile logging was used to evaluate the injection wells both before and after the polymer treatment. The treatment program was conducted in January 2000 with a treatment of the four injection wells. The treatment sizes varied between 500 bbl and 3,918 bbl at a maximum allowable pressure of 1,700 psig. Injection in three of the wells was conducted as planned. However, the injection in the fourth well was limited to 574 bbl instead of the planned 3,750 bbl because of a rapid increase in injection pressure, even at lower than planned injection rates. Following completion of polymer placement, the injection system was not started for approximately one week to permit the gel to

  17. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berteau C

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cecile Berteau,1 Orchidée Filipe-Santos,1 Tao Wang,2 Humberto E Rojas,2 Corinne Granger,1 Florence Schwarzenbach1 1Becton-Dickinson Medical Pharmaceutical Systems, Le Pont de Claix, France; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Aim: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC injection pain tolerance. Methods: The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s. All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain. The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results: Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003. Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm than medium (VAS =16.6 mm or low (VAS =22.1 mm viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002. Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89. Slow (0.02 mL/s or fast (0.30 mL/s injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79. In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High

  18. 电导率测定法研究可注射有机凝胶的胶凝过程%Determination of electrical conductivity for the study of the gelling process of injectable organogel system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王可可; 姜明燕

    2014-01-01

    采用简便快捷的电导率测定法示踪可注射有机凝胶的体外胶凝过程,并通过对胶凝过程的模拟确定凝胶的胶凝时间及其影响因素,以获得具有适宜降解、释药行为的可注射有机凝胶.考察电导率测定法模拟胶凝过程的可行性,并评价凝胶因子类型和用量、抗凝剂种类和用量及温度等对胶凝过程的影响.结果显示:抗凝剂在介质中的剂量与电导率呈线性相关,测定体系电导率变化可示踪抗凝剂在胶凝过程中的扩散行为,并确定胶凝时间;凝胶因子结构及抗凝剂种类显著影响抗凝剂的扩散速率及扩散百分率,凝胶因子浓度增加和温度降低均可导致抗凝剂扩散速率减慢、胶凝时间延长,凝胶在2h内可全部完成胶凝,提示凝胶突释结束、缓慢释药开始的时间为2h.

  19. On L-injective Covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德旭

    2004-01-01

    We use the class of L-injective modules to define L-injective covers, and provide the characterizations of L-injective covers by the properties of kernels of homomorphisms. We prove that the right L-noetherian right L-hereditary ring is just such that every right R-module has an L-injective cover which is monic. We also use kernels of homomorphisms to investigate L-simple L-injective covers and give some constructions ofL-simple L-iniective covers.

  20. Flow Injection Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    2004-01-01

    This chapter provides an introduction to automated chemical analysis, which essentially can be divided into two groups: batch assays, where the solution is stationary while the container is moved through a number of stations where various unit operations performed; and continuous-flow procedures,......, but it permits thr execution of novel and unique analytical procedures which are difficult or even impossible by conventional means. The performance and applicability of FIA, SI and LOV are illustrated by a series of practical examples.......This chapter provides an introduction to automated chemical analysis, which essentially can be divided into two groups: batch assays, where the solution is stationary while the container is moved through a number of stations where various unit operations performed; and continuous-flow procedures......, where the system is stationary while the solution moves through a set of conduits in which all required manipulations are performed. Emphasis is placed on flow injection analysis (FIA) and its further developments, that is, sequential injection analysis (SIA) and the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach. Since...

  1. Epidemiology of Injection Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Nelson; Bruneau, Julie; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2016-01-01

    After more than 30 years of research, numerous studies have shown that injection drug use is associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes such as drug overdoses, drug-related suicidal behaviours, comorbid psychiatric disorders, bloodborne pathogens and other infectious diseases, and traumas. This review explores new trends and prominent issues associated with injection drug use. The dynamic nature of injection drug use is underlined by examining its recent trends and changing patterns in Canada and other “high-income countries.” Three research topics that could further contribute to the development of comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies aimed at people who inject drugs are also discussed: risk behaviours associated with the injection of prescription opioids, binge injection drug use, and mental health problems as determinants of injection risk behaviours. PMID:27254088

  2. The influence of puerarin injection combined with irbesartan on atrial fibrillation and r induced by ventricular fibrous ventricular rapid pacing heart failure in dogs%葛根素注射液联合厄贝沙坦对心室快速起搏心力衰竭实验犬心房颤动及心房纤维化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红博

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the combined effects of puerarin injection and irbesartan on congestive heartfailure(CHF) in dogs with ventricula fibrous ventricular rapid pacing heart failure.Methods 21 healthy mongrel dogs were randomly divided into normal control group,CI-IF model group and the TMP treated group.CHF was established by right ventricular pacing model of canine.Butst was used to evoke atrial fibrillation (atrial fibrill;tripn,LVEF).Echocardiography was used to detect left ventricular ejection fraction in dogs (Left ventricular ejection fraction,LVEF).Mallory's three-color staining was used to detect the degree of atrial fiber.The level of plasma angiotensin 1,aldosterone concentration,m-type forelimb of the original N-terminal peptide (amino-terllllrlal1 ~ eptldcoftype Ⅲ procollagen,P Ⅲ NP),laminin (1 alTlmln,IN),and hyaluronic acid (hyaltlronlcacid,HA)was detected with radioimmunoassay.Results The LVEF of CHF model group decreased significantly compared with the control group(P <0.01).AF incidence ,the incidence of persistent AF and AF duration were significantly increased when compared with the control group(P < 0.01).Left atrial fibrosis were also significantly increased in CHF model group than normal control group (P < 0.01).AF duration was positively correlated with the degree of left atrial fiber (r = 0.84,P = 0.018).plasma angiotensin Ⅱ ,aldosterone,and serurn P Ⅲ NP,HA levels were significantly higher than normal control group(P <0.05 or P <0.01).There was no statistical difference in LN.Plasma angiotensin Ⅱ and aldosterone levels showed a close positive correlation(r =0.759 ,P =0.182).There is significant improvement in LVEF in treatment group when compared with model group(P < 0.05).The incidence of persistent AF was significantly lower in treated group when compared with CHF model(P < 0.05).The left atrial fibrosis was significantly reduced in treated group when compared with CHF(P < 0.01).Conclusion Puerarin injection

  3. Can HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Infection be Eliminated Among Persons Who Inject Drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, David C; Des Jarlais, Don C; Feelemyer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are readily transmitted among persons who inject drugs. The HIV and HCV epidemics have expanded rapidly, becoming global health issues. Combined prevention has been implemented to reduce injection and sexual transmission of HIV and HCV among persons who inject drugs. Reductions in risky injection and sexual behavior have led to dramatic reductions in HIV in many countries. Whether comparable reductions in HCV transmission can be achieved has yet to be determined. Eliminating HIV and HCV among persons who inject drugs will require considerable resources and commitment, particularly in low and middle income countries.

  4. Determination of ribavirin by flow injection chemiluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juqing Jin; Yuhai Tang; Langchong He; Hong Yao; Yuanyuan Sun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish a rapid and precise continuous flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) method to determine ribavirin. Methods: The ribavirin could restrain strongly CL reaction of luminol in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with potassium chlorate(KClO3). The different experimental parameters affecting the CL intensity were studied carefully. Results:Under optimum conditions(The concentrations of luminol,KClO3, and NaOH were at 0.1 mmol/L,0.5 μmol/L,and 0.2 mol/L, respectively), the linear range of the working curves was 0.01-7.00 μg/ml with a detection limit of 0.004 μg/ml. Conclusion: The method is simple, rapid and sensitive, and successfully applied to the determination of ribavirin in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids.

  5. Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Knitter; W Bauer

    2003-02-01

    Fabrication of micropatterned ceramics or ceramic microparts make high demands on the precision and resolution of the moulding process. As finishing of miniaturised or micropatterned ceramic components is nearly impossible, shaping has to be done by a replication step in the green, unfired state. To avoid high tooling costs in product development, a rapid prototyping process chain has been established that enables rapid manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents from functional models to small lot series within a short time. This process chain combines the fast and inexpensive supply of master models by rapid prototyping with accurate and flexible ceramic manufacturing by low-pressure injection moulding. Besides proper feedstock preparation and sufficient small grain size, the quality of the final components is mainly influenced by the quality of the master model. Hence, the rapid prototyping method must be carefully selected to meet the requirements of the component to be fabricated.

  6. Evaluation of stability for monolayer injection molding tools coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2012-01-01

    We tested and characterized molecular coating of Aluminium and Nickel prototype molds and mold inserts for polymer replication via injection molding (IM). X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data, sessile drop contact angles with multiple fluids, surface energy and roughness data have been...... and especially suitable for rapid prototyping and mold geometry testing....

  7. Two-component micro injection moulding for hearing aid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Marhöfer, David Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    Two-component (2k) injection moulding is an important process technique at the present state of technology, and it is growing rapidly in the field of precision micro moulding. Besides combining different material properties in the same product, two-component moulding can eliminate many assembly s...

  8. Evaluation of Injection Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide Using an Integrated Injection Well and Geologic Formation Numerical Simulation Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, J.; Park, S.; Kim, J.; SNU CO2 GEO-SEQ TEAM

    2011-12-01

    A series of integrated injection well and geologic formation numerical simulations was performed to evaluate the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide using a multiphase thermo-hydrological numerical model. The numerical simulation results show that groundwater flow, carbon dioxide flow, and heat transport in both injection well and sandstone formation can be simultaneously analyzed, and thus the injection efficiency (i.e., injection rate and injectivity) of carbon dioxide can be quantitatively evaluated using the integrated injection well and geologic formation numerical simulation scheme. The injection rate and injectivity of carbon dioxide increase rapidly during the early period of time (about 10 days) and then increase slightly up to about 2.07 kg/s (equivalent to 0.065 Mton/year) and about 2.84 × 10-7 kg/s/Pa, respectively, until 10 years for the base case. The sensitivity test results show that the injection pressure and temperature of carbon dioxide at the wellhead have significant impacts on its injection rate and injectivity. The vertical profile of the fluid pressure in the injection well becomes almost a hydrostatical equilibrium state within 1 month for all the cases. The vertical profile of the fluid temperature in the injection well becomes a monotonously increasing profile with the depth due to isenthalpic or adiabatic compression within 6 months for all the cases. The injection rate of carbon dioxide increases linearly with the fluid pressure difference between the well bottom and the sandstone formation far from the injection well. In contrast, the injectivity of carbon dioxide varies unsystematically with the fluid pressure difference. On the other hand, the reciprocal of the kinematic viscosity of carbon dioxide at the well bottom has an excellent linear relationship with the injectivity of carbon dioxide. It indicates that the above-mentioned variation of the injectivity of carbon dioxide can be corrected using this linear relationship. The

  9. 鸡蛋品质与蛋白凝胶性的相关性研究%Correlation between Quality of Hen Egg and Gelling Properties of Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于滨; 王喜波

    2012-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the correlation between hen egg quality and gelling properties of albumin. Hen eggs were stored to investigate the weight loss, the Haugh unit, the content of dense albumin and the pH of albumin. The texture characteristic and the microstructure of gel from albumin were also tested during storage. The results showed that hen egg quality decreased with storage time, especially for higher temperature. The texture characteristic of gel from albumin increased with storage temperature. There was a significant correlation between hen egg quality and texture characteristic of gel from albumin, which had positive correlation to weight loss and pH of albumin, and negative correlation to the Haugh unit and the content of dense albumin. The microstructure of gel from albumin suggested variation of intermolecular force of proteins induced by decreasement of quality of hen egg changed the microstructure of gel from albumin and texture characteristic. The quality parameters could be used to indicate the change of the texture characteristic of gel from albumin during storage.%为探索贮藏过程中鸡蛋品质与蛋白凝胶质构性质的关系,试验研究了不同贮藏条件下,鸡蛋失重率、哈夫单位、浓蛋白含量、蛋白pH等品质变化及其对蛋白凝胶的质构性质、微观结构的影响。结果表明鸡蛋品质与贮藏时间呈负相关,且温度越高,品质下降速度越快,蛋白凝胶质构性质与贮藏时间呈正相关。鸡蛋品质与蛋白凝胶质构性质之间有显著的相关性:失重率和pHL5凝胶质构性质呈正相关,哈夫单位和浓蛋白含量与凝胶质构性质呈负相关。由蛋白凝胶的微结构变化推断,鸡蛋品质变化引起蛋白质分子问作用力的变化,改变了蛋白凝胶的微观结构和质构性质。鸡蛋贮藏过程中可以使用品质指标表征蛋白凝胶的质构性质变化规律。

  10. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteau, Cecile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Wang, Tao; Rojas, Humberto E; Granger, Corinne; Schwarzenbach, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC) injection pain tolerance. The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8-10, and 15-20 cP) combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s). All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain). The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003). Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm) than medium (VAS =16.6 mm) or low (VAS =22.1 mm) viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002). Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89). Slow (0.02 mL/s) or fast (0.30 mL/s) injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79). In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15-20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain.

  11. Phase Space Dynamics of Ionization Injection in Plasma Based Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, X L; Li, F; Zhang, C J; Yan, L X; Du, Y C; Huang, W H; Chen, H B; Tang, C X; Lu, W; Yu, P; An, W; Mori, W B; Joshi, C

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of beam phase space in ionization-induced injection into plasma wakefields is studied using theory and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The injection process causes special longitudinal and transverse phase mixing leading initially to a rapid emittance growth followed by oscillation, decay, and eventual slow growth to saturation. An analytic theory for this evolution is presented that includes the effects of injection distance (time), acceleration distance, wakefield structure, and nonlinear space charge forces. Formulas for the emittance in the low and high space charge regimes are presented. The theory is verified through PIC simulations and a good agreement is obtained. This work shows how ultra-low emittance beams can be produced using ionization-induced injection.

  12. Injectable bioactive calcium-magnesium phosphate cement for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Su, Jiacan; Wei, Jie; Guo, Han; Liu, Changsheng

    2008-12-01

    Novel injectable and degradable calcium-magnesium phosphate cement (CMPC) with rapid-setting characteristic was developed by the introduction of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) into calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The calcium-magnesium phosphate cement prepared under the optimum P/L ratio exhibited good injectability and desired workability. It could set within 10 min at 37 degrees C in 100% relative humidity and the compressive strength could reach 47 MPa after setting for 48 h, indicating that the prepared cement has relatively high initial mechanical strength. The results of in vitro degradation experiments demonstrated the good degradability of the injectable CMPC, and its degradation rate occurred significantly faster than that of pure CPC in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. It can be concluded that the novel injectable calcium-magnesium phosphate cement is highly promising for a wide variety of clinical applications, especially for the development of minimally invasive techniques.

  13. Biodistribution of radiolabelled human dendritic cells injected by various routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quillien, Veronique [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Rennes (France); Centre Eugene Marquis, Unite de Therapie Cellulaire, Rennes (France); Moisan, Annick; Carsin, Andre; Lesimple, Thierry; Lefeuvre, Claudia; Bertho, Nicolas; Devillers, Anne; Toujas, Louis [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Rennes (France); Adamski, Henri [CHU, Service de Dermatologie, Rennes (France); Leberre, Claudine [Etablissement Francais du Sang (EFS), Rennes (France)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biodistribution of mature dendritic cells (DCs) injected by various routes, during a cell therapy protocol. In the context of a vaccine therapy protocol for melanoma, DCs matured with Ribomunyl and interferon-gamma were labelled with{sup 111}In-oxine and injected into eight patients along various routes: afferent lymphatic vessel (IL) (4 times), lymph node (IN) (5 times) and intradermally (ID) (6 times). Scintigraphic investigations showed that the IL route allowed localisation of 80% of injected radioactivity in eight to ten nodes. In three cases of IN injection, the entire radioactivity stagnated in the injected nodes, while in two cases, migration to adjacent nodes was observed. This migration was detected rapidly after injection, as with IL injections, suggesting that passive transport occurred along the physiological lymphatic pathways. In two of the six ID injections, 1-2% of injected radioactivity reached a proximal lymph node. Migration was detectable in the first hour, but increased considerably after 24 h, suggesting an active migration mechanism. In both of the aforementioned cases, DCs were strongly CCR7-positive, but this feature was not a sufficient condition for effective migration. In comparison with DCs matured with TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, IL-6 and PGE2, our DCs showed a weaker in vitro migratory response to CCL21, despite comparable CCR7 expression, and higher allostimulatory and TH1 polarisation capacities. The IL route allowed reproducible administration of specified numbers of DCs. The IN route sometimes yielded fairly similar results, but not reproducibly. Lastly, we showed that DCs matured without PGE2 that have in vitro TH1 polarisation capacities can migrate to lymph nodes after ID injection. (orig.)

  14. Rapid response systems update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbottom, Fiona; Castex, Julie; Campbell, Anita

    2013-06-01

    Rapid response is a mature concept that is undergoing metamorphosis. The ideal structure and function of these safety teams has not yet been realized but new developments in the field of rapid response systems are evolving.

  15. Testosterone depot injection in male hypogonadism: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksam A Yassin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aksam A Yassin1, Mohamed Haffejee21Clinic of Urology/Andrology, Segeberger Kliniken, Norderstedt-Hamburg, Germany and Department of Urology, Gulf Medical College School of Medicine, Ajman-UAE 2Urology Division at the University of Witwaterstrand & Johannesburg Hospital, Johannesburg, South AfricaAbstract: Testosterone compounds have been available for almost 70 years, but the pharmaceutical formulations have been less than ideal. Traditionally, injectable testosterone esters have been used for treatment, but they generate supranormal testosterone levels shortly after the 2- to 3-weekly injection interval and then testosterone levels decline very rapidly, becoming subnormal in the days before the next injection. The rapid fluctuations in plasma testosterone are subjectively experienced as disagreeable. Testosterone undecanoate is a new injectable testosterone preparation with a considerably better pharmacokinetic profile. After 2 initial injections with a 6-week interval, the following intervals between two injections are almost always 12-weeks, amounting eventually to a total of 4 injections per year. Plasma testosterone levels with this preparation are nearly always in the range of normal men, so are its metabolic products estradiol and dihydrotestosterone. The “roller coaster” effects of traditional parenteral testosterone injections are not apparent. It reverses the effects of hypogonadism on bone and muscle and metabolic parameters and on sexual functions. Its safety profile is excellent due to the continuous normalcy of plasma testosterone levels. No polycythemia has been observed, and no adverse effects on lipid profiles. Prostate safety parameters are well within reference limits. There was no impairment of uroflow. Testosterone undecanoate is a valuable contribution to the treatment options of androgen deficiency.Keywords: testosterone treatment, testosterone undecanoate, pharmacokinetic profile, clinical efficacy, side effects

  16. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  17. Rapid Reading, Yes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Harvey

    1971-01-01

    Recommends instruction in rapid reading fo high school and college students and asserts that flexibility of speed and reasoning provide the foundation for effective rapid reading. Describes the components of rapid reading as orientation, selection, clarification, arrangement, review, and study. (RW)

  18. Fabrication and modelling of injection moulded all-polymer capillary microvalves for passive microfluidic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Poulsen, Carl Esben; Østergaard, Peter Friis

    2014-01-01

    from rapid prototyping to pilot (mass) production. (1) Fabrication of an all-polymer microfluidic system using a rapid prototyped master insert for injection moulding and ultrasonic welding, including a systematic experimental characterisation of chip featured geometric capillary microvalve test...... to numerically robust results with limited computational demands and a low number of iterations. Numerical and simplified analytical results are validated against the experimental results. We find that injection moulding and ultrasonic welding are effective for chip production and that the experimental burst...

  19. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes.

  20. Supersonic Jet Noise Reduction Using Flapping Injection and Pulsed Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafsteinsson, Haukur; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Cuppoletti, Daniel; Gutmark, Ephraim; Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology Team; Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinatti Team; Swedish Defence Material Administration, Sweden Team

    2013-11-01

    Aircraft are in general noisy and there is a high demand for reducing their noise levels. The jet exhaust is in most cases the main noise source of the aircraft, especially for low bypass ratio jet engines. Fluidic injection affecting the shear layer close to the nozzle exit is a promising noise reduction technique as it can be turned of while not needed and thus the negative effect on the engine performance will be minimized. In the presented work, LES is used to compare steady-state mass flow injection with steady-state mass flow flapping jet injection. The work is a direct continuation of a previous LES study on pulsed injection which showed that the pulsed injection induced pressure pulses in the jet which caused increased tonal noise in the downstream directions. The injection system considered in the presented work consists of eight evenly distributed injectors at the nozzle exit plane with a 90° injection angle relative to the flow direction. Flapping jet injection is believed to minimize the creation of these pressure pulses since it provides steady-state mass flow. This work is funded by Swedish Defense Material Administration (FMV).

  1. Characterization methods of nano-patterned surfaces generated by induction heating assisted injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Ravn, Christian; Menotti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    An induction heating-assisted injection molding (IHAIM) process developed by the authors is used to replicate surfaces containing random nano-patterns. The injection molding setup is developed so that an induction heating system rapidly heats the cavity wall at rates of up to 10◦C/s. In order to ...

  2. MR epidurography: distribution of injectate at caudal epidural injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Darra T. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); St Paul' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Moynagh, Michael R.; Eustace, Stephen [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7 (Ireland); Poynton, Ashley; Chan, Vikki O. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland)

    2014-08-02

    To (a) evaluate the feasibility of MR epidurography (MRE) and (b) assess the distribution of injectate using two different volumes at caudal epidural steroid injection. Twenty patients who were referred with symptomatic low back pain for caudal epidural steroid injection were assigned to have either 10 ml (9/20) or 20 ml (11/20) of injectate administered. Gadolinium was included in the injection. The patients proceeded to MRI where sagittal and coronal T1-weighted fat-saturated sequences were acquired and reviewed in the mid-sagittal and right and left parasagittal views at the level of the exit foramina. Gadolinium was observed at or above the L3/4 disc level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %), compared with only five of nine patients who received 10 ml (56 %). Injectate was seen to the L4 nerve root level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %) but only four out of nine patients who received 10 ml (44 %), not even reaching the L5 nerve root level in four further of these nine patients (44 %). Overall, there was a trend to visualize gadolinium at higher levels of the epidural space with higher volumes injected. Firstly, MR epidurography is a safe technique that allows excellent visualization of the distribution of gadolinium in the epidural space following injection via the caudal hiatus. Secondly, a volume of 10 ml is unlikely to treat L5/S1 disease in almost half of patients at caudal epidural steroid injection and at least 20 ml of injectate is likely required for any medication to reach the desired level. (orig.)

  3. Prime injections and quasipolarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Alberto Agustín-Aquino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $p$ be a prime number. Consider the injection\\[ \\iota:\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\to\\mathbb{Z}/pn\\mathbb{Z}:x\\mapsto px, \\]and the elements $e^{u}.v:=(u,v\\in \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$ and$e^{w}.r:=(w,r\\in \\mathbb{Z}/pn \\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/pn\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$. Suppose that $e^{u}.v\\in\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$ is seen as an automorphism of $\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}$defined by $e^{u}.v(x=vx+u$; then $e^{u}.v$ is a \\emph{quasipolarity} if it is an involution without fixed points.In this brief note we give an explicit formula for the number of quasipolarities of $\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}$ interms of the prime decomposition of $n$, and we prove sufficient conditions such that $(e^{w}.r\\circ \\iota=\\iota\\circ (e^{u}.v$, where $e^{w}.r$ and $e^{u}.v$ are quasipolarities.

  4. Rapid, Simple and Ultrasensitive Analysis of Paraquat in Drinking Water by Field-Amplified Sample Injection Combined with Pressure-Assisted Capillary Zone Electrophoresis%场放大样品进样-压力辅助毛细管区带电泳测定饮用水中的百草枯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明明; 沈菁; 宋婷; 李胜清; 陈浩

    2012-01-01

    Field-amplified sample injection (FASI) combined with pressure-assisted capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was developed for the determination of paraquat in drinking water. High reproducibility in FASI-CZE process could be attained with constant pressure applied at both ends of capillary. Compared with conventional hydrodynamic injection, the enrichment factor of 1174 was achieved for paraquat by FASI. Several parameters including length of water plug, injection time and composition of sample solution were systematically optimized. Linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy were investigated to validate the proposed method. The result showed that the calibration curve was linear at the concentration of 1.0 100 (ig/L with a correlation coefficient of 0. 9975. The limit of detection was 0. 039 ng/L (S/N=3). Mean recovery of paraquat was ranged from 78. 4% to 94. 5% with relative standard deviation ranging from 3. 0% to 10. 4%. Finally, the method proposed was applied for the determination of paraquat in real drinking water.

  5. 基于SPH方法的凝胶推进剂一次雾化仿真研究%Simulation research on first atomization characteristics of gelled propellant based on SPH method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强洪夫; 刘虎; 韩亚伟; 陈福振

    2013-01-01

    As the free surface and large deformation problem in first atomization were both challenges to traditional grid based method,the first atomization characteristics of gelled propellant using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method was investigated. The computational models were simplified from the doublet like-on-like impinging jet injector. The particle number of each computational model was controlled at level of 105. As the shear rate during the impinging process was high,gelled propellant was treated as high viscous Newtonian fluid. The influences of velocity, impinging angle and viscosity were investigated. The simulation results show an agreement with analysis and experiment, which proves that SPH is an efficient method to solve the first atomization problem.%一次雾化中存在传统网格法难以解决的自由表面、大变形等问题,本文将光滑粒子流体动力学(SPH)方法探索性地应用于凝胶推进剂一次雾化仿真研究.模型粒子数保持在105左右,在高剪切速率下,将凝胶推进剂看作高粘度牛顿流体,研究了撞击速度、撞击角度以及凝胶推进剂物性参数对雾化效果的影响,仿真结果与实验结论基本一致.

  6. Injection treatments for patellar tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Objective Injection treatments are increasingly used as treatment for patellar tendinopathy. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the different injection treatments, their rationales and the effectiveness of treating patellar tendinopathy. Methods A computerised search of the Medline, Em

  7. Interferon Alfa-2b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon alfa-2b injection is used to treat a number of conditions.Interferon alfa-2b injection is used alone or in ... Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; a slow-growing blood cancer). Interferon alfa-2b is in a class of medications ...

  8. Towards spin injection into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, S.P.

    2007-08-15

    Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

  9. Injection treatments for patellar tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Objective Injection treatments are increasingly used as treatment for patellar tendinopathy. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the different injection treatments, their rationales and the effectiveness of treating patellar tendinopathy. Methods A computerised search of the Medline, Em

  10. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the

  11. Effects of radial motion on interchange injections at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranicas, C.; Thomsen, M. F.; Achilleos, N.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Hospodarsky, G.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kennelly, T.; Khurana, K.; Kollmann, P.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.

    2016-01-01

    Charged particle injections are regularly observed in Saturn's inner magnetosphere by Cassini. They are attributed to an ongoing process of flux-tube interchange driven by the strong centrifugal force associated with Saturn's rapid rotation. Numerical simulations suggest that these interchange injections can be associated with inward flow channels, in which plasma confined to a narrow range of longitudes moves radially toward the planet, gaining energy, while ambient plasma in the adjacent regions moves more slowly outward. Most previous analyses of these events have neglected this radial motion and inferred properties of the events under the assumption that they appear instantaneously at the spacecraft's L-shell and thereafter drift azimuthally. This paper describes features of injections that can be related to their radial motion prior to observation. We use a combination of phase space density profiles and an updated version of a test-particle model to quantify properties of the injection. We are able to infer the longitudinal width of the injection, the radial travel time from its point of origin, and the starting L shell of the injection. We can also predict which energies can remain inside the channel during the radial transport. To highlight the effects of radial propagation at a finite speed, we focus on those interchange injections without extensive features of azimuthal dispersion. Injections that have traveled radially for one or more hours prior to observation would have been initiated at a different local time than that of the observation. Finally, we describe an injection where particles have drifted azimuthally into a flow channel prior to observation by Cassini.

  12. Rapid Hepatitis B Vaccination in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur Özcan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is a very important method in prevention of HBV.Especially rapid immunization takes an important place in subjects at highrisk. We have injected HBV vaccine to health workers who are attending inour hospital by rapid immunisation programme (at 0, 1 and 2 months andaimed to identify it’s efficiacy. Eighty seven subjects (69% male, 31%female were included to our study. Median age was 34 for male and 32 forwomen. We obtained 90% achievement of immunity rate after theprogramme finished. There were no significant difference between maleend female groups, and age groups. The non-responder rate was 11.6% inmale, and 7.4% in female. This rate was 6% in under 40 years old group,and 22.7% in 40 or older group. This difference was significant in twogroups statistically (p=0.02. The rapid immunization programme, weperformed has nearly the same success results as in standard programme.

  13. Injection site abscess due to mycobacterium fortuitum: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi DR

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Injection abscess is an iatrogenic infection occurring as an isolated case or as cluster outbreak. These infections occur due to contaminated injectables or lapse in sterilisation protocol. While pathogens such as Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, E. coli, and S. aureus are the usual causative agents, unusual organisms such as mycobacteria, particularly the rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM may cause the abscess. The chances of overlooking these organisms is high unless an acid fast bacilli (AFB smear and culture is done on all aspirated pus specimens. We report a case of a three year old child who presented with a gluteal abscess following an intramuscular infection with an unknown preparation.

  14. Inadvertent intrathecal injection of large dose magnesium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atabak Najafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The case is a 35-year-old man who underwent spinal anesthesia for emergency strangulated inguinal hernia repair. About five minutes after 3 ml intrathecal drug injection, the patient suffered respiratory distress, bradycardia, hypotension and loss of consciousness. The patient was rapidly intubated and crystalloid infusion and epinephrine drip were established. Thereafter, he was admitted in intensive care unit. Search for the cause revealed us that 3 ml of magnesium sulfate (50% was injected mistakenly for spinal anesthesia. Two days later, he was extubated and on the fifth day, he was discharged from the hospital without an obvious evidence of complication.

  15. Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1979-02-14

    The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

  16. Evaluation of CT after combined injection method by intra and para-variceal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urita, Yoshihisa; Ishihara, Manabu; Ozaki, Motonobu; Hachiya, Akihiko; Yamada, Shuuichi; Mutoh, Masue; Nakata, Masayuki; Ohtsuka, Sachio; Machida, Keiichi (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the distribution of sclerosant injected into the paravariceal esophageal wall. CT scan of the chest was performed 30 minutes after combined injection sclerotherapy (EIS) using 1% Polidocanol (Aethoxysklerol: AS) in 23 patients with esophageal varices. CT findings included (1) ring-enhanced esophageal wall (2) ring-enhanced paraesophageal wall (3) locally enhanced esophageal wall (4) beltlike-enhanced parietal pleura. Types (1) (2) (4) were obtained in the 1st or the 2nd EIS, and type (3) was obtained in the 3rd EIS or more. These CT findings did not correlate with total volume of injected sclerosant. Seven of 8 patients with CT finding of Type (3) had esophageal ulcer. (We consider that esophageal ulcer is necessary to fibrosis of the lower eshophageal wall). When CT finding of type (3) was obtained, we put off the next procedure of EIS. Pleural effusion occured after 2 of 18 procedures with CT finding of type (1), 2 of 9 with type (2), 0 of 8 with type (3), and 1 of 14 with type (4). We speculated that most of patients with type (4) would have pleural effusion. But CT findings did not correlate with pleural effusion. Chest pain occurred after 1 of 18 procedures with CT finding of type (1), 1 of 9 with type (2), 2 of 8 with type (3), and 1 of 14 with type (4). Fever occurred after 0 of 18 procedures with CT findings of type (1), 0 of 9 with type (2), 2 of 8 with type (3), 0 of 14 with type (4). These results suggest that 1% AS injected into paravariceal esophageal wall have no reference to the minor complications. The sclerosants injected into the paravaries was thought to diffuse rapidly, but it is unlikely that this distribution of 1% AS is the main factor of pleural effusion, chest pain, and fever after EIS. (author).

  17. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  18. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Marcic

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped withmulti-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changinghydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individualinjection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paperallows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injectionrates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today knownmeasuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate indiesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possibledifferences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformationalmeasuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation ofmembrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. Thepressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For eachhole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into whichfuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. Duringmeasurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain anoverpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into thegraduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.Themembrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane andforming the full Wheatstone’s bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shapeand temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  19. LHC injection and dump protection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Rossi, A; Wollmann, D

    2010-01-01

    The machine protection against fast failures including injection or dump kickers relies on fixed and movable devices. Results will be shown from the low-intensity beam commissioning of the moveable injection protection devices in the SPS to LHC transfer lines and downstream of the LHC injection kickers, and of the LHC dump protection elements in IR6. This paper is almost exclusively focussing on the issues arising during the 2009 commissioning. The implications of these results and a commissioning status report with the planning for 2010 will be addressed.

  20. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.

    2017-08-08

    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  1. 用原料做对照快速测定硫酸庆大霉素注射液半成品含量%A Simple Rapid Method for the Determination of Semi-finished Gentamycin Sulfate Injection Controled by Raw Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周其超; 蒋丽淑; 张悦; 黄颉; 孙敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to shorten the time spended on the measurement of contents of the Gentamycin Sulfate injection. Methods: took advantage of the optical rotation of Gentamycin Sulfate, which have a similar stucture to glucose, and measured the contents of Gentamycin Sulfate Injection by polarimetry. Results: study showed that the measurement results were linearly correlated with the contents, and within only 10-20 minutes, the measurements can be completed. Conclusion: polarimetry is a effective method with easy and fast operation, which is very applicable to industrial production.%目的:为了缩短测定硫酸庆大霉素注射液含量的时间。方法:我们利用硫酸庆大霉素与葡萄糖结构相似,具备旋光性的特性,采用旋光度测定法测其含量。结果:旋光法测定结果和浓度(2.0~--6.0万u/ml)呈良好的线性关系,而且仅需10~20分钟就能完成测定,操作方便、快速、准确。结论:对生产车间非常适用。

  2. Effects of Sodium Ligninsulfonate as Gelled-electrolyte Additive on the Performance of Gel Valve-regulated Lead-acid Battery%木质素磺酸钠对铅酸蓄电池胶体性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李核; 黄贤伟; 刘何萍; 陈红雨; 王德喜

    2011-01-01

    采用不同比例的木质素磺酸钠作为胶体电解质添加剂,探讨其添加前后胶体电解质的物理和电化学性能的变化.粘度测试、老化析水量测试以及循环伏安和交流阻抗分析表明,添加剂能影响胶体粘度,减少老化析水量,提高胶体电化学性能和减少胶体电池内阻.确定添加剂最佳添加量的质量分数为0.005%~0.01%,胶体电解质中气相二氧化硅的适宜质量分数为3.0%.采用UV-Vis、FT-IR光谱、TEM和SEM对添加剂和胶体电解质的结构和形貌变化进行了表征.结果表明,添加木质素磺酸钠的胶体电解质形成更为疏松多孔的结构,更有利于离子的传导和电解液的储存.%In order to improve the performance of a gelled electrolyte and decrease its internal resistance, sodium ligninsulfonate was used as an additive to the gelled electrolyte. The properties and electrochemistry of the gelled electrolytes with and without additives were studied by viscosity test, aging test, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS). The data indicated that when the mass fraction of SiO2 was 3.0% , the viscosity of the gel electrolyte with 0.01% additives is increased by 6 times comparing with the gel electrolyte without additives. The volume of precipitated water and the internal resistance of gelled electrolyte decrease as the additive is added. The optimum conditions are obtained. The dosage ( mass fraction) of additives is 0.005% ~0.01% , and the fumed silica is 3.0 %. UV-Vis, FT-IR, SEM and TEM were used to characterize the gelled electrolyte with and without additives. The results show that the microstructure of gelled electrolyte is more porous with improved ion conduction, and the sulphuric acid solution can therefore be stored more easily with addition of sodium liginsulfonate.

  3. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lower legs hoarseness difficulty breathing or swallowing redness, warmth, swelling, pain, or infection in the place where you injected the medication that does not heal within a few days red or bloody stools or diarrhea stomach pain slow ...

  4. Beam Injection in Recirculator SALO

    CERN Document Server

    Guk, Ivan S; Dovbnya, Anatoly N; Kononenko, Stanislav; Peev, Fedor; Tarasenko, Alexander; Van der Wiel, Marnix

    2005-01-01

    Possible antetypes of injectors for electron recirculator SALO,* intended for nuclear-physical research, are analyzed. The plan injection of beams in recirculator is offered. Expected parameters of beams are designed.

  5. Infliximab, Infliximab-dyyb Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infliximab and infliximab-dyyb injection are used to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders (conditions in which the immune system ... has not improved when treated with other medications. Infliximab may also be used to relieve symptoms of ...

  6. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people with ... with severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Injectable Drug Eluting Elastomeric Polymer: A Novel Submucosal Injection Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Richard T.; Palmer, Michael; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Abell, Thomas L.; Yang, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Background Biodegradable hydrogels can deliver therapeutic payloads with great potentials in endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) to yield improvements in efficacy and foster mucosal regeneration. Objective To assess the efficacy of an injectable drug eluting elastomeric polymer (iDEEP) as a submucosal injection material. Design Comparative study among 3 different solutions using material characterization tests, ex vivo and in vivo porcine models. Setting Academic hospital. Interventions 30 gastric submucosal cushions were achieved with saline (0.9%), sodium hyaluronate (0.4%), and iDEEP (n = 10) in ex vivo porcine stomachs. Four porcine gastric submucosal cushions were then performed in vivo using iDEEP. Main outcome measurements Maximum injection pressure, Rebamipide release rate, submucosal elevation duration, and assessment of in vivo efficacy by en bloc resection. Results No significant difference in injection pressures between iDEEP (28.9 ± 0.3 PSI) and sodium hyaluronate (29.5 ± 0.4 PSI, P > .05) was observed. iDEEP gels displayed a controlled release of Rebamipide up to 2 weeks in vitro. The elevation height of iDEEP (5.7 ± 0.5 mm) was higher than saline (2.8 ± 0.2 mm, P < .01) and SH (4.2 ± 0.2 mm, P < .05). All EMR procedures were successfully performed after injection of iDEEP, and a large gel cushion was noted after the resection procedure. Limitations Benchtop, ex vivo, and non-survival pig study. Conclusions A novel injection solution was evaluated for endoscopic resection. These results suggest that iDEEP may provide a significant step towards the realization of an ideal EMR and ESD injection material. PMID:22301346

  8. Subcutaneous injection-induced cellulites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kao-Chi; Huang, Po-Tsung; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan

    2017-06-01

    In the hospice ward where patients are in the terminal stages of cancer, it is common practice to give them a subcutaneous injection of pain relievers to reduce their pain and make them more comfortable. Most of these patients are elderly and have low blood pressure or poor veins, which often makes it difficult to inject them because of the calcification at previous injection sites. Thus, subcutaneous injections are a convenient way to maintain analgesia and patient comfort. Our patient, a 73-year-old aboriginal woman, was diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma and peritoneal carcinomatosis in March, 2004. While she was in the inpatient hospice ward, a subcutaneous injection site became infected and localized cellulitis developed. The patient's quality of life began to decline and her hospice stay was lengthened due to these complications. This case is offered as a reference case of subcutaneous injection complications encountered by elderly patients in hospice care. © Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by China Medical University.

  9. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal guid

  10. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    Aim: Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal

  11. Immobilized Bioluminescent Reagents in Flow Injection Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Abdul

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Bioluminescent reactions exhibits two important characteristics from an analytical viewpoint; they are selective and highly sensitive. Furthermore, bioluminescent emissions are easily measured with a simple flow-through detector based on a photomultiplier tube and the rapid and reproducible mixing of sample and expensive reagent is best achieved by a flow injection manifold. The two most important bioluminescent systems are the enzyme (luciferase)/substrate (luciferin) combinations extracted from fireflies (Photinus pyralis) and marine bacteria (Virio harveyi) which requires ATP and NAD(P)H respectively as cofactors. Reactions that generate or consume these cofactors can also be coupled to the bioluminescent reaction to provide assays for a wide range of clinically important species. A flow injection manifold for the study of bioluminescent reactions is described, as are procedures for the extraction, purification and immobilization of firefly and bacterial luciferase and oxidoreductase. Results are presented for the determination of ATP using firefly system and the determination of other enzymes and substrates participating in ATP-converting reactions e.g. creatine kinase, ATP-sulphurylase, pyruvate kinase, creatine phosphate, pyrophosphate and phophoenolypyruvate. Similarly results are presented for the determination of NAD(P)H, FMN, FMNH_2 and several dehydrogenases which produce NAD(P)H and their substrates, e.g. alcohol, L-lactate, L-malate, L-glutamate, Glucose-6-phosphate and primary bile acid.

  12. Design considerations for partial neutralization acid injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, T.R.; Van der Cook, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    It is currently estimated that, after vacuum evaporator-crystallizer of Hanford liquid wastes on the order of 10 million gallons of caustic residual liquor will remain. Partial Neutralization, the continuous addition of nitric acid to the slurry is being developed to allow additional volume reduction and reduce interim storage costs. Tests revealed that acid and liquor compositions as well as nozzle design are significant factors in the concentration of NO/sub x/ in the mild steel vessel vent system. The available literature information relating to mixing of up to 20 gallons per minute of acid with 14,000 gallons per minute of slurry is presented. Very rapid and thorough mixing of the injected acid is required, since reaction of even 0.1 percent of the injected acid with sodium nitrite in the slurry would yield unacceptable levels of NO/sub x/ in the vessel vent system. The mixing time calculated by a method developed herein was used to evaluate the proposed conceptual mixing nozzle.

  13. Comparison of lidocaine injection, botulinum toxin injection, and dry needling to trigger points in myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanli, A; Kaya, A; Ardicoglu, O; Ozgocmen, S; Zengin, F Ozkurt; Bayik, Y

    2005-10-01

    in the dry needle group. Depression and anxiety scores significantly improved only in the BTX-A-injected group. Injection is more practical and rapid, since it causes less disturbance than dry needling and is more cost effective than BTX-A injection, and seems the treatment of choice in MPS. On the other hand, BTX-A could be selectively used in MPS patients resistant to conventional treatments.

  14. Conversion of Rapid Prototyping Models into Metallic Tools by Ceramic Moulding—an Indirect Rapid Tooling Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teresa; P; DUARTE; J; M; FERREIRA; F; Jorge; LINO; A; BARBEDO; Rui; NETO

    2002-01-01

    A process to convert models made by rapid prototypi ng techniques like SL (stereolitography) and LOM (laminated object manufacturing) or by conventional techniques (silicones, resins, wax, etc.) into metallic mould s or tools has been developed. The main purpose of this technique is to rapidly obtain the first prototypes of parts, for plastics injection, forging or any oth er manufacturing process using the tools produced by casting a metal into a cera mic mould. Briefly, it can be said that the ceramic...

  15. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  16. Rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christian; Wolff, Martin; Weitz, Michael; Bartlau, Thomas; Korth, Carsten; Zerr, Inga

    2011-09-01

    Different rates of progression have been observed among patients with Alzheimer disease. Risk factors that accelerate deterioration have been identified and some are being discussed, such as genetics, comorbidity, and the early appearance of Alzheimer disease motor signs. Progressive forms of Alzheimer disease have been reported with rapid cognitive decline and disease duration of only a few years. This short review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, we suggest that rapid, in this context, should be defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score decrease of 6 points per year.

  17. HIV among injecting drug users: current epidemiology, biologic markers, respondent-driven sampling, and supervised-injection facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; Arasteh, Kamyar; Semaan, Salaam; Wood, Evan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe recent research done primarily during the past 12 months (i.e., primarily in 2008) on the epidemiology of HIV infection among injecting drug users (IDUs). Recent findings Major research developments include a global assessment of HIV infection among IDUs and evidence of a transition from epidemics concentrated among IDUs to generalized, heterosexual epidemics in eastern Europe and Asia. Intervention research also includes several studies of supervised-injecting facilities. Methodological research includes respondent-driven sampling and the use of hepatitis C virus and herpes simplex virus-2 as biomarkers for injecting and sexual risk. Summary There have been important advances in research during the past year, but HIV infection continues to spread rapidly across many areas of the world among IDUs and their nondrug-using sex partners. PMID:19532069

  18. Hydropower RAPID Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit including its capabilities, features, and benefits.

  19. SAP Sector Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Chengwang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Stable demand growth internationally Super absorbent polymers (SAP) feature high water absorption, high water retention, rapid water absorption, great expanding power,strong thickening, strong anchoring and excellent elasticity.

  20. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vitro Diagnostics Tests Used In Clinical Care Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  1. Rapid Tooling Technique Based on Stereolithograph Prototype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁浩; 狄平; 顾伟生; 朱世根

    2001-01-01

    Rapid tooling technique based on the sterelithograph prototype is investigated. The epoxy tooling technological process was elucidated. It is analyzed in detail that the epoxy resin formula is easy to cast, curing process, and release agents. The transitional plaster model is also proposed. The mold to encrust mutual.inductors with epoxy and mold to inject plastic soapboxes was made with the technique The tooling needs very little time and cost, for the process is only to achieve the nice replica of the prototype. It is benefit for the trial and small batch of production.

  2. Occipital injections for trigemino-autonomic cephalalgias: evidence and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Elizabeth; Ducros, Anne

    2013-04-01

    Cluster headache is a debilitating disorder. Oral prophylactic treatments may act with a significant delay, cause side effects, or fail to control the attacks. Injections targeting the occipital nerve have raised interest for the management of CH. Their efficacy is thought to result from the anatomical convergence of trigeminal and cervical afferents in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Efficacy and safety of occipital injections are now documented by 2 randomized controlled trials and several case series, though the optimal technique and substance to be injected are still subject to discussion due to varied approaches in the published studies. The evidence supports the use of injected steroids, with or without the addition of an anesthetic. Side effects of local pain are common, but unlikely to be severe. Systemic effects related to steroid absorption are reported but infrequent. Occipital injections provide a rapid benefit on the frequency of attacks and can be used as an adjunct to an oral prophylactic for a quicker improvement. Whether or not this approach can be used without any oral prophylaxis is still to be determined. The technique is easy to master, has a low cost, and should be learned by physicians involved in CH management.

  3. Manufacture of liposomes by isopropanol injection: characterization of the method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentine, Philippe; Bubel, Aurélie; Crucifix, Corinne; Bourel-Bonnet, Line; Frisch, Benoît

    2012-03-01

    Unilamellar liposomes are conventionally prepared by rapid injection of an ethanolic solution of lipids into an aqueous medium. The aim of the present study was to control, more efficiently, vesicle diameter by using an alternative solvent. The results show that isopropanol injection is a good alternative to ethanol injection for the manufacture of liposomes. Particle size can be controlled by the variation of process parameters, such as stirring speed of the aqueous phase and injection flow rate of lipid-isopropanol solution. Diameter of vesicles obtained by this method is less affected by the nature of phospholipid, as well as lipid concentration, than in the ethanol-injection process. In addition, the vesicles are generally smaller (approximately 40-210 nm). Accurate characterization of the particles, by fluorescence, (31)P-NMR, and cryo-transmission electron microscopy, showed that particles are formed of a single lipid bilayer around an aqueous cavity. We thus provide the scientific community with a fully characterized alternative method to produce unilamellar vesicles.

  4. Development, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of novel injectable smart gels of azithromycin for chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, M P; Kumar, T M Pramod; Avinash, B S; Kumar, G Sheela

    2013-04-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition affecting teeth resulting in progressive destruction of periodontal ligaments, resorption of alveolar bone and loss of teeth. Treatment of periodontitis includes surgical and non surgical management. Systemic antibiotics are also used for the treatment of periodontitis. The aim of this research was to formulate smart gel system of azithromycin (AZT) and to evaluate in vitro and in vivo for non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis. Azithromycin dihydrate, used systemically in the treatment of periodontitis, was formulated into smart gels using biodegradable, thermosensitive polymer Pluronic® F-127 (PF-127) and Hydroxy Ethyl Cellulose (HEC) as copolymer. The prepared smart gels were evaluated for sterility, content uniformity, gelation temperature and time, syringeability, rheological behavior, in vitro diffusion and in vivo efficacy in human patients. The prepared smart gels were clear and transparent, sterile, thermoresponsive and injectable. Viscosity of gels increased with increase in concentration of polymer/co-polymer and also with temperature. They gelled in short response time below the body temperature. In vitro release studies showed controlled drug release which was influenced significantly by the properties and concentration of PF-127 and HEC. In vivo efficacy studies showed a significant improvement (p chronic periodontitis since it reduces the dose and side effects, bypasses the usual surgical procedures and improves patient compliance.

  5. Effect of injection timing and injection pressure on the performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    single cylinder diesel engine fitted with conventional mechanical fuel ... on Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) facilities where the biodiesel can be ... Keywords: Diesel engine, Ester of Honge Oil (EHO), Common Rail Direct ..... emission of EHO was higher than those of the diesel under the same operating conditions.

  6. On Simple-Injective Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.K. Nicholson; Jae Keol Park; M.F. Yousif

    2002-01-01

    A ring R is called right simple-injective if every R-linear map from a right ideal of R to R with simple image can be extended to R. It is shown that a right simple-injective ring R is quasi-Frobenius if R is right Goldie with essential right socle, or R is left perfect and the right annihilator of k ∈ R is finitely generated whenever kR or Rk is simple. This extends a result of Bjork.

  7. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  8. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R., E-mail: russell.young@gwh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Harding, J. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Coventry, Coventry (United Kingdom); Kingsly, A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Bristol Institue of Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bradley, M. [Department of Radiology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  9. How Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) over the past 25 years has changed our way of performing chemical analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Miró, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Briefly looking back on the impact of flow injection analysis (FIA), as reflected in the rapid growth of publications in the scientific literature, and touching upon many of the novel and unique analytical chemical possibilities that FIA and its sequels, sequential injection analysis (SIA) and Lab-on-Valve...

  10. XQuery Injection Attack and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭玉森

    2014-01-01

    As a database that allows data to be stored in XML format, XML database suffers from some similar attacks as traditional relational database does. These attacks include injection attack by XQuey function in application software. These include BaseX, eXist and MarkLogic. In order to defeat these attacks, countermeasures are proposed.

  11. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid... stream_source_info Land_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2089 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Land_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Rapid manufacturing...

  12. Rapid cooled lens cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, David M.; Hsu, Ike C.

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes the optomechanical design, thermal analysis, fabrication, and test evaluation processes followed in developing a rapid cooled, infrared lens cell. Thermal analysis was the key engineering discipline exercised in the design phase. The effect of thermal stress on the lens, induced by rapid cooling of the lens cell, was investigated. Features of this lens cell that minimized the thermal stress will be discussed in a dedicated section. The results of thermal analysis on the selected lens cell design and the selection of the flow channel design in the heat exchanger will be discussed. Throughout the paper engineering drawings, illustrations, analytical results, and photographs of actual hardware are presented.

  13. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  14. A study on compound contents for plastic injection molding products of metallic resin pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Whan; Kwak, Jae Seob [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyu Sang [Alliance Molding Engineering TeamLG Electronics Inc., Osan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Injection molding process is widely used for producing most plastic products. In order to make a metal-colored plastic product especially in modern luxury home alliances, metallic pigments which are mixed to a basic resin material for injection molding are available. However, the process control for the metal-colored plastic product is extremely difficult due to non-uniform melt flow of the metallic resin pigments. To improve the process efficiency, a rapid mold cooling method by a compressed cryogenic fluid and electricity mold are also proposed to decrease undesired compound contents within a molded plastic product. In this study, a quality of the metal-colored plastic product is evaluated with process parameters; injection speed, injection pressure, and pigment contents, and an influence of the rapid cooling and heating system is demonstrated.

  15. Suppression of runaway current generation by supersonic molecular beam injection during disruptions on J-TEXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D. W.; Chen, Z. Y.; Tong, R. H.; Yan, W.; Wang, S. Y.; Wei, Y. N.; Ma, T. K.; Dai, A. J.; Wang, X. L.; Jiang, Z. H.; Yang, Z. J.; Zhuang, G.; Pan, Y.; J-TEXT Team

    2017-08-01

    The suppression of disruption-generated runaway electrons (REs) by supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) has been investigated on the J-TEXT tokamak. Experimental results demonstrate that the hydrogen injected by SMBI during plasma current flattop phase can provoke magnetic perturbations, which increase RE losses rapidly. The effective radial diffusion coefficient of REs due to SMBI is estimated as D r ≈ 16 m2 s-1. Based on this benefit, the SMBI has been used to explore the suppression of disruption-generated REs. In J-TEXT, RE current is created with rapid argon injection by a massive gas injection valve. It is found that hydrogen SMBI before disruption efficiently suppresses the generation of RE current.

  16. Electrokinetic Sample Preconcentration and Hydrodynamic Sample Injection for Microchip Electrophoresis Using a Pneumatic Microvalve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Yongzheng; Katipamula, Shanta; Geng, Tao; Prost, Spencer A.; Tang, Keqi; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2016-02-01

    A microfluidic platform was developed to perform online electrokinetic sample preconcentration and rapid hydrodynamic sample injection for electrophoresis using a single microvalve. The PDMS microchip consists of a separation channel, a side channel for sample introduction, and a control channel which is used as a pneumatic microvalve aligned at the intersection of the two flow channels. The closed microvalve, created by multilayer soft lithography, can serve as a preconcentrator under an applied electric potential, enabling current to pass through while blocking bulk flow. Once analytes are concentrated, the valve is briefly opened and the stacked sample is pressure injected into the separation channel for electrophoretic separation. Fluorescently labeled peptides were enriched by a factor of ~450 in 230 s. The performance of the platform was validated by the online preconcentration, injection and electrophoretic separation of fluorescently labeled peptides. This method enables both rapid analyte concentration and controlled injection volume for high sensitivity, high resolution capillary electrophoresis.

  17. A new method for rapid screening of low energy ion injected recombinant strain by PCR technology%一种基于 PCR 技术快速筛选低能离子注入重组菌株的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱卫东; 周颖欣; 吴启航; 蔡长龙

    2016-01-01

    To expand application widely based on low energy ion beam mediating medicinal plants transformed yeast genomic DNA and constructing capable of producing natural prod-ucts in recombinant yeast strains .In this paper ,gentiopicroside biosynthetic pathway of key enzyme genes (GGPPS ,MECPS and MECT ) act as molecular screening marker .Recombi-nant strains DNA was amplificated for PCR ,which transformed to obtain as a template based on inject ation low energy ions to achieve high throughput screening for recombinant yeast strains .And the fermentation products abtained by screening strain were analyzed in HPLC . 12 candidate recombinant yeast strains were screened from 1 072 transformed yeast by HPLC repeat screening ,and 5 strains of fermentation product was detected gentiopicroside .The re-sult showed the PCR screening method was efficient ,simple ,short cycle ,the advantages of low-cost ,easy operation ,which was suitable for low energy ion beam mediated genomic DNA molecules randomly transformed yeast ,and applied in biosynthesis of natural products for yeast recombinant strains .%为拓展基于低能离子注入介导药用植物基因组DNA转化酵母、构建能生产天然产物的酵母重组菌的广泛应用,以目标产物龙胆苦苷生物合成途径中的关键酶基因(GGPPS , MECPS和MECT)为分子筛选标记,以基于低能离子注入随机转化重组菌DNA为模板进行PCR扩增,实现对其高通量初筛,利用HPLC方法对初筛所得菌株发酵产物进行分析检测。结果,从1072株转化酵母菌中初筛出12株候选酵母重组菌,经HPLC复筛后,其中5株重组酵母菌的发酵产物中检测出龙胆苦苷。研究表明,此PCR筛选方法,具有高效、简单、周期短、廉价、易于操作等优点,适用于低能离子注入介导基因组DNA大分子随机转化酵母,构建能生物合成天然产物的酵母重组菌的研究中。

  18. Parallel Impurity Spreading During Massive Gas Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    Extended-MHD simulations of disruption mitigation in DIII-D demonstrate that both pre-existing islands (locked-modes) and plasma rotation can significantly influence toroidal spreading of impurities following massive gas injection (MGI). Given the importance of successful disruption mitigation in ITER and the large disparity in device parameters, empirical demonstrations of disruption mitigation strategies in present tokamaks are insufficient to inspire unreserved confidence for ITER. Here, MHD simulations elucidate how impurities injected as a localized jet spread toroidally and poloidally. Simulations with large pre-existing islands at the q = 2 surface reveal that the magnetic topology strongly influences the rate of impurity spreading parallel to the field lines. Parallel spreading is largely driven by rapid parallel heat conduction, and is much faster at low order rational surfaces, where a short parallel connection length leads to faster thermal equilibration. Consequently, the presence of large islands, which alter the connection length, can slow impurity transport; but the simulations also show that the appearance of a 4/2 harmonic of the 2/1 mode, which breaks up the large islands, can increase the rate of spreading. This effect is seen both for simulations with spontaneously growing and directly imposed 4/2 modes. Given the prevalence of locked-modes as a cause of disruptions, understanding the effect of large islands is of particular importance. Simulations with and without islands also show that rotation can alter impurity spreading, even reversing the predominant direction of spreading, which is toward the high-field-side in the absence of rotation. Given expected differences in rotation for ITER vs. DIII-D, rotation effects are another important consideration when extrapolating experimental results. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FG02-95ER54309.

  19. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  20. AFRPL Rapid Indexing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alfred A.

    A modified Keyword Out of Context (KWOC) system was developed to gain rapid control over more than 8,000 scattered, unindexed documents. This was the first step in providing the technical information support required by Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory scientists and engineers. Implementation of the KWOC system, computer routines, and…

  1. Pitfalls of Intralesional Ozone Injection in Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Uzun, Günalp; Mutluoğlu, Mesut; Karagöz, Hüseyin; Memiş, Ali; Karabacak, Ercan; Ay, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Although the history of ozone therapy dates back to the 19th century, its use has shown a rapid growth of interest in recent decades. Intralesional ozone injection is seldom performed and its safety has not yet been reliably assessed for the treatment of diabetic foot wounds. Herein, we describe a diabetic patient who developed severe foot necrosis and infection after receiving intralesional ozone injections for a non-healing wound.

  2. Pitfalls of Intralesional Ozone Injection in Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Günalp; Mutluoğlu, Mesut; Karagöz, Hüseyin; Memiş, Ali; Karabacak, Ercan; Ay, Hakan

    2012-12-01

    Although the history of ozone therapy dates back to the 19th century, its use has shown a rapid growth of interest in recent decades. Intralesional ozone injection is seldom performed and its safety has not yet been reliably assessed for the treatment of diabetic foot wounds. Herein, we describe a diabetic patient who developed severe foot necrosis and infection after receiving intralesional ozone injections for a non-healing wound.

  3. Stress Cardiomyopathy Managed with Extracorporeal Support after Self-Injection of Epinephrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourenne Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old man was admitted to the ICU for self-injection of Epinephrine. This injection resulted in the rapid development of a catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy (inverted Takotsubo with a severe cardiogenic shock. The importance of ventricular dysfunction required the implementation of a temporary arteriovenous circulatory support until the recovery of myocardial stunning. This case allows redefining the role of circulatory assistance during cardiotropic agents intoxication.

  4. Flow injection method for sulphide determination using an organic mercury compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaqoob, M.; Anwar, M.; Masood, A.S.; Masoom, M. (Univ. of Balochistan, Quetta (Pakistan))

    1991-04-01

    A simple flow injection analysis method is described for the determination of soluble sulfide, based on the complexation of sulfide with p-hydroxymercurbenzoic acid, in the presence of dithizone used as an indicator. The reaction is very rapid, with a sampling rate of 90/hr. and requires a very short length post injection reaction coil. The detection limit and precision are 0.01 mM and 0.7%, respectively.

  5. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Zink

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds. The conformal cooling channels are placed along the geometry of the injection-molded product, and thus they can extract more heat and heat removal is more uniform than in the case of conventional cooling systems. In the case of copper mold inserts, cooling channels are made by drilling and heat removal is facilitated by the high thermal conductivity coefficient of copper, which is several times that of steel. Designing optimal cooling systems is a complex process; a proper design requires injection molding simulations, but the accuracy of calculations depends on how precise the input parameters and boundary conditions are. In this study, three cooling circuit designs and three mold materials (Ampcoloy 940, 1.2311 (P20 steel, and MS1 steel were used and compared using numerical methods. The effect of different mold designs and materials on cooling efficiency were examined using calculated and measured results. The simulation model was adjusted to the measurement results by considering the joint gap between the mold inserts.

  6. Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jeffrey M [Idaho Falls, ID; Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-11-15

    Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

  7. 3-D simulation of gases transport under condition of inert gas injection into goaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mao-Xi; Shi, Guo-Qing; Guo, Zhixiong; Wang, Yan-Ming; Ma, Li-Yang

    2016-12-01

    To prevent coal spontaneous combustion in mines, it is paramount to understand O2 gas distribution under condition of inert gas injection into goaf. In this study, the goaf was modeled as a 3-D porous medium based on stress distribution. The variation of O2 distribution influenced by CO2 or N2 injection was simulated based on the multi-component gases transport and the Navier-Stokes equations using Fluent. The numerical results without inert gas injection were compared with field measurements to validate the simulation model. Simulations with inert gas injection show that CO2 gas mainly accumulates at the goaf floor level; however, a notable portion of N2 gas moves upward. The evolution of the spontaneous combustion risky zone with continuous inert gas injection can be classified into three phases: slow inerting phase, rapid accelerating inerting phase, and stable inerting phase. The asphyxia zone with CO2 injection is about 1.25-2.4 times larger than that with N2 injection. The efficacy of preventing and putting out mine fires is strongly related with the inert gas injecting position. Ideal injections are located in the oxidation zone or the transitional zone between oxidation zone and heat dissipation zone.

  8. Overview of recent developments in pellet injection for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephen Kirk, E-mail: combssk@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States); Baylor, L.R.; Meitner, S.J.; Caughman, J.B.O.; Rasmussen, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States); Maruyama, S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Status of the ITER pellet injection system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fueling requirements for ITER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Summarizes the design/operating parameters and highlights recent developments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Benefits of plasma fueling by the injection of pellets, composed of frozen hydrogen isotopes and millimeters in size, into magnetically confined plasmas (core fueling). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ELM mitigation with pellets (ELM pacing). - Abstract: Pellet injection is the primary fueling technique planned for core fueling of ITER burning plasmas. Also, the injection of relatively small pellets to purposely trigger rapid small edge localized modes (ELMs) has been proposed as a possible solution to the heat flux damage from larger natural ELMs likely to be an issue on the ITER divertor surfaces. The ITER pellet injection system is designed to inject pellets into the plasma through both inner and outer wall guide tubes. The inner wall guide tubes will provide high throughput pellet fueling while the outer wall guide tubes will be used primarily to trigger ELMs at a high frequency (>15 Hz). The pellet fueling rate of each injector is to be up to 120 Pa m{sup 3}/s, which will require the formation of solid D-T at a volumetric rate of {approx}1500 mm{sup 3}/s. Two injectors are to be provided for ITER at the startup with a provision for up to six injectors during the D-T phase. The required throughput of each injector is greater than that of any injector built to date, and a novel twin-screw continuous extrusion system is being developed to meet the challenging design parameters. Status of the development activities is presented, highlighting recent progress.

  9. A rapid method of monitoring the acute phase response in a rat model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of a rat model, a rapid procedure to identify APR which is less time-consuming .... Blood (approximately 1 ml) was withdrawn from the tail vein With a 0.5 ml plastic disposable insulin syringe. (29-9auge ... of turpentine (1 ml) was injected subcutaneously, as two ... a rapid and more convenient alternative to more traditional.

  10. 77 FR 26755 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for... final decision allows the continued underground injection by Diamond Shamrock, of the specific...

  11. 78 FR 76294 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for... underground injection by Mosaic, of the specific restricted hazardous wastes identified in this exemption...

  12. The effects of injection beam parameters and foil scattering for CSNS/RCS

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Na; Xu, Shou-Yan

    2012-01-01

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) uses H- stripping and phase space painting method to fill large ring acceptance with the linac beam of small emittance. The dependence of the painting beam on the injection beam parameters was studied for the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of CSNS. The injection processes for different momentum spread, rms emittance of the injection beam, injection beam matching were simulated, then the beam losses, 99% and rms emittances were obtained and the optimized ranges of injection beam parameters were given. The interaction between the H- beam and the stripping foil was studied and the foil scattering was simulated. Then, the stripping efficiency was calculated and the suitable thickness of the stripping foil was obtained. The energy deposition on the foil and the beam losses due to the foil scattering were also studied.

  13. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations...

  14. Inadvertent intrathecal injection of atracurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Zirak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report relates how tracurium was given by mistake, intrathecally, during spinal anesthesia, to a 38-year-old woman, who was a candidate for abdominal hysterectomy. When no analgesia was observed, the mistake in giving the injection was understood. She was evaluated postoperatively by train of four ratio, measuring her breathing rate, eye opening, and protruding of tongue at one, two, twenty-four, and forty-eight hours, and then at one and two weeks, with the final evaluation the following month. The patient had normal timings during the operation and postoperation periods, and no abnormal findings were observed through the first month. This finding was contrary to several studies, which described adverse reactions due to accidental intrathecal injection of neuromuscular blocking drugs.

  15. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kleeven, W

    2006-01-01

    The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.

  16. Successful management of stuttering priapism using home self-injections of the alpha-agonist metaraminol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mcdonald Michael

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-flow priapism can result in impotence if treatment is delayed, yet patients with recurrent priapism often suffer delay before therapy. We describe management of recurrent priapism using self-administered injections of intracavernosal metaraminol (Aramine™, Merck, a long-acting vasoconstricting amine that is considered safer than epinephrine. The patient injects as often as once daily using 5-10 mg of drug. Our patient reports rapid detumescence and has not required emergency room visits since starting injections. He denies complications. Treatment of priapism using metaraminol has been suggested in the hospital setting; however, this is the first report of successful home self-administration of the drug.

  17. INJECTION BOTULINUM IN PARALYTIC STRABISMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kishore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection to the antagonist muscle in paralytic strabismus. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of botulinum toxin a injection into the antagonist muscle in cases of paralytic strabismus to alleviate diplopia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a tertiary eye care hospital based prospective interventional study in the department of Orthoptics over a period from October 2011 to October 2013. 36 patients with paralytic strabismus of recent onset within 3 months, with chief complaint of double vision were included. RESULTS: The study data analysis of 36 patients of paralytic strabismus of recent onset (within 3 months with chief complaints of double vision showed a ge wise distribution as 3(8.33% in 0 - 20 years, 16(44.44% in 21 - 40 years, 16(44.44% in 41 - 60 years, 1(2.78% > 60 years. g ender wise 26(72.22% males, 10 (27.28% females, a etiology wise 15(41.67% were diabetic, 4(11.11% were traumatic, 11(30.56% were Id iopathic, 2(5.56% were due to CSOM and 4(11.11% due to Diabetes and Hypertension. All patients were treated with botulinum toxin injection to the antagonist nonoperatic muscle and were followed at an interval of 1 week, 1 month and 3 months. Thorough cli nical examination and Diplopia charting were done before and after treatment. CONCLUSION: Injection botulinum into the antagonist muscle during the first three months after the onset allows the patients to enjoy and appreciate fusion in primary gaze without necessity for head turn, Prevents contracture of antagonist muscle. Thus botulinum toxin is useful in the treatment of acute paretic loss of ocular muscle function when surgical treatment of the ocular muscles is not yet possible but the patient is obviously disturbed by diplopia or forced head posture. The procedure is simple, safe and effective method.

  18. Radial lean direct injection burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  19. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  20. Rapid-Sequence Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Dávila Cabo de Villa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In medical practice there are several situations that require immediate intervention of the airway in some patients, in order to ensure proper entrance and exit of gases into and out of the lungs and prevent aspiration. Rapid-sequence intubation has been considered as the administration of a hypnotic agent and a neuromuscular relaxant consecutively (virtually simultaneously to facilitate orotracheal intubation in critically ill patients and minimize the risk of aspiration. This paper aims to collect elements that promote a successful medical management according to the situation presented, since there is no single way of proceeding in case of rapid-sequence intubation. The elements to consider include: knowing the anatomy of the upper respiratory tract, having a group of drugs to choose from, receiving adequate training and having an alternative plan for the difficulties that may arise.