WorldWideScience

Sample records for initiative bringing patents

  1. Planet Press: an EGU initiative to bring geoscientific research to children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    Planet Press (http://www.egu.eu/education/planet-press/) is an EGU educational project that aims to get children (mainly 7-13 year olds), as well as their parents and educators, interested in and engaged with up-to-date scientific research and news. Planet Press articles are short versions of EGU press releases written in child-friendly language. Because EGU press releases cover research published in the various EGU scientific journals, Planet Press focuses on topics as varied as air pollution, glaciers, climate change, earthquakes, ocean sciences, droughts and floods, or space sciences. The texts are reviewed by both scientists and educators to make sure they are accurate and clear to their target audience. By sharing new and exciting geoscientific research with young kids, we hope to inspire them to develop an interest in the Earth, planetary and space sciences. In this presentation, we describe how the Planet Press idea came about, how the project is run, and the challenges and lessons learnt since the launch of this educational initiative in 2014. Planet Press, which has the support of the EGU Committee on Education, is made possible by the work of volunteer scientists and educators who review and translate the texts. We are grateful for the help of Jane Robb, former EGU Educational Fellow, with launching the project. Planet Press is inspired by Space Scoop (http://www.spacescoop.org/), an initiative by UNAWE, the EU-Universe Awareness organisation, that brings astronomy news to children every week.

  2. Catheter closure of patent foramen ovale in patients with cryptogenic cerebrovascular accidents: initial experiences in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Yasufumi; Akagi, Teiji; Nakagawa, Koji; Taniguchi, Manabu; Ueoka, Akira; Deguchi, Kentaro; Toh, Norihisa; Oe, Hiroki; Kusano, Kengo; Sano, Shunji; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies have shown an association between a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and cryptogenic cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), there has been no definitive control study that demonstrated the benefit of percutaneous device closure of a PFO compared to medical therapy in patients with CVA. Additionally, few clinical data exist for Japanese patients in this field. We demonstrate the initial experiences in catheter closure of a PFO as secondary prevention of CVA in Japan. Catheter closure of a PFO was attempted in 7 patients who were diagnosed with cryptogenic CVA. Mean age at the procedure was 54 ± 19 years. The presence of spontaneous interatrial right-to-left shunts was demonstrated by transesophageal contrast echocardiography without Valsalva maneuver in all of the patients. Amplatzer Cribriform device (n = 4) or Amplatzer PFO Occluder (n = 3) was used for the procedure and was successfully deployed. Device-related complications were not observed at the time of the procedure or during the follow-up period (mean period of 16 ± 9 months). Catheter closure of a PFO could be safely performed with Amplatzer Cribriform or Amplatzer PFO Occluder. This procedure may contribute to prevention of recurrent cryptogenic CVA in Japanese patients.

  3. Hegemonic structure of basic, clinical and patented knowledge on Ebola research: a US army reductionist initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, David; Ortega-Sánchez-de-Tagle, José; Castaño, Victor M

    2015-04-19

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola) is still a highly lethal infectious disease long affecting mainly neglected populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, this disease is now considered a potential worldwide threat. In this paper, we present an approach to understand how the basic, clinical and patent knowledge on Ebola is organized and intercommunicated and what leading factor could be shaping the evolution of the knowledge translation process for this disease. A combination of citation network analysis; analysis of Medical heading Subject (MeSH) and Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and quantitative content analysis for patents and scientific literature, aimed to map the organization of Ebola research was carried out. We found six putative research fronts (i.e. clusters of high interconnected papers). Three research fronts are basic research on Ebola virus structural proteins: glycoprotein, VP40 and VP35, respectively. There is a fourth research front of basic research papers on pathogenesis, which is the organizing hub of Ebola research. A fifth research front is pre-clinical research focused on vaccines and glycoproteins. Finally, a clinical-epidemiology research front related to the disease outbreaks was identified. The network structure of patent families shows that the dominant design is the use of Ebola virus proteins as targets of vaccines and other immunological treatments. Therefore, patents network organization resembles the organization of the scientific literature. Specifically, the knowledge on Ebola would flow from higher (clinical-epidemiology) to intermediated (cellular-tissular pathogenesis) to lower (molecular interactions) levels of organization. Our results suggest a strong reductionist approach for Ebola research probably influenced by the lethality of the disease. On the other hand, the ownership profile of the patent families network and the main researches relationship with the United State Army suggest a strong involvement of this military

  4. Hegemonic structure of basic, clinical and patented knowledge on Ebola research: a US army reductionist initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Fajardo-Ortiz, David; Ortega-S?nchez-de-Tagle, Jos?; Casta?o, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Background Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola) is still a highly lethal infectious disease long affecting mainly neglected populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, this disease is now considered a potential worldwide threat. In this paper, we present an approach to understand how the basic, clinical and patent knowledge on Ebola is organized and intercommunicated and what leading factor could be shaping the evolution of the knowledge translation process for this disease. Methodology A combina...

  5. Bringing the beneficiary closer: Explanations for volunteering time in Dutch private development initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinsbergen, S.; Tolsma, J.; Ruiter, S.

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, charitable behavior for international development purposes is subject to important changes. Whereas established development organizations suffer from a declining support base, private development initiatives (PDIs) that execute concrete, small-scale projects within direct

  6. Bring Hidden Hazards to the Publics Attention, Understanding, and Informed Decision by Coordinating Federal Education Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepold, F.; Karsten, J. L.; Wei, M.; Jadin, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the 2010 National Research Council’s America’s Climate Choices’ report on Informing Effective Decisions and Actions Related to Climate Change concluded; “Education and communication are among the most powerful tools the nation has to bring hidden hazards to public attention, understanding, and action.” They conclude that the “current and future students, the broader public, and policymakers need to understand the causes, consequences, and potential solutions to climate change, develop scientific thinking and problem-solving skills, and improve their ability to make informed decisions.” The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) works to integrate the climate related activities of these different agencies, with oversight from the Office of Science and Technology Policy and other White House offices. USGCRP’s focus is now on evaluating optimal strategies for addressing climate change risks, improving coordination among the Federal agencies, engaging stakeholders (including national policy leaders and local resource managers) on the research results to all and improving public understanding and decision-making related to global change. Implicit to these activities is the need to educate the public about the science of climate change and its consequences, as well as coordinate Federal investments related to climate change education. In a broader sense, the implementation of the proposed Interagency Taskforce on Climate Change Communication and Education will serve the evolving USGCRP mandates around cross-cutting, thematic elements, as recommended by the National Research Council (NRC, 2009) and the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Revised Research Plan: An update to the 2003 Strategic Plan (USGCRP, 2008), to help the Federal government “capitalize on its investments and aid in the development of increased climate literacy for the Nation.” This session will update the participants on the work to date and the near term coordinated plans

  7. Percutaneous transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus: Initial experience of Sohag University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Husein Ali

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Our initial results show that transcatheter occlusion of PDA using different types of devices is safe and effective with good midterm outcome alternative to surgery. Complications occurred in those with unfavorable duct anatomy and presence of pulmonary hypertension. Surgical backup was not important for such interventional procedures.

  8. Patents and nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, Raj

    2007-06-01

    Big pharma's business model, which relies on a few blockbusters to generate profits, is clearly broken. Patent expiration on numerous blockbusters in recent years is already altering the drug landscape. Drug companies are also facing other challenges that necessitate development and implementation of novel R&D strategies, including those that focus on nanotechnology and miniaturization. Clearly, there is enormous excitement and expectation regarding nanomedicine's potential impact. However, securing valid and defensible patent protection will be critical. Although early forecasts for nanomedicine commercialization are encouraging, there are numerous bottlenecks as well. One of the major hurdles is an emerging thicket of patent claims, resulting primarily from patent proliferation as well as continued issuance of surprisingly broad patents by the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). Adding to this confusion is the fact that the US National Nanotechnology Initiative's widely cited definition of nanotechnology is inaccurate and irrelevant from a nanomedicine perspective. It is also the cause of the inadequate patent classification system that was recently unveiled by the PTO. All of this is creating a chaotic, tangled patent landscape in various sectors of nanomedicine where the competing players are unsure of the validity and enforceability of numerous issued patents. If this trend continues, it could stifle competition and limit access to some inventions. Therefore, reforms are urgently needed at the PTO to address problems ranging from poor patent quality and questionable examination practices to inadequate search capabilities, rising attrition, poor employee morale and a skyrocketing patent application backlog. Only a robust patent system will stimulate the development of commercially viable nanomedicine products that can drastically improve a patient's quality of life and reduce healthcare costs.

  9. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    OpenAIRE

    Noruzi, Alireza; Abdekhoda, Mohammadhiwa

    2014-01-01

    Google Patents (www.google.com/patents) includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office), EPO (European Patent Office), etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several sug...

  10. Decoding Patent Information Using Patent Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen-Yuan; Yang, James Chingyu

    2008-01-01

    Patent information is a derivative product from the legal patent system. This information, which includes patent applications, patent descriptions, patent gazettes, patent abstracts, and patent data, is prepared in exact compliance with the regulations and specifications of the patent acts. Patent information, different from other published circulating information, is legally well protected. For convenience, this study classifies patent information into bibliographic and numeric data to creat...

  11. Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE): Enhancing Scientific Communication by Bringing STEM Research into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, D.; Radencic, S.; Funderburk, W. K.; Walker, R. M.; Jackson, B. S.; Dawkins, K. S.; Schmitz, D.; Bruce, L. M.; McNeal, K.

    2014-12-01

    INSPIRE, a five-year partnership between Mississippi State University and three local school districts, is designed to strengthen the communication skills of graduate Fellows in geosciences, physics, astronomy, chemistry, and engineering as they incorporate their research into inquiry-based lessons in 7th - 12th grade science and math classrooms. All lesson plans designed and taught by the graduate Fellows must include one or more connections to their research, and these connections must be demonstrated to the students during the lessons. International research partnerships with Australia, the Bahamas, England, and Poland provide valuable opportunities for graduate Fellows to conduct field work abroad and allow our partner teachers to have authentic research experiences that they can bring back to their classrooms. Program effectiveness has been examined using pre- and post-year attitudinal surveys, formal lesson plan documents, Fellow and teacher journals, focus group meetings with a project evaluator, and direct observation of Fellow-led classroom activities. Analyses of data gathered during the past four years of the partnership will be presented that examine the diversity in approaches taken by Fellows to communicate big ideas, changes in the ability of Fellows to find connections between their research and classroom lessons while keeping them aligned with state and national standards, and the quality of the mentorship provided to the Fellows by our partner teachers. INSPIRE is funded by the Graduate K-12 (GK-12) STEM Fellowship Program of the National Science Foundation (Award No. DGE-0947419).

  12. Spreadsheet Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Holger Stadel; Kirkbro, Malthe Ettrup; Sestoft, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This technical report gives a list of US patents and patent applications related to spreadsheet implementation technology. It is intended as a companion to the monograph Spreadsheet Implementation Technology (Peter Sestoft, MIT Press 2014), and substantially extends and updates an appendix from...

  13. Patent office governance and patent system quality

    OpenAIRE

    PICARD, Pierre M.; VAN POTTELSBERGHE DE LA POTTERIE, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses the role of quality in patent systems from the perspective of patent offices' behavior and organization. After documenting original stylized facts, the paper presents a model in which patent offices set patent fees and the quality level of their examination processes. Various objectives of patent offices' governors are considered. We show that the quality of the patent system is maximal for the patent offices that maximises either the social welfare or its own prof...

  14. Current Energy Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Current Energy Patents (CEP) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of the international patent literature, including patent applications, that concerns any aspect of energy production, conservation, and utilization

  15. Beyond Invention: Patent as Knowledge Law

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in Bilski v. Kappos, concerning the legal standard for determining patentable subject matter under the American Patent Act, is used as a starting point for a brief review of historical, philosophical, and cultural influences on subject matter questions in both patent and copyright law. The article suggests that patent and copyright law jurisprudence was constructed initially by the Court with explicit attention to the relationship between...

  16. Bringing politics and evidence together: policy entrepreneurship and the conception of the At Home/Chez Soi Housing First Initiative for addressing homelessness and mental illness in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnaughton, Eric; Nelson, Geoffrey; Goering, Paula

    2013-04-01

    An interesting question concerns how large-scale (mental) health services policy initiatives come into being, and the role of evidence within the decision-making process behind their origins. This paper illustrates the process by which motivation to address homelessness, in the context of the upcoming 2010 Vancouver Olympics, was leveraged into a pan-Canadian project including sites in Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal and Moncton, New Brunswick. The aim of the initiative was to implement and evaluate an intervention, Housing First, to provide housing and support to previously homeless people with mental illness. This qualitative case study was conducted between December 2009 and December 2010, employing grounded theory, and drawing on archival documents and interviews with 19 key informants involved in the conception of the project. Overall, the findings affirm that policy-making does not follow a rational, linear process of knowledge translation/exchange (KTE) and implementation, whereby evidence-based "products" are brought forward to address objectively determined needs and then "placed into decision-making events" (Lomas, 2007, p. 130). Instead, evidence-based policy making should be understood within the much more complex context of "policy entrepreneurship" (Kingdon, 2003; Mintrom & Norman, 2009) which entails taking advantage of windows of opportunity, and helping to bring together the "streams" of problems, politics, and policy ideas (Kingdon, 2003). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Leveraging Current Initiatives to Bring Earth and Space Science into Elementary and Early Childhood Classrooms: NGSS in the Context of the Classroom Technology Push

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Guffrey, H. A.

    2016-12-01

    Classroom teachers face many challenges today such as new standards, the moving targets of high stakes tests and teacher evaluations, inconsistent/insufficient access to resources and evolving education policies. Science education in the K-5 context is even more complex. NGSS can be intimidating, especially to K-5 educators with little science background. High stakes science tests are slow to catch up with newly drafted state level science standards, leaving teachers unsure about what to change and when to implement updated standards. Amid all this change, many schools are also piloting new technology programs. Though exciting, tech initiatives can also be overwhelming to teachers who are already overburdened. A practical way to support teachers in science while remaining mindful of these stressors is to design and share resources that leverage other K-5 school initiatives. This is often done by integrating writing or math into science learning to meet Common Core requirements. This presentation will suggest a method for bringing Earth and space science learning into elementary / early childhood classrooms by utilizing the current push for tablet technology. The goal is to make science integration reasonable by linking it to technology programs that are in their early stages. The roles and uses of K-5 Earth and space science apps will be examined in this presentation. These apps will be linked to NGSS standards as well as to the science and engineering practices. To complement the app resources, two support frameworks will also be shared. They are designed to help educators consider new technologies in the context of their own classrooms and lessons. The SAMR Model (Puentadura, 2012) is a conceptual framework that helps teachers think critically about the means and purposes of integrating technology into existing lessons. A practical framework created by the author will also be shared. It is designed to help teachers identify and address the important logistical

  18. Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus in children weighing 10 kg or less: Initial experience at Sohag University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Safaa; El Sisi, Amel

    2016-04-01

    To assess the challenges, feasibility, and efficacy of device closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in small children weighing ⩽10 kg for different types of devices used in an initial experience at Sohag University hospital. Between March 2011 and September 2014, 91 patients with PDA underwent transcatheter closure in our institute, among whom 54 weighed ⩽10 kg. All of these patients underwent transcatheter closure of PDA using either a Cook Detachable Coil, PFM Nit-Occlud, or Amplatzer duct occluder. A retrospective review of the treatment results and adverse events was performed. Successful device placement was achieved in 53/54 small children (98.1%). The median minimum PDA diameter was 2.4 mm [interquartile range (IQR, 1.8-3.5 mm), median weight 8 kg (IQR, 7-10 kg), and median age 10 months (IQR, 8-17 months)]. Mild aortic obstruction occurred in one case (1.9%), as the device became displaced towards the aorta after release. The device embolized in one case (1.9%) and no retrieval attempt was made. Five cases (9.3%) had minor vascular complications. With the current availability of devices for PDA closure, transcatheter closure of PDA is considered safe and efficacious in small children weighing ⩽10 kg with good mid-term outcome. The procedure had a low rate of high-severity adverse events even with the initial experience of the catheterization laboratory.

  19. A Database of EPO-Patenting Firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    The first section gives a brief introduction of the basic stages to be observed by the patent applicant from idea to the patent is granted. Section two presents three examples of how patents are registered in the online patent database INPADOC. Section three accounts for the initial analysis...... of the existing patent stock issued to firms with domicile in Denmark. Sections four and five report the basic characteristics of the EPO-patent sample and the procedures for linking the patent statistics to accounting data at the firm level, and finally they present the basic properties of the resulting database...

  20. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  1. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  2. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  3. Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education: STEM Graduate Students Bring Current Research into 7th-12th Grade Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radencic, S.; Dawkins, K. S.; Jackson, B. S.; Walker, R. M.; Schmitz, D.; Pierce, D.; Funderburk, W. K.; McNeal, K.

    2014-12-01

    Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE), a NSF Graduate K-12 (GK-12) program at Mississippi State University, pairs STEM graduate students with local K-12 teachers to bring new inquiry and technology experiences to the classroom (www.gk12.msstate.edu). The graduate fellows prepare lessons for the students incorporating different facets of their research. The lessons vary in degree of difficulty according to the content covered in the classroom and the grade level of the students. The focus of each lesson is directed toward the individual research of the STEM graduate student using inquiry based designed activities. Scientific instruments that are used in STEM research (e.g. SkyMaster weather stations, GPS, portable SEM, Inclinometer, Soil Moisture Probe, Google Earth, ArcGIS Explorer) are also utilized by K-12 students in the activities developed by the graduate students. Creativity and problem solving skills are sparked by curiosity which leads to the discovery of new information. The graduate students work to enhance their ability to effectively communicate their research to members of society through the creation of research linked classroom activities, enabling the 7-12th grade students to connect basic processes used in STEM research with the required state and national science standards. The graduate students become respected role models for the high school students because of their STEM knowledge base and their passion for their research. Sharing enthusiasm for their chosen STEM field, as well as the application techniques to discover new ideas, the graduate students stimulate the interests of the classroom students and model authentic science process skills while highlighting the relevance of STEM research to K-12 student lives. The measurement of the student attitudes about science is gathered from pre and post interest surveys for the past four years. This partnership allows students, teachers, graduate students, and the public to

  4. Patent Assessment Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Paul F.; Reitzig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The increasing number of patent applications worldwide and the extension of patenting to the areas of software and business methods have triggered a debate on "patent quality". While patent quality may have various dimensions, this paper argues that consistency in the decision making on the side...... of the patent office is one important dimension, particularly in new patenting areas (emerging technologies). In order to understand whether patent offices appear capable of providing consistent assessments of a patent's technological quality in such novel industries from the beginning, we study the concordance...... of the European Patent Office's (EPO's) granting and opoposition decisions for individual patents. We use the historical example of biotech patens filed between 1978 until 1986, the early stage of the industry. Our results indicate that the EPO shows systematically different assessments of technological quality...

  5. Patents in INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheel, H.; Breitfeld, B.

    1983-01-01

    Proceeding from the INIS rules for collecting, characterizing, and making available patent documents, results of an analysis are presented, which concern timeliness, origin, and classification of patents according to the INIS subject categories and the International Patent Classification. GDR's capabilities for SDI services and retrospective searches are outlined taking into account patents. For a selected subject area (IPC G21) the coverage of patents announced by INIS was found to be about 30%

  6. Reforming South Africa's procedures for granting patents to improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    requires SA to grant 20 years of patent protection on products and processes ... 2010 in SA. However, secondary, evergreening patents prevented generic versions from being brought to the market at a 30% price reduction when the initial patent expired. ... and new uses (new clinical uses of medicines other than those for.

  7. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Yan; Zhang Yulei; Fan Li; Chen Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the 'title-abstract' keyword search on esp-cenet 'worldwide' database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant 'home advantage.' The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices, particularly after 2005. Overlapping patent applications increased from none in 1991 to about 4% in 2000 and to about 27% in 2008. The largest share of equivalent nanotechnology patent applications (1,258) between two repositories was identified between the US and Japan patent offices.

  8. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yan; Zhang, Yulei; Fan, Li; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2010-03-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the "title-abstract" keyword search on esp@cenet "worldwide" database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant "home advantage." The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices, particularly after 2005. Overlapping patent applications increased from none in 1991 to about 4% in 2000 and to about 27% in 2008. The largest share of equivalent nanotechnology patent applications (1,258) between two repositories was identified between the US and Japan patent offices.

  9. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang Yan, E-mail: ydang@email.arizona.edu; Zhang Yulei, E-mail: ylzhang@email.arizona.edu; Fan Li, E-mail: fanli@email.arizona.edu; Chen Hsinchun, E-mail: hchen@eller.arizona.ed [University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management (United States); Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.go [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the 'title-abstract' keyword search on esp-cenet 'worldwide' database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant 'home advantage.' The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices, particularly after 2005. Overlapping patent applications increased from none in 1991 to about 4% in 2000 and to about 27% in 2008. The largest share of equivalent nanotechnology patent applications (1,258) between two repositories was identified between the US and Japan patent offices.

  10. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  11. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric'' and the subclasses Photoelectric,'' Testing,'' and Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s)'' or solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  12. Patentability of inventions under the Nigeria's patents and designs act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patentability of inventions under the Nigeria's patents and designs act: an examination. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The Nigerian Patent Registry refuses patent applications for Software or ...

  13. Litigation-proof patents: avoiding the most common patent mistakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldstein, Larry M

    2014-01-01

    "Litigation-Proof Patents: Avoiding the Most Common Patent Mistakes explains the principles of excellent patents, presents the ten most common errors in patents, and details a step-by-step method for avoiding these common errors...

  14. Modern evaluation of patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    The number of patents is not so important as the market value. The market value is especially important for licensing of patents, make-or-buy decisions for technology procurement, corporate finance. Patents can be used as collateral for financing. Patents and credit approvals: without patents only 46% and with patents 54%. The value share of knowledge-based components to industrial products already reached 50% and it is still rising. OECD called these developments under the slogan "knowledge economy”. German Norm-DIN 77100 provides a working method for monetary evaluation of a patent. The value of a patent arises from its use. A patent can be used to protect or to earn licensing revenues. An evaluation expertise is required in areas, such as marketing, finance, R & D and strategic planning. As an indicator of the value of a patent is often used the number of citations. The number of a patent citation refers to its meaning and value. Other indicators would be: size of the patent family, validity of the patent, result of objections against patent application, number and quality of claims. The analysis of 9.000 patents resulted that only 7.2% worth over 10 million euro and 68% below 1 million euro. The cost method: it is considered the cost that would be incurred for the development and patenting of a similar invention. The market method: are used the prices that have been achieved in comparable with recently transactions. The Income method: the potential reward is measured, which can arise from a patent. The evaluation will be in the following areas: legal status, technology, market conditions, finance and strategy. Each question relates to a different parameter of a value.

  15. A guide of patent map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    This book introduces application and characteristic of patent information, types of patent information data and research of patent information, arrangement of patent information and patent map, analysis of patent information, necessity, writing period arrangement way of patent map, cases of patent map on selection of task of research and development, system of research and development and application, examples of PM such as MAP by year, application, technique, Inventor, and claim point map and computerization like data arrangement of PM patent, collection of analysis range and item analysis of patent, cases and written reports on patent analysis.

  16. Initial experience with the 3.3 Fr Mongoose® pigtail catheter for aortic angiography during patent ductus arteriosus closure in small patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hena, Zachary; Sutton, Nicole J; Gates, Gregory J; Taragin, Benjamin H; Pass, Robert H

    2017-01-01

    Smaller femoral arterial sheaths may be associated with fewer vascular complications. The 3.3 Fr Mongoose ® Pediavascular pigtail catheter is a catheter that allows higher flow rates, potentially resulting in improved angiographic quality. We reviewed our experience with this small catheter during patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure. Review of patients ≤20 kg in whom the Mongoose ® catheter was used during PDA closure from 12/13 to 4/15. Angiographic efficacy and procedural details were compared to ten 4 Fr catheter cases. Comparisons were performed using Mann-Whitney U-test; P closure in small children.

  17. Patents for Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    PATENTS FOR SOLDIERS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment...COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015 – JUNE 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Patents for Soldiers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...protection of an innovative idea; that is, a patent . A Soldier’s pursuit of patents provides the Army with tangible and intangible benefits. There are on

  18. Bringing Your Baby Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Bringing Your Baby Home KidsHealth / For Parents / Bringing Your Baby Home What's ... recall your baby's seemingly endless crying episodes. The Home Front Introducing your baby to others at home ...

  19. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe: Applying the ‘medical methods exception’ to emerging technologies is based on the authors PhD dissertation, defended in March 2014, at the University of Copenhagen. The book debates restrictions on the patentability of medical methods in European Patent Law....... The main question addressed is whether it is viable and advisable the reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of Article 53 (c) EPC – a provision restricting the patenting of medical methods. The subject is approached by reference to emerging technologies, and using nanomedicine innovation...... as example and point of departure. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been challenging the patent system and exposing the need for re...

  20. Invention note and patent note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sung Su

    1997-09-01

    This book deals with origin of invention and term related patent and invention, making idea, brain storming, 10 laws of invention skill, attitude of inventors, invention order, making good inventions, patent system, preparation of application, procedure and method of patent, management of patent, patent and trademark office, patent lawyer, copyright, new intellectual property right, industrial property right, trademark, invasion of industrial property right, patent, Judgment, preparation of items, application of industrial property right and effect of inventor and related people.

  1. Bringing Europe and Third countries closer together through renewable Energies (BETTER). D2.1. EU RES cooperation initiatives with third Countries. North Africa, West Balkans and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu, A.; Dalla Longa, F.; Veum, K.C.; Straver, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Karakosta, C [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2013-03-15

    One major element of EU's external energy policy is expanding its energy norms and regulations to neighbourhood countries and beyond to achieve its energy policy priorities - safe, secure, affordable and sustainable energy supply. The importance of external energy policy has been acknowledged in the European Union's 2007 'energy package', and Second Strategic Energy Review and the European Commission's Communication on security of energy supply and international cooperation. The EU Renewable Energy Directive provides another element to crossborder cooperation by allowing Member States to fulfil their 2020 renewable energy (RES) targets by implementing joint projects in third countries. Even though the Member States' national renewable energy action plans (NREAPs) to reach their RES targets do not indicate any significant use of this mechanism, the RES Directive acknowledges the importance of renewable energy as part of external energy policy. This report aims at presenting the political framework between the EU and the BETTER project target regions (North Africa, Western Balkans and Turkey) with regards to (renewable) energy and the relevant initiatives and the projects to set the scene for RES joint projects as defined in Article 9 of the RES Directive. The main objectives of this study report are (1) to review energy treaties, agreements, and partnerships to assess their relevance to cooperation mechanism with Third countries; and (2) to analyse the relevance of the recent projects and initiatives to BETTER project and improve and trigger the communication and synergies between BETTER project partners and the relevant projects.

  2. Performance of Patenting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non-patenting...... firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political...

  3. Technology Transfer Center to Assume Patenting and Licensing Responsibilities | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) is undergoing a reorganization that will bring patenting and licensing responsibilities to the Shady Grove and Frederick offices by October 2015. The reorganization is a result of an effort begun in 2014 by NIH to improve the organizational structure of technology transfer at NIH to meet the rapid rate of change within science, technology, and industry, and to better align the science and laboratory goals with the licensing and patenting process.

  4. Data anonymization patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and (iv the topics emerging most often in patent titles. Patents from the PatSeer database relating to data anonymization from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. We used the longitudinal approach in combination with text mining techniques to develop a data anonymization patent landscape. The results indicated the following. The number of single patent families is growing with a high increase after 2010, thus indicating a positive trend in the area of patenting data anonymization solutions. The majority of patenting activities relate to the G Physics section. Organizations from the USA and Japan assigned the majority of patents related to data anonymization. The results of text mining indicate that the most often used word in titles of data anonymization patents are “anonym*, “method”, “data” and “system”. Several additional words that indicated the most frequent topics related to data anonymization were: “equipment”, “software”, “protection”, “identification”, or “encryption”, and specific topics such as “community”, “medical”, or “service”.

  5. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  6. Truth and falsity of patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gum Jin

    2006-10-01

    This book describes the process of the effect to build the business of patent strongly in difficult situation. The titles of this contents are finally, lawsuit if formed, the task of patent application introduction of tasks of patent negotiation, negotiation with Fujitsu, Mitsubishi, Oki and NEC, amalgamation between LG semiconductor and Hyundai Electronic Industry, life in incorporated company, current condition of application for a patent, the method to process strategy patent, how to make strong patent and effective negotiation strategy for a patent and strategy of patent application.

  7. Searching bioremediation patents through Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Patent classification systems have traditionally evolved independently at each patent jurisdiction to classify patents handled by their examiners to be able to search previous patents while dealing with new patent applications. As patent databases maintained by them went online for free access to public as also for global search of prior art by examiners, the need arose for a common platform and uniform structure of patent databases. The diversity of different classification, however, posed problems of integrating and searching relevant patents across patent jurisdictions. To address this problem of comparability of data from different sources and searching patents, WIPO in the recent past developed what is known as International Patent Classification (IPC) system which most countries readily adopted to code their patents with IPC codes along with their own codes. The Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) is the latest patent classification system based on IPC/European Classification (ECLA) system, developed by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) which is likely to become a global standard. This paper discusses this new classification system with reference to patents on bioremediation.

  8. The Battle for Patent Rights in Plant Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the occurrence and extent of oppositions initiated against plant biotechnology patents granted by the European Patent Office (EPO). The opposition mechanism is a legal procedure that allows any third party to challenge the validity of patents awarded by the EPO....... Results indicate that the opposition rate is far greater in plant biotechnology than in other emerging industries. Consistent with theoretical predictions, the empirical findings suggest that opposed patents are disproportionately those that score high on features that proxy for their “value” or “quality......”. In contrast to previous findings, however, the results show that large-volume applicants are more likely to be opposed. Because the boundaries of plant biotech patents are ill-defined, large patent portfolios do not promote cooperative behavior such as licensing or settlements. The analysis rejects...

  9. How Important are Noncorporate Patents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the innovative performances of noncorporate inventors using patent citations data from the European Patent Office. The results show that inventions patented outside an established corporate framework are on average less ‘important’ than corporate patents, but with large...... variations across technology classes. Patents applied for by independent inventors, start-ups and corporate firms are of comparable ‘quality’ in emerging technologies. The results also highlight that in these fields noncorporate patents are more ‘radical’ than corporate patents....

  10. Used, Blocking and Sleeping Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Giuri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs data from a large-scale survey (InnoS&T) of inventors in Europe, the USA, and Japan who were listed in patent applications filed at the European Patent Office with priority years between 2003 and 2005. We provide evidence regarding the reasons for patenting and the ways in which...... patents are being utilized. A substantial share of patents is neither used internally nor for market transactions, which confirms the importance of strategic patenting and inefficiency in the management of intellectual property. We investigate different types of unused patents—unused blocking patents...... and sleeping patents. We also examine the association between used and unused patents and their characteristics such as family size, scope, generality and overlapping claims, technology area, type of applicant, and the competitive environment from where these patents originate. We discuss our results...

  11. Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Figure A shows the interior of a normal heart and normal blood flow. ... PDA may shrink and go away. However, some children need treatment to close their PDAs. Some children ...

  12. DOE Patents Available for Licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuber, C.

    1981-01-01

    DOE Patents Available for Licensing (DOE PAL) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of the DOE patent literature, including patent applications, that concerns any apsect of energy production, conservation, and utilization. The citations are arranged by subject category. DOE is prepared to grant exclusive or nonexclusive, revocable licenses under DOE-owned US patents and patent applications in accordance with the provisions of 10CFR781

  13. Patent foramen ovale and migraine attacks: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Philomena Z Y; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2014-05-01

    Migraine headache and the presence of a patent foramen ovale have been associated with each other, although the precise pathophysiological mechanism(s) are uncertain. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the extent of patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and to determine whether closure of a patent foramen ovale would improve migraine headache. An electronic literature search was performed to select studies between January 1980 and February 2013 that were relevant to the prevalence of patent foramen ovale and migraine, and the effects of intervention(s) on migraine attacks. Of the initial 368 articles presented by the initial search, 20 satisfied the inclusion criteria assessing patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and 21 presented data on patent foramen ovale closure. In case series and cohort studies, patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs ranged from 14.6% to 66.5%. Case-control studies reported a prevalence ranging from 16.0% to 25.7% in controls, compared with 26.8% to 96.0% for migraine with aura. The extent of improvement or resolution of migraine headache attack symptoms was variable. In case series, intervention ameliorated migraine headache attack in 13.6% to 92.3% of cases. One single randomized trial did not show any benefit from patent foramen ovale closure. The data overall do not exclude the possibility of a placebo effect for resolving migraine following patent foramen ovale closure. This systematic review demonstrates firstly that migraine headache attack is associated with a higher prevalence of patent foramen ovale than among the general population. Observational data suggest that some improvement of migraine would be observed if the patent foramen ovale were to be closed. A proper assessment of any interventions for patent foramen ovale closure would require further large randomized trials to be conducted given uncertainties from existing trial data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Patent protection strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent.

  15. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    This work addresses the question of determining whether reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of article 53 (c) of the European Patent Convention is viable and advisable. It does so by reference to novel or resurfacing interpretative concerns connected with emerging technologies exemplif......This work addresses the question of determining whether reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of article 53 (c) of the European Patent Convention is viable and advisable. It does so by reference to novel or resurfacing interpretative concerns connected with emerging technologies...... exemplified by nanomedicine, while considering known interpretative issues and traditional objections to this provision. The debate concerning the patentability of ‘medical methods’ is multi-layered and complex. The ‘medical methods exception’ is a public policy mechanism, intended to introduce flexibility...... in the patent system in order to allow for the protection of core ethical values of society. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been...

  16. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions General Information and Correspondence § 1.5 Identification of patent, patent... benefit of the date of deposit with the United States Postal Service. If the returned correspondence is...

  17. The lifespan of semiconductor patents by assignee and patent characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shu-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the values of patents is critical for both managers and investors. Patent maintenance time is an ideal proxy indicator for evaluating commercial patent value. This study investigated the survival rates of patents in the semiconductor industry by using a survival analysis and incorporated a predictive model for patent maintenance times. The technical characteristics of the patents, the assignee factors, and the statuses of the patents were used as the predictive factors for patent maintenance time. The results revealed a small entity size and the number of assignees are the risk factors that increase the likelihood of the maintenance time of a patent decreasing. The litigation status of a patent and the number of its international patent classifications, claims, forward citations, and assignments were determined to be the protection factors that raise the likelihood of its maintenance time extending. Additionally, substantial differences were noted between small entities and nonsmall entities and between being litigated and not in their effects on the survival rates of patents. This study examined the factors that affect the survival rates of patents and provides a reference for the managers and investors of intellectual property rights to use when assessing technical and commercial patent values.

  18. Test Collections for Patent-to-Patent Retrieval and Patent Map Generation in NTCIR-4 Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Atsushi; Iwayama, Makoto; Kando, Noriko

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the Patent Retrieval Task in the Fourth NTCIR Workshop, and the test collections produced in this task. We perform the invalidity search task, in which each participant group searches a patent collection for the patents that can invalidate the demand in an existing claim. We also perform the automatic patent map generation task, in which the patents associated with a specific topic are organized in a multi-dimensional matrix.

  19. Strategic management and utilization of patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyeong Go; Yun, Gwon Jun

    1993-11-01

    This book deals with why does management of patents need?, system of management of patents with function and site of management of patents and system and composition, what does management of patents department do?, task like technical development, management regulation, patent information, management of patents in small business with technical development of small business, how does business manage the patents in real, introduction of management of patents in the U.S, Europe, Japan, and Korea, and management of patents as strategic management.

  20. Bringing Things Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundelach, Peter

    2017-01-01

    as facts, i.e. establish a scientific authoritative truth. In a case study from Denmark, the paper shows how the first survey - a study of seamstresses - was carried out by bringing several cognitive and organizational elements together: a network of researchers, a method for sampling, the construction...

  1. Comprehension and application of patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Nam

    2004-05-01

    This book gives descriptions of conception of patent information such as the meaning, characteristic, function, investigation and map of patent information, pro-patent period and patent strategy of the business. It also deals with comprehension of patent information like publication of nations, patent document, patent procedure in Korea, patent procedure in Japan, the U.S, and Europe, article and function of patent document, patent information survey such as writing of search keyword, procedure of the survey and search site of other countries, patent analysis and patent map.

  2. Patenting human genes: Chinese academic articles' portrayal of gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li

    2018-04-24

    The patenting of human genes has been the subject of debate for decades. While China has gradually come to play an important role in the global genomics-based testing and treatment market, little is known about Chinese scholars' perspectives on patent protection for human genes. A content analysis of academic literature was conducted to identify Chinese scholars' concerns regarding gene patents, including benefits and risks of patenting human genes, attitudes that researchers hold towards gene patenting, and any legal and policy recommendations offered for the gene patent regime in China. 57.2% of articles were written by law professors, but scholars from health sciences, liberal arts, and ethics also participated in discussions on gene patent issues. While discussions of benefits and risks were relatively balanced in the articles, 63.5% of the articles favored gene patenting in general and, of the articles (n = 41) that explored gene patents in the Chinese context, 90.2% supported patent protections for human genes in China. The patentability of human genes was discussed in 33 articles, and 75.8% of these articles reached the conclusion that human genes are patentable. Chinese scholars view the patent regime as an important legal tool to protect the interests of inventors and inventions as well as the genetic resources of China. As such, many scholars support a gene patent system in China. These attitudes towards gene patents remain unchanged following the court ruling in the Myriad case in 2013, but arguments have been raised about the scope of gene patents, in particular that the increasing numbers of gene patents may negatively impact public health in China.

  3. Are biosimilars patentable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Damian; Parker, Jayson; Morgan, Max

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores whether, and under what circumstances, a biosimilar approved in the United States under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act (hereafter 'BPCIA') can be patented. The possibility that a biosimilar product could have meaningful patent protection arises from specific requirements for biosimilarity under the BPCIA, which account for the fact that manufacturing processes of biologics are inherently imprecise. The requirements for biosimilar approval may provide sufficient leeway to a biosimilar applicant to patent structural or formulation differences that provide non-clinical but business-relevant advantages over the reference molecule, such as improved shelf-life or ease of manufacture, without compromising clinical biosimilarity. Examination of the BPCIA and related Acts, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance papers, case law, patent database searching, and relevant scholarly articles. Legislative and regulatory requirements for the approval of a biosimilar under the BPCIA are focused on clinical results and allow a degree of leeway for differences to exist between a biosimilar's structure and non-clinical components and those of the biosimilar's reference molecule. This leeway can be exploited to provide the biosimilar with potentially patentable business-relevant advantages over its reference product while maintaining clinical biosimilarity to the reference product.

  4. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  5. The fallacy of Software Patents

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Software patents are usually used as argument for innovation but do they really promote innovation? Who really benefits from software patents? This talk attempts to show the problems with software patents and how they can actually harm innovation having little value for software users and our society in general.

  6. Patent Searching for Librarians and Inventors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Timothy Lee

    Information on patents is provided for librarians and laypersons requiring an understanding of the system and the processes involved. Chapter 1 discusses successful patents; terms and concepts; patent types; copyright; trademark; requirements; patent examiners; patent pending; expiration; patentee and assignee; and reissued patents. Chapter 2…

  7. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  8. Patent urachus repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair - series—Normal anatomy URL of this ...

  9. Patent ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent ductus arteriosus URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  10. Patent urachus repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  11. METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR PATENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To develop a proposal for metrics for patents to be applied in assessing the postgraduate programs of Medicine III - Capes. From the reading and analysis of the 2013 area documents of all the 48 areas of Capes, a proposal for metrics for patents was developed to be applied in Medicine III programs. Except for the areas Biotechnology, Food Science, Biological Sciences III, Physical Education, Engineering I, III and IV and Interdisciplinary, most areas do not adopt a scoring system for patents. The proposal developed was based on the criteria of Biotechnology, with adaptations. In general, it will be valued, in ascending order, the deposit, the granting and licensing/production. It will also be assigned higher scores to patents registered abroad and whenever there is a participation of students. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection Technical Production/Patents. The percentage of 10% for academic programs and 40% for Masters Professionals should be maintained. The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches 400 points or over; Good, between 200 and 399 points; Regular, between 71 and 199 points; Weak up to 70 points; Insufficient, no punctuation. Desenvolver uma proposta de métricas para patentes a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III - Capes. A partir da leitura e análise dos documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes, desenvolveu-se uma proposta de métricas para patentes, a ser aplicada na avaliação dos programas da área. Constatou-se que, com exceção das áreas Biotecnologia, Ciência de Alimentos, Ciências Biológicas III, Educação Física, Engenharias I, III e IV e Interdisciplinar, a maioria não adota sistema de pontuação para patentes. A proposta desenvolvida baseou-se nos critérios da Biotecnologia, com adaptações. De uma forma geral, foi valorizado, em ordem crescente, o depósito, a concessão e o

  12. Bringing science to business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemetti, Paul

    2005-06-01

    Bringing science to business seems rather straight forward. Technology is constantly moving forward and new inventions are being brought into the market place. Science parks and technology parks have sprung out all around the globe competing against each other and trying to keep their own doors open by bringing in new business, thereby creating much needed income to keep their operations moving forward. However, only a small handful ofthese centers around the world can truly be considered successful. It is the relationship between the scientists, start-up business, local universities, local government, and invited bigger business that allows the parks to succeed. The individual scientist wishing to enter into business or just hoping to get his invention into the pool of potential ideas; which might end up in the hands of an entrepreneur or an established company, is not always that simple. Universal success principles must be embraced to ensure success. One must believe in oneself and to strive for excellence. One must be able to see the other persons viewpoint and adapt and change his behavior in order to succeed. One must learn to create trust as well as learn to trust. Furthermore, one must learn to focus on the why of the process and not on the how. A market must be identified and benefits of local area must be sold to potential investor or business partners. A local success has in part to do with local cooperation.

  13. Decoding gene patents in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denley, Adam; Cherry, James

    2014-10-03

    Patents directed to naturally occurring genetic material, such as DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and genes, in an isolated or purified form have been granted in Australia for many years. This review provides scientists with a summary of the gene patent debate from an Australian perspective and specifically reviews how the various levels of the legal system as they apply to patents-the Australian Patent Office, Australian courts, and Australian government-have dealt with the issue of whether genetic material is proper subject matter for a patent. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  14. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the patent literature, in particular, it focuses on optimal patent policies. We compare two situations. The first where the government only has a single policy tool to design the optimal patent policy, namely the optimal patent length. In the second situation......, the government uses two policy tools, the optimal breadth and length. We show that theoretical models give very different answers to what is the optimal patent policy. In particular, we show that the optimal patent policy depends among othet things on the price elasticity of demand, the intersectoral elasticity...... of research outputs as well as the degree of compettition in the R&D sector. The actual law on intellectual property, which advocates a unique patent length of 20 years is in general not supported by theoretical models....

  15. Patenting Human Genes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    In accordance with the concept of the book and the assigned scope of the contribution, this chapter describes the European law with respect to the patent-eligibility of isolated DNA sequences. This chapter will further include a brief comparison with recent developments from the US and Australia....... It will, however, not focus on the important debates regarding the patent-eligibility of other biological material, diagnostic methods patents (as data aggregators) or abstract ideas which will be addressed by other contributions. Moreover, the analysis will merely concentrate on patent-eligibility. Other...... patentability requirement will only be briefly touched upon in the discussion part. The paper starts out in section 1.5.2 by discussing the patent-eligibility of isolated human DNA sequences on the European national level and under the Biotechnology Directive. Then the patent-eligibility of isolated human DNA...

  16. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... for the years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  17. Lovely but dangerous: The impact of patent citations on patent duration

    OpenAIRE

    Maurseth, Per Botolf

    2001-01-01

    - What is the impact of patent citations on patent renewal behaviour? Patent citations are commonly used as an indicator of technology spillovers. For cited patents therefore, patent citations have a potentially ambiguous impact. On the one hand, patent citations may indicate a scientific breakthrough, a high value of the cited patent and therefore a long survival period. On the other hand, patent citations may indicate competing innovations that render the cited patent obsolete. By discri...

  18. Bringing "indigenous" ownership back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    policies thrive again, this time disguised in terms such as ‘empowerment’, but just as politicised as in the 1970s. Zambia is at the heart of this development. In the light of liberalisation, booming commodity prices and the increasing importance of Chinese investors, this article seeks to further our...... understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related...... to the critique of the growing foreign dominance over the economy, and in particular of the upsurge in Chinese investments....

  19. Constructing an Efficient and Balanced European Patent System: “Muddling through”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses ways to construct a more efficient and balanced European patent system. It identifies and describes challenges relating to innovation, to non-economic issues and to governance. In order to improve the patent system, a cautious approach of “Muddling through” is recommended. More...... concretely, the paper puts forward some of the solutions proposed in the STOA Report to the European Parliament on “Policy options for the improvement of the European patent system” and suggest initiatives such as the insertion of a mission statement in the EPC, improvement of patent quality, increasing...... access to patented inventions and enhancement of governance....

  20. Recent patents on flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta, Gokhale; Bansal, Y K; Sandhu, S S

    2013-12-01

    Flavonoids are substances which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They occur in considerable quantities in common food products, spices and beverages. Interest of researchers has been greatly enhanced towards therapeutic potential of flavonoids in last some years. This review summarizes important patents pertaining to recent biotechnological techniques applied for the production, analysis of biosynthetic pathways, effects and applications of different flavonoids. For systematic studies investigations which have been published in the form of patents, are classified in different sectors like biosynthesis, medical application, antimicrobial activity, alteration of flower color, industrial application, cosmetics, food and plant tissue culture. A number of activities have been observed in each sector with vast area of research on flavonoids.

  1. Bringing up Gender: Academic Abjection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Emily F.

    2014-01-01

    The principal questions raised in this article are: what does it mean to bring up the topic of gender in a space where it is not known, and how can this moment of bringing up gender--or not bringing it up--be conceptualised? The article departs from the thoughts and questions that were provoked by an interview conducted with a Gender Studies…

  2. How Patent Function Integration with R&D Influence the Value of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn

    Patent strategies are endogenous to firm appropriability. However, to what extent does firm’s R&D teams’ engagement with patent experts influence the value of patents? We estimate the relationship between firm’s R&D use of patent functions on patent value in Biotech firms. Controlling...... for characteristics of scientific team, firm effects, and other patent value indicators, we find that having a firm specific (in-house) internal patent function is a driver of patent value. In addition, we find that the way in which patent functions create patent value differs dependent on whether the firm has...... internal patent function or not. In-house patent functions create value through narrow patents, whereas, firms with no in-house patent function create valuable patents by the use of broader scoped patents. Our results point to a strong effect of firm specific patent functions, but also explain how firms...

  3. Science of invention patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong Taek; Park, Su Dong

    1999-02-01

    This book tells science of invention patent about new way of invention and creative solution for problems, basic conception of TRIZ, resolution of physical contradictory and technical contradictory, development of system and types of evolution, change of thinking for solving the problems, analysis of structure for problem solution, problem solution using scientific phenomenon and effect, use of standard solution and algorithm of creative problem solution.

  4. Do Military Personnel Patent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    following questions: In what fields are military personnel most likely to patent, and how do demographics, such as age, race, and gender , along with...technologies, which have transformed how the United States wages war. DARPA continues to develop new technologies and capabilities for the U.S. military today...build the European navies so it instead decided to utilize an innovative ship design to exploit a gap specific to the British Royal Navy. The six

  5. A Research on Enterprise Patent Protection and Innovation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Sumei

    2017-01-01

    In the 21st century, high-tech serves as the foundation of competitiveness for the whole world, at the same time, intellectual property, especially the patent has become an effective means for an enterprise to participate in the international competition, and intellectual property is also the key strategic resource to gain competitive advantage. In effect, the competition amongst enterprises is mainly concerning the competition of patent technology. Those enterprises with a large number of high level professional powers gain the initiative edge of survival. Therefore, it is vital for the enterprise to adopt the patent protection and innovation strategy, so as to elevate the survival ability and competitiveness of an enterprise.

  6. Bring learning into action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemieke van den Berg

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: This critical reflection is about the positive effects for educational and research settings of participation in a two-day programme entitled ‘Using participatory action research and appreciative inquiry to research healthcare practice’. Aims: To reflect on the journey of positive developments in research and education that started with participation in this programme. Using Caring Conversations (Dewar, 2011 as a reflective framework of questions, this article discusses the journey in order to encourage others to consider the approach of appreciative inquiry to bring to life the concept of co-creation in research and education. Conclusions and implications for practice: Participation in this programme has led to the implementation of a variety of actions in educational and research settings. Central to all these actions is an appreciative approach to co-creation as a counterpart to today’s prevailing problem-based viewpoint. A possible factor behind these developments was the power of vulnerability experienced during the programme, a shared process of transformational learning. Implications for practice: This critical reflection: Provides an invitation to shift from a problem-based focus to a positive revolution Provides an appreciative reflective story about the power of vulnerability as an inspiration for others to move out of their comfort zone and seek to discover their own exceptionality Supports a shift from a facilitator-led to a co-creation approach in doing research and teaching with older adults

  7. Decoding Gene Patents in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Denley, Adam; Cherry, James

    2015-01-01

    Patents directed to naturally occurring genetic material, such as DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and genes, in an isolated or purified form have been granted in Australia for many years. This review provides scientists with a summary of the gene patent debate from an Australian perspective and specifically reviews how the various levels of the legal system as they apply to patents—the Australian Patent Office, Australian courts, and Australian government—have dealt with the issue of whether genetic m...

  8. Patents: Recent Trends and Puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Griliches

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical data on patenting in the United States with special reference to the last 20 years and their potential relation, if any, to the recent productivity slowdown. Two Points are made: Patents are not a "constant-yardstick" indicator of either inventive input or output. Moreover, they are "produced" by a governmental agency which goes through its own budgetary and inefficiency cycles. The paper shows that the appearance of an absolute decline in patenting in the 19...

  9. Bringing Gravity to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, P.; Shelhamer, M.

    2016-01-01

    This panel will present NASA's plans for ongoing and future research to define the requirements for Artificial Gravity (AG) as a countermeasure against the negative health effects of long-duration weightlessness. AG could mitigate the gravity-sensitive effects of spaceflight across a host of physiological systems. Bringing gravity to space could mitigate the sensorimotor and neuro-vestibular disturbances induced by G-transitions upon reaching a planetary body, and the cardiovascular deconditioning and musculoskeletal weakness induced by weightlessness. Of particular interest for AG during deep-space missions is mitigation of the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome that the majority of astronauts exhibit in space to varying degrees, and which presumably is associated with weightlessness-induced fluid shift from lower to upper body segments. AG could be very effective for reversing the fluid shift and thus help prevent VIIP. The first presentation by Dr. Charles will summarize some of the ground-based and (very little) space-based research that has been conducted on AG by the various space programs. Dr. Paloski will address the use of AG during deep-space exploration-class missions and describe the different AG scenarios such as intra-vehicular, part-of-vehicle, or whole-vehicle centrifugations. Dr. Clement will discuss currently planned NASA research as well as how to coordinate future activities among NASA's international partners. Dr. Barr will describe some possible future plans for using space- and ground-based partial-G analogs to define the relationship between physiological responses and G levels between 0 and 1. Finally, Dr. Stenger will summarize how the human cardiovascular system could benefit from intermittent short-radius centrifugations during long-duration missions.

  10. Bring back the Glory!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Q. Whitman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, drafted in response to Dr. Kiesow’s question, »Wozu Rechtsgeschichte?«, begins with a backward glance at the nineteenth century, when legal history played a leading role in the intellectual life of the western world. Since those great days, when legal history attracted figures like Karl Marx and Max Weber, the field has fallen on hard times. This is in large part the inevitable consequence of the declining prestige of law itself, which no longer seems to matter in the way that it did in the nineteenth century. Nevertheless, the paper pleads for something of a Return of Grand Theory in legal history. It is true that we can never bring back the glory years. But we can be figures of importance in the public debates of our time if we remain mindful of what it is that gives law itself its enduring social importance. Law reflects, in an unsystematic but telling way, some of the basic value commitments of society-commitments such as the contemporary American commitment to the free market, or the contemporary European commitment to »human dignity«. Law also reflects stylized histories of a given society’s past-histories like that of the American triumph over race slavery, or the European triumph over Nazism. These value commitments and stylized histories are the natural territory of legal historians, who can best claim a role for themselves in public debate if they think of themselves as historians of values, rather than as historians of social realities.

  11. The role of patent and non-patent databases in patent research in universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstaya, A. M.; Suslina, I. V.; Tolstaya, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    This studies deal with the description and systematization of the popular patent retrieval resources. The importance of the non-patent information when conducting patent research for the intellectual property created in educational and scientific activity of the university is highlighted. The differences in the patent and non-patent information are found out. Based on the databases` analysis the authors conducted the patent research on "Wireless endoscopic capsules" (development of the NRNU MEPhI). This study can be used to facilitate the university work on the new product development in order to improve the efficiency of the process of the commercialization of the intellectual activity results, including the entering the international market.

  12. Bring in the experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, Susan

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the outsourcing of water treatment by the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd.'s (BNFL) Bradwell-on-Sea nuclear power plant to Ecolochem to avoid the large initial investment cost and reduce maintenance costs. Details are given of the design of a cascade system to produce demineralized water for nuclear cooling by Ecolochem who own, operate and maintain the water treatment plant. (UK)

  13. Bringing physics to life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    `I'm doing a physics that is pulling me towards it.' `I like the course being more up to date.' `You learn the physics but you also think ``well I actually see a point in knowing this physics''.' `This course presents physics in a more interesting way as it focuses on practical activity and applications of physics.' `The industrial visit gives students the opportunity to look for science in action.' These are just some of the comments from students and teachers piloting the new Salters Horners Advanced Physics course (SHAP). Contexts and applications drive the course, providing interest and motivation for students and alerting them to some of the many career areas that involve physics. For example, the operation of a CD player leads to a study of waves and superposition; archaeological surveying and analysis brings in d.c. circuitry and x-ray diffraction; consideration of safety in rail transport involves learning about mechanics and electromagnetism. The course is produced by a team directed from the University of York and funded by a consortium of industrial and charitable sponsors. It is examined by Edexcel and support materials are published by Heinemann. The pilot, involving some 50 centres, began in September 1998 with the new subject core and the AS qualification intermediate between GCSE and the full A-level standard. The course has been fully approved by QCA, and from September 2000 it will be open to all. For comprehensive information about SHAP, visit the project's website: www.york.ac.uk/org/seg/salters/physics . Pilot materials for students, teachers and technicians are available from Heinemann. They will be re-edited and published in full colour for September 2000. Members of the team will attend the annual ASE meeting in Leeds this month; there will be a talk and a hands-on workshop where student activities can be sampled. Materials will be on view at the University of York stand. In addition, Edexcel and the York team are running a series of

  14. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivi?re, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely...

  15. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted...

  16. Online Patent Searching: The Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaback, Stuart M.

    1983-01-01

    Considers patent subject searching capabilities of major online databases, noting patent claims, "deep-indexed" files, test searches, retrieval of related references, multi-database searching, improvements needed in indexing of chemical structures, full text searching, improvements needed in handling numerical data, and augmenting a…

  17. Pesticides and the Patent Bargain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermann, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enlarge the pool of knowledge available in the public domain, temporary exclusive rights (i.e. patents) are granted to innovators who are willing to fully disclose the information needed to reproduce their invention. After the 20-year patent protection period elapses, society should be

  18. Patent arterial duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robin P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes. Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of

  19. Patents for critical pharmaceuticals: the AZT case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackiron, E

    1991-01-01

    Patents and other statutory types of market protections are used in the United States to promote scientific research and innovation. This incentive is especially important in research intensive fields such as the pharmaceutical industry. Unfortunately, these same protections often result in higher monopoly pricing once a successful product is brought to market. Usually this consequence is viewed as the necessary evil of an incentive system that encourages costly research and development by promising large rewards to the successful inventor. However, in the case of the AIDS drug Zidovudine (AZT), the high prices charged by the pharmaceutical company owning the drug have led to public outcry and a re-examination of government incentive systems. This Note traces the evolution of these incentive programs--the patent system, and, to a lesser extent, the orphan drug program--and details the conflicting interests involved in their development. It then demonstrates how the AZT problem brings the interest of providing inventors with incentives for risky innovative efforts into a sharp collision with the ultimate goal of such systems: ensuring that the public has access to the resulting products at a reasonable price. Finally, the Note describes how Congress and the courts have attempted to resolve these problems in the past, and how they might best try to solve the AZT problem in the near future.

  20. Bringing Geoethics into Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Bobrowsky, Peter; Kieffer, Susan; Peppoloni, Silvia; Tinti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The responsibility and role of the scientific community in the proper exploitation of natural resources, in the defense against natural hazards and in building geoeducational strategies for the population are key themes of Geoethics. But, what is the awareness among Geoscientists about the importance of an ethical debate within Earth Sciences? With the goal to increase this awareness, in 2012 the IAPG - International Association for Promoting Geoethics was founded (http://www.iapg.geoethics.org). The IAPG aims to join forces of geoscientists all over the world, by creating an international, multidisciplinary and scientific platform for discussing on ethical problems and dilemmas in Earth Sciences, for promoting Geoethics themes through scientific publications and conferences, for strengthening the research base on Geoethics, for focusing on case-studies to be taken as models for the development of effective and operative strategies. The IAPG has obtained the status of affiliated organization by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), it is among the collaborative organizations of the IUGS - Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism (TGGGP), and it has been recognized as an International Associate Organization of the American Geosciences Institute (AGI). The IAPG network is growing fast and currently it is going to reach 500 members in more than 75 countries in 5 continents. The IAPG is working to offer its contribution in building a framework of values for a new model of development, more respectful towards the Geosphere. After 2 years of successful results and numerous ongoing activities, IAPG appears to be on the right way in promoting new ideas to research and practice geosciences. This work aims to give an overview on the IAPG activities, to illustrate the IAPG impact on public through web-statistics, to present publications, events and other initiatives on Geoethics carried out by its members.

  1. Economic Justification of Patents and Exceptions to Patentability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The present article is the conclusion of a review of economic justifications for patent rights conducted with the objective of determining whether such arguments are per se capable of sustaining the existence of a different patentability regime for inventions of methods for treatment and diagnostic...... methods (art.53 (c) European Patent Convention). It starts by exploring the normative background and summarily describes the different types of claims allowed under the current legal framework and their differences. The following sections will describe and apply the main economic arguments sustaining...... patent rights inventions of methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. These reasoning will be later confronted with contra-arguments. This piece will finalize with the formulation of conclusions extracted from the previous debate, inter-alia that economic reasoning does not per se sustain...

  2. Technology Clusters Exploration for Patent Portfolio through Patent Abstract Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabjo Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores technology clusters through patent analysis. The aim of exploring technology clusters is to grasp competitors’ levels of sustainable research and development (R&D and establish a sustainable strategy for entering an industry. To achieve this, we first grouped the patent documents with similar technologies by applying affinity propagation (AP clustering, which is effective while grouping large amounts of data. Next, in order to define the technology clusters, we adopted the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF weight, which lists the terms in order of importance. We collected the patent data of Korean electric car companies from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO to verify our proposed methodology. As a result, our proposed methodology presents more detailed information on the Korean electric car industry than previous studies.

  3. Tracking U.S. biofuel innovation through patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Jeff; Sperling, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We use biofuel patents as a proxy for biofuel innovation. Through use of natural language processing and machine-learning algorithms, we expand patent classification capabilities to better explain the history of biofuels innovation. Results indicate that after the initial establishment of the U.S. biofuel industry, there were two surges in biofuel innovation: 1995–2000, characterized by heavy patenting by 1st generation (food-based) biofuel firms; and 2005–2010, characterized by a second surge of innovation by those same large firms, complemented by a large number of biotechnology firms producing a relatively small number of 2nd generation biofuel patents. Our analysis corroborates the widespread understanding that the first surge in biofuel innovation was linked to innovations in agriculture, and that the second surge of biofuel innovation was driven by demand-pull policies mandating and incentivizing biofuels. But the slow emergence of a 2nd generation cellulose-based biofuels industry, far slower than called for by policy, suggests that technology-push policies more focused on R&D and investment may be needed to accelerate the commercialization of 2nd generation biofuels. - Highlights: • Patenting activity closely corresponds to sociotechnical shifts in biofuel innovation. • The Renewable Fuel Standard likely contributed to the rise in biofuel patenting activity after 2005. • 2nd generation biofuel technology innovation appears lacking compared to 1st generation technologies.

  4. Patent protection for microbial technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkow, Jacob S

    2017-11-01

    Microbial technologies often serve as the basis of fundamental research tools in molecular biology. These present a variety of ethical, legal and social issues concerning their patenting. This commentary presents several case studies of these issues across three major microbiological tools: CRISPR, viral vectors and antimicrobial resistance drugs. It concludes that the development of these technologies-both scientifically and commercially-depend, in part, on the patent regime available for each, and researchers' willingness to enforce those patents against others. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Patenting Biotechnological Inventions in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Raspor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The patent system has been able to provide the protection for the achievements of different technologies and in that way it has supported further development and growth of the industry where those achievements were implemented. Modern technologies like information technology and biotechnology with genetic engineering that appeared in the 70s have overgrown the frames of the existing patent system because of their exponential development during the last thirty years. Industry that invests a huge amount of money in these technologies, especially in the field of biotechnology, where the results are very uncertain, has started to claim changes in the patent system.

  6. Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

  7. 78 FR 31885 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal...

  8. 78 FR 7759 - Patent Cooperation Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Cooperation Treaty ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal...

  9. 75 FR 20561 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450...

  10. 76 FR 72000 - Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts AGENCY: U.S... Consultants, 1255 Roberts Boulevard NW., Suite 200, Kennesaw, GA 30144, on U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/133,666, and a divisional patent application to be filed shortly at the Patent and Trademark...

  11. The global role of the European patent office, challenges and skills in the integration process; El papel global de la oficina Europea de Patentes retos y competencias en el proceso de integracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistelli, B.

    2011-07-01

    The European Patent Office is one of the five main in the world. As such, it is involved in numerous initiatives aimed at meeting the challenges posed by the increase in the number of patent applications worldwide. To this end, the EPO co-operates closely with the patent offices in its member states and around the world. These initiatives aim at enhancing efficiency whilst maintaining very high quality standards. (Author) 4 refs.

  12. Research method of nuclear patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Dan; Gao An'na; Sun Chenglin; Wang Lei; You Xinfeng

    2010-01-01

    When faced with a huge amount of nuclear patent information, the key to effective research include: (1) Choose convenient way to search, quick access to nuclear technology related patents; (2) To overcome the language barrier, analysis the technical content of patent information; (3) Organize the publication date of retrieved patent documents, analysis the status and trends of nuclear technology development; (4) Research the patented technology of main applicants; (5) Always pay attention to the legal status of patent information, free use the invalid patents, at the same time avoid the patent infringement. Summary, patent information is important to obtain the latest technical information source, and the research work of patent information is a comprehensive understanding and mastery way for advanced nuclear technology. (authors)

  13. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  14. Religious coalition opposes gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1995-05-19

    The biotechnology industry is concerned about a coalition of mainstream religious leaders, working with Jeremy Rifkin of the Foundation of Economic Trends, who oppose the patenting of human and animal life forms, body parts, and genes. The coalition called a press conference on May 18 to ask the government to prohibit the current patenting practices for genetic engineering. The biotechnology industry argues that patents indicate that a company's research tool has significant value, and encourages capitalists to invest their dollars in the development of new treatments for diseases. They also argue that the 29 biotech drugs that are on the market have been developed as a result of patents on genes. Although most business leaders are united in opposing restrictions, many scientists are divided, citing both religious and scientific reasons.

  15. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  16. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks of the current method, this study proposes a novel patent analysis method, called the intelligent patent network analysis method, to make a visual network with great precision. Based on artificial intelligence techniques, the proposed method provides an automated procedure for searching patent documents, extracting patent keywords, and determining the weight of each patent keyword in order to generate a sophisticated visualization of the patent network. This study proposes a detailed procedure for generating an intelligent patent network that is helpful for improving the efficiency and quality of patent analysis. Furthermore, patents in the field of Carbon Nanotube Backlight Unit (CNT-BLU were analyzed to verify the utility of the proposed method.

  17. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Patent Term Extension of Patent Term Due to Regulatory Review § 1.710 Patents subject to extension... primarily manufactured using recombinant DNA, recombinant RNA, hybridoma technology, or other processes...

  18. Bring Your Own Device or Bring Your Own Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxman, Kumar; Holt, Craig

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory case study was to investigate the utilisation of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) technologies in the classroom to determine if students and teachers perceive that the use of a digital device increased a learner's access to learning opportunities within the classroom, and, if the use of digital devices increased their…

  19. Patents, Inducement Prizes, and Contestant Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome; Davis, Lee N.

    2006-01-01

    Debate over the merits of patents versus inducement prizes has tended to ignore the signaling roles of patents, and totally ignores the impact of patent signaling on prize contests. This paper asks: How does patent signaling affect the strategic choices of firms considering entering prize contests......? First, we consider contests that do not allow patenting, then contests that do. If patenting is not allowed, we argue, patent-holders, both internal and external to the contest, can adversely impact prize contests by claiming prize winner violation of their patents, and suing for damages. The likelihood...... of such challenges being made can deter entry, particularly in contests requiring large sunk costs. Furthermore, the firm's decisionmaking process will discriminate against entering prize contests and favor R&D projects with patentable outcomes. Together, these problems may circumscribe any future wider role...

  20. A Survival Analysis on Fuel Cell Technology Patent Maintenance and Values Exploration between 1976 and 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seng-Su Tsang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cell R&D activities desirably arrive in patents; the costly maintenance fee challenges managers as well as researchers to whether or not renew existing patents. The key is, will the fuel cell patent’s value be worth renewing? Thus assessment of patent value is essential. Our study focus online searching was made available after 1976, as the initial year to conduct the patent search. Up to 2001, there are 2269 patents classified in the H01M 008/00~H01M 008/24 category, which is the category concerning fuel cell under the classification of the International Patent Classification. Effective exploitation of technology values is subject to the complementarities of organizational resources. The present study used the emerging technology of Fuel Cells as an example to show that firms may commercialize the values of technology according to their organizational resources. By aligning firms’ patenting strategies and the imparities between book values and market values this study concludes a technological ambidexterity with respect to firms’ technology development. The exploitative firms tend to file patents to defend their leadership in the product market as a result their technology is constrained within a firm’s boundaries. The results show that patent renewing decisions are consequence of firm’s constraints of complementary resources.

  1. Policy options for the improvement of the European patent system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    This project has been initiated - and this report written - in order to assess how the European patent system best fulfils its objective of defining the exclusive rights granted to inventors so as to further the goal of enhancing social and economic welfare by means of encouraging inventions...... and their distribution. Finding the right balance is important, since the reward offered to inventors in the form of exclusive rights provides the incentive to innovate, but if the reward is too excessive, it may hamper innovation and the distribution of knowledge. The general premise of this report is that the European...... patent system has so far been a positive factor in promoting innovation. Therefore, it is not the objective of the report to evaluate whether such system should or should not exist. Rather, the report works from the starting position that the European patent system may be operating in certain ways...

  2. IMPROVING (SOFTWARE) PATENT QUALITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Arti K

    2013-11-24

    The available evidence indicates that patent quality, particularly in the area of software, needs improvement. This Article argues that even an agency as institutionally constrained as the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office ("PTO") could implement a portfolio of pragmatic, cost-effective quality improvement strategies. The argument in favor of these strategies draws upon not only legal theory and doctrine but also new data from a PTO software examination unit with relatively strict practices. Strategies that resolve around Section 112 of the patent statute could usefully be deployed at the initial examination stage. Other strategies could be deployed within the new post-issuance procedures available to the agency under the America Invents Act. Notably, although the strategies the Article discusses have the virtue of being neutral as to technology, they are likely to have a very significant practical impact in the area of software.

  3. Argonne National Laboratory patent portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguelet, B.C.

    1976-01-01

    This booklet contains the abstracts of all active U. S. patents on technology items that originated at ANL, the applicability of which is not limited to nuclear reactors. Also listed are the titles of all ANL-originated nuclear-related U. S. patents that are still in force. Selected technology items for which patent applications have been filed and are available for licensing are included in several categories. Categories included in this booklet are as follows: atmospheric and earth sciences; biological and medical sciences; chemistry and chemical engineering; cryogenics and superconductivity; electronics and electrical engineering; energy conversion; measurements and controls; methods and devices; materials and fabrication; physics, accelerators and fusion; and selected nuclear-related technology

  4. Patent quality and incentives at the patent office

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuett, F.

    2013-01-01

    Patent examination is a problem of moral hazard followed by adverse selection: examiners must have incentives to exert effort, but also to truthfully reveal the evidence they find. I develop a theoretical model to study the design of incentives for examiners. The model can explain the puzzling

  5. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability. ...

  6. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability. ...

  7. Fundamentals of patenting and licensing for scientists and engineers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, M. Y. (Matthew Y.)

    2009-01-01

    ... ...28 3.2 Types of Patents...28 3.3 Patent Dates ...29 viiviii Fundamentals of Patenting and Licensing for Scientists and Engineers 3.4 Eligibility of Priority Date ...30 3.5 Patentability ...32...

  8. Foreign patent documentation and information research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tongsheng; Wu Xianfeng; Liu Jia; Cao Jifen; Song Tianbao; Feng Beiyuan; Zhang Baozhu

    2014-01-01

    Patent documentations are important scientific and technical documentations, which gather legal information, technical information and economic information together. According to WIPO forecasts, making full use of patent documentation can save 40% of research funding and 60% of the study period. Foreign patent documentations are the world's most valuable patent documentations, and many original technologies that have significant influence are first disclosed in foreign patent documentation. Studying and making use of foreign patent documentations can improve our starting point of scientific and technological innovation, and reduce the research investment. This paper analyzes foreign patent documentation and, combining with the actual development of nuclear technology in our country, makes specific recommendations for patent documentation research. (authors)

  9. Effect of firm variables on patent price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sreekumaran Nair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using singleton patent auction price data from Ocean Tomo, LLC, we analyse the effect of firm variables on patent price. Patents owned by small firms attract higher price than patents owned by large firms, if they engage in multi-country filings. The patents owned by small firms get cited more than the patents owned by large firms. The patents owned by individual inventors attract a higher price than the patents owned by organisations when multi-country filings are not included. We believe that the lack of resources is preventing individual inventors from engaging in multi-country filings and maximising the revenue from their invention. A larger representative data should be used to replicate the results before generalising it.

  10. Can this kind of idea be a patent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    2004-08-01

    This book mentions patent such as application, what is patents, patent law, procedure and patent attorney, which includes business idea is patent. Is internet domain name or name-brand? We can make a big money with others idea, the difference among patent, trademark, utility model rights and registration of design, priority system, new weapon in digital period, patent is a knife and a shield, the cost from application to registration, what is hunting of patent information, writing document for patent, patent examination and patent lawyer.

  11. Can this kind of idea be a patent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    2004-08-15

    This book mentions patent such as application, what is patents, patent law, procedure and patent attorney, which includes business idea is patent. Is internet domain name or name-brand? We can make a big money with others idea, the difference among patent, trademark, utility model rights and registration of design, priority system, new weapon in digital period, patent is a knife and a shield, the cost from application to registration, what is hunting of patent information, writing document for patent, patent examination and patent lawyer.

  12. Increasing the Discovery and Use of Non-Patent Literature (NPL): Scientific Publications in Patent Examination

    OpenAIRE

    F. Loizides; B. Diallo; A. Pollard; A. Mavri

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present findings on non-patent literature use, and specifically scientific publications such as academic articles. We interview patent examiners and observe their prior art searching in order to provide insights into the perceived usage of non-patent literature and produce high level requirements for advancing non-patent literature search tools.

  13. 77 FR 4509 - Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... patent fees. The publication of that Notice will open a comment window through which the public may...-P-2012-0002] Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule... Trademark Office (USPTO) may set or adjust by rule any patent or trademark fee established, authorized, or...

  14. Exploring gender differences in patenting in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Elba Mauleón; Cinzia Daraio; Maria Bordons

    2013-01-01

    The under-representation of women in science and technology is a matter of current great concern. Obtaining patent-based indicators by gender is crucial to analyse the situation of women in innovation, identify potential cases of gender inequalities, and support policy measures to promote gender balance. In this article we analyse men and women involvement in Spanish patents applied to the European Patent Office during 1990--2004. At least one female inventor is present in 18% of the patents;...

  15. 14 CFR 1260.28 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent rights. 1260.28 Section 1260.28... Provisions § 1260.28 Patent rights. Patent Rights May 2006 As stated at § 1260.136, this award is subject to... “Patent Rights (Small Business Firms and Nonprofit Organizations)” and the following: (a) Where the term...

  16. Patentability aspects of computational cancer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishchuk, Iryna

    2017-07-01

    Multiscale cancer models, implemented in silico, simulate tumor progression at various spatial and temporal scales. Having the innovative substance and possessing the potential of being applied as decision support tools in clinical practice, patenting and obtaining patent rights in cancer models seems prima facie possible. What legal hurdles the cancer models need to overcome for being patented we inquire from this paper.

  17. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted to...

  18. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights. ...

  19. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights, see...

  20. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term...

  1. Imitation, patent protection and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, A.; Pennings, H.P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Once a new technology has been invented it is shown that the innovator has an incentive to postpone technology adoption when the cost of imitation is high and patent protection is strong. With the possibility of licensing it is shown that licensing oftechnology instead of delaying technology

  2. CLASSICS UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    From the profits, he became a very rich man and was able ... The Schedule referred to in these Letters Patent and making part of the same. TO ALL ... This is the real character and purpose of my invention; and in order to enable others ... kneading, it is rubbed through a hair, silk, or brass-wire sieve, (iron corrodes) and any.

  3. Patents - Overlooked Source of Information

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Ilavský, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2004), s. 473-476 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : patent * database * thermal spraying Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.068, year: 2004

  4. International nanotechnology development in 2003: Country, institution, and technology field analysis based on USPTO patent database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zan; Chen Hsinchun; Chen Zhikai; Roco, Mihail C.

    2004-01-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) have seen rapid growth and expansion in new areas in recent years. This paper provides an international patent analysis using the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) data searched by keywords of the entire text: title, abstract, claims, and specifications. A fraction of these patents fully satisfy the National Nanotechnology Initiative definition of nanotechnology (which requires exploiting specific phenomena and direct manipulation at the nanoscale), while others only make use of NSE tools and methods of investigation. In previous work we proposed an integrated patent analysis and visualization framework of patent content mapping for the NSE field and of knowledge flow pattern identification until 2002. In this paper, the results are updated for 2003, and the new trends are presented

  5. International nanotechnology development in 2003: Country, institution, and technology field analysis based on USPTO patent database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zan; Chen, Hsinchun; Chen, Zhi-kai; Roco, Mihail C.

    2004-08-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) have seen rapid growth and expansion in new areas in recent years. This paper provides an international patent analysis using the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) data searched by keywords of the entire text: title, abstract, claims, and specifications. A fraction of these patents fully satisfy the National Nanotechnology Initiative definition of nanotechnology (which requires exploiting specific phenomena and direct manipulation at the nanoscale), while others only make use of NSE tools and methods of investigation. In previous work we proposed an integrated patent analysis and visualization framework of patent content mapping for the NSE field and of knowledge flow pattern identification until 2002. In this paper, the results are updated for 2003, and the new trends are presented.

  6. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Betancourt, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC). This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent a...

  7. Patents on periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Emanoel G; Araújo, José R G; Monroe, Paulo H M; de O Nascimento, Ivaneide; Aguiar, Alana C F

    2009-06-01

    In the humid tropics, on the edges of the Amazon forest, the technological challenges to establishing and maintaining productive and sustainable agricultural systems have yet to be overcome. The groups involved in agriculture in the north of Brazil still engage in the practice of slash and burn in order to prepare and fertilize the soil. This produces negative effects for the local and global environment, without the counter-effect of providing social benefits to rural communities. Whether this process continues is of fundamental importance to many countries because it means that slash and burn agriculture is advancing on the Amazon rainforest, with a negative effect on every dimension of national policy. Beyond social political problems the biggest challenge for researchers in the field of tropical agriculture is to offer technological alternatives that can sustain agriculture in soils derived from sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to a high degree of weathering. In this article patented information is also discussed. Experiments undertaken in this region recommend taking advantage of the rapid growth of plants in the tropics. We aimed at proposing a suitable alternative system for a sustainable soil management in the particular conditions of humid tropics, named as "no-till in alley cropping using tree leguminous mulch." This system offers the advantages of: bringing together, in the same space and at the same time, the processes of cultivation and the regeneration of soil fertility.

  8. Entrepreneurial patent management in pharmaceutical startups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgersson, Marcus; Phan, Tai; Hedner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Startups fill an increasingly important role as innovators in the pharmaceutical industry, and patenting is typically central to their success. This article aims to explore patent management in pharmaceutical startups. The results show that startups need to deal with several challenges related to patenting and an 'entrepreneurial' approach to patent management is called for. Resource constraints, venture capital provision, exits and other conditions and events must be readily considered in the patent management process to build a successful pharmaceutical venture, something that could benefit the pharmaceutical industry as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Patent data mining method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyack, Kevin W.; Grafe, V. Gerald; Johnson, David K.; Wylie, Brian N.

    2002-01-01

    A method of data mining represents related patents in a multidimensional space. Distance between patents in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the patents. The relationship between pairings of patents can be expressed based on weighted combinations of several predicates. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the patents.

  10. The Patentability of Stem Cells in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Jenny; Cowin, Prue

    2015-07-01

    The potential therapeutic applications of stem cells are unlimited. However, the ongoing political and social debate surrounding the intellectual property and patenting considerations of stem cell research has led to the implementation of strict legislative regulations. In Australia the patent landscape surrounding stem cells has evolved considerably over the past 20 years. The Australian Patents Act 1990 includes a specific exclusion to the patentability of human beings and of biological processes for their generation. However, this exclusion has received no judicial consideration to date, and so its scope and potential impact on stem cell patents is unclear. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Bringing the mountain to Mohammed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, S.M.; Bell, H.H.; Bowman, F.M.; Hitchin, C.; Jackson, M.

    1987-01-01

    New free electron laser (FEL) technology at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) promises electron-cyclotron plasma heating at power levels, cost efficiency, and tunable frequency range far beyond the capabilities of existing technology. LLNL has the high-current induction linear accelerators needed to drive such an FEL. Thus, the first stage of the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX), designed to test this new technology, was to bring the Alcator-C tokamak across the United States from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to LLNL in California. The authors discuss why the tokamak was moved across the country and described the move

  12. Bringing Secrecy into the Open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Grey, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This paper brings into focus the concept of organizational secrecy, defined as the ongoing formal and informal social processes of intentional concealment of information from actors by actors in organizations. It is argued that existing literature on the topic is fragmented and predominantly...... focused on informational rather than social aspects of secrecy. The paper distinguishes between formal and informal secrecy and theorizes the social processes of these in terms of identity and control. It is proposed that organizational secrecy be added to the analytical repertoire of organization studies....

  13. Bringing nursing to the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazis, Cornelia; Schwendimann, René

    2009-11-01

    For the past 5 years, an unusual program has been evolving in the University of Basel's Institute of Nursing Science master's program in Basel, Switzerland. A special course designed to help nurses master public communication skills requires students to play the roles of journalist, exhibition curator, conference organizer, radio reporter, and news producer. Two faculty members, an experienced radio and newspaper journalist and a nurse scientist, teach and support the students. By developing their competence in media relations, participants prepare themselves to tackle the course's long-term goal of bringing the nursing profession into the public eye. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Analysis of US patents on spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Jeon, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Jae Keun; Oh, Seung Eun; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Jin Seok; Park, Seong Keun

    1997-06-01

    The total of 137 US patents on spacer grids patented from 1968 through 1993 are analyzed and summarized. Database is constituted with designing the appropriate fields by which each patent can be identified. The fields consist of patent number, inventor, assignee, date of patent, title and major foci of the patent. The major foci are again classified by detailed subjects such as the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related, the strength-related, the fabrication-related as for mechanical subjects, while the cooling performance-related and the pressure drop-related as for thermal-hydraulic one. The 92% of the patents analyzed were issued form nuclear companies of USA, France and Germany. Among the patents dealing with mechanical subjects, the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related is more than the pressure drop-related among the patents of thermal-hydraulic subjects. The number of patents issued from Japan ranks just after Germany i.e., the 4th country. It is thought that much concern as well as investment should be increased in this field, the patent of nuclear components. (author). 2 tabs., 5 figs

  15. Analysis of US patents on spacer grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Jeon, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Jae Keun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seung Eun; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Jin Seok; Park, Seong Keun [Korea Nuclear Fuel Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    The total of 137 US patents on spacer grids patented from 1968 through 1993 are analyzed and summarized. Database is constituted with designing the appropriate fields by which each patent can be identified. The fields consist of patent number, inventor, assignee, date of patent, title and major foci of the patent. The major foci are again classified by detailed subjects such as the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related, the strength-related, the fabrication-related as for mechanical subjects, while the cooling performance-related and the pressure drop-related as for thermal-hydraulic one. The 92% of the patents analyzed were issued form nuclear companies of USA, France and Germany. Among the patents dealing with mechanical subjects, the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related is more than the pressure drop-related among the patents of thermal-hydraulic subjects. The number of patents issued from Japan ranks just after Germany i.e., the 4th country. It is thought that much concern as well as investment should be increased in this field, the patent of nuclear components. (author). 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. International patenting in ophthalmology: An analysis of its structure and relevance for the development of drugs and diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann AM Mucke

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hermann AM Mucke, Peter Mucke, Eva MuckeHM Pharma Consultancy, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: While investigative ophthalmologists access peer-reviewed journals as part of their daily routine, and while they regularly visit scientific congresses, they rarely peruse patent documents as an information source. Among the reasons for this negligence are the incompatibility of patent search algorithms with those known from journal databases, a legalistic and frequently redundant language, and misconceptions about the nature of the patenting system. Here we present key data and analyses from the ophthalmology module of a patent database system that we are developing to address some of these problems. We show that international patent applications consistently reflect developer interest in the ocular drug and diagnostics field; that they are technically focused lead indicators of developments that frequently feature in peer-reviewed patenting only much later; and that patenting targets are well aligned with the unmet therapeutic needs of populations in industrialized countries. Most applications (74%–78% in years since 2006 are supported with experimental data, and most (on average, 80%–90% faced at least one objection to patentability during their initial stage of examination. In contrast to the peer-reviewed scenery that is highly diverse, the corresponding patenting arena shows a pronounced focus on the United States.Keywords: ophthalmology, eye diseases, iontophoresis, intellectual property, patents as topic, bibliographic databases

  17. Idea on patent ; It is high time to stress quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This book deals with patent stressing on the quality, which includes from idea to technical business, It's simple to register the computer program, why do patent lawyer appoint the patent attorney's office? construction of patent right range, a good patent and a bad patent, strong patent and weak patent. It doesn't allow for Dus to use as we like, each patent has different value, Let's write technical specifications, advice on talking for invention with a patent attorney's office and what kind of task do intellectual property division do?

  18. Hydrogenating oils. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-08-31

    A safety fuel boiling within the limits 130/sup 0/ to 260/sup 0/C, is obtained by treating hydrocarbon mixtures boiling below 260/sup 0/C, and for the most part above 130/sup 0/C according to the process described in the parent Specification. A fraction boiling from 140/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/ C, which has been distilled off from the liquefaction product obtained by the destructive hydrogenation of coal soaked with ferrous sulphate, is passed at 485/sup 0/C under a partial pressure of 1.5 atmos. and a hydrogen pressure of 50 atmos. over a catalyst consisting of nickel and tungsten sulphides. The gasification is only 2 to 5 percent and from the reaction product a fraction of the same boiling range as the initial material is distilled off with a yield of 85 percent and an octane number of 97.

  19. BYOD: Bring your own disaster

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Have you ever heard of “BYOD”? No, it is not a pop band. Try again. It is short for “Bring Your Own Device” (the French use “AVEC” -  “Apporter Votre Equipement personnel de Communication”) and describes an option long since offered at CERN: the possibility to bring along your personal laptop, smartphone or PDA, use it on CERN premises and connect it to the CERN office network. But hold on. As practical as it is, there is also a dark side.   The primary advantage, of course, is having a digital work environment tuned to your needs and preferences. It allows you to continue working at home. Similarly, you always have your music, address books and bookmarks with you. However, as valuable as this is, it is also a responsibility. Laptop theft is happening - outside CERN but also on site. In France, 30% of stolen laptops were stolen out of cars or homes, and 10% during travel. At CERN, on average one ...

  20. Information Extraction From Chemical Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bergmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new chemicals or pharmaceuticals is preceded by an indepth analysis of published patents in this field. This information retrieval is a costly and time inefficient step when done by a human reader, yet it is mandatory for potential success of an investment. The goal of the research project UIMA-HPC is to automate and hence speed-up the process of knowledge mining about patents. Multi-threaded analysis engines, developed according to UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture standards, process texts and images in thousands of documents in parallel. UNICORE (UNiform Interface to COmputing Resources workflow control structures make it possible to dynamically allocate resources for every given task to gain best cpu-time/realtime ratios in an HPC environment.

  1. Destructive hydrogenation. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-07-15

    Liquid or readily liquefiable products are obtained from solid distillable carbonaceous materials such as coals, oil shales or other bituminous substances by subjecting the said initial materials to destructive hydrogenation under mild conditions so that the formation of benzine is substantially avoided, and then subjecting the treated material to extraction by solvents. By hydrogenating under mild conditions the heavy oils which prevent the asphaltic substances from being precipitated are preserved, and the separation of the liquid products from the solid residue is facilitated. Solid paraffins and high boiling point constituents suitable for the production of lubricating oils may be removed before or after the extraction process. The extraction is preferably carried out under pressure with solvents which do not precipitate asphaltic substances. Brown coal containing 11 per cent ash is passed at 450/sup 0/C, and 200 atmospheres pressure in counter current to hydrogen; 40 per cent of the coal is converted into liquid products which are condensed out of the hydrogen stream; the pasty residue, on extraction with benzene, yields 45 per cent of high molecular weight products suitable for the production of lubricating oil.

  2. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    -examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...... of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio...

  3. Patent first, ask questions later: morality and biotechnology in patent law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Margo A

    2003-12-01

    This Article explores the U.S. "patent first, ask questions later" approach to determining what subject matter should receive patent protection. Under this approach, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO or the Agency) issues patents on "anything under the sun made by man," and to the extent a patent's subject matter is sufficiently controversial, Congress acts retrospectively in assessing whether patents should issue on such interventions. This practice has important ramifications for morally controversial biotechnology patents specifically, and for American society generally. For many years a judicially created "moral utility" doctrine served as a type of gatekeeper of patent subject matter eligibility. The doctrine allowed both the USTPO and courts to deny patents on morally controversial subject matter under the fiction that such inventions were not "useful." The gate, however, is currently untended. A combination of the demise of the moral utility doctrine, along with expansive judicial interpretations of the scope of patent-eligible subject matter, has resulted in virtually no basis on which the USTPO or courts can deny patent protection to morally controversial, but otherwise patentable, subject matter. This is so despite position statements by the Agency to the contrary. Biotechnology is an area in which many morally controversial inventions are generated. Congress has been in react-mode following the issuance of a stream of morally controversial biotech patents, including patents on transgenic animals, surgical methods, and methods of cloning humans. With no statutory limits on patent eligibility, and with myriad concerns complicating congressional action following a patent's issuance, it is not Congress, the representative of the people, determining patent eligibility. Instead, it is patent applicants, scientific inventors, who are deciding matters of high public policy through the contents of the applications they file with the USTPO. This Article

  4. Exploration of Global Trend on Biomedical Application of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA): A Patent Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnaiah, Paulraj; Vnoothenei, Nagiah; Chandramohan, Muruganandham; Thevarkattil, Mohamed Javad Pazhayakath

    2018-01-30

    used. Our analysis shows patent information can be used to identify various applications of PHA and its representatives in the biomedical field. Upcoming studies can focus on the application of PHA in the different field to discover the related topics and associate to this study. We believe that this approach of analysis and findings can initiate new researchers to undertake similar kind of studies in their represented field to fill the gap between the patent articles and researchpublications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. A Review on Recent Patents and Applications of Inorganic Material Binding Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Veeranjaneyulu; Perry, Carole C

    2017-01-01

    Although the popularity of using combinatorial display techniques for recognising unique peptides having high affinity for inorganic (nano) particles has grown rapidly, there are no systematic reviews showcasing current developments or patents on binding peptides specific to these materials. In this review, we summarize and discuss recent progress in patents on material binding peptides specifically exploring inorganic nano surfaces such as metals, metal oxides, minerals, carbonbased materials, polymer based materials, magnetic materials and semiconductors. We consider both the peptide display strategies used and the exploitation of the identified peptides in the generation of advanced nanomaterials. In order to get a clear picture on the number of patents and literature present to date relevant to inorganic material binding biomolecules and their applications, a thorough online search was conducted using national and worldwide databases. The literature search include standard bibliographic databases while patents included EPO Espacenet, WIPO patent scope, USPTO, Google patent search, Patent lens, etc. along with commercial databases such as Derwent and Patbase. Both English and American spellings were included in the searches. The initial number of patents found related to material binders were 981. After reading and excluding irrelevant patents such as organic binding peptides, works published before 2001, repeated patents, documents not in English etc., 51 highly relevant patents published from 2001 onwards were selected and analysed. These patents were further separated into six categories based on their target inorganic material and combinatorial library used. They include relevant patents on metal, metal oxide or combination binding peptides (19), magnetic and semiconductor binding peptides (8), carbon based (3), mineral (5), polymer (8) and other binders (9). Further, how these material specific binders have been used to synthesize simple to complex bio- or

  6. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women’s rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women’s patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women—and in particular academic women—contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  7. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Sugimoto

    Full Text Available We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO. Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  8. Bring Your Own Device: Parental Guidance (PG) Suggested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, Derick; Herro, Dani

    2015-01-01

    Educators are incorporating students' mobile devices into the schooling experience via Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) initiatives. This is advantageous for many reasons, most notably, improving access to Internet resources and digital tools in support of teaching and learning. Obtaining parental support is key to BYOD success. Therefore, this study…

  9. Bringing Knowledge Back In: Perspectives from Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zongyi

    2018-01-01

    From the vantage point of liberal education, this article attempts to contribute to the conversation initiated by Michael Young and his colleagues on 'bringing knowledge back' into the current global discourse on curriculum policy and practice. The contribution is made through revisiting the knowledge-its-own-end thesis associated with Newman and…

  10. US patent interferences vs. international first-to-file patent systems, and current GATT problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhurst, R.W.; Serbinowski, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneous superconductivity research activities by different entities have resulted in numerous US patent applications, some of which may claim identical inventions and thus likely will be involved in interference proceedings in the US Patent and Trademark Office to determine which inventors are entitled to priority of invention and the resulting US patent. The determination in an interference proceeding of what inventors were the first-to-invent a patentable invention is contrasted with the patent systems in the rest of the world where the first inventor to file his patent application automatically gains priority. This issue and other aspects of US patent law are the subjects of criticism of US patent law and practice in the current Uruguay round of talks on the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT). Interesting aspects of each of these subjects will be discussed

  11. Alienation from the Objectives of the Patent System: How to Remedy the Situation of Biotechnology Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li

    2018-03-12

    Some fundamental biotechnologies hold unprecedented potential to eradicate many incurable diseases. However, in absence of regulations, the power of patent makes the future use of some important biotechnology in few institution's hands. The excessive patents restrict researcher access to the fundamental technologies. It generates concerns and complaints of deteriorating the public health and social welfare. Furthermore, intellectual curiosities, funding, respect among colleagues etc., rather than patents, are the real motivations driving a major ground-breaking discoveries in biotechnology. These phenomena reveal that some biotechnology patents are alienated from the purpose of patent system. Therefore, it is necessary to take some approaches to stop over-patenting these fundamental biotechnology inventions. This article proposes a model regulatory framework for controlling biotechnology patent alienating from the purpose of patent system.

  12. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawings required in patent..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The Drawings § 1.81 Drawings required in patent application. (a) The applicant for a patent is required to furnish...

  13. 37 CFR 1.41 - Applicant for patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.41 Section 1.41 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for A...

  14. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent applications preserved in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions...

  15. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of...

  16. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE...

  17. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Publication...

  18. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of...

  19. Patents - Superconductor materials, processes and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test, A.

    1987-01-01

    A patent is a grant by a country to an inventor or his assignee of the right to exclude others for a limited period of time from making, using or selling the patented invention within its territory. It is reported that basic patents have been filed by IBM and the University of Houston to protect a broad range of warm superconducting materials or compounds. It is believed that other researchers are seeking patents to protect related or improved materials, processes and apparatus. Because of the importance of this field and to speed up the patent process, the United States Patent Office is giving, upon request, special expedited status to these patent applications. A survey of Japanese companies shows that more than 1500 patents have been applied for in Japan relating to superconducting materials, compositions, apparatus using superconductors and improvements. It appears that the goal of the Japanese companies is to obtain a patent position in Japan so that they can trade with companies wishing to do business in Japan for rights in other parts of the world

  20. Performance of Patenting Firms in Danish Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non-patenting...... firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political...

  1. The History of Patenting Genetic Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkow, Jacob S; Greely, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    The US Supreme Court's recent decision in Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc. declared, for the first time, that isolated human genes cannot be patented. Many have wondered how genes were ever the subjects of patents. The answer lies in a nuanced understanding of both legal and scientific history. Since the early twentieth century, "products of nature" were not eligible to be patented unless they were "isolated and purified" from their surrounding environment. As molecular biology advanced, and the capability to isolate genes both physically and by sequence came to fruition, researchers (and patent offices) began to apply patent-law logic to genes themselves. These patents, along with other biological patents, generated substantial social and political criticism. Myriad Genetics, a company with patents on BRCA1 and BRCA2, two genes critical to assessing early-onset breast and ovarian cancer risk, and with a particularly controversial business approach, became the antagonist in an ultimately successful campaign to overturn gene patents in court. Despite Myriad's defeat, some questions concerning the rights to monopolize genetic information remain. The history leading to that defeat may be relevant to these future issues.

  2. Patents and Innovation: Friends or Foes?

    OpenAIRE

    Lévêque, François

    2007-01-01

    Over 2 million patents are currently in force in the EU and in the USA. Do they testify innovation is blockaded for they restrict freedom in research or do they give evidence innovation is flourishing for patent law provides incentives to invent new products and processes? In other terms do patents freeze or spur innovation? The question arises for massive anecdotal evidence shows the patent system may have turned on its head, e.g., USPTO and EPO examiners spend less than 30 hours pe...

  3. Interactive overlay maps for US Patent (USPTO) data based on International Patent Classifications (IPC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Kushnir, D.; Rafols, I.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of an interface to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that allows for the mapping of patent portfolios as overlays to basemaps constructed from citation relations among all patents contained in this database during the period 1976-2011. Both the interface and the

  4. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  5. Discrimination against foreigners in the patent system : evidence from standard-essential patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rassenfosse, G.; Raiteri, E.; Bekkers, R.N.A.

    This paper tests for traces of discrimination against foreign firms in the patent prosecution process. It focuses on the case of China and looks specifically at patent applications declared as essential to a technological standard. The choice of standard-essential patents (SEPs) is particularly

  6. Discrimination in the patent system: evidence from standard-essential patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rassenfosse, G.; Raiteri, E.; Bekkers, R.N.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper tests for traces of discrimination against foreigners in the patent prosecution process. It focuses on the case of China and looks specifically at patent applications declared as essential to a technological standard, so called standard-essential patents. The identification strategy

  7. 78 FR 51177 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable...

  8. 78 FR 72872 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable...

  9. Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

  10. NREL Patents Method for Continuous Monitoring of Materials During

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing | News | NREL NREL Patents Method for Continuous Monitoring of Materials During Manufacturing News Release: NREL Patents Method for Continuous Monitoring of Materials During Manufacturing NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF). More information, including the published patent, can

  11. Pre-empted Patents, Infringed Patents and Firms’ Participation in Markets for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk their patent applications to be pre-empted or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...... patents on firms’ engagement in in- and cross-licensing. Based on a sample of more than 1100 German manufacturing firms our results show that firms engage in in-licensing as a reaction to pre-empted patents and in cross-licensing if their protected IP was infringed upon. However, these effects vary...

  12. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law...

  13. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for hum...... future evolution and the corresponding public policy choices. This article seeks to provide prospective patentees with guidance and awareness concerning the patentability of methods for human enhancement.......This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human...... enhancement. Patents will be instrumental for companies to protect investment in innovation and tap into this potentially valuable market. The European patent system contains, in Article 53(c) EPC, an exception from patentability for methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. Such rule was created...

  14. Disclosure rules and declared essential patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.N.A.; Catalini, C.; Martinelli, Arianna; Righi, C.; Simcoe, T.

    Many standard setting organizations (SSOs) require participants to disclose patents that might be infringed by implementing a proposed standard, and commit to license their “essential” patents on terms that are at least fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (FRAND). Data from these SSO

  15. Patent protection and licensing in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisen, Ali K; Volpatti, Lisa R

    2014-07-07

    Microfluidic devices offer control over low-volume samples in order to achieve high-throughput analysis, and reduce turnaround time and costs. Their efficient commercialisation has implications for biomedical sciences, veterinary medicine, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. In particular, market diffusion of microfluidic laboratory and point-of-care diagnostic devices can contribute to the improvement of global health. In their commercialisation, consultancy and patent protection are essential elements that complement academic publishing. The awareness of knowledge transfer strategies can help academics to create value for their research. The aim of this article is to provide a guidance to (1) overview the terminology in patent law, (2) elucidate the process of filing a patent in the US, EU, Japan and internationally, (3) discuss strategies to licence a patent, and (4) explain tactics to defend a patent in a potential infringement. Awareness of the patent law and rights allows obtaining optimised, valid and valuable patents, while accelerating implementation to market route. Striking a balance between academic publishing, consultancy to industry and patent protection can increase commercial potential, enhance economic growth and create social impact.

  16. DOE patents available for licensing: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoeming, G.H.

    1982-06-01

    Abstracts and indexes are provided for 1344 DOE patents or patent applications concerning any aspect of energy production, conservation, and utilization. The entries are arranged by subject category as shown in the table of contents. The bibliography covers the period from January 1974 through December 1980

  17. When patents matter: The impact of competition and patent age on the performance contribution of intellectual property rights protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maresch, Daniela; Fink, Matthias; Harms, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The question whether patenting impacts patenting firms' subsequent financial performance is important for technology-oriented companies. However, relevant research has led to contradictory results. We strive to overcome this impasse by introducing innovation competition and patent age as moderators

  18. Herbal drug patenting in India: IP potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Niharika; Manchikanti, Padmavati; Dey, Satya Hari

    2011-09-01

    Herbal drugs are gaining worldwide prominence due to their distinct advantages. Developing countries have started exploring the ethnopharmacological approach of drug discovery and have begun to file patents on herbal drugs. The expansion of R&D in Indian herbal research organizations and presence of manufacturing units at non-Indian sites is an indication of the capability to develop new products and processes. The present study attempts to identify innovations in the Indian herbal drug sector by analyzing the patenting trends in India, US and EU. Based on key word and IPC based search at the IPO, USPTO, Esp@cenet and WIPO databases, patent applications and grant in herbal drugs by Indian applicants/assignees was collected for the last ten years (from 1st January 2001 to 31st October 2010). From this collection patents related to human therapeutic use only were selected. Analysis was performed to identify filing trends, major applicants/assignees, disease area and major plant species used for various treatments. There is a gradual increase in patent filing through the years. In India, individual inventors have maximum applications and grants. CSIR, among research organizations and Hindustan Unilever, Avesthagen, Piramal Life Science, Sahajanand Biotech and Indus Biotech among the companies have the maximum granted patents in India, US and EU respectively. Diabetes, cancer and inflammatory disorders are the major areas for patenting in India and abroad. Recent patents are on new herbal formulations for treatment of AIDS, hepatitis, skin disorders and gastrointestinal disorders. A majority of the herbal patents applications and grants in India are with individual inventors. Claim analysis indicates that these patents include novel multi-herb compositions with synergistic action. Indian research organizations are more active than companies in filing for patents. CSIR has maximum numbers of applications not only in India but also in the US and EU. Patents by research

  19. On Sharks, Trolls, and Other Patent Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzig, Markus; Henkel, Joachim; Heath, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Patent trolls (or sharks) are small patent holding individuals or firms who trap R&D intense manufacturers in patent infringement situations in order to receive damage awards for the illegitimate use of their technology. While of great concern to management, their existence and impact for both...... corporate decision makers and policy makers remains to be fully analyzed from an academic standpoint. In this paper we show why patent sharks can operate profitably, why they are of growing concern, how manufacturers can forearm themselves against them, and which issues policy makers need to address. To do...... so, we map international indemnification rules with strategic rationales of small patent-holding firms within a game-theoretical model. Our central finding is that the courts’ unrealistic consideration of the trade-offs faced by inadvertent infringers is a central condition for sharks to operate...

  20. Simultaneous invention and the patent law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    inventions they often find this to challenge the idea that patent law (which rewards only the first inventor with exclusive rights) is needed to encourage invention and innovation. We review the empirical evidence alleged to show that simultaneous invention is prevalent for important inventions. In general...... is typical of important pioneer inventions in both survey evidence and alleged illustrative cases of simultaneous invention. We show this in the cases of Edison, the Wright brothers, the Selden automobile patent vis a vis Ford, Watt and the steam engine. We then point out that patent law inherently ensures...... that patent protection is not extended to near simultaneous inventions. There remain a number of simultaneous inventions discovered through interference proceedings but we find the number too small to mount a serious challenge to the general operation of patent law....

  1. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    of innovation, other than in the trivial sense of excluding third parties from the right to develop the technology covered by the patent? There are many references to this possibility in the management, economic and legal literatures, but two highly-cited papers stand out for grounding their claims of corporate......This article examines the evidence behind claims that innovation is hindered or blocked (termed technology suppression) by corporations' use of patents. In other words, are there ways in which the exploitation of the exclusive development right of the patent can be shown to retard the process...... and the difference between economic monopoly and an exclusive right. It is argued here that what is at issue in this work is the proper function of the patent institution. It is shown early in this paper that the understanding of the patent institution as a system of development prospects makes better sense...

  2. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers.......The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...

  3. Section for Standard and Patents - Standardization and Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtowicz, S.; Trechcinski, R.; Rybka, M.; Ryszkowska, A.; Wardaszko, J.

    1997-01-01

    Standardization; cooperation with the Patent Office Republic of Poland in the areas of inventiveness and patents. (author)

  4. Patent Keyword Extraction for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongchan Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, sustainable growth and development has become an important issue for governments and corporations. However, maintaining sustainable development is very difficult. These difficulties can be attributed to sociocultural and political backgrounds that change over time [1]. Because of these changes, the technologies for sustainability also change, so governments and companies attempt to predict and manage technology using patent analyses, but it is very difficult to predict the rapidly changing technology markets. The best way to achieve insight into technology management in this rapidly changing market is to build a technology management direction and strategy that is flexible and adaptable to the volatile market environment through continuous monitoring and analysis. Quantitative patent analysis using text mining is an effective method for sustainable technology management. There have been many studies that have used text mining and word-based patent analyses to extract keywords and remove noise words. Because the extracted keywords are considered to have a significant effect on the further analysis, researchers need to carefully check out whether they are valid or not. However, most prior studies assume that the extracted keywords are appropriate, without evaluating their validity. Therefore, the criteria used to extract keywords needs to change. Until now, these criteria have focused on how well a patent can be classified according to its technical characteristics in the collected patent data set, typically using term frequency–inverse document frequency weights that are calculated by comparing the words in patents. However, this is not suitable when analyzing a single patent. Therefore, we need keyword selection criteria and an extraction method capable of representing the technical characteristics of a single patent without comparing them with other patents. In this study, we proposed a methodology to extract valid keywords from

  5. Teaching Chemistry Students How To Use Patent Databases and Glean Patent Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Margy; Shaw, Lawton

    2008-07-01

    Patent literature is an important source of chemical information that is often neglected by chemical educators. This paper describes an effort to teach chemistry students how to use patent databases to search for information on applied chemical technology related to the manufacture of industrial and specialty chemicals. Students in a second-year-level organic chemistry class were shown how to search patent literature as part of a group research paper assignment that involved determining the feasibility of starting an industrial chemical operation to manufacture a given industrial chemical. Students who were assigned high value or specialty chemicals were most likely to cite patent literature in their final papers. Students who were assigned plastics or bulk commodity chemicals were less likely to cite patents. It is suggested that students made choices about the usefulness of patent literature and that patents were most useful when current patents existed and provided the patent owner a competitive advantage. For plastics or commodity chemicals, manufacturing technologies tend to be mature and are well described by more accessible information sources. Suggestions are made for effective introduction of patent literature instruction into upper-level chemistry courses.

  6. AVC/H.264 patent portfolio license

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalis, Dean A.

    2006-08-01

    MPEG LA, LLC offers a joint patent license for the AVC (a/k/a H.264) Standard (ISO/IEC IS 14496-10:2004). Like MPEG LA's other licenses, the AVC Patent Portfolio License is offered for the convenience of the marketplace as an alternative enabling users to access essential intellectual property owned by many patent holders under a single license rather than negotiating licenses with each of them individually. The AVC Patent Portfolio License includes essential patents owned by DAEWOO Electronics Corporation; Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI); France Telecom, societe anonyme; Fujitsu Limited; Hitachi, Ltd.; Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.; LG Electronics Inc.; Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.; Microsoft Corporation; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; Robert Bosch GmbH; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.; Sedna Patent Services, LLC; Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha; Siemens AG; Sony Corporation; The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York; Toshiba Corporation; UB Video Inc.; and Victor Company of Japan, Limited. Another is expected also to join as of August 1, 2006. MPEG LA's objective is to provide worldwide access to as much AVC essential intellectual property as possible for the benefit of AVC users. Therefore, any party that believes it has essential patents is welcome to submit them for evaluation of their essentiality and inclusion in the License if found essential.

  7. The Transformation of Science Into Patented Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...

  8. Optimal Selection Method of Process Patents for Technology Transfer Using Fuzzy Linguistic Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangfeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the open innovation paradigm, technology transfer of process patents is one of the most important mechanisms for manufacturing companies to implement process innovation and enhance the competitive edge. To achieve promising technology transfers, we need to evaluate the feasibility of process patents and optimally select the most appropriate patent according to the actual manufacturing situation. Hence, this paper proposes an optimal selection method of process patents using multiple criteria decision-making and 2-tuple fuzzy linguistic computing to avoid information loss during the processes of evaluation integration. An evaluation index system for technology transfer feasibility of process patents is designed initially. Then, fuzzy linguistic computing approach is applied to aggregate the evaluations of criteria weights for each criterion and corresponding subcriteria. Furthermore, performance ratings for subcriteria and fuzzy aggregated ratings of criteria are calculated. Thus, we obtain the overall technology transfer feasibility of patent alternatives. Finally, a case study of aeroengine turbine manufacturing is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  9. UST closure alternative uses patented process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In July 1992, the owner of a Houston restaurant, a converted gasoline service station, decided to close two 8,000-gallon USTs that had been left in the ground onsite. Because most of the restaurant's parking area would have been affected by removing the tanks, the owner opted for abandonment in place. One of the bidders on the project was ELIM-A-TANK Inc., a Houston-based contractor specializing in tank abandonments. ELIM-A-TANK opened for business in November 1991 after developing a proprietary slurry material that can be pumped or poured into USTs through the fill line, eliminating the need for excavation and cold-cutting, as required by API 1604. The company's patented process was reviewed and deemed acceptable by the Texas Water Commission (TWC), the regulating agency in Texas for all UST activities. As required by TWC regulations, an initial subsurface investigation was performed at the site. Several soil borings were installed around the tank pit, and samples of native soils were collected and analyzed for the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbons and BTEX, the aromatic constituents of gasoline. The results were below TWC's action limits, and the site was declared clean

  10. Exploring Contextual Models in Chemical Patent Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Jay; Frieder, Ophir

    We explore the development of probabilistic retrieval models for integrating term statistics with entity search using multiple levels of document context to improve the performance of chemical patent search. A distributed indexing model was developed to enable efficient named entity search and aggregation of term statistics at multiple levels of patent structure including individual words, sentences, claims, descriptions, abstracts, and titles. The system can be scaled to an arbitrary number of compute instances in a cloud computing environment to support concurrent indexing and query processing operations on large patent collections.

  11. Quinoxaline derivatives: a patent review (2006--present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo

    2012-11-01

    Quinoxaline scaffold is included in a large number of therapeutic agents because of its physicochemical properties that make the difference between them and the carbono analogue, naphthalene. This review of patented products presents the quinoxaline heterocycle as part of the structural patent claims from a medicinal chemistry perspective. We centred our discussion in the various drug patent applications of the quinoxaline and its derivatives. The applications are based firstly in the specific enzyme target with very low development in the disease treatment. Only for cancer and antimicrobial agents they were specifically determined but little is mentioned in order to insight in the last development activities.

  12. Patent border wars: defining the boundary between scientific discoveries and patentable inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    Drawing an appropriate boundary between unpatentable natural phenomena and patentable inventions is crucial in preventing the patent laws from unduly restricting access to fundamental scientific discoveries. Some would argue that, particularly in the U.S., patents are being issued that purport to claim a novel product or process but that, in effect, encompass any practical application of a fundamental biological principle. Examples include gene patents, which Congress is considering banning, and patents relating to biological correlations and pathways, such as the patents at issue in the headline-grabbing LabCorp v. Metabolite and Ariad v. Eli Lilly litigations. In view of the mounting concern, it seems likely that Congress and/or the courts will address the issue, and perhaps substantially shift the boundary.

  13. Bringing voice in policy building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R; Kane, Mary; Zocchi, Mark S; Gosa, Jessica; Lazar, Danielle; Pines, Jesse M

    2017-07-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of group concept mapping (GCM) as a tool for developing a conceptual model of an episode of acute, unscheduled care from illness or injury to outcomes such as recovery, death and chronic illness. Design/methodology/approach After generating a literature review drafting an initial conceptual model, GCM software (CS Global MAX TM ) is used to organize and identify strengths and directionality between concepts generated through feedback about the model from several stakeholder groups: acute care and non-acute care providers, patients, payers and policymakers. Through online and in-person population-specific focus groups, the GCM approach seeks feedback, assigned relationships and articulated priorities from participants to produce an output map that described overarching concepts and relationships within and across subsamples. Findings A clustered concept map made up of relational data points that produced a taxonomy of feedback was used to update the model for use in soliciting additional feedback from two technical expert panels (TEPs), and finally, a public comment exercise was performed. The results were a stakeholder-informed improved model for an acute care episode, identified factors that influence process and outcomes, and policy recommendations, which were delivered to the Department of Health and Human Services's (DHHS) Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. Practical implications This study provides an example of the value of cross-population multi-stakeholder input to increase voice in shared problem health stakeholder groups. Originality/value This paper provides GCM results and a visual analysis of the relational characteristics both within and across sub-populations involved in the study. It also provides an assessment of observational key factors supporting how different stakeholder voices can be integrated to inform model development and policy recommendations.

  14. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information

  15. Valuing patents on cost-reducing technology: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Triest, S.P.; van de Vis, Wim

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach for valuing patents on production process improvements. Specifically, we focus on valuing a patent on cost-reducing process improvements from the viewpoint of the patent holding firm. We do this by considering the relevant cash flows that result from owning the patent. The

  16. 78 FR 62367 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ... Office 37 CFR Parts 1, 3 and 11 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) amends...

  17. 78 FR 21787 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 3 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Proposed Rule #0;#0...-0007] RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties...

  18. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright infringement liability. 1327.201 Section 1327.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and...

  19. The European Patent System: Dealing with emerging technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa; Groenendijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent controversial patent decisions in biotechnology, this article argues that the current European patent examination and opposition procedures do not suffice to balance the patent system These procedures do not provide sufficient guidance for patent examiners to deal effectively with

  20. 48 CFR 970.2702-3 - Patent indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent indemnity. 970.2702... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2702-3 Patent indemnity. (a) Contracting officers must use the clause at 970.5227-6, Patent Indemnity—Subcontracts to...

  1. 14 CFR 1214.112 - Patent, data and information matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent, data and information matters. 1214... Customers § 1214.112 Patent, data and information matters. (a) Patent and data rights. NASA will not acquire rights to inventions, patents or proprietary data which may be used in, or arise from, activities for...

  2. 77 FR 269 - Matters Related to Patent Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Matters Related to Patent Appeals ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office... Matters Related to Patent Appeals comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K. Fawcett...

  3. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30....205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are incurred... patent application where title or royalty-free license is to be conveyed to the Government. (b) General...

  4. 76 FR 53885 - Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and... ``Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K...

  5. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2... FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National Science... adopted the following statement of NSF patent policy. (a) In accordance with the Bayh-Dole Act and the...

  6. Managing the patent thicket and maximizing patent lifetime in vaccine technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertes, Maria M M; Stötter, Gerd

    2010-10-01

    Patents are exclusive rights for a limited period of time that are granted to provide an incentive for innovation and in exchange for the public disclosure of an invention. Patenting in the medical field, especially in the field of human vaccine technologies, is full of pitfalls, because the products that finally access the market are often covered by a multitude of exclusive IP rights. This commentary gives an overview on obstacles in vaccine patenting and how to overcome them, and intends to provide a patenting guideline for researchers.

  7. Revising the Complex Economics of Patent Scope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory...... that a function of patents is to enable the coordinated development of novel technical ideas. This article is a critical review of Merges and Nelson's historical empirical evidence. I find that, first, 'broad' scope is only implicated in one of the examples cited by Merges and Nelson as supportive evidence...... - the Wright brothers' warped-wing patent; second, that strict development block, defined as the prevention, or retardation of the development of technology understood to be capable of useful development, was not illustrated by any of their examples. Therefore I conclude that their general thesis...

  8. Turning Technology into Business Using University Patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, L.

    2014-01-01

    We present an education paradigm that stimulates innovation and entrepreneurship through a master's-level university course: "Turning Technology into Business". The course was specifically designed to connect technological research with education using patented technologies developed at the research

  9. Internet: A place for patent retrieval

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... Key words: Biotechnology, intellectual property rights, Patents, Internet application. INTRODUCTION. The principle objective of biotechnology is to produce ... Finland. France. Germany. Greek. Georgian. Hong Kong. Hungarian. Irsish. Italian. Japan. Korean. Luxemberg. Lithuania. Malaysian. Moldova.

  10. Patent documentation - comparison of two MT strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on two matters: A comparison of how two different MT strategies manage translating the text type of patent documentation and a survey of what is needed to transform a MT research prototype system to a translation application for patent texts. The two MT strategies is represented....... The distinctive text type of patents pose special demands for machine translation and these aspects are discussed based on linguistic observations with focus on the users point of view. Two main demands are automatic pre processing of the documents and implementation of a module which in a flexible and user......-friendly manner offers the opportunity to extend the lexical coverage of the system. These demands and the comparison of the two MT strategies are discussed on the basis of proofread patents....

  11. The patent activity of the Czech R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučera Zdeněk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective knowledge transfer between research institutions and industry is a significant bottleneck in the national innovation system. CR adopted in recent years a series of systemic measures aimed to stimulate the orientation of the R&D organizations towards the generation of knowledge directly applicable in the innovation process and more generally to improve the collaboration of the R&D establishment with the industry. In the majority of programs supporting the applied research patents and industrial designs and utility models are among the anticipated results. The Methodology of the evaluation of R&D organizations implemented in the second half of the last decade brought financial bonuses for the creation of the results in the category of industrial property. Despite of this stimulus CR lags behind the technologically advanced EU countries in the patent activities. The topic of this article is a comparison of the protection of the industrial property rights in the Czech higher education institutions and governmental R&D institutions with selected EU countries. We make use of a couple of quantitative indicators to assess the quality and the technological and the commercial potential of the produced industrial property. Despite a dynamic growth of the patent applications in the CR the number of patent applications relative to the country size is far below the EU-15 average. The Czech research organizations contribute to a higher extent to the number of patent applications then do the analogous institutions in EU-15 countries where the majority of patent applications come from the industrial sphere. The Czech research organizations mainly limit the patent rights to the Czech Republic whereas in the EU-15 countries the opposite is preponderant and only a small fraction of patent applications remains limited to the national environment. Thus the majority of the Czech patents created by research organizations cannot be commercialized on the

  12. Patent portfolio structure for single technology companies

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwell, Ian P.

    2004-01-01

    Single technology companies (STCs) are defined in this thesis as companies that (a) have the fundamental rights to a new technology, (b) have development of that technology as their core competence, (c) seek to exploit that technology primarily by licensing the patent rights, and (d) are driven primarily by 'technology push'. These factors often result in much of the value of the STC residing in its patent portfolio. This in turn may place significant - and often conflicting - ...

  13. Competition policy in patent cases and antitrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The article that follows examines the competition policy reflected in the decisions of the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in its patent cases. The court's views on this subject have been manifested most plainly in decisions that have transformed the law concerning infringement under the doctrine of equivalents and claim construction. In both categories, the court narrowed patent scope by reason of its desire to protect competitors. The article argues that the court's premise in prescribing narrower claim scope reflected an incomplete view of competition policy. The court's analysis overlooked the benefits to competition provided by patents, which stimulate inventions and their development. The article traces the development of antitrust jurisprudence and demonstrates how respect for the contribution of patents to competition and skepticism of free-riding has evolved, particularly beginning in the 1970s. The article draws a parallel between the Court's reasoning about competition policy, on the one hand, and the rejected views of Justices Hugo Black and William O. Douglas and abandoned patent-antitrust jurisprudence, on the other. The Federal Circuit's decision in Festo Corp. v. Shoketsu Kinzoku Kogyo Kabushiki Co., Ltd., 234 F.3d 558 (Fed. Cir. 2000), on the subject of equivalents is considered in the paper. In that decision, the majority adopted a new rule that completely barred infringement under the doctrine of equivalents of any claim limitation where, in prosecution, there had been a narrowing amendment relating to patentability. In the past, prosecution estoppel foreclosing equivalents had been subject to a "flexible bar," which, in some circumstances, allowed for equivalence notwithstanding such an amendment. The article points out that because almost all patents are amended during prosecution, the effect would be to allow widespread copying of patented inventions by trivial modifications of any narrowed claim limitation. The incentive to innovate

  14. Patent business guide in a domestic and foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This book explains general things on industrial property right, which includes description of industrial property right, types, qualification for application of patent, application guide, on-line application, useful procedure of application, writing methods and samples for application of patents such as design patent and trademarks patent, writing skill and examples for registration, writing ways and examples related examination and writing tips and samples on international application of patent.

  15. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Yan; Zhang, Yulei; Fan, Li; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991?2008 have been examined using the ?title?abstract? keyword search on esp@cenet ?worldwide? database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People?s Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the larges...

  16. Patent Value: A Business Perspective for Technology Startups

    OpenAIRE

    Angela de Wilton

    2011-01-01

    In the last year, news headlines have highlighted record patent infringement settlements, multibillion dollar auctions of large corporate patent portfolios, and ongoing patent battles between key technology industry players. Despite this acknowledgment of the significant value of patents for large corporations, many small technology companies are understandably more focused on the near-term costs of obtaining a patent rather than future value. Costs may seem prohibitive to an early stage tech...

  17. WARF's stem cell patents and tensions between public and private sector approaches to research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, John M

    2010-01-01

    While society debates whether and how to use public funds to support work on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), many scientific groups and businesses debate a different question - the extent to which patents that cover such stem cells should be permitted to limit or to tax their research. The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), a non-profit foundation that manages intellectual property generated by researchers at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, owns three patents that have been at the heart of the latter controversy The story of WARF's patents and the controversy they have fostered highlights not only continuing tensions between proprietary and nonproprietary approaches to developing science and technology, but also an at least partly reassuring capacity of public and private sectors to deal with those tensions in a way that can render them substantially manageable, and frequently more manageable as a technology matures. More particularly, the cumulative story of WARF's patents features three leitmotifs that suggest how an attentive and engaged public sector might commonly succeed in working with public and private sector actors to achieve workable balances between proprietary rights and more general social interests: (1) right holders' decisions to pursue less than full rights assertion or enforcement; (2) the ability of government and other public sector actors to help bring about such decisions through co-option or pressure; and (3) the frequent availability or development of technological alternatives that limit research bottlenecks.

  18. A thrombus in transit through a patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibebuogu, Uzoma N; Khouzam, Rami N; Sharma, Gyanendra; Thornton, John W; Robati, Roshanak; Silverman, David

    2014-10-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a congenital heart defect that may first be diagnosed in adulthood and has a prevalence of 25% to 30%. Although many patients with PFO are asymptomatic and do not require treatment, paradoxical embolism can cause stroke or myocardial infarction. The authors report an unusual case of PFO with a transversing thrombus in an 80-year-old man. The patient's initial presentation appeared clinically as acute coronary syndrome, but he was subsequently diagnosed with a massive thrombus in transit via a PFO and pulmonary embolus leading to right-sided heart failure.

  19. Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe May 2014 Print this issue Health Capsule Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last En español Send ... lose bone. Studies of animals have shown that exercise during periods of rapid growth can lead to ...

  20. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part I - progress in the patent landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert

    2013-12-01

    In the last 20 years, diffractive optics experienced a strong research interest and was in the center of many development projects in applied optics. To offer a side view for optical engineers, here, we discuss selected, business-related aspects of the current status of the transfer process to bring diffractive optics into commercial products. The contribution is divided into two parts. Here, in part I, we focus on the patent landscape of diffractive optics with a closer look on the temporal development and the distribution over main players. As an important result, currently, new strong patent activities are observed especially in the context of imaging systems. In the second part, the business volumes of selected market segments are discussed.

  1. Published patent applications and patents from the promoted R + D area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeckel, G.; Zierl, I.

    1977-09-01

    The Ministry for Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany has sponsored technological R + D for industrial innovations since 1969. The following compilation includes the published patent applications and patents from all projects which were sponsored up to and including 1973. (orig.) [de

  2. Can patents prohibit research? On the social epistemology of patenting and licensing in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Justin B

    2014-03-01

    A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology--nonideal systems design--and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby promote the development of knowledge, which in turn facilitates social progress. Some have disputed this argument, maintaining that patenting actually inhibits knowledge production. In this paper, I make a stronger argument; in some areas of research in the US--in particular, research on GM seeds--patents and patent licenses can be, and are in fact being, used to prohibit some research. I discuss three potential solutions to this problem: voluntary agreements, eliminating patents, and a research exemption. I argue against eliminating patents, and I show that while voluntary agreements and a research exemption could be helpful, they do not sufficiently address the problems of access that are discussed here. More extensive changes in the organization of research are necessary.

  3. The diffusion of patented oil and gas technology with environmental uses: A forward patent citation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duch-Brown, Néstor; Costa-Campi, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Relevant advances in the mitigation of environmental impact could be obtained by the appropriate diffusion of existing environmental technologies. In this paper, we look at the diffusion of knowledge related to environmental technologies developed within the oil and gas industry. To assess knowledge spillovers from oil and gas inventions as a measure of technology diffusion, we rely on forward patent citations methodology. Results show that there is a strong likelihood that the citing patent will be eventually linked to environmental technologies if the original oil and gas invention has already environmental uses. Moreover, both intra and intersectoral spillovers produce a “turnabout” effect, meaning that citing patents show the opposite quality level of the cited patent. Our results support the idea that more sector-specific environmental policies, with an emphasis on diffusion, would significantly improve the use of environmental technologies developed within the oil and gas industry. -- Highlights: •Knowledge spillovers from oil and gas inventions are of an intrasectoral nature. •Environmental uses in original patents diffuse to patents with environmental uses. •The “turnabout” effect converts low quality patents into high quality citing patents. •Diffusion of oil and gas inventions need more ad hoc instruments

  4. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights and…

  5. Biological diversity in the patent system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Oldham

    Full Text Available Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the Global Names Index (GNI established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL. We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8-1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing, respect for the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, human rights and ethics. Finally, we argue that alternative models of innovation, such as open source and commons models, are required to open up biodiversity for research that addresses actual and neglected areas of human need. The research aims to inform the implementation of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and international debates directed to the governance of genetic resources. Our research also aims to inform debates under the Intergovernmental Committee on

  6. Technology Trends Analysis Using Patent Landscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vsevolodovich Kortov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis and the choice of the priorities in technology development and, particularly, to the use of patent landscaping as a tool for the study of technology trends. Currently, patent activity indicators are often used for technology foresight and for competitive intelligence as well. Nevertheless, causal relationship between these indicators, on the one hand, and strategic and tactical decisions in the sphere of technological development on meso- and microeconomic level, on the other hand, are not adequately investigated to solve practical tasks. The goal of the work is to systemize the challenges of technology trends analysis, which could be effectively solved on the base of patent landscape analysis. The article analyses the patent landscaping methodology and tools, as well as their use for evaluating the current competitive environment and technology foresight. The authors formulated the generalized classification for the criteria of promising technologies for a selected region. To assess the compliance of a technology with these criteria, we propose a system of corresponding indicators of patenting activity. Using the proposed methodology, we have analysed the patent landscape to select promising technologies for the Sverdlovsk region. The research confirmed the hypothesis of the patent landscapes performance in evaluating such technology indicators as stages of the life cycle stage, universality (applicability in different industries, pace of worldwide development, innovations and science availability in the region and potential possibilities for scientific collaboration with international research institutions and universities. The results of the research may be useful to the wide audience, including representatives small and medium enterprises, large companies and regional authorities for the tasks concerned with the technology trends analysis and technology strategy design

  7. Patent landscape of neglected tropical diseases: an analysis of worldwide patent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsolu, Folahanmi Tomiwa; de Paiva, Vitor Nobre; Souza, Samuel Santos; Varga, Orsolya

    2017-11-14

    "Neglected Tropical Diseases" (NTDs) affect millions of people in Africa, Asia and South America. The two primary ways of strategic interventions are "preventive chemotherapy and transmission control" (PCT), and "innovative and intensified disease management" (IDM). In the last 5 years, phenomenal progress has been achieved. However, it is crucial to intensify research effort into NTDs, because of the emerging drug resistance. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the term NTDs covers 17 diseases, namely buruli ulcer, Chagas disease, dengue, dracunculiasis, echinococcosis, trematodiasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, rabies, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthes, taeniasis, trachoma, and yaws. The aim of this study is to map out research and development (R&D) landscape through patent analysis of these identified NTDs. To achieve this, analysis and evaluation have been conducted on patenting trends, current legal status of patent families, priority countries by earliest priority years and their assignee types, technological fields of patent families over time, and original and current patent assignees. Patent families were extracted from Patseer, an international database of patents from over 100 patent issuing authorities worldwide. Evaluation of the patents was carried out using the combination of different search terms related to each identified NTD. In this paper, a total number of 12,350 patent families were analyzed. The main countries with sources of inventions were identified to be the United States (US) and China. The main technological fields covered by NTDs patent landscape are pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, organic fine chemistry, analysis of biological materials, basic materials chemistry, and medical technology. Governmental institutions and universities are the primary original assignees. Among the NTDs, leishmaniasis, dengue, and rabies received the highest number of

  8. The ethics of patenting human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-09-01

    Just as human embryonic stem cell research has generated controversy about the uses of human embryos for research and therapeutic applications, human embryonic stem cell patents raise fundamental ethical issues. The United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted foundational patents, including a composition of matter (or product) patent to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), the University of Wisconsin-Madison's intellectual property office. In contrast, the European Patent Office rejected the same WARF patent application for ethical reasons. This article assesses the appropriateness of these patents placing the discussion in the context of the deontological and consequentialist ethical issues related to human embryonic stem cell patenting. It advocates for a patent system that explicitly takes ethical factors into account and explores options for new types of intellectual property arrangements consistent with ethical concerns.

  9. A study of fuel cell patenting activity in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.Y.; Sajewycz, M.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A patent application is generally filed shortly after completion of research and development; therefore, patent filing statistics provide insight into the state of innovation of a technology. A study has been conducted on fuel cell patenting activity in Canada. This study examines fuel cell patenting trends between 1989-2003 and specific activity in 2001, identifies the major players in the Canadian fuel cell industry, and examines the patent landscape by fuel cell technology. Our results show that historically, Canadians have been leaders at home and abroad in fuel cell innovation. However, Canadians have recently fallen behind in protecting their patent rights at home, and now rank fourth behind German, American and Japanese fuel cell patent filers in the Canadian patent office. However, our data also shows that a significant number of new Canadian entities have emerged and have been very active filing new patent applications. These new entities as well as established Canadian companies are examined in detail. (author)

  10. Analysis of Patent Databases Using VxInsight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYACK,KEVIN W.; WYLIE,BRIAN N.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.; JOHNSON,DAVID K.

    2000-12-12

    We present the application of a new knowledge visualization tool, VxInsight, to the mapping and analysis of patent databases. Patent data are mined and placed in a database, relationships between the patents are identified, primarily using the citation and classification structures, then the patents are clustered using a proprietary force-directed placement algorithm. Related patents cluster together to produce a 3-D landscape view of the tens of thousands of patents. The user can navigate the landscape by zooming into or out of regions of interest. Querying the underlying database places a colored marker on each patent matching the query. Automatically generated labels, showing landscape content, update continually upon zooming. Optionally, citation links between patents may be shown on the landscape. The combination of these features enables powerful analyses of patent databases.

  11. The Seductive-Plausibility of Patent Hold-Up Myths — A Flawed Historiography of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D

    In previous work we have shown that a flawed historiography of patents continues to be the basis for patent policy advocacy. We set out objective standards of evidence that allegations of development block due to assertion of patents must meet. We show the extent of the errors in the historical...... record in the aircraft, automobile, radio and incandescent lamp technologies. We then evaluate how they measure against the objective standards. We find many simple errors and that an absence of indicia of development block characterise scholarship alleging that assertion of patents blocked development...... of multiple case studies subjected to such standards justifies the rebuttable presumption that “pioneer patents have never blocked development”....

  12. Novel methods to optimize the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation: a systematic review of transcranial direct current stimulation patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavera, Alejandra; Vasquez, Alejandra; Fregni, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that has been extensively studied. While there have been initial positive results in some clinical trials, there is still variability in tDCS results. The aim of this article is to review and discuss patents assessing novel methods to optimize the use of tDCS. A systematic review was performed using Google patents database with tDCS as the main technique, with patents filling date between 2010 and 2015. Twenty-two patents met our inclusion criteria. These patents attempt to address current tDCS limitations. Only a few of them have been investigated in clinical trials (i.e., high-definition tDCS), and indeed most of them have not been tested before in human trials. Further clinical testing is required to assess which patents are more likely to optimize the effects of tDCS. We discuss the potential optimization of tDCS based on these patents and the current experience with standard tDCS.

  13. El Sistema de patentes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viana Barceló

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se realiza un análisis económico del Sistema de Patentes de Colombia. Para ello, se establece el efecto que tienen las patentes concedidas a los inventores foráneos sobre la Inversión Extranjera Directa y el Producto Interno Bruto Nacional, a través de la técnica de regresión de data panel. De igual manera, se identifican los sectores económicos que registran mayores tasas de innovación por parte de los inventores nacionales y extranjeros. Se muestra que el sistema nacional de propiedad intelectual tiene un grado de fortaleza acorde con el resto de países latinoamericanos; para ello, se construye un índice de grado de fortalecimiento de sistema de patente nacional que luego será comparado con el de otros países latinos.Palabras Clave: Sistema de Patentes; Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual; Inversión Directa extranjera; Producto Interno Bruto e innovación tecnológica. The system of patents in ColombiaAbstractIn this document an economic analysis of the System of Patents of Colombia is made. For it, the effect that has the patents granted to the foreign inventors on the Direct Foreign Investment and the Internal Product Gross National, through the technique of regression of data settles down panel. Of equal way, the economic sectors are identified that register greater rates of innovation on the part of the national and foreign inventors.Sample that the national system of intellectual property has a degree of agreed strength with the rest of Latin American countries; for it, an index of degree of fortification of system of national patent is constructed that soon will be compared with the one of other Latin countries.Keywords: System Patent; Rights of Intellectual Property; Foreign Direct Investment; Gross Domestic Product and Technology Innovation.

  14. The European Patent Office and its handling of Computer Implemented Inventions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Weber, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Georg Weber joined the EPO in 1988 and is director since more than 10 years. He started his career in the office initially as a patent examiner and worked in different technical areas of chemistry and mechanics. Birger Koblitz is patent examiner at the EPO in Munich in the technical field of computer security. Before joining the office in 2009, he earned a PhD in Experimental Particle Physics from the University of Hamburg, and worked at CERN in the IT department supporting the experiments in their Grid Computing activitie...

  15. In-depth research of domestic nuclear patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Dan; Gao Anna; Li Dongbin; Lu Yanjia; Ren Chao

    2014-01-01

    Based on the domestic patent information, combined with examples, this article makes an in-depth discussion on the domestic nuclear patent information. The author puts forward for the patent information research, the appropriate retrieval of patent documents is the basis,and the correct quantitative statistical analysis of patent documents is the key, and in-depth qualitative analysis of patent documents is the core. It is expected to provide information support and guarantee for the technical innovation and scientific research personnel in the nuclear field through in-depth study of domestic nuclear information. (authors)

  16. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan C. Cucoranu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Materials and Methods: Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO database (www.uspto.gov (through January 2014 were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA. Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI, image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands. Results: A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18% were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82% included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12% patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75% more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus, quality (z-stacks, management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files, and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI

  17. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucoranu, Ioan C; Parwani, Anil V; Vepa, Suryanarayana; Weinstein, Ronald S; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (www.uspto.gov) (through January 2014) were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA). Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI), image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands). A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18%) were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82%) included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12%) patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75%) more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies) applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus), quality (z-stacks), management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files), and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI), workflow, slide navigation and remote control). An

  18. Discussion point: should governments buy drug patents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Llano, Juan

    2007-06-01

    Between just 1995 and 2003, the number of new chemical entities fell from 45 to 25, while the costs increased by two and a half times in the same period. Firms in the USA accounted for more than half of biotech drugs from 1982 to 2003. European firms are losing competitiveness. In this hostile environment for investment in pharmaceutical R&D, providing quick access to market for real innovations is the main challenge for regulatory agencies. More initiatives, more entrepreneurial spirit and easier work regulation are needed to facilitate the growth of firms in this field, especially in emerging economies like the Spanish. A new open source model proposes the use of pre-competitive public platforms formed by young and qualified human capital carrying out research in areas not sufficiently attractive for private initiatives, followed by the introduction of pharmaceutical companies to carry out the clinical research. The last step would be fast and effective approval by assessment agencies. Governments should, therefore, facilitate the regulation of socially effective innovations, bringing in manufacturers to take part in the post-clinical trial period after entering the market. The gathering of incentives between regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical industry must be approached through innovation and authorization stimulating systems.

  19. Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT to Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Woodside

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce costs and increase worker satisfaction, many businesses have implemented a concept known as Bring Your Own Device (BYOD or Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT. Similarly, many school districts are beginning to implement BYOT policies and programs to improve educational learning opportunities for students who have a wide variety of technology devices. BYOT allow districts with limited budgets enable usage of technology while improving student engagement. This paper explores the technology devices, and educational implications of policies, device management, security and included components.

  20. [The patents game. Generic and biosimilar drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamañán, E; González, D; Armada, E; Ruano, M; Álvarez-Sala, R; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by patents on medicines has a limited duration. The expiry of patents expiration allows copies of the drugs to be released, competing with original. At first, they were identical to the original, known as generic drugs, but in recent years, due to the marketing of biological therapies and the expiry of many of their patents, biosimilar drugs have also emerged. These are not exact copies of the original, but, like generic drugs, biosimilar drugs have to demonstrate equivalence to the reference drugs in quality, safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, despite their importance and contribution to sustainability of health system, doctors are sometimes unaware of differences between them, and their impact in terms of clinical and economic effects. An attempt is made to review and clarify certain aspects often unknown by physicians, despite their involvement in their use. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship.

  2. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created.

  3. Patent portfolio management: literature review and a proposed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conegundes De Jesus, Camila Kiyomi; Salerno, Mario Sergio

    2018-05-09

    Patents and patent portfolios are gaining attention in the last decades, from the called 'pro-patent era' to the recent billionaire transactions involving patent portfolios. The field is growing in importance, both theoretically and practically and despite having substantial literature on new product development portfolio management, we have not found an article relating this theory to patent portfolios. Areas covered: The paper develops a systematic literature review on patent portfolio management to organize the evolution and tendencies of patent portfolio management, highlighting distinctive features of patent portfolio management. Interview with IP manager of three life sciences companies, including a leading multinational group provided relevant information about patent portfolio management. Expert opinion: Based on the systematic literature review on portfolio management, more specifically, on new product development portfolio theory, and interview the paper proposes the paper proposes a reference model to manage patent portfolios. The model comprises four stages aligned with the three goals of the NPD portfolio management: 1 - Linking strategy of the Company's NPD Portfolio to Patent Portfolio; 2 - Balancing the portfolio in buckets; 3 - Patent Valuation (maximizing valuation); 4 - Regularly reviewing the patent portfolio.

  4. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alba Betancourt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC. This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent an advantage compared to the current litigation system? The paper argues that it does and explores what it considers to be the two main advantages of a UPC over the current system of cross-border litigation of patents: the ability to drag several conflicts to a single procedure and the neutrality of the decision makers. These advantages are consequently compared to the characteristics of arbitration. Then, an explanation is provided with regards to how the UPC system is going to work in terms of jurisdiction, preliminary injunctions, the choice of law and enforcement of decisions, comparing those same procedural aspects to arbitration. The article finds that arbitration involves many of the same advantages (as compared to the UPC and that the procedural issues studied in both means are, so too, similar. Therefore, arbitration represents a viable alternative to the UPC when it comes to reducing the risks in solving cross-border patent conflicts.

  5. Patent Keyword Extraction Algorithm Based on Distributed Representation for Patent Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many text mining tasks such as text retrieval, text summarization, and text comparisons depend on the extraction of representative keywords from the main text. Most existing keyword extraction algorithms are based on discrete bag-of-words type of word representation of the text. In this paper, we propose a patent keyword extraction algorithm (PKEA based on the distributed Skip-gram model for patent classification. We also develop a set of quantitative performance measures for keyword extraction evaluation based on information gain and cross-validation, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM classification, which are valuable when human-annotated keywords are not available. We used a standard benchmark dataset and a homemade patent dataset to evaluate the performance of PKEA. Our patent dataset includes 2500 patents from five distinct technological fields related to autonomous cars (GPS systems, lidar systems, object recognition systems, radar systems, and vehicle control systems. We compared our method with Frequency, Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF, TextRank and Rapid Automatic Keyword Extraction (RAKE. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm provides a promising way to extract keywords from patent texts for patent classification.

  6. The governance of the European patent system:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2006-01-01

    at the formal and informal dimensions of interactions in economic systems. This is further developed into an analytical framework which is then used in the assessment of the structural features of the current European patent system, one of the most advanced, complex, and contested economic systems in Europe....... The conclusions elaborate on the normative implications regarding the current weaknesses of the European patent system, and examine the general theoretical implications of the findings, particularly looking at the effectiveness and legitimacy of technically complex governance systems....

  7. Ghosts of inventions: Patent law's digital mediations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyo Yoon

    2018-04-01

    This article examines the shifts in the material ordering of inventions in patent law organization and their effects on the meaning and scope of inventions as intellectual property. Formats and media are constitutive of the establishment and stabilization of inventions as objects of intellectual property. Modern patent law's materiality had been dominated by paper documents but ever more consists of digital images, files, and networked data. The article traces and analyzes such effects of digital media on the meaning of intellectual/intangible property and argues that inventions increasingly matter as digital data in the legal realm.

  8. Mapping patent classifications: Portfolio and statistical analysis, and the comparison of strengths and weaknesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Kogler, D.F.; Yan, B.

    The Cooperative Patent Classifications (CPC) recently developed cooperatively by the European and US Patent Offices provide a new basis for mapping patents and portfolio analysis. CPC replaces International Patent Classifications (IPC) of the World Intellectual Property Organization. In this study,

  9. The PAANEEAC programme: bringing EIA professionals together

    OpenAIRE

    Nooteboom, Sibout; Boven, G.; Post, Reinoud

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ National EIA systems include many actors: EIA agencies, project proponents, sectoral authorities, environmental and social NGOs, consultants, academics, lawyers, politicians and even journalists. Their views and actions largely determine whether EIA systems are successfully strengthened. The PAANEEAC programme assisted national associations of EIA professionals in Central Africa to bring all these actors together, to become platforms for exchange, and to undertake...

  10. Bringing History Alive in the Classroom!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Lee, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the first four issues of a serial publication, "Bringing History Alive in the Classroom!" The volumes focus on: (1) "A Sampling of Renaissance Instruments," which includes: information on Christopher Columbus, Leondardo da Vinci, and William Shakespeare, a timeline from the middle ages through the renaissance, Queen…

  11. DNA Barcoding Investigations Bring Biology to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how DNA barcoding investigations bring biology to life. Biologists recognize the power of DNA barcoding not just to teach biology through connections to the real world but also to immerse students in the exciting process of science. As an investigator in the Program for the Human Environment at Rockefeller University in New…

  12. Transferability and Commercialization of Patent Rights: Economic and Practical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haim V. Levy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of innovation into commercial value depends primarily on appropriate protection of the intellectual property, usually by patents, and efficient pathway(s of its transferability as well as the transfer of the protected knowledge. The key features of patents, from an economic perspective, are that they encompass new knowledge and confer monopoly rights to the owner. The exclusiveness of patent rights is generally conceived as a necessary mechanism to ensure further innovation, stimulate advanced research and facilitate efficient market transactions with patent rights. The patent holder can transfer the technology embodied by way of granting to others a license to use the patented invention in return for a share of the revenues, usually royalties. Patent rights transferability has been proven to be efficient and profitable to the industry as well as beneficial to the welfare of society. The economic and practical perspectives of the transferability and commercialization of patent rights are discussed.

  13. Constructing a unitary title regime for the European Patent System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2011-01-01

    The European Patent System without any unitary title allows Member States to retain institutional arrangements within their borders and to prevent any moves to delegate responsibility outside the national sphere. This intergovernmental patent regime suffers from fragmentation due to national

  14. Intellectual property rights in china: patents and economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intellectual property rights in china: patents and economic development. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... there are still patents and other IP related rights infringement and enforcement issues.

  15. An advanced search engine for patent analytics in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Vishnykova, Dina; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent collections contain an important amount of medical-related knowledge, but existing tools were reported to lack of useful functionalities. We present here the development of TWINC, an advanced search engine dedicated to patent retrieval in the domain of health and life sciences. Our tool embeds two search modes: an ad hoc search to retrieve relevant patents given a short query and a related patent search to retrieve similar patents given a patent. Both search modes rely on tuning experiments performed during several patent retrieval competitions. Moreover, TWINC is enhanced with interactive modules, such as chemical query expansion, which is of prior importance to cope with various ways of naming biomedical entities. While the related patent search showed promising performances, the ad-hoc search resulted in fairly contrasted results. Nonetheless, TWINC performed well during the Chemathlon task of the PatOlympics competition and experts appreciated its usability.

  16. The availability of Misoprostol in pharmacies and patent medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The availability of Misoprostol in pharmacies and patent medicine stores in two Nigerian ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... pharmacists or vendors of pharmaceutical and patent medicine outlets in two ...

  17. Patent medicine vendors are major providers antimalaria treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of malaria by this informal sector of healthcare delivery is however ... Methods: Fifty-five patent medicine vendors selected through a multistage sampling ... training of the patent medicine vendors, the overall appropriate treatment ...

  18. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements. ...

  19. "Environmental Technology Strengths: International Rankings Based on US Patent Data"

    OpenAIRE

    Dora Marinova; Michael McAleer

    2003-01-01

    Patent information has been used by economists and researchers in the field of innovation to analyse current and forecast future technological directions. The recent surge in patenting activities in developed countries reaffirms the strong position of the patent system in a globalised world dominated by market mechanisms. This paper analyses the technological position of the top twelve foreign patenting countries in the USA, namely Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, the ...

  20. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber A Akhondi

    Full Text Available Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org.

  1. Why do firms give away their patents for free?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziegler, Nicole; Gassmann, Oliver; Friesike, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Within the trend of increasing patent commercialisation and open innovation, a recent phenomenon where firms give away their patents free of charge can be observed. This seems contradictory to the original intention of the patent system (enabling firms to create temporary monopolies to appropriate

  2. Languages, Fees and the International Scope of Patenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Pottelsberghe, 2006; von Graevenitz et al., 2013) and on potential implications of their behaviour for the effectiveness of the patent system. Lately, a number of researchers have started to explore the design of the patent system itself, i.e. the role of fees and costs of patenting (Archontopoulos et al., 2007...

  3. Analysis of patents on extinguishing agent for sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2002-02-01

    This report relates to the extinction of sodium fires, particularly where the burning sodium is in liquid form. The total of 14 patents on extinguishing agents for sodium fires patented from 1969 to 1997 are analyzed and summarized. All of the patents analyzed were issued from USA, France and Japan

  4. Analysis of patents on extinguishing agent for sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Jeong, K C; Kim, B H; Kim, T J; Choi, J H

    2002-02-01

    This report relates to the extinction of sodium fires, particularly where the burning sodium is in liquid form. The total of 14 patents on extinguishing agents for sodium fires patented from 1969 to 1997 are analyzed and summarized. All of the patents analyzed were issued from USA, France and Japan.

  5. Essential patents in industry standards : the case of UMTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.N.A.; Bongard, R.; Nuvolari, A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the determinants of essential patents in industry standards. In particular, we assess the role of two main factors: the significance of the technological solution contained in the patent and the involvement of the applicant of the patent in the standardization process. To this end, we

  6. 78 FR 70294 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License... interest the Air Force has in: U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/354,522, filed on June 14, 2010... Anish Tuteja et al.; U.S. Non-provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,950, filed on June 14, 2011...

  7. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NSF patent policy. 2527... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981, the...

  8. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee...

  9. 77 FR 38771 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of prospective grant of exclusive patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance... embodied in U.S. Patent Application No. 13/346,999 titled ``Chirped-Pulse Terahertz Spectroscopy for...

  10. 9 CFR 124.20 - Patent term extension calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent term extension calculation. 124... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PATENT TERM RESTORATION Regulatory Review Period § 124.20 Patent term extension calculation. (a) As provided in 37 CFR 1...

  11. 77 FR 40345 - Intent to Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Intent to Grant an Exclusive Patent License... William V. Stoecker, Hernan F. Gomez, Jonathan A. Green, and David L. McGlasson; U.S. Patent Number 7,927... David L. McGlasson; U.S. Patent Application Number Serial No. 12/756,875, filed on April 8, 2010...

  12. 76 FR 57720 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License... in: U.S. Patent Application No. 12/932,341, filed on February 23, 2011, entitled ``Resin-Based... INFORMATION CONTACT: An exclusive license for the invention described in this patent application will be...

  13. 77 FR 65673 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of prospective grant of exclusive patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e.... Patent Application No. 61/625,511 titled ``UV-Assisted Alcohol Sensing with Zinc Oxide Functionalized...

  14. 77 FR 48130 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of prospective grant of exclusive patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e... Provisional Application for Patent Application No. 61,638,362 titled ``Flow Cytometer Systems and Associated...

  15. Use of Patent Information : Empirical Evidence from Innovative SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, Enno

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of patent information by innovative SMEs. The standard literature tends to focus on obtaining patents; studies of using patent information for different purposes are underrepresented in the innovation literature. Studying the case of SMEs is especially interesting,

  16. 25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee...

  17. Biotechnological Patents Applications of the Deuterium Oxide in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da S Mariano, Reysla M; Bila, Wendell C; Trindade, Maria Jaciara F; Lamounier, Joel A; Galdino, Alexsandro S

    2017-01-01

    Deuterium oxide is a molecule that has been used for decades in several studies related to human health. Currently, studies on D2O have mobilized a "Race for Patenting" worldwide. Several patents have been registered from biomedical and technological studies of D2O showing the potential of this stable isotope in industry and health care ecosystems. Most of the patents related to the applications of the deuterium oxide in human health have been summarized in this review. The following patents databases were consulted: European Patent Office (Espacenet), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the United States Latin America Patents (LATIPAT), Patent scope -Search International and National Patent Collections (WIPO), Google Patents and Free Patents Online. With this review, the information was collected on recent publications including 22 patents related to deuterium oxide and its applications in different areas. This review showed that deuterium oxide is a promising component in different areas, including biotechnology, chemistry and medicine. In addition, the knowledge of this compound was covered, reinforcing its importance in the field of biotechnology and human health. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. 76 FR 40339 - Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... any of the following methods: E-mail: [email protected] . Include ``0651- 0058 comment... Singapore (IPOS), German Patent and Trade Mark Office (DPMA), National Board of Patents and Registration of... being planned with the USPTO: CIPO, SIPO, and the Nordic Patent Institute (NPI). II. Method of...

  19. 78 FR 64925 - Request for Comments on Proposed Elimination of Patents Search Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...] Request for Comments on Proposed Elimination of Patents Search Templates AGENCY: United States Patent and... Patents Search Templates from the USPTO Web site. In 2006, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) implemented Patents Search Templates, which are United States Patent Classification (USPC...

  20. The backlog issue in patents: A look at the European case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Backlogs can be caused by an increase in the number of patent applications and patent size. A large number of patents granted could be explained by patent examiners' bonuses, legal and cultural contexts, claim forms, the geographical origin of patents, a firm's experience in patenting, the number of

  1. Update on Brazil's pharma patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, Rana

    2016-09-01

    Brazil's Pharma market is a dynamic and promising one. It ranks within the top ten market. There are peculiar hurdles that patentees have to overcome, such as, a two-tier examination, a serious backlog at the Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office. Several measures to accelerate examination have been adopted given the meager number of Examiners.

  2. Savannah River Site Patented Technologies Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabold, D.E.

    1995-07-18

    This information represents SRS`s contribution of the DOE technology information network, an internet service coordinated out of Los Alamos. The information provided is strictly DOE-SR-titled and-issued patented technologies including environmental remediation, robotics, sensors, materials science, biomedical applications, hydrogen, and consumer products.

  3. Patent, Nanotechnology, and the Role of University

    OpenAIRE

    Sardjono, Agus

    2011-01-01

    University has significant contribution tot the development of nanotechnology, The role of university can be implemented through the TTLO, particulary in an effort to build a bridge for bottom-up nanotechnology for commercial purposes. There will be an increasingly significant link betweent the patent system on the university role in the development of nanotechnology.

  4. Careers in Patent Law for Physics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    An important question that many undergraduate physics students ask is, "What can one do with a physics degree?" Of course there are many answers to this question. Often a general reference to becoming a lawyer is given as a possible answer. This paper is intended to explain the field of patent law and how a physics degree can lead to an…

  5. Patent ductus arteriosus and brain volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmers, Petra M A; Benders, Manon J N L; D'Ascenzo, Rita; Zethof, Jorine; Alderliesten, Thomas; Kersbergen, Karina J; Isgum, Ivana; de Vries, Linda S; Groenendaal, Floris; van Bel, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can compromise perfusion and oxygenation of the preterm brain. Reports suggest that PDA is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. We hypothesize that long-standing low cerebral oxygenation due to PDA

  6. A proposal for measuring the degree of public health-sensitivity of patent legislation in the context of the WTO TRIPS Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to propose a framework for measuring the degree of public health-sensitivity of patent legislation reformed after the World Trade Organization's TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement entered into force. The methodology for establishing and testing the proposed framework involved three main steps:(1) a literature review on TRIPS flexibilities related to the protection of public health and provisions considered "TRIPS-plus"; (2) content validation through consensus techniques (an adaptation of Delphi method); and (3) an analysis of patent legislation from nineteen Latin American and Caribbean countries. The results show that the framework detected relevant differences in countries' patent legislation, allowing for country comparisons. The framework's potential usefulness in monitoring patent legislation changes arises from its clear parameters for measuring patent legislation's degree of health sensitivity. Nevertheless, it can be improved by including indicators related to government and organized society initiatives that minimize free-trade agreements' negative effects on access to medicines.

  7. Recent Patents in Agricultural Biotechnology; Focus on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhzoum, Abdullah; Venkataraman, Srividhya; Tremouillaux-Guiller, Jocelyne; Hefferon, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology, including the generation of genetically modified food crops, has been the subject of much controversy over the last few years. Initially serving the basic needs of farmers, Ag Biotech has more recently gained much appeal for its opportunities with respect to both the nutritional and pharmaceutical sciences. The following review describes a number of recently approved patents that could have direct implications for the field of medicine. Topics range from the development of pharmaceuticals in plants using hairy roots or virus expression vectors, to the role of epigenetics for improving the nutritional value of food crops. Many of these patents were developed by smaller companies or publically funded research institutes, disproving the perception that intellectual property in Ag Biotech is restricted to only large multinational corporations. The review concludes with a discussion of the future of these technologies in the face of the current negative political climate. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Patenting of university and non-university public research organisations in Germany: evidence from patent applications for medical research results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tinnemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patents are one of the most important forms of intellectual property. They grant a time-limited exclusivity on the use of an invention allowing the recuperation of research costs. The use of patents is fiercely debated for medical innovation and especially controversial for publicly funded research, where the patent holder is an institution accountable to public interest. Despite this controversy, for the situation in Germany almost no empirical information exists. The purpose of this study is to examine the amount, types and trends of patent applications for health products submitted by German public research organisations. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic search for patent documents using the publicly accessible database search interface of the German Patent and Trademark Office. We defined keywords and search criteria and developed search patterns for the database request. We retrieved documents with application date between 1988 and 2006 and processed the collected data stepwise to compile the most relevant documents in patent families for further analysis. We developed a rationale and present individual steps of a systematic method to request and process patent data from a publicly accessible database. We retrieved and processed 10194 patent documents. Out of these, we identified 1772 relevant patent families, applied for by 193 different universities and non-university public research organisations. 827 (47% of these patent families contained granted patents. The number of patent applications submitted by universities and university-affiliated institutions more than tripled since the introduction of legal reforms in 2002, constituting almost half of all patent applications and accounting for most of the post-reform increase. Patenting of most non-university public research organisations remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: We search, process and analyse patent applications from publicly accessible databases

  9. Ethical limitations in patenting biotechnological inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugagnani, V

    1999-01-01

    In order to connect ethical considerations with practical limits to patentability, the moral judgement should possibly move from the exploitation of the invention to the nature and/or objectives of Research and Development (R&D) projects which have produced it: in other words, it appears quite reasonable and logical that Society is not rewarding unethical R&D activities by granting intellectual property rights. As far as biotechnology R&D is concerned, ethical guidance can be derived from the 1996 Council of EuropeOs OConvention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being with regard to the application of biology and medicineO, whose Chapter V - Scientific research - provides guidelines on: i. protection of persons undergoing research (e.g. informed consent); ii. protection of persons not able to consent to research; iii. research on embryos in vitro. As far as the specific point of patenting biotechnology inventions is concerned, the four exclusions prescribed by Directive 98/44/EC (i.e. human cloning, human germ-line gene therapy, use of human embryos for commercial purposes, unjustified animal suffering for medical purposes) are all we have in Europe in terms of ethical guidance to patentability. In Italy, in particular, we certainly need far more comprehensive legislation, expressing SocietyOs demand to provide ethical control of modern biotechnology. However it is quite difficult to claim that ethical concerns are being raised by currently awarded biotechnology patents related to living organisms and material thereof; they largely deal with the results of genomic R&D, purposely and usefully oriented toward improving health-care and agri-food processes, products and services. ONo patents on lifeOO can be an appealing slogan of militants against modern biotechnology, but it is far too much of an over-simplified abstraction to become the Eleventh Commandment our Society.

  10. A Patent Analysis for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyeog Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology analysis (TA is an important issue in the management of technology. Most R&D (Research & Development policies have depended on diverse TA results. Traditional TA results have been obtained through qualitative approaches such as the Delphi expert survey, scenario analysis, or technology road mapping. Although they are representative methods for TA, they are not stable because their results are dependent on the experts’ knowledge and subjective experience. To solve this problem, recently many studies on TA have been focused on quantitative approaches, such as patent analysis. A patent document has diverse information of developed technologies, and thus, patent is one form of objective data for TA. In addition, sustainable technology has been a big issue in the TA fields, because most companies have their technological competitiveness through the sustainable technology. Sustainable technology is a technology keeping the technological superiority of a company. So a country as well as a company should consider sustainable technology for technological competition and continuous economic growth. Also it is important to manage sustainable technology in a given technology domain. In this paper, we propose a new patent analysis approach based on statistical analysis for the management of sustainable technology (MOST. Our proposed methodology for the MOST is to extract a technological structure and relationship for knowing the sustainable technology. To do this, we develop a hierarchical diagram of technology for finding the causal relationships among technological keywords of a given domain. The aim of the paper is to select the sustainable technology and to create the hierarchical technology paths to sustainable technology for the MOST. This contributes to planning R&D strategy for the sustainability of a company. To show how the methodology can be applied to real problem, we perform a case study using retrieved patent documents related to

  11. Uniform interpretation of european patent law with a special view on the creation of a common patent court

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luginbühl, SL

    2009-01-01

    The European Patent Convention (EPC) provides for a common application and examination procedure for European patents. Therefore, European patents are granted on the basis of uniform European law which is applied and interpreted by the EPO, as well as by a great number of national judges and members

  12. 75 FR 34749 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... and FDA-2008-E-0267] Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent Nos. 5,759,580 and 6,545,040 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... determination because of the submission of applications to the Director of Patents and Trademarks, Department of...

  13. Evaluating patent portfolios by means of multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of intangible assets is a complex topic where traditional methodologies are not always successful. Nevertheless, intangible assets, like patents, have become of great importance to companies, as their value is considered to be relevant economic and strategic information, so it is necessary to evaluate firms’ patent portfolios. The present research introduces an extended goal programming model to calculate the relative importance of the patents of companies in a patent pool. This information may be useful for patent valuation as well as for management purposes. The proposed multicriteria methodology has been applied to the 19 companies in the MPEG2 patent pool, with a total of 770 valid patents, using 7 criteria to obtain a composite measure of the relative position of the firms in the patent pool.RESUMENLa valoración de activos intangibles constituye un área compleja donde los métodos tradicionales no siempre obtienen buenos resultados. Sin embargo, los activos intangibles, entre ellos las patentes, han ganado importancia en las empresas, de forma que el cálculo de su valor se ha convertido en una cuestión estratégica en muchos casos. Este hecho requiere que las empresas valoren la cartera de patentes en su conjunto. La presente investigación presenta un modelo extendido de programación por metas y su aplicación para el cálculo de la importancia relativa de las patentes. Este modelo puede resultar importante tanto para la valoración de las patentes como para la gestión empresarial. La metodología multicriterio propuesta ha sido aplicado a 19 empresas en el sector de las patentes del formato MPEG2, con un total de 770 patentes válidas, y utilizando 7 criterios con el objetivo de obtener una medida compuesta de la posición relativa de las empresas en el conjunto de patentes.

  14. Bringing optics to Fab Labs in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Aurèle; Zuidwijk, Thim; Urbach, Paul

    2017-08-01

    The Optics Group of Delft University of Technology plays a major role in teaching optics to bachelor and master students. In addition, the group has a long record of introducing, demonstrating and teaching optics to quite diverse groups of people from outside of the university. We will describe some of these activities and focus on a recently started project funded by the European Commission called Phablabs 4.0, which aims to bring photonics to European Fab labs.

  15. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal brings more than biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-01

    Biotechnology Journal always brings the state-of-the-art biotechnologies to our readers. Different from other topical issues, this issue of Biotechnology Journal is complied with a series of exiting reviews and research articles from spontaneous submissions, again, addressing society's actual problems and needs. The progress is a real testimony how biotechnology contributes to achievements in healthcare, better utilization of resources, and a bio-based economy. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus with special conformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yigang; Li Shijie; Fu Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the technique of transcatheter closure for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with special conformation so as to improve the technical success rate and clinical safety. Methods: Transcatheter closure was performed in 23 patients with PDA of special types by using different devices according to the angiocardiographic conformation and the clinical manifestation. The therapeutic results were evaluated by transthoracic color Doppler echocardiography at 24 hours, one, three and six months after the operation. Results: Different occluders were successfully implanted in all patients. PDA of special types was found in 23 patients, which included: (1) special conformation (n=12), consisting of small type (n=5), huge type (n=3), aneurismal type (n=2) and displayed on special exposure position (n=2), (2) accompanied by other malformations (n=2), containing dextroaortic arch (n=1) and dextrocardia (n=1), (3) associated with severe pulmonary hypertension (n=8) and (4) recanalization after surgery (n=1). Conclusion: For PDA with special conformation, therapeutic strategy should be individually formulated in order to smoothly bring the closure procedure to success. (authors)

  17. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  18. Inventing around Edison’s incandescent lamp patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  19. Patent analysis for competitive technical intelligence and innovative thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Patents are a very useful source of technical information. The public availability of patents over the Internet, with for some databases (eg. Espacenet the assurance of a constant format, allows the development of high value added products using this information source and provides an easy way to analyze patent information. This simple and powerful tool facilitates the use of patents in academic research, in SMEs and in developing countries providing a way to use patents as a ideas resource thus improving technological innovation.

  20. To succeed using patent and invention which are brillant idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    1999-07-01

    This book deals with what invention is, how we can be a inventor, how we apply inventions to intellectual property office, and other useful advice and lesson on patent. These are the titles of each part : trouble stories on success to invent, everybody can be a inventor, this is a invention. There is a problem when the idea is same or similar, preceding patent, where does it hide? database on patent, patent information, Let's go to Korean intellectual property office, patient application which we misses in our dream, and instructions of patent including various sides.

  1. Patent Value: A Business Perspective for Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de Wilton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last year, news headlines have highlighted record patent infringement settlements, multibillion dollar auctions of large corporate patent portfolios, and ongoing patent battles between key technology industry players. Despite this acknowledgment of the significant value of patents for large corporations, many small technology companies are understandably more focused on the near-term costs of obtaining a patent rather than future value. Costs may seem prohibitive to an early stage technology startup. Some software startups question whether patents are relevant to their business. In practice, effective intellectual property (IP strategy and management is dependent on many factors, such as technology or industry sector, size and maturity of the business, technology lifecycle, and the business and market environment. IP strategy must be aligned to business strategy from the outset. By considering IP in the broader context of the overall business plan and the competitive environment, opportunities for generating increased return on R&D investment and added business value through patents or other forms of IP can be recognized early on. This approach ensures that a decision about whether or not to patent is driven by business reasons rather than budget constraints. This article examines the costs and benefits of patents from the perspective of early-stage technology startups and growing businesses, and it provides some general guidance on best practices for developing an IP and patent activity plan and for building a patent portfolio that appropriately supports business objectives.

  2. Intellectual Property Strategies of Multinational Companies Patenting in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Schuster, Gerd; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    While global intellectual property trends show a stable rate of worldwide patent applications during the last five years, patent applications in emerging economies strongly increased within the same period. Unless the increasing number of applications in emerging economies, the indigenous legal...... archetypes of the world’s largest patent applicants using the case of China as an empirical context. Using Questel’s professional patent search application Orbit, we build a unique data set of the world’s top patent applicants combining data from the World Intellectual Property Organization and the State...... Intellectual Property Office of China comprising data of about 620.000 patents. Referring to the study of Keupp et al. (2012), we extend previous qualitative studies on patenting strategy archetypes by adding quantitative evidence from a data set of the world’s largest intellectual property owners. Model based...

  3. The shadow of inequitable conduct in the US patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bao-Chi; Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2016-05-03

    Inequitable conduct regarding any single claim can render the entire patent unenforceable and further damage other related patents and applications in the assignee's patent portfolio. The adverse impact of inequitable conduct significantly became a litigation strategy. The US Federal Circuit (CAFC) observed that inequitable conduct as a patent litigation strategy had become a plague and thus tightened the standard for finding inequitable conduct in a case with full court judges. However, under the shadow of previous adverse impact of inequitable conduct, patent applicants may still submit many marginal related references. This study demonstrates that an applicant even prepared an information disclosure statement (IDS) as many as 50 pages. Actually, under the new standard, inequitable conduct would not further produce significant impact in the US patent system. Thus, a patent applicant need not submit marginal references but should distinguish the prior art from the current application, especially for those listed in the IDS, to avoid the novelty rejection.

  4. The impact of effective patents on future innovations in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Rita; Vereeck, Lode

    2012-03-01

    The success of nanomedicine is dependent upon an effective protection of IP rights. Unfortunately, the US nanomedicine patent system is dysfunctional because long R&D procedures as well as the patent pendency are insufficiently taken into account. This could be solved by changing the patent-protection starting point and increasing the capacity of the US PTO. The nanotechnology industry also suffers from overlapping patents. This could be avoided by improving the expertise of the PTO, using a more accurate definition of nanotechnology and devising a generally accepted nomenclature that enhances prior-art searches. To avoid disputes, inference practices and strategic patenting can be used. In the case of a dispute, parties can fall back on re-examination, cross-licensing and patent litigation. Cross-licensing agreements are recommended since they allows parties to access technology, create synergies and exclude third-party competitors. Solving the patent problems in the nanotechnology industry is a necessary step for future success.

  5. Advances in CO2 capture technology: A patent review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bingyun; Duan, Yuhua; Luebke, David; Morreale, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Timely updates on carbon capture technologies: More than 1000 patents on solvent, sorbent, and membrane. ► More patents on solvent and sorbent compared to membrane. ► Environmental and health concerns exist regarding carbon capture technologies. -- Abstract: Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions are believed to be a major contributor to global warming. As a consequence, large anthropogenic CO 2 sources worldwide will eventually be required to implement CO 2 capture and storage technologies to control CO 2 emissions. In order to guide the establishment of policies for CO 2 removal, we reviewed the current status of CO 2 capture patents and technologies based on the Espacenet patent database and found that more than 1000 patents have been published on sorbent, solvent, and membrane. More than 60% of these patents were published since the year 2000, and a sharp increase in patent numbers was seen in the last several years; ∼25% patents were published in the last 2 years. Substantially more patents on CO 2 removal and separation technologies are expected in the coming years. Meanwhile, the top four major types of patents, which consist of more than 2/3 of these patents, were patents granted by Japan (JP), United States (US), World Intellectual Property Organization (WO), and China (CN), and approximately half of the patents were JP and US patents. Unfortunately, no current technologies for removing CO 2 from large sources like coal-based power plants exist which satisfy the needs of safety, efficiency, and economy; further enhancement and innovation are much needed.

  6. Patenting and the gender gap: should women be encouraged to patent more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo-Martín, Inmaculada

    2013-06-01

    The commercialization of academic science has come to be understood as economically desirable for institutions, individual researchers, and the public. Not surprisingly, commercial activity, particularly that which results from patenting, appears to be producing changes in the standards used to evaluate scientists' performance and contributions. In this context, concerns about a gender gap in patenting activity have arisen and some have argued for the need to encourage women to seek more patents. They believe that because academic advancement is mainly dependent on productivity (Stuart and Ding in American Journal of Sociology 112:97-144, 2006; Azoulay et al. in Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 63:599-623, 2007), differences in research output have the power to negatively impact women's careers. Moreover, in the case of patenting activity, they claim that the gender gap also has the potential to negatively affect society. This is so because scientific and technological advancement and innovation play a crucial role in contemporary societies. Thus, women's more limited involvement in the commercialization of science and technology can also be detrimental to innovation itself. Nevertheless, calls to encourage women to patent on grounds that such activity is likely to play a significant role in the betterment of both women's careers and society seem to be based on two problematic assumptions: (1) that the methods to determine women's productivity in patenting activities are an appropriate way to measure their research efforts and the impact of their work, and (2) that patenting, particularly in academia, benefits society. The purpose of this paper is to call into question these two assumptions.

  7. Patent Medicine Sellers: How Can They Help Control Childhood Malaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamund M. Akuse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Roll Back Malaria Initiative encourages participation of private health providers in malaria control because mothers seek care for sick children from them. This study investigated Patent Medicine Sellers (PMS management of presumptive malaria in children in order to identify how they can assist malaria control. A cross-sectional survey of 491 PMS in Kaduna, Nigeria, was done using interviews and observation of shop activities. Most (80% customers bought drugs without prescriptions. Only 29.5% were given instructions about doses. Between 40–100% doses of recommended antimalarials were incorrect. Some (22% PMS did not ask questions about illness for which they were consulted. Most children treated in shops received injections. PMS facilitate homecare but have deficiencies in knowledge and practice. Interventions must focus on training them to accurately determine doses, give advice about drug administration, use oral medication, and ask about illness. Training should be made a prerequisite for registering and reregistering shops.

  8. Enabling policy planning and innovation management through patent information and co-authorship network analyses: a study of tuberculosis in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Guimarães Vasconcellos

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: New tools and approaches are necessary to facilitate public policy planning and foster the management of innovation in countries' public health systems. To this end, an understanding of the integrated way in which the various actors who produce scientific knowledge and inventions in technological areas of interest operate, where they are located and how they relate to one another is of great relevance. Tuberculosis has been chosen as a model for the present study as it is a current challenge for Brazilian research and innovation. METHODOLOGY: Publications about tuberculosis written by Brazilian authors were accessed from international databases, analyzed, processed with text searching tools and networks of coauthors were constructed and visualized. Patent applications about tuberculosis in Brazil were retrieved from the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI and the European Patent Office databases, through the use of International Patent Classification and keywords and then categorized and analyzed. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian authorship of articles about tuberculosis jumped from 1% in 1995 to 5% in 2010. Article production and patent filings of national origin have been concentrated in public universities and research institutions while the participation of private industry in the filing of Brazilian patents has remained limited. The goals of national patenting efforts have still not been reached, as up to the present none of the applications filed have been granted a patent. The analysis of all this data about TB publishing and patents clearly demonstrates the importance of maintaining the continuity of Brazil's production development policies as well as government support for infrastructure projects to be employed in transforming the potential of research. This policy, which already exists for the promotion of new products and processes that, in addition to bringing diverse economic benefits to the country

  9. Enabling policy planning and innovation management through patent information and co-authorship network analyses: a study of tuberculosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre Guimarães; Morel, Carlos Medicis

    2012-01-01

    New tools and approaches are necessary to facilitate public policy planning and foster the management of innovation in countries' public health systems. To this end, an understanding of the integrated way in which the various actors who produce scientific knowledge and inventions in technological areas of interest operate, where they are located and how they relate to one another is of great relevance. Tuberculosis has been chosen as a model for the present study as it is a current challenge for Brazilian research and innovation. Publications about tuberculosis written by Brazilian authors were accessed from international databases, analyzed, processed with text searching tools and networks of coauthors were constructed and visualized. Patent applications about tuberculosis in Brazil were retrieved from the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI) and the European Patent Office databases, through the use of International Patent Classification and keywords and then categorized and analyzed. Brazilian authorship of articles about tuberculosis jumped from 1% in 1995 to 5% in 2010. Article production and patent filings of national origin have been concentrated in public universities and research institutions while the participation of private industry in the filing of Brazilian patents has remained limited. The goals of national patenting efforts have still not been reached, as up to the present none of the applications filed have been granted a patent. The analysis of all this data about TB publishing and patents clearly demonstrates the importance of maintaining the continuity of Brazil's production development policies as well as government support for infrastructure projects to be employed in transforming the potential of research. This policy, which already exists for the promotion of new products and processes that, in addition to bringing diverse economic benefits to the country, will also contribute to effective dealing with public health

  10. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Eastern European patenting activities in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, D. [Murdoch University, Perth, WA (Australia). Inst. of Sustainability & Technological Policy

    2001-09-01

    The patenting activities of the former centrally planned economies in the US between 1976 and 1999 are examined. The technological performance of Eastern Europe is assessed and compared with that of the OECD countries. A sharp decline is observed as a consequence of the economic changes undergone by these countries in recent years. The study reveals some common technological strengths, such as in the areas of petroleum, coal, chemicals and other related products, and country-specific advantages, such as in mining in the former USSR, Poland and Bulgaria, textiles, clothing, footwear and leather in the former Czechoslovakia, printing, publishing and recorded media in the former East Germany, health in the former Yugoslavia, energy in Romania and design in Slovenia. Recommendations are made for the future use of foreign patents.

  12. Understanding the development trends of low-carbon energy technologies: A patent analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, Vito; Ardito, Lorenzo; Dangelico, Rosa Maria; Messeni Petruzzelli, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Governments’ strategies set important frameworks to develop and sustain low-carbon energy technologies. • Commercial activities play a key role in the low-carbon energy technologies’ development. • The number of patents that are based upon basic research is growing. - Abstract: Eco-innovations are being recognized as fundamental means to foster sustainable development, as well as to create new business opportunities. Nowadays, the eco-innovation concept is gaining ground within both academic and practitioner studies with the attempt to better understand the main dynamics underlying its nature and guide policymakers and companies in supporting its development. This paper contributes to the extant literature on eco-innovation by providing a comprehensive overview of the evolution of a specific type of eco-innovations that are playing a crucial role in the current socio-economic agenda, namely low-carbon energy technologies. Accordingly, we focus our attention on the related patenting activity of different countries and organizations over time, as well as on influencing policy initiatives and events. Hence, we collected 131,661 patents granted at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (U.S.PTO.) between 1971 and 2010, and belonging to the “Nuclear power generation”, “Alternative energy production”, and “Energy conservation” technological classes, as indicated by the International Patent Classification (IPC) Green Inventory. Our findings report the development trends of low-carbon energy technologies, as well as identify major related environmental programs, historical events, and private sector initiatives explaining those trends, hence revealing how these different circumstances have significantly influenced their development over time

  13. The story of global patent inventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeun Jung

    1996-11-01

    This book introduces the global patent inventions, which are soap floating on the water, computer, radar, zipper, fuel cell, a raincoat, a pencil, a ball point pen, vitamin, an ice saw, a subway, post it, endoscope, ultrasonic detector, machine to pierce the hall, hair-restorer, a refrigerator, tricycle tractor of Benz steam engine of watt, carburettor, aluminum smelting process, video game, ice cream freezer, lead powder, piling system, burner using infrared rays, small projector, blender for recycling of resource, and artificial silk.

  14. The story of global patent inventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeun Jung

    1996-11-15

    This book introduces the global patent inventions, which are soap floating on the water, computer, radar, zipper, fuel cell, a raincoat, a pencil, a ball point pen, vitamin, an ice saw, a subway, post it, endoscope, ultrasonic detector, machine to pierce the hall, hair-restorer, a refrigerator, tricycle tractor of Benz steam engine of watt, carburettor, aluminum smelting process, video game, ice cream freezer, lead powder, piling system, burner using infrared rays, small projector, blender for recycling of resource, and artificial silk.

  15. Bioethics commission to review gene patenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenburg, L.

    1995-12-01

    In October, in an unexpected development, U.S. President Bill Clinton created a national ethics advisory board, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC, Washington, DC), to study both research ethics and the management and use of genetic information. Of particular interest to biotechnology companies and researchers is the fact that the commission`s brief encompasses issues about human gene patenting, a subject not contained in earlier proposals for the commission.

  16. Mammography. [Patent750AIX-08)293916

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-01

    This patent reveals a method and instrument for the detection and registration of breast cancer with the aid of X-radiation, i.e. mammography. The breast is irradiated with soft X-rays whereby the radiation beam is scanned with a moving 'stripform' screen and whereby the picture from the 'stripform' screen is recorded by a television camera that moves simultaneously with the strip. The image is then projected on a monitor.

  17. Evaluation of Brazilian biotechnology patent activity from 1975 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F; Delfim, F; Drummond, I; Carmo, A O; Barroca, T M; Horta, C C; Kalapothakis, E

    2012-08-01

    The analysis of patent activity is one methodology used for technological monitoring. In this paper, the activity of biotechnology-related patents in Brazil were analyzed through 30 International Patent Classification (IPC) codes published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We developed a program to analyse the dynamics of the major patent applicants, countries and IPC codes extracted from the Brazilian Patent Office (INPI) database. We also identified Brazilian patent applicants who tried to expand protection abroad via the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). We had access to all patents published online at the INPI from 1975 to July 2010, including 9,791 biotechnology patent applications in Brazil, and 163 PCTs published online at World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) from 1997 to December 2010. To our knowledge, there are no other online reports of biotechnology patents previous to the years analyzed here. Most of the biotechnology patents filed in the INPI (10.9%) concerned measuring or testing processes involving nucleic acids. The second and third places belonged to patents involving agro-technologies (recombinant DNA technology for plant cells and new flowering plants, i.e. angiosperms, or processes for obtaining them, and reproduction of flowering plants by tissue culture techniques). The majority of patents (87.2%) were filed by nonresidents, with USA being responsible for 51.7% of all biotechnology patents deposited in Brazil. Analyzing the resident applicants per region, we found a hub in the southeast region of Brazil. Among the resident applicants for biotechnology patents filed in the INPI, 43.5% were from São Paulo, 18.3% were from Rio de Janeiro, and 9.7% were from Minas Gerais. Pfizer, Novartis, and Sanofi were the largest applicants in Brazil, with 339, 288, and 245 biotechnology patents filed, respectively. For residents, the largest applicant was the governmental institution FIOCRUZ (Oswaldo Cruz

  18. Patents Assessed through Sectoral Operational Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula – Angela VIDRAȘCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Accounting Standards – IAS 38 „Intangible assets”; these assets are identifiable non-monetary assets under construction were considered without physical substance. Lack actual physical form must not be understood that an intangible asset would have no material support, because the presence of any intangible asset can be demonstrated only by a support material form. Exmple: frequently encounter compact-disc (in case a software, legal documentation (in the case of licences, trade marks and patents of invention, contracts, permits and licences, technical documentation or films. Nowadays we are constantly subjected to the changing flow of information that is found in a perpetual technological change which started the emergence of a new stage in the society development that which carries the name of knowledge. The object of my research is the patent for the structural funds reimbursable project submitted in the "Operational Program, Economic Competitiveness" Operation 2.3.1. "Support for start-ups and innovative spin-offs. Patent is an official document certifying the inventor, the exclusive right to produce a certain good or product or use a particular process. Remember that evaluation of intangible assets is the most complex and systematic procedure.

  19. Why Is Hard To Patent An Invention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When employed by a company, in almost all the cases a new employee has to sign an agreement giving the company exclusive rights to any intellectual property developed as part of their work assignments. This agreement could extend beyond a change of jobs and cause conflict of interests in new employment situations. A patent is a government-granted monopoly given to an inventor as both a reward for the intellectual and financial investment, and a stimulus to innovate. As a monopoly, the patent has legal power to exclude others from exploiting the invention in any way for a period of 20 years from the time the patent application has been filed. A trademark provides instant recognition of a product or company; a service mark provides instant recognition of a service. They both have unlimited lifetime. But the owner must renew or confirm continuous use at the end of five years, and every 10 years thereafter. A trade secret is information keep secret by the owner to give him advantage over competitors. Since it is secret, a trade secret protection has unlimited lifetime.

  20. The problem and solution of enterprise patent application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dabo; Yang Xiaoqing

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the situation of Chinese patent application is pleasant, but there are still some hiding disquiets. For the most enterprises, the passion of current patent application may not be derived from the internal motility but mainly derived by the government policy. Because of the shortage of related knowledge on patent, there are still some problems for our enterprises, such as blurring the scope of patent application and failing the organization of the documents of patent application which causing the patent cannot be applied timely. In some cases, the patent cannot obtain the effective protection even if it has been applied and obtained the authorization successfully. For such problems, we should enhance the cooperation between enterprises and agency organizations and build a patent engineer group which should participate in the whole R and D process and can prepare the documents of the patent application effectively and timely. What's more, we should inhibit the phenomena of infringement of patent rights and use 'existing technique' effectively by the methods of document retrieval. (authors)

  1. Patents associated with high-cost drugs in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Christie

    Full Text Available Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by "evergreening" blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent register to identify all the granted patents that cover the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the high-cost drugs. Then, we classify the patents by type, and identify their owners. We find a mean of 49 patents associated with each drug. Three-quarters of these patents are owned by companies other than the drug's originator. Surprisingly, the majority of all patents are owned by companies that do not have a record of developing top-selling drugs. Our findings show that a multitude of players seek monopoly control over innovations to blockbuster drugs. Consequently, attempts to control drug costs by mitigating misuse of the patent system are likely to miss the mark if they focus only on the patenting activities of originators.

  2. Patent Foramen Ovale: Is Stroke Due to Paradoxical Embolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranoux, D.; Cohen, A.; Cabanes, L.; Amarenco, P.; Bousser, M. G.; Mas, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Background and Purpose: A patent foramen ovale has been reported to be significantly more frequent in young stroke patients than in matched control subjects, and paradoxical embolism has been suggested as the main mechanism of stroke in-this situation. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis. Methods: Sixty-eight consecutive patients under 55 years of age presenting with an ischemic stroke had an extensive workup, including transesophageal echocardiography with contrast. We compared the prevalence of criteria for the diagnosis of paradoxical embolism in patients with and without a patent foramen ovale. Results: A patent foramen ovale was found in 32 patients (47%). A Valsalva-provoking activity was present at stroke onset in six patients with a patent foramen ovale and in eight patients with no patent foramen ovale (X(sup 2)=0.1, nonsignificant). Clinical/radiological features suggestive of an embolic mechanism were not more frequent in patients with a patent foramen ovale. Clinical evidence of deep vein thrombosis was present in one patient with a patent foramen ovale and in none of the others. No occult venous thrombosis was found in a subgroup of patients with a patent foramen ovale and no definite cause for stroke who underwent venography (n=13). Conclusions. Our results do not support the hypothesis that paradoxical embolism is the primary mechanism of stroke in patients with a patent foramen ovale. (Stroke 1993;24:31-34) KEY WORDS e cerebral ischemia e embolism foramen ovale, patent

  3. Scientific Prediction and Prophetic Patenting in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Stephen H; Schneiderman, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical patenting involves writing claims based on both discoveries already made, and on prophesy of future developments in an ongoing project. This is necessitated by the very different timelines involved in the drug discovery and product development process on the one hand, and successful patenting on the other. If patents are sought too early there is a risk that patent examiners will disallow claims because of lack of enablement. If patenting is delayed, claims are at risk of being denied on the basis of existence of prior art, because the body of relevant known science will have developed significantly while the project was being pursued. This review examines the role of prophetic patenting in relation to the essential predictability of many aspects of drug discovery science, promoting the concepts of discipline-related and project-related prediction. This is especially directed towards patenting activities supporting commercialization of academia-based discoveries, where long project timelines occur, and where experience, and resources to pay for patenting, are limited. The need for improved collaborative understanding among project scientists, technology transfer professionals in, for example, universities, patent attorneys, and patent examiners is emphasized.

  4. Patents associated with high-cost drugs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew F; Dent, Chris; McIntyre, Peter; Wilson, Lachlan; Studdert, David M

    2013-01-01

    Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by "evergreening" blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent register to identify all the granted patents that cover the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the high-cost drugs. Then, we classify the patents by type, and identify their owners. We find a mean of 49 patents associated with each drug. Three-quarters of these patents are owned by companies other than the drug's originator. Surprisingly, the majority of all patents are owned by companies that do not have a record of developing top-selling drugs. Our findings show that a multitude of players seek monopoly control over innovations to blockbuster drugs. Consequently, attempts to control drug costs by mitigating misuse of the patent system are likely to miss the mark if they focus only on the patenting activities of originators.

  5. Bringing the environment down to earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, F L

    1999-01-01

    The debate on business and the environment has typically been framed in simple yes-or-no terms: "Does it pay to be green?" But the environment, like other business issues, requires a more complex approach--one that demands more than such all-or-nothing thinking. Managers need to ask instead, "Under what circumstances do particular kinds of environmental investments deliver returns to shareholders?" This article presents five approaches that managers can take to identify those circumstances and integrate the environment into their business thinking. These approaches will enable companies with the right industry structure, competitive position, and managerial skills to reconcile their responsibility to shareholders with the pressure to be faithful stewards of the earth's resources. Some companies can distance themselves from competitors by differentiating their products and commanding higher prices for them. Others may be able to "manage" their competitors by imposing a set of private regulations or by helping to shape the rules written by government officials. Still others may be able to cut costs and help the environment simultaneously. Almost all can learn to improve their management of risk and thus reduce the outlays associated with accidents, lawsuits, and boycotts. And some companies may even be able to make systemic changes that will redefine competition in their markets. All five approaches can help managers bring the environment down to earth. And that means bringing the environment back into the fold of business problems and determining when it really pays to be green.

  6. Confidential patent application with an example of preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrad T. Čabarkapa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order that the invention solving a technical problem receives a patent protection, it is necessary to file a patent application. For the protection of confidential inventions which are important for defense and national security, a confidential patent application[1] must be filed. A confidential patent application is an important and complex document, the parts of which are,  in principle, exposed in an established order. For the preparation of patent applications, it is necessary to engage experts with higher education, primarily in the technical field the invention relates to. The contents of the patent application is a basis for examining whether the application meets the requirements for patentability and whether the right to patent protection is achieved. Besides theoretical discussions on patent application, the paper gives a short version of an example of an application regarding a protected confidential invention. Introduction The basic condition for the exercise of patent protection is filing a patent application, the test procedure and, eventually, depending on the test results - the recognition or rejection of the patent. The paper gives a description of all parts of the patent application on an example of a confidential invention already patented. The content of the confidential patent application The confidential patent application for confidential invention protection consists of the following parts: The application for a patent; description of the invention; the claims (indication of what is new and what is required to be protected by patenting; abstract (short summary of the invention  and a draft of the invention (to which the description and the claims are referred. The application for a patent The application for patent is filed on Form P-1 and a request for the petty patent on Form MP-1. The data entered in the file is, for example: the applicant; the lawyer; the name of the invention in Serbian and English; the inventor

  7. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection: Conflicting Views On International Patent Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Andrzejewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As diseases continue to spread around the globe, pharmaceutical and biotech companies continue to search for new and better drugs to treat them. Most of these companies have realised that useful compounds for these purposes may be found in the natural resources that indigenous and local communities use. And yet, even though the importance of these biological resources to global health and economic livelihood is well recognised, the legal ownership and control of this traditional knowledge is still very controversial. This article undertakes a comparative analysis of American and European, as well as international legal regulations on patent law and traditional knowledge. Key questions include: What is traditional knowledge? How have the national patent laws of these countries treated the protection of plant variety and plant genetic resources? What are the existing international standards for patents, and what implications do they have for protecting traditional knowledge? And finally, what protection systems are emerging for the future?

  8. "To patent or not to patent? the case of Novartis' cancer drug Glivec in India".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabble, Ravinder; Kohler, Jillian Clare

    2014-01-06

    Glivec (imatinib mesylate), produced by the pharmaceutical company Novartis, is prescribed in the case of chronic myeloid leukemia, one of the most common blood cancers in eastern countries. After more than a decade of legal battles surrounding its patentability, the Supreme Court of India gave its final decision on April 1st of 2013, rejecting the appeal of the Swiss giant drug manufacturer. In 2006, the Indian Patent Office first refused Glivec's patent under Section 3(d) of the Indian Patent Act arguing that it was only a modified version of an existing drug, Imatinib, and therefore that the drug was not innovative. Novartis replied filing legal challenges against the Indian government but the final verdict in April of 2013 ends the battle. Indeed, the Supreme Court stated that even if the bioavailability of the drug was improved, it did not demonstrate enhanced efficacy and that Glivec was not patentable. The research primarily focused on journal, newspaper and magazine articles relevant to the time frame of the lawsuit (from 1994 to 2013) as well as news searches through Google, Factiva, ProQuest, PubMed, and YouTube where press articles from court verdicts were obtained by using the following keywords: "India", "Novartis", "Glivec", "Patent", "Novartis Case", and "Supreme Court of India". The data sources were interpreted and analyzed according to the authors' own prior knowledge and understanding of the exigencies of the TRIPS Agreement. This case illuminates how India is interpreting international law to fit domestic public health needs. The Novartis case arguably sets an important precedent for the global pharmaceutical industry and ideally will help improve access to lifesaving medicines in the developing world by demanding that patient health needs supersede commercial interests. The Supreme Court of India's decision may affect the interpretation of the article of the TRIPS Agreement, which states members shall be free to determine the appropriate method

  9. Commentary on patents: Don`t dismiss Rifkin`s damning of gene patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, R.

    1995-07-01

    Biotech may have less to fear from Rifkin than from its own inclination to dismiss the fact that the evolution of ethics and patent laws applying to patenting genes has been haphazard. Perhaps it is time for the biotechnology industry to get behind the establishment of an effective forum for opening much-needed dialogue. Perhaps a Senate proposal to establish a bioethics commission, which reportedly has bogged down in partisan politics, is just such a venue for the government and private sector to begin to hash out the ethical and legal dilemmas that are indisputably at the heart of the biotechnology industry, and its future success.

  10. [INDENA SPA company's patent portfolio of Ginkgo biloba preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Guo, Kai; Cheng, Xin-min; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-01

    INDENA SPA Company in Italy is a multi-national company that produces and sells plant extracts. Based on its own re- search advantages in the field of Ginkgo biloba preparation, the company protects its own products market effectively through building patent portfolio around the patents of its opponent. Based on the multi-angle analysis for patent portfolio of G. biloba preparation from the aspects of application time, legal status, technical development route, and patent portfolio layout, this article provides technical reference on research and development of G. biloba preparation, and the author suggest that Chinese applicants learn techniques and layout experiences of other patents fully to enhance the level of research and patent protection level.

  11. Japan's patent issues relating to life science therapeutic inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessensohn, John A

    2014-09-01

    Japan has made 'innovation in science and technology' as one of its central pillars to ensure high growth in its next stage of economic development and its life sciences market which hosts regenerative medicine was proclaimed to be 'the best market in the world right now.' Although life science therapeutic inventions are patentable subject matter under Japanese patent law, there are nuanced obviousness and enablement challenges under Japanese patent law that can be surmounted in view of some encouraging Japanese court developments in fostering a pro-patent applicant environment in the life sciences therapeutic patent field. Nevertheless, great care must be taken when drafting and prosecuting such patent applications in the world's second most important life sciences therapeutic market.

  12. What is the Destiny of Patents of Brazilian Universities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz de Souza Querido

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The power of patent is expressed when the innovative product or process goes to market, and the exclusive right that patent ensures generates the market power, and the holder possibility to obtain competitive advantage over competitors. Thus, it becomes compelling the discussions on the universities need for transformation of patent applications efforts into granted patents, which could be negotiated with a higher degree of juridical certainty and, consequently, higher value added. To establish an Index of Patents Granting, and understand the importance of Technological Innovation Nuclei for the increase of this index, it was developed a survey on the number of patents granted to Brazilian universities and evaluated the structure of Technological Innovation Nuclei of these universities. From the survey on the granting cases, it was verified that the universities presenting, among other characteristics, better structured Technological Innovation Nuclei stood out.

  13. How are pharmaceutical patent term extensions justified? Australia's evolving scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Charles

    2013-12-01

    This article examines the evolving patent term extension schemes under the Patents Act 1903 (Cth), the Patents Act 1952 (Cth) and the Patents Act 1990 (Cth). The analysis traces the change from "inadequate remuneration" to a scheme directed specifically at certain pharmaceuticals. An examination of the policy justification shows there are legitimate questions about the desirability of any extension. The article concludes that key information provisions in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) that might assist a better policy analysis are presently not working and that any justification needs evidence demonstrating that the benefits of patent term extensions to the community as a whole outweigh the costs and that the objectives of extensions can only be achieved by restricting competition.

  14. Nanotechnology strength indicators: international rankings based on US patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Dora; McAleer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Technological strength indicators (TSIs) based on patent statistics for 1975-2000 are used to analyse patenting of nanotechnology in the USA, and to compile international rankings for the top 12 foreign patenting countries (namely Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Taiwan). As the indicators are not directly observable, various proxy variables are used, namely the technological specialization index for national priorities, patent shares for international presence, citation rate for the contribution of patents to knowledge development and rate of assigned patents for potential commercial benefits. The best performing country is France, followed by Japan and Canada. It is shown that expertise and strength in nanotechnology are not evenly distributed among the technologically advanced countries, with the TSIs revealing different emphases in the development of nanotechnology.

  15. Patent holdings of US biotherapeutic companies in major markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Teena E; Yerram, Chandra Bindu; Saberwal, Gayatri

    2009-05-01

    In previous studies we examined the (United States, US) patent holdings of 109 largely North American biotech companies developing therapeutics that, in particular, have an interest in discovery stage science. There appears little correlation between the number of patents and the number of products of individual companies. Here we quantified and compared the 103 US-headquartered companies' patent holdings in Australia, Canada, Europe, Japan and the US. The companies demonstrate variable and surprising patterns of patent holdings across these countries or regions. For most companies, patent holdings are not in proportion to the importance of the country as a biotech or pharma market. These results have implications for the patenting strategies of small biotech companies involved in drug discovery.

  16. To succeed with invention and patent which are my own idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    1999-07-01

    This book introduces how to invent through various way such as successful story about the effect to invent, conception like everyone can be a inventor and this is invention. This book also explains all of process of patent such as application of patent, patent in Korea, Japan, the U.S and other countries, what is patent information, how to hunt patent, intellectual property right, priority system, international patent application is possible in Korea, other common sense on patent application, patent as a great power and questions and answers on patent.

  17. Identification and Analysis of Technology Emergence Using Patent Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    and legal time and capital. The desired payoff for this investment is monopolistic control of a section of the technology space, allowed by present...the claims of their application based on either the prior art cited by the patent examiner or economic reali- ties surrounding the markets for...have been developed, the claims of the patents have been tuned and tested at the respective patent office, and market -driven commercial realities may

  18. Patents Associated with High-Cost Drugs in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Christie, Andrew F.; Dent, Chris; McIntyre, Peter; Wilson, Lachlan; Studdert, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by "evergreening" blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent...

  19. Do patents impede the provision of genetic tests in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Dianne; Liddicoat, John

    2013-06-01

    Health policy and law reform agencies lack a sound evidence base of the impacts of patents on innovation and access to healthcare to assist them in their deliberations. This paper reports the results of a survey of managers of Australian genetic testing laboratories that asked a series of questions relating to the tests they perform, whether they pay to access patented inventions and whether they have received notifications from patent holders about patents associated with particular tests. Some diagnostics facilities are exposed to patent costs, but they are all located in the private sector. No public hospitals reported paying licence fees or royalties beyond those included in the price of commercial test kits. Some respondents reported having received enforcement notices from patent holders, but almost all related to the widely known breast cancer-associated patents. Respondents were also asked for their views on the most effective mechanisms to protect their ability to provide genetic tests now and in the future. Going to the media, paying licence fees, ignoring patent rights and relying on the government to take action were widely seen as most effective. Litigation and applications for compulsory licences were seen as some of the least effective mechanisms. These results provide an evidence base for development of health policy and law reform. What is known about the topic? The impact of patents on the delivery of genetic testing services remains unclear in Australia. What does this paper add? The survey reported in this paper suggests that, aside from well-known enforcement actions relating to the breast cancer associated patents, there is little evidence that providers of genetic testing services are being exposed to aggressive patent-enforcement practices. What are the implications for practitioners? Although patent-enforcement actions may increase in the future, a range of strategies are available to providers of testing services to protect them against

  20. Bringing Pulsed Laser Welding into Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, some research and develop-ment activities within pulsed laser welding technology at the Tech-nical University of Denmark will be described. The laser group at the Insti-tute for Manufacturing Technology has nearly 20 years of experience in laser materials process-ing. Inter......-nationally the group is mostly known for its contri-butions to the development of the laser cutting process, but further it has been active within laser welding, both in assisting industry in bringing laser welding into production in several cases and in performing fundamental R & D. In this paper some research...... activities concerning the weldability of high alloyed austenitic stainless steels for mass production industry applying industrial lasers for fine welding will be described. Studies on hot cracking sensitivity of high alloyed austenitic stainless steel applying both ND-YAG-lasers and CO2-lasers has been...

  1. Science and Sport bringing people together

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    ASCERI is the Association of the Sports Communities of the European Research Institutes and aims to contribute to a united Europe through regular sports meetings, bringing together members of public Research Institutes at European level. The Association's members come from over 42 Research Institutes spanning 15 countries. The association was born from the German "Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe" (KfK) football team who had the idea to play against other teams from institutes also involved in nuclear research. Therefore, six teams from different German centres were invited to take part in a "Reaktoren Fußballturnier" in Karlsruhe on 2 July 1966. Ever since, The Winter-ATOMIADE has taken place every three years and alternating with the Summer-ATOMIADE and a Mini Atomiade in between with numerous sports and leisure activities including football, skiing, golf, athletics, tennis, volleyball to name a few. CERN has been a regular participant ...

  2. Developing a web page: bringing clinics online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ronnie; Berns, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Introducing clinical staff education, along with new policies and procedures, to over 50 different clinical sites can be a challenge. As any staff educator will confess, getting people to attend an educational inservice session can be difficult. Clinical staff request training, but no one has time to attend training sessions. Putting the training along with the policies and other information into "neat" concise packages via the computer and over the company's intranet was the way to go. However, how do you bring the clinics online when some of the clinical staff may still be reluctant to turn on their computers for anything other than to gather laboratory results? Developing an easy, fun, and accessible Web page was the answer. This article outlines the development of the first training Web page at the University of Wisconsin Medical Foundation, Madison, WI.

  3. Bringing Space Weather Down to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.

    2005-05-01

    Most of the public has no idea what Space Weather is, but a number of innovative programs, web sites, magazine articles, TV shows and planetarium shows have taken space weather from an unknown quantity to a much more visible field. This paper reviews new developments, including the new Space Weather journal, the very popular spaceweather.com website, new immersive planetarium shows that can go "on the road", and well-publicized Sun-Earth Day activities. Real-time data and reasonably accurate spaceweather forecasts are available from several websites, with many subscribers. Even the renaissance of amateur radio because of Homeland Security brings a new generation of learners to wonder what is going on in the Sun today. The NSF Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling has a dedicated team to reach both the public and a greater diversity of new scientists.

  4. 37 CFR 1.730 - Applicant for extension of patent term; signature requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for extension of patent term; signature requirements. 1.730 Section 1.730 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... for extension of patent term; signature requirements. (a) Any application for extension of a patent...

  5. 37 CFR 1.720 - Conditions for extension of patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditions for extension of patent term. 1.720 Section 1.720 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of...

  6. 37 CFR 11.10 - Restrictions on practice in patent matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restrictions on practice in patent matters. 11.10 Section 11.10 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND...

  7. 37 CFR 1.17 - Patent application and reexamination processing fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application and reexamination processing fees. 1.17 Section 1.17 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions Fees...

  8. 37 CFR 1.501 - Citation of prior art in patent files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of prior art in patent files. 1.501 Section 1.501 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Ex Parte Reexamination of...

  9. 37 CFR 1.770 - Express withdrawal of application for extension of patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term Extension of Patent Term Due to Regulatory Review § 1.770 Express... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Express withdrawal of application for extension of patent term. 1.770 Section 1.770 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED...

  10. 37 CFR 1.178 - Original patent; continuing duty of applicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original patent; continuing... Provisions Reissues § 1.178 Original patent; continuing duty of applicant. (a) The application for reissue of... upon reissue of the patent. Until a reissue application is granted, the original patent shall remain in...

  11. Bioterrorism Countermeasure Development: Issues in Patents and Homeland Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schacht, Wendy H; Thomas, John R

    2006-01-01

    ... potential biological threats. These bills proposed reforms to current policies and practices associated with intellectual property, particularly patents, and the marketing of pharmaceuticals and related products...

  12. Prevailing impact trends in patenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

      Patents are at the heart of science and public policy. Getting European patent policy right is a daunting task and involves listening to numerous voices. Part of this process must entail a full understanding of emerging trends that challenge the present system. The challenges are fluid and vary...... from sector to sector. This paper identifies and evaluates key recent developments in patenting which impact upon the European patent system, whichever way it looks. An analysis of these and the underlying causes means we are in a much better position to build an effective policy rearguard.    ...

  13. Nano/micro-electro mechanical systems: a patent view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Guangyuan, E-mail: hu.guangyuan@mail.shufe.edu.cn, E-mail: hu.guangyuan@shufe.edu.cn [Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, School of Public Economics and Administration (China); Liu, Weishu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Antai College of Economics and Management (China)

    2015-12-15

    Combining both bibliometrics and citation network analysis, this research evaluates the global development of micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) research based on the Derwent Innovations Index database. We found that worldwide, the growth trajectory of MEMS patents demonstrates an approximate S shape, with United States, Japan, China, and Korea leading the global MEMS race. Evidenced by Derwent class codes, the technology structure of global MEMS patents remains steady over time. Yet there does exist a national competitiveness component among the top country players. The latecomer China has become the second most prolific country filing MEMS patents, but its patent quality still lags behind the global average.

  14. R&D, patents and innovation: a differential game approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, H.-M.

    2016-01-01

    A patent race is a technological competition among firms and the firm making a first-hand innovation takes advantages of patenting. Firms strategically invest in R&D and produce knowledge in order to innovate. Instead of growing model of R&D, I use a differential game approach to investigate firms interaction of R&D behavior in a patent race. In general, knowledge is an intangible good that gives a special feature of a patent race. Whether knowledge is substitutable to the existing knowledge ...

  15. Patents and Downstream Innovation Suppresion - Facts or Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    of development as aircraft, the car, radio and electric lighting. Merges and Nelson quite logically use their work to question the value of Kitch's prospect theory of patents,[2] a theory that emphasises that the social value of patents is that they enable the coordination of technological development...... and R. Nelson, "On the Complex Economics of Patent Scope," Columbia Law Review 90, no. 4 (1990), R. Merges and R. Nelson, "On Limiting or Encouraging Rivalry in Technical Progress: The Effect of Patent Scope Decisions," Journal of Economic Behavior and Organisation 25 (1994). [2] Merges and Nelson, "On...

  16. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM... the rental, sale, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit of...

  18. Oficina española de patentes y marcas. Video

    OpenAIRE

    Vila Riudavets, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    Por qué utilizar las patentes como fuente de información tecnológica. Ventajas de las patentes: extensa colección de información técnica, información completa, novedosa, a veces única, en distintos idiomas, clasificada y en muchos casos de dominio público. Cómo localizar información sobre patentes. Información gratuita en Internet en la web de la OEPM: Boletines de Vigilancia Tecnológica, e-learning, etc. Bases de datos de patentes de oficinas internacionales gratuitas: esp@cenet, Register...

  19. Nano/micro-electro mechanical systems: a patent view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Guangyuan; Liu, Weishu

    2015-01-01

    Combining both bibliometrics and citation network analysis, this research evaluates the global development of micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) research based on the Derwent Innovations Index database. We found that worldwide, the growth trajectory of MEMS patents demonstrates an approximate S shape, with United States, Japan, China, and Korea leading the global MEMS race. Evidenced by Derwent class codes, the technology structure of global MEMS patents remains steady over time. Yet there does exist a national competitiveness component among the top country players. The latecomer China has become the second most prolific country filing MEMS patents, but its patent quality still lags behind the global average

  20. Applying patent information to tracking a specific technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yuan Liu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Patents in general contain much novel technological information. This paper demonstrates that the usage of patent analysis can facilitate a unique scheme for tracking technology development. In this paper, the walking technique of the Japanese biped robot is tracked as an example. The searching method of the FI (file index and F-term classification system developed by JPO (Japan Patent Office was employed in this study, where all the related patent data were searched from the IPDL (Intellectual Property Digital Library. This study investigated an important technique applied to the humanoid biped robot that imitates the walking behavior of the human beings on two legs. By analyzing the patent information obtained, the relative research capabilities, technical strengths, and patent citation conditions among patent competitors were compared. Furthermore, a formulated technical matrix of patent map is established in this paper to indicate that the ZMP (Zero Moment Point control means is the main technology to achieve stabilized walking control of the humanoid biped robot. This study also incorporates relevant academic journal findings and industrial information. Results presented herein demonstrate that patents can function not only as a map for tracking a technology trajectory, but also as a guide to the main development of a new technology in years to come.

  1. The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine

    2007-01-01

    The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement - An Exclusively Nondiscriminatory Approach?   Gene patenting in Europe has provoked much debate both before and since the adoption of Directive 98/44/EC on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. Some of the major points...... of discussion have been focused on the scope of protection (e.g. purpose-bound protection) and gene patents being subject to a specific DNA regime on patent rights. The Directive can be interpreted as favouring such a solution, but so far the European Commission has decided neither to support nor reject...

  2. Transcatheter closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus through only venous route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Abdul Malik; Duke, Abdul Karim; Sattar, Hina

    2018-03-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus is a common congenital cardiac defect comprising 5-10% of all these defects in term neonates. Although open chest and video-assisted interruption are still in use, transcatheter occlusion has rapidly become the first choice for patent ductus arteriosus closure in the appropriate patient. Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus is widely done by transvenous approach guided by aortic access. We present the case of a 2 year old girl who underwent patent ductus arteriosus device occlusion with transvenous access only.

  3. Conditions of the potential for commercialization of the patent: the implementation of a technology public offering system technology at CNEN; Condicionantes do potencial de exploracao comercial da patente: a implantacao de um sistema de oferta publica de tecnologia na CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archila, Daniela Lima Cerqueira

    2015-07-01

    This dissertation identifies the main factors which represent the conditions for the potential commercialization of patents aiming at the implementation of a system for technology public offering at CNEN as a strategy for creating licensing opportunities to the industrial sector. The method applied refers to an exploratory case study of a patented technology selected from a sample of CNEN's patent portfolio in the biopharmaceutical sector. The case study comprehends a field research of interviews conducted with two specialists in technology and innovation management, one researcher from CNEN and a biopharmaceutical company. The results show that among the nineteen main factors - related to technology, market, business and Science and Technology Organization (STO) - the market dynamics, the potential applications of the technology and an abstract of its main benefits compared to existing technologies are the major relevant information for each technology to be included in the public offering system. Other results indicate that the evaluation of such factors may be conducted by competent professionals to bring less uncertainty and risk to the early-stage of the innovation process, as well as enhance the potential interest of a company in the technology. On the other hand, the latter requires innovation capabilities to move the technology forward – additional R&D, scale-up, manufacturing and marketing - whilst the STO needs a entrepreneurial culture that mitigates its obstacles, creates more positive solutions for its routines and processes and gives sustainability to its Technology Transfer Office (TTO) through valuing its personnel in the long term. Finally, emphasis on technological partnerships with companies can be a motivating feature for directing the STO's patent strategy to the creation of proprietary technological platforms that reflect problems experienced by the commercial environment, as well as the development of this strategic patent

  4. Bring Your Own Device to Secondary School: The Perceptions of Teachers, Students and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, David; Adhikar, Janak

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the first two years of a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) initiative in a New Zealand secondary school, using data derived from a series of surveys of teachers, parents and students, who are the main stakeholders in the transformation to a BYOD school. In this paper we analyse data gathered from these surveys, which consists…

  5. Explore: An Action to Bring Science and Technology Closer to Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torras-Melenchon, Nuria; Grau, M. Dolors; Font-Soldevila, Josep; Freixas, Josep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experience of an initiative, the EXPLORE courses, designed to bring science and technology closer to secondary school. The EXPLORE courses, organised by "EXPLORATORI: Natural Resources" project, are particularly addressed to secondary school teachers and are conducted at Catalonia (North East of Spain). The main…

  6. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... depends on who is making the application, the type of invention, and the circumstances of the case... this section regarding authentication of the authority of a foreign official. A notary or other... United States Patent Office.) (c) Authentication of authority of foreign official—(1) Necessity for...

  7. Does it matter where patent citations come from? : inventor versus examiner citations in European patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspagen, B.; Criscuolo, P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the distinction between patent citations added by the inventor or the examiner is relevant for the issue of geographical concentration of knowledge flows (as embodied in citations). The distinction between inventor and examiner citations enables us to work with a more

  8. Academic patenting and the professor's privilege

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissoni, Francesco; Lotz, Peter; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2009-01-01

    Siden 2000 har danske universiteter m.v. som følge af en særlig lov haft retten til de ansattes opfindelser. I artiklen undersøges på baggrund af en statistisk analyse af universitetsansattes bidrag som opfindere konsekvenserne af loven. Det påviser bl.a., at antallet af universitetsgenerede pate...... patenter ikke er forøget særligt som følge af loven, og at tredjemands ejerskab fortsat er særdeles vigtigt. Dette harmonerer med tendensen i øvrige europæiske lande....

  9. Patent Remedies: Online Management of IP Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Gordon

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper was inspired by work currently in progress under a DTI (Department of Trade and Industry funded KTP (Knowledge Transfer Partnership Project between Kennedy’s Patent and Glasgow Caledonian University. The project offers a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the firm's business exigencies, and the constantly evolving legal and procedural framework within which the firm operates. The particular focus of the paper is the issues raised by the provision of online legal/quasi-legal services in an ‘e-government’ context.

  10. Absorptive routines and international patent performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando E. García-Muiña

    2017-04-01

    We enrich the treatment of the absorptive capacity phases including the moderating effects between routines associated to the traditional potential-realized absorptive capacities. Taking into account external knowledge search strategies, the deeper external relationships, the better transference and appropriation of specific external knowledge. Nevertheless, when the moderating role of assimilation is included, cooperation agreements appear as the most efficient source of external knowledge. Finally, we show that technological tools let firms store and structure the information making easier its use for international patenting. This positive effect is reinforced in the presence of exploitation routines, since technological knowledge will better fit to the industry's key factors of success.

  11. Conditions of the potential for commercialization of the patent: the implementation of a technology public offering system technology at CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archila, Daniela Lima Cerqueira

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation identifies the main factors which represent the conditions for the potential commercialization of patents aiming at the implementation of a system for technology public offering at CNEN as a strategy for creating licensing opportunities to the industrial sector. The method applied refers to an exploratory case study of a patented technology selected from a sample of CNEN's patent portfolio in the biopharmaceutical sector. The case study comprehends a field research of interviews conducted with two specialists in technology and innovation management, one researcher from CNEN and a biopharmaceutical company. The results show that among the nineteen main factors - related to technology, market, business and Science and Technology Organization (STO) - the market dynamics, the potential applications of the technology and an abstract of its main benefits compared to existing technologies are the major relevant information for each technology to be included in the public offering system. Other results indicate that the evaluation of such factors may be conducted by competent professionals to bring less uncertainty and risk to the early-stage of the innovation process, as well as enhance the potential interest of a company in the technology. On the other hand, the latter requires innovation capabilities to move the technology forward – additional R&D, scale-up, manufacturing and marketing - whilst the STO needs a entrepreneurial culture that mitigates its obstacles, creates more positive solutions for its routines and processes and gives sustainability to its Technology Transfer Office (TTO) through valuing its personnel in the long term. Finally, emphasis on technological partnerships with companies can be a motivating feature for directing the STO's patent strategy to the creation of proprietary technological platforms that reflect problems experienced by the commercial environment, as well as the development of this strategic patent

  12. Cryogenics bringing the temperature down, underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first 600m of the LHC cryogenic distribution line (QRL), which will feed the accelerator's superconducting magnets, has passed initial validating tests of its mechanical design at room and cryogenic temperatures.

  13. Ecohealth students: Bringing excitement and forging connections ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... ... Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment, University of Wisconsin- ... Canadian effort to stem transmission and deaths from dengue fever ... A new initiative in Central America takes aim at Chagas disease, one of ...

  14. Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    California's education system--the largest in the United States--is an essential resource for ensuring strong economic growth in the state. The Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative (referred to as the Initiative in this report), which became law in 2005, brings together community colleges, K-12 school districts, employers, organized…

  15. Bringing Seismological Research into the School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, G. L.; Hamburger, M. W.

    2004-12-01

    One of the primary goals of educational seismology programs is to bring inquiry-based research to the middle- and high-school classroom setting. Although it is often stated as a long-term goal of science outreach programs, in practice there are many barriers to research in the school setting, among them increasing emphasis on test-oriented training, decreasing interest and participation in science fairs, limited teacher confidence and experience for mentoring research, insufficient student preparedness for research projects, and the short term of university involvement (typically limited to brief one-day encounters). For the past three+ years we have tried to address these issues through a focused outreach program we have called the PEPP Research Fellows Program. This is treated as an honors program in which high school teachers in our group nominate students with interests in science careers. These students are invited to participate in the program, and those who elect to take part participate in a one-day education and training session in the fall. Rather than leave research projects completely open, we direct the students at toward one of two specific, group-oriented projects (in our case, one focusing on local recordings of mining explosions, and a second on teleseismic body-wave analysis), but we encourage them to act as independent researchers and follow topics of interest. The students then work on seismic data from the local educational network or from the IRIS facilities. Following several months of informal interaction with teachers and students (email, web conferencing, etc.), we bring the students and teachers to our university for a weekend research symposium in the spring. Students present their work in oral or poster form and prizes are given for the best papers. Projects range from highly local projects (records of seismic noise at school X) to larger-scale regional projects (analysis of teleseismic P-wave delays at PEPP network stations) From 20 to

  16. Patent challenges for standard-setting in the global economy : lessons from information and communication industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maskus, K.; Merrill, S.A.; Bekkers, R.N.A.; Sandy Block, Marc; Contreras, Jorge; Gilbert, Richard; Goodman, David; Marasco, Amy; Simcoe, Tim; Smoot, Oliver; Suttmeier, Richard; Updegrove, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Patent Challenges for Standard-Setting in the Global Economy: Lessons from Information and Communication Technology examines how leading national and multinational standard-setting organizations (SSOs) address patent disclosures, licensing terms, transfers of patent ownership, and other issues that

  17. 75 FR 77878 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; FREESTYLE NAVIGATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    .... Patent No. 5,262,035) from Abbott Diabetes Care Inc., and the Patent and Trademark Office requested FDA's... diabetes mellitus for the purpose of improving diabetes management. Subsequent to this approval, the Patent...

  18. The practical Einstein experiments, patents, inventions

    CERN Document Server

    Illy, József

    2012-01-01

    Albert Einstein may be best known as the wire-haired whacky physicist who gave us the theory of relativity, but that's just one facet of this genius' contribution to human knowledge and modern science. As Jozsef Illy expertly shows in this book, Einstein had an eminently practical side as well. As a youth, Einstein was an inveterate tinkerer in the electrical supply factory his father and uncle owned and operated. His first paid job was as a patent examiner. Later in life, Einstein contributed to many inventions, including refrigerators, microphones, and instruments for aviation. In published papers, Einstein often provided ways to test his theories and fundamental problems of the scientific community of his times. He delved deeply into a variety of technological innovations, most notably the gyrocompass, and consulted for industry in patent cases and on other legal matters. Einstein also provided explanations for common and mundane phenomena, such as the meandering of rivers. In these and other hands-on exam...

  19. Bringing science to the policy table

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    “They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation shall not lift up sword against nation. Neither shall they learn war anymore." So says Isaiah 2:4, as transcribed on the famous wall in Ralph Bunche park, just the other side of 1st Avenue from the UN’s New York headquarters, where we held a celebration of our 60th anniversary year on Monday 20 October. I used the quotation in my opening address, since it is such a perfect fit to the theme of 60 years of science for peace and development.   The event was organised with the United Nations Economic and Social Council, ECOSOC, in the framework of CERN’s observer status at the UN, and although focused on CERN, its aim was broader. Presentations used CERN as an example to bring out the vital importance of science in general to the themes of peace and development. The event was presided over by Martin Sajdik, President of ECOSOC, and we were privileged to have presentat...

  20. Poster power brings together electronics community

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    An 'Electronics at CERN' poster session was displayed on the mezzanine in building 500 for two days from 30 November. The display consisted of 20 posters and brought together a wide range of electronic projects designed and assembled by CERN teams and other collaborators involved in the building of the LHC. This was the first time this event had been held. As its organiser John Evans (IT/DES) explained, 'the idea came from the experience of attending conferences outside CERN, where you may find projects from CERN you didn't know about. It's nice to bring them together so we can all benefit from the efforts made.' The work on show spanned different departments and experiments, ranging from microelectronics to equipment designed for giant magnets. The invited audience was equally broad and included engineers, physicists as well as the electronics community at CERN. An informal gathering of all the exhibitors also offered an opportunity to view and discuss the work over a cup of coffee. 'The poster session acts...

  1. Using Patent Development, Education Policy and Research and Development Expenditure Policy to Increase Technological Competitiveness of Small European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferraro Simona

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Belt and Road Initiative will open new trade routes between China and the European Union (EU and increase competition pressures on smaller EU member states. This article ranks where states like Estonia stand internationally in terms of innovativeness (and consequent competitiveness by conducting an econometric study of patent development, education policy and research and development (R&D expenditure policy. The authors claim that small member states such as Estonia should follow the example of countries such as Germany and adopt policies which focus more on increased public spending on R&D and innovation in public universities of science and technology, and raise support for high tech startups with a strong focus on international patenting. Member States must go further and subsidise R&D activities by focusing, inter alia, on filing of foreign patents such as triadic patents.

  2. Annotated chemical patent corpus: A gold standard for text mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Akhondi (Saber); A.G. Klenner (Alexander G.); C. Tyrchan (Christian); A.K. Manchala (Anil K.); K. Boppana (Kiran); D. Lowe (Daniel); M. Zimmermann (Marc); S.A.R.P. Jagarlapudi (Sarma A. R. P.); R. Sayle (Roger); J.A. Kors (Jan); C. Muresan (Cornelia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractExploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting

  3. Patent Strategy at the Age of High Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    This paper is a summary of the lecture which the author presented at the 5th Hokuriku Workshop for Study of Scientific and Technological Information Activities on the 17th of January in 1986. The author analyzed the present situation and made some suggestions on them ; (1) the role of patent system has shifted from introduction of foreign technologies to independent technological development at the age of high technology, (2) circumstances of rapidly increasing international patent war, particularly patent conflict between U.S. and Japan concerning U.S. ITC, (3) as the service of soft aspects of economy has been closed up, the new business has come to the fore front, and the move to consider technology as a good has been activated, (4) how patent specification should be written, the way of obtaining and protecting patent successfully, (5) basic pattern of patent strategy and what the strategy should be to respond to the enterprises level, (6) present situation of patent information service, effective use of patent maps and information strategy.

  4. Expedited patent examination for green inventions: Developing countries' policy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bingbin

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in green technology is important. Patent rights can provide incentives for green technology research and development. Expedited patent examination for green inventions has emerged as a policy instrument to provide such incentives. Developing countries were never opposed to patents for green technologies. China and Brazil have led the way by offering expedited examinations for green patent applications. More developing countries are expected to follow. Expedited examination for green technologies is consistent with the intellectual property system objectives and is justified by the clear social benefit from green technologies. Introducing such expedited programs in developing countries has sufficient advantages. Existing models of expedited programs for green technologies are analyzed to generalize key issues and to discern suitable policy choices for developing countries. When introducing such programs, a balanced definition for green technology is preferred; a special classification requirement is premature and is not recommended; a pre-examination search requirement is generally recommended to balance patent office workloads, and a green patent database is recommended. - Highlights: • There is no north–south divide in promoting green technologies. • Earlier issuance of green patents has its great social benefit. • Green patent application should receive expedited examination. • Developing countries should introduce such expedited programs. • A suitable approach for developing countries is searched and recommended

  5. 77 FR 32642 - Patents and Inventions; Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Patents and... Prevention (CDC), the Deputy Director, DLPP, LSPPPO, OSELS, CDC, and the Chief, Technology Management Branch... regarding the invention and patent program of CDC and the authority to make determinations of rights in...

  6. Software and patents: the law and its (ab)uses

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Patents and software live on a tense footing: on the one hand, the law doesn't draw a clear line, and on the other hand, patents on computer-implemented inventions are frequently used in ways which hamper innovation. Are there any legitimate uses? How can abuses be addressed?

  7. Globalization and Growth of US University Patenting (2009-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Etzkowitz, Henry; Kushnir, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Following a pause, with a relatively flat rate, from 1998 to 2008, the long-term trend of university patenting rising as a share of all patenting has resumed, driven by the internationalization of academic entrepreneurship and the persistence of US university technology transfer. The authors disaggregate this recent growth in university patenting…

  8. Allantoic cyst: a prenatal clue to patent urachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Paul T.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Donnelly, Lane F. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Imhoff, Steven C. [Good Samaritan Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Crombleholme, Timothy M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2006-10-15

    A patent urachus, which is typically diagnosed as leakage from the umbilicus postnatally, can present as an allantoic cyst in the umbilical cord antenatally. We report a case of a patent urachus with an allantoic cyst diagnosed via fetal MR imaging at 24 weeks' gestation. Early detection allowed for appropriate counseling and prompt corrective surgery after birth. (orig.)

  9. Survey of the patents intensity in advanced ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, C.S.; Oliveira, E.C. de; Pencinato, M.V.; Bandeira, R.J.; Ribeiro, E.

    1989-01-01

    A survey about a sectorial diagnostic of advanced ceramics, using patents of the Industrial Properties National Institute, as a reference documentation is presented. The mains points for generating technology in 80 decade are identified, by the institutions/company titularies of patents. (C.G.C.) [pt

  10. Increasing Access to Patented Inventions by Post-grant Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2009-01-01

    " and the so called "tragedy of the anticommons". Next the paper discusses the use of (some) post grant measure to increase access to patented inventions. Traditionally patent law has not paid much attention to such measures. The paper argues that developments suggest that there is good reason to reconsider...

  11. Prior art relevant to active beads patent application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moolman, S

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available -extrusion of shell (gelatin) and core (oral refrigerant or spice condiment) US 4,332,790 Nestlé patent on manufacturing fat microcapsules containing micro-organisms Patents cited by International Search Report on previous application US 5,543,162 Polymeric...

  12. R&D, patents and innovation: a differential game approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.-M.

    2016-01-01

    A patent race is a technological competition among firms and the firm making a first-hand innovation takes advantages of patenting. Firms strategically invest in R&D and produce knowledge in order to innovate. Instead of growing model of R&D, I use a differential game approach to investigate firms

  13. Genetic contribution to patent ductus arteriosus in the premature newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Vineet; Zhou, Gongfu; Bizzarro, Matthew J; Buhimschi, Catalin; Hussain, Naveed; Gruen, Jeffrey R; Zhang, Heping

    2009-02-01

    The most common congenital heart disease in the newborn population, patent ductus arteriosus, accounts for significant morbidity in preterm newborns. In addition to prematurity and environmental factors, we hypothesized that genetic factors play a significant role in this condition. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of genetic factors to the variance in liability for patent ductus arteriosus in premature newborns. A retrospective study (1991-2006) from 2 centers was performed by using zygosity data from premature twins born at Patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed by echocardiography at each center. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to assess the effect of specific covariates. Latent variable probit modeling was then performed to estimate the heritability of patent ductus arteriosus, and mixed-effects probit modeling was used to quantify the genetic component. We obtained data from 333 dizygotic twin pairs and 99 monozygotic twin pairs from 2 centers (Yale University and University of Connecticut). Data on chorioamnionitis, antenatal steroids, gestational age, body weight, gender, respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, oxygen supplementation, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia were comparable between monozygotic and dizygotic twins. We found that gestational age, respiratory distress syndrome, and institution were significant covariates for patent ductus arteriosus. After controlling for specific covariates, genetic factors or the shared environment accounted for 76.1% of the variance in liability for patent ductus arteriosus. Preterm patent ductus arteriosus is highly familial (contributed to by genetic and environmental factors), with the effect being mainly environmental, after controlling for known confounders.

  14. Just-in-time patents and the development of standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, B.; Bekkers, R.

    2015-01-01

    Modern technical standards often include large numbers of patented technologies that are required to implement those standards. These “standard-essential patents” are very valuable assets, and firms that do not own such patents are prepared to spend billions of dollars purchasing them. Whereas large

  15. Screening for Patent Quality : Examination, Fees, and the Courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schankerman, Mark; Schütt, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We develop an integrated framework to study how governments can improve the quality of patent screening. We focus on four key policy instruments: patent office examination, pre- and post-grant fees, and challenges in the courts. We show that there are important complementarities among these

  16. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-30 - Patent costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 970.3102-05-30 Section 970.3102-05-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY....3102-05-30 Patent costs. ...

  17. 75 FR 38543 - Patent, Trademark and Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Patent, Trademark and Copyright Acts AGENCY: Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of prospective intent to award exclusive license. SUMMARY: The... Technologies Group, Inc., 253 Portman Lane, Suite 107, Bridgeville, PA 15017 on U.S. Patent No. 6,485,696 B1...

  18. 78 FR 48158 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... the invention described and claimed in the U.S. patent entitled PROCESS FOR THE BIODEGRADATION OF... notice of its intent to grant an exclusive, royalty-bearing, revocable license to practice the invention... 404.5 and 404.7 of the U.S. Government patent licensing regulations. EPA will negotiate the final...

  19. The myth of the early aviation patent hold-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, Ron D; Howells, John

    2015-01-01

    The prevailing historical accounts of the formation of the U.S. aircraft “patent pool” in 1917 assume the U.S. Government necessarily intervened to alleviate a patent hold-up among private aircraft manufacturers. We show these accounts to be inconsistent with the historical facts. We show that de...

  20. Biotechnology Patenting in the BRICS Countries: Strategies and Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsova, Ekaterina; Linton, Jonathan D

    2018-01-05

    The BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) account for 25% of global biotechnology patents. To understand the current and future landscape of the domain, it is important to better understand the capacity of these contributors. Here, we consider the thematic priorities, strategies, and key players of the BRICS countries in biotechnology patenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Patenting human stem cells: an urgent need for a clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2008-09-01

    Patenting human stem cells has become one of the most controversial issues of the bioethics field at the beginning of the XXIst century, at least in industrial countries. This article relates the story of the long legal adventure that preceded the ruling of the Warf case by the Enlarged board of appeal of the European Patent Office on 25th November 2008.

  2. A patent landscape on application of microorganisms in construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapurkar, Dipti; Telang, Manasi

    2017-07-01

    Construction biotechnology includes research and development of construction materials and processes that make use of various microbes. The present technology landscape gives a perspective on how microbes have been used in construction industry as cement and concrete additives by analyzing patents filed in this technology arena. All patents related to the technology of interest published globally to date have been reviewed. The earliest patent filing in this technology domain was recorded in the year 1958 and the patenting activity reached its peak around mid to late 1990s. The early technology was mainly focused on microbial polysaccharides and other metabolic products as additives. Year 2002 onwards, biomineralization has taken precedence over the other technologies with consistent patent filings indicating a shift in innovation focus. Japan has been the global leader with highest number of patents filed on application of microbes in construction industry. Southeast University, China has topped the patent assignee list with maximum number of filings followed by Kajima Corp. and Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd. Most patent applications have claimed microbe based bio-products. Construction-related microbial technologies are mainly based on activity of different microorganisms such as urease-producing, acidogenic, halophilic, alkaliphilic, nitrate and iron-reducing bacteria. Sporosarcina pasteurii has been the most widely used microbe for biomineralization.

  3. Patents and Downstream Innovation Suppression - Facts or Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    the value of Kitch's prospect theory of patents, a theory that the social value of patents is that they enable the efficient coordination of technological development.    I re-examine history and legal sources bearing on Merges and Nelson's illustrative cases and find no case to illustrate downstream...

  4. Adult patent ductus arteriosus: successful surgery with mitral valvuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobo, Kyoko; Hanayama, Naoji; Umezu, Kentaro; Shimada, Naohiro; Toyama, Akihiko; Takazawa, Arihumi

    2009-06-01

    The development of left ventricular dysfunction is a serious complication of longstanding patent ductus arteriosus. An 80-year-old woman who underwent patent ductus arteriosus ligation 13 years previously developed congestive heart failure and mitral regurgitation. She underwent surgical repair with transpulmonary ductus closure and mitral valve annuloplasty under cardiopulmonary bypass. She made a full recovery with improved left ventricular function.

  5. Competitive intelligence and patent analysis in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Nicolas; Charpiot, Brigitte; Pena, Carlos Andres; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2005-01-01

    Patents are a major source of information in drug discovery and, when properly processed and analyzed, can yield a wealth of information on competitors activities, R&D trends, emerging fields, collaborations, among others. This review discusses the current state-of-the-art in textual data analysis and exploration methods as applied to patent analysis.: © 2005 Elsevier Ltd . All rights reserved.

  6. Frontier Fields: Bringing the Distant Universe into View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Lawton, Brandon L.; Summers, Frank; Ryer, Holly

    2014-06-01

    The Frontier Fields is a multi-cycle program of six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters that will be taken in parallel with six deep “blank fields.” The three-year long collaborative program centers on observations from NASA’s Great Observatories, who will team up to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically see. Because of the unprecedented views of the universe that will be achieved, the Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. For example, the program provides an opportunity to look back on the history of deep field observations and how they changed (and continue to change) astronomy, while exploring the ways astronomers approach big science problems. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute’s Office of Public Outreach has initiated an education and public outreach (E/PO) project to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields program - providing a behind-the-scenes perspective of this observing initiative. This poster will highlight the goals of the Frontier Fields E/PO project and the cost-effective approach being used to bring the program’s results to both the public and educational audiences.

  7. Making Patent Scopes Exceed the Technological Scopes of Scientific Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin...... for searching in new directions for solutions if challenges of exploitation with regard to the scientific invention arise.......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety...

  8. Patent Blocking and Infringement and their Effects on Firms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk to be blocked in their patent applications or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...... both aspects constitute major challenges for the appropriation of returns to inventive activity, extant literature suggests that participation in the market for technology might actually resolve or at least alleviate these problems. In this paper, we investigate the effect of patent blocking...... and infringement on firms’ engagement in in- and cross-licensing. Based on a sample of more than 1000 German manufacturing firms our results show that firms engage in in-licensing as a reaction to patent blocking and in both in- and cross-licensing if their protected IP was infringed upon. However, these effects...

  9. Patent indicators: a window to pharmaceutical market success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Hu, Yuanjia; Zheng, Mingli; Wang, Yitao

    2013-07-01

    Pharmaceutical success in the market is the best reward for pharmaceutical investors undergoing the lengthy, costly and risky process of pharmaceutical Research and Development (R&D). Drugs with high market revenues trigger fierce competition between pharmaceutical enterprises, as is demonstrated by the increasing Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A) cases focusing on seizing the best-selling products. On the other hand, patents, as the best shield for innovative drugs against generic drugs, become a powerful weapon for pharmaceutical enterprises to win the substantial returns generated by market exclusivity. Patents seem to be directly responsible for the commercial success of new medicines. In this context, it is of great significance to find out the empirical associations between pharmaceutical commercial success and patents. By comprehensively analysing 127 drugs marketed in the USA and their 621 American patents, this article identifies the evidence to link various patent indicators with pharmaceutical sales in actual market.

  10. Patenting and Innovation in China: Incentives, Policy, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    limited at 30,000 yuan. See: Kriegel,  J. (2012). Strategies to leverage Chinese patent subsidies Intellectual Property  Magazine .   26 A patent claim...2012). Strategies to leverage Chinese patent subsidies Intellectual Property  Magazine .  Kumar, N. (2003). "Intellectual property rights, technology and...innovation in China: the role of patents in  biotechnology  and  pharmaceutical industries, Edward Elgar.  Liang, M. (2011). "Chinese Patent Quality: Running

  11. Patent prosecution strategies for stem cell related applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Yeh, Jenny J; Fernandez, Dennis; Hansen, Nels

    2007-09-01

    Stem cell research and the intellectual property derived from it, because of its potential to completely transform health care, demand an especially high level of consideration from business and patent prosecution perspectives. As with other revolutionary technologies, ordinary risks are amplified (e.g., litigation), and ordinarily irrelevant considerations may become important (e.g., heightened level of both domestic and foreign legislative risk). In the first part of this article, general strategies for patent prosecutors such as several prosecution considerations and methods for accelerating patent prosecution process are presented. In the second part, patent prosecution challenges of stem cell-related patents and possible solutions are discussed. In the final part, ethical and public policy issues particular to stem cell-related and other biotechnological inventions are summarized.

  12. How do Firms Use the Information in Patent Disclosures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Scholderer, Joachim

    the patentee will use patent disclosures to make the invention described, after the expiry of the patent term. This prediction is different from the predictions of information usage that derive from theories that the function of a patent is to secure the incentive to invent and develop: these only require......Recent review work has begun to question the widespread theoretical assumption in legal theory and practice that the 'quid pro quo' (hereafter QPQ) theory is a valid theory of patent function. [i] Our proposed research will gather empirical data that will enable us to quantitatively test the doubts...... expressed in the literature of the value of the QPQ theory. QPQ theory assumes that the disclosed information in a patent specification is socially and economically useful because it enables the diffusion of an invention that would otherwise have remained secret. It clearly predicts that firms other than...

  13. Global nanotechnology development from 1991 to 2012: patents, scientific publications, and effect of NSF funding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsinchun [The University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems (United States); Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (United States); Son, Jaebong; Jiang, Shan, E-mail: jiangs@email.arizona.edu; Larson, Catherine A.; Gao, Qiang [The University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems (United States)

    2013-09-15

    In a relatively short interval for an emerging technology, nanotechnology has made a significant economic impact in numerous sectors including semiconductor manufacturing, catalysts, medicine, agriculture, and energy production. A part of the United States (US) government investment in basic research has been realized in the last two decades through the National Science Foundation (NSF), beginning with the nanoparticle research initiative in 1991 and continuing with support from the National Nanotechnology Initiative after fiscal year 2001. This paper has two main goals: (a) present a longitudinal analysis of the global nanotechnology development as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patents and Web of Science (WoS) publications in nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) for the interval 1991-2012; and (b) identify the effect of basic research funded by NSF on both indicators. The interval has been separated into three parts for comparison purposes: 1991-2000, 2001-2010, and 2011-2012. The global trends of patents and scientific publications are presented. Bibliometric analysis, topic analysis, and citation network analysis methods are used to rank countries, institutions, technology subfields, and inventors contributing to nanotechnology development. We then, examined how these entities were affected by NSF funding and how they evolved over the past two decades. Results show that dedicated NSF funding used to support nanotechnology R and D was followed by an increased number of relevant patents and scientific publications, a greater diversity of technology topics, and a significant increase of citations. The NSF played important roles in the inventor community and served as a major contributor to numerous nanotechnology subfields.

  14. Global nanotechnology development from 1991 to 2012: patents, scientific publications, and effect of NSF funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Son, Jaebong; Jiang, Shan; Larson, Catherine A.; Gao, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    In a relatively short interval for an emerging technology, nanotechnology has made a significant economic impact in numerous sectors including semiconductor manufacturing, catalysts, medicine, agriculture, and energy production. A part of the United States (US) government investment in basic research has been realized in the last two decades through the National Science Foundation (NSF), beginning with the nanoparticle research initiative in 1991 and continuing with support from the National Nanotechnology Initiative after fiscal year 2001. This paper has two main goals: (a) present a longitudinal analysis of the global nanotechnology development as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patents and Web of Science (WoS) publications in nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) for the interval 1991–2012; and (b) identify the effect of basic research funded by NSF on both indicators. The interval has been separated into three parts for comparison purposes: 1991–2000, 2001–2010, and 2011–2012. The global trends of patents and scientific publications are presented. Bibliometric analysis, topic analysis, and citation network analysis methods are used to rank countries, institutions, technology subfields, and inventors contributing to nanotechnology development. We then, examined how these entities were affected by NSF funding and how they evolved over the past two decades. Results show that dedicated NSF funding used to support nanotechnology R and D was followed by an increased number of relevant patents and scientific publications, a greater diversity of technology topics, and a significant increase of citations. The NSF played important roles in the inventor community and served as a major contributor to numerous nanotechnology subfields

  15. Patent landscape of countermeasures against smallpox and estimation of grant attraction capability through patent landscape data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayburd, Anatoly L; Kedia, Govind; Evans, Haydn W; Kaslival, Pritesh C

    2010-11-01

    The study was concerned with countermeasures against a possible smallpox outbreak. In the process of assessment 18 landscaping sectors were defined and described, the advantages and drawbacks of the corresponding countermeasures being reviewed. The data of the previously published influenza landscape were revisited. The current economic climate of deficit cutting (austerity) also puts emphasis on the optimization of capital investment. We used the materials of the landscape to define and analyze metrics of capital placement optimization. Value score was obtained by fitting patent landscape internals to the sale price of individual patents. Success score was obtained as a product of a-priori parameters that measure likelihood of emergence of a marketable product in a technological sector. Both scores were combined in a qualitative metric. Our methodology defined weight as a product of the sector size by the success score. We hypothesized - based on the material of two landscapes- that a life cycle of a technology begins in IP space with a high patent quality low volume "bud" of low weight, reaches maximum weight and then weight falls again when the technology becomes outdated. The weight and the annual dynamic of weight can serve a measure of investment risk and return. In this report we modeled investment by issue of government grants or purchase of patents by government. In the smallpox landscape the number of patents purchased by government agencies was the highest in the sectors with the highest weight and the trend was confirmed by the count of NIH grants issued in support of the technological sectors. In the influenza landscape only grant issue count was statistically meaningful and the trend was also confirmed. To better fit the grant support levels, the weight expression was optimized by using training coefficients. We propose to use value scores for evaluation of individual patent publications/company portfolios and to use weights for assessment of

  16. Symptomatic Patent Foramen Ovale with Hemidiaphragm Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnea accounts for more than one-fourth of the hospital admissions from Emergency Department. Chronic conditions such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Congestive Heart Failure, and Asthma are being common etiologies. Less common etiologies include conditions such as valvular heart disease, pulmonary embolism, and right-to-left shunt (RLS from patent foramen ovale (PFO. PFO is present in estimated 20–30% of the population, mostly a benign condition. RLS via PFO usually occurs when right atrium pressure exceeds left atrium pressure. RLS can also occur in absence of higher right atrium pressure. We report one such case that highlights the importance of high clinical suspicion, thorough evaluation, and percutaneous closure of the PFO leading to significant improvement in the symptoms.

  17. Actinic Keratosis Pathogenesis Update and New Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantisani, Carmen; Paolino, Giovanni; Melis, Marcello; Faina, Valentina; Romaniello, Federico; Didona, Dario; Cardone, Michele; Calvieri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Actinic keratosis is a common premalignant skin lesion. Because of its increasing incidence, several efforts have been made to earlier detectection and to improve knowledge on photocarcinogenic pathways of keratinocytes. As a consequence, recently new discoveries have been done in this field. Starting from our previous review on actinic keratosis, we reviewed the literature focusing on pathogenesis and new patents in order to highlight the most recent progresses in diagnosis and therapeutic approach. Although several efforts have been done in the field of photodamaged skin, new upgrades in diagnosis and therapy are needed to detect superficial actinic keratosis earlier, to improve the disease free survival of patient and to better treat the field cancerization.

  18. Monitoring nanotechnology using patent classifications: an overview and comparison of nanotechnology classification schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jürgens, Björn, E-mail: bjurgens@agenciaidea.es [Agency of Innovation and Development of Andalusia, CITPIA PATLIB Centre (Spain); Herrero-Solana, Victor, E-mail: victorhs@ugr.es [University of Granada, SCImago-UGR (SEJ036) (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Patents are an essential information source used to monitor, track, and analyze nanotechnology. When it comes to search nanotechnology-related patents, a keyword search is often incomplete and struggles to cover such an interdisciplinary discipline. Patent classification schemes can reveal far better results since they are assigned by experts who classify the patent documents according to their technology. In this paper, we present the most important classifications to search nanotechnology patents and analyze how nanotechnology is covered in the main patent classification systems used in search systems nowadays: the International Patent Classification (IPC), the United States Patent Classification (USPC), and the Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC). We conclude that nanotechnology has a significantly better patent coverage in the CPC since considerable more nanotechnology documents were retrieved than by using other classifications, and thus, recommend its use for all professionals involved in nanotechnology patent searches.

  19. Monitoring nanotechnology using patent classifications: an overview and comparison of nanotechnology classification schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jürgens, Björn; Herrero-Solana, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Patents are an essential information source used to monitor, track, and analyze nanotechnology. When it comes to search nanotechnology-related patents, a keyword search is often incomplete and struggles to cover such an interdisciplinary discipline. Patent classification schemes can reveal far better results since they are assigned by experts who classify the patent documents according to their technology. In this paper, we present the most important classifications to search nanotechnology patents and analyze how nanotechnology is covered in the main patent classification systems used in search systems nowadays: the International Patent Classification (IPC), the United States Patent Classification (USPC), and the Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC). We conclude that nanotechnology has a significantly better patent coverage in the CPC since considerable more nanotechnology documents were retrieved than by using other classifications, and thus, recommend its use for all professionals involved in nanotechnology patent searches.

  20. Automated Patent Categorization and Guided Patent Search using IPC as Inspired by MeSH and PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, Daniel; Tsatsaronis, George; Bundschus, Markus; Wieneke, Ulrich; Schroeder, Michael

    2013-04-15

    Document search on PubMed, the pre-eminent database for biomedical literature, relies on the annotation of its documents with relevant terms from the Medical Subject Headings ontology (MeSH) for improving recall through query expansion. Patent documents are another important information source, though they are considerably less accessible. One option to expand patent search beyond pure keywords is the inclusion of classification information: Since every patent is assigned at least one class code, it should be possible for these assignments to be automatically used in a similar way as the MeSH annotations in PubMed. In order to develop a system for this task, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the properties of both classification systems. This report describes our comparative analysis of MeSH and the main patent classification system, the International Patent Classification (IPC). We investigate the hierarchical structures as well as the properties of the terms/classes respectively, and we compare the assignment of IPC codes to patents with the annotation of PubMed documents with MeSH terms.Our analysis shows a strong structural similarity of the hierarchies, but significant differences of terms and annotations. The low number of IPC class assignments and the lack of occurrences of class labels in patent texts imply that current patent search is severely limited. To overcome these limits, we evaluate a method for the automated assignment of additional classes to patent documents, and we propose a system for guided patent search based on the use of class co-occurrence information and external resources.

  1. Smart Technology Brings Power to the People

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Gephart, Julie M.

    2006-12-01

    Imagine you’re at home one Saturday morning on the computer, as your son takes a shower, your daughter is watching TV, and a load of laundry is in your washer and dryer. Meanwhile, the fragrance of fresh-brewed coffee fills the house. You hear a momentary beep from the dryer that tells you that if you were to look, a high-energy price indicator would be displayed on the front panels of some of your favorite appliances. This tells you that you could save money right now by using less energy. (You’ve agreed to this arrangement to help your utility avoid a substation upgrade. In return, you get a lower rate most of the time.) So you turn off some of the unneeded lights in your home and opt to wait until evening to run the dishwasher. Meanwhile, some of your largest appliances have automatically responded to this signal and have already reduced your home’s energy consumption, saving you money. On January 11, 2006, demonstration projects were launched in 200 homes in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States to test and speed adoption of new smart grid technologies that can make the power grid more resilient and efficient. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory in Richland, Washington, is managing the yearlong study called the Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration, a project funded primarily by DOE. Through the GridWise™ Demonstration projects, researchers are gaining insight into energy consumers’ behavior while testing new technologies designed to bring the electric transmission system into the information age. Northwest utilities, appliance manufacturers and technology companies are also supporting this effort to demonstrate the devices and assess the resulting consumer response. A combination of devices, software and advanced analytical tools will give homeowners more information about their energy use and cost, and we want to know if this will modify their behavior. Approximately 100

  2. An Overview on Indian Patents on Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Anusaya; Chandra Santra, Subhas; Samal, Alok Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The application of biotechnology is a potential tool for mitigating the present and future fooding and clothing demands in developing countries like India. The commercialization of biotechnological products might benefiting the poor`s in developing countries are unlikely to be developed. Biotechnology has the potential to provide a wide range of products and the existing production skills in the industrial, pharmaceuticals and the agricultural sector. Ownership of the intellectual property rights is the key factors in determining the success of any technological invention, which was introduced in the market. It provides the means for technological progress to continue of the industry of the country. The new plans, animal varieties, new methods of treatments, new crops producing food articles as such are the inventions of biotechnology. Biotechnology is the result of the application of human intelligence and knowledge to the biological processes. Most of the tools of biotechnology have been developed, by companies, governments, research in- stitutes and universities in developed nations. These human intellectual efforts deserve protection. India is a developing country with advance biotechnology based segments of pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. The Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is not likely to have a significant impact on incentives for innovation creation in the biotechnology sectors. In the recent years, the world has seen the biotechnology sector as one of greatest investment area through the Patent Law and will giving huge profit in future. The Research and Development in the field of biotechnology should be encouraged for explor- ing new tools and improve the biological systems for interest of the common people. Priority should be given to generation, evaluation, protection and effective commercial utilization of tangible products of intellectual property in agriculture and pharmaceuticals. To support the future growth and

  3. [The Glivec® case: the first example of a global debate on the drug patent system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moital, Inês; Bosch, Fèlix; Farré, Magí; Maddaleno, Mariano; Baños, Josep-E

    2014-01-01

    To describe the sequence of events involving the Glivec® case in India and to analyze the opinions generated in distinct settings. We performed a systematic search for articles concerning the imatinib (Glivec®) patent in India. We selected those sources that described the events, decisions of the authorities involved, and press and scientific opinions. Dates and arguments presented by the involved parties were clearly identified. Of 886 documents initially obtained, we selected 40 documents published between 2003 and 2013. Most of them were press news and commentaries. The process lasted 7 years, starting in 2006 when the Indian Patent Office rejected the patent application filed by Novartis. It ended in 2013 when the Indian Supreme Court upheld this decision. It was argued that the Indian Patent Law would facilitate access to medicines in the Third World and the final decision has received support by the general population. Although the court's final decision has been supported by several institutions, an objective analysis should also take into account the arguments of the pharmaceutical companies and other entities. The Glivec® case gave rise to an intense debate on the appropriateness of international standards on patents, their applicability and how they should be adopted in each country. This case, as well as other cases, should serve to stimulate reflection on the international patent system and to achieve scenarios in which the health of the poorest populations is protected but also balanced against intellectual property protection and innovation. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Biocompatible Synthetic and Semi-synthetic Polymers - A Patent Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Balu; Miller, Charles; Sinskey, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Bioengineering has come of ages by setting up spare parts manufacturing units to be used in human body such as invasive implants and interventional controlled drug delivery in vivo systems. As a matter of fact patients on basis of their fiscal strength have the option to undergo prophylactic tactical manoeuvre for longer life spans. In this sphere of invasive implants, biocompatible polymer implants are a state of the art cutting edge technology with outstanding innovations leading to number of very successful start-up companies with a plethora of patent portfolios. From 2000 onwards, patent filings and grants for biocompatible polymers are expanding. Currently definition of biocompatibility is quite ambiguous with respect to the use of FDA approved polymeric materials. This article analysed patent portfolios for the trend patterns of prolific biocompatible polymers for capitalization and commercialization in the forthcoming years. Pair Bulk Data (PBD) portal was used to mine patent portfolios. In this patent preliminary analysis report, patents from 2000 to 2015 were evaluated using 317(c) filings, grants and classifications data for poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA). This patent portfolio preliminary analysis embarks into patent analysis for New Product Development (NPD) for corporate R&D investment managerial decisions and on government advocacy for federal funding which is decisive for developmental advances. An in-depth patent portfolio investigation with return of investment (RoI) is in the pipeline. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Bringing physiology into PET of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Susanne

    2012-03-01

    Several physiologic features make interpretation of PET studies of liver physiology an exciting challenge. As with other organs, hepatic tracer kinetics using PET is quantified by dynamic recording of the liver after the administration of a radioactive tracer, with measurements of time-activity curves in the blood supply. However, the liver receives blood from both the portal vein and the hepatic artery, with the peak of the portal vein time-activity curve being delayed and dispersed compared with that of the hepatic artery. The use of a flow-weighted dual-input time-activity curve is of importance for the estimation of hepatic blood perfusion through initial dynamic PET recording. The portal vein is inaccessible in humans, and methods of estimating the dual-input time-activity curve without portal vein measurements are being developed. Such methods are used to estimate regional hepatic blood perfusion, for example, by means of the initial part of a dynamic (18)F-FDG PET/CT recording. Later, steady-state hepatic metabolism can be assessed using only the arterial input, provided that neither the tracer nor its metabolites are irreversibly trapped in the prehepatic splanchnic area within the acquisition period. This is used in studies of regulation of hepatic metabolism of, for example, (18)F-FDG and (11)C-palmitate.

  6. New, Patented Technique for Naturally Restoring Healthy Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anganes, Andrew A.; McLeod, Roger David; Machado, Milena

    2009-05-01

    The patented NATUROPTIC METHOD FOR RESTORING HEALTHY VISION claims to be a novel teaching method for safely and naturally improving vision. It is a simple tutoring process designed to work quickly, requiring only a minimal number of sessions for improvement. We investigated these claims, implementing Naturoptics for safe recovery of vision, ourselves, over a period of time. Research was conducted at off campus locations, mentored by the creator of the Naturoptic Method. We assessed our initial visual acuity and subsequent progress, using standard Snellen Eye Charts. Our research is designed to document successive improvements in vision, and to assess our potential for teaching the method. Naturoptics' Board encourages work-study memorial awards for students. They are: ``The David Matthew McLeod Memorial Award,'' or ``The Kaan Balam Matagamon Memorial Award,'' with net earnings shared by the designees, academic entities, the American Indians in Science and Engineering Society, AISES, or charity. The Board requires awardees, students, and associated entities, to sign non-disclosure agreements.

  7. A Selection Model of Patenting Firms in Demark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    1999-01-01

    on how market structure relate to innovative activity in small open economies. The paper explores the relation between patenting activity and market structure in the Danish manufacturing industries using data from a recently developed database containing accounting information on a sample of patenting...... firms in Denmark. Market structure by concentration and firm size in manufacturing industries was found to be of opposite effects on firms patent activity. Studies on the relation between industrial innovation and market structure in the Danish manufacturing industries are few. Also, since the majority...

  8. Bringing the Science of JWST to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; Smith, Denise A.; Lawton, Brandon L.; Meinke, Bonnie K.; Jirdeh, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. STScI and the Office of Public Outreach are committed to bringing awareness of the technology, the excitement, and the future science potential of this great observatory to the public and to the scientific community, prior to its 2018 launch. The challenges in ensuring the high profile of JWST (understanding the infrared, the vast distance to the telescope's final position, and the unfamiliar science territory) requires us to lay the proper background, particularly in the area of spectroscopy. We currently engage the full range of the public and scientific communities using a variety of high impact, memorable initiatives, in combination with modern technologies to extend reach, linking the science goals of Webb to the ongoing discoveries being made by Hubble. Webbtelescope.org, the public hub for scientific information related to JWST, is now open. We have injected Webb-specific content into ongoing outreach programs: for example, partnering with high impact science communicators such as MinutePhysics to produce timely and concise content; partnering with musicians and artists to link science and art. Augmented reality apps showcase NASA’s telescopes in a format usable by anyone with a smartphone, and visuals from increasingly affordable 3D VR technologies.

  9. Bringing education to your virtual doorstep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurov, Vitaliy

    2013-03-01

    We currently witness significant migration of academic resources towards online CMS, social networking, and high-end computerized education. This happens for traditional academic programs as well as for outreach initiatives. The talk will go over a set of innovative integrated technologies, many of which are free. These were developed by Wolfram Research in order to facilitate and enhance the learning process in mathematical and physical sciences. Topics include: cloud computing with Mathematica Online; natural language programming; interactive educational resources and web publishing at the Wolfram Demonstrations Project; the computational knowledge engine Wolfram Alpha; Computable Document Format (CDF) and self-publishing with interactive e-books; course assistant apps for mobile platforms. We will also discuss outreach programs where such technologies are extensively used, such as the Wolfram Science Summer School and the Mathematica Summer Camp.

  10. Standards, patents and mobile phones : lessons from ETSI's handling of UMTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.N.A.; West, J.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of patents and patent royalties are a major concern of standards setting organisations. Here we examine the patents filed in the UMTS 3rd generation mobile phone standard, governed by the ETSI IPR policy in response to patent issues faced during the earlier GSM standardization. We

  11. 77 FR 26768 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; PROLIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at high risk for fracture. Subsequent to this approval, the Patent and..., FDA-2010-E-0660, and FDA-2010-E-0659] Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent... the Director of Patents and Trademarks, Department of Commerce, for the extension of a patent which...

  12. 78 FR 75251 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...-2013-0007] RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Correction AGENCY: United States... Law Treaty (PLT) and provisions of the Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) that... practice in patent cases for consistency with the changes in the Patent Law Treaty (PLT) and provisions of...

  13. Concerns and evidence for ex-post hold-up with essential patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.N.A.

    2015-01-01

    Patented technologies may add significant value to technical standards. But the owners of patents that are necessary required in order to implement a standard (“essential patents”) obtain a particularly powerful position. One of the widely recognized risks here is patent holdup, where the patent

  14. The geography of sleeping beauties in patenting: a country-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuestman, M.L.; Frenken, K.; Hoekman, J.; Mas Tur, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores sleeping beauties, i.e. breakthrough inventions that experienced delayed recognition, by means of patent data. References in a patent signal the state of the art on which the patent is based, and they can limit the property rights established by its claims. A patent that is cited

  15. Patents as instruments for exploring innovation dynamics: geographic and technological perspectives on “photovoltaic cells”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Alkemade, F.; Heimeriks, G.; Hoekstra, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed Cooperative Patent Classifications of the U.S. Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) and the European Patent Office (EPO) provide new options for an informed delineation of samples in both USPTO data and the Worldwide Patent Statistical Database (PatStat) of EPO. Among the

  16. Patent circumvention strategy using TRIZ-based design-around approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.F.J.; Wits, Wessel Willems; Aoussat, Améziane; Cavallucci, Denis; Trella, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes guidelines for a systematic patent circumvention strategy utilizing innovation and TRIZ tools. It focuses on starting from a landscape of patents and claims of an existing patent to create solutions that circumvent this existing patent. Information gathered from various sources

  17. Patent circumvention strategy using TRIZ-based design-around approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.F.J.; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes guidelines for a systematic patent circumvention strategy utilizing innovation and TRIZ tools. It focuses on starting from a landscape of patents and claims of an existing patent to create solutions that circumvent this existing patent. Information gathered from various sources

  18. Cleaning of scientific references in large patent databases using rule-based scoring and clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caron, Emiel

    2017-01-01

    Patent databases contain patent related data, organized in a relational data model, and are used to produce various patent statistics. These databases store raw data about scientific references cited by patents. For example, Patstat holds references to tens of millions of scientific journal

  19. 77 FR 48733 - Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-Definitions of Covered Business Method...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Office 37 CFR Part 42 Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents--Definitions of Covered... Business Method Patents-- Definitions of Covered Business Method Patent and Technological Invention AGENCY... forth in detail the definitions of the terms ``covered business method patent'' and ``technological...

  20. 48 CFR 627.203 - Patent indemnification of Government by contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent indemnification of Government by contractor. 627.203 Section 627.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents 627.203 Patent indemnification of...

  1. Trends in genetic patent applications: The commercialization of academic intellectual property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kers, J.G.; van Burg, J.C.; Stoop, T.; Cornel, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications

  2. 37 CFR 1.18 - Patent post allowance (including issue) fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... entity $1,190.00 (d) Publication fee $300.00. (e) For filing an application for patent term adjustment... (including issue) fees. 1.18 Section 1.18 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions Fees...

  3. Bibliography of US patents on augmentation of convective heat and mass transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.L.; Junkhan, G.H.; Bergles, A.E.

    1980-09-01

    Granted patents are an important source of information on the potential commercialization of augmented heat transfer technology. This report presents a bibliography of US patents pertinent to that technology. The total number of patents cited is 321. They are presented in three separate lists: by patent number, alphabetically by first inventor, and by augmentation techniques

  4. 77 FR 55465 - US Air Force Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force US Air Force Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: Air Force Research Laboratory Information Directorate, Rome, New York, Department of the Air Force... amended, the Department of the Air Force announces [[Page 55466

  5. Patentes Farmacêuticas e direito à saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Candian Filardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo a análise do instituto das patentes de segundo uso médico, não expressamente regulamentado na ordem jurídica brasileira.  Nesta tarefa, valer-se-á do marco teórico da Teoria do Direito como Integridade. Por meio da análise dos princípios morais e políticos que subjazem e legitimam a concessão do direito à patente, verifica-se a adequação das patentes de segundo uso médico. Metodologicamente, essa interpretação do sistema de atribuição de direitos à patente revela uma reconstrução crítica da relação entre incentivo à inovação e acesso a medicamentos.

  6. Enforcing patents in the era of 3D printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballardini, Rosa Maria; Norrgård, Marcus; Minssen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    This article explores relevant laws and doctrines of patent infringement in Europe with a special emphasis on 3D printing (3DP) technologies. Considering the difficulties that patent owners might face in pursuing direct patent infringement actions in the rapidly evolving era of 3DP, we suggest...... of IP law. Enforcing patents in the era of 3D printing Rosa Maria Ballardini, Marcus Norrgård, and Timo Minssen Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice 2015 10: 850-866......, although the internet platforms and CAD files repositories will play a major role in the development and spreading of the 3DP technology, they will likely to be at the center of major law disputes unless they carefully consider the scope of their activities (host and/or customize and/or print) in light...

  7. the possible overlap between plant variety protection and patent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the patentability of inventions in all fields of technology, and specifically .... of different plants; the traits or characteristics associated with the genes will be expressed ... David Kaplan, Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation in South Africa: A.

  8. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions of this subpart shall be the property of the United States Government as represented by the Board..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to the...

  9. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... funds collected under the provisions of this subpart are the property of the United States Government as... the rental, sale, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  10. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PATENTED HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ju. Borisenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bainite structure on mechanical characteristics of wire of steel 80 after patenting is studied. The quantity and structure state of bainite, providing high complex of mechanical characteristics of high-carbon wire, is determined.

  11. 78 FR 19416 - Revisions to Patent Term Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ..., information that the submitter does not desire to make public, such as an address or phone number, should not... practice and procedure, Courts, Freedom of Information, Inventions and patents, Reporting and record...

  12. List of scientific publications and patents of A. Charlesby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to a list of the scientific publications and patents of Professor A. Charlesby, relating to the radiation chemistry of polymers, in which field he is a founding father and leading expert. (U.K.)

  13. EPA-developed, patented technologies available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  14. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    , the Working Group recognizes that the protection and enforcement of the rights of inventors through the patent system must be done in a manner to stimulate innovation and the diffusion of knowledge. In order to propose meaningful policy options that meet these objectives as much as possible, the evidence put......The present report is based on an independent, policy-oriented investigation of the current European patent system. The central premise of the report is that the patent system has so far been a positive factor in promoting innovation and the diffusion of knowledge, and thus that the system...... is contributing in a constructive way to economic and social welfare objectives. In acknowledging the importance of the patent system in relation to many aspects of society, it is also essential to continually evaluate whether the system is working as effectively as it could be. In addition, because of some...

  15. Bringing Federated Identity to Grid Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teheran, Jeny [Fermilab

    2016-03-04

    The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is facing the challenge of providing scientific data access and grid submission to scientific collaborations that span the globe but are hosted at FNAL. Users in these collaborations are currently required to register as an FNAL user and obtain FNAL credentials to access grid resources to perform their scientific computations. These requirements burden researchers with managing additional authentication credentials, and put additional load on FNAL for managing user identities. Our design integrates the existing InCommon federated identity infrastructure, CILogon Basic CA, and MyProxy with the FNAL grid submission system to provide secure access for users from diverse experiments and collab orations without requiring each user to have authentication credentials from FNAL. The design automates the handling of certificates so users do not need to manage them manually. Although the initial implementation is for FNAL's grid submission system, the design and the core of the implementation are general and could be applied to other distributed computing systems.

  16. Cross-Border Patent Infringement Litigation within the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kant, Michael Christian Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In our modern industrial society, intellectual property (IP) rights, and in particular patents, constitute for many companies and individuals the essential basis for their business activity. In light of this, adequate protection of IP rights is of crucial importance for such entities. Within the European legal framework, the Brussels Ibis Regulation provides for specific rules with regard to cross-border patent infringement proceedings which however contain considerable deficiencies when it c...

  17. Patenting Nanomedicines Legal Aspects, Intellectual Property and Grant Opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Souto, Eliana B

    2012-01-01

    "Patenting Nanomedicines: Legal Aspects, Intellectual Property and Grant Opportunities" focuses on the fundamental aspects of Patenting Nanomedicines applied in different "Drug Delivery and Targeting Systems". The promoters of new findings in this field of research are numerous and spread worldwide; therefore, managing intellectual property portfolios, and the acquisition and exploitation of new knowledge face several contingency factors. Today, the scientific community is discussing issues of economic outcomes in the field of Nanomedicines. Major concerns include questions

  18. OBJECTIVES AND INCENTIVES AT THE EUROPEAN PATENT OFFICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friebel, Guido; Koch, Alexander; Seabright, Paul

    This report examines the effectiveness of the current system of incentives within the European Patent Office (EPO) and considers the possible consequences of placing greater emphasis on quantitative measures of productivity in rewarding EPO staff.......This report examines the effectiveness of the current system of incentives within the European Patent Office (EPO) and considers the possible consequences of placing greater emphasis on quantitative measures of productivity in rewarding EPO staff....

  19. Resolving Standard Essential Patents Issues through Competition Law (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAHAMA Noboru

    2015-01-01

    The number of disputes relating to standard essential patents (SEPs), in which patent holders submit statements to commit to granting licenses on a fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (FRAND) basis, have increased. The exercise of SEPs tends to cause problems such as hold-ups and royalty stacking and needs to be constrained somehow. Despite wide recognition of the need to address these problems, devising measures to resolve the issue has not been an easy task since various laws and princi...

  20. [Patents and scientific research: an ethical-legal approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darío Bergel, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to review the relationship between patents and scientific research from an ethical point of view. The recent developments in the law of industrial property led in many cases to patent discoveries, contributions of basic science, and laws of nature. This trend, which denies the central principles of the discipline, creates disturbances in scientific activity, which requires the free movement of knowledge in order to develop their potentialities.

  1. Obstacles to prior art searching by the trilateral patent offices: empirical evidence from International Search Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Despite many empirical studies having been carried out on examiner patent citations, few have scrutinized the obstacles to prior art searching when adding patent citations during patent prosecution at patent offices. This analysis takes advantage of the longitudinal gap between an International Search Report (ISR) as required by the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and subsequent national examination procedures. We investigate whether several kinds of distance actually affect the probability t...

  2. How certain indigenous innovation and other patent policies hamper innovation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Prud'homme, Dan

    2012-01-01

    China has a wide-range of patent-specific and other patent-related policies in-place, many of which are at least partially meant to stimulate patents and “indigenous innovation.” However, the analysis in this paper discusses how some of these policies in effect can actually discourage quality patents, and highest-quality patents in particular, and related innovation.

  3. Isolated brain metastases of osteosarcoma in a patient presenting with a patent foramen ovale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menassa, L.; Haddad, S.; Aoun, N.; Slaba, S.; Atallah, N.

    1997-01-01

    We report the case of a patient in whom brain MR imaging was requested for initial symptoms of intracranial hypertension. The presence of multiple intracranial hemorrhagic lesions suggested brain metastases. Body screening showed periosteal osteosarcoma of the left fibula with no lung metastases, but with a patent foramen ovale which probably allowed neoplastic cells to reach the brain without being filtered through the lungs. The conclusion of this study was that a left-right cardiac communication is to be considered in cases of isolated brain metastases from osteosarcoma. (orig.). With 3 figs

  4. Transcatheter interruption of large residual flow after device closure of "Type A" patent ductus arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Sridhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 3-year-old girl who had persistence of large residual flow following transcatheter closure of a 6 mm ′Type A′ patent ductus arteriosus using a 12 × 10 mm duct occluder. Angiography revealed a large left-to-right shunt coursing through and exiting around the implanted device. Near total abolition of the residual shunt was achieved by initial implantation of an embolization coil within the duct occluder and subsequently an Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO II adjacent to the duct occluder. This challenging case describes an additional technique of abolishing a large residual flow in and around a Nitinol duct occluder device.

  5. The patentability of living organisms between science, law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, L; Foà, R; Frati, P

    1999-01-01

    The approval on May 1998 of the European Union (EU) directive on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions has aligned Europe to the international trend about the patenting of biotechnologies. Many questions are still unresolved, i.e. the differences between the article 53b of the European Patent Convention (EPC), which prohibits patenting of plants and animal varieties, whereas the directive states that Oinvention whose object are plants or animals may be patented if the practicability of the invention is not technically confined to a particular plant or animal varietyO (article 12). Again, the interpretation of plants or animal species specificity and that on the threatening public order and morality (which inhibits patenting) may have doubtful interpretations, according to the different EU States morality and law (e.g. Denmark does not admit patentability of transgenic animals). Despite difficulties, biotechnology Research and Development for applications to medicine, veterinary sciences, agriculture and foods is continuously growing. Bioethical independent evaluations of the applications of biotechnologies and of their side-effects (risk for biodiversity of plants and animals, safety of procedures to save mankind, respect of human dignity and of fundamental human rights, etc.) are mandatory to link the interests of science and industrial productions together with those of mankind. This is the original meaning given by van Potter to the word bioethics, as a bridge to the future.

  6. Osteoclast differentiation inhibitors: a patent review (2008 - 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Moon, Seong-Hee

    2013-12-01

    Mononuclear macrophage/monocyte-lineage hematopoietic precursors differentiate into multinucleated osteoclasts. Abnormally increased numbers and/or overactivation of osteoclasts can lead to bone loss. Therefore, pharmaceutical inhibition of osteoclast differentiation is one therapeutic strategy for mitigating the occurrence of bone loss-associated disorders and related fractures. This review surveys the patents and patent applications from 2008 to 2012 that are related to inventions of therapeutics and/or methods for inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. Over the past 20 years, the identification and validation of signaling molecules involved in osteoclast differentiation has led to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism, and to the development of new therapeutic agents for treating bone loss-associated disorders. Since 2008, 34 WO patents or patent applications have been filed that relate to inventions of therapeutics and/or methods for chemical-based, natural product-based, or biological-based inhibitors of osteoclast differentiation. Here, analysis of these patents and patent applications is presented, and summarize the disclosed osteoclast differentiation-inhibiting target molecules. This report can support further advances in the development of anti-osteoclastogenic therapeutics for bone loss-associated disorders, including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Paget's disease, periodontal disease, osteosarcoma, and cancer bone metastasis.

  7. Patent citation network in nanotechnology (1976-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Chen Hsinchun; Huang Zan; Roco, Mihail C.

    2007-01-01

    The patent citation networks are described using critical node, core network, and network topological analysis. The main objective is understanding of the knowledge transfer processes between technical fields, institutions and countries. This includes identifying key influential players and subfields, the knowledge transfer patterns among them, and the overall knowledge transfer efficiency. The proposed framework is applied to the field of nanoscale science and engineering (NSE), including the citation networks of patent documents, submitting institutions, technology fields, and countries. The NSE patents were identified by keywords 'full-text' searching of patents at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The analysis shows that the United States is the most important citation center in NSE research. The institution citation network illustrates a more efficient knowledge transfer between institutions than a random network. The country citation network displays a knowledge transfer capability as efficient as a random network. The technology field citation network and the patent document citation network exhibit a less efficient knowledge diffusion capability than a random network. All four citation networks show a tendency to form local citation clusters

  8. Recent patents on the extraction of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggi, Ezio

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the patents that have been presented during the last decade related to the extraction of carotenoids from various forms of organic matter (fruit, vegetables, animals), with an emphasis on the methods and mechanisms exploited by these technologies, and on technical solutions for the practical problems related to these technologies. I present and classify 29 methods related to the extraction processes (physical, mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic). The large number of processes for extraction by means of supercritical fluids and the growing number of large-scale industrial plants suggest a positive trend towards using this technique that is currently slowed by its cost. This trend should be reinforced by growing restrictions imposed on the use of most organic solvents for extraction of food products and by increasingly strict waste management regulations that are indirectly promoting the use of extraction processes that leave the residual (post-extraction) matrix substantially free from solvents and compounds that must subsequently be removed or treated. None of the reviewed approaches is the best answer for every extractable compound and source, so each should be considered as one of several alternatives, including the use of a combination of extraction approaches.

  9. Transcatheter Device Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, M.; Ullah, M.; Sadiq, N.; Akhtar, K.; Akbar, H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy, safety and immediate complications encountered during percutaneous device closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatric Cardiology, AFIC/NIHD, Rawalpindi, from January 2005 to December 2010. Methodology: Consecutive 500 patients who underwent attempted transcatheter PDA device closure were included in the study. Device type position, success of closure and complications were described as frequency percentage. Results: In 491 cases (98.2%), PDA was successfully occluded including 4 cases (0.8%) where devices were dislodged but retrieved and redeployed in Cath laboratory. PDA occluder devices used in 448 cases (91%) while coils (single or multiple) were used in 42 cases (8.5%) and in one case (0.2%) ASD occluder device was used to occlude the PDA. There were 09 (1.8%) unsuccessful cases, 06 (1.2%) were abandoned as ducts were considered unsuitable for device closure, 02 (0.4%) devices dislodged and needed surgical retrieval and one case (0.2%) was abandoned due to faulty equipment. The narrowest PDA diameter ranged from 0.5 - 14 mm with mean of 4.5 +- 2.4 mm. There was a single (0.2%) mortality. Conclusion: Transcatheter occlusion of PDA by coil or occluder device is an effective therapeutic option with high success rate. Complication rate is low in the hands of skilled operators yet paediatric cardiac surgical back-up cover is mandatory. (author)

  10. Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezu-Ndubuisi, Olachi J.; Agarwal, Ghanshyam; Raghavan, Aarti; Pham, Jennifer T.; Ohler, Kirsten H.; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2015-01-01

    Persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. In infants born prior to 28 weeks of gestation, a hemodynamically-significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can cause cardiovascular instability, exacerbate respiratory distress syndrome, prolong the need for assisted ventilation, and increase the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, renal dysfunction, intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebral palsy, and mortality. In this article, we review the pathophysiology, clinical features, and assessment of hemodynamic significance, and provide a rigorous appraisal of the quality of evidence to support current medical and surgical management of PDA of prematurity. Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors such as indomethacin and ibuprofen remain the mainstay of medical therapy for PDA, and can be used both for prophylaxis as well as rescue therapy to achieve PDA closure. Surgical ligation is also effective and is used in infants who do not respond to medical management. Although both medical and surgical treatment have proven efficacy in closing the ductus, both modalities are associated with significant adverse effects. Because the ductus does undergo spontaneous closure in some premature infants, improved and early identification of infants most likely to develop a symptomatic PDA could help in directing treatment to the at-risk infants and allow others to receive expectant management. PMID:22564132

  11. Bringing life to soil physical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    When Oklahoma's native prairie grass roots were replaced by corn, the greatest environmental (and social) disaster ever to hit America ensued. The soils lost structure, physical binding by roots was annihilated and when drought came the Great Dust Bowl commenced. This form of environmental disaster has repeated over history and although not always apparent, similar processes drive the degradation of seemingly productive farmland and forests. But just as negative impacts on biology are deleterious to soil physical properties, positive impacts could reverse these trends. In finding solutions to soil sustainability and food security, we should be able to exploit biological processes to improve soil physical properties. This talk will focus on a quantitative understanding of how biology changes soil physical behaviour. Like the Great Dust Bowl, it starts with reinforcement mechanisms by plant roots. We found that binding of soil by cereal (barley) roots within 5 weeks of planting can more than double soil shear strength, with greater plant density causing greater reinforcement. With time, however, the relative impact of root reinforcement diminishes due to root turnover and aging of the seedbed. From mechanical tests of individual roots, reasonable predictions of reinforcement by tree roots are possible with fibre bundle models. With herbaceous plants like cereals, however, the same parameters (root strength, stiffness, size and distribution) result in a poor prediction. We found that root type, root age and abiotic factors such as compaction and waterlogging affect mechanical behaviour, further complicating the understanding and prediction of root reinforcement. For soil physical stability, the interface between root and soil is an extremely important zone in terms of resistance of roots to pull-out and rhizosphere formation. Compounds analogous to root exudates have been found with rheological tests to initially decrease the shear stress where wet soils flow, but

  12. Getting patent policy right: an introduction to a special issue on the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    An editorial on the Special Issue: Dealing with the major questions confronting the basics of the European patent system; plus a look at the possible solutions; includes an overview of the article contributions....

  13. Worldwide nanotechnology development: a comparative study of USPTO, EPO, and JPO patents (1976-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Lin Yiling; Chen Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2007-01-01

    To assess worldwide development of nanotechnology, this paper compares the numbers and contents of nanotechnology patents in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO), and Japan Patent Office (JPO). It uses the patent databases as indicators of nanotechnology trends via bibliographic analysis, content map analysis, and citation network analysis on nanotechnology patents per country, institution, and technology field. The numbers of nanotechnology patents published in USPTO and EPO have continued to increase quasi-exponentially since 1980, while those published in JPO stabilized after 1993. Institutions and individuals located in the same region as a repository's patent office have a higher contribution to the nanotechnology patent publication in that repository ('home advantage' effect). The USPTO and EPO databases had similar high-productivity contributing countries and technology fields with large number of patents, but quite different high-impact countries and technology fields after the average number of received cites. Bibliographic analysis on USPTO and EPO patents shows that researchers in the United States and Japan published larger numbers of patents than other countries, and that their patents were more frequently cited by other patents. Nanotechnology patents covered physics research topics in all three repositories. In addition, USPTO showed the broadest representation in coverage in biomedical and electronics areas. The analysis of citations by technology field indicates that USPTO had a clear pattern of knowledge diffusion from highly cited fields to less cited fields, while EPO showed knowledge exchange mainly occurred among highly cited fields

  14. Trends in genetic patent applications: the commercialization of academic intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kers, Jannigje G; Van Burg, Elco; Stoop, Tom; Cornel, Martina C

    2014-10-01

    We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications data from the PATSTAT database from 1990 until 2009 were analyzed for time trends and regional distribution. Overall, the number of patent applications has been growing. In 2009, 152 000 patent applications were submitted under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and within the EP (European Patent) system of the European Patent Office (EPO). The number of genetic patent applications increased until a peak was reached in the year 2000, with >8000 applications, after which it declined by almost 50%. Continents show different patterns over time, with the global peak in 2000 mainly explained by the USA and Europe, while Asia shows a stable number of >1000 per year. Nine countries together account for 98.9% of the total number of genetic patent applications. In The Netherlands, 26.7% of the genetic patent applications originate from public research institutions. After the year 2000, the number of genetic patent applications dropped significantly. Academic leadership and policy as well as patent regulations seem to have an important role in the trend differences. The ongoing investment in genetic research in the past decade is not reflected by an increase of patent applications.

  15. Bring your own device (BYOD) to work trend report

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) to Work examines the emerging BYOD (Bring Your Own Device to work) trend in corporate IT. BYOD is the practice of employees bringing personally-owned mobile devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets, laptops) to the workplace, and using those devices to access company resources such as email, file servers, and databases. BYOD presents unique challenges in data privacy, confidentiality, security, productivity, and acceptable use that must be met proactively by information security professionals. This report provides solid background on the practice, original res

  16. Research Funding, Patent Search Training and Technology Transfer: a collaboration

    KAUST Repository

    Tyhurst, Janis

    2016-01-01

    This paper will focus on the collaboration efforts of three different university departments to create, teach and evaluate the benefits of a joint patent training series, as well as the future directions this collaboration will take. KAUST has as one of its goals the diversification of the Saudi economy. There is a strong focus at the university on developing entrepreneurial ideas and commercializing research done. The University Library supports this goal through the provision of electronic resources and introductory patent search training skills. However, the patent training class offered by the University Library is only one step in a process that faculty and students need when starting or taking their research to the next level. In the Fall of 2015, I met with representatives of the two major stakeholders in the patent arena, the office of Sponsored Research (OSR) and the Technology Transfer Office (TTO), to develop a patent training program to meet the needs of researchers. The OSR provides funding to researchers who have demonstrated that their ideas have merit with potential applications, the TTO works with researchers who are at the point of needing IP protection. The resulting discussion led us to collaborate on creating a workshop series that benefit the researcher’s information needs and each of our departments as well. In the first of the series of three 2 hour workshops, the Manager of TTO and the Lead Integrative Specialist from the OSR presented a workshop on an overview of Intellectual Property and the patenting process. These presentations focused on when and how to determine whether research is potentially patentable, why a researcher needs to protect his/her research and how to go about protecting it. The second workshop focused on introductory patent search skills and tools, how to expand a literature search to include the information found in patents, and how this kind of research will improve not only the literature search but the research

  17. Medical treatment methods, medical indication claims and patentability: A quest into the rationale of the exclusion and patentability in the context of the future of personalised medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bostyn, S.J.R.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses the thorny issue of the rationale of the exclusion from patentability of medical treatment methods and the patentability of medical indications. This quest is the consequence of our earlier findings that medical indication patents present a real life risk for many players

  18. Lessons from patents. Using patents to measure technological change in environmental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, David

    2005-01-01

    When studying solutions to long-term environmental problems such as climate change, it is important to consider the role that technological change may play. Nonetheless, to date few economic models of environmental policy explicitly model the link between policy and technological change. There is a growing body of evidence that the incentives offered by prices and environmental regulations have a strong influence on both the creation and adoption of new technologies. In several recent papers, I have used patent data to examine the links between environmental policy and technological change. In addition, I have used the results of this research to calibrate the ENTICE model (for ENdogenous Technological change) of climate change, which links energy-related R and D to changes in the price of carbon. Drawing on my experiences from empirical studies on innovation and from modeling the climate change problem, in this paper I review some of the key lessons from recent empirical work using patents to study environmental innovation and diffusion, and discuss its implications for modeling climate change policy. I conclude by offering suggestions for future research

  19. Bringing developing countries into the energy equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombier, M.; Loup, J.; Laponche, Bernard; Martin-Amouroux, Jean-Marie; Chateau, Bertrand; Heller, Thomas C.; Kieken, Hubert; Kleiche, Mustapha; Mathy, Sandrine; Hourcade, Jean-Charles; Goldemberg, Jose; Pizer, William A.

    2006-01-01

    This compilation of articles on energy and climate change is a selection of contributions to the first edition of Regards sur la Terre, an annual reference in French on the international dimension of sustainable development, launched on the initiative of the French development agency, AFD (Agence francaise de developpement) and the institute for sustainable development and international relations, IDDRI (Institut du developpement durable et des relations internationales), and published by Presses de Sciences Po (Paris) in November 2006. Regards sur la terre includes an analysis of the most important international meetings and events of the last 12 months in the field of sustainable development, along with a thematic report, which focuses this year on energy and climate change. For almost two hundred years, the economic development of industrialized countries has gone hand in hand with growing consumption of fossil fuels, first coal, then oil and gas. The oil shocks of the 1970's had already revealed the fragility of this model, without however generating any major changes. The disconnection observed in the 1980's between a rapid return to economic growth and stagnating energy consumption was only provisional, and energy demand in the richest countries has again been rising since the 1990's; the development of alternative energy sources (nuclear power and renewables) has remained marginal and has failed to dethrone fossil fuels on which, paradoxically, the economies of industrialized countries are even more dependent today than they were 20 years ago. But with the turn of the century came major developments in the global energy landscape following the emergence of new and hitherto marginal actors: the rapid economic development of emerging countries is also dependent on an increasing supply of energy. Today this growing demand adds to tension on the oil and gas market, where the poorest countries are also the first victims. It could give new impetus to the

  20. Development of an information retrieval tool for biomedical patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago; Rodrigues, Rúben; Costa, Hugo; Rocha, Miguel

    2018-06-01

    The volume of biomedical literature has been increasing in the last years. Patent documents have also followed this trend, being important sources of biomedical knowledge, technical details and curated data, which are put together along the granting process. The field of Biomedical text mining (BioTM) has been creating solutions for the problems posed by the unstructured nature of natural language, which makes the search of information a challenging task. Several BioTM techniques can be applied to patents. From those, Information Retrieval (IR) includes processes where relevant data are obtained from collections of documents. In this work, the main goal was to build a patent pipeline addressing IR tasks over patent repositories to make these documents amenable to BioTM tasks. The pipeline was developed within @Note2, an open-source computational framework for BioTM, adding a number of modules to the core libraries, including patent metadata and full text retrieval, PDF to text conversion and optical character recognition. Also, user interfaces were developed for the main operations materialized in a new @Note2 plug-in. The integration of these tools in @Note2 opens opportunities to run BioTM tools over patent texts, including tasks from Information Extraction, such as Named Entity Recognition or Relation Extraction. We demonstrated the pipeline's main functions with a case study, using an available benchmark dataset from BioCreative challenges. Also, we show the use of the plug-in with a user query related to the production of vanillin. This work makes available all the relevant content from patents to the scientific community, decreasing drastically the time required for this task, and provides graphical interfaces to ease the use of these tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.