WorldWideScience

Sample records for initial-final mass relationship

  1. The initial-final mass relationship of white dwarfs revisited: effect on the luminosity function and mass distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Catalan, S; García-Berro, E; Ribas, I

    2008-01-01

    The initial-final mass relationship connects the mass of a white dwarf with the mass of its progenitor in the main-sequence. Although this function is of fundamental importance to several fields in modern astrophysics, it is not well constrained either from the theoretical or the observational points of view. In this work we revise the present semi-empirical initial-final mass relationship by re-evaluating the available data. The distribution obtained from grouping all our results presents a considerable dispersion, which is larger than the uncertainties. We have carried out a weighted least-squares linear fit of these data and a careful analysis to give some clues on the dependence of this relationship on some parameters such as metallicity or rotation. The semi-empirical initial-final mass relationship arising from our study covers the range of initial masses from 1.0 to 6.5 M_sun, including in this way the low-mass domain, poorly studied until recently. Finally, we have also performed a test of the initial...

  2. The Initial-Final Mass Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, Jason; Hansen, Brad; Kelson, Daniel; Reitzel, David; Rich, Michael; Richer, Harvey

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that the stellar life cycle is dominated by queiscent phases such as the hydrogen-burning stage and the eventual remnant white dwarf cooling phase. However, between these two stages, stars dramatically transform themselves by losing the bulk of their mass. Planetary nebulae provide a powerful clue to the physical processes involved in this transformation, however, our understanding of the detailed phasing, dependency to metallicity and other properties, and total amount of the source mass loss is still highly uncertain. Over the past 10 years, a new wave of space- and ground-based imaging and spectroscopy programs have uncovered the remnants of the planetary nebula evolutionary stage, white dwarfs, in a wide range of well measured environments. With knowledge of the host stellar population properties (e.g., ages of star clusters), we can map the masses and temperatures of the stellar remnants to the properties of their progenitors. This work has now led to the first global mapping of the initial-final mass relation from 0.8 Msun to 6 Msun. The resulting relation is a fundamental input into our understanding of the stellar evolution process for low and intermediate-mass stars that produce planetary nebulae and has a wide range of applications to interpret stellar populations in distant galaxies.

  3. Semi-empirical white dwarf initial-final mass relationships: a thorough analysis of systematic uncertainties due to stellar evolution models

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, Maurizio; Weiss, Achim; Bertolami, Marcelo Miller

    2008-01-01

    Using the most recent results about white dwarfs in 10 open clusters, we revisit semi-empirical estimates of the initial-final mass relation in star clusters, with emphasis on the use of stellar evolution models. We discuss the influence of these models on each step of the derivation. One intention of our work is to use consistent sets of calculations both for the isochrones and the white dwarf cooling tracks. The second one is to derive the range of systematic errors arising from stellar evolution theory. This is achieved by using different sources for the stellar models and by varying physical assumptions and input data. We find that systematic errors, including the determination of the cluster age, are dominating the initial mass values, while observational uncertainties influence the final mass primarily. After having determined the systematic errors, the initial-final mass relation allows us finally to draw conclusions about the physics of the stellar models, in particular about convective overshooting.

  4. The Initial-Final Mass Relation and its Dependence with Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A. D.; Campos, F.; Kepler, S. O.

    2015-06-01

    We present a study of the low end of the initial-final mass relation and its dependence on metallicity. We computed a grid of full evolutionary models, from the Main Sequence, trough the Asymptotic Giant Branch phase, to low luminosity stages on the white dwarf cooling curve. We consider metallicity values from Z=0.0001 to Z=0.04 with initial masses between 0.8 and 3M⊙. We found that the spreading in the observations can be explained by means of different metallicities of the environment. We also found a strong dependence of the pre-white dwarf age with metallicity.

  5. Constraints on the Initial-Final Mass Relation from Wide Double White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Jeff J; Gianninas, A; Kilic, Mukremin; Dhital, Saurav; Anderson, Scott F

    2015-01-01

    We present observational constraints on the initial-final mass relation (IFMR) using wide double white dwarfs (DWDs). We identify 65 new candidate wide DWDs within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, bringing the number of candidate wide DWDs to 142. We then engage in a spectroscopic follow-up campaign and collect existing spectra for these objects; using these spectra, we derive masses and cooling ages for 54 hydrogen (DA) WDs in DWDs. We also identify one new DA/DB pair, four candidate DA/DC pairs, four candidate DA/DAH pairs, and one new candidate triple degenerate system. Because wide DWDs are co-eval and evolve independently, the difference in the pre-WD lifetimes should equal the difference in the WD cooling ages. We use this to develop a Bayesian hierarchical framework and construct a likelihood function to determine the probability that any particular IFMR fits a sample of wide DWDs. We then define a parametric model for the IFMR and find the best parameters indicated by our sample of DWDs. We place robust ...

  6. Two Massive White Dwarfs from NGC 2323 and the Initial-Final Mass Relation for Progenitors of 4 to 6.5 M$_\\odot$

    CERN Document Server

    Cummings, Jeffrey D; Tremblay, P -E; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    We have observed a sample of 10 white dwarf candidates in the rich open cluster NGC 2323 (M50) with the Keck Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer. The spectroscopy shows eight to be DA white dwarfs, with six of these having high S/N appropriate for our analysis. Two of these white dwarfs are consistent with singly evolved cluster membership, and both are high mass $\\sim$1.07 M$_\\odot$, and give equivalent progenitor masses of 4.69 M$_\\odot$. To supplement these new high-mass white dwarfs and analyze the initial-final mass relation (IFMR), we have also looked at 30 white dwarfs from publicly available data that are mostly all high-mass ($\\gtrsim$0.9 M$_\\odot$). These original published data exhibited significant scatter, and to test if this scatter is true or simply the result of systematics, we have uniformly analyzed the white dwarf spectra and have adopted thorough photometric techniques to derive uniform cluster parameters for their parent clusters. The resulting IFMR scatter is significantly reduced, argui...

  7. Probing The Lower Mass Limit for Supernova Progenitors and the High-Mass End of the Initial-Final Mass Relation from White Dwarfs in the Open Cluster M35 (NGC 2168)

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Kurtis A; Koester, Detlev

    2008-01-01

    We present a photometric and spectroscopic study of the white dwarf population of the populous, intermediate-age open cluster M35 (NGC 2168); this study expands upon our previous study of the white dwarfs in this cluster. We spectroscopically confirm 14 white dwarfs in the field of the cluster: 12 DAs, 1 hot DQ, and 1 DB star. For each DA, we determine the white dwarf mass and cooling age, from which we derive the each star's progenitor mass. These data are then added to the empirical initial-final mass relation (IFMR), where the M35 WDs contribute significantly to the high-mass end of the relation. The resulting points are consistent with previously-published linear fits to the IFMR, modulo moderate systematics introduced by the uncertainty in the star cluster age. Based on this cluster alone, the observational lower limit on the maximum mass of white dwarf progenitors is found to be ~5.1-5.2 solar masses at the 95% confidence level; including data from other young open clusters raises this limit as high as ...

  8. The evolution of the stellar mass versus halo mass relationship

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Peter; Baugh, Carlton; Cole, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the predictions made by the Galform semi-analytic galaxy formation model for the evolution of the relationship between stellar mass and halo mass. We show that for the standard implementations of supernova feedback and gas reincorporation used in semi-analytic models, this relationship is predicted to evolve weakly over the redshift range 0mass versus halo mass (SHM) relationship implicitly requires that, at fixed halo mass, the efficiency of stellar mass assembly must be almost constant with cosmic time. We show that in our model, this behaviour can be understood in simple terms as a result of a constant efficiency of gas reincorporation, and an efficiency of SNe feedback that is, on average, constant at fixed halo mass. We present a simple explanation of how feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) acts in our model to introduce a break in the SHM relation whose location is predicted to evolve only modestly. Finally, we show that...

  9. On Galaxy Mass-Radius Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindoni, D.; Secco, L.; Contini, E.; Caimmi, R.

    In the Clausius' virial maximum theory (TCV) [Secco and Bindoni, NewA 14, 567 (2009)] to explain the galaxy Fundamental Plane (FP) a natural explanation follows about the observed relationship between stellar mass and effective radius, M ∗ - r e , for early type galaxies (ETGs). The key of this correlation lies in the deep link which has to exist between cosmology and the existence of the FP. The general strategy consists in using the two-component tensor virial theorem to describe the virial configuration of the baryonic component of mass M B ≃ M ∗ embedded in a dark matter (DM) halo of mass M D at the end of relaxation phase. In a ΛCDM flat cosmology, starting from variance at equivalence epoch, we derive some preliminary theoretical relationships, M ∗ - r e , which are functions of mass ratio m = M D / M B . They appear to be in agreement with the trends extracted from the data of galaxy sample used by [Tortora et al., MNRAS 396, 1132 (2009)].

  10. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): The mass-metallicity relationship

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, C; Gunawardhana, M; Lara-Lopez, M A; Sharp, R G; Steele, O; Taylor, E N; Driver, S P; Baldryi, I K; Bamford, S P; Liske, J; Loveday, J; Norberg, P; Peacock, J A; Alpaslan, M; Bauer, A E; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Brough, S; Cameron, E; Colless, M; Conselice, C J; Croom, S M; Frenk, C S; Hill, D T; Jones, D H; Kelvin, L S; Kuijken, K; Nichol, R C; Owers, M S; Parkinson, H R; Pimbblet, K A; Popescu, C C; Prescott, M; Robotham, A S G; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Sutherland, W J; Thomas, D; Tuffs, R J; van Kampen, E; Wijesinghe, D

    2012-01-01

    Context: The mass-metallicity relationship (MMR) of star-forming galaxies is well-established, however there is still some disagreement with respect to its exact shape and its possible dependence on other observables. Aims: We measure the MMR in the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. We compare our measured MMR to that measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and study the dependence of the MMR on various selection criteria to identify potential causes for disparities seen in the literature. Methods: We use strong emission line ratio diagnostics to derive oxygen abundances. We then apply a range of selection criteria for the minimum signal-to-noise in various emission lines, as well as the apparent and absolute magnitude to study variations in the inferred MMR. Results: The shape and position of the MMR can differ significantly depending on the metallicity calibration and selection used. After selecting a robust metallicity calibration amongst those tested, we find that the mass-metallicity relati...

  11. Compulsive buying: relationship with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Marion, Brandee E

    2013-01-01

    Compulsive buying has historically been associated with various self-regulatory disturbances, including eating pathology (e.g., binge eating). Therefore, a relationship between scores on a measure of compulsive buying, the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood was hypothesized. Using a self-report survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of convenience of 373 obstetrics/gynecology patients, correlations between CBS scores and BMI, both generally and with regard to race were examined. A modest general correlation between CBS scores and BMI (r = 0.17, P compulsive buying is associated with increasing BMI in adulthood, particularly among Caucasian women. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  12. MASS-RADIUS RELATIONSHIPS FOR EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D. C.; Eggert, J. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Hamel, S.; Caspersen, K.; Schwegler, E.; Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California, CA 94550 (United States); Nettelmann, N. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Ackland, G. J. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions, School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-01

    For planets other than Earth, particularly exoplanets, interpretation of the composition and structure depends largely on comparing the mass and radius with the composition expected given their distance from the parent star. The composition implies a mass-radius relation which relies heavily on equations of state calculated from electronic structure theory and measured experimentally on Earth. We lay out a method for deriving and testing equations of state, and deduce mass-radius and mass-pressure relations for key, relevant materials whose equation of state (EOS) is reasonably well established, and for differentiated Fe/rock. We find that variations in the EOS, such as may arise when extrapolating from low-pressure data, can have significant effects on predicted mass-radius relations and on planetary pressure profiles. The relations are compared with the observed masses and radii of planets and exoplanets, broadly supporting recent inferences about exoplanet structures. Kepler-10b is apparently 'Earth-like', likely with a proportionately larger core than Earth's, nominally 2/3 of the mass of the planet. CoRoT-7b is consistent with a rocky mantle over an Fe-based core which is likely to be proportionately smaller than Earth's. GJ 1214b lies between the mass-radius curves for H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4}, suggesting an 'icy' composition with a relatively large core or a relatively large proportion of H{sub 2}O. CoRoT-2b is less dense than the hydrogen relation, which could be explained by an anomalously high degree of heating or by higher than assumed atmospheric opacity. HAT-P-2b is slightly denser than the mass-radius relation for hydrogen, suggesting the presence of a significant amount of matter of higher atomic number. CoRoT-3b lies close to the hydrogen relation. The pressure at the center of Kepler-10b is 1.5{sup +1.2}{sub -1.0} TPa. The central pressure in CoRoT-7b is probably close to 0.8 TPa, though may be up to 2 TPa. These

  13. Mass-radius relationships for exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Swift, Damian; Hicks, Damien; Hamel, Sebastien; Caspersen, Kyle; Schwegler, Eric; Collins, Gilbert; Ackland, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    For planets other than Earth, and in particular for exoplanets, interpretation of the composition and structure depends largely on a comparison of the mass and radius with the composition expected given their distance from the parent star. The composition implies a mass-radius relation for different layers within the planet, which is based heavily on equations of state calculated from electronic structure theory and measured experimentally on Earth. We summarize current techniques for predicting and measuring equations of state, and calculate mass-radius relations for key materials for which the equation of state is reasonably well established, and for Fe-rock combinations. The relations are compared with the observed masses and radii of planets and exoplanets, broadly supporting recent inferences about exoplanet structures. CoRoT-7b probably has a rocky mantle over an Fe-based core. The core is likely to be proportionately smaller than the Earth's. GJ 1214b lies between the mass-radius curves for H_2Oand CH_...

  14. Mass-radius relationships in icy satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, M. J.; Lewis, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    Using published laboratory data for H2O ice, a modeling technique was developed by which the bulk density, density and temperature profile, rotational moment of inertia, central pressure, and location of the rock-ice interface can all be obtained as a function of the radius, the heliocentric distance, and the silicate composition. Models of the interiors of Callisto, Ganymede, Europa, Rhea, and Titan are given, consistent with present mass and radius data. The radius and mass of spheres of ice under self-gravitation for two different temperature classes are given (103 and 77 deg K). Measurements of mass, radius and I/MR2 by spacecraft can be interpreted by this model to yield substantial information about the internal structure and the ice/rock ratio of the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn.

  15. Mass-radius relationships of rocky exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Sohl, F; Rauer, H

    2012-01-01

    Mass and radius of planets transiting their host stars are provided by radial velocity and photometric observations. Structural models of solid exoplanet interiors are then constructed by using equations of state for the radial density distribution, which are compliant with the thermodynamics of the high-pressure limit. However, to some extent those structural models suffer from inherent degeneracy or non-uniqueness problems owing to a principal lack of knowledge of the internal differentiation state and/or the possible presence of an optically thick atmosphere. We here discuss the role of corresponding measurement errors, which adversely affect determinations of a planet's mean density and bulk chemical composition. Precise measurements of planet radii will become increasingly important as key observational constraints for radial density models of individual solid low-mass exoplanets or super-Earths.

  16. Lean Manufacturing, Mass Customization and their relationships - empirical findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    2004-01-01

    manufacturing companies in 2001-02. This study fills a void in existing research by exploring relationships between bundles of lean manufacturing practices and bundles of mass customization practices. This study is based on a questionnaire that is developed from two existing questionnaires each investigating...... bundles of lean manufacturing practices and bundles of mass customization practices separately. Here, these bundles of practices are related. The results indicate that there are no direct relationships between the lean manufacturing and the mass customization practices, but that the combination of some...... sets of practices can explain differences in performance on important dimensions. The general conclusion, however, is that there are only weak relationships between the two concepts, hence this study suggests that the concepts of lean manufacturing and mass customization at present are more mutually...

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth; Vincze, Orsolya; McCann, Ria; Jonsson, Carl H W; Palmer, Colin; Kaiser, Gary; Dyke, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Total body mass (TBM) is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils). This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs). Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths.

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Martin-Silverstone

    Full Text Available Total body mass (TBM is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils. This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs. Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths.

  19. 77 FR 40893 - U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Final Stakeholder Assessment and Multi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ....S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Final Stakeholder Assessment and Multi-Stakeholder... (CBI), to conduct a stakeholder assessment as part of the U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency... regarding options for forming a U.S. multi-stakeholder group that will be responsible for determining...

  20. Relationship between body fat mass and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecki, Michał; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2010-09-01

    The protective effect of obesity on bone tissue has not been unequivocally demonstrated. On one hand, it is known that obese people have a lower risk of osteoporotic fractures compared with normal-weight individuals. On the other hand, obese patients are characterized by disorders of calcium-phosphate homeostasis and bone metabolism. Moreover, it is not known whether it is fat or lean body mass that determines the development of bone mass. It can be assumed that adipose tissue exerts independent effects on bone remodeling by releasing a number of biologically active substances. Moreover, it seems that the main mechanism of action of these substances is closely related to the type and location of adipose tissue in the body. The present article describes the relationship between fat and bones, including the effect of body weight on bone tissue, the local mechanisms of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation, and the hormonal activity of adipose tissue.

  1. The relationship between the prestellar core mass function and the stellar initial mass function

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Simon P; Kroupa, Pavel; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Whitworth, Anthony P

    2007-01-01

    Stars form from dense molecular cores, and the mass function of these cores (the CMF) is often found to be similar to the form of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). This suggests that the form of the IMF is the result of the form of the CMF. However, most stars are thought to form in binary and multiple systems, therefore the relationship between the IMF and the CMF cannot be trivial. We test two star formation scenarios - one in which all stars form as binary or triple systems, and one in which low-mass stars form in a predominantly single mode. We show that from a log-normal CMF, similar to those observed, and expected on theoretical grounds, the model in which all stars form as multiples gives a better fit to the IMF.

  2. Neutron star kicks and their relationship to supernovae ejecta mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, J. C.; Eldridge, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    We propose a simple model to explain the velocity of young neutron stars. We attempt to confirm a relationship between the amount of mass ejected in the formation of the neutron star and the `kick' velocity imparted to the compact remnant resulting from the process. We assume that the velocity is given by vkick = α (Mejecta/Mremnant) + β . To test this simple relationship, we use the BPASS (Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis) code to create stellar population models from both single and binary star evolutionary pathways. We then use our Remnant Ejecta and Progenitor Explosion Relationship (REAPER) code to apply different α and β values, and three different `kick' orientations then record the resulting velocity probability distributions. We find that while a single star population provides a poor fit to the observational data, the binary population provides an excellent fit. Values of α = 70 km s-1 and β = 110 km s-1 reproduce the Hobbs et al. observed two-dimensional velocities, and α = 70 km s-1 and β = 120 km s-1 reproduce their inferred three-dimensional velocity distribution for nearby single neutron stars with ages less than 3 Myr. After testing isotropic, spin-axis aligned and orthogonal to spin-axis `kick' orientations, we find no statistical preference for a `kick' orientation. While ejecta mass cannot be the only factor that determines the velocity of supernova compact remnants, we suggest that it is a significant contributor and that the ejecta-based `kick' should replace the Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution currently used in many population synthesis codes.

  3. Neutron Star Kicks and their Relationship to Supernovae Ejecta Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Bray, J C

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple model to explain the velocity of young neutron stars. We attempt to confirm a relationship between the amount of mass ejected in the formation of the neutron star and the `kick' velocity imparted to the compact remnant resulting from the process. We assume the velocity is given by $v_{\\rm kick}=\\alpha\\,(M_{\\rm ejecta} / M_{\\rm remnant}) + \\beta\\,$. To test this simple relationship we use the BPASS (Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis) code to create stellar population models from both single and binary star evolutionary pathways. We then use our Remnant Ejecta and Progenitor Explosion Relationship (REAPER) code to apply different $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ values and three different `kick' orientations then record the resulting velocity probability distributions. We find that while a single star population provides a poor fit to the observational data, the binary population provides an excellent fit. Values of $\\alpha=70\\, {\\rm km\\,s^{-1}}$ and $\\beta=110\\,{\\rm km\\,s^{-1}}$ reproduce the \\c...

  4. Relationship of EUV Irradiance Coronal Dimming Slope and Depth to Coronal Mass Ejection Speed and Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, James Paul; Woods, Thomas N.; Webb, David F.; Thompson, Barbara J.; Colaninno, Robin C.; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2016-10-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coronal dimmings are often observed in response to solar eruptive events. These phenomena can be generated via several different physical processes. For space weather, the most important of these is the temporary void left behind by a coronal mass ejection (CME). Massive, fast CMEs tend to leave behind a darker void that also usually corresponds to minimum irradiance for the cooler coronal emissions. If the dimming is associated with a solar flare, as is often the case, the flare component of the irradiance light curve in the cooler coronal emission can be isolated and removed using simultaneous measurements of warmer coronal lines. We apply this technique to 37 dimming events identified during two separate two-week periods in 2011 plus an event on 2010 August 7, analyzed in a previous paper to parameterize dimming in terms of depth and slope. We provide statistics on which combination of wavelengths worked best for the flare-removal method, describe the fitting methods applied to the dimming light curves, and compare the dimming parameters with corresponding CME parameters of mass and speed. The best linear relationships found are \\begin{eqnarray*}{v}{CME} ≤ft[\\displaystyle \\frac{{km}}{{{s}}}\\right] & ≈ & 2.36× {10}6 ≤ft[\\displaystyle \\frac{{km}}{ % }\\right]× {s}\\dim ≤ft[\\displaystyle \\frac{ % }{{{s}}}\\right]\\ {m}{CME} [{{g}}] & ≈ & 2.59× {10}15≤ft[\\displaystyle \\frac{g}{ % }\\right]× \\sqrt{{d}\\dim } [ % ].\\end{eqnarray*} These relationships could be used for space weather operations of estimating CME mass and speed using near-real-time irradiance dimming measurements.

  5. The Relationship of Coronal Mass Ejections to Streamers

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, P; Rich, N B; Howard, R A; Subramanian, Prasad

    1999-01-01

    We have examined images from the Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) to study the relationship of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) to coronal streamers. We wish to test the suggestion (Low 1996) that CMEs arise from flux ropes embedded in a streamer erupting, thus disrupting the streamer. The data span a period of two years near sunspot minimum through a period of increased activity as sunspot numbers increased. We have used LASCO data from the C2 coronagraph which records Thomson scattered white light from coronal electrons at heights between 1.5 and 6R_sun. Maps of the coronal streamers have been constructed from LASCO C2 observations at a height of 2.5R_sun at the east and west limbs. We have superposed the corresponding positions of CMEs observed with the C2 coronagraph onto the synoptic maps. We identified the different kinds of signatures CMEs leave on the streamer structure at this height (2.5R_sun). We find four types of CMEs with respect to their effect on streamers: 1. CMEs that disrupt the s...

  6. Relationship of Migraine and Body Mass Index (BMI)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammed Momenuzzaman Khan; Md Nazmul Huda; Manabendra Bhattacharjee; Md Jalal Uddin; Mustofa Kamal Uddin Khan

    2016-01-01

    ...: This study was performed to assess the relationship between BMI and migraine by finding out the relationship between migraine frequency and duration in different BMI groups, comparing the socio...

  7. Empirical Constraints on the Evolution of the Relationship between Black Hole and Galaxy Mass: Scatter Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Rachel S.

    2009-01-01

    I investigate whether useful constraints on the evolution of the relationship between galaxy mass and black hole (BH) mass can be obtained from recent measurements of galaxy stellar mass functions and QSO bolometric luminosity functions at high redshift. I assume a simple power-law relationship between galaxy mass and BH mass, as implied by BH mass measurements at low redshift, and consider only evolution in the zero-point of the relation. I argue that one can obtain a lower limit on the zero...

  8. 49 CFR 173.434 - Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... natural thorium. 173.434 Section 173.434 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....434 Activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium. The table of activity-mass relationships for uranium and natural thorium are as follows: Thorium and uranium enrichment 1(Wt% 235 U...

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MASS OF NEWLY HATCHED INDIVIDUALS AND COCOON MASS IN LUMBRICID EARTHWORMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Marianne; Bjerre, Arne

    1991-01-01

    Earthworm cocoons from laboratory cultures were collected and their mass was determined. When hatched, the mass of the young worms was found. Cocoon mass and the mass of hatchlings varied considerably within species. The hygromass of newly hatched earthworms was found to correlate linearly...

  10. Lean Manufacturing, Mass Customization and their relationships - empirical findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    2004-01-01

    The concepts of lean manufacturing and mass customization both depart from the paradigm of mass production and are suggested as new paradigms of manufacturing, however they differ conceptually and practically. Conceptually, it is debatable whether the concepts are mutually exclusive or supportive...... and from a practical point of view their maturity differs, i.e., lean manufacturing has a toolbox inherited from the JIT-age, a mapping tool “Value stream mapping” and a set of guiding principles, while mass customization is not developed to the same extent, and is still more a business concept than...... a manufacturing concept. A number of conceptual articles have discussed similarities and differences between the concepts of lean manufacturing and mass customization, however very few have investigated this quantitatively. This article describes the results of a survey conducted amongst some 75 Danish...

  11. Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fola

    The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between SES and obesity and determine ... acceptable weight for a particular person, based on the ... World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, based on ... is often perceived as a cosmetic problem in adults, is .... concurrent-criterion validity was obtained ® = -0.951, P <.

  12. Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between SES and obesity and ... (SE) variables such as income, education and occupation was used to objectively ... Individuals in the lower SES had higher rates of overweight (24.8%) and ...

  13. Mass-radius relationships in icy satellites after Voyager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Using improved data for the masses and radii of the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, models accounting for self-compression effects are presented for the interiors of Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Rhea, and Titan. For the differentiated models, two different possible scenarios for heat transport are treated, as well as two different compositions for the silicate component. Undifferentiated models are also treated. In each case, the models of Ganymede, Callisto, and Titan show noticeable similarities. It is found that estimates of the ice-rock ratio are dependent upon the assumptions made about the heat transport mechanisms, the rock composition, and on the distribution of rock and ice in the satellite's interior.

  14. A Relationship between Supermassive Black Hole Mass and the Total Gravitational Mass of the Host Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Bandara, Kaushala; Simard, Luc

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the correlation between the mass of a central supermassive black hole and the total gravitational mass of the host galaxy (M_tot). The results are based on 43 galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses from the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey whose black hole masses were estimated through two scaling relations: the relation between black hole mass and Sersic index (M_bh - n) and the relation between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion (M_bh - sigma). We use the enclosed mass within R_200, the radius within which the density profile of the early type galaxy exceeds the critical density of the Universe by a factor of 200, determined by gravitational lens models fitted to HST imaging data, as a tracer of the total gravitational mass. The best fit correlation, where M_bh is determined from M_bh - sigma relation, is log(M_bh) = (8.18 +/- 0.11) + (1.55 +/- 0.31) (log(M_tot) - 13.0) over 2 orders of magnitude in M_bh. From a variety of tests, we find that we cannot reliably infer a connection ...

  15. Lean Mass and Fat Mass as Mediators of the Relationship Between Physical Activity and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jing; Chen, Yongjie; Wang, Yupeng; Su, Shaofei; Wang, Xinyu; Xie, Biao; Zhang, Qiuju; Liu, Meina

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between physical activity (PA) and bone health is well known, but the role of lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) in this relationship remains uncertain. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of LM and FM on the relationship between PA and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study involved 282 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 65 year, who were randomly selected from Hongqi community of Harbin City in China. PA was measured using an International PA Questionnaire. Body composition, BMD of the lumbar spine, hip, and total body were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Mediation analysis was performed to investigate the mediating effect of LM and FM on the relationship between PA and BMD. In partial correlation analysis, PA, LM, and FM were positively related to BMD. Positive correlation was found between PA and LM. There were significant differences in BMD between different categories of PA, but the differences disappeared after adjusting for LM. Mediation analysis showed that LM and FM played a mediating role in the relationship between PA and BMD. LM appeared to mediate the effect of BMD in the spine, hip, and total body by 26.91%, 19.55% and 47.98%, respectively; and FM was 22.23%, 27.97%, and 33.02%, respectively. LM and FM affected the relationship between PA and BMD as mediator. Postmenopausal women with high LM and FM had more BMD.

  16. Heat-And-Mass Transfer Relationship to Determine Shear Stress in Tubular Membrane Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Nopens, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    to remove particulates due to the high shear rates and high mass transfer between the membrane surface and the bulk region. However, to calculate the mass transfer coefficient in an efficient and accurate way is not straightforward. Indeed, for accurate determination, numerous complex experimental...... measurements are required. Therefore, this work proposes an alternative method that uses already existing heat transfer relationships for two phase flow and links them through a dimensionless number to the mass transfer coefficient (Sherwood number) to obtain an empirical relationship which can be used...

  17. Constraints on the evolution of the relationship between HI mass and halo mass in the last 12 Gyr

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Hamsa

    2016-01-01

    The neutral hydrogen (HI) content of dark matter haloes forms an intermediate state in the baryon cycle that connects the hot shock-heated gas and cold star-forming gas in haloes. Measurement of the relationship between HI mass and halo mass therefore puts important constraints on galaxy formation models. We combine radio observations of HI in emission at low redshift ($z\\sim 0$) with optical/UV observations of HI in absorption at high redshift ($1mass halo-mass (HIHM) relation from redshift $z=4$ to $z=0$. We model the evolution of the HIHM relation in a manner similar to that of the stellar-halo mass (SHM) relation. Combining this parameterisation with a redshift- and mass-dependent modified Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile for the HI density within a halo, we draw constraints on the evolution of the HIHM relation from the observed HI column density, incidence rate, and clustering bias at high redshift. We find that the peak HI mass fraction mod...

  18. Solution viscosity – molar mass relationships for poly(butylene succinate and discussion on molar mass analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Charlier

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Poly(butylene succinate (PBS is currently developing due to its biodegradability and the similarity of its mechanical properties to those of polyolefins. Relationships between the number average molar mass, Mn, and solution viscosity such as [η] and ηred were derived for this aliphatic polyester. Mn values were determined by end-group analysis and size exclusion chromatography (SEC. Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS parameters were proposed in two solvents and for the different molar masses and viscosity measurement methods. As an example, the MHS equations were respectively, [η] =6.4•10–4•Mn0.67 in chloroform and [η] = 7.1•10–4•Mn0.69 in 50/50 wt% 1,2-dichlorobenzene/phenol at 25°C for molar masses measured by SEC in hexafluoro isopropanol (HFIP with poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA standards. Empirical relationships were also suggested to derive Mn directly from reduced viscosity, ηred, which is much easier to determine than intrinsic viscosity. With these data, the number average molar mass of PBS can be conveniently estimated from a single viscosity measurement. In addition, it was shown that PBS contains 1–2 wt% of cyclic oligomers produced during esterification and that molar masses determined by taking this fraction into account or not were significantly different, especially for long chains.

  19. A universal scaling relationship between body mass and proximal limb bone dimensions in quadrupedal terrestrial tetrapods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campione Nicolás E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body size is intimately related to the physiology and ecology of an organism. Therefore, accurate and consistent body mass estimates are essential for inferring numerous aspects of paleobiology in extinct taxa, and investigating large-scale evolutionary and ecological patterns in the history of life. Scaling relationships between skeletal measurements and body mass in birds and mammals are commonly used to predict body mass in extinct members of these crown clades, but the applicability of these models for predicting mass in more distantly related stem taxa, such as non-avian dinosaurs and non-mammalian synapsids, has been criticized on biomechanical grounds. Here we test the major criticisms of scaling methods for estimating body mass using an extensive dataset of mammalian and non-avian reptilian species derived from individual skeletons with live weights. Results Significant differences in the limb scaling of mammals and reptiles are noted in comparisons of limb proportions and limb length to body mass. Remarkably, however, the relationship between proximal (stylopodial limb bone circumference and body mass is highly conserved in extant terrestrial mammals and reptiles, in spite of their disparate limb postures, gaits, and phylogenetic histories. As a result, we are able to conclusively reject the main criticisms of scaling methods that question the applicability of a universal scaling equation for estimating body mass in distantly related taxa. Conclusions The conserved nature of the relationship between stylopodial circumference and body mass suggests that the minimum diaphyseal circumference of the major weight-bearing bones is only weakly influenced by the varied forces exerted on the limbs (that is, compression or torsion and most strongly related to the mass of the animal. Our results, therefore, provide a much-needed, robust, phylogenetically corrected framework for accurate and consistent estimation of body mass in

  20. The Role of Mass Media in Iranian Youth’s Premarital Sexual Relationships: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Taleghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Youth’s sexual behaviors have various consequences such as unwanted pregnancy, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infections. Little information is available about the impact of mass media in the development of premarital sexual relationships. This study aimed to explore the role of mass media on premarital sexual relationships among Iranian youth. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted with 26 single boys and girls aged 18-24 years who were living in Isfahan, Iran and have already been started their sexual relationships. Also, 12 other participants who were involved in such an experience were recruited in this study. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews and the observation of youth’s sexual interactions in different fields. Conventional content analysis method was used for data analysis. Results: Three main categories were developed: “foreigner media as the role model”, “the ease of access to sexual contents and materials” and “the ease of interactions and relationships with the opposite sex”. Conclusion: The prominent role of mass media in the formation of premarital sexual relationships was described in this study. This issue needs to be taken into consideration by policy makers for taking necessary actions for reducing the impact of mass media on the youth’s engagement in premarital sexual relationships

  1. Exploring the Relationship Between Planet Mass and Atmospheric Metallicity for Cool Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nancy H.; Wong, Ian; Knutson, Heather; Deming, Drake; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Morley, Caroline; Kammer, Joshua A.; Line, Michael R.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of the average densities of exoplanets have begun to help constrain their bulk compositions and to provide insight into their formation locations and accretionary histories. Current mass and radius measurements suggest an inverse relationship between a planet's bulk metallicity and its mass, a relationship also seen in the gas and ice giant planets of our own solar system. We expect atmospheric metallicity to similarly increase with decreasing planet mass, but there are currently few constraints on the atmospheric metallicities of extrasolar giant planets. For hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, equilibrium chemistry models predict a transition from CO to CH4 below ~1200 K. However, with increased atmospheric metallicity the relative abundance of CH4 is depleted and CO is enhanced. In this study we present new secondary eclipse observations of a set of cool (planet mass and atmospheric metallicity as predicted by the core accretion models and observed in our solar system.

  2. Density-body mass relationships: Inconsistent intercontinental patterns among termite feeding-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsjö, Cecilia A. L.; Parr, Catherine L.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Meir, Patrick; Rahman, Homathevi; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Allometric relationships are useful for estimating and understanding resource distribution in assemblages with species of different masses. Damuth's law states that body mass scales with population density as M-0.75, where M is body mass and -0.75 is the slope. In this study we used Damuth's law (M-0.75) as a null hypothesis to examine the relationship between body mass and population density for termite feeding-groups in three different countries and regions (Cameroon, West Africa; Peru South America; and Malaysia SE Asia). We found that none of the feeding-groups had a relationship where M-0.75 while the data suggested that population density-body mass relationships for true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon (M2.7) and wood-feeding termites in Peru (M1.5) were significantly different from the expected values given by Damuth's law. The dominance of large-bodied true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon and the absence of fungus-growing termites from Peru suggest that these allometric patterns are due to heterogeneities in termite biogeographical evolution. Additionally, as these feeding-groups have higher population density than expected by their body masses it may be suggested that they also have a higher energy throughput than expected. The results presented here may be used to gain further understanding of resource distribution among termite feeding-groups across regions and an insight into the importance of evolutionary history and biogeography on allometric patterns. Further understanding of population density-body mass relationships in termite feeding-groups may also improve understanding of the role these feeding-groups play in ecosystem processes in different regions.

  3. Determining Central Black Hole Masses in Distant Active Galaxies and Quasars. II. Improved Optical and UV Scaling Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Peterson, B. M.

    2006-01-01

    We present four improved empirical relationships useful for estimating the central black hole mass in nearby AGNs and distant luminous quasars alike using either optical or UV single-epoch spectroscopy. These mass-scaling relationships between line widths and luminosity are based on recently...... estimate that the absolute uncertainties in masses given by these mass-scaling relationships are typically around a factor of 4. We include in an Appendix mass estimates for all the Bright Quasar Survey (PG) quasars for which direct reverberation-based mass measurements are not available....

  4. Defining and Detecting Complex Peak Relationships in Mass Spectral Data: The Mz.unity Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Nathaniel G; Spalding, Jonathan L; Gelman, Susan J; Patti, Gary J

    2016-09-20

    Analysis of a single analyte by mass spectrometry can result in the detection of more than 100 degenerate peaks. These degenerate peaks complicate spectral interpretation and are challenging to annotate. In mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, this degeneracy leads to inflated false discovery rates, data sets containing an order of magnitude more features than analytes, and an inefficient use of resources during data analysis. Although software has been introduced to annotate spectral degeneracy, current approaches are unable to represent several important classes of peak relationships. These include heterodimers and higher complex adducts, distal fragments, relationships between peaks in different polarities, and complex adducts between features and background peaks. Here we outline sources of peak degeneracy in mass spectra that are not annotated by current approaches and introduce a software package called mz.unity to detect these relationships in accurate mass data. Using mz.unity, we find that data sets contain many more complex relationships than we anticipated. Examples include the adduct of glutamate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), fragments of NAD detected in the same or opposite polarities, and the adduct of glutamate and a background peak. Further, the complex relationships we identify show that several assumptions commonly made when interpreting mass spectral degeneracy do not hold in general. These contributions provide new tools and insight to aid in the annotation of complex spectral relationships and provide a foundation for improved data set identification. Mz.unity is an R package and is freely available at https://github.com/nathaniel-mahieu/mz.unity as well as our laboratory Web site http://pattilab.wustl.edu/software/ .

  5. Scaling relationships between leaf mass and total plant mass across Chinese forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Xu

    Full Text Available Biomass partitioning is important for illustrating terrestrial ecosystem carbon flux. West, Brown and Enquist (WBE model predicts that an optimal 3/4 allometric scaling of leaf mass and total biomass of individual plants will be applied in diverse communities. However, amount of scientific evidence suggests an involvement of some biological and environmental factors in interpreting the variation of scaling exponent observed in empirical studies. In this paper, biomass information of 1175 forested communities in China was collected and categorized into groups in terms of leaf form and function, as well as their locations to test whether the allocation pattern was conserved or variable with internal and/or environmental variations. Model Type II regression protocol was adopted to perform all the regressions. The results empirically showed that the slopes varied significantly across diverse forested biomes, between conifer and broadleaved forests, and between evergreen and deciduous forests. Based on the results, leaf form and function and their relations to environments play a significant role in the modification of the WBE model to explore more accurate laws in nature.

  6. Relationship of EUV Irradiance Coronal Dimming Slope and Depth to Coronal Mass Ejection Speed and Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, James Paul; Webb, David F; Thompson, Barbara J; Colaninno, Robin C; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2016-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coronal dimmings are often observed in response to solar eruptive events. These phenomena can be generated via several different physical processes. For space weather, the most important of these is the temporary void left behind by a coronal mass ejection (CME). Massive, fast CMEs tend to leave behind a darker void that also usually corresponds to minimum irradiance for the cooler coronal emissions. If the dimming is associated with a solar flare, as is often the case, the flare component of the irradiance light curve in the cooler coronal emission can be isolated and removed using simultaneous measurements of warmer coronal lines. We apply this technique to 37 dimming events identified during two separate two-week periods in 2011, plus an event on 2010 August 7 analyzed in a previous paper, to parameterize dimming in terms of depth and slope. We provide statistics on which combination of wavelengths worked best for the flare-removal method, describe the fitting methods applied to t...

  7. Productivity affects the density-body mass relationship of soil fauna communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comor, V.N.R.; Thakur, M.P.; Berg, M.P.; Bie, de S.; Prins, H.H.T.; Langevelde, van F.

    2014-01-01

    The productivity of ecosystems and their disturbance regime affect the structure of animal communities. However, it is not clear which trophic levels benefit the most from higher productivity or are the most impacted by disturbance. The density-body mass (DBM) relationship has been shown to reflect

  8. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  9. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  10. Relationships between Illicit Drug Use and Body Mass Index among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Sarah R.; Herrmann, Lynn K.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has established associations between body mass index (BMI) and use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, little research has been done investigating the relationship between other common illicit drugs and BMI trends. The present study investigated whether adolescents who reported using illicit drugs showed differences in BMI…

  11. An explanation of the relationship between mass, metabolic rate and characteristic length for placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Frasier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mass, Metabolism and Length Explanation (MMLE was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and body mass for birds and mammals. This paper reports on a modernized version of MMLE. MMLE deterministically computes the absolute value of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR and body mass for individual animals. MMLE is thus distinct from other examinations of these topics that use species-averaged data to estimate the parameters in a statistically best fit power law relationship such as BMR = a(bodymassb. Beginning with the proposition that BMR is proportional to the number of mitochondria in an animal, two primary equations are derived that compute BMR and body mass as functions of an individual animal’s characteristic length and sturdiness factor. The characteristic length is a measureable skeletal length associated with an animal’s means of propulsion. The sturdiness factor expresses how sturdy or gracile an animal is. Eight other parameters occur in the equations that vary little among animals in the same phylogenetic group. The present paper modernizes MMLE by explicitly treating Froude and Strouhal dynamic similarity of mammals’ skeletal musculature, revising the treatment of BMR and using new data to estimate numerical values for the parameters that occur in the equations. A mass and length data set with 575 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea is used. A BMR and mass data set with 436 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Carnivora is also used. With the estimated parameter values MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every BMR and mass datum from the BMR and mass data set can be computed exactly. Furthermore MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every body mass and length datum from the mass and length data set can be computed exactly. Whether or

  12. An explanation of the relationship between mass, metabolic rate and characteristic length for placental mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Mass, Metabolism and Length Explanation (MMLE) was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and body mass for birds and mammals. This paper reports on a modernized version of MMLE. MMLE deterministically computes the absolute value of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and body mass for individual animals. MMLE is thus distinct from other examinations of these topics that use species-averaged data to estimate the parameters in a statistically best fit power law relationship such as BMR = a(bodymass)b. Beginning with the proposition that BMR is proportional to the number of mitochondria in an animal, two primary equations are derived that compute BMR and body mass as functions of an individual animal’s characteristic length and sturdiness factor. The characteristic length is a measureable skeletal length associated with an animal’s means of propulsion. The sturdiness factor expresses how sturdy or gracile an animal is. Eight other parameters occur in the equations that vary little among animals in the same phylogenetic group. The present paper modernizes MMLE by explicitly treating Froude and Strouhal dynamic similarity of mammals’ skeletal musculature, revising the treatment of BMR and using new data to estimate numerical values for the parameters that occur in the equations. A mass and length data set with 575 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea is used. A BMR and mass data set with 436 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Carnivora is also used. With the estimated parameter values MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every BMR and mass datum from the BMR and mass data set can be computed exactly. Furthermore MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every body mass and length datum from the mass and length data set can be computed exactly. Whether or not MMLE can

  13. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L.; Newton, Robert U.

    2016-01-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key points Accurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance. Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower

  14. Bias in C IV-based quasar black hole mass scaling relationships from reverberation mapped samples

    CERN Document Server

    Brotherton, Michael S; Shang, Zhaohui; DiPompeo, M A

    2015-01-01

    The masses of the black holes powering quasars represent a fundamental parameter of active galaxies. Estimates of quasar black hole masses using single-epoch spectra are quite uncertain, and require quantitative improvement. We recently identified a correction for C IV $\\lambda$1549-based scaling relationships used to estimate quasar black hole masses that relies on the continuum-subtracted peak flux ratio of the ultraviolet emission-line blend Si IV + OIV] (the $\\lambda$1400 feature) to that of C IV. This parameter correlates with the suite of associated quasar spectral properties collectively known as "Eigenvector 1" (EV1). Here we use a sample of 85 quasars with quasi-simultaneous optical-ultraviolet spectrophotometry to demonstrate how biases in the average EV1 properties can create systematic biases in C IV-based black hole mass scaling relationships. This effect results in nearly an order of magnitude moving from objects with small $$, which have overestimated black hole masses, to objects with large $$...

  15. The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Periodontitis in Arab Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Manal; Rahman, Betul; Hasan, Haidar; Ali, Houssam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our study sought to evaluate the association between periodontitis and body mass index (BMI) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  Methods In this cross-sectional case control study analysis of 186 diabetic patients, 112 patients had a body mass index ≥30kg/m2 and 74 control patients had BMI diabetes mellitus, there was no association between periodontitis and BMI. More studies are needed to further explore this relationship taking into consideration additional lifestyle factors. PMID:25829999

  16. The Relationship between Lean Mass and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Elderly and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau-Moeller, Anett; Bruhn, Sven; Bader, Rainer; Behrens, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and function. The twitch torque evoked by supramaximal electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves has been frequently used to analyse age-related modulations at the skeletal muscle level, such as changes in muscle mass. However, only one study has investigated the association between twitch contractile properties and skeletal muscle mass. A significant positive correlation between cross-sectional area and twitch parameters was found for the plantar flexors in young adults when using supramaximal doublet stimulation. It remains unclear whether this relationship exists for the quadriceps in elderly and young subjects when using single and doublet stimulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the lean mass of the thigh and evoked twitch properties of the quadriceps using single and doublet stimulation in two age groups. Fifteen young (aged 25.3 ± 3.6 years) and 15 elderly (aged 69.6 ± 3.1 years) subjects were recruited to participate in this study. The lean mass of the thigh was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Supramaximal single and doublet electrical stimulation was used to assess the contractile properties of the quadriceps. We observed no significant associations between lean mass and contractile properties when using single stimulation. Significant positive correlations were shown between lean mass and peak twitch torque evoked by doublet stimulation in young (r = 0.56; p = 0.030) and elderly (r = 0.54; p = 0.040) subjects. The analysis of twitch time and slope parameters demonstrated no significant correlations with lean mass. The peak twitch torque evoked by doublet electrical stimulation seems to be an appropriate measure to assess modulations in muscle mass in elderly and young subjects. The use of supramaximal single stimulation and the analysis of time and slope parameters may not be recommended for estimating changes in muscle mass

  17. Allometric relationship between changes of visceral fat and total fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallgreen, C. E.; Hall, K. D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the mathematical relationship between changes of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total body fat mass (FM) during weight loss. Design: We hypothesized that changes of VAT mass are allometrically related to changes of FM, regardless of the type of weight-loss intervention...... 1407 men and women of various ethnicities, degrees of adiposity and weight-loss interventions. The hypothesized allometric equation relating changes of VAT and FM accurately modeled the data for both men and women and for all methods of weight loss studied. The best-fit value for the dimensionless...... constant was k=1.3±0.1 and the resulting model had an R 2=0.73. Conclusion: This is the first report to reveal an allometric relationship between changes of VAT and FM that holds for both genders as well as a wide variety of weight-loss interventions including bariatric surgery, caloric restriction...

  18. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...... of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ~0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH vprop L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall...

  19. Relationship between changes in haemoglobin mass and maximal oxygen uptake after hypoxic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Philo U; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Schmidt, Walter F; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    Endurance athletes have been using altitude training for decades to improve near sea-level performance. The predominant mechanism is thought to be accelerated erythropoiesis increasing haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) resulting in a greater maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂(max)). Not all studies have shown a proportionate increase in VO₂(max) as a result of increased Hb(mass). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the two parameters in a large group of endurance athletes after altitude training. 145 elite endurance athletes (94 male and 51 female) who participated in various altitude studies as altitude or control participants were used for the analysis. Participants performed Hb(mass) and VO₂(max) testing before and after intervention. For the pooled data, the correlation between per cent change in Hb(mass) and per cent change in VO₂(max) was significant (pmax) of more than half the magnitude of the increase in Hb(mass), which supports the use of altitude training by athletes. But race performance is not perfectly related to relative VO₂(max), and other non-haematological factors altered from altitude training, such as running economy and lactate threshold, may also be beneficial to performance.

  20. THE BLACK HOLE MASS-GALAXY LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salviander, S.; Shields, G. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Bonning, E. W., E-mail: triples@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: shields@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: erin.bonning@emory.edu [Department of Physics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the relationship between the mass of the central supermassive black hole, M {sub BH}, and the host galaxy luminosity, L {sub gal}, in a sample of quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We use composite quasar spectra binned by black hole mass and redshift to assess galaxy features that would otherwise be overwhelmed by noise in individual spectra. The black hole mass is calculated using the photoionization method, and the host galaxy luminosity is inferred from the depth of the Ca II H+K features in the composite spectra. We evaluate the evolution in the M {sub BH}-L {sub gal} relationship by examining the redshift dependence of Δ log M {sub BH}, the offset in M {sub BH} from the local M {sub BH}-L {sub gal} relationship. There is little systematic trend in Δ log M {sub BH} out to z = 0.8. Using the width of the [O III] emission line as a proxy for the stellar velocity dispersion, σ{sub *}, we find agreement of our derived host luminosities with the locally observed Faber-Jackson relation. This supports the utility of the width of the [O III] line as a proxy for σ{sub *} in statistical studies.

  1. Mass shootings: a meta-analysis of the dose-response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C

    2014-12-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the dose-response theory as it relates to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) following mass shootings. It was hypothesized that greater exposure to a mass shooting would be associated with greater PTSSs. Trauma exposure in the current study was broadly defined as the extent to which a person experienced or learned about a mass shooting. The meta-analysis identified 11 qualifying studies that included 13 independent effect sizes from a total of 8,047 participants. The overall weighted mean effect size, based on a random effects model, was r = .19, p < .001, 95% CI [.13, .25]. Maximum likelihood meta-regressions revealed no significant linear effects of participant gender, participant age, or time elapsed since the shooting on the relationship between exposure and PTSSs. Because so few studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, the present study also documents that this area of the literature is underresearched.

  2. The relationship of leg volume and leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Zorba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determination of the relationship between leg volume, leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers. 31 wrestlers from a university students participated in this study voluntarily (X age: 21.09 ± 0.99 yrs. Circumferential measurement were used for the determination of leg volume by Frustum Method and after that, a regression formula was used. For this formulas, while the R square (R2 value was .95 and the standart error value was .056. Leg mass was determined by the Hanavan Method. Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAnT was used for the determination of anaerobic performance and Isometric Knee Dynamometer was used for the determination of knee strength. Results of Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis, leg volume was significantly correlated with leg mass (r=.993; pnee strength was found to be correlated with anaerobic performance.

  3. Relationship between body mass index and mortality in adults on maintenance hemodialysis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herselman, Marietjie; Esau, Nazeema; Kruger, Jean-Marie; Labadarios, Demetre; Moosa, Mohammed Rafique

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of this systematic review was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Systematic review of primarily observational studies. Adult patients from all gender, race, or ethnic groups on maintenance hemodialysis. Medline, Science Citation Index, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Library, and Embase electronic databases covering the period 1966 to December 2008 were searched with the help of a qualified librarian. Reference lists of included papers and collections also were searched. Each study was reviewed by 2 independent reviewers who also performed the data extraction from full papers. Differences between reviewers were resolved by consensus or by a third reviewer in the case of disagreements. The quality of studies selected for inclusion in the systematic review was also assessed by 2 independent reviewers. BMI and mortality. Eighteen studies (60%) reported a significant inverse relationship between all-cause mortality and BMI. This inverse relationship was more prevalent in older patients, larger retrospective studies, and studies that did not adjust for inflammation. On the other hand, 57% of the 7 studies reporting on cardiovascular mortality found no significant relationship with BMI. This systematic review shows evidence of an inverse relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality in adult patients on maintenance HD, especially in older patients, but the relationship with cardiovascular mortality is less clear. (c) 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Variant Scaling Relationship for Mass-Density Across Tree-Dominated Communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The past few decades have seen a resurgence of interest in biological allometry. Specifically, a number of recent studies has suggested a -4/3 invariant scaling relationship between mass and density that is universally valid for tree-dominated communities, regardless of their phyletic affiliation or habitat. In the present study, we test this scaling relationship using a comprehensive forest biomass database, including 1 266 plots of six biomes and 17 forest types across China. The present study shows that the scaling exponent of the massdensity relationship varies across different tree-dominated communities and habitats. This great variability in the scaling exponent makes any generalization unwarranted. Although inappropriate regression methods can lead to flawed estimation of the scaling exponent, inconsistency of theoretical framework and empirical patterns may have undermined the validity of previous work.

  5. Insights into relationships between body mass, composition and bone: findings in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Karen; Gannon, Lisa; Brightmore, Amy; Beck, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that bone strength is not proportional to body weight in obese populations. Elite rugby players have a similar body mass index (BMI) to obese individuals but differ markedly with low body fat, high lean mass, and frequent skeletal exposure to loading through weight-bearing exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between body weight, composition, and bone strength in male rugby players characterized by high BMI and high lean mass. Fifty-two elite male rugby players and 32 nonathletic, age-matched controls differing in BMI (30.2 ± 3.2 vs 24.1 ± 2.1 kg/m²; p = 0.02) received 1 total body and one total hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Hip structural analysis of the proximal femur was used to determine bone mineral density (BMD) and cross-sectional bone geometry. Multiple linear regression was computed to identify independent variables associated with total hip and femoral neck BMD and hip structural analysis-derived bone geometry parameters. Analysis of covariance was used to explore differences between groups. Further comparisons between groups were performed after normalizing parameters to body weight and to lean mass. There was a trend for a positive fat-bone relationship in rugby players, and a negative relationship in controls, although neither reached statistical significance. Correlations with lean mass were stronger for bone geometry (r(2): 0.408-0.520) than for BMD (r(2): 0.267-0.293). Relative to body weight, BMD was 6.7% lower in rugby players than controls (p Rugby players were heavier than controls, with greater lean mass and BMD (p rugby players (p rugby players was reduced in proportion to body weight and lean mass. However, their superior bone geometry suggests that overall bone strength may be adequate for loading demands. Fat-bone interactions in athletes engaged in high-impact sports require further exploration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The relationship of leg volume and leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal ZORBA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determination of the relationship between leg volume, leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers. 31 wrestlers from a university students participated in this study voluntarily (age: 21.09 ± 0.99 yrs. Circumferential measurement were used for the determination of leg volume by Frustum Method and after that, a regression formula was used. For this formulas, while the R square (R2 value was .95 and the standart error value was .056. Leg mass was determined by the Hanavan Method. Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAnT was used for the determination of anaerobic performance and Isometric Knee Dynamometer was used for the determination of knee strength. Results of Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis, leg volume was significantly correlated with leg mass (r=.993; p<0.01, peak power (r=.523; p<0.01 and mean power (r=.585; p<0.01. Similarly leg mass was significantly correlated with peak power (r=.654; p<0.01 and mean power (r=.704; p<0.01. In addition, peak power was found to be significantly correlated with leg strength (r=.430; p<0.05 and mean power (r=.613; p<0.01. As a conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that leg volume and leg mass plays important role in anaerobic performance in wrestlers and isometric knee strength was found to be correlated with anaerobic performance.

  7. Analysis of Relationship between the Body Mass Composition and Physical Activity with Body Posture in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Wyszyńska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Excessive body mass in turn may contribute to the development of many health disorders including disorders of musculoskeletal system, which still develops intensively at that time. Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between children’s body mass composition and body posture. The relationship between physical activity level of children and the parameters characterizing their posture was also evaluated. Material and Methods. 120 school age children between 11 and 13 years were enrolled in the study, including 61 girls and 59 boys. Each study participant had the posture evaluated with the photogrammetric method using the projection moiré phenomenon. Moreover, body mass composition and the level of physical activity were evaluated. Results. Children with the lowest content of muscle tissue showed the highest difference in the height of the inferior angles of the scapulas in the coronal plane. Children with excessive body fat had less slope of the thoracic-lumbar spine, greater difference in the depth of the inferior angles of the scapula, and greater angle of the shoulder line. The individuals with higher level of physical activity have a smaller angle of body inclination. Conclusion. The content of muscle tissue, adipose tissue, and physical activity level determines the variability of the parameter characterizing the body posture.

  8. The relationship between body mass and field metabolic rate among individual birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Isaac, Nick J B; Reuman, Daniel C

    2013-09-01

    1. The power-law dependence of metabolic rate on body mass has major implications at every level of ecological organization. However, the overwhelming majority of studies examining this relationship have used basal or resting metabolic rates, and/or have used data consisting of species-averaged masses and metabolic rates. Field metabolic rates are more ecologically relevant and are probably more directly subject to natural selection than basal rates. Individual rates might be more important than species-average rates in determining the outcome of ecological interactions, and hence selection. 2. We here provide the first comprehensive database of published field metabolic rates and body masses of individual birds and mammals, containing measurements of 1498 animals of 133 species in 28 orders. We used linear mixed-effects models to answer questions about the body mass scaling of metabolic rate and its taxonomic universality/heterogeneity that have become classic areas of controversy. Our statistical approach allows mean scaling exponents and taxonomic heterogeneity in scaling to be analysed in a unified way while simultaneously accounting for nonindependence in the data due to shared evolutionary history of related species. 3. The mean power-law scaling exponents of metabolic rate vs. body mass relationships were 0.71 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.625-0.795] for birds and 0.64 (95% CI 0.564-0.716) for mammals. However, these central tendencies obscured meaningful taxonomic heterogeneity in scaling exponents. The primary taxonomic level at which heterogeneity occurred was the order level. Substantial heterogeneity also occurred at the species level, a fact that cannot be revealed by species-averaged data sets used in prior work. Variability in scaling exponents at both order and species levels was comparable to or exceeded the differences 3/4-2/3 = 1/12 and 0.71-0.64. 4. Results are interpreted in the light of a variety of existing theories. In particular, results

  9. Aerosol Organic Matter-Trace Metal Relationships Revealed by Ultra-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, A. S.; Sleighter, R. L.; Morton, P. L.; Landing, W. M.; Shelley, R. U.; Hatcher, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    relationships between aerosol water soluble OM molecular characteristics, air mass trajectories, and trace metal characteristics. Samples examined at the molecular level by FT-ICR MS, and by Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies provide insight into OM structural characteristics. These OM molecular details are examined for differences among the different aerosol sources (anthropogenic, dust, marine) and compared with trace metal data (total and soluble Fe, Al, and V) to examine potential trace metal-OM linkages. Understanding these aerosol trace metal-OM relationships is important for understanding atmospheric-marine biogeochemical cycles including the global carbon cycle.

  10. Relationship of Body Mass Index to Alcohol Consumption in College Freshmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A. Nies

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI and drinking in college freshman. Method. College freshman (N=199 at a university completed the drinking questionnaires. Drinking amount and the alcohol problem index (RAPI served as outcomes, and BMI was the independent variable. Results. RAPI scores were associated with gender, amount of drinking, and BMI (P<0.001, F=13.44. Increase of RAPI with drinking amount was larger for females (slope=0.06 than for males (slope=0.03. Conclusion. This information can be helpful when providing health promotion strategies to college students regarding nutrition modifications that would be most beneficial for their health.

  11. The Relationship of Fat Distribution and Insulin Resistance with Lumbar Spine Bone Mass in Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J A de Paula

    Full Text Available Bone marrow harbors a significant amount of body adipose tissue (BMAT. While BMAT might be a source of energy for bone modeling and remodeling, its increment can also represent impairment of osteoblast differentiation. The relationship between BMAT, bone mass and insulin sensitivity is only partially understood and seems to depend on the circumstances. The present study was designed to assess the association of BMAT with bone mineral density in the lumbar spine as well as with visceral adipose tissue, intrahepatic lipids, HOMA-IR, and serum levels of insulin and glucose. This cross-sectional clinical investigation included 31 non-diabetic women, but 11 had a pre-diabetes status. Dual X-ray energy absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density and magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess fat deposition in BMAT, visceral adipose tissue and liver. Our results suggest that in non-diabetic, there is an inverse relationship between bone mineral density in lumbar spine and BMAT and a trend persists after adjustment for weight, age, BMI and height. While there is a positive association between visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids with serum insulin levels, there is no association between BMAT and serum levels of insulin. Conversely, a positive relationship was observed between BMAT and serum glucose levels, whereas this association was not observed with other fat deposits. These relationships did not apply after adjustment for body weight, BMI, height and age. The present study shows that in a group of predominantly non-obese women the association between insulin resistance and BMAT is not an early event, as occurs with visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids. On the other hand, BMAT has a negative relationship with bone mineral density. Taken together, the results support the view that bone has a complex and non-linear relationship with energy metabolism.

  12. U-shaped relationship between depression and body mass index in the Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J-H; Park, S K; Ryoo, J-H; Oh, C-M; Choi, J-M; McIntyre, R S; Mansur, R B; Kim, H; Hales, S; Jung, J Y

    2017-06-03

    Although a number of studies have examined the relationship between depression and obesity, it is still insufficient to establish the specific pattern of relationship between depression and body mass index (BMI) categories. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the relationship between depression and BMI categories. A cross-sectional study was conducted for a cohort of 159,390 Korean based on Kangbuk Samsung Health Study (KSHS). Study participants were classified into 5 groups by Asian-specific cut-off of BMI (18.5, 23, 25 and 30kg/m(2)). The presence of depression was determined by Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scales (CES-D)≥16 and≥25. The adjusted odd ratios (ORs) for depression were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis, in which independent variable was 5 categories of BMI and dependent variable was depression. Subgroup analysis was conducted by gender and age. When normal group was set as a reference, the adjusted ORs for depression formed U-shaped pattern of relationship with BMI categories [underweight: 1.31 (1.14-1.50), overweight: 0.94 (0.85-1.04), obese group: 1.01 (0.91-1.12), severe obese group: 1.28 (1.05-1.54)]. This pattern of relationship was more prominent in female and young age group than male and elderly subgroup. BMI level with the lowest likelihood of depression was 18.5kg/m(2) to 25kg/m(2) in women and 23kg/m(2) to 25kg/m(2) in men. There was a U-shaped relationship between depression and BMI categories. This finding suggests that both underweight and severe obesity are associated with the increased risk for depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The Relationship of Fat Distribution and Insulin Resistance with Lumbar Spine Bone Mass in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Francisco J A; de Araújo, Iana M; Carvalho, Adriana L; Elias, Jorge; Salmon, Carlos E G; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow harbors a significant amount of body adipose tissue (BMAT). While BMAT might be a source of energy for bone modeling and remodeling, its increment can also represent impairment of osteoblast differentiation. The relationship between BMAT, bone mass and insulin sensitivity is only partially understood and seems to depend on the circumstances. The present study was designed to assess the association of BMAT with bone mineral density in the lumbar spine as well as with visceral adipose tissue, intrahepatic lipids, HOMA-IR, and serum levels of insulin and glucose. This cross-sectional clinical investigation included 31 non-diabetic women, but 11 had a pre-diabetes status. Dual X-ray energy absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density and magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess fat deposition in BMAT, visceral adipose tissue and liver. Our results suggest that in non-diabetic, there is an inverse relationship between bone mineral density in lumbar spine and BMAT and a trend persists after adjustment for weight, age, BMI and height. While there is a positive association between visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids with serum insulin levels, there is no association between BMAT and serum levels of insulin. Conversely, a positive relationship was observed between BMAT and serum glucose levels, whereas this association was not observed with other fat deposits. These relationships did not apply after adjustment for body weight, BMI, height and age. The present study shows that in a group of predominantly non-obese women the association between insulin resistance and BMAT is not an early event, as occurs with visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids. On the other hand, BMAT has a negative relationship with bone mineral density. Taken together, the results support the view that bone has a complex and non-linear relationship with energy metabolism.

  14. Relationship between body fat mass and free fatty acid kinetics in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer, Bettina; Magkos, Faidon; Fabbrini, Elisa; Mohammed, B Selma; Klein, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    An increased release of free fatty acids (FFAs) into plasma likely contributes to the metabolic complications associated with obesity. However, the relationship between body fat and FFA metabolism is unclear because of conflicting results from different studies. The goal of our study was to determine the inter-relationships between body fat, sex, and plasma FFA kinetics. We determined FFA rate of appearance (Ra) in plasma, by using stable isotopically labeled tracer techniques, during basal conditions in 106 lean, overweight, and obese, nondiabetic subjects (43 men and 63 women who had 7.0-56.0% body fat). Correlation analyses demonstrated: (i) no differences between men and women in the relationship between fat mass (FM) and total FFA Ra (micromol/min); (ii) total FFA Ra increased linearly with increasing FM (r=0.652, Pfashion with increasing FM (r=-0.806; Pmen; and (v) abdominal fat itself was not an important determinant of total FFA Ra. We conclude that total body fat, not regional fat distribution or sex, is an important modulator of the rate of FFA release into plasma. Although increased adiposity is associated with a decrease in fatty acid release in relationship to FM, this downregulation is unable to completely compensate for the increase in FM, so total FFA Ra and FFA Ra with respect to FFM are greater in women than in men and in obese than in lean subjects.

  15. Relationship of body fatty mass with lipid status in obese working population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Zoran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Obesity can be defined as an excessive accumulation of health threatening body fat, caused by positive energetic balance. It can be classified according to body mass index as normal body mass, excessive body mass, significant obesity and extreme obesity. According to WHR (waist-hip ratio, it can be classified to android and gynoid type depending on fat tissue distribution. Android type has greater frequency of cardiovascular and metabolic complications, as is occurrence of premature atherosclerosis. As metabolic complications we consider lipid status disorders in obese workers, and these complications are related to body composition. MATERIAL AND METHODS Among 331 workers, we separated 95 persons with BMI > 30 kg/m2. This group was classified according to gender, their body composition has been measured using bioelectri-cal impedance method and, subsequently cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL levels were determined, searching for relationship of body composition with lipid status fractions p< 0.05. RESULTS High body fatty was found in 33.03% of male and in 37.48% of female subjects. It was found that in male subjects cholesterol levels (6.70 mml/L,triglycerides (2.56 mml/L, limit values of LDL (3.93 mml/Lć and limit values of HDL (1.16 mml/L were highly risky. Positive insignificant relationship of body fatty mass with cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, but not with HDL was found. DISCUSSION Results point to highly risky limit values of lipid parameters in male and female subjects. These values can be explained by older age of subjects, their way of life and nutrition regimen, significant comorbidity in this group, and influence on working ability. CONSLUSION It was found that obese male and female subjects have high values of body fatty mass, Male subjects have highly risky levels of lipid status fractions, while in female subjects these are limit values. Insignificant positive correlation of body fatty mass with lipid status

  16. The relationship of body mass index and hirsutism in adult females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdul-Aziz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hirsutism is a common clinical condition that usually has a benign course but extremely distressing symptom for women. Hirsutism is a perplexing issue, having variable presentations including different severity of hirsutism, with menstrual history regular or irregular, body mass index (BMI within normal range or obese or overweight and yet some have a family history of hirsutism. Hirsutism may be associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, hypertension, infertility, and menstrual irregularities. Studies suggested that it affects between 5 percent and 15 percent of women, varying according to characteristics and at least 5 percent of women of reproductive age suffer from this problem. Body mass index (BMI classifications were developed based on associations between BMI and chronic disease and mortality risk in healthy populations. Aim: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and hirsutism. Material and methods: All patients were examined clinically, then interviewed and detailed questionnaires were completed for each of them. The study involved 300 individuals; 150 hirsute patients and 150 healthy people as control group. Hirsutism was determined by the Ferriman-Gallwey scoring system. Height and weight were measured by a physician mechanical scale. Body mass index was calculated weight/height² (kg/m², and collected data were analyzed by Microsoft excel-chi-square statistical test. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding age and height. However, BMI and weight were significantly higher in the cases group than the control group (P < 0.05. The chi square test revealed significantly higher differences between the case and control groups regarding BMI (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Our study clearly establishes that hirsute women had higher body mass index and moderate hirsutism was more prevalent among hirsute

  17. Interior phase transformations and mass-radius relationships of silicon-carbon planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Hugh F. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Militzer, Burkhard, E-mail: hughfw@gmail.com [Department of Earth and Planetary Science and Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    Planets such as 55 Cancri e orbiting stars with a high carbon-to-oxygen ratio may consist primarily of silicon and carbon, with successive layers of carbon, silicon carbide, and iron. The behavior of silicon-carbon materials at the extreme pressures prevalent in planetary interiors, however, has not yet been sufficiently understood. In this work, we use simulations based on density functional theory to determine high-pressure phase transitions in the silicon-carbon system, including the prediction of new stable compounds with Si{sub 2}C and SiC{sub 2} stoichiometry at high pressures. We compute equations of state for these silicon-carbon compounds as a function of pressure, and hence derive interior structural models and mass-radius relationships for planets composed of silicon and carbon. Notably, we predict a substantially smaller radius for SiC planets than in previous models, and find that mass radius relationships for SiC planets are indistinguishable from those of silicate planets. We also compute a new equation of state for iron. We rederive interior models for 55 Cancri e and are able to place more stringent restrictions on its composition.

  18. Body mass index and acoustic voice parameters: is there a relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lourdes Bernadete Rocha de; Santos, Marquiony Marques Dos

    2017-05-06

    Specific elements such as weight and body volume can interfere in voice production and consequently in its acoustic parameters, which is why it is important for the clinician to be aware of these relationships. To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the average acoustic voice parameters. Observational, cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample consisted of 84 women, aged between 18 and 40years, an average of 26.83 (±6.88). The subjects were grouped according to BMI: 19 underweight; 23 normal ranges, 20 overweight and 22 obese and evaluated the fundamental frequency (f0) of the sustained vowel [a] and the Maximum Phonation Time (MPT) of the vowels [a], [i], [u], using PRAAT software. The data were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test to verify if there were differences between the groups regarding the study variables. All variables showed statistically significant results and were subjected to non-parametric test Mann-Whitney. Regarding to the average of the fundamental frequency, there was statistically significant difference between groups with underweight and overweight and obese; normal range and overweight and obese. The average MPT revealed statistically significant difference between underweight and obese individuals; normal range and obese; overweight and obese. Body mass index influenced the average fundamental frequency of overweight and obese individuals evaluated in this study. Obesity influenced in reducing MPT average. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Calculating Internal Structure and Mass-Radius Relationships of Rocky Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, Steve; Lorenzo, Alejandro; Ko, Byeongkwan

    2015-12-01

    We present a code (ExoPlex) we have written to calculate the internal structures and mass-radius relationships of rocky exoplanets. Existing codes described in the literature consider only a limited range of compositions for the core and mantle, and they generally assume that mineral phases are always present as a single high-pressure polymorph. These restrictions arise from the need to specify material properties, such as bulk modulus, at every depth in the planet, which requires knowledge of the phases present. Existing codes also neglect the effects of temperature on material properties, assuming values attained in the low-temperature limit. Our code circumvents these problems. We specify a stoichiometry for the core and for the mantle, we find the pressure at depth by integrating the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium, and we assume adiabatic temperature gradients in the mantle and in the core. We then supply pressure, temperature, and composition as inputs to the PerpleX software package that calculates the mineral phases present in thermodynamic equilibrium, and their material properties. This allows us to explore mass-radius relationships across a wide range of compositional and mineralogical parameter space. We discuss preliminary results.

  20. Relationship of Physical Activity Facilitators and Body Mass Index in Kashan Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khalili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are many factors that affect the level of physical activity and body mass index of the elderly. The current study aimed to assess the relationship of  physical activity facilitators and body mass index of Kashan elderly. Methods: The cross-sectional study sampled 400 elderly older than 60 referred to 10 healthcare centers in Kashan, 2014, via multistage quota method. Participations were tested under demographic characters, body mass index(BMI level, and exercise benefits part of exercise benefits and barrier scale (persian  version for measurig  physical activity facilitators. Data were analyzed in SPSS software, descriptive statistic, Spearman correlation test, Chi-Square and Ordinal regression. Results: Of the participations73.6% were overweight or obese. Median and interquartile range (IQR of  physical activity facilitators was 75 and 33 respectively. The most prominent  physical activity facilitators was" physical activity increases my physical ability, (83.2%. There was a significantly inverse relationship between  physical activity facilitators  score and BMI of participants (r=-0.233, P=0.001. Ordinal regression evealed that mostly predictor of  BMI among  physical activity facilitators was "physical activity improves the quality of my work " (OR=8.683, P=0.001. Conclusion: Results identified  physical activity facilitators directly is related to improve physical circumstances of the elderly people. Surly poviding  physical activity facilitators through educational and interventional programs may improve the health status of aging population.

  1. The relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiba, P; Madu, S N; Ezeokana, J O; Nnedum, O A U

    2008-03-01

    The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods). Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised. First year female students from three different Schools and Faculties at the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, South Africa, participated in the study. Using the availability and convenient sampling method, 75 students were selected for this study. For the quantitative aspect of the study, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Measure was used to measure self-esteem. For the qualitative part, a topic guide was used for the focus group discussions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson's Product Moment Correlation were used to analyse the quantitative data, while the phenomenological principle of open coding used for the thematic analysis. Results showed that there is a relationship between body mass and self-concept and that overweight participants tend to have a low self-esteem. Low self-esteem was perceived to be aggravated by a number of factors, like the attitude of the media and the society. Participants who are overweight also indicated that they are limited in certain activities of daily living (e.g., sports) as a result of their body mass. They expressed mixed feelings and frustration when it comes to such activities. The above results did not differ from those reported from western cultures. Support groups, life-skills programmes and psychotherapy should be

  2. Relationship between body fat and body mass index: differences between Indonesians and Dutch Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrici, S; Hartriyanti, Y; Hautvast, J G; Deurenberg, P

    1998-11-01

    To study the relationship between percent body fat and body mass index (BMI) in two different ethnic groups (Indonesians and Caucasians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. Cross-sectional study. Not specially selected populations living in southern Sumatra (Palembang, Indonesia) and Caucasian Dutch living in Wageningen. Body weight, body height, body fat by deuterium oxide dilution and skinfold thickness. Body fat could be well predicted by body mass index (BMI) and sex in the Indonesians and by BMI, sex and age in the Dutch with a prediction error of 3.6 and 3.3% for the two populations respectively. Although the body mass index in the Indonesian group was about 2 kg/m2 lower compared to the Dutch, the amount of body fat was 3% points higher. Because of small differences between the groups in age, weight and height the differences in body fat were corrected for this (ANOVA). Indonesians having the same weight, height, age and sex have generally 4.8% points more body fat compared to Dutch. Indonesians having the same % BF, age and sex have generally a 2.9 kg/m2 lower BMI compared to the Dutch. The results show that the relationship between % BF and BMI is different between Indonesians and Dutch Caucasians. If obesity is regarded as an excess of body fat and not as an excess of weight (increased BMI), the cut-off points for obesity in Indonesia based on the BMI should be 27 kg/m2 instead of 30 kg/m2.

  3. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...

  4. Relationship between body mass index and pancreas volume in Japanese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Kinsei; Saisho, Yoshifumi; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2014-11-28

    The volume of the pancreas increases with obesity. This study was aimed to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and pancreas volume in Japanese. The pancreas volume was examined in a total of 103 (60 men and 43 women) Japanese adults who had undergone abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan. The pancreas was outlined by hand in each CT image and the pancreas volume was computed by summing the product of pancreas area of each image and the CT section thickness. There was a significant positive correlation between BMI and pancreas volume (r = 0.41, P <0.001). This relationship was expressed by the following equation: y = 23.8 + 2.48x, where y is pancreas volume (cm3) and x is BMI. There is a positive correlation between BMI and pancreas volume in Japanese and this relationship is similar to that in Caucasians. This information will be useful to estimate the impact of obesity on pancreas volume in Japanese and for comparison among different ethnicities.

  5. The Effect of Aging on Relationships between Lean Body Mass and VO2max in Rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Wheatley, Courtney M; Behnia, Mehrdad; Johnson, Bruce D

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a fall in maximal aerobic capacity as well as with a decline in lean body mass. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of aging on the relationship between aerobic capacity and lean body mass in subjects that chronically train both their upper and lower bodies. Eleven older rowers (58±5 yrs) and 11 younger rowers (27±4 yrs) participated in the study. Prior to the VO2max testing, subjects underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to estimate total lean body mass. Subsequently, VO2max was quantified during a maximal exercise test on a rowing ergometer as well as a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer. The test protocol included a pre-exercise stage followed by incremental exercise until VO2max was reached. The order of exercise modes was randomized and there was a wash-out period between the two tests. Oxygen uptake was obtained via a breath-by-breath metabolic cart (Vmax™ Encore, San Diego, CA). Rowing VO2max was higher than cycling VO2max in both groups (pVO2max from cycling to rowing (pVO2max for both groups (pVO2max between groups disappeared (p>0.05), however, older subjects still demonstrated a lower rowing VO2max relative to younger subjects (pVO2max obtained, however, it appears that VO2max in older subjects may be less influenced by muscle mass than in younger subjects.

  6. Vertical variation of oxygen isotope in Bay of Bengal and its relationships with water masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S.; Parekh, Anant; Chakraborty, S.; Ravi Kumar, K.; Bose, T.

    2013-12-01

    We present here, for the first time, comprehensive depth specific (near surface to 1800 m) oxygen isotope (δ18O) data set of 175 water samples collected from 22 different locations in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) during July-August 2009 and December-January 2012-2013. The study is aimed to constrain the water mass parameters using oxygen isotope and salinity. Four water masses are identified on the basis of temperature-salinity relationship: (a) Bay of Bengal Water (BoBW; 0-50 m), (b) Mixed Zone (MZ; 60-120 m), (c) Indonesian Throughflow (ITF; 200-500 m), and (d) Indian Ocean Deep Water (IDW; 600-1800 m). Our study shows: (1) δ18O-salinity correlation (slope = 0.15 ± 0.01; intercept = -4.58 ± 0.24; r2 = 0.89; n = 54) for the BoBW is found to be consistent with surface BoB water reported earlier, (2) relatively lower correlation (r2 = 0.24; n = 47) in underlying mixed zone suggesting mixing of various water masses, (3) significant linear correlation between δ18O and salinity in IDW (r2 = 0.70) indicating depleted less saline water from southern hemisphere spread up to 18°N, and (4) vertical profiles at various sampling locations showing a continuous enrichment of δ18O (0.6-0.8‰) within top 60-100 m irrespective of their proximity to coastline. In conjunction with a sharp decrease in Δ14C data below the same depth zone (60-100 m) as reported earlier, we suggest the δ18O value reaches to its acme at a zone of mixing between younger BoBW and relatively older ITF. This preliminary study indicates oxygen isotope and salinity together can be used to identify different water masses in the BoB.

  7. he relationship of body mass index to penile length and testicular volume in adolescent boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Adriansyah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence suggests that obesity may be related to early onset of puberty in girls. However, few studies have found a link between body mass index (BMI and puberty onset in boys. More study is needed to assess the relationship of BMI to penile length and testicular volume. Objective To investigate the relationship of BMI to penile length and testicular volume in adolescent boys. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on adolescent boys aged 9 to 14 years in Secanggang District, Langkat Regency, North Sumatera Province in August 2009. Subject's BMIs were calculated by dividing body weight (BW in kilograms by body height (BH in meters squared. Penile length (cm was measured with a spatula. We took the average of three measurements from the symphysis pubis to the tip of the glans penis. Testicular volume (mL was estimated by palpation using an orchidometer. Pearson's correlation test (r was used to assess the relationship of BMI to penile length and BMI to testicular volume. Results There were 108 participants, consisting of 64 primary school students and 44 junior high school students. Subjects' mean age was 11.7 (SD 1.62 years,; mean BW was 35.2 (SD 8.84 kg; mean testicular volume was 3.6 (SD 1.20 mL. We found no significant association between BMI and penile length (r=-0.25, P= 0.006, nor between BMI and testicular volume (r=-021; P=0.09. Conclusion There was no significant relationship of BMI to penile length nor BMI to testicular volume in adolescent boys. [

  8. The relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bodiba

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods. Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised.

  9. Food addiction and body-mass-index: a non-linear relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian

    2012-10-01

    Excessive food consumption has been recognized to show similarities with substance dependence. Subsequently, it has been proposed that food addiction might contribute to the obesity epidemic. Recent studies using questionnaires for the assessment of food addiction have found statistically significant, but negligible positive correlations with body-mass-index (BMI). Moreover, group comparisons between food-addicted and non-addicted individuals in normal-weight or obese samples did not show differences in BMI. However, the prevalence of food addiction diagnoses is remarkably increased in obese individuals. In the current article, it is suggested that there might be a cubic relationship between food addiction and BMI. Food addiction symptomatology may remain stable in the under- and normal-weight range, increase in the overweight- and obese range, and level off at severe obesity. Empirical data in support of this view are presented.

  10. The Origin and Evolution of the Mass-Metallicity Relationship of Galaxies: Results from Cosmological N-Body Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, A M; Booth, C M; Willman, B; Gardner, J P; Wadsley, J; Stinson, G; Quinn, T

    2006-01-01

    We examine the origin and evolution of the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relationship for galaxies using high resolution cosmological SPH + N-Body simulations that include a physically motivated description of the effects of supernovae feedback and subsequent metal enrichment. Our simulations allow us to distinguish between two possible sources that contribute to both the origin of the mass-metallicity relationship and to the low chemical yield observed in low galaxy masses: 1) metal loss due to gas outflow, or 2) inefficient star formation at the lowest galaxy masses. Our simulated galaxies are in excellent agreement with the observed M-Z relationship, both at z=0 and z=2. We find that gas mass loss becomes increasingly important at decreasing galaxy masses for our simulations, This mass loss results in a low effective yield for our lowest mass galaxies in good agreement with observational results. By considering all the gas that has ever belonged to a galaxy (back to z=3), we find the metallicity is unchanged from...

  11. Allometric relationship between changes of visceral fat and total fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgreen, C E; Hall, K D

    2008-05-01

    To elucidate the mathematical relationship between changes of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total body fat mass (FM) during weight loss. We hypothesized that changes of VAT mass are allometrically related to changes of FM, regardless of the type of weight-loss intervention, as defined by the differential equation dVAT/dFM=k x VAT/FM, where k is a dimensionless constant. We performed a systematic search of the published literature for studies that included measurements of VAT changes via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) imaging along with measurements of FM changes by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, hydrodensitometry, air-displacement plethysmography or whole-body MRI or CT imaging. We then examined whether or not the data could be explained by the allometric model. We found 37 published studies satisfying our search criteria, representing 1407 men and women of various ethnicities, degrees of adiposity and weight-loss interventions. The hypothesized allometric equation relating changes of VAT and FM accurately modeled the data for both men and women and for all methods of weight loss studied. The best-fit value for the dimensionless constant was k=1.3+/-0.1 and the resulting model had an R(2)=0.73. This is the first report to reveal an allometric relationship between changes of VAT and FM that holds for both genders as well as a wide variety of weight-loss interventions including bariatric surgery, caloric restriction with or without exercise and exercise alone. We conclude that changes of VAT are primarily determined by FM changes as well as the initial VAT to FM ratio.

  12. The Relationship between dental status, body mass index and nutrient intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roodabeh Koodaryan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition is one of the basic requirements for growth and development. In all the age groups, good oral health is necessary for masticatory efficacy, sense of taste, deglutition, articulation and aesthetics. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tooth loss and food intake in a group of middle aged population. Materials and Methods: A total number of 200 participants with age range of 40-60 years were chosen and divided into four groups. The study population was classified into one of four groups by number of permanent teeth present. Required data for the study were gathered by interviews, oral and dental examinations, anthropometric measurements and 24-hour dietary recall. Data were analyzed statistically by descriptive methods, Variance test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson’s chi-square test. Results: Statistical analysis proved that, by controlling important confounding factors, individuals with more teeth had higher mean body mass index, weight, height, energy and nutrient intake compared to those with fewer teeth. Conclusion: Food intake and nutritional status are associated with oral health status and number of teeth.   Key words: Body mass index; Food intake; Tooth loss

  13. Relationships between gray matter, body mass index, and waist circumference in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Florian; Levitt, Jennifer G; Phillips, Owen R; Luders, Eileen; Woods, Roger P; Mazziotta, John C; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L

    2013-07-01

    Obesity and overweight are often defined by the body mass index (BMI), which associates with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, and possibly with dementia as well as variations in brain volume. However, body fat distribution and abdominal obesity (as measured by waist circumference) is more strongly correlated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk than is BMI. While prior studies have revealed negative associations between gray matter tissue volumes and BMI, the relationship with respect to waist circumference remains largely unexplored. We therefore investigated the effects of both BMI and waist circumference on local gray matter volumes in a group of 115 healthy subjects screened to exclude physical or mental disorders that might affect the central nervous system. Results revealed significant negative correlations for both BMI and waist circumference where regional gray matter effects were largest within the hypothalamus and further encompassed prefrontal, anterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices, and the cerebellum. However, associations were more widespread and pronounced for waist circumference than BMI. Follow-up analyses showed that these relationships differed significantly across gender. While associations were similar for both BMI and waist circumference for males, females showed more extensive correlations for waist circumference. Our observations suggest that waist circumference is a more sensitive indicator than BMI, particularly in females, for potentially determining the adverse effects of obesity and overweight on the brain and associated risks to health.

  14. Biomechanical evaluation of the relationship between postural control and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, P X; Abu Osman, N A; Yusof, A; Wan Abas, W A B

    2012-06-01

    Postural stability is crucial in maintaining body balance during quiet standing, locomotion, and any activities that require a high degree of balance performance, such as participating in sports and dancing. Research has shown that there is a relationship between stability and body mass. The aims of this study were to examine the impact that two variables had on static postural control: body mass index (BMI) and gender. Eighty healthy young adults (age=21.7±1.8 yr; height=1.65±0.09 m; mass=67.5±19.0 kg) participated in the study and the static postural control was assessed using the Biodex Balance System, with a 20 Hz sampling rate in the bipedic stance (BLS) and unipedic stance (ULS) for 30s. Five test evaluations were performed for each balance test. Postural control was found to be negatively correlated with increased adiposity, as the obese BMI group performed significantly poorer than the underweight, normal weight and overweight groups during BLS and ULS tests. The underweight, normal weight and overweight groups exhibited greater anterior-posterior stability in postural control during quiet stance. In addition, female displayed a trend of having a greater postural sway than male young adults, although it was evidenced in only some BMI groups. This study revealed that BMI do have an impact on postural control during both BLS and ULS. As such, BMI and gender-specific effects should be taken into consideration when selecting individuals for different types of sporting activities, especially those that require quiet standing.

  15. Seasonal distribution and relationship of water mass and suspended load in North Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhen; BAO Xianwen; WANG Yongzhi; LI Na; QIAO Lulu

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of suspended load can be determined by its linear relationship to turbidity. Our results present the basic distribution of suspended load in North Yellow Sea. In summer, the suspended load concentration is high along the coast and low in the center of the sea. There are four regions of high concentration in the surface layer: Penglai and Chengshantou along the north of the Shandong Peninsula, and the coastal areas of Lüshun and Changshan Islands. There is a 2 mg/L contour at 124°E that separates the North Yellow Sea from regions of lower concentrations in the open sea to the west. And there is a 2 mg/L contour at 124°E that separates the North Yellow Sea from regions of lower concentrations in the open sea to the west. The distribution features in the 10 m and bottom layer are similar to the surface layer, however, the suspended load concentration declines in the 10 m layer while it increases in the bottom layer. And in the bottom layer there is a low suspended load concentration water mass at the region south of 38°N and east of 123°E extending to the southeast. In general, the lowest suspended load concentration in a vertical profile is at a depth of 10 to 20 m, the highest suspended load concentration is in the bottom near Chengshantou area. In winter, the distribution of suspended load is similar to summer, but the average concentrations are three times higher. There are two tongue-shaped high suspended load concentration belt, one occurring from surface to seafloor, extends to the north near Chengshantou and the other invades north to south along the east margin of Dalian Bay. They separate the low suspended load concentration water masses in the center of North Yellow Sea into east and west parts. Vertical distribution is quite uniform in the whole North Yellow Sea because of the cooling effect and strong northeast winds. The distribution of suspended load has a very close relationship to the current circulation and wind-induced waves

  16. Body mass index has a curvilinear relationship with the percentage of body fat among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bruno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body Mass Index (BMI, which is defined as the ratio between weight (in kg and height (in m2, is often used in clinical practice as well as in large scale epidemiological studies to classify subjects as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese. Although BMI does not directly measure the percentage of Body Fat (BF%, it is widely applied because it is strongly related with BF%, it is easy to measure and it is an important predictor of mortality. Among children, age and sex-specific reference values of BMI, known as percentiles, are used. However, it is not clear how strong the relationship between BMI and BF% is among children and whether the association is linear. We performed a cross-sectional study aiming at evaluating the strength and shape of the relationship between BMI and BF% among school-aged children aged 6-12 years. Findings The study was conducted on a sample of 361 football-playing male children aged 6 to 12 years in Rome, Italy. Age, weight, height and skinfold thickness were collected. BF% was estimated using 4 skinfold equations whereas BMI was converted into BMI-for-age z-score. The relationship between these variables was examined using linear regression analyses. Mean BMI was 18.2 (± 2.8, whereas BF% was influenced by the skinfold equation used, with mean values ranging from 15.6% to 23.0%. A curvilinear relationship between BMI-for-age zscore and BF % was found, with the regression line being convex. The association between BMI-for-age zscore and BF% was stronger among overweight/obese children than among normal/underweight children. This curvilinear pattern was evident in all 4 skinfold equations used. Conclusions The association between BMI-for-age zscore and BF% is not linear among male children aged 6-12 years and it is stronger among overweight and obese subjects than among normal and underweight subjects. In this age group, BMI is a valid index of adiposity only among overweight and obese

  17. The relationship between body mass index and subjective well-being - the moderating role of body dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdarić Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Excess bodyweight and obesity are widespread health problems throughout the world. In Serbia, over 50% of the adult population is overweight and the Province of Vojvodina is one of the regions with the highest percentage of obesity. The relationship between obesity and health complications has been consistently demonstrated. However, research on the relationship between obesity and subjective well-being has not provided clear results. Body dissatisfaction is considered to be an important factor for understanding this relationship. The main objective of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of body dissatisfaction in the relationship between body mass index and subjective well-being. Material and Methods. The study sample included 731 respondents (72.6% women, with the mean age 28.93 years (SD = 8.47 from the Province of Vojvodina who had completed an online set of tests consisting of Body Shape Questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Scale of Positive and Negative Experience and a self-assessment of bodyweight and body height. Results. The results indicate that the moderating effect of body dissatisfaction in the relationship between body mass index and indicators of subjective well-being is statistically significant in both sexes. Specifically, the women with higher body mass index values who expressed lower body dissatisfaction reported lower levels of emotional distress and higher levels of pleasant emotions than those with lower body mass index. On the other hand, the men with higher bodyweight preoccupation and low body mass index reported significantly higher levels of pleasant emotions than those with higher body mass index values. Conclusion. These results suggest the necessity of a more detailed study of this relationship on both clinical and general population samples from Serbia.

  18. Toward a universal mass-momentum transfer relationship for predicting nutrient uptake and metabolite exchange in benthic reef communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, James L.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Zhang, Zhenlin

    2016-09-01

    Here we synthesize data from previous field and laboratory studies describing how rates of nutrient uptake and metabolite exchange (mass transfer) are related to form drag and bottom stresses (momentum transfer). Reanalysis of this data shows that rates of mass transfer are highly correlated (r2 ≥ 0.9) with the root of the bottom stress (τbot0.4) under both waves and currents and only slightly higher under waves (~10%). The amount of mass transfer that can occur per unit bottom stress (or form drag) is influenced by morphological features ranging anywhere from millimeters to meters in scale; however, surface-scale roughness (millimeters) appears to have little effect on actual nutrient uptake by living reef communities. Although field measurements of nutrient uptake by natural reef communities agree reasonably well with predictions based on existing mass-momentum transfer relationships, more work is needed to better constrain these relationships for more rugose and morphologically complex communities.

  19. The Mass-Radius Relationship for Very Low Mass Stars: Four New Discoveries from the HATSouth Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, G; Hartman, J D; Bakos, G Á; Penev, K; Csubry, Z; Tan, T G; Jordán, A; Mancini, L; Rabus, M; Brahm, R; Espinoza, N; Mohler-Fischer, M; Ciceri, S; Suc, V; Csák, B; Henning, T; Schmidt, B

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of four transiting F-M binary systems with companions between 0.1-0.2 Msun in mass by the HATSouth survey. These systems have been characterised via a global analysis of the HATSouth discovery data, combined with high-resolution radial velocities and accurate transit photometry observations. We determined the masses and radii of the component stars using a combination of two methods: isochrone fitting of spectroscopic primary star parameters, and equating spectroscopic primary star rotation velocity with spin-orbit synchronisation. These new very low mass companions are HATS550-016B (0.110 -0.006/+0.005 Msun, 0.147 -0.004/+0.003 Rsun), HATS551-019B (0.17 -0.01/+0.01 Msun, 0.18 -0.01/+0.01 Rsun), HATS551-021B (0.132 -0.005/+0.014 Msun, 0.154 -0.008/+0.006 Rsun), HATS553-001B (0.20 -0.02/+0.01 Msun, 0.22 -0.01/+0.01 Rsun). We examine our sample in the context of the radius anomaly for fully-convective low mass stars. Combining our sample with the 13 other well-studied very low mass stars...

  20. The relationship between body mass index and sexual function in infertile women: A cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Safieh Jamali; Hossein Zarei; Athar Rasekh Jahromi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infertility as the bitterest life experience can affect sexual function. Many studies have shown agitation, depression, marital dissatisfaction, and sexual dysfunction as the psychological outcomes resulting from infertility. Many factors, including body mass index, influence the female sexual function. Objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction and the relationship between sexual function and body mass index in the Iranian infertile women wh...

  1. Relationships among body mass, brain size, gut length, and blood tryptophan and serotonin in young wild-type mice

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The blood hyperserotonemia of autism is one of the most consistent biological findings in autism research, but its causes remain unclear. A major difficulty in understanding this phenomenon is the lack of information on fundamental interactions among the developing brain, gut, and blood in the mammalian body. We therefore investigated relationships among the body mass, the brain mass, the volume of the hippocampal complex, the gut length, and the whole-blood levels of tryp...

  2. The relationship between audience mentality and attitudes towards healthy lifestyle promotion in the mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignowska, Izabella; Borowiec, Agnieszka; Slonska, Zofia

    2016-09-01

    Health promoters who use the mass media to encourage people to change their health behaviours usually underestimate the importance of audience's mental predispositions, which may determine their susceptibility to such influences. This paper presents research findings that show how some elements of an audience's mentality are related to their attitudes towards healthy lifestyle promotion in the mass media (HLPMM). The research project, undertaken between 2007 and 2009, comprised: a qualitative study using in-depth interviews (N=30); a self-administered survey on a purposive sample (N=237) and a computer-assisted personal interview or interviewing (CAPI) survey on a representative sample of Polish adult population (N=934). The findings from the first two studies were used to construct a scale to investigate the attitude towards HLPMM. This scale was applied in a nation wide survey and, as a result, four dimensions of the attitude were identified: (1) appraisal of the idea of HLPMM; (2) appraisal of HLPMM practice; (3) propensity to receive media messages promoting healthy lifestyle and (4) propensity to avoid such messages. Moreover, the survey results confirmed the hypotheses whereby a higher degree of individualism, a higher degree of authoritarianism, a weaker demanding orientation and generalised trust are related to a more positive attitude towards HLPMM. The aforementioned relationships indicate that producers of media messages promoting a healthy lifestyle need to take account of their audience's mentality, since knowledge of mental predispositions of the target audience may help them make the message more suitable for specific recipients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Relationship of age, body mass index, wrist and waist circumferences to carpal tunnel syndrome severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komurcu, Hatice Ferhan; Kilic, Selim; Anlar, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has a multifactorial etiology involving systemic, anatomical, idiopathic, and ergonomic characteristics. In this study, an investigation of the relationship between the CTS degree established by electrophysiological measurements in patients with clinical CTS prediagnosis, and age, gender, body mass index (BMI), hand wrist circumference, and waist circumference measurements has been done. On 547 patients included in the study, motor and sensory conduction examinations of the median and ulnar nerve were done on one or two upper extremities thought to have CTS. In terms of CTS severity, the patients were divided into four groups (normal, mild, medium, and severe CTS). A total of 843 electrophysiological examinations were done consisting of 424 on the right hand wrist and 419 on the left hand wrist. When the age group of 18-35 years is taken as the reference group, the CTS development risk independent of BMI has been found to have increased by a factor of 1.86 for ages 36-64 years, and by 4.17 for ages 65 years and higher after adjustment for BMI. With respect to normal degree CTS group, the BMI were significantly different in groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS. The waist circumferences of groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS severity were found to be significantly higher in comparison to the normal reference group. When this value was corrected with BMI and re-examined the statistically significant differences persisted. The study identified a significant relationship between the CTS severity and age, BMI, waist circumference.

  4. Structure-response relationship in electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of sartans by artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubović, Jelena; Birkemeyer, Claudia; Protić, Ana; Otašević, Biljana; Zečević, Mira

    2016-03-18

    Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) methods are based on the hypothesis that changes in the molecular structure are reflected in changes in the observed property of the molecule. Artificial neural network is a technique of data analysis, which sets out to emulate the human brain's way of working. For the first time a quantitative structure-response relationship in electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) by means of artificial neural networks (ANN) on the group of angiotensin II receptor antagonists--sartans has been established. The investigated descriptors correspond to different properties of the analytes: polarity (logP), ionizability (pKa), surface area (solvent excluded volume) and number of proton acceptors. The influence of the instrumental parameters: methanol content in mobile phase, mobile phase pH and flow rate was also examined. Best performance showed a multilayer perceptron network with the architecture 6-3-3-1, trained with backpropagation algorithm. It showed high prediction ability on the previously unseen (test) data set with a coefficient of determination of 0.994. High prediction ability of the model would enable prediction of ESI-MS responsiveness under different conditions. This is particularly important in the method development phase. Also, prediction of responsiveness can be important in case of gradient-elution LC-MS and LC-MS/MS methods in which instrumental conditions are varied during time. Polarity, chargeability and surface area all appeared to be crucial for electrospray ionization whereby signal intensity appeared to be the result of a simultaneous influence of the molecular descriptors and their interactions. Percentage of organic phase in the mobile phase showed a positive, while flow rate showed a negative impact on signal intensity.

  5. The relationship between body mass index and physical fitness in 513 medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaee V.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: As future health care providers, medical students should be aware of the relationship between health and physical fitness, giving them an advantage toward attaining proper physical fitness. The exercise and fitness habits of first-year medical students in Iran are not known. This study examines the relationship between the body mass index (BMI of an unselected group of first-year medical students and their personal physical fitness. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 513 first-year medical students were evaluated. BMI, skin folds (triceps, biceps, suprailiac and subscapular and physical fitness were assessed in all students. Fitness was evaluated by the Eurofit test, which included body composition, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, muscular endurance, muscular strength, power, balance and agility. The software SPSS (version 11 and Pearson's correlation were used for statistical analysis.Results: The group surveyed was 67.8% female and 32.2% male, and 97.2% were entering medical school in 2004. The mean weight of the students was 60.1 kg, mean height was 163.9 cm and the mean BMI was 22.3 kg/m2. Underweight status (BMI<20 was observed in 27.1% of the subjects, 16.1% were overweight (2530. Overweight and obesity in males was higher than in females. The total physical fitness score in female students was better than that of male students. We found a negative correlation between physical fitness and weight, BMI, body fat and wrist to hip ratio in both genders. In addition, a positive correlation exits between hip circumference and physical fitness in both groups. Conclusions: This study suggests that academically competitive premedical students may not be involved in physical activity. Medical students should be encouraged to maintain a good BMI and perform physical exercise.

  6. Relationship between salivary/pancreatic amylase and body mass index: a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefond, Amélie; Yengo, Loïc; Dechaume, Aurélie; Canouil, Mickaël; Castelain, Maxime; Roger, Estelle; Allegaert, Frédéric; Caiazzo, Robert; Raverdy, Violeta; Pigeyre, Marie; Arredouani, Abdelilah; Borys, Jean-Michel; Lévy-Marchal, Claire; Weill, Jacques; Roussel, Ronan; Balkau, Beverley; Marre, Michel; Pattou, François; Brousseau, Thierry; Froguel, Philippe

    2017-02-23

    Salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic (AMY2) amylases hydrolyze starch. Copy number of AMY1A (encoding AMY1) was reported to be higher in populations with a high-starch diet and reduced in obese people. These results based on quantitative PCR have been challenged recently. We aimed to re-assess the relationship between amylase and adiposity using a systems biology approach. We assessed the association between plasma enzymatic activity of AMY1 or AMY2, and several metabolic traits in almost 4000 French individuals from D.E.S.I.R. longitudinal study. The effect of the number of copies of AMY1A (encoding AMY1) or AMY2A (encoding AMY2) measured through droplet digital PCR was then analyzed on the same parameters in the same study. A Mendelian randomization analysis was also performed. We subsequently assessed the association between AMY1A copy number and obesity risk in two case-control studies (5000 samples in total). Finally, we assessed the association between body mass index (BMI)-related plasma metabolites and AMY1 or AMY2 activity. We evidenced strong associations between AMY1 or AMY2 activity and lower BMI. However, we found a modest contribution of AMY1A copy number to lower BMI. Mendelian randomization identified a causal negative effect of BMI on AMY1 and AMY2 activities. Yet, we also found a significant negative contribution of AMY1 activity at baseline to the change in BMI during the 9-year follow-up, and a significant contribution of AMY1A copy number to lower obesity risk in children, suggesting a bidirectional relationship between AMY1 activity and adiposity. Metabonomics identified a BMI-independent association between AMY1 activity and lactate, a product of complex carbohydrate fermentation. These findings provide new insights into the involvement of amylase in adiposity and starch metabolism.

  7. Body mass index and annual increase of body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors; relationship to treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Cornelia A J; Gietema, Jourik A; Vonk, Judith M; Tissing, W J E; Boezen, Hendrika M; Zwart, Nynke; Postma, Aleida

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Evaluation of body mass index (BMI) at final height (FH) and annual BMI increase in adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) after treatment with anthracyclines, platinum, and/or radiotherapy. METHODS: BMI (weight/height²) was calculated retrospectively from diagnosis until FH. The prevalence

  8. History and Development of Coronal Mass Ejections as a Key Player in Solar Terrestrial Relationship

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2016-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are relatively a recently-discovered phenomenon, in 1971, some fifteen years into the Space Era. It took another two decades to realize that CMEs are the most important players in solar terrestrial relationship as the root cause of severe weather in Earth's space environment. CMEs are now counted among the major natural hazards because they cause large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and major geomagnetic storms, both of which pose danger to humans and their technology in space and ground. Geomagnetic storms discovered in the 1700s, solar flares discovered in the 1800s, and SEP events discovered in the1900s are all now found to be closely related to CMEs via various physical processes occurring at various locations in and around CMEs, when they interact with the ambient medium. This article identifies a number of key developments that preceded the discovery of white-light CMEs suggesting that CMEs were waiting to be discovered. The last two decades witnessed an explosion of...

  9. Relationship between serum cholesterol and body mass index in Nigeria schoolchildren aged 2-15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaiwu, Obiyo; Ibe, Bede C

    2015-04-01

    Non-communicable disease is becoming a public health problem that it is already present in more affluent countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and total serum cholesterol with its lipoprotein fractions in children aged 2-15 years. Serum cholesterol was estimated using the enzymatic spectrophotometer cholesterol oxidase/peroxidase method. BMI was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m(2)). Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein were positively co-related with BMI (p < 0.05). Using linear regression, equations that can be used to predict serum total cholesterol from known BMI values were developed. There is a positive correlation between BMI and serum cholesterol. BMI which is non-invasive is recommended as a screening tool for cardiovascular risk in settings where serum cholesterol cannot be routinely estimated. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Relationship of prediagnostic body mass index with survival after colorectal cancer: Stage-specific associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocarnik, Jonathan M; Chan, Andrew T; Slattery, Martha L; Potter, John D; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey; Phipps, Amanda; Nan, Hongmei; Harrison, Tabitha; Rohan, Thomas E; Qi, Lihong; Hou, Lifang; Caan, Bette; Kroenke, Candyce H; Strickler, Howard; Hayes, Richard B; Schoen, Robert E; Chong, Dawn Q; White, Emily; Berndt, Sonja I; Peters, Ulrike; Newcomb, Polly A

    2016-09-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), but is inconsistently associated with CRC survival. In 6 prospective studies participating in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), 2,249 non-Hispanic white CRC cases were followed for a median 4.5 years after diagnosis, during which 777 died, 554 from CRC-related causes. Associations between prediagnosis BMI and survival (overall and CRC-specific) were evaluated using Cox regression models adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, study and smoking status (current/former/never). The association between BMI category and CRC survival varied by cancer stage at diagnosis (I-IV) for both all-cause (p-interaction = 0.03) and CRC-specific mortality (p-interaction = 0.04). Compared to normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) ), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9) was associated with increased mortality among those with Stage I disease, and decreased mortality among those with Stages II-IV disease. Similarly, obesity (BMI ≥30) was associated with increased mortality among those with Stages I-II disease, and decreased mortality among those with Stages III-IV disease. These results suggest the relationship between BMI and survival after CRC diagnosis differs by stage at diagnosis, and may emphasize the importance of adequate metabolic reserves for colorectal cancer survival in patients with late-stage disease.

  11. The Relationship between Native American Ancestry, Body Mass Index and Diabetes Risk among Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Huff, Chad D; Yamamura, Yuko; Wu, Xifeng; Strom, Sara S

    2015-01-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are substantially higher among Mexican-Americans relative to non-Hispanic European Americans. Mexican-Americans are genetically diverse, with a highly variable distribution of Native American, European, and African ancestries. Here, we evaluate the role of Native American ancestry on BMI and diabetes risk in a well-defined Mexican-American population. Participants were randomly selected among individuals residing in the Houston area who are enrolled in the Mexican-American Cohort study. Using a custom Illumina GoldenGate Panel, we genotyped DNA from 4,662 cohort participants for 87 Ancestry-Informative Markers. On average, the participants were of 50.2% Native American ancestry, 42.7% European ancestry and 7.1% African ancestry. Using multivariate linear regression, we found BMI and Native American ancestry were inversely correlated; individuals with 80% Native American ancestry. Furthermore, we demonstrated an interaction between BMI and Native American ancestry in diabetes risk among women; Native American ancestry was a strong risk factor for diabetes only among overweight and obese women (OR = 1.190 for each 10% increase in Native American ancestry). This study offers new insight into the complex relationship between obesity, genetic ancestry, and their respective effects on diabetes risk. Findings from this study may improve the diabetes risk prediction among Mexican-American individuals thereby facilitating targeted prevention strategies.

  12. Relationship Between Triglyceride Tolerance, Body Mass Index, and Fat Depots in Hospitalized Patients Receiving Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazee, Erin N; Nystrom, Erin M; McMahon, M Molly; Williamson, Eric E; Miles, John M

    2015-11-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients receiving intravenous fat emulsions (IVFEs), but little is known about its prevalence and causes. The study investigated whether a relationship exists between body mass index (BMI) and triglyceride tolerance in parenterally fed patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 287 adults receiving parenteral nutrition to determine whether patients with very low BMI (VLBMI, triglyceride concentration during IVFE was significantly lower in VLBMI patients at 107 mg/dL compared with 124 mg/dL in non-VLBMI patients (P = .016), despite higher lipid infusion rates in the VLBMI group. There was a significant association between triglycerides and BMI in the aggregate cohort (R = 0.2375, P triglyceride concentrations correlated with visceral fat but not subcutaneous abdominal fat. In summary, patients with VLBMI have lower triglyceride concentrations during IVFEs than do other individuals, but there is considerable variability in triglycerides and body fat in this group. Caution should be employed with the use of IVFEs, especially in HBMI patients. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  13. The DiskMass Survey. VIII. On the Relationship Between Disk Stability and Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Westfall, Kyle B; Bershady, Matthew A; Martinsson, Thomas P K; Swaters, Robert A; Verheijen, Marc A W

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the stability level of late-type galaxy disks and their star-formation activity using integral-field gaseous and stellar kinematic data. Specifically, we compare the two-component (gas+stars) stability parameter from Romeo & Wiegert (Q_RW), incorporating stellar kinematic data for the first time, and the star-formation rate estimated from 21cm continuum emission. We determine the stability level of each disk probabilistically using a Bayesian analysis of our data and a simple dynamical model. Our method incorporates the shape of the stellar velocity ellipsoid (SVE) and yields robust SVE measurements for over 90% of our sample. Averaging over this subsample, we find a meridional shape of sigma_z/sigma_R = 0.51^{+0.36}_{-0.25} for the SVE and, at 1.5 disk scale lengths, a stability parameter of Q_RW = 2.0 +/- 0.9. We also find that the disk-averaged star-formation-rate surface density (Sigma-dot_e,*) is correlated with the disk-averaged gas and stellar mass surface densitie...

  14. The relationship between internet addiction and body mass index in Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canan, Fatih; Yildirim, Osman; Ustunel, Tuba Yildirim; Sinani, Gjergji; Kaleli, Arzu Hisarvant; Gunes, Cemalettin; Ataoglu, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Internet use patterns and Internet addiction among adolescents and to examine the correlation between Internet addiction and eating attitudes and body mass index (BMI). The study was conducted among 1,938 students, aged between 14 and 18 years. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), and a sociodemographic query form were used to collect data. According to the IAT, 12.4% of the study sample met the criteria for Internet addiction. A significant positive correlation between BMI and the IAT (r=0.307; paddiction (3.8%) and 90 with average Internet use (5.3%) were found to have a possible eating disorder (p>0.05). No relationship was found between the EAT and the IAT and duration of weekly Internet use. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant independent association of the IAT with BMI (r=0.235; paddiction and BMI. Further studies are needed to describe the causality of this association.

  15. Origins of Scatter in the Relationship between HCN 1-0 and Dense Gas Mass in the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Battersby, Cara

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the correlation of HCN 1-0 with gas mass in the central 300 pc of the Galaxy. We find that on the ∼10 pc size scale of individual cloud cores, HCN 1-0 is well correlated with dense gas mass when plotted as a log–log relationship. There is ∼0.75 dex of scatter in this relationship from clouds like Sgr B2, which has an integrated HCN 1-0 intensity of a cloud less than half its mass, and others that have HCN 1-0 enhanced by a factor of 2–3 relative to clouds of comparable mass. We identify the two primary sources of scatter to be self-absorption and variations in HCN abundance. We also find that the extended HCN 1-0 emission is more intense per unit mass than in individual cloud cores. In fact the majority (80%) of HCN 1-0 emission comes from extended gas with column densities below 7 × 1022 cm‑2, accounting for 68% of the total mass. We find variations in the brightness of HCN 1-0 would only yield a ∼10% error in the dense gas mass inferred from this line in the Galactic center. However, the observed order of magnitude HCN abundance variations, and the systematic nature of these variations, warn of potential biases in the use of HCN as dense gas mass tracer in more extreme environments such as an active galactic nucleus and shock-dominated regions. We also investigate other 3 mm tracers, finding that HNCO is better correlated with mass than HCN, and might be a better tracer of cloud mass in this environment.

  16. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Guricci, S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat per cent (BF%) in different population groups of Asians. The study design was a literature overview with special attention to recent Asian data. Specific information is provided on Indonesians (Malays and Chinese

  17. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Guricci, S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat per cent (BF%) in different population groups of Asians. The study design was a literature overview with special attention to recent Asian data. Specific information is provided on Indonesians (Malays and Chinese

  18. Evidence that the negative relationship between seed mass and relative growth rate is not physiological but linked to species identity: a within-family analysis of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jorge; Reich, Peter B; Sánchez-Miranda, Angela; Guerrero, Juan D

    2008-07-01

    Seed mass and relative growth rate (RGR) are important determinants of early seedling growth, and hence seedling establishment. Although a positive interspecific relationship between seed mass and seedling dry mass is well established, much less is known about the relationships among seed mass, seedling mass and RGR within species. We examined relationships among seed mass, seedling mass and RGR within and among maternal plant lines of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). To assess the effects of seed mass and maternal origin on RGR, individual seeds from two seed crops (years 2004 and 2005) of ten maternal plants growing under nursery conditions were weighed and then germinated. Seed mass was strongly determined by maternal plant, and seedling mass was largely determined by seed mass, with a positive correlation between these variables both across and within maternal plants. In contrast, RGR was weakly related to seed mass, with no consistent pattern in the sign of the relationship. It is well known that species differ in RGR and that RGR is related to seed mass across species. Lack of consistent evidence for this relationship within maternal lines, and for Scots pine overall, suggests that the relationship is not directly causal, but reflects consistent evolutionary covariation in these two physiologically independent traits.

  19. Adolescents’ Level of Perceived Stress and its Relationship with Body Mass Index in a Bangladeshi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker Shamima Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several behavioral factors, specially stress, eating behavior, and physical activity have been linked with adolescent obesity. In our country, mental health of adolescents is often neglected. So, we designed this study to describe the current perception of stress in Bangladeshi adolescent students. Objective: Aim of this study was to assess association between stress and body mass index of adolescents while controlling for physical activity and examining stress associated eating behavior. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 278 adolescent students during the period from January to December 2013. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire which included physical activity questions, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ, Adolescent stress questionnaire (ASQ and standard anthropometric measurements and were analyzed statistically using SPSS version 21.0. Results: In this study majority of the respondents were males. Among the female respondents, about 12.23% were overweight and obese compared to their male peers (4.1%. The normal and high BMI adolescents in the study showed significantly different proportions regarding gender (p<0.001, father’s education (p=0.036 and smoking status (p=0.22. Findings in this study reveals negative correlation between physical activity score and body mass index (ρ=−0.15, p<0.05. Body mass index was found significantly correlated with all three DEBQ eating subscales the restraint score, emotional eating score (ρ=0.58 p<0.001, and external eating score (ρ=0.55, p<0.001. Based on sample data, the mean stress scores were due to home life (3.40±0.54, school performance (3.31±0.63, school attendance (2.42±0.87, romantic relationship (3.02±0.92, peer pressure (2.85±0.72, due to teacher interaction (2.89±0.56, future uncertainty (3.83±0.90, school/leisure conflict (3.55±0.68, financial pressure (2.99±0.79 and emerging adult responsibility (3

  20. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Reverberation-Mapped AGNs in the Near-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Emily; Bentz, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results for a near-IR M-L scaling relationship for active galaxies in the reverberation sample. We are particularly interested in the effect of host-galaxy morphology on the M-L scaling relationship. In order to study evolution over cosmic time we must employ scaling relations, which are calibrated to the direct methods of black hole mass measurement and rely on correlations between host galaxy properties and black hole masses. However, it remains uncertain which scaling relation most reliably predicts black hole masses based on host galaxy observables. Recent studies of the M- relationship have uncovered a possible offset in the relationship due to the presence of a pseudobulge or bar in the host galaxy. This offset would adversely affect one's ability to use the M-relationship as a way to estimate black hole masses efficiently because it would require the detailed morphology of the galaxy to be known a priori. Preliminary results based on optical HST data suggest that the M-L relation for active galaxies with reverberation-based black hole masses is not plagued by the same offsets. However, due to dust and on-going star formation, the optical data yield an M-L relationship with a slightly higher scatter than the M- relation. We have carried out near-IR imaging with the WIYN High-Resolution Infrared Camera (WHIRC) on the WIYN telescope to minimize the effects of dust and star formation in order to test whether the M-L relationship is a more accurate predictor of black hole masses and a potentially more fundamental relationship. The imaging campaign has been completed, and we are currently in the process of carefully modeling the galaxy surface brightness features so that we can accurately remove the contribution from the point spread function of the active nucleus. We present our preliminary results here, and we expect that the final results will prove to be quite useful in conjunction with future large imaging surveys, such as LSST, which

  1. The relationship of abdominal fat mass assessed by helical or conventional computed tomography to serum leptin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Junji; Sasaki, Takeyoshi; Watanabe, Mitsuyo

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we focused on the relationship of intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) or subcutaneous fat (SF) mass to serum leptin levels, and also on the relationship of leptin to serum lipid and lipoprotein concentration. Subjects with obesity (26 men, 26 women) were recruited for this study. We obtained helical CT scans with a tube current of 150 mA, voltage of 120 kV and 2:1 pitch (table speed in relation to slice thickness), starting at the upper edge of the liver and continuing to the pelvis. The intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) volume was measured by drawing a line within the muscle wall surrounding the abdominal cavity. The abdominal SF volume was calculated by subtracting the VF volume from the total abdominal fat volume. By comparison, the abdominal VF and SF areas were determined at the umbilical level by the established slice-by-slice CT scanning technique. We found: 1) abdominal SF mass, either as volume or area, was a more important determinant of serum leptin than was VF mass; 2) among TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C, only TG had a positive correlation to serum leptin levels in men, whereas in women no lipid parameters had any relationship with leptin; and 3) VF mass had a positive correlation to serum TC and TG in men, whereas SF did not. The present study provides considerable evidence on the relationship between abdominal fat mass and serum leptin, and shows that the relationships between serum leptin and serum lipids and lipoproteins are not straightforward. We also suggest that fat area measured by conventional CT is a better indicator than its corresponding volume assessed by helical CT, based on the present results showing its closer association to serum lipids.

  2. Relationship between hydroperoxide concentration and average molar mass in thermo-oxidized polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, Manuela; Van Schoors, Laetitia; Colin, Xavier; Benzarti, Karim

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this research project is to investigate the oxidation mechanism of high density polyethylene (HDPE) used in outdoor applications, in order to establish in a near future, a non-empirical kinetic model for lifetime prediction. The present paper focuses on the changes in the hydroperoxide (POOH) concentration induced by thermo-oxidative ageing, and on their relationship with the evolution of the weight average molar mass (Mw) due both to chain scission and crosslinking processes. Thin HDPE films were aged at 110 and 140°C in air under atmospheric pressure. In a first part, changes in the POOH concentration versus ageing time were assessed by three different analytical methods previously reported in the literature: modulated differential scattering calorimetry (MDSC), Fourier transform Infra-Red spectrometry after chemical derivatization treatment with gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO2-FTIR), and iodometry. A comparison of experimental results revealed that these three methods provide very similar quantitative data on POOH accumulation, whereas iodometry tends to strongly underestimate the subsequent stage of POOH decomposition. It was thus suspected that iodometry does not only titrate POOH, but also other chemical species (presumably double bonds) formed when POOH decompose. Therefore, only MDSC and SO2-FTIR were considered as relevant methods for POOH titration. In a second part, changes in Mw versus ageing time were monitored by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). A sharp drop of Mw was first observed at the beginning of exposure, which was assigned to an intensive chain scission process. Then, in a second stage, a stabilization or even a substantial re-increase in Mw was observed, suggesting a competition between chain scission and crosslinking processes. As this second stage starts at the same time as POOH decomposition, it was concluded that there is a strong correlation between both phenomena, occurring respectively at the macromolecular and molecular

  3. Relationship between serum DHEAS and oxidative stress levels of body mass index in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy, Burhan; Atmaca, Murat; Aslan, Mehmet; Ucler, Rıfkı; Alay, Murat; Seven, Ismet; Demir, Halit; Ozturk, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    Menopause is a natural step in the process of aging. Postmenopausal women have decreased levels of antioxidants and increased oxidative stress, the latter of which plays an important role in atherogenesis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of the body mass index (BMI) with serum catalase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in healthy postmenopausal women and estimate whether the MDA/DHEAS ratio is a possible marker of oxidative stress for determining cardiovascular risk in these women. We investigated serum catalase activity, MDA, and DHEAS levels, parity history, age, and BMI in 96 healthy postmenopausal women aged 50-82 years. The serum MDA levels and catalase activity were measured spectrophotometrically. The serum DHEAS levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The ratio percentage of the serum DHEAS levels to serum MDA levels was designated as a biomarker for oxidative stress. The mean BMI of the patients was 31.72 ± 6.16 kg/m(2) (range = 20.5-47.94). The MDA/DHEAS ratio was significantly decreased in patients with a BMI over 30 compared to that of patients with a BMI between 25 and 30 (P = 0.025). Moreover, BMI was positively correlated with serum DHEAS levels (r = 0.285, P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with the MDA/DHEAS ratio (r = -0.241, P < 0.05) in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, BMI was observed to be a potential predictor of the MDA/DHEAS ratio based on covariance analysis (P = 0.039). Our results indicate that healthy, obese, postmenopausal women have a decreased MDA/DHEAS ratio. Additionally, BMI was observed to be a potential predictor of the MDA/DHEAS ratio.

  4. Convergence of macroscopic tongue anatomy in ruminants and scaling relationships with body mass or tongue length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Andrea R; Schmuck, Ute; Meloro, Carlo; Clauss, Marcus; Hofmann, Reinhold R

    2016-03-01

    Various morphological measures demonstrate convergent evolution in ruminants with their natural diet, in particular with respect to the browser/grazer dichotomy. Here, we report quantitative macroanatomical measures of the tongue (length and width of specific parts) of 65 ruminant species and relate them to either body mass (BM) or total tongue length, and to the percentage of grass in the natural diet (%grass). Models without and with accounting for the phylogenetic structures of the dataset were used, and models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion. Scaling relationships followed geometric principles, that is, length measures scaled with BM to the power of 0.33. Models that used tongue length rather than BM as a body size proxy were consistently ranked better, indicating that using size proxies that are less susceptible to a wider variety of factors (such as BM that fluctuates with body condition) should be attempted whenever possible. The proportion of the freely mobile tongue tip of the total tongue (and hence also the corpus length) was negatively correlated to %grass, in accordance with concepts that the feeding mechanism of browsers requires more mobile tongues. It should be noted that some nonbrowsers, such as cattle, use a peculiar mechanism for grazing that also requires long, mobile tongues, but they appear to be exceptions. A larger corpus width with increasing %grass corresponds to differences in snout shape with broader snouts in grazers. The Torus linguae is longer with increasing %grass, a finding that still warrants functional interpretation. This study shows that tongue measures covary with diet in ruminants. In contrast, the shape of the tongue (straight or "hourglass-shaped" as measured by the ratio of the widest and smallest corpus width) is unrelated to diet and is influenced strongly by phylogeny.

  5. Models of thin discs and spheroidal haloes with masses in a linear relationship: mass estimates for NGC4389 and UGC6969

    CERN Document Server

    González, Guillermo A; Reina, Jerson I

    2011-01-01

    A family of models of thin discs and spheroidal haloes with masses in a linear relationship is presented. The models are obtained by considering the gravitational potential as the superposition of two independent components, a potential generated by the thin galactic disc and a potential generated by the spheroidal halo. The models leads to an expression for the circular velocity that can be adjusted very accurately to the observed rotation curves of some specific galaxies, in such a way that the models are stable against radial and vertical perturbations. Two particular models for galaxies NGC4389 and UGC6969 are obtained by adjusting the circular velocity with data taken from the recent paper by Verheijen & Sancici (2001). The values of the halo mass, the disc mass and the total mass for these two galaxies are computed in such a way that we obtain a very narrow interval of values for these quantities. Furthermore, the values of masses here obtained are in perfect agreement with the expected order of mag...

  6. Students' use of mass media for ideas about romantic relationships was influenced by perceived realism of presentations and parental happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Alida S; Lynch, Teresa J; Lewandowski, Lisa; Hunt-Carter, Erin

    2003-06-01

    52 undergraduates between 18 and 24 years of age (34 women) answered a questionnaire about their use of mass media for ideas about romantic relationships and indicated how happy their parents' relationship seemed during the students' formative years. If sitcoms, dramas, magazine articles, or books were seen as realistic or presenting an ideal for which to strive in real life, students used ideas about romantic relationships presented more frequently, and they also more frequently explored sitcoms and dramas for ideas, but not magazines or books. If the parental relationship was seen as happy, students were more likely to use TV and magazines but not books for ideas; they evaluated sitcoms as more and books as less realistic.

  7. Recent accelerating mass loss of southeast Tibetan glaciers and the relationship with changes in macroscale atmospheric circulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Guo, Xiaofeng; Yao, Tandong; Zhu, Meilin; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-08-01

    The mass balance history (1980-2010) of a monsoon-dominated glacier in the southeast Tibetan Plateau is reconstructed using an energy balance model and later interpreted with regard to macroscale atmospheric variables. The results show that this glacier is characterized by significant interannual mass fluctuations over the past three decades, with a remarkably high mass loss during the recent period of 2003-2010. Analysis of the relationships between glacier mass balance and climatic variables shows that interannual temperature variability in the monsoonal season (June-September) is a primary driver of its mass balance fluctuations, but monsoonal precipitation tends to play an accentuated role for driving the observed glacier mass changes due to their covariation (concurrence of warm/dry and cold/wet climates) in the monsoon-influenced southeast Tibetan Plateau. Analysis of the atmospheric circulation pattern reveals that the predominance of anticyclonic/cyclonic circulations prevailing in the southeastern/northern Tibetan Plateau during 2003-2010 contributes to increased air temperature and decreased precipitation in the southeast Tibetan Plateau. Regionally contrasting atmospheric circulations explain the distinct mass changes between in the monsoon-influenced southeast Tibetan Plateau and in the north Tibetan Plateau/Tien Shan Mountains during 2003-2010. The macroscale climate change seems to be linked with the Europe-Asia teleconnection.

  8. Do galaxy global relationships emerge from local ones? The SDSS IV MaNGA surface mass density-metallicity relation

    CERN Document Server

    Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K; Zhu, Guangtun B; Zakamska, Nadia L; Sánchez, Sebastian F; Law, David; Wake, David; Green, Jenny E; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena; Pan, Kaike; Lopes, Alexandre Roman; Lane, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    We present the stellar surface mass density {\\it vs.} gas metallicity ($\\Sigma_*-Z$) relation for more than 500,000 spatially-resolved star-forming resolution elements (spaxels) from a sample of 653 disk galaxies included in the SDSS IV MaNGA survey. We find a tight relation between these local properties, with higher metallicities as the surface density increases. This relation extends over three orders of magnitude in the surface mass density and a factor of four in metallicity. We show that this local relationship can simultaneously reproduce two well-known properties of disk galaxies: their global mass-metallicity relationship {\\it and} their radial metallicity gradients. We also find that the $\\Sigma_* - Z$ relation is largely independent of the galaxy's total stellar mass and specific star-formation rate (sSFR), except at low stellar mass and high sSFR. These results suggest that in the present-day universe local properties play a key role in determining the gas-phase metallicity in typical disk galaxie...

  9. Reverse relationship between blood boron level and body mass index in humans: does it matter for obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbahceci, Mustafa; Cipe, Gokhan; Kadioglu, Huseyin; Aysan, Erhan; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2013-06-01

    The exact role of boron in humans is not known although its supplementation causes several important metabolic and inflammatory changes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility of an association between blood boron level and obesity in normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese subjects. A total number of 80 subjects, categorized into four groups based on their body mass index as normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese, were enrolled in this study. Age, sex, body mass index, and blood boron levels were recorded for each subject. Although the distribution of female and male subjects and blood boron levels were similar between groups, the mean age of normal subjects was significantly lower than the others (p = 0.002). There was a significant relationship between age and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject (β = 0.24; p = 0.003). In addition, between blood boron levels and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject, a significant reverse relationship was detected (β = -0.16; p = 0.043). Although age seemed to be an important variable for blood boron level and body mass index, blood boron levels were shown to be lower in obese subjects in comparison to non-obese subjects.

  10. Do galaxy global relationships emerge from local ones? The SDSS IV MaNGA surface mass density-metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zhu, Guangtun B.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Law, David; Wake, David; Green, Jenny E.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena; Pan, Kaike; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Lane, Richard R.

    2016-12-01

    We present the stellar surface mass density versus gas metallicity (Σ*-Z) relation for more than 500 000 spatially resolved star-forming resolution elements (spaxels) from a sample of 653 disc galaxies included in the SDSS IV MaNGA survey. We find a tight relation between these local properties, with higher metallicities as the surface density increases. This relation extends over three orders of magnitude in the surface mass density and a factor of 4 in metallicity. We show that this local relationship can simultaneously reproduce two well-known properties of disc galaxies: their global mass-metallicity relationship and their radial metallicity gradients. We also find that the Σ*-Z relation is largely independent of the galaxy's total stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR), except at low stellar mass and high sSFR. These results suggest that in the present-day universe local properties play a key role in determining the gas-phase metallicity in typical disc galaxies.

  11. Chronic airflow limitation in a rural Indian population: etiology and relationship to body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Biswajit Chakrabarti1, Sabita Purkait2, Punyabrata Gun2, Vicky C Moore3, Samadrita Choudhuri4, MJ Zaman5,6, Christopher J Warburton1, Peter MA Calverley7, Rahul Mukherjee3 1Aintree Chest Centre, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK; 2Moitri Swasthya Kendra, Shramajibi Swasthya Udyog, Chengail, West Bengal, India; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine and Physiology, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham, UK; 4National Medical College, Birgunj, Nepal; 5Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College, London, UK; 6The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, Australia; 7Clinical Sciences Centre, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK Purpose: Respiratory conditions remain a source of morbidity globally. As such, this study aimed to explore factors associated with the development of airflow obstruction (AFO in a rural Indian setting and, using spirometry, study whether underweight is linked to AFO. Methods: Patients > 35 years old attending a rural clinic in West Bengal, India, took a structured questionnaire, had their body mass index (BMI measured, and had spirometry performed by an ancillary health care worker. Results: In total, 416 patients completed the study; spirometry was acceptable for analysis of forced expiratory volume in 1 second in 286 cases (69%; 16% were noted to exhibit AFO. Factors associated with AFO were: increasing age (95% confidence interval (CI 0.004–0.011; P = 0.005, smoking history (95% CI 0.07–0.174; P = 0.006, male gender (95% CI 0.19–0.47; P = 0.012, reduced BMI (95% CI 0.19–0.65; P = 0.02, and occupation (95% CI 0.12–0.84; P = 0.08. The mean BMI in males who currently smoked (n = 60; 19.29 kg/m2; standard deviation [SD] 3.46 was significantly lower than in male never smokers (n = 33; 21.15 kg/m2 SD 3.38; P < 0.001. AFO was observed in 27% of subjects with a BMI <18.5 kg/m2, falling to 13% with a BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 (P = 0.013. AFO was observed in 11% of housewives, 22% of farm

  12. The Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, and Individual Habit to Bone Mineral Density in Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soung Ock; Lee, In Ja; Shin, Gwi Soon [Dept. of Radiologic Techology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    We studied the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by age, body mass index (BMI), coffee, carbonated drink, alcohol, smoking, and exercise in adults who checked in health center. The number of study subjects was total 268 persons (women of 136 persons and men of 132 persons). The BMD was determined in lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. And we got some results as below : 1. In women, mean body height was , mean body weight was 155.8{+-}6.0 cm, and mean BMI was 56.8{+-}7.9 kg. In men, mean body height was 169.1{+-}6.0 cm, mean body weight was 69.0{+-}9.5 kg, and mean BMI was 24.1{+-}2.7 kg/m{sup 2}. 2. BMD decreased as age increased, and the age was the most determinant factor for BMD (p<0.01). Women's BMD decreased rapidly in the groups aged {>=}50s, while men's BMD decreased gradually with age. In addition, for both sex, lower BMD was measured in lumbar spine than in femoral neck. 3. BMD increased in high BMI, and BMD with BMI increased distinctly in the group aged 50s. But their relationship was not significant. 4. In view of the distribution by three BMD categories, women's BMD was mostly normal in the groups aged {>=}40s but the rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was similar in the group aged 50s, and the rate of osteoporosis was the highest in the groups aged 60s and 70s. Men's BMD was mostly normal through all groups except the group aged 70s. 5. Coffee and carbonated drink were not influenced in BMD. But alcohol-drinking group showed higher BMD than non-drinking group, and alcohol was statistically significant determinant for BMD (p<0.05). Smoking and exercise were not statistically significant determinant of BMD.

  13. Relationship between Mid-Upper Arm Circumference and Body Mass Index in Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez Brito, Néstor; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Fuentes Ferrer, Manuel; Oliva García, Jose Gregorio; Delgado Brito, Irina; Pereyra-García Castro, Francisca; Caracena Castellanos, Nieves; Acevedo Rodríguez, Candelaria Xiomara; Palacio Abizanda, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutritional screening is a fundamental aspect of the initial evaluation of the hospitalised patient. Body Mass Index (BMI) in association with other parameters is a good marker of malnutrition (<18.5 kg/m2), but it presents the handicap that the great majority of patients cannot be weighed and measured. For this reason it is necessary to find other indicators that can be measured in these patients. Objectives 1) Analyse the relationship between BMI and Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC); 2) establish a cut-off point of MUAC equivalent to BMI <18.5 kg/m2. Materials and Methods The anthropometric data of patients hospitalised over the period 2004–2013 were retrospectively revised. The following variables were collected: weight, height, BMI, MUAC, sex and age. Results 1373 patients were evaluated, who presented a mean weight of: 65.04±15.51 kg; height: 1.66±0.09 m; BMI: 23.48±5.03 kg/m2; MUAC: 26.95±4.50 cm; age: 56.24±16.77. MUAC correlates suitably to BMI by means of the following equation (simple linear regression): BMI = − 0.042 + 0.873 x MUAC (cm) (R2 = 0.609), with a Pearson r value of 0.78 (p<0.001). The area under the curve of MUAC for the diagnosis of malnutrition was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90–0.94; p<0.001). The MUAC value ≤22.5 cm presented a sensitivity of 67.7%, specificity of 94.5%, and a correct classification of 90%. No significant statistical differences were found in the cut-off point of MUAC for the diagnosis of malnutrition based on sex (p = 0.115) and age (p = 0.694). Conclusions 1) MUAC correlates positively and significantly with BMI. 2) MUAC ≤ 22.5 cm correlates properly with a BMI of <18.5 kg/m2, independent of the age or sex of the patient, although there are other alternatives. MUAC constitutes a useful tool as a marker of malnutrition, fundamentally in patients for whom weight and height cannot be determined. PMID:27494612

  14. Cn to ccn relationships and cloud microphysical properties in different air masses at a free tropospheric site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dupuy

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The fraction of aerosol particles activated to droplets (CCN is often derived from semi-empirical relationships that commonly tend to overestimate droplet number concentration leading to major uncertainties in global climate models. One of the difficulties in relating aerosol concentration to cloud microphysics and cloud albedo lies in the necessity of working at a constant liquid water path (LWP, which is very difficult to control.

    In this study we observed the relationships between aerosol number concentration (NCN, cloud droplet concentration (Nd and effective radius (Reff, at the Puy de Dôme (France. A total of 20 cloud events were sampled representing a period of more than 250 h of cloud sampling. Samples are classified first according to air mass origins (Modified Marine, Continental and Polluted and then according to their liquid water content (Thin, Medium and Thick clouds.

    The CCN fraction of aerosols appears to vary significantly according to the air mass origin. It is maximum for Continental air masses and minimum for Polluted air masses. Surprisingly, the CCN fraction of Modified Marine air masses fraction is lower than the continental air mass and from expected from previous studies. The limited number of activated particles in Modified Marine air masses is most likely the result of the presence of hydrophobic organic compounds. The limited activation effect leads to a 0.5 to 1 μm increase in Reff with respect to an ideal Marine case. This is significant and implies that the dReff/dNCN of low-continental clouds is higher than expected.

  15. MORPHOLOGIC PARAMETERS AND LENGTH-MASS RELATIONSHIP OF THREE ROACH (Rutilus rutilus (L., 1758 POPULATIONS FROM NORTHWESTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikica Šprem

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Three populations of roach from northwestern Croatia were checked for 24 morphometric and 7 meristic parameters, as well as for length-mass relationship. Some meristic characters expressed the values beyond those mentioned in the key for freshwater fish species determination in southeastern Europe. Length-mass relationship and condition factor (CF were the highest in the river Kupa and somewhat lower in the eutrophic stagnant water (3 rd Maksimir lake. On the other hand, these parameters were significantly lower at roach from oligotrophic stagnant water (Mrtvica. This indicates that roach is similarly well adapted to the stagnant as well as running waters and that its condition and morphometry is primarily influenced by the quantity of the food offered.

  16. Constraining the mass-richness relationship of redMaPPer clusters with angular clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Eric J.; Rozo, Eduardo; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Rykoff, Eli; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-11-01

    The potential of using cluster clustering for calibrating the mass-richness relation of galaxy clusters has been recognized theoretically for over a decade. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of this technique to achieve high-precision mass calibration using redMaPPer clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey North Galactic Cap. By including cross-correlations between several richness bins in our analysis, we significantly improve the statistical precision of our mass constraints. The amplitude of the mass-richness relation is constrained to 7 per cent statistical precision by our analysis. However, the error budget is systematics dominated, reaching a 19 per cent total error that is dominated by theoretical uncertainty in the bias-mass relation for dark matter haloes. We confirm the result from Miyatake et al. that the clustering amplitude of redMaPPer clusters depends on galaxy concentration as defined therein, and we provide additional evidence that this dependence cannot be sourced by mass dependences: some other effect must account for the observed variation in clustering amplitude with galaxy concentration. Assuming that the observed dependence of redMaPPer clustering on galaxy concentration is a form of assembly bias, we find that such effects introduce a systematic error on the amplitude of the mass-richness relation that is comparable to the error bar from statistical noise. The results presented here demonstrate the power of cluster clustering for mass calibration and cosmology provided the current theoretical systematics can be ameliorated.

  17. Constraining the Mass-Richness Relationship of redMaPPer Clusters with Angular Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, Eric J; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Rykoff, Eli; Wechsler, Risa H

    2016-01-01

    The potential of using cluster clustering for calibrating the mass-observable relation of galaxy clusters has been recognized theoretically for over a decade. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of this technique to achieve high precision mass calibration using redMaPPer clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey North Galactic Cap. By including cross-correlations between several richness bins in our analysis we significantly improve the statistical precision of our mass constraints. The amplitude of the mass-richness relation is constrained to 7% statistical precision. However, the error budget is systematics dominated, reaching an 18% total error that is dominated by theoretical uncertainty in the bias-mass relation for dark matter halos. We perform a detailed treatment of the effects of assembly bias on our analysis, finding that the contribution of such effects to our parameter uncertainties is somewhat greater than that of measurement noise. We confirm the results from Miyatake et al. (2015) that the clus...

  18. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Percent Body Fat in Vietnamese: Implications for the Diagnosis of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q.; Nguyen, Mai T. T.; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of obesity in Vietnam has not been well defined because there is a lack of reference data for percent body fat (PBF) in Asians. This study sought to define the relationship between PBF and body mass index (BMI) in the Vietnamese population. Methods The study was designed as a comparative cross-sectional investigation that involved 1217 individuals of Vietnamese background (862 women) aged 20 years and older (average age 47 yr) who were randomly selected from the general ...

  19. INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE STATISTICAL MOMENTS OF THE FAT PHASE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND RELAXATION SPECTRA OF DAIRY PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    V. E. Merzlikin

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the search for optimal parameter estimation of the parameters of the process of homogenization of dairy products. Provides a theoretical basis for relationship of the relaxation time of the fat globules and attenuation coefficient of ultrasonic oscillations in dairy products. Suggested from the measured acoustic properties of milk to make the calculations of the mass distribution of fat globules. Studies on the proof of this hypothesis. Morphological analysis procedure ...

  20. The relationship between fat mass, eating behaviour and obesity-related psychological traits in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barry V; Bullmore, Edward T; Miller, Sam; McHugh, Simon; Simons, David; Dodds, Chris M; Koch, Annelize; Napolitano, Antonella; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2012-12-01

    Behavioural and psychological factors related to eating have been associated with obesity, although their relationship to anthropometric measures, more specifically fat mass, has not been fully examined. This study examined the relationship between fat mass (n=98; 75M, 23 F) and behavioural measures of eating and obesity related psychological traits (n=337; 226M, 111 F) in overweight and obese individuals (Mean BMI 30.5±4.0; BMI range 25-46kg/m(2)). Two sets of principal component analyses (PCA) were performed: one on validated questionnaires of eating behaviour and psychological traits and a second on fat mass and body weight related anthropometric measures (BMI, weight) and the aforementioned questionnaire measures. From the initial PCA (n=337), the primary principal component, P1 (R(2) value of 0.33), represented a latent variable associated with overeating or binge eating behaviour. In a second PCA (questionnaire measures augmented by anthropometric variables, n=98), a single component was identified, P1(+) (R(2) of 0.28), similar to that identified as P1 in the previous analysis and this component was highly correlated with fat mass (ρ=0.68). These findings suggest that levels of body fat and eating behaviour (namely, binging or overeating) are strongly related and, at least in a subgroup of individuals, obesity may be driven by behavioural factors associated with eating in combination with pre-existing environmental and genetic factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The association between body mass index and health-related quality of life: influence of ethnicity on this relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, C; Dunkley, A J; Aujla, N; Morris, D; Davies, M J; Khunti, K

    2013-04-01

    The association between obesity and a poorer health-related quality of life (HRQL) has previously been explored. The influence of ethnicity on this relationship has less frequently been considered. We aimed to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and HRQL in a mixed population of White European (WE) and South Asian (SA) ethnicity. Cross-sectional data were analysed (n = 4989, 16% SA) from a population-based diabetes screening study. BMI categories were based on ethnic-specific cut-points. HRQL was categorized low (BMI and HRQL. Interaction analysis was conducted to determine the effect of ethnicity. Overweight (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.10-1.41, p BMI and low HRQL but suggest that SA ethnicity modifies this relationship. These results could have important health implications and are a basis for further research. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Relationship of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF-23) Serum Levels With Low Bone Mass in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Fu, Shiping; Song, Yuan

    2017-05-02

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) level and bone mass in postmenopausal women. A total of 60 premenopausal, 60 early postmenopausal, and 60 late postmenopausal women were investigated by the measurement of bone mineral densities (BMDs) at lumbar spine and proximal femur by DXA, together with serum concentrations of Ca, P, 25 (OH) D3 , OC, iPTH, CTX-I, PINP, and FGF-23. The levels of FGF-23 and PINP in early postmenopausal group were significantly higher than that in the premenopausal or the late postmenopausal groups, their changing patterns were different form 25(OH)D3, iPTH, IGF, CTX-I, and OC. According to the AUCs in the ROC analysis, we found that serum FGF-23 level was associated with the highest validity as compared to the other bone metabolism factors. Further study indicated the significant negative relationships between serum FGF-23 level and lumbar spine/proximal femur BMDs in postmenopausal women. After detection of the sensitivity and specificity of serum FGF- 23 for the low bone mass at different T-score (SD) lumbar spine/proximal femur BMDs, we found that serum FGF-23 level may be a reliable marker for low bone mass in postmenopausal women. The performance of FGF-23 in the differential diagnosis low bone mass from healthy participants indicated that FGF-23 has the capacity to differentiate the women with low bone mass from the normal ones. Our study indicated that serum FGF-23 level could be served as the utility in the early detection of women with low bone mass. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-6, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mass-radius relationships and constraints on the composition of Pluto. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, M. J.; Lewis, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    A model of Pluto's interior is presented based on new estimates of its mass within the range of possible masses. The model is consistent with the most recent observations by Arnold et al., and calls for a silicate-poor, H2O ice-rock bulk composition of Pluto. The results of the Charon-Pluto eclipses will lead to a more conclusive constraint to Pluto's bulk composition.

  4. Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wehner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

  5. Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sugimoto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration (PM1 and PM10 by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

  6. Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, B.; Birmili, W.; Ditas, F.; Wu, Z.; Hu, M.; Liu, X.; Mao, J.; Sugimoto, N.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2008-06-01

    The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration (PM1 and PM10) by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

  7. Relationships between submicrometer particulate air pollution and air mass history in Beijing, China, 2004 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, B.; Birmili, W.; Ditas, F.; Wu, Z.; Hu, M.; Liu, X.; Mao, J.; Sugimoto, N.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2008-10-01

    The Chinese capital Beijing is one of the global megacities where the effects of rapid economic growth have led to complex air pollution problems that are not well understood. In this study, ambient particle number size distributions in Beijing between 2004 and 2006 are analysed as a function of regional meteorological transport. An essential result is that the particle size distribution in Beijing depends to large extent on the history of the synoptic scale air masses. A first approach based on manual back trajectory classification yielded differences in particulate matter mass concentration by a factor of two between four different air mass categories, including three main wind directions plus the case of stagnant air masses. A back trajectory cluster analysis refined these results, yielding a total of six trajectory clusters. Besides the large scale wind direction, the transportation speed of an air mass was found to play an essential role on the PM concentrations in Beijing. Slow-moving air masses were shown to be associated with an effective accumulation of surface-based anthropogenic emissions due to both, an increased residence time over densely populated land, and their higher degree of vertical stability. For the six back trajectory clusters, differences in PM1 mass concentrations by a factor of 3.5, in the mean air mass speed by a factor of 6, and in atmospheric visibility by a factor of 4 were found. The main conclusion is that the air quality in Beijing is not only degraded by anthropogenic aerosol sources from within the megacity, but also by sources across the entire Northwest China plain depending on the meteorological situation.

  8. Relationships betweeninterspeciifc differences inthe mass ofinternal organs, biochemical markers ofmetabolic activity, andthe thermogenic properties ofthree small passerines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minlan Bai; Xujian Wu; Kejing Cai; Weihong Zheng; Jinsong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The capacity for thermogenesis is considered part of an animal’s adaptive strategy for survival, and basal metabolic rate (BMR) is one of the fundamental physiological standards for assessing the energy cost of ther-moregulation in endotherms. BMR has been shown to be a highly lfexible phenotypic trait both between, and within, species, but the metabolic mechanisms involved in the regulation of BMR, which range from variation in organ mass to biochemical adjustments, remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between organ mass, biochemical markers of metabolic tissue activity, and thermogenesis, in three species of small passerines: wild Bram-blings (Fringilla montifringilla), Little Buntings (Emberiza pusilla) and Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus), caught in Wenzhou, southeastern China. Methods: Oxygen consumption was measured using an open-circuit respirometry system. Mitochondrial state-4 res-piration and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in liver and pectoral muscle were measured with a Clark electrode. Results: Our results show that Eurasian Tree Sparrows had signiifcantly higher BMR, digestive organ mass, mitochon-drial state-4 respiration capacity and COX activity in liver and muscle, than Bramblings and Little Buntings. Further-more, interspeciifc differences in BMR were strongly correlated with those indigestive tract mass, state-4 respiration and COX activity. Conclusions: Our ifndings suggest that the digestive organ mass, state-4 respiration and COX activity play an impor-tant role in determining interspeciifc differences in BMR.

  9. Size matters: relationships between body size and body mass of common coastal, aquatic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Eklöf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Organism biomass is one of the most important variables in ecological studies, making biomass estimations one of the most common laboratory tasks. Biomass of small macroinvertebrates is usually estimated as dry mass or ash-free dry mass (hereafter ‘DM’ vs. ‘AFDM’ per sample; a laborious and time consuming process, that often can be speeded up using easily measured and reliable proxy variables like body size or wet (fresh mass. Another common way of estimating AFDM (one of the most accurate but also time-consuming estimates of biologically active tissue mass is the use of AFDM/DM ratios as conversion factors. So far, however, these ratios typically ignore the possibility that the relative mass of biologically active vs. non-active support tissue (e.g., protective exoskeleton or shell—and therefore, also AFDM/DM ratios—may change with body size, as previously shown for taxa like spiders, vertebrates and trees. Methods We collected aquatic, epibenthic macroinvertebrates (>1 mm in 32 shallow bays along a 360 km stretch of the Swedish coast along the Baltic Sea; one of the largest brackish water bodies on Earth. We then estimated statistical relationships between the body size (length or height in mm, body dry mass and ash-free dry mass for 14 of the most common taxa; five gastropods, three bivalves, three crustaceans and three insect larvae. Finally, we statistically estimated the potential influence of body size on the AFDM/DM ratio per taxon. Results For most taxa, non-linear regression models describing the power relationship between body size and (i DM and (ii AFDM fit the data well (as indicated by low SE and high R2. Moreover, for more than half of the taxa studied (including the vast majority of the shelled molluscs, body size had a negative influence on organism AFDM/DM ratios. Discussion The good fit of the modelled power relationships suggests that the constants reported here can be used to quickly estimate

  10. A relationship between halo mass, cooling, active galactic nuclei heating and the co-evolution of massive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, R. A.; McNamara, B. R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Russell, H. R.; Vantyghem, A. N.

    2017-02-01

    We derive X-ray mass, luminosity, and temperature profiles for 45 galaxy clusters to explore relationships between halo mass, active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback, and central cooling time. We find that radio-mechanical feedback power (referred to here as `AGN power') in central cluster galaxies correlates with halo mass as Pmech ∝ M1.55 ± 0.26, but only in haloes with central atmospheric cooling times shorter than 1 Gyr. The trend of AGN power with halo mass is consistent with the scaling expected from a self-regulating AGN feedback loop, as well as with galaxy and central black hole co-evolution along the MBH-σ relation. AGN power in clusters with central atmospheric cooling times longer than ˜1 Gyr typically lies two orders of magnitude below those with shorter central cooling times. Galaxies centred in clusters with long central cooling times nevertheless experience ongoing and occasionally powerful AGN outbursts. We further investigate the impact of feedback on cluster scaling relations. We find L-T and M-T relations in clusters with direct evidence of feedback which are steeper than self-similar, but not atypical compared to previous studies of the full cluster population. While the gas mass rises, the stellar mass remains nearly constant with rising total mass, consistent with earlier studies. This trend is found regardless of central cooling time, implying tight regulation of star formation in central galaxies as their haloes grew, and long-term balance between AGN heating and atmospheric cooling. Our scaling relations are presented in forms that can be incorporated easily into galaxy evolution models.

  11. Self-compassion moderates the relationship between body mass index and both eating disorder pathology and body image flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Vimalakanthan, Kiruthiha; Miller, Kathryn E

    2014-09-01

    The current study examined whether self-compassion, the tendency to treat oneself kindly during distress and disappointments, would attenuate the positive relationship between body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder pathology, and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility. One-hundred and fifty-three female undergraduate students completed measures of self-compassion, self-esteem, eating disorder pathology, and body image flexibility, which refers to one's acceptance of negative body image experiences. Controlling for self-esteem, hierarchical regressions revealed that self-compassion moderated the relationships between BMI and the criteria. Specifically, the positive relationship between BMI and eating disorder pathology and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility were weaker the higher women's levels of self-compassion. Among young women, self-compassion may help to protect against the greater eating disturbances that coincide with a higher BMI, and may facilitate the positive body image experiences that tend to be lower the higher one's BMI.

  12. Mediating relationship between body mass index and the direct measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour on physical activity intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Duncan, Mitch J; Mummery, Kerry; Steele, Rebekah; Schofield, Grant

    2008-03-01

    This research examines (a) the interrelationships between body mass index (BMI), the direct measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and physical activity intention and (b) the potential mediation effects of the direct measures of the TPB in the relationship between BMI and physical activity intention in a sample of Australian adults. A total sample of 1,062 respondents participated in a computer-assisted telephone-interview (CATI) survey comprised of a standardised introduction; questions regarding TPB and physical activity; and standard demographic questions. BMI for each participant was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Separate regression analyses were performed to examine the mediating effects of each of the direct measures of the TPB on the predictive relationship between the BMI and physical activity intention, as proposed by Baron and Kenny (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173 - 1182, 1986). Findings indicated that the direct measure of attitude and perceived behavioural control mediated the relationship between BMI and physical activity intention. However, the direct measure of subjective norm failed to act as a mediating mechanism. To date there has been no research that has examined the mechanism by which body mass may affect physical activity behaviour. Given the current focus for health promotion specialists on promoting physical activity as a strategy for reducing overweight and obesity, a theoretical understanding of weight-related barriers to physical activity may aid in the development of future interventions and community physical activity programs, particularly those targeting overweight and obese populations.

  13. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  14. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…

  15. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  16. Relationship of Heath and Carter's Second Component to Lean Body Mass and Height in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, M. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The Heath and Carter approach to determining somatotypes is less accurate than is regression analysis, mainly because of the lack of association between skeletal widths and lean body mass as measured by body density and whole-body fat percentage, holding constant muscle circumference. (Author)

  17. Relationship between C-Reactive Protein and Body Mass Index in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baseline levels of C-reactive protein in apparently healthy men and women ... level CRP was found to be associated with a 10-year risk of coronary heart disease ... Key words: C-Reactive Protein, Body Mass Index, Type II diabetes Mellitus.

  18. Inverse relationship between body mass index and mortality in older nursing home residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veronese, N; Cereda, E; Solmi, M

    2015-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and mortality in old adults from the general population have been related in a U-shaped or J-shaped curve. However, limited information is available for elderly nursing home populations, particularly about specific cause of death. A systematic PubMed/EMBASE/CINAHL/SCOPUS...

  19. On the relationship between acetone and carbon monoxide in different air masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Reus

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide and acetone measurements are presented for five aircraft measurement campaigns at mid-latitudes, polar and tropical regions in the northern hemisphere. Throughout all campaigns, free tropospheric air masses, which were influenced by anthropogenic emissions, showed a similar linear relation between acetone and CO, with a slope of 21-25 pptv acetone/ppbv CO. Measurements in the anthropogenically influenced marine boundary layer revealed a slope of 13-16 pptv acetone/ppbv CO. The different slopes observed in the marine boundary layer and the free troposphere indicate that acetone is emitted by the ocean in relatively clean air masses and taken up by the ocean in polluted air masses. In the lowermost stratosphere, a good correlation between acetone and CO was observed as well, however, with a much smaller slope (~5 pptv acetone/ppbv CO compared to the troposphere. This is caused by the longer photochemical lifetime of CO compared to acetone in the lower stratosphere, due to the increasing photolytic loss of acetone and the decreasing OH concentration with altitude. No significant correlation between acetone and CO was observed over the tropical rain forest due to the large direct and indirect biogenic emissions of acetone. The common slopes of the linear acetone-CO relation in various layers of the atmosphere, during five field experiments, makes them useful for model calculations. Often a single observation of the acetone-CO correlation, determined from stratospheric measurements, has been used in box model applications. This study shows that different slopes have to be considered for marine boundary layer, free tropospheric and stratospheric air masses, and that the acetone-CO relation cannot be used for air masses which are strongly influenced by biogenic emissions.

  20. The DiskMass Survey. VIII. On the Relationship between Disk Stability and Star Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, Kyle B.; Andersen, David R.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Swaters, Robert A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the stability level of late-type galaxy disks and their star-formation activity using integral-field gaseous and stellar kinematic data. Specifically, we compare the two-component (gas+stars) stability parameter from Romeo & Wiegert (Q RW), incorporating stellar kin

  1. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Dietery Intake, and Body Mass Index in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the relationship of diet and weight to alcohol consumption in young adults. Dietary intake data were collected in 1995–1996 on 1,335 young adults (20–38 years) (62% female; 27% black) using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (YAQ), and the Health Lifestyle-Behavio...

  2. The relationship between the development of musculoskeletal disorders, body mass index, and academic stress in Bahraini University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawy, Sayed A; Abdul Rahman, Asma; Abdul Ameer, Maryam

    2017-04-01

    There are many mechanisms in which stress can lead to weight gain thus high a BMI. The endocrine and inflammatory pathway can directly increase abdominal adiposity. Another way in which stress leads to weight gain is through changes in health behaviors. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among healthy students of Ahlia University, and to determine the relationship between the development of MSDs and academic stressors and body mass index. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 94 students aged 18-26 years who were enrolled at various Ahlia University colleges and met other inclusion criteria. The students responded to the standardized Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire and the modified College Student Stress Inventory regarding musculoskeletal symptoms and academic stressors. Height and weight measurements were also obtained to determine body mass index. A total of 77.66% reported MSDs in one or more body part, with the prevalence being higher among women than among men. The 7-day prevalence of MSDs severe enough to interfere with activities of daily living was 60.64%, and 44.68% by female and male students, respectively. There was a significant relationship between academic stress and MSDs in the neck, shoulders, lower back, and hips, while the relationship between MSDs, and body mass index, academic stress, and grade point average was not significant. The prevalence of MSDs among Ahlia University students was found to be high. Apart from the positive correlation between academic stress and MSDs in certain body parts, other correlations were not significant.

  3. Relationship Not Found Between Blood and Urine Concentrations and Body Mass Index in Humans With Apparently Adequate Boron Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Fulya; Aysan, Erhan; Hasbahceci, Mustafa; Arpaci, Beyza; Gecer, Salih; Demirci, Selami; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2016-06-01

    The impact of boron on the development of obesity remains controversial in the analysis of experimental and clinical data. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between blood and urine boron concentrations and obesity in normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese subjects in different age groups. A total of 105 subjects were categorized into 12 groups based on body mass index and three different age levels: as young adult (18 to 34 years old), adult (35 to 54 years old), and older adult (greater than 55 years old). Age, gender, body mass index, and blood and urine boron concentrations were recorded for each subject. There were 50 women and 55 men, with a mean age of 44.63 ± 17.9 years. Blood and urine boron concentrations were similar among the groups (p = 0.510 and p = 0.228, respectively). However, a positive correlation between age and blood boron concentration (p = 0.001) was detected in contrast to the presence of a negative correlation between age and urine boron concentration (p = 0.027). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between gender, age, and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject, and blood and urine boron concentrations. Although the relationship between boron and obesity has not been confirmed, changes of blood and urine boron concentrations with age may have some physiologic sequences to cause obesity.

  4. The relationships between breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density with body mass index, body fat mass and ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariyah, N.; Pathy, N. B.; Taib, N. A. M.; Rahmat, K.; Judy, C. W.; Fadzil, F.; Lau, S.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that breast density and obesity are related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density (VBD) with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (BFM) for the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Malaysia. We collected raw digital mammograms from 2450 women acquired on three digital mammography systems. The mammograms were analysed using Volpara software to obtain breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Body weight, BMI and BFM of the women were measured using a body composition analyser. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of increased overall breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Indians have highest breast volume and breast dense volume followed by Malays and Chinese. While Chinese are highest in VBD, followed by Malay and Indian. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing BMI and BFM were independent predictors of increased overall breast volume and dense volume. Moreover, BMI and BFM were independently and inversely related to VBD.

  5. Lifting the lid on geographic complexity in the relationship between body mass index and education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Maigeng; Feng, Xiaoqi; Yong, Jiang; Li, Yichong; Zhang, Mei; Page, Andrew; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Zhao, Wenhua

    2017-07-01

    In China, rising obesity has coincided with increasing affluence. Few studies have properly accounted for geographic variation, however, which may influence prior results. Using large data with biomarkers in China, we show body mass index (BMI) to be positively correlated with higher person-level education if estimated using ordinary least squares. In stark contrast, fitting the same data within a multilevel model gives the complete opposite result. We go on to show that the relationship between BMI and person-level education in China is dependent upon geography, underlining why multilevel modelling is crucial for revealing these types of people-place contingencies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Cardiac mass and function decrease in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation: relationship to physical activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B Hinrichs

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: There is a need to expand knowledge on cardio-pulmonary pathophysiology of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS following lung transplantation (LTx. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess MRI-derived biventricular cardiac mass and function parameters as well as flow hemodynamics in patients with and without BOS after LTx. METHODS: Using 1.5T cardiac MRI, measurements of myocardial structure and function as well as measurements of flow in the main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta were performed in 56 lung transplant patients. The patients were dichotomized into two gender matched groups of comparable age range: one with BOS (BOS stages 1-3 and one without BOS (BOS 0/0p. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Significantly lower biventricular cardiac mass, right and left ventricular end-diastolic volume, biventricular stroke volume, flow hemodynamics and significant higher heart rate but preserved cardiac output were observed in patients with BOS 1-3 compared to the BOS 0/0p group (p < 0.05. In a stepwise logistic regression analysis global cardiac mass (p = 0.046 and days after LTx (p = 0.0001 remained independent parameters to predict BOS. In a second model an indicator for the physical fitness level - walking number of stairs - was added to the logistic regression model. In this second model, time after LTx (p = 0.005 and physical fitness (p = 0.01 remained independent predictors for BOS. CONCLUSION: The observed changes in biventricular cardiac mass and function as well as changes in hemodynamic flow parameters in the pulmonary trunk and ascending aorta are likely attributed to the physical fitness level of patients after lung transplantation, which in turn is strongly related to lung function.

  7. Fat free mass explains the relationship between stunting and energy expenditure in urban Mexican Maya children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hannah J; Dickinson, Federico; Hoffman, Daniel J; Griffiths, Paula L; Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2012-09-01

    Childhood stunting has been associated with an increased risk of obesity in adulthood, but the causes are unclear. This study hypothesizes that stunting significantly reduces both resting and activity energy expenditure. To assess and describe energy expenditure of low socio-economic Maya children and to determine whether stunting is independently related to energy expenditure after controlling for lean mass. Thirty-three urban Maya children, 17 boys, aged 7-9 years, living in Merida, Mexico, were measured for height, weight and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Body composition was estimated from BIA. Energy expenditure was measured for one week using the Actiheart (combined heart rate and accelerometer). Stunting (height-for-age below the 5(th) percentile of NHANES III based references) affected 35% of these physically active children. Using multiple linear regression analysis, greater lean body mass predicted higher resting and activity energy expenditure. Stature was not a significant predictor of resting energy expenditure. A lower height-for-age z-score, but not stunting as a categorical variable, significantly predicted lower activity energy expenditure. The hypothesis that stunting reduces total energy expenditure (resting + active) in children is not supported. Rather, children with shorter stature and less lean body mass have lower total energy expenditure. Complex interactions between body size, body composition, and metabolic activity appear to elevate the risk for later life obesity in these Maya children.

  8. Quantitative relationship between visibility and mass concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing-li; ZHANG Yuan-hang; SHAO Min; LIU Xu-lin; ZENG Li-min; CHENG Cong-lan; XU Xiao-feng

    2006-01-01

    The pollution of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is a serious environmental problem in Beijing. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 in 2001 from seasonal monitor results was more than 6 times that of the U.S. national ambient air quality standards proposed by U.S. EPA. The major contributors to mass of PM2.5 were organics, crustal elements and sulfate. The chemical composition of PM2.5 varied largely with season, but was similar at different monitor stations in the same season. The fine particles (PM2.5) cause atrnospheric visibility deterioration through light extinction. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 were anti-correlated to the visibility, the best fits between atmospheric visibility and the mass concentrations of PM2.5 were somehow different: power in spring, exponential in summer, logarithmic in autumn, power or exponential in winter. As in each season the meteorological parameters such as air temperature and relative humidity change from day to day, probably the reason of above correlations between PM2.5 and visibility obtained at different seasons come from the differences in chemical compositions of PM2.5.

  9. Relationship between US Societal Fatality Risk per Vehicle Miles of Travel and Mass, for Individual Vehicle Models over Time (Model Year)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Technologies Area. Building Technology and Urban Systems Division

    2016-07-27

    This report presents a new approach to analyze the relationship between vehicle mass and risk: tracking fatality risk by vehicle model year and mass, for individual vehicle models. This approach is appealing as it greatly minimizes the influence of driver characteristics and behavior, and crash circumstances, on fatality risk. However, only the most popular vehicle models, with the largest number of fatalities, can be analyzed in this manner. While the analysis of all vehicle models of a given type suggests that there is a relationship between increased mass and fatality risk, analysis of the ten most popular four-door car models separately suggests that this relationship is weak: in many cases when the mass of a specific vehicle model is increased societal fatality risk is unchanged or even increases. These results suggest that increasing the mass of an individual vehicle model does not necessarily lead to decreased societal fatality risk.

  10. Experimental Measurement for Shock Velocity-Mass Velocity Relationship of Liquid Argon Up to 46 GPa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟川民; 施尚春; 董石; 杨向东; 谭华; 经福谦

    2003-01-01

    Shock properties of liquid argon were measured in the shock pressure up to 46 GPa by employing the two-stage light gas gun. Liquid nitrogen was used as coolant liquid. The cryogenic target system has been improved to compare with the previous work. Shock velocities were measured with self-shorting electrical probes. Impactor velocities were measured with an electrical-magnetic induction system. Mass velocities were obtained by mean of shock impedance matching method. The experimental data shows that the slope of experimental Hugoniot curve of liquid argon begins to decrease above 30 GPa.

  11. Relationships between ocean anoxia, the biological pump, and marine animal life during the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K. M.; Schaal, E. K.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean anoxia/euxinia and carbon cycle instability have long been linked to the end-Permian mass extinction and the Early Triassic interval of delayed or interrupted biotic recovery. Many hypotheses to explain this extinction event invoke the release of greenhouse gases during the emplacement of the Siberian Traps, which likely triggered abrupt changes in marine biogeochemical cycling, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. However, the precise ways in which volcanism and these perturbations are linked and how they governed the tempo and mode of biotic recovery remain poorly understood. Here we highlight new C, Ca, and Sr isotopic data that serve to link volcanic CO2 inputs to changes in marine biogeochemistry and environmental change. We then examine the relationship between ocean biogeochemistry, the biological pump, and marine animal ecosystems during the end-Permian mass extinction and Early Triassic recovery. Finally, we use numerical simulations to probe whether these relationships also explain broad Phanerozoic trends in ocean nutrient status, anoxia, and productivity of marine ecosystems.

  12. Effect of Using Different Vehicle Weight Groups on the Estimated Relationship Between Mass Reduction and U.S. Societal Fatality Risk per Vehicle Miles of Travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Technologies Area. Building Technology and Urban Systems Division

    2016-08-22

    This report recalculates the estimated relationship between vehicle mass and societal fatality risk, using alternative groupings by vehicle weight, to test whether the trend of decreasing fatality risk from mass reduction as case vehicle mass increases, holds over smaller increments of the range in case vehicle masses. The NHTSA baseline regression model estimates the relationship using for two weight groups for cars and light trucks; we re-estimated the mass reduction coefficients using four, six, and eight bins of vehicle mass. The estimated effect of mass reduction on societal fatality risk was not consistent over the range in vehicle masses in these weight bins. These results suggest that the relationship indicated by the NHTSA baseline model is a result of other, unmeasured attributes of the mix of vehicles in the lighter vs. heavier weight bins, and not necessarily the result of a correlation between mass reduction and societal fatality risk. An analysis of the average vehicle, driver, and crash characteristics across the various weight groupings did not reveal any strong trends that might explain the lack of a consistent trend of decreasing fatality risk from mass reduction in heavier vehicles.

  13. Mass concentration of Hirnantian cephalopods from the Siljan District, Sweden; taxonomy, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeographic relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kröger

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Hirnantian Glisstjärn Formation (Normalograptus persculptus graptolite Biozone is a succession of limestones and shales onlapping the Katian Boda Limestone in the Siljan District, Sweden. It contains a conspicuous, up to several decimeter thick bed densely packed with bipolarly oriented, orthoconic cephalopod conchs that can reach lengths of more than 120 cm. Conch fragmentation, bioereosion and the generally poor preservation of the conchs indicate time averaging and the conchs are tentatively interpreted as beached, and a result of winnowing. Ten nautiloid species were collected from the Glisstjärn Formation of which five are new: Dawsonoceras gregarium n. sp., Discoceras siljanense n. sp., Isorthoceras dalecarlense n. sp., Retizitteloceras rarum gen. et sp. n., and Transorthoceras osmundsbergense gen. et sp. n. The non-endemic taxa in most cases are known from elsewhere in Baltoscandia, except one species which is known from Siberia, and North America respectively. Proteocerid orthoceridans dominate the association, of which T. osmundsbergense is the predominant species. Oncocerids are diverse but together with tarphycerids very rare. Notable is the lack of many higher taxa, that are typical for other Late Ordovician shallow water depositional settings. Based on the taxonomical composition of the cephalopod mass occurrence it is interpreted as an indicator of eutrophication of the water masses in the area. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000014

  14. The Severity of Dysmenorrhea and its Relationship with Body Mass Index among Female Adolescents in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Khodakarami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common problem among women, resulting in a decline in their performance level and quality of life. Previous studies have not indicated a definite relationship between body mass index (BMI and dysmenorrhea. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the severity of dysmenorrhea and investigate its relationship with BMI among female adolescents in Hamadan, Iran. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 579 single, female adolescents in schools of Hamadan, Iran in 2011. Students with primary dysmenorrhea (without any other conditions were selected, using random cluster sampling. Demographic characteristics and menstrual cycle information were collected, using two separate questionnaires. BMI was recorded in all participants and visual analogue scale was applied for pain assessment. Chi-square, t-test, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between variables. Data were analyzed, using SPSS version 16. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age, BMI and age at menarche in participants were 15.94±1.17 years, 21.16±3.36 kg/m2 and 12.92± 1.05 years, respectively. The frequency of dysmenorrhea was estimated to be 85.31%. The frequency and severity of dysmenorrhea was higher in the normal-weight group than other subjects. No relationship was seen between the severity and duration of dysmenorrhea with BMI. But dysmenorrhea had a significant relationship with age at menarche and premenstrual syndrome (P

  15. Relationship of left heart size and left ventricular mass with exercise capacity in chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yu-qin; WANG Le-min; CHE Lin; SONG Hao-ming; ZHANG Qi-ping

    2011-01-01

    Background Impaired exercise capacity is one of the most common clinical manifestations in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). The severity of reduced exercise capacity is an indicator of disease prognosis. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between left heart size and mass with exercise capacity.Methods A total of 74 patients were enrolled in the study, with 37 having congestive heart failure (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <0.45) and the other 37 with coronary heart disease (by coronary angiography) serving as the control group (LVEF >0.55). Echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise test were performed. The multiply linear regression model was used to evaluate the association between echocardiogrphic indices and exercise capacities.Results The study showed that left ventricular end diastolic / systolic diameter (LVEDD/LVESD), left atrial diameter (LAD) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were significantly enlarged in patients with chronic heart failure compared with controls (P <0.01). The VO2AT, Peak VO2, Load AT, and Load Peak in chronic heart failure patients were also significantly reduced compared with controls (P <0.05), VE/VCO2 slope was increased in patients with chronic heart failure (P <0.01). Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that the patients' exercise capacity was significantly associated with the left heart size and mass, however, the direction and/or strength of the associations sometimes varied in chronic heart failure patients and controls. Load AT correlated negatively with LVEDD in chronic heart failure patients (P=0.012), while Load AT correlated positively with LVEDD in control patients (P=0.006). VE/VCO2 slope correlated positively with LAD (B=0.477, P <0.0001) in chronic heart failure patients, while the VE/VCO2 slope correlated negatively with LAD in control patients (P=0.009).Conclusion The study indicates that the size of LVEDD and LAD are important

  16. Mass-radius relationships and constraints on the composition of Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, M. J.; Lewis, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    With the new upper limit of Pluto's mass, an upper limit for Pluto's density of 1.74 g/cu cm has been found. Assuming Pluto to be 100% methane, available methane density data can be used to set a lower limit of 0.53 g/cu cm on Pluto's density, thus placing an absolute upper limit of 1909 km on the radius and a lower limit of 0.32 on the albedo. The results of 280 computer models covering a wide range of composition ratios of rock, water ice, and methane ice are reported. Limits are placed on Pluto's silicate content, and a simple spacecraft method for determining Pluto's water content from its density and moment of inertia is given. The low thermal conductivity and strength of solid methane suggest rapid solid-state convection in Pluto's methane layer.

  17. Relationship between the rock mass deformation and places of occurrence of seismological events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAKOWKA Janusz; KABIESZ Jozef; DOU Lin-ming

    2009-01-01

    Static effort of rock mass very rarely causes of rock burst in polish coal mines. Rock bursts with source in the seismic tremor within the roof rock layers are prevailing. A seismic tremor is an effect of rupture or sliding in roof layers above the exploited panel in coal seam, sometime in a distance from actual exploitation. Sliding, as a rule occurs in fault zone and tremors in it are expected, but monolithic layer rupture is very hard to predict. In a past few years a practice of analyzing state of deformation in high energy seismic tremors zones has been employed. It let gathering experience thanks to witch determination of dangerous shape of reformatted roof is possible. In the paper some typical forms of roof rocks deformations leading to seismic tremor occurrence will be presented. In general these are various types of multidirectional rock layers bending. Real examples of seismic events and rock bursts will be shown.

  18. Relationships between internal morphology and body mass in the developing, nursling collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E

    1985-01-01

    Morphological characteristics that reflect size differences due to dietary conditions are in wide use to assess nutritional status of many wild ungulates. This study was designed to provide baseline information on the development of internal visceral and endocrine structures of nursling collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) from birth to six weeks of age (weaning). A high energy-high protein ration was fed ad libitum to lactating females, and absolute and relative mass of selected visceral organ, endocrine, and fat depots were measured in various aged nurslings. Linear measurements were also obtained on components of the gastrointestinal tract. Allometric growth coefficients (b) varied considerably among the various organs and glands examined, ranging from below (brain, b = 0.26) to well above (thymus, b = 1.61) unity.

  19. Explaining the Positive Relationship Between Fourth-Grade Children's Body Mass Index and Energy Intake at School-Provided Meals (Breakfast and Lunch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Baxter, Suzanne D.; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A 2010 publication showed a positive relationship between children's body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals (as assessed by direct meal observations). To help explain that relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals: energy content of items selected, number of…

  20. Relationship between Body Mass Composition, Bone Mineral Density, Skin Fibrosis and 25(OH Vitamin D Serum Levels in Systemic Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addolorata Corrado

    Full Text Available A reduced bone mineral density (BMD is observed in several rheumatic autoimmune diseases, including Systemic Sclerosis (SSc; nevertheless, data concerning the possible determinants of bone loss in this disease are not fully investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between BMD, body mass composition, skin sclerosis and serum Vitamin D levels in two subsets of SSc patients. 64 post-menopausal SSc patients, classified as limited cutaneous (lcSSc or diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc SSc, were studied. As control, 35 healthy post-menopausal women were recruited. Clinical parameters were evaluated, including the extent of skin involvement. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck and body mass composition were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urine pyridinium cross-links, intact parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD were measured. BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower in SSc patients compared to controls. In dcSSc subset, BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower compared to lcSSc. No differences in both fat and lean mass were found in the three study groups even if patients with dcSSc showed a slightly lower total body mass compared to healthy controls. Total mineral content was significantly reduced in dSSc compared to both healthy subjects and lcSSc group. Hypovitaminosis D was observed both in healthy post-menopausal women and in SSc patients, but 25OHD levels were significantly lower in dcSSc compared to lcSSc and inversely correlated with the extent of skin thickness. These results support the hypothesis that the extent of skin involvement in SSc patients could be an important factor in determining low circulating levels of 25OHD, which in turn could play a significant role in the reduction of BMD and total mineral content.

  1. The Relationship Between Breast Feeding and Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Behjati-Ardakani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is generally accepted that breast feeding has a beneficial effect on the health of infants and children. The evidence that breast feeding protects against obesity is inconclusive also the influence of breast feeding on blood pressure in later life is uncertain. The major aim of this study was to assess the association between method of infant breast feeding and components of the body mass index and blood pressure in pre-school children. Materials & Methods: In a cohort study, a total of 800 pre-school children, 359 (47.2% males, and 402 (52.8% females, born in 2003 in Yazd, Iran were selected based on a systematic stratified random model. Of eight hundred questionnaires sent, 761 (95% were returned to the investigators. At 6 years, blood pressure was measured on the right arm at rest. Body mass index (BMI was calculated by dividing the weight in kilograms by the square of height in meters (kg/m2.Data on infants feeding were collected respectively during first two years of life .Data were managed and analyzed using SPSS (SPSS, Inc, version 13.0 Results: Of the 761 subjects included in this study, 452 (59.4% were exclusively breast fed, 136 (17.9% were bottle fed and 173 (22.7% were partially breast fed. Body mass index was not significantly different between bottle feeding, partial and exclusive breast feeding groups (P=0.398 ..No relationship was found between method and duration of breast feeding, and systolic blood pressure (P=0.244, diastolic blood pressure (P=0.781 and mean blood pressure (P=0.483. Conclusion: We did not find association between method of infant feeding, duration of breast feeding and systolic, diastolic mean blood pressures and also with body mass index

  2. Relationship between caries, body mass index and social class in Spanish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerich-Torres, Teresa; Montiel-Company, José María; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel

    2016-11-22

    To determine the association between caries, body mass index (BMI) and social class in child population of the Valencia region (Spain) at 6, 12 and 15 years, and study. In a cross sectional study of 1326 children aged 6 (n=488), 12 (n=409) and 15 years (n=433) who took part in the 2010 Oral Health Survey of the Valencia region, the ICDAS II criteria were employed for diagnosing and coding all the teeth examined. The quantitative BMI values on a continuous scale were grouped into 3 categories (normal weight, overweight, obese) based on a table adjusted for age and gender. The highest-ranking occupation of the parents was taken to indicate the social class of the child. The mean BMI was 17.21 at 6 years, 21.39 at 12 years and 22.38 at 15 years. No significant differences in caries indexes (DMFT or dft) by degree of obesity stratified by social class were found in any of the age groups studied. There was no significant correlation between BMI and DMFT-dft in any of the age groups. Obesity is not associated with dental caries in schoolchildren of this population. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Productivity of Enewetak Atoll reef flats predicted from mass transfer relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, M. J.

    1992-07-01

    The productivity of a coral reef flat at Enewetak Atoll is calculated by assuming phosphate (P) uptake is mass transfer limited, and then scaling P uptake to carbon (C) fixation. The approach is to treat the coral reef flat as a rough surface in fully-developed turbulent flow. Input parameters to the equations are water velocity, depth, roughness height of the reef, P concentration and the C:P ratio of autotrophs. A 9-day continuous record of water velocity and depth over the windward reef flats of Enewetak Atoll is used to compare an estimate of productivity from the model to the measured productivity. The calculated productivity is 542 ± 79mmol C m -2 day -1 and the measured productivity is 500 mmol C m -2 day -1. Although there are few experiments to verify empirical scaling of engineering equations to reef communities, these results indicate that neither alternative external supplies of P, nor biological mechanisms of recycling appear to be required to support the high areal productivity of the Enewetak reef flats. A high flow rate of tropical surface water across reef flats can account for the elevated productivity of these communities.

  4. Relationship between the rock mass deformation and places of occurrence of seismological events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janusz Makowka; Jozef Kabiesz; Lin-ming Ddou [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland)

    2009-09-15

    Static effort of rock mass very rarely causes of rock burst in Polish coal mines. Rock bursts with source in the seismic tremor within the roof rock layers are prevailing. A seismic tremor is an effect of rupture or sliding in roof layers above the exploited panel in coal seam, sometime in a distance from actual exploitation. Sliding, as a rule occurs in fault zone and tremors in it are expected, but monolithic layer rupture is very hard to predict. In a past few years a practice of analyzing state of deformation in high energy seismic tremors zones has been employed. It let gathering experience thanks to witch determination of dangerous shape of reformatted roof is possible. In the paper some typical forms of roof rocks deformations leading to seismic tremor occurrence will be presented. In general these are various types of multidirectional rock layers bending. Real examples of seismic events and rock bursts in the Czech Republic will be shown. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  5. ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CORONAL MAGNETIC DECAY INDEX AND CORONAL MASS EJECTION SPEED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yan; Liu Chang; Jing Ju; Wang Haimin, E-mail: yx2@njit.edu [Space Weather Research Lab, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    Numerical simulations suggest that kink and torus instabilities are two potential contributors to the initiation and prorogation of eruptive events. A magnetic parameter called the decay index (i.e., the coronal magnetic gradient of the overlying fields above the eruptive flux ropes) could play an important role in controlling the kinematics of eruptions. Previous studies have identified a threshold range of the decay index that distinguishes between eruptive and confined configurations. Here we advance the study by investigating if there is a clear correlation between the decay index and coronal mass ejection (CME) speed. Thirty-eight CMEs associated with filament eruptions and/or two-ribbon flares are selected using the H{alpha} data from the Global H{alpha} Network. The filaments and flare ribbons observed in H{alpha} associated with the CMEs help to locate the magnetic polarity inversion line, along which the decay index is calculated based on the potential field extrapolation using Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms as boundary conditions. The speeds of CMEs are obtained from the LASCO C2 CME catalog available online. We find that the mean decay index increases with CME speed for those CMEs with a speed below 1000 km s{sup -1} and stays flat around 2.2 for the CMEs with higher speeds. In addition, we present a case study of a partial filament eruption, in which the decay indices show different values above the erupted/non-erupted part.

  6. Multislice CT angiography in aortic stent grafting: Relationship between image noise and body mass index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Zhonghua [Discipline of Medical Imaging, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia)]. E-mail: z.sun@curtin.edu.au

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between image noise and body mass index (BMI) in multislice CT angiography (MSCT) for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) treated with endovascular stent grafts. Materials and methods: Seventeen patients who underwent MSCT following endovascular repair of AAA were included in the study. Image noise (standard deviation of the CT attenuation: S.D.) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) were plotted against BMI to demonstrate the correlation using a linear regression method. Image quality of 3D reconstructions was correlated to the SNR and BMI. Results: The r-value of linear regression between S.D. and BMI was 0.578 (p < 0.05), 0.835 and 0.802 (p < 0.001), respectively, at the level of renal artery, aortic aneurysm and common iliac artery. The r-value of linear regression between SNR and BMI was 0.332, 0.516 and 0.552 (p < 0.05), respectively, at above three levels. Image quality of 3D reconstructions was compromised in five patients and diagnosis was affected in two patients with BMI more than 30. Conclusion: A significant correlation was observed between image noise and BMI in MSCT angiography of endovascular repair of AAA. Our findings are valuable for optimisation of MSCT angiography scanning protocols and reduction of radiation dose in MSCT examinations.

  7. Relationship between changes of body mass index (BMI) and cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Oh, Eung Seok; Lee, Ji Hee; Moon, Jung Soo; Oh, Ji Eun; Shin, Jong Wook; Lee, Kyung Jae; Baek, In Chul; Jeong, Seong-Hae; Song, Hee-Jung; Sohn, Eun Hee; Lee, Ae Young

    2012-01-01

    Decreased BMI has been reported that it may be associated with cognitive decline in the elderly. Weight loss is common in patients with PD. However, studies comparing cognitive changes according to BMI changes in PD have not been done yet. We performed this study to know a relationship between BMI changes and the rate of cognitive decline in PD. PD patients were recruited retrospectively. The patients (n=104) were divided into two groups according to BMI changes during initial 6 months of follow-up: decreased (n=52) vs. stable BMI groups (n=52). Cognitive functions were repeated until 36 months of follow-up using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and the modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) test. We calculated the rate of cognitive decline (K-MMSE and 3MS score changes/month) and compared it between the two groups. The decreased BMI group showed lower level of cognitive function than that of stable BMI group, especially at the 36th month of follow-up (p<0.05). In addition, the rate of cognitive decline was also significantly faster in the decreased BMI group, particularly at the 36th month of follow-up (p<0.05). This study suggests that decreased BMI during initial 6 months of follow-up in PD might be a useful indicator for future risk of dementia and let clinicians predict faster rate of cognitive decline in patients with PD.

  8. Longitudinal relationship of parental hypertension with body mass index, blood pressure, and cardiovascular reactivity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongling; Alpert, Bruce S; Walker, Sammie S; Somes, Grant W

    2007-05-01

    To investigate whether parental hypertension (HTN) affects children's body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) over time. A longitudinal study of 315 students (black: 23 females, 19 males; white: 142 females, 131 males) was conducted in the public schools of Obion County, Tennessee, between 1987 and 1992. BMI and BMI z scores were calculated. The CVR task was a series of video games (taking approximately 10 minutes to play) given to the same students in their third-, fourth-, fifth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade years. CVR was defined as the change in blood pressure (delta_BP) or heart rate (delta_HR) between before playing and while playing the video game. Positive parental history of HTN (27.6%) was defined as at least 1 parent with HTN. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to estimate the effects of parental HTN on children's BMI and CVR over time. Children with parental HTN had significant higher BMI, BMI z score, and R_BP than did children without parental HTN (BMI: 21.6 vs 19.9, P = .001; BMI z score: 1.6 vs 1.1, P = .003; R_SBP: 112.6 vs 110.4 mm Hg, P = .01; R_DBP 62.7 vs 60.6 mm Hg, P = .003) after adjustment for covariates. Increased CVR was observed in children with parental HTN compared with children without parental HTN but was statistically significant only for SBP (delta_SBP: 17.2 vs 14.9 mm Hg; P = .01) after adjustment for covariates. Parental HTN independently predicted children's BMI, BMI z score, resting BP, and BP reactivity.

  9. Relationships between water mass characteristics and estimates of fish population abundance from trawl surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S J; Perry, R I; Fanning, L P

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans conducts annual bottom trawl surveys to monitor changes in the abundance of the major commercially important groundfish populations. Some of these surveys have been in operation for almost 20 yr. The estimates from these surveys often indicate rapid changes in abundance over time beyond that expected from the population dynamics of the fish. Much of this interannual change has been interpreted as variation, the magnitude of which has often made it difficult to measure anything but the most severe effects of fishing, pollution or any other intervention on the population. Recent studies have shown that some of this variation may be attributed to changes in catchability of fish due to the effects of environmental variables on fish distribution. Annual changes in abundance as estimated from such field surveys may be confounded by changes in catchability due to annual changes in environmental conditions. In this study, trawl catches of age 4 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from surveys conducted during March 1979-1988 were compared with concurrent measurements of bottom salinity, temperature and depth. Large catches of age 4 cod are more likely to occur in water characterized as the intermediate cold layer defined by salinities of 32-33.5 and temperatures<5°C. This relationship also appears to be modified by depth. We further show that internnual changes in the estimated abundance from the surveys were, in a number of cases, coincident with changes in the proportion of the bottom water composed of the intermediate cold water layer. The implications that these patterns may have on interpreting trends in the estimates of abundance from trawl surveys are discussed.

  10. Sensitivities of conventional and new electrophysiological techniques in carpal tunnel syndrome and their relationship to body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuyucu Mutlu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study is to evaluate prospectively the sensitivities of conventional and new electrophysiological techniques and to investigate their relationship with the body mass index (BMI in a population of patients suspected of having carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. In this study, 165 hands of 92 consecutive patients (81 female, 11 male with clinical diagnosis of CTS were compared to reference population of 60 hands of 30 healthy subjects (26 female and 4 male. Extensive sensory and motor nerve conduction studies (NCSs were performed in the diagnosis of subtle CTS patients. Also, the patients were divided into subgroups and sensitivities were determined according to BMI. The mean BMI was found to be significantly higher in the CTS than in the control group (p The newer nerve conduction techniques and combining different NCSs tests are more sensitive than single conventional NCS test for the diagnosis of suspected CTS. Meanwhile, CTS is associated with increasing BMI.

  11. Evaluating the relationship of eating behaviors of university students with body mass index and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanlier, Nevin; Biyikli, Ali Emrah; Biyikli, Ezgi Toptas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between eating behaviors (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire-DEBQ), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-RSES), and body mass index (BMI) in university students. A total of 503 students (129 men and 374 women), 18-23 years of age were included in the study. According to BMI, 8.3% of students were underweight; 47.3% were overweight; and 74.4% were of healthy weight. The level of self-esteem of 86.5% of young people was high, 13.5% moderate. The mean score (33.3 ± 11.8) of emotional-eating behavior was higher for women than for men (27.9 ± 10.1) . Recommendations include assessing eating behaviors via longitudinal studies with large samples, and identifying at-risk groups, as useful approaches for informing prevention.

  12. Predicting Causal Relationships from Biological Data: Applying Automated Casual Discovery on Mass Cytometry Data of Human Immune Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Triantafillou, Sofia

    2017-03-31

    Learning the causal relationships that define a molecular system allows us to predict how the system will respond to different interventions. Distinguishing causality from mere association typically requires randomized experiments. Methods for automated causal discovery from limited experiments exist, but have so far rarely been tested in systems biology applications. In this work, we apply state-of-the art causal discovery methods on a large collection of public mass cytometry data sets, measuring intra-cellular signaling proteins of the human immune system and their response to several perturbations. We show how different experimental conditions can be used to facilitate causal discovery, and apply two fundamental methods that produce context-specific causal predictions. Causal predictions were reproducible across independent data sets from two different studies, but often disagree with the KEGG pathway databases. Within this context, we discuss the caveats we need to overcome for automated causal discovery to become a part of the routine data analysis in systems biology.

  13. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Outcome of Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alidoosti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown controversial effects of obesity on major adverse cardiac events (MACE after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. We sought to investigate the impact of the body mass index (BMI on the mid-term outcome following successful PCI.Methods: Between March 2006 and August 2008, 3948 patients underwent successful elective PCI in Tehran Heart Center, Tehran, Iran, and were retrospectively included in this study. Patients who underwent PCI on the same day as the occurrence of myocardial infarction were excluded. The demographic, procedural, in-hospital, and follow-up information of these patients was extracted from the PCI Data Registry of our institution. The patients were divided into three groups:  normal weight (No. 1058, BMI < 25 kg/m2 age = 58 ± 10 years; overweight (No. 1867, 25 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2, age = 57 ± 10 years; and obese (No. 1023, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, age = 56 ± 10 years. MACE included death, myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, and target lesion revascularization.Results: Compared with the other patients, the obese individuals were significantly younger and more frequently female, had a higher ejection fraction, and more frequently presented with hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. There was no association between the BMI and the angiographic and procedural findings in the univariate analysis. While no difference was found in the rate of in-hospital death between the groups, the number of the obese patients undergoing emergent cardiac surgery was marginally different in the univariate analysis (p value = 0.06. At 9 months' follow-up, MACE had occurred in 92 (2.3% patients and cardiac mortality was 9 (0.2%. After adjustments for confounders, no significant difference was observed in terms of MACE between the BMI groups.Conclusion: The BMI had no significant effect on the rate of MACE at 9 months' follow-up in our study population. Interventionists' recommendations for patients

  14. INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE STATISTICAL MOMENTS OF THE FAT PHASE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND RELAXATION SPECTRA OF DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Merzlikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the search for optimal parameter estimation of the parameters of the process of homogenization of dairy products. Provides a theoretical basis for relationship of the relaxation time of the fat globules and attenuation coefficient of ultrasonic oscillations in dairy products. Suggested from the measured acoustic properties of milk to make the calculations of the mass distribution of fat globules. Studies on the proof of this hypothesis. Morphological analysis procedure carried out for homogenized milk samples at different pressures, as well as homogenized. As a result of research obtained distribution histogram of fat globules in dependence on the homogenization pressure. Also performed acoustic studies to obtain the frequency characteristics of loss modulus as a function of homogenization pressure. For further research the choice of method for approximating dependences is obtained using statistical moments of distributions. The parameters for the approximation of the distribution of fat globules and loss modulus versus pressure homogenization were obtained. Was carried out to test the hypothesis on the relationship parameters of approximation of the distribution of the fat globules and loss modulus as a function of pressure homogenization. Correlation analysis showed a clear dependence of the first and second statistical moment distributions of the pressure homogenization. The obtain ed dependence is consistent with the physical meaning of the first two moments of a statistical distribution. Correlation analysis was carried out according to the statistical moments of the distribution of the fat globules from moments of loss modulus. It is concluded that the possibility of ultrasonic testing the degree of homogenization and mass distribution of the fat globules of milk products.

  15. Supermassive Black Holes in Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Calibration of the Black Hole Mass-Velocity Dispersion Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onken, Christopher A.; Ferrarese, Laura; Merritt, David

    2004-01-01

    We calibrate reverberation-based black hole masses in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by using the correlation between black hole mass, M, and bulge/spheroid stellar velocity dispersion, sigma. We use new measurements of sigma for 6 AGNs and published velocity dispersions for 10 others......, in conjunction with improved reverberation mapping results, to determine the scaling factor required to bring reverberation-based black hole masses into agreement with the quiescent galaxy M-sigma relationship. The scatter in the AGN black hole masses is found to be less than a factor of 3. The current...

  16. Development of FIAT-Based Parametric Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships for NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepka, Steven A.; Zarchi, Kerry; Maddock, Robert W.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2013-01-01

    Part of NASAs In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program is the development of the tradespace to support the design of a family of multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV) to meet a wide range of mission requirements. An integrated tool called the Multi Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry Descent and Landing or M-SAPE tool is being developed as part of Entry Vehicle Technology project under In-Space Technology program. The analysis and design of an Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) is multidisciplinary in nature, requiring the application many disciplines. Part of M-SAPE's application required the development of parametric mass estimating relationships (MERs) to determine the vehicle's required Thermal Protection System (TPS) for safe Earth entry. For this analysis, the heat shield was assumed to be made of a constant thickness TPS. This resulting MERs will then e used to determine the pre-flight mass of the TPS. Two Mers have been developed for the vehicle forebaody. One MER was developed for PICA and the other consisting of Carbon Phenolic atop an Advanced Carbon-Carbon composition. For the the backshell, MERs have been developed for SIRCA, Acusil II, and LI-900. How these MERs were developed, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy are discussed in this poster.

  17. Plant Cell Wall Proteomics: Mass Spectrometry Data, a Trove for Research on Protein Structure/Function Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cécile Albenne; Hervé Canut; Georges Boudart; Yu Zhang; Héléne San Clemente; Rafael Pont-Lezica; Elisabeth Jamet

    2009-01-01

    Proteomics allows the large-scale study of protein expression either in whole organisms or in purified organ-elles. In particular, mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of gel-separated proteins produces data not only for protein identi-fication, but for protein structure, location, and processing as well. An in-depth analysis was performed on MS data from etiolated hypocotyl cell wall proteomics of Arabidopsis thaliana. These analyses show that highly homologous members of multigene families can be differentiated. Two lectins presenting 93% amino acid identity were identified using peptide mass fingerprinting. Although the identification of structural proteins such as extensins or hydroxyproline/proline-rich proteins (H/PRPs) is arduous, different types of MS spectra were exploited to identify and characterize an H/PRR Matu-ration events in a couple of cell wall proteins (CWPs) were analyzed using site mapping. N-glycosylation of CWPs as well as the hydroxylation or oxidation of amino acids were also explored, adding information to improve our understanding of CWP structure/function relationships. A bioinformatic tool was developed to locate by means of MS the N-terminus of mature secreted proteins and N-glycosylation.

  18. Plant cell wall proteomics: mass spectrometry data, a trove for research on protein structure/function relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Boudart, Georges; Zhang, Yu; San Clemente, Hélène; Pont-Lezica, Rafael; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2009-09-01

    Proteomics allows the large-scale study of protein expression either in whole organisms or in purified organelles. In particular, mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of gel-separated proteins produces data not only for protein identification, but for protein structure, location, and processing as well. An in-depth analysis was performed on MS data from etiolated hypocotyl cell wall proteomics of Arabidopsis thaliana. These analyses show that highly homologous members of multigene families can be differentiated. Two lectins presenting 93% amino acid identity were identified using peptide mass fingerprinting. Although the identification of structural proteins such as extensins or hydroxyproline/proline-rich proteins (H/PRPs) is arduous, different types of MS spectra were exploited to identify and characterize an H/PRP. Maturation events in a couple of cell wall proteins (CWPs) were analyzed using site mapping. N-glycosylation of CWPs as well as the hydroxylation or oxidation of amino acids were also explored, adding information to improve our understanding of CWP structure/function relationships. A bioinformatic tool was developed to locate by means of MS the N-terminus of mature secreted proteins and N-glycosylation.

  19. STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DIVERSITY COAL MASS STRUCTURE AND LITHOTYPE OF COAL IN MULTI-COAL SEAM MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴基文; 赵志根; 陈资平

    1999-01-01

    Through site observation and indoor measurements in XieJiaji No.2 Coal Mine in Huainen and Luling Coal Mine in Huaibei, it is discovered that the fragmentation degree are different in different coal seams in same mining district and even in sublevels of the same coal seam, the coal mass structures exist much difference. By analyzing the relationship between the constitution of coal matters and the epigenesis breakage of coal. This paper points out that the internal factor which causes the diversity of the coal mass structure comes from the diversity in the contents of telocollinite and desmocollinite in the vitrinite. The contenet of desmocollinite is higher than that of telocollinite in intact coal seam (sublevel) but the former is less than the later in breaking sublevel, the diversity of constituent content more affects the epigenetic fragmentation degree of coal seam. The content of desrnocollinite proves lower than that of telocollinite in the broken coal seam. The new understanding has directing, and reference for the study of coal petrology, coal mine gas geology and coal methane.

  20. Relationship Between Serum Leptin Concentration and Lipids & Body Mass Index in Patients With Chronic Congestive Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gang; Yan Qingbo; Wei Liangming

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship of serum leptin concentration with the lipids and body mass index (BMI) in patients with chronic congestive heart failure(CHF). Methods The serum concentration of leptin in 39 patients with CHF (14 in cardiac function class Ⅱ , 21 in class Ⅲ , 4 in class Ⅳ , NYHA) and in 46 patients with cardiac function class Ⅰ (NYHA) were assessed by radioimmunoassay. Results The serum concentration of leptin were 9.018±4.519μg/l in CHF group (cardiac function class Ⅱ 11.492±5.649 μg/l, class Ⅲ 7.763±3.321 μg/l, class Ⅳ 6.100±2.657 μg/l);11.674±6.911 μg/l in class Ⅰ group. The serum concentrations of leptin were significantly lower in CHF group, as compared with class Ⅰ group (P<0.05). Moreover, the decrease of serum leptin concentration was significantly correlated with the decreased serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride, body mass index and left ventricular ejection fraction in CHF group, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusions The significance of the decrease in serum leptin in CHF patients needs further study.

  1. Altered circadian blood pressure profile in patients with active acromegaly. Relationship with left ventricular mass and hormonal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrobelli, D J; Akopian, M; Olivieri, A O; Renauld, A; Garrido, D; Artese, R; Feldstein, C A

    2001-09-01

    To determine the relationships between the circadian blood pressure profile and left ventricular mass, hormonal pattern and insulin sensitivity indices in patients with active acromegaly, ambulatory 24-h blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was recorded in 25 subjects (47.0 +/- 15.1 years, range 23-72). Serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1, fasting and mean plasma glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulinogenic index, the sum of the plasma insulin levels and the homeostasis model insulin resistance index (Homa's index) were determined. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was calculated from two-dimensional guided M-mode echocardiogram. The prevalence of hypertension was 56% (n = 14) and 40% (n = 10) according to sphygmomanometric measurements and ABPM, respectively. Non-dipping profile was observed in six of 10 hypertensives and in six of 15 normotensives. Serum growth hormone, fasting glucose, the area under the serum insulin curve and LVMI were higher for acromegalics with non-dipping profile than for dippers (all of them, P regulation in essential hypertension deserves further studies.

  2. Translational Study on the Relationships Between Body Mass Index, Levels of Serum Inlfammatory Factors and Bronchial Asthma in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Ding-zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), levels of serum inlfammatory factors and bronchial asthma in children. Methods:According to BMI, the enrolled 128 children with asthma in acute-outbreak period were assigned into obese group (n=29), skinny group (n=34) and control group (n=65). The children in three groups were all given routine treatment, including steroid aerosol, bronchodilators, lfuid infusion and correction of acidosis, and returned visit after 4 weeks. The asthma control condition, levels of serum inlfammatory factors, BMI and childhood asthma control test (C-ACT) scores were compared among three groups, and the relationships between C-ACT scores, BMI and levels of serum inlfammatory factors were analyzed. Results: Both completely and partially controlled rates were obviously lower in obese group and skinny group than in control group (P0.05). The levels of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were all higher in obese group than in skinny group and control group, and these indicators above in skinny group were higher than those in control group. The differences were statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion: Both obesity and emaciation can lead to increased levels of serum inflammatory factors in children with asthma, which is adverse to asthma control. Maintenance of normal body weight can effectively decrease the levels of serum inflammatory factors and improve asthma control rate.

  3. The Relationship Between Molecular Gas, HI, and Star Formation in the Low-Mass, Low-Metallicity Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Jameson, Katherine E; Leroy, Adam K; Meixner, Margaret; Roman-Duval, Julia; Gordon, Karl; Hughes, Annie; Israel, Frank P; Rubio, Monica; Indebetouw, Remy; Madden, Suzanne C; Bot, Caroline; Hony, Sacha; Cormier, Diane; Pellegrini, Eric W; Galametz, Maud; Sonneborn, George

    2015-01-01

    The Magellanic Clouds provide the only laboratory to study the effect of metallicity and galaxy mass on molecular gas and star formation at high (~20 pc) resolution. We use the dust emission from HERITAGE Herschel data to map the molecular gas in the Magellanic Clouds, avoiding the known biases of CO emission as a tracer of H2. Using our dust-based molecular gas estimates, we find molecular gas depletion times of ~0.4 Gyr in the LMC and ~0.6 SMC at 1 kpc scales. These depletion times fall within the range found for normal disk galaxies, but are shorter than the average value, which could be due to recent bursts in star formation. We find no evidence for a strong intrinsic dependence of the molecular gas depletion time on metallicity. We study the relationship between gas and star formation rate across a range in size scales from 20 pc to ~1 kpc, including how the scatter in molecular gas depletion time changes with size scale, and discuss the physical mechanisms driving the relationships. We compare the metal...

  4. The Relationship Between Body Fat Percentage and Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Individuals in an Urban African Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie S.; Igumbor, Ehimario U.

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in both developed and developing countries is associated with musculoskeletal and other non-communicable diseases. To address this, an accurate measure of body adiposity, bearing in mind several shortcomings of body mass index (BMI), should be used. This study determined the relationship between BMI and body fat (BF)% among adult Nigerians of different ethnic groups residing in an urban setting. Using multistage cluster sampling technique were recruited 1571 subjects (>18 years; male=51.2%) in a cross-sectional study. Body adiposity indices were assessed using BMI and BF%. Using BF%, the result shows that a total number of 156 (9.9%) had low BF% while 291 (18.5%) had very high BF%, while the BMI classifications of body adiposity, 68 (4.3%) were underweight while 271 (17.3%) were obese. There was a strong and positive statistical relationship between BF% and BMI when both were paired without controlling for gender and age (r=0.81, PBMI and BF%, and age and sex are predictors of this association.

  5. Temporal Relationship Between Childhood Body Mass Index and Insulin and Its Impact on Adult Hypertension: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Ying; Sun, Dianjianyi; Li, Shengxu; Fernandez, Camilo; Qi, Lu; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Xue, Fuzhong; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Although obesity and insulin resistance are closely correlated, their temporal sequences in early life and influence on adult hypertension are largely unknown. This study aims to delineate the temporal relationship patterns between body mass index (BMI) and insulin in childhood and their impact on adult hypertension. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 990 adults (630 whites and 360 blacks) who had BMI and fasting insulin measured twice 5.4 years apart in childhood (mean age, 10.5 years at baseline and 15.9 years at follow-up) and blood pressure measured 14.7 years later in adulthood (mean age, 30.5 years). Cross-lagged panel and mediation analysis models were used to examine the temporal relationship between childhood BMI and insulin and its impact on adult hypertension. After adjusting for age, race, sex, and follow-up years, the cross-lagged path coefficient (β=0.33; P0.05) from baseline insulin to follow-up BMI in childhood with Phypertensive group was significantly greater than that (β=0.24; Padult hypertension association was estimated at 21.1% (Phypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Relationships between serum omentin-1, body fat mass and bone mineral density in healthy Chinese male adults in Changsha area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X P; Zeng, S; Wang, M; Wu, X P; Liao, E Y

    2014-10-01

    The present study is firstly designed to identify the relationship between serum omentin-1 concentration, body fat mass and bone mineral density in healthy Chinese male adults in Changsha city. A total of 219 (20-80 years old) healthy subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum omentin-1, adiponectin, leptin, resistin and bone turn over biochemical markers were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bone mineral density (BMD) and fat body composition were determined using dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry. Serum omentin-1 levels in the overweight subjects were significantly lower than those of the subjects with normal weight (p fat body mass (FBM, r = -0.430), fat % (r = -0.408), trunk fat (-0.431). However, after controlling for age, BMI and FBM, no significant correlation was noticed between omentin-1 and BMD at different skeletal sites. Pearson's correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients after adjustment showed no significant correlations between omentin-1 and bone turn over biochemical markers, including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and bone cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen. Multiple line stepwise regression analysis revealed that FBM, WHR, adiponectin were important variables affecting omentin-1. Moreover, lean tissue mass was the most important factor affecting BMD and explained 10.5-14.7 % of the variance. Omentin-1, leptin and resistin were not the predictors of BMD. Serum omentin-1 was negatively correlated with FBM and BMI in healthy Chinese male adults, It was not significantly correlated with bone turnover biochemical markers. Omentin-1 may exert ambiguous effects on BMD, which maybe caused by the complex interactions among adipokines, hormonal activity, and body composition and bone metabolism.

  7. The relationship of fasting hyperglycemia to changes in fat and muscle mass after exercise training in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalamanchi, Swaytha V; Stewart, Kerry J; Ji, Nan; Golden, Sherita H; Dobs, Adrian; Becker, Diane M; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Kral, Brian G; Kalyani, Rita R

    2016-12-01

    Exercise training (ET) has been variably associated with body composition changes among persons with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The degree to which these changes are related to hyperglycemia remains unclear. Our objective was to investigate the relationship of baseline fasting glucose (FG) to the magnitude of muscle gains and fat loss after ET in individuals with T2DM. Participants were enrolled in the SHAPE-2 trial, a six month supervised aerobic and resistance training intervention (three days/week), at Johns Hopkins. This was a post hoc single arm intervention study of participants who completed the exercise intervention (n=50). Participants were aged 40-65years and had T2DM that was not treated with insulin. Body composition was assessed by DEXA. After 6months of ET, total fat mass decreased (-2.1±3.1kg) and total lean body mass (LBM) increased (0.5±2.0kg) overall, but there was variability among individual participants. There was an increase in % total LBM (1.4±1.9%) and decrease in % total body fat mass (-1.5±2.0%) after ET. Interestingly, each standard deviation (SD) increase in baseline FG (mean=135.5mg/dl; SD=39.0mg/dl) was related to a significant increase in % total LBM (0.54±0.26%, p=0.048) and decrease in % total body fat (-0.57±0.27%, p=0.04) after ET among individual participants. Our data demonstrate that muscle gains and fat loss after ET are positively related to baseline hyperglycemia. Further studies are needed to characterize differences in metabolic response following ET among persons with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. There is no relationship between academic achievement and body mass index among fourth-grade, predominantly African-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Guinn, Caroline H; Tebbs, Joshua M; Royer, Julie A

    2013-04-01

    School-based initiatives to combat childhood obesity may use academic performance to measure success. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between academic achievement and body mass index percentile, socioeconomic status (SES), and race by linking existing datasets that are not routinely linked. Data from a school-based project (with National Institutes of Health funding) concerning dietary recall accuracy were linked with data from the state's Department of Education through the state's Office of Research and Statistics. Data were available on 1,504 fourth-grade, predominantly African-American children from 18 schools total in one district in South Carolina during the 2004-2005, 2005-2006, and 2006-2007 school years. School staff administered standardized tests in English, math, social studies, and science. Researchers measured children's weight and height. Children were categorized as low-SES, medium-SES, or high-SES based on eligibility for free, reduced-price, or full-price school meals, respectively. Results from marginal regression analyses for each sex for the four academic subjects, separately and combined, showed that test scores were not related to body mass index percentile, but were positively related to SES (P values academic performance and obesity across kindergarten through 12th-grade children. State agencies can house body mass index data in state-based central repositories where staff can use globally unique identifiers and link data across agencies. Results from such studies could potentially change the way school administrators view nutrition and physical education. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between body mass index and the risk of early gastric cancer and dysplasia regardless of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Hyun Young; Lee, Hye Seung; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hee Man; Lee, Dong Ho

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is known to be associated with an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer but not with noncardia cancer. In terms of gastric dysplasia, few studies have evaluated its relationship with obesity. In addition, no study on the relationship between obesity and the risk of gastric cancer has analyzed the status of Helicobacter pylori infection. A case-control study was designed to investigate the relationship between obesity and the risk of gastric cancer and dysplasia adjusted for the status of H. pylori infection in Koreans. Nine hundred ninety-eight gastric cancer patients, 313 gastric dysplasia patients, and 1,288 subjects with normal endoscopic findings were included. As gender differences could be the largest confounding factor, the risk of gastric cancer and dysplasia with an increasing body mass index (BMI) was analyzed in men and women, separately, and was adjusted for age, smoking, drinking, family history of gastric cancer, H. pylori infection, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and serum pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio. Obesity (BMI 25 kg/m(2) or greater but less than 30 kg/m(2)) was associated with increased risk of early gastric cancer [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.657; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.086-2.528; P = 0.019] and well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (aOR 1.566; 95 % CI 1.011-2.424; P = 0.044) compared with normal BMI status (BMI Obesity was related to gastric dysplasia (aOR 2.086; 95 % CI 1.011-4.302; P = 0.047) in women. The effect of obesity on gastric cancer showed a gender difference. That is, in men it was related to increased risk of early gastric cancer and well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, but it was associated with gastric dysplasia in women regardless of H. pylori infection in Korea. Further research into this difference is necessary.

  10. The mediating effects of dietary habits on the relationship between television viewing and body mass index among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie; Janssen, Ian

    2012-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest that excessive television viewing is an independent determinant of obesity in young people. However, the pathways between television viewing and obesity are not fully understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether the relationship between television and body mass index (BMI) is mediated by television snacking and junk food consumption. Results are based on 15,973 youth in grades 6-10 who participated in the Canadian 2009/2010 health behaviour in school-aged children survey (HBSC). Participants self-reported their weight and height and BMI z-scores were calculated based on World Health Organization growth standards. Participants reported the frequency of snacking while watching television and the frequency of eating junk food (sweets, soft drinks, baked goods, French fries, potato chips). Total hours per week of television were calculated. A contemporary multiple mediation analysis was used to examine associations. A modest positive relationship was observed between television viewing and BMI. The mean BMI z-score was 0.15 units higher in youth in the highest television viewing quartile by comparison with the youth in the lowest quartile. However, contrary to our hypothesis, television snacking and junk food consumption were not significant positive mediators of the television and BMI relationship. The pathways between television viewing and obesity are complicated and remain poorly understood. Future research using longitudinal or experimental designs, more precise measurement tools and formal mediation analyses is needed. This research should consider mediators related to both energy intake and expenditure. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  11. Relationship between body mass index and women's body image, self-esteem and eating behaviours in pregnancy: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shloim, Netalie; Hetherington, Marion M; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-esteem, restrained eating, body image and body mass index during pregnancy. A total of 110 pregnant Israeli and UK women completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, scales to assess body image and demographics. Body mass index was calculated from antenatal records. Regression modelling determined the relationship between variables, countries and body mass index categories. High correlations were found between body image and body mass index with significantly higher body dissatisfaction for Israeli women. Self-esteem scores for pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant women. Poorer body image and higher prevalence of restrained eating were found in healthy weight Israeli women.

  12. ExoPlex: A code for calculating interior structure and mineralogy and mass-radius relationships for exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, Steven; Lorenzo, Alejandro; Ko, Byeongkwan

    2016-06-01

    We present a computer code we have written for general release that calculates the interior structure and mass-radius relationships of solid exoplanets up to a few Earth masses. The basic algorithm is that of Seager et al. (2007), Zeng & Sasselov (2013) and Dorn et al. (2015): the code integrates the 1-D (spherical) equation of hydrostatic equilibrium to find pressure in shells of various depths assuming a gravitational acceleration, uses the bulk modulus of the materials as inputs to an equation of state to convert pressures into density and volume in each shell, recomputes the shell thicknesses and gravitational acceleration, and iterates the solution to convergence. Unlike most existing codes, we do not impose a particular mineralogy in each shell. Instead we adopt the approach of Dorn et al. (2015), in which we impose a stoichiometry in each shell; for rocky shells and the metal core the code calls the PerpleX code (Connolly et al. 2005) to compute the mineralogy and material properties appropriate to that shell’s stoichiometry, pressure and temperature. Unique attributes of the code are as follows. The mineralogy is complete in the Fe-Mg-Si-O system, including species like FeSi and FeO in the core. We also include FeS (VII) in the core. We have also included an approximate phase diagram for water ice to account for an icy mantle. We also include the effects of adiabatic temperature profiles and a temperature jump at the core-mantle boundary. Finally, we have created a user-friendly interface allowing the code to be downloaded and used as a teaching tool. Results of the code and a demonstration of its use will be presented at the meeting.

  13. The impact of obesity on the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue, left ventricular mass and coronary microvascular function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakkum, M.J.; Danad, I.; Romijn, M.A.J.; Stuijfzand, W.J.A.; Leonora, R.M.; Rossum, A.C. van; Knaapen, P. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tulevski, I.I.; Somsen, G.A. [Cardiology Centers of the Netherlands, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lammertsma, A.A.; Kuijk, C. van; Raijmakers, P.G. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been linked to coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary microvascular dysfunction. However, its injurious effect may also impact the underlying myocardium. This study aimed to determine the impact of obesity on the quantitative relationship between left ventricular mass (LVM), EAT and coronary microvascular function. A total of 208 (94 men, 45 %) patients evaluated for CAD but free of coronary obstructions underwent quantitative [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. Coronary microvascular resistance (CMVR) was calculated as the ratio of mean arterial pressure to hyperaemic myocardial blood flow. Obese patients [body mass index (BMI) > 25, n = 133, 64 % of total] had more EAT (125.3 ± 47.6 vs 93.5 ± 42.1 cc, p < 0.001), a higher LVM (130.1 ± 30.4 vs 114.2 ± 29.3 g, p < 0.001) and an increased CMVR (26.6 ± 9.1 vs 22.3 ± 8.6 mmHg x ml{sup -1} x min{sup -1} x g{sup -1}, p < 0.01) as compared to nonobese patients. Male gender (β = 40.7, p < 0.001), BMI (β = 1.61, p < 0.001), smoking (β = 6.29, p = 0.03) and EAT volume (β = 0.10, p < 0.01) were identified as independent predictors of LVM. When grouped according to BMI status, EAT was only independently associated with LVM in nonobese patients. LVM, hypercholesterolaemia and coronary artery calcium score were independent predictors of CMVR. EAT volume is associated with LVM independently of BMI and might therefore be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than BMI. However, EAT volume was not related to coronary microvascular function after adjustments for LVM and traditional risk factors. (orig.)

  14. Magnetic activity in the HARPS M dwarf sample. The rotation-activity relationship for very low-mass stars through

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo-Defru, N.; Delfosse, X.; Bonfils, X.; Forveille, T.; Lovis, C.; Rameau, J.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Atmospheric magnetic fields in stars with convective envelopes heat stellar chromospheres, and thus increase the observed flux in the Ca ii H and K doublet. Starting with the historical Mount Wilson monitoring program, these two spectral lines have been widely used to trace stellar magnetic activity, and as a proxy for rotation period (Prot) and consequently for stellar age. Monitoring stellar activity has also become essential in filtering out false-positives due to magnetic activity in extra-solar planet surveys. The Ca ii emission is traditionally quantified through the -index, which compares the chromospheric flux in the doublet to the overall bolometric flux of the star. Much work has been done to characterize this index for FGK-dwarfs, but M dwarfs - the most numerous stars of the Galaxy - were left out of these analyses and no calibration of their Ca ii H and K emission to an exists to date. Aims: We set out to characterize the magnetic activity of the low- and very-low-mass stars by providing a calibration of the -index that extends to the realm of M dwarfs, and by evaluating the relationship between and the rotation period. Methods: We calibrated the bolometric and photospheric factors for M dwarfs to properly transform the S-index (which compares the flux in the Ca ii H and K lines to a close spectral continuum) into the . We monitored magnetic activity through the Ca ii H and K emission lines in the HARPS M dwarf sample. Results: The index, like the fractional X-ray luminosity LX/Lbol, shows a saturated correlation with rotation, with saturation setting in around a ten days rotation period. Above that period, slower rotators show weaker Ca ii activity, as expected. Under that period, the index saturates to approximately 10-4. Stellar mass modulates the Ca ii activity, with showing a constant basal activity above 0.6 M⊙ and then decreasing with mass between 0.6 M⊙ and the fully-convective limit of 0.35 M⊙. Short-term variability of the

  15. Investigation of the relationship of Body Weight and Body Mass Index with the Low Back Pain in nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilopoulos A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Musculoskeletal disorders are one of the most common health problems. Low Back Pain (LBP is a musculoskeletal disease with very high morbidity that can be prevented. The nursing staffs, as presented by the relevant literature, are in high-risk groups for the development of musculoskeletal injuries. There is a significant relationship between low back pain and body weight. The presence of (LBP in people with increased Body Mass Index (BMI is an existing epidemiological relationship that the scientific community has working. Material and Methods: The sample of the study consisted of 123 nurses, various disciplines and departments of five hospitals in Greece (in the period 01/03/2012 - 31/05/2012. The data collection was performed by the method of interview and with the help of a structured, anonymous and self-administered questionnaire with the method of random sampling. In statistics analysis were used correlation tests (x2 of Pearson, t test, among key demographic variables and factors that might be responsible and influence pain appearance in the lumbar region. The significance level was set at p≤0,05. For data analysis used the statistical package for Social Sciences SPSS 18. Results: The 87.8% of the Sample were women and 12.2% men. The majority of workers were aged 40-50 years and graduates (56.9% of Higher Education. The incidence of low back pain was determined at 82.9%. The effect of body weight on display LBP presents a positive statistical correlation (t test 2,474, p = 0.015. Control of LBP and body weight in both sexes showed a statistically significant association only among women (t test = 3,349, p = 0.001 .The relationship between BMI and low back pain in both sexes was statistically significant, (t test = 2,811, p = 0,006. Conclusions: This study shows that the majority of nursing staff (82.9% suffered from back pain. Body weight affects the occurrence of back pain in both sexes, but women has significant

  16. Social relationships and longitudinal changes in body mass index and waist circumference: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Kiarri N; Hankinson, Arlene L; Liu, Kiang; Reis, Jared P; Lewis, Cora E; Loria, Catherine M; Carnethon, Mercedes R

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have examined longitudinal associations between close social relationships and weight change. Using data from 3,074 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study who were examined in 2000, 2005, and 2010 (at ages 33-45 years in 2000), we estimated separate logistic regression random-effects models to assess whether patterns of exposure to supportive and negative relationships were associated with 10% or greater increases in body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and waist circumference. Linear regression random-effects modeling was used to examine associations of social relationships with mean changes in BMI and waist circumference. Participants with persistently high supportive relationships were significantly less likely to increase their BMI values and waist circumference by 10% or greater compared with those with persistently low supportive relationships after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, baseline BMI/waist circumference, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors. Persistently high negative relationships were associated with higher likelihood of 10% or greater increases in waist circumference (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.29) and marginally higher BMI increases (odds ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.24) compared with participants with persistently low negative relationships. Increasingly negative relationships were associated with increases in waist circumference only. These findings suggest that supportive relationships may minimize weight gain, and that adverse relationships may contribute to weight gain, particularly via central fat accumulation.

  17. Effect of Accounting for Crash Severity on the Relationship between Mass Reduction and Crash Frequency and Risk per Crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Building Technology and Urban Systems Division. Energy Technologies Area

    2016-05-20

    Previous analyses have indicated that mass reduction is associated with an increase in crash frequency (crashes per VMT), but a decrease in fatality or casualty risk once a crash has occurred, across all types of light-duty vehicles. These results are counter-intuitive: one would expect that lighter, and perhaps smaller, vehicles have better handling and shorter braking distances, and thus should be able to avoid crashes that heavier vehicles cannot. And one would expect that heavier vehicles would have lower risk once a crash has occurred than lighter vehicles. However, these trends occur under several alternative regression model specifications. This report tests whether these results continue to hold after accounting for crash severity, by excluding crashes that result in relatively minor damage to the vehicle(s) involved in the crash. Excluding non-severe crashes from the initial LBNL Phase 2 and simultaneous two-stage regression models for the most part has little effect on the unexpected relationships observed in the baseline regression models. This finding suggests that other subtle differences in vehicles and/or their drivers, or perhaps biases in the data reported in state crash databases, are causing the unexpected results from the regression models.

  18. Relationship between parent demographic characteristics, perinatal and early childhood behaviors, and body mass index among preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Arheart, Kristopher L; Selem, Sarah M; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Natale, Ruby

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 25% of US 2-to-5-year olds are overweight and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected. We explored the relationship between parent demographic characteristics, various perinatal/early childhood (EC) factors, and child body mass index (BMI) to determine possible contributors to these disparities. A preschool-based randomized controlled (N = 28 centers) obesity prevention intervention was conducted among multiethnic 2-to-5 year olds. Baseline assessment of demographic characteristics, various perinatal/EC factors, and child BMI were analyzed via generalized linear mixed models and logistic regression analysis. Foreign-born parents were almost 2.5 times as likely to have an obese child versus children of US-born parents (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.53-3.87). Families who spoke Spanish only or a combination of Creole/English at home were over twice as likely to have an obese preschool child versus families who spoke English only at home. Parent place of birth and language spoken at home plays a significant role in early childhood obesity. Future early childhood healthy weight initiatives should incorporate strategies that take into account these particular parent characteristics.

  19. Relationship between body mass index, bone mineral density, and oral hygiene with periodontal disease in a Mexican elderly group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Murrieta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of body mass index (BMI, bone mineral density (BMD, and oral hygiene with periodontal disease (PD in a group of elderly adults in Mexico City. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 151 elderly adults was conducted. Before applying the epidemiological survey, each subject was asked to sign an informed consent. Standardization for measuring Ramfjord’s Periodontal Disease Index (PDI, BMI, and Green and Vermilion’s OHI-S was carried out. Descriptive statistics and linear regression models were performed. Results: The 93.4% of the group had PD, 33.8% showed severe gingivitis and 20.5% mild gingivitis. A 28.5% five percent of the group had osteopenia and 18.5% had osteoporosis, being more common in people over 69 years. The 38.4% percent of the group was underweight and 53.0% had poor oral hygiene. Oral hygiene accounted for 63.1% of the PD variance (p=0.0001, figure that did not increase considerably by adding BMD and BMI variables to the regression model. Conclusion: The frequency of PD in this group of elderly adults was high and significantly associated with BMD, BMI, and mainly oral hygiene.

  20. The relationship between dental status, food selection, nutrient intake, nutritional status, and body mass index in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Marcenes

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed the findings from a national survey in Great Britain which assessed whether dental status affected older people's food selection, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. The survey analyzed national random samples of free-living and institution subjects for dental examination, interview, and four-day food diary as well as blood and urine tests In the free-living sample, intakes of non-starch polysaccharides, protein, calcium, non-heme iron, niacin, and vitamin C were significantly lower in edentulous as compared to dentate subjects. People with 21 or more teeth consumed more of most nutrients, particularly non-starch polysaccharides. This relationship in intake was not apparent in the hematological analysis. Plasma ascorbate and retinol were the only analytes significantly associated with dental status. Having 21 or more teeth increased the likelihood of having an acceptable body mass index (BMI. Thus, maintaining a natural and functional dentition defined as having more than twenty teeth into old age plays an important role in having a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables, a satisfactory nutritional status, and an acceptable BMI.

  1. Relationship between Body Mass Index Reference and All-Cause Mortality: Evidence from a Large Cohort of Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate variation in body mass index (BMI reference and 5-year all-cause mortality using data from 87151 adult Open University students nationwide. Analyses focused on BMI reference bands: “normal” (≥18.5 to <23, “lower normal” (≥18.5 to <20.75, “upper normal” (≥20.75 to <23, and “narrow Western normal” (≥23 to <25. We report hazard ratios (HR and 95% Confidence Intervals adjusting for covariates. Compared to lower normal, adults aged 35–65 years who were obese (BMI ≥ 30 were twice as likely to die during the follow-up (HR 2.37; 1.01–5.70. For the same group, when using narrow Western normal as the reference, the results were similar (HR 3.02; 1.26–7.22. However, different combinations of BMI exposure and reference band produce quite different results. Older age persons belonging to Asian overweight BMI category (≥23 to <25 were relatively protected from mortality (HR 0.57; 0.34–0.96 and HR 0.49; 0.28–0.84 when assessed using normal (≥18.5 to <23 and upper normal (≥20.75 to <23 as reference bands. Use of different “normal” reference produced varying mortality relationships in a large cohort of Thai adults. Caution is needed when interpreting BMI-mortality data.

  2. Predicting Causal Relationships from Biological Data: Applying Automated Causal Discovery on Mass Cytometry Data of Human Immune Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Triantafillou, Sofia

    2017-09-29

    Learning the causal relationships that define a molecular system allows us to predict how the system will respond to different interventions. Distinguishing causality from mere association typically requires randomized experiments. Methods for automated  causal discovery from limited experiments exist, but have so far rarely been tested in systems biology applications. In this work, we apply state-of-the art causal discovery methods on a large collection of public mass cytometry data sets, measuring intra-cellular signaling proteins of the human immune system and their response to several perturbations. We show how different experimental conditions can be used to facilitate causal discovery, and apply two fundamental methods that produce context-specific causal predictions. Causal predictions were reproducible across independent data sets from two different studies, but often disagree with the KEGG pathway databases. Within this context, we discuss the caveats we need to overcome for automated causal discovery to become a part of the routine data analysis in systems biology.

  3. Is There a Relationship between Body Mass Index, Fitness, and Academic Performance? Mixed Results from Students in a Southeastern United States Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Robert Joshua; Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P. H., Janicke, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between body mass index (BMI), physical fitness, and academic performance in elementary school students. Specifically, BMI and scores on the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards Program, a physical fitness test, were compared to reading and mathematics scores on the…

  4. Relationship of body mass index with efficacy of exenatide twice daily added to insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; Van Gaal, L.; Duran-Garcia, S.; Han, J.

    2016-01-01

    This post hoc analysis assessed the evidence behind common reimbursement practices by evaluating the relationship of body mass index (BMI) ranges (35 kg/m(2)) with treatment effects of exenatide twice daily among patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients received exenatide twice daily added to insulin

  5. Is There a Relationship between Body Mass Index, Fitness, and Academic Performance? Mixed Results from Students in a Southeastern United States Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Robert Joshua; Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P. H., Janicke, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between body mass index (BMI), physical fitness, and academic performance in elementary school students. Specifically, BMI and scores on the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards Program, a physical fitness test, were compared to reading and mathematics scores on the…

  6. Does Concern Motivate Behavior Change?: Exploring the Relationship between Physical Activity and Body Mass Index among Low-Income Housing Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamers, Sara L.; Allen, Jennifer; Yang, May; Stoddard, Anne; Harley, Amy; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore relationships between concerns and physical activity and body mass index (BMI) among a racially/ethnically diverse low-income population. Method: A cross-sectional survey documented behavioral risks among racially/ethnically diverse low-income residents in the Boston area (2005-2009). Multivariable logistic regressions were…

  7. Translational Study on the Relationships Between Body Mass Index, Levels of Serum Inflammatory Factors and Bronchial Asthma in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-zhu FANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI, levels of serum inflammatory factors and bronchial asthma in children.Methods: According to BMI, the enrolled 128 children with asthma in acute-outbreak period were assigned into obese group (n=29, skinny group (n=34 and control group (n=65. The children in three groups were all given routine treatment, including steroid aerosol, bronchodilators, fluid infusion and correction of acidosis, and returned visit after 4 weeks. The asthma control condition, levels of serum inflammatory factors, BMI and childhood asthma control test (C-ACT scores were compared among three groups, and the relationships between C-ACT scores, BMI and levels of serum inflammatory factors were analyzed.Results: Both completely and partially controlled rates were obviously lower in obese group and skinny group than in control group (P<0.05, but there was no statistical significance between obese group and skinny group (P>0.05. The levels of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were all higher in obese group than in skinny group and control group, and these indicators above in skinny group were higher than those in control group. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05 or P<0.01. C-ACT scores increased in sequence among obese group, skinny group and control group, and the differences were statistically significant between two any groups (P<0.01. Correlation analysis revealed that C-ACT scores had a significantly negative correlation with levels of hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α (r=-0.856, P=0.000; r=-0.616, P=0.000; r=-0.296, P=0.001. BMI was not correlated with C-ACT scores and levels of hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α (P>0.05.Conclusion: Both obesity and emaciation can lead to increased levels of serum inflammatory factors in children with asthma, which is adverse to asthma control. Maintenance of normal body weight can effectively

  8. Computing in-situ strength of rock masses based upon RQD and modified joint factor: Using pressure and damage sensitive constitutive relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Trivedi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new model was presented for computing strength of rock masses based upon in-situ observations of RQD popularly known as rock quality designation. This model links up the rock mass parameters from in-situ investigations with the strength parameters of jointed rocks obtained from laboratory scale experimental observations. Using the constitutive relation, the author derived a pressure and damage sensitive plastic parameter to determine strength of rock masses for varied extents of discontinuity and pressure induced damage. The test results show that plasticity characterized by hardening and softening inclusive of damage invariably depends upon mean pressure and extent of deformations already experienced by rock masses. The present work explores the test data that reveal the dependence of in-situ strength on incremental joint parameters obtained from the joint number, joint orientation, joint roughness, gouge parameters and water pressure. Substituting the relationship between the RQD and modified joint factor with that between modulus ratio and strength ratio, the model shows successfully that using damage inclusive plastic parameter and RQD provides a relationship for estimating the strength of rock masses. One of the main objectives of this work is to illustrate that the present model is sensitive to plasticity and damage together in estimating in-situ strength of rock masses in foundations, underground excavation and tunnels.

  9. Computing in-situ strength of rock masses based upon RQD and modified joint factor:Using pressure and damage sensitive constitutive relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashutosh; Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new model was presented for computing strength of rock masses based upon in-situ observations of RQD popularly known as rock quality designation. This model links up the rock mass parameters from in-situ investigations with the strength parameters of jointed rocks obtained from laboratory scale experimental observations. Using the constitutive relation, the author derived a pressure and damage sensitive plastic parameter to determine strength of rock masses for varied extents of discontinuity and pressure induced damage. The test results show that plasticity characterized by hardening and softening inclusive of damage invariably depends upon mean pressure and extent of deformations already experienced by rock masses. The present work explores the test data that reveal the dependence of in-situ strength on incremental joint parameters obtained from the joint number, joint orientation, joint roughness, gouge parameters and water pressure. Substituting the relationship between the RQD and modified joint factor with that between modulus ratio and strength ratio, the model shows successfully that using damage inclusive plastic parameter and RQD provides a relationship for estimating the strength of rock masses. One of the main objectives of this work is to illustrate that the present model is sensitive to plasticity and damage together in estimating in-situ strength of rock masses in foundations, underground excavation and tunnels.

  10. The evaluation of relationship between body mass index and mental foramen area using computer-aided methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ozyanik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anatomical structure of the mental foramen (MF is an essential orientation point particularly for implant planning at surgical clinics of dentistry, for genioplasty operations, and plastic surgery. The aim is to determine the influential factors such as the patient age, gender, and body mass index (BMI on MF anatomy of dental periapical radiograms. Materials and Methods: Our study evaluated the BMI, gender, and age relationship with the calculated areas of the MF based on symmetrically taken 202 periapical dental radiography with a parallel technique of the bottom premolar region of total 101 people ages ranging from 17 to 70 weighing 46–108 kg. Patient age, BMI, and gender were recorded and statistically tested for correlations on the area of the MF. Digital imaging and communications in medicine were measured MF area. Results: Right MF area was measured as 0–20.8 mm2 (mean: 4.98 mm2 and left as 0–17.3 mm2 (4.93 mm2. There was not a difference in the areas of MF between the two sides. Furthermore, it was determined that ANOVA test and BMI, Pearson test with age and gender did not appear to have an effect on MF areas. Only within the obese people, left MF area was significantly different than those with other BMI groups. A negative effect on image quality was found statistically significantly correlated with age and MF. None of the investigated MFs were garbled by any of the investigated influence factors. Conclusion: In incidences in which the anatomical structure of the MF and the areas were crucial; age, gender, height, and weight of the individual were not determinant factors. BMI and MF appeared to have a negative impact.

  11. The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Pre-Diabetes In Teachers Residing in Shiraz-Iran 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Naghshzan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes and cardiovascular diseases often go hand in hand and conversely, many patients with established coronary heart disease suffer from diabetes or its pre-states. Thus, it is high time that diabetologists and cardiologists join their forces to improve the quality management in diagnosis and care for the millions of patients who have both cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in common. The cardio-diabetological approach not only is of utmost importance for the sake of those patients, but also instrumental for further progress in the fields of cardiology and diabetology and prevention.Methods: This descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted February to December 2009. A total of 3115 teachers residing in Shiraz aged 21- 73 years, were enrolled. Questionnaires were applied to collect information including demographic data, physical activity, history of CAD, hypertension, dyslipidemia,and smoking. In addition, waist circumference, height, weight, body mass index (BMI, and hip circumference (HC were measured and serum biochemistry profiles were determined on venous blood samples. The prevalence of diabetes, hypercholesterolemia,hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, overweight, obesity, central obesity, and smoking were identified based on the above mentioned data.Results: Total prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes were 47.2% and 6.2% and the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes were 44.3% and 5.3% among men and 49.2% and 6.6% among women respectively. Thus the association of sex with prevalent impaired fasting glucose and diabetes was significant and greater among women. Diabetes and prediabetes are more prevalent in men and women who are considered as obese in regard to waist circumference and waist/hip ratio scales. This study showed a relationship between higher range of BMI and prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes.Conclusion: Obesity is a preventable risk factor for diabetes mellitus and

  12. The Relationship between Media Use and Body Mass Index among Secondary Students in Kuching South City, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Whye Lian; Chang, Ching Thon; Rosalia, Saimon; Charles, Lai Dekun; Yii, Sze Lin; Tiong, Pik Hoong; Yeap, Kim Pey

    2011-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity rates among adolescents have increased substantially over the years. This study aimed to determine the body mass index (BMI) of students and parents and the relationship among media use, BMI, socio-demographic profiles, and snacking behaviour during television watching of secondary school students in Kuching South City. Methods: In accordance with the two-stage sampling method, a total of 316 adolescents aged 13–17 years from 7 secondary schools participated. Data were collected using questionnaire and anthropometric measurement. Independent t test, one-way ANOVA, Mann–Whitney U test, and chi-square test were performed. Results: The mean BMI was 20.56 kg/m2 (SD 4.33) for boys and 20.15 kg/m2 (SD 3.91) for girls. No significant difference in terms of z score for BMI-for-age or socio-demographic factors was found. The mean duration of time devoted to media use was 4.69 hours (SD 2.93) on weekdays and 5.69 hours (SD 2.87) on weekends. Boys were found to spend more hours on media use than did the girls (t = 4.293, P consume more cereal compared with soft drinks and junk foods. Respondents whose fathers worked in the private sector devoted the fewest hours to media use, whereas those with self-employed fathers devoted the most time to media use. Respondents with mothers who were employed spent more time on media use than did respondents whose mothers were housewives (F = 4.067, P consume less unhealthy food. PMID:22135599

  13. Relationship between functional movement screen scores, core strength, posture, and body mass index in school children in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ulrike H; Johnson, A Wayne; Adamson, Brynn

    2015-05-01

    The assessment of functionality should include parameters that consider postural control, limb asymmetries, range of motion limitations, proprioceptive deficits, and pain. An increasingly popular battery of tests, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), is purported to assess the above named parameters. The purpose of our study was twofold: (a) to report differences in total FMS scores in children, provide preliminary normative reference values of each of the 7 individual FMS scores for both genders and report on asymmetries and (b) to evaluate the relationship between total FMS scores, age, body mass index (BMI), core strength/stability, and postural angles to explore the possibility of using the FMS in the assessment of children's functional fitness. Descriptive data on 77 children aged 8-11 years were collected. The children performed core strength/stability exercises. Photographs were taken from a lateral view for later calculation of postural angles. The children performed the FMS while being videotaped for later review. The average total FMS score (of 21) was 14.9 (+1.9), and BMI was 16.4 (+2.2). Static posture is not related to results of the FMS. Core strength was positively correlated to the total FMS score (r = 0.31; p = 0.006). Over 60% demonstrated at least 1 asymmetry. The individual test scores indicate that none of the test items is too difficult for the children. Based on the screen's correlation to core strength, and the fact that it identifies areas of asymmetry, we suggest to further investigate its possible use in the assessment of children's functional fitness.

  14. Relationship of age and body mass index to the expression of obesity and osteoarthritis-related genes in human meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, M F; Sandell, L J; Cheverud, J M; Brophy, R H

    2013-09-01

    Aging and obesity contribute to the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis with little information on their relation to gene expression in joint tissues, particularly the meniscus. Here, we test the hypothesis that patient age and body mass index (BMI) correlate with the expression of osteoarthritis- and obesity-related gene signatures in the meniscus. Meniscus was obtained from patients (N=68) undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. The mRNA expression of 24 osteoarthritis-related and 4 obesity-related genes in meniscus was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. The relationship between gene expression and patient age and BMI was analyzed using Spearman's rank-order correlation. Hierarchical cluster dendrogram and heat map were generated to study inter-gene associations. Age was negatively correlated (Pgene expression was for APLN (r=-0.272). However, age had an independent effect on the expression on ADAMTS-4 (r=-0.253), MMP-1 (r=-0.399), IL-8 (r=-0.327), COL1A1 (r=-0.287), NFκBIA (r=-0.278), NFκB2 (r=-0.312) and IκBA (r=-0.299). The gene correlation analysis identified four clusters of potentially relevant genes: transcription factors, matrix-degrading enzymes, cytokines and chemokines, and obesity genes. Age and BMI were negatively correlated with several osteoarthritis- and obesity-related genes. Although the bulk of these changes appeared to be driven by age, expression of APLN was related to BMI. Inter-gene correlation analysis implicated a common role for strongly correlated genes. Although age-related variations in gene expression appear to be more relevant than obesity-related differences for the role of the meniscus in osteoarthritis development, further investigation into the role of APLN in meniscus and joint health is warranted.

  15. Relationship between Chronic Short Sleep Duration and Childhood Body Mass Index: A School-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pileggi

    Full Text Available To assess relationship between obesity and chronic shorter sleep duration in children and to determine if lack of sleep represents an independent determinant of childhood Body Mass Index.This cross-sectional study was conducted in all children enrolled in the fifth class (approximately 10 years of age of all public primary schools in Catanzaro (Southern Italy. The overall response rate was 62% resulting in 542 participating children. Parents completed a questionnaire with information on their demographics and socio-economic characteristics, their health status, characteristics of their child birth and health status. The sleeping habits were investigated in the 3 months preceding the consultation and parents were asked to indicate hours of bedtime and wake-up of their children. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to examine the association between child BMI and chronic lack of sleep.36.7% of the children surveyed were overweight or obese. A quarter of children did not routinely play sports and many of them spent more than an hour a day watching TV (60.7% and using videogames or computer (51.1%. Widespread dietary habits were inadequate, especially concerning vegetables and fruit intake with more than 95% of children who consumed insufficient amounts. The average duration of sleep was equal to 9.4 (SD = ±0.6 hours, and the short-sleepers accounted for 38.9% of the total sample. The results of multivariate analysis showed a significant 0.77 Kg/m(2 increase of BMI for children classified as short compared to normal sleepers (95%CI = 0.16-1.38, p = 0.01.Chronic lack of sleep appears to be associated to higher BMI even in middle childhood and strongly suggests that public health strategies, focused on promoting healthy lifestyles should include an innovative approach to ensure an adequate duration of sleep at night especially in children, alongside more traditional approaches.

  16. The Relationship between Media Use and Body Mass Index among Secondary Students in Kuching South City, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Whye Lian; Chang, Ching Thon; Rosalia, Saimon; Charles, Lai Dekun; Yii, Sze Lin; Tiong, Pik Hoong; Yeap, Kim Pey

    2011-07-01

    Overweight and obesity rates among adolescents have increased substantially over the years. This study aimed to determine the body mass index (BMI) of students and parents and the relationship among media use, BMI, socio-demographic profiles, and snacking behaviour during television watching of secondary school students in Kuching South City. In accordance with the two-stage sampling method, a total of 316 adolescents aged 13-17 years from 7 secondary schools participated. Data were collected using questionnaire and anthropometric measurement. Independent t test, one-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, and chi-square test were performed. The mean BMI was 20.56 kg/m(2) (SD 4.33) for boys and 20.15 kg/m(2) (SD 3.91) for girls. No significant difference in terms of z score for BMI-for-age or socio-demographic factors was found. The mean duration of time devoted to media use was 4.69 hours (SD 2.93) on weekdays and 5.69 hours (SD 2.87) on weekends. Boys were found to spend more hours on media use than did the girls (t = 4.293, P media use, whereas those with self-employed fathers devoted the most time to media use. Respondents with mothers who were employed spent more time on media use than did respondents whose mothers were housewives (F = 4.067, P media time or snacking habits. This finding indicated that media time has no effect on body weight, because respondents were found to have normal weight and to consume less unhealthy food.

  17. Evolution of the habitable zone of low-mass stars. Detailed stellar models and analytical relationships for different masses and chemical compositions

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, G; Moroni, P G Prada; Degl'Innocenti, S

    2014-01-01

    We study the temporal evolution of the habitable zone (HZ) of low-mass stars - only due to stellar evolution - and evaluate the related uncertainties. These uncertainties are then compared with those due to the adoption of different climate models. We computed stellar evolutionary tracks from the pre-main sequence phase to the helium flash at the red-giant branch tip for stars with masses in the range [0.70 - 1.10] Msun, metallicity Z in the range [0.005 - 0.04], and various initial helium contents. We evaluated several characteristics of the HZ, such as the distance from the host star at which the habitability is longest, the duration of this habitability, the width of the zone for which the habitability lasts one half of the maximum, and the boundaries of the continuously habitable zone (CHZ) for which the habitability lasts at least 4 Gyr. We developed analytical models, accurate to the percent level or lower, which allowed to obtain these characteristics in dependence on the mass and the chemical composit...

  18. Size matters : Relationships between body size and body mass of common coastal, aquatic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eklöf, Johan; Austin, Åsa; Bergström, Ulf; Donadi, Serena; Eriksson, Britas D H K; Hansen, Joakim; Sundblad, Göran

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organism biomass is one of the most important variables in ecological studies, making biomass estimations one of the most common laboratory tasks. Biomass of small macroinvertebrates is usually estimated as dry mass or ash-free dry mass (hereafter 'DM' vs. 'AFDM') per sample; a laborious

  19. Absolute and allometric relationships between internal morphology and body mass in the adult collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E

    1986-01-01

    Selected morphological features of 8 adult male and 8 adult female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) shot from southern Texas during March 1983 are described. A total of 16 adult peccaries with an average body mass of 18.68 +/- 0.61 (SE) Kg was examined. Significant differences between males and females were observed for absolute and relative mass of liver and lungs, and relative heart mass. These visceral organs were heavier among females than males. Significant sex effects were also found for absolute and relative mass of the dorsal scent gland. The dorsal scent gland contributed twice as much to total body mass in males as in females. No sexual dimorphisms of the gastrointestinal tract were noted. Females had a significantly greater portion of total visceral fat deposited around the kidneys than did males. Relative mass of the mandible was significantly greater in males than in females. Adult males had extremely large accessory sex glands. The bulbourethral and seminal vesicle glands comprised 0.27 per cent of the total body mass. Allometric growth coefficients (b) varied among the various organs and glands examined, ranging from below (eyes, b = 0.34) to well above (seminal vesicles, b = 1.87) unity. Growth coefficients of lungs, kidneys, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland during adulthood greatly exceeded respective values in developing nurslings.

  20. Dietary patterns in Canadian men and women ages 25 and older: relationship to demographics, body mass index, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towheed Tanveer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that underlying dietary patterns are related to the risk of many different adverse health outcomes, but the relationship of these underlying patterns to skeletal fragility is not well understood. The objective of the study was to determine whether dietary patterns in men (ages 25-49, 50+ and women (pre-menopause, post-menopause are related to femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD independently of other lifestyle variables, and whether this relationship is mediated by body mass index. Methods We performed an analysis of 1928 men and 4611 women participants in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, a randomly selected population-based longitudinal cohort. We determined dietary patterns based on the self-administered food frequency questionnaires in year 2 of the study (1997-99. Our primary outcome was BMD as measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry in year 5 of the study (2000-02. Results We identified two underlying dietary patterns using factor analysis and then derived factor scores. The first factor (nutrient dense was most strongly associated with intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The second factor (energy dense was most strongly associated with intake of soft drinks, potato chips and French fries, certain meats (hamburger, hot dog, lunch meat, bacon, and sausage, and certain desserts (doughnuts, chocolate, ice cream. The energy dense factor was associated with higher body mass index independent of other demographic and lifestyle factors, and body mass index was a strong independent predictor of BMD. Surprisingly, we did not find a similar positive association between diet and BMD. In fact, when adjusted for body mass index, each standard deviation increase in the energy dense score was associated with a BMD decrease of 0.009 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.016 g/cm2 for men 50+ years old and 0.004 (95% CI: 0.000, 0.008 g/cm2 for postmenopausal women. In contrast, for men 25-49 years old

  1. The Relationship between Native American Ancestry, Body Mass Index and Diabetes Risk among Mexican-Americans: e0141260

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hao Hu; Chad D Huff; Yuko Yamamura; Xifeng Wu; Sara S Strom

    2015-01-01

      Higher body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are substantially higher among Mexican-Americans relative to non-Hispanic European Americans...

  2. [The analysis of the causes of variability of the relationship between leaf dry mass and area in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasfilov, S P

    2011-01-01

    The lamina dry mass: area ratio (LMA - Leaf Mass per Area) is a quite variable trait. Leaf dry mass consists of symplast mass (a set of all leaf protoplasts) and apoplast mass (a set of all cell walls in a leaf). The ratio between symplast and apoplast masses is positively related to any functional trait of leaf calculated per unit of dry mass. The value of this ratio is defined by cells size and their number per unit of leaf area, number of mesophyll cells layers and their differentiation between palisade and spongy ones, and also by density of cells packing. The LMA value is defined by leaf thickness and density. The extent and direction of variability in both leaf traits define the extent and direction of variability in LMA. Negative correlation between leaf thickness and density reduces the level of LMA variability. As a consequence of this correlation the following pattern emerges: the thinner a leaf, the denser it is. Changes in the traits that define the LMA value take place both within a species under the influence of environmental factors and between species that differ in leaf structure and functions. Light is the most powerful environmental factor that influences the LMA, increase in illumination leading to increase in LMA. This effect occurs during leaf growth at the expense of structural changes associated with the reduction of symplast/apoplast mass ratio. Under conditions of intense illumination, LMA may increase due to accumulation of starch. With regard to the majority of leaf functions, the mass of starch may be ascribed to apoplast. Starch accumulation in leaves is observed also under conditions of elevated CO2 concentration in the air. Under high illumination, however, LMA increases also due to increased apoplast contribution to leaf dry mass. Scarce mineral nutrition leads to LMA increase due to lowering of growth zones demands for phothosyntates and, therefore, to increase in starch content of leaves. High level of mineral nutrition during

  3. Relationship of age and body mass index to the expression of obesity and osteoarthritis related genes in human meniscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Muhammad Farooq; Sandell, Linda J.; Cheverud, James M.; Brophy, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Aging and obesity contribute to the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis with little information on their relation to gene expression in joint tissues, particularly the meniscus. Here, we test the hypothesis that patient age and body mass index (BMI) correlate with the expression of osteoarthritis- and obesity-related gene signatures in the meniscus. Design Meniscus was obtained from patients (N=68) undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. The mRNA expression of twenty-four osteoarthritis-related and four obesity-related genes in meniscus was assessed by qRT-PCR. The relationship between gene expression and patient age and BMI was analyzed using Spearman’s rank-order correlation. Hierarchical cluster dendrogram and heat maps were generated to study inter-gene associations. Results Age was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with the expression of MMP-1 (r=−0.447), NFκB2 (r=−0.361), NFκBIA (r=−0.312), IκBA (r=−0.308), IL-8 (r=−0.305), ADAMTS-4 (r=−0.294), APLN (r=−0.250) and IL-6 (r=−0.244). Likewise, BMI was negatively correlated with the expression of APLN (r=−0.328), ACAN (r=−0.268) and MMP-1 (r=−0.261). After adjusting for the correlation between age and BMI (r=0.310; P=0.008), the only independent effect of BMI on gene expression was for APLN (r=−0.272). However, age had an independent effect on expression on ADAMTS-4 (r=−0.253), MMP-1 (r=−0.399), IL-8 (r=−0.327), COL1A1 (r=−0.287), NFκBIA (r=−0.278), NFκB2 (r=−0.312) and IκBA (r=−0.299). The gene-correlation analysis identified four clusters of potentially relevant genes: transcription factors, matrix degrading enzymes, cytokines and chemokines, and obesity genes. Conclusion Age and BMI were negatively correlated with several osteoarthritis- and obesity-related genes. While the bulk of these changes appeared to be driven by age, expression of APLN was related to BMI. Inter-gene correlations implicated a common regulatory role of strongly

  4. Relationship between mass density, electron density, and elemental composition of body tissues for Monte Carlo simulation in radiation treatment planning

    CERN Document Server

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: For Monte Carlo simulation of radiotherapy, x-ray CT number of every system needs to be calibrated and converted to mass density and elemental composition. This study aims to formulate material properties of body tissues for practical two-step conversion from CT number. Methods: We used the latest compilation on body tissues that constitute reference adult male and female. We formulated the relations among mass, electron, and elemental densities into polylines to connect representative tissues, for which we took mass-weighted mean for the tissues in limited density regions. We compared the polyline functions of mass density with a bi-line for electron density and broken lines for elemental densities, which were derived from preceding studies. Results: There was generally high correlation between mass density and the other densities except of C, N, and O for light spongiosa tissues occupying 1% of body mass. The polylines fitted to the dominant tissues and were generally consistent with the bi-line an...

  5. First measurements of ambient aerosol over an ecologically sensitive zone in Central India: Relationships between PM2.5 mass, its optical properties, and meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunder Raman, Ramya; Kumar, Samresh

    2016-04-15

    PM2.5 mass and its optical properties were measured over an ecologically sensitive zone in Central India between January and December, 2012. Meteorological parameters including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, and barometric pressure were also monitored. During the study period, the PM2.5 (fine PM) concentration ranged between 3.2μgm(-3) and 193.9μgm(-3) with a median concentration of 31.4μgm(-3). The attenuation coefficients, βATN at 370nm, 550nm, and 880nm had median values of 104.5Mm(-1), 79.2Mm(-1), and 59.8Mm(-1), respectively. Further, the dry scattering coefficient, βSCAT at 550nm had a median value of 17.1Mm(-1) while the absorption coefficient βABS at 550nm had a median value of 61.2Mm(-1). The relationship between fine PM mass and attenuation coefficients showed pronounced seasonality. Scattering, absorption, and attenuation coefficient at different wavelengths were all well correlated with fine PM mass only during the post-monsoon season (October, November, and December). The highest correlation (r(2)=0.81) was between fine PM mass and βSCAT at 550nm during post-monsoon season. During this season, the mass scattering efficiency (σSCAT) was 1.44m(2)g(-1). Thus, monitoring optical properties all year round, as a surrogate for fine PM mass was found unsuitable for the study location. In order to assess the relationships between fine PM mass and its optical properties and meteorological parameters, multiple linear regression (MLR) models were fitted for each season, with fine PM mass as the dependent variable. Such a model fitted for the post-monsoon season explained over 88% of the variability in fine PM mass. However, the MLR models were able to explain only 31 and 32% of the variability in fine PM during pre-monsoon (March, April, and May) and monsoon (June, July, August, and September) seasons, respectively. During the winter (January and February) season, the MLR model explained 54% of the PM2.5 variability.

  6. Temporal features, lateral distributions and correlations of air shower components and their relationship to primary mass composition and other phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, P. K. F.

    Groups of proton- and primary iron-initiated showers, in the energy range from 100,000 to 10,000,000 GeV total energy, are simulated for different nucleon-antinucleon production cross-sections. In the first account of work on this topic that is based on 3000-m level data, arrival time distributions of a variety of shower components are analyzed along with other properties in an attempt to find primary mass-sensitive observables. It is found that arrival time alone is not an adequate signature for the identification of either the mass or mass group of the primary which is initiating a shower. This is the case even in correlation with other observables.

  7. How useful is ion mobility mass spectrometry for structural biology? The relationship between protein crystal structures and their collision cross sections in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurneczko, Ewa; Barran, Perdita E

    2011-01-07

    The technique of ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) has become of increasing interest for rapid analysis of the conformations adopted by biological macromolecules. It is currently used routinely for analysis of explosives and illegal substances in airport and military security. In biophysical research, it can be used to determine the temperature dependent rotationally averaged collision cross section of gas-phase ions of proteins and nucleic acids along with their mass to charge ratios. Nanoelectrospray ionisation allows the gentle transfer of intact biomolecules from solutions in which the native form(s) are present, into the solvent free environment of a mass spectrometer. It is believed by many researchers that the experimental collision cross sections of these molecules should have some relationship to crystal structure coordinates. In this review we outline the different experimental methods that can be used to measure ion mobility; we also describe methods used to calculate collision cross sections from input coordinates. Following this survey of the methodological approaches to IM-MS, we then summarise IM-MS data published to date for some monomeric peptides and small soluble proteins, along with collision cross sections calculated from their crystal structure coordinates. Finally we consider the relationship between experimental gas-phase conformations and those adopted in crystals and give an outlook on the application of IM-MS as a tool for structural biology.

  8. Bone mass in Indian children--relationships to maternal nutritional status and diet during pregnancy: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule, A; Yajnik, C S; Fall, C H D; Rao, S; Fisher, D J; Kanade, A; Cooper, C; Naik, S; Joshi, N; Lubree, H; Deshpande, V; Joglekar, C

    2006-08-01

    Bone mass is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies have highlighted associations between maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and bone mass in the offspring. We hypothesized that maternal calcium intakes and circulating micronutrients during pregnancy are related to bone mass in Indian children. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nutritional status was measured at 18 and 28 wk gestation in 797 pregnant rural Indian women. Measurements included anthropometry, dietary intakes (24-h recall and food frequency questionnaire), physical workload (questionnaire), and circulating micronutrients (red cell folate and plasma ferritin, vitamin B12, and vitamin C). Six years postnatally, total body and total spine bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the children (n = 698 of 762 live births) and both parents. Both parents' DXA measurements were positively correlated with the equivalent measurements in the children (P pregnancy (milk, milk products, pulses, non-vegetarian foods, green leafy vegetables, fruit) had higher total and spine bone mineral content and BMD, and children of mothers with higher folate status at 28 wk gestation had higher total and spine BMD, independent of parental size and DXA measurements. Modifiable maternal nutritional factors may influence bone health in the offspring. Fathers play a role in determining their child's bone mass, possibly through genetic mechanisms or through shared environment.

  9. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  10. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  11. A versatile mass spectrometry-based method to both identify kinase client-relationships and characterize signaling network topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    While more than a thousand protein kinases (PK) have been identified in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, relatively little progress has been made towards identifying their individual client proteins. Herein we describe use of a mass spectrometry-based in vitro phosphorylation strategy, termed Kinase...

  12. Relationship of body mass index with periodontal health status of green marble mine laborers in Kesariyaji, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santhosh; Dagli, Rushabh J; Dhanni, Chandrakant; Duraiswamy, Prabu

    2009-01-01

    It is evident from literature that an increased body mass index (BMI) may be a potential risk factor for periodontitis. Association between BMI and periodontitis has been ascribed to unhealthy dietary patterns with insufficient micronutrients and excess sugar and fat content. The present study population has been plagued by unhealthy nutritional practices, hence the present study intended to assess the relation between BMI and periodontal status among green marble mine laborers of Kesariyaji, in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan, India. The study sample comprised of 513 subjects aged 18-54 years, drawn using the stratified cluster sampling procedure. BMI was calculated as the ratio of the subject's body weight (in kg) to the square of their height (in meters). Periodontal status was recorded using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Binary multiple logistic regression analysis was executed to assess the relation between body mass index and periodontitis. The dependent variable for logistic regression analysis was categorized into control group (scores 0 - 2 of the CPI) and periodontitis group (scores 3 and 4 of the CPI). The overall prevalence of periodontal disease was 98.2%. Caries status and mean number of teeth present deteriorated with the poor periodontal status. Subjects had an increased risk of periodontitis by 57% for each 1kg/m(2) increase in the body mass index, which means that a higher body mass index could be a potential risk factor for periodontitis among the adults aged 18 to 54 years. In conclusion, evaluation of the body mass index could be used in periodontal risk assessment.

  13. Relationship of Body Mass Index with periodontal health status of green marble mine laborers in Kesariyaji, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is evident from literature that an increased body mass index (BMI may be a potential risk factor for periodontitis. Association between BMI and periodontitis has been ascribed to unhealthy dietary patterns with insufficient micronutrients and excess sugar and fat content. The present study population has been plagued by unhealthy nutritional practices, hence the present study intended to assess the relation between BMI and periodontal status among green marble mine laborers of Kesariyaji, in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan, India. The study sample comprised of 513 subjects aged 18-54 years, drawn using the stratified cluster sampling procedure. BMI was calculated as the ratio of the subject's body weight (in kg to the square of their height (in meters. Periodontal status was recorded using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI. Binary multiple logistic regression analysis was executed to assess the relation between body mass index and periodontitis. The dependent variable for logistic regression analysis was categorized into control group (scores 0 - 2 of the CPI and periodontitis group (scores 3 and 4 of the CPI. The overall prevalence of periodontal disease was 98.2%. Caries status and mean number of teeth present deteriorated with the poor periodontal status. Subjects had an increased risk of periodontitis by 57% for each 1kg/m² increase in the body mass index, which means that a higher body mass index could be a potential risk factor for periodontitis among the adults aged 18 to 54 years. In conclusion, evaluation of the body mass index could be used in periodontal risk assessment.

  14. Relationships between energy release, fuel mass loss, and trace gas and aerosol emissions during laboratory biomass fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Freeborn; Martin J. Wooster; Wei Min Hao; Cecily A. Nordgren Ryan; Stephen P. Baker; Charles Ichoku

    2008-01-01

    Forty-four small-scale experimental fires were conducted in a combustion chamber to examine the relationship between biomass consumption, smoke production, convective energy release, and middle infrared (MIR) measurements of fire radiative energy (FRE). Fuel bed weights, trace gas and aerosol particle concentrations, stack flow rate and temperature, and concurrent...

  15. The relationship between trust in mass media and the healthcare system and individual health: evidence from the AsiaBarometer Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokuda Yasuharu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertical and horizontal trust, as dimensions of social capital, may be important determinants of health. As mass media campaigns have been used extensively to promote healthy lifestyles and convey health-related information, high levels of individual trust in the media may facilitate the success of such campaigns and, hence, have a positive influence on health. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between trust levels in mass media, an aspect of vertical trust, and health. Methods Based on cross-sectional data of the general population from the AsiaBarometer Survey (2003–2006, we analyzed the relationship between self-rated health and trust in mass media, using a multilevel logistic model, adjusted for age, gender, marital status, income, education, occupation, horizontal trust, and trust in the healthcare system. Results In a total of 39082 participants (mean age 38; 49% male, 26808 (69% were classified as in good health. By the levels of trust in mass media, there were 6399 (16% who reported that they trust a lot, 16327 (42% reporting trust to a degree, 9838 (25% who do not really trust, 3307 (9% who do not trust at all, and 191 (0.5% who have not thought about it. In the multilevel model, trust in mass media was associated with good health (do not trust at all as the base group: the odds ratios (OR of 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.05–1.27 for do not really trust; OR of 1.35 (95% CI = 1.23–1.49 for trust to a degree, and 1.57 (95% CI = 1.36–1.81 for trust a lot. Horizontal trust and trust in the healthcare system were also associated with health. Conclusion Vertical trust in mass media is associated with better health in Asian people. Since mass media is likely an important arena for public health, media trust should be enhanced to make people healthier.

  16. Relationships among leaf functional traits, litter traits, and mass loss during early phases of leaf litter decomposition in 12 woody plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukswert, Jenna M; Prescott, Cindy E

    2017-09-08

    Litter 'quality' or decomposability has historically been estimated through measuring chemical attributes, such as concentrations of nitrogen or 'lignin'. More recently, foliar functional traits, which may incorporate indications of the physical structures of tissues, have been found to correlate with litter mass loss rates. However, these traits may not be adequate to predict early rates of mass loss, in which two factors are crucial: the amount of material quickly lost through leaching, and the ease of access of decomposer organisms to the more labile tissues in the interior of the litter. We investigated relationships among physical and chemical traits in foliage and litter of 12 species native to British Columbia and then observed how these traits related to mass loss during the first 3 months (Phase I) and between 3 and 12 months (Phase II). Novel traits measured in this study include cuticle thickness, litter leaching loss, and litter water uptake. Foliar and litter traits both co-varied along spectra, but several chemical traits, such as nitrogen concentration, changed from foliage to litter, i.e., during senescence. Phase I mass loss was best predicted by leaching loss and traits relating to leaching, such as cuticle thickness and specific leaf area. Phase II mass loss was predicted by traits that may relate to decomposer access and activity, such as leaf dry matter content and foliar nitrogen. Physical traits predicted mass loss as well or better than chemical traits, suggesting that physical characteristics of litter are important in determining early rates of decomposition.

  17. Mass spectrometry based identification of geometric isomers during metabolic stability study of a new cytotoxic sulfonamide derivatives supported by quantitative structure-retention relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Belka

    Full Text Available A set of 15 new sulphonamide derivatives, presenting antitumor activity have been subjected to a metabolic stability study. The results showed that besides products of biotransformation, some additional peaks occurred in chromatograms. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed the same mass and fragmentation pathway, suggesting that geometric isomerization occurred. Thus, to support this hypothesis, quantitative structure-retention relationships were applied. Human liver microsomes were used as an in vitro model of metabolism. The biotransformation reactions were tracked by liquid chromatography assay and additionally, fragmentation mass spectra were recorded. In silico molecular modeling at a semi-empirical level was conducted as a starting point for molecular descriptor calculations. A quantitative structure-retention relationship model was built applying multiple linear regression based on selected three-dimensional descriptors. The studied compounds revealed high metabolic stability, with a tendency to form hydroxylated biotransformation products. However, significant chemical instability in conditions simulating human body fluids was noticed. According to literature and MS data geometrical isomerization was suggested. The developed in sillico model was able to describe the relationship between the geometry of isomer pairs and their chromatographic retention properties, thus it supported the hypothesis that the observed pairs of peaks are most likely geometric isomers. However, extensive structural investigations are needed to fully identify isomers' geometry. An effort to describe MS fragmentation pathways of novel chemical structures is often not enough to propose structures of potent metabolites and products of other chemical reactions that can be observed in compound solutions at early drug discovery studies. The results indicate that the relatively non-expensive and not time- and labor-consuming in sillico approach could be a good supportive

  18. Dietary Restraint Partially Mediates the Relationship between Impulsivity and Binge Eating Only in Lean Individuals: The Importance of Accounting for Body Mass in Studies of Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffino, Jaime A; Orloff, Natalia C; Hormes, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data suggest impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI). Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female) were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal-weight (BMI importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors.

  19. The relationship between skinfold thickness and body mass index in North European Caucasian and East Asian women with anorexia nervosa: implications for diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Nerissa L; Touyz, Stephen; Dobbins, Timothy A; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael R; Lee, Ee Lian; Leow, Vincent; Ung, Ken E K; Walter, Garry

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between skinfold thickness and body mass index (BMI) in North European Caucasian and East Asian young women with and without anorexia nervosa (AN) in two countries. Height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were assessed in 137 young women with and without AN, in Australia and Singapore. The relationship between BMI and the sum of triceps, biceps, subscapular and iliac crest skinfolds was analysed with clinical status, ethnicity, age and country of residence as covariates. For the same BMI, women with AN had significantly smaller sums of skinfolds than women without AN. East Asian women both with and without AN had significantly greater skinfold sums than their North European Caucasian counterparts after adjusting for BMI. Lower BMI goals may be appropriate when managing AN patients of East Asian ancestry and the weight for height diagnostic criterion should be reconsidered for this group.

  20. The relationship between smoking, body weight, body mass index, and dietary intake among Thai adults: results of the national Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary intake, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in adult Thais as a function of smoking status. A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey using health and dietary questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used. Participants were 7858 Thai adults aged 18 years and older recruited from 17 provinces in Thailand. Results demonstrated that smoking is associated with lower weights and BMI. However, when smokers were stratified by smoking intensity, there was no dose-response relationship between smoking and body weight. There is no conclusive explanation for weight differences across smoking groups in this sample, and the results of the present study did not clearly support any of the purported mechanisms for the differences in body weight or BMI. In addition, because the substantial negative health consequences of smoking are far stronger than those associated with modest weight differences, smoking cannot be viewed as an appropriate weight management strategy.

  1. A maximum likelihood model for fitting power functions with data uncertainty: A case study on the relationship between body lengths and masses for Sciuridae species worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhua Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, a maximum likelihood model is developed to incorporate data uncertainty in response and explanatory variables when fitting power-law bivariate relationships in ecology and evolution. This simple likelihood model is applied to an empirical data set related to the allometric relationship between body mass and length of Sciuridae species worldwide. The results show that the values of parameters estimated by the proposed likelihood model are substantially different from those fitted by the nonlinear least-of-square (NLOS method. Accordingly, the power-law models fitted by both methods have different curvilinear shapes. These discrepancies are caused by the integration of measurement errors in the proposed likelihood model, in which NLOS method fails to do. Because the current likelihood model and the NLOS method can show different results, the inclusion of measurement errors may offer new insights into the interpretation of scaling or power laws in ecology and evolution.

  2. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Händel, Mina Nicole; Stougaard, Maria

    2017-01-01

    the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited. Objectives: To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2–6 years. Methods: Data was obtained from the “Healthy...... children seemed to develop a lower protein intake despite similar total energy intake and diet composition....... by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders. Results: No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P...

  3. On the relationship between Arctic ice clouds and polluted air masses over the north slope of Alaska in April 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jouan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, two Types of Ice Clouds (TICs properties have been characterized using ISDAC airborne measurements (Alaska, April 2008. TIC-2B were characterized by fewer (<10 L−1 and larger (>110 μm ice crystals, a larger ice supersaturation (>15% and a fewer ice nuclei (IN concentration (<2 order of magnitude when compared to TIC-1/2A. It has been hypothesized that emissions of SO2 may reduce the ice nucleating properties of IN through acidification, resulting to a smaller concentration of larger ice crystals and leading to precipitation (e.g. cloud regime TIC-2B because of the reduced competition for the same available moisture.

    Here, the origin of air masses forming the ISDAC TIC-1/2A (1 April 2008 and TIC-2B (15 April 2008 is investigated using trajectory tools and satellite data. Results show that the synoptic conditions favor air masses transport from the three potentials SO2 emission areas to Alaska: eastern China and Siberia where anthropogenic and biomass burning emission respectively are produced and the volcanic region from the Kamchatka/Aleutians. Weather conditions allow the accumulation of pollutants from eastern China/Siberia over Alaska, most probably with the contribution of acid volcanic aerosol during the TIC-2B period. OMI observations reveal that SO2 concentrations in air masses forming the TIC-2B were larger than in air masses forming the TIC-1/2A. Airborne measurements show high acidity near the TIC-2B flight where humidity was low. These results strongly support the hypothesis that acidic coating on IN are at the origin of the formation of TIC-2B.

  4. Gas entropy in a representative sample of nearby X-ray galaxy clusters (REXCESS): relationship to gas mass fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, G. W.; Arnaud, M.; Piffaretti, R.; Böhringer, H.; Ponman, T. J.; Croston, J. H.; Voit, G. M.; Borgani, S.; Bower, R. G.

    2010-02-01

    We examine the radial entropy distribution and its scaling using 31 nearby galaxy clusters from the representative XMM-Newton cluster structure survey (REXCESS), a sample in the temperature range 2-9 keV selected in X-ray luminosity only, with no bias toward any particular morphological type. The entropy profiles are robustly measured at least out to R1000 in all systems and out to R500 in thirteen systems. Compared to theoretical expectations from non-radiative cosmological simulations, the observed distributions show a radial and mass-dependent excess entropy, such that the excess is greater and extends to larger radii in lower mass systems. At R500, the mass dependence and entropy excess are both negligible within the large observational and theoretical uncertainties. Mirroring this behaviour, the scaling of gas entropy is shallower than self-similar in the inner regions, but steepens with radius, becoming consistent with self-similar at R500. There is a large dispersion in scaled entropy in the inner regions, apparently linked to the presence of cool cores and dynamical activity; at larger radii the dispersion decreases by approximately a factor of two to 30 per cent, and the dichotomy between subsamples disappears. There are two peaks in the distribution of both inner slope and, after parameterising the profiles with a power law plus constant model, in central entropy K0. However, we are unable to distinguish between a bimodal or a left-skewed distribution of K0 with the present data. The distribution of outer slopes is unimodal with a median value of 0.98, and there is a clear correlation of outer slope with temperature. Renormalising the dimensionless entropy profiles by the gas mass fraction profile fgas (cool core.

  5. Coronary artery calcification detected by a mobile helical CT unit in a mass screening. The frequency and relationship to coronary risk factors and coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itani, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Shigeru; Masuda, Yoshiaki [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Hanamura, Kazuhisa; Asakura, Kazuhiro; Sone, Shusuke; Sunami, Yuko; Shimura, Akimitsu; Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    2001-06-01

    A strong relationship is known to exist between coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) detected by CT. In this study, we investigated the frequency of CAC and the relationship between coronary risk factors, CAD and CAC in a mass screening using a mobile helical CT unit. The total number of participants was 10008 people undergoing a medical examination for lung cancer and tuberculosis using a mobile helical CT unit. We measured the CT density of the coronary artery to detect CAC. The CT density threshold for determining CAC was above +110HU. The frequency of CAC was 16.0% in the overall patient population and significantly higher in males than in females (20.6% vs 10.7%). Frequency increased with age in both genders. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were significantly related to CAC. Smoking showed a correlation with CAC only in males. A significant relationship was observed between CAD and CAC in males. In particular, the relationship between them was strongest in males under 60 years of age. Furthermore, the odds ratio of CAC in predicting CAD increased with increasing risk factors in both genders. (author)

  6. Gas entropy in a representative sample of nearby X-ray galaxy clusters (REXCESS): relationship to gas mass fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, G W; Piffaretti, R; Böhringer, H; Ponman, T J; Croston, J H; Voit, G M; Borgani, S; Bower, R G

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) We examine the radial entropy distribution and its scaling using 31 nearby galaxy clusters from the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS). The entropy profiles are robustly measured at least out to R_1000 in all systems and out to R_500 in 13 systems. Compared to theoretical expectations, the observed distributions show a radial and mass-dependent excess entropy that is greater and extends to larger radii in lower mass systems. At R_500, the mass dependence and entropy excess are both negligible within the uncertainties. Mirroring this behaviour, the scaling of gas entropy is shallower than self-similar in the inner regions, but steepens with radius, becoming consistent with self-similar at R_500. The dispersion in scaled entropy in the inner regions is linked to the presence of cool cores and dynamical activity; at larger radii the dispersion decreases by a factor of two and the dichotomy between subsamples disappears. Parameterising the profiles with a power law plus consta...

  7. Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Medical Care Expenditures for North Carolina Adolescents Enrolled in Medicaid in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Buescher, PhD

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionMany studies document that overweight and obese adults have substantially higher medical care expenditures than do adults of normal weight, but comparable data for children or adolescents are few. This study examines patterns of expenditure for medical care and use of medical care services among a sample of North Carolina adolescents enrolled in Medicaid, stratified by body mass index categories.MethodsNorth Carolina public health records, which include clinically measured height and weight, were linked to 2004 North Carolina Medicaid enrollment records to find adolescents aged 12–18 years whose records matched. We then examined all paid claims for 2004 of the 3528 adolescents whose records matched. Total expenditures by sex and race, hospital costs, physician costs, and prescription drug costs were tabulated and stratified by body mass index. We also examined, by body mass index, the percentage of adolescents who had a paid claim for selected diagnosed health conditions.ResultsOverall, and for most demographic and service categories, overweight adolescents and at-risk-for-overweight adolescents had higher average Medicaid expenditures than did normal-weight adolescents. Some of these differences were statistically significant. Overweight adolescents were significantly more likely to have a paid claim for services related to diabetes, asthma, or other respiratory conditions.ConclusionAlthough based on a small sample, our results suggest that overweight has negative health consequences as early as adolescence. Further studies with larger samples could help confirm the findings of our study.

  8. Assessment of NHTSA’s Report “Relationships Between Fatality Risk, Mass, and Footprint in Model Year 2003-2010 Passenger Cars and LTVs”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis updating its 2003, 2010, and 2012 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT; Kahane 2010, Kahane 2012, Puckett 2016). The new study updates the 2012 analysis using FARS data from 2005 to 2011 for model year 2003 to 2010. Using the updated databases, NHTSA estimates that reducing vehicle mass by 100 pounds while holding footprint fixed would increase fatality risk per VMT by 1.49% for lighter-than-average cars and by 0.50% for heavierthan- average cars, but reduce risk by 0.10% for lighter-than-average light-duty trucks, by 0.71% for heavier-than-average light-duty trucks, and by 0.99% for CUVs/minivans. Using a jack knife method to estimate the statistical uncertainty of these point estimates, NHTSA finds that none of these estimates are statistically significant at the 95% confidence level; however, the 1.49% increase in risk associated with mass reduction in lighter-than-average cars, and the 0.71% and 0.99% decreases in risk associated with mass reduction in heavier-than-average light trucks and CUVs/minivans, are statistically significant at the 90% confidence interval. The effect of mass reduction on risk that NHTSA estimated in 2016 is more beneficial than in its 2012 study, particularly for light trucks and CUVs/minivans. The 2016 NHTSA analysis estimates that reducing vehicle footprint by one square foot while holding mass constant would increase fatality risk per VMT by 0.28% in cars, by 0.38% in light trucks, and by 1.18% in CUVs and minivans.This report replicates the 2016 NHTSA analysis, and reproduces their main results. This report uses the confidence intervals output by the logistic regression models, which are smaller than the intervals NHTSA estimated using a jack-knife technique that accounts for the sampling error in the FARS fatality and state crash data. In addition to reproducing the NHTSA results, this report also examines the

  9. The complementary relationship between the Internet and traditional mass media: the case of online news and information

    OpenAIRE

    An Nguyen; Mark Western

    2006-01-01

    Background. The question whether old media are driven out of existence by new media has been a long concern in academic and industrial research but has received no definitive answer. Aim.This paper goes beyond most previous studies of Internet impact on traditional media, which have placed their relationship within a competition-based framework, to specifically investigate the complementary effect of online news and information usage on traditional sources. Method. Secondary data analysis of...

  10. Relationship between body mass index and family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting style among African migrant parents and children in Victoria, Australia: a parent-child dyad study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cyril, S; Halliday, J; Green, J; Renzaho, A M N

    2015-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to examine the difference between children and parental perception of family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting styles and their relationship with body mass index...

  11. Relationship between body mass index and family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting style among African migrant parents and children in Victoria, Australia: a parent-child dyad study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cyril, S; Halliday, J; Green, J; Renzaho, A.M.N

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to examine the difference between children and parental perception of family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting styles and their relationship with body mass index...

  12. THE CLUSTERING OF ALFALFA GALAXIES: DEPENDENCE ON H I MASS, RELATIONSHIP WITH OPTICAL SAMPLES, AND CLUES OF HOST HALO PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Jones, Michael G. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo, E-mail: papastergis@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: jonesmg@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: apuebla@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70-264, 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-10

    We use a sample of ≈6000 galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to measure the clustering properties of H I-selected galaxies. We find no convincing evidence for a dependence of clustering on galactic atomic hydrogen (H I) mass, over the range M{sub H{sub I}} ≈ 10{sup 8.5}-10{sup 10.5} M{sub ☉}. We show that previously reported results of weaker clustering for low H I mass galaxies are probably due to finite-volume effects. In addition, we compare the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies with optically selected samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that H I-selected galaxies cluster more weakly than even relatively optically faint galaxies, when no color selection is applied. Conversely, when SDSS galaxies are split based on their color, we find that the correlation function of blue optical galaxies is practically indistinguishable from that of H I-selected galaxies. At the same time, SDSS galaxies with red colors are found to cluster significantly more than H I-selected galaxies, a fact that is evident in both the projected as well as the full two-dimensional correlation function. A cross-correlation analysis further reveals that gas-rich galaxies 'avoid' being located within ≈3 Mpc of optical galaxies with red colors. Next, we consider the clustering properties of halo samples selected from the Bolshoi ΛCDM simulation. A comparison with the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies suggests that galactic H I mass is not tightly related to host halo mass and that a sizable fraction of subhalos do not host H I galaxies. Lastly, we find that we can recover fairly well the correlation function of H I galaxies by just excluding halos with low spin parameter. This finding lends support to the hypothesis that halo spin plays a key role in determining the gas content of galaxies.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Mass-radius relationship for planets with Rp<4 (Wolfgang+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, A.; Rogers, L. A.; Ford, E. B.

    2016-08-01

    Table 2 shows all of the masses and radii that we consider, with our baseline data set denoted with a label of 0; the list was constructed by starting with the WM14 (Weiss & Marcy, 2014ApJ...783L...6W) data set and identifying new planets and updates in the NASA Exoplanet Archive (last accessed 2015 January 30). We manually double-checked each planet to verify that the reported measurements were correct. See section 3 for further details. (2 data files).

  14. Relationships between interspecific differences in the mass of internal organs,biochemical markers of metabolic activity,and the thermogenic properties of three smallpasserines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minlan Bai; Xujian Wu; Kejing Cai; Weihong Zheng; Jinsong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Background:The capacity for thermogenesis is considered part of an animal’s adaptive strategy for survival,and basal metabolic rate(BMR) is one of the fundamental physiological standards for assessing the energy cost of thermoregulation in endotherms.BMR has been shown to be a highly flexible phenotypic trait both between,and within,species,but the metabolic mechanisms involved in the regulation of BMR,which range from variation in organ mass to biochemical adjustments,remain unclear.In this study,we investigated the relationship between organ mass,biochemical markers of metabolic tissue activity,and thermogenesis,in three species of small passerines:wild Bramblings(Fringilla montifringilla),Little Buntings(Emberiza pusilla) and Eurasian Tree Sparrows(Passer montanus),caught in Wenzhou,southeastern China.Methods:Oxygen consumption was measured using an open-circuit respirometry system.Mitochondrial state-4 respiration and cytochrome c oxidase(COX) activity in liver and pectoral muscle were measured with a Clark electrode.Results:Our results show that Eurasian Tree Sparrows had significantly higher BMR,digestive organ mass,mitochondrial state-4 respiration capacity and COX activity in liver and muscle,than Bramblings and Little Buntings.Furthermore,interspecific differences in BMR were strongly correlated with those indigestive tract mass,state-4 respiration and COX activity.Conclusions:Our findings suggest that the digestive organ mass,state-4 respiration and COX activity play an important role in determining interspecific differences in BMR.

  15. Dietary Restraint Partially Mediates the Relationship between Impulsivity and Binge Eating Only in Lean Individuals: The Importance of Accounting for Body Mass in Studies of Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffino, Jaime A.; Orloff, Natalia C.; Hormes, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data suggest impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI). Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female) were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal-weight (BMI Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Binge Eating Scale. Findings provide initial evidence for the hypothesized moderated mediation model, with dietary restraint partially mediating the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating severity only in lean respondents. In respondents with overweight or obesity, impulsivity was significantly correlated with binge eating severity, but not with dietary restraint. Findings inform our conceptualization of dietary restraint as a possible risk factor for binge eating and highlight the importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors. PMID:27757092

  16. Dietary restraint partially mediates the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating only in lean individuals: The importance of accounting for body mass in studies of restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ashley Coffino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data that suggests impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI. Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal weight (BMI < 25, 65.8%, n = 333 or overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25, 34.2%, n = 173 and completed the restrained eating subscale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the difficulties with impulse control subscale of the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Binge Eating Scale. Findings provide initial evidence for the hypothesized moderated mediation model, with dietary restraint partially mediating the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating severity only in lean respondents. In respondents with overweight or obesity, impulsivity was significantly correlated with binge eating severity, but dietary restraint was not. Findings inform our conceptualization of dietary restraint as a possible risk factor for binge eating and highlight the importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors.

  17. Relationship between body mass index, nutrition, strength, and function in elderly individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Melissa J; Wagner, Carolyn L; Alexander, Jeffrey L

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are frequently characterized as cachectic and suffering from generalized weight loss and muscle wasting. Loss of body mass is associated with disability and premature mortality, and body mass index (BMI) has been used as a marker for nutritional status and to predict survival. This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between BMI (kg/m(2)), nutritional intake, strength, and function in 19 elderly (70 +/- 1 years) men and women (BMI = 27.8 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2)) enrolled in a pulmonary rehabilitation program. Three-day prospective diet records were collected and analyzed using Food Processor software. Upper and lower body strength was measured using 1 repetition maximum testing for chest and leg press. Function (endurance, strength, and power) was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test battery (6-minute walk, up-and-go, chair stand, arm curl). BMI was positively associated with upper (P nutrition or function. Total daily caloric (kcal/d), protein (g/d), and carbohydrate (g/d) intakes were positively related to upper body strength (P chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  18. The clustering of ALFALFA galaxies: dependence on HI mass, relationship to optical samples & clues on host halo properties

    CERN Document Server

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Haynes, Martha P; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Jones, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    We use a sample of ~6000 galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21cm survey, to measure the clustering properties of HI-selected galaxies. We find no convincing evidence for a dependence of clustering on the galactic atomic hydrogen (HI) mass, over the range M_HI ~ 10^{8.5} - 10^{10.5} M_sun. We show that previously reported results of weaker clustering for low-HI mass galaxies are probably due to finite-volume effects. In addition, we compare the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies with optically selected samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that HI-selected galaxies cluster more weakly than even relatively optically faint galaxies, when no color selection is applied. Conversely, when SDSS galaxies are split based on their color, we find that the correlation function of blue optical galaxies is practically indistinguishable from that of HI-selected galaxies. At the same time, SDSS galaxies with red colors are found to cluster significantly more than HI-selected gala...

  19. Relationships between aerosol extinction coefficients derived from airport visual range observations and alternative measures of airborne particle mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezkaynak, H.; Schatz, A.D.; Thurston, G.D.; Isaacs, R.G.; Husar, R.B.

    1985-11-01

    This paper analyzes methods for predicting fine particle (M/sub f/ and inhalable particle (IP) mass concentrations using relative humidity corrected light extinction coefficient (b/sub ext/) estimated from airport visual range (V/sub r) observations. The analyses presented are based on theoretical determinations as well as statistical investigations utilizing EPA's NASN and Inhalable Particle Monitoring Network (IPMN) data bases and routine airport visual range observations in twelve large US cities. Our results indicate that, after controlling for certain limitations of airport visual range data, most of the regression models developed in this paper can be applied satisfactorily to predict M/sub f/ and IP. Furthermore, the findings indicate that a more representative formula than the commonly used meteorological range formula to predict atmospheric b/sub ext/ values in urban areas may be b/sub ext/ = (1.8 +/- 0.04)/V/sub r/. Because of known local or regional influences, however, the authors suggest calibration of any predictive model which utilizes airport visibility data against site-specific aerometric data on particle mass concentrations or scattering coefficient measurements.

  20. Leaf-age effects on seasonal variability in photosynthetic parameters and its relationships with leaf mass per area and leaf nitrogen concentration within a Pinus densiflora crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Nakano, Takashi; Chiba, Yukihiro

    2008-04-01

    In the temperate zone of Japan, Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. bears needles of up to three age classes in the upper crown and up to five age classes in the lower crown. To elucidate the effects of leaf age on photosynthetic parameters and its relationships with leaf mass per unit area (LMA) and leaf nitrogen (N(l)) concentration on an area (N(a)) and mass (N(m)) basis, we measured seasonal variations in LMA, N(l), light-saturated photosynthetic rate (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), maximum rate of carboxylation (V(cmax)) and maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)) in leaves of all age classes in the upper and lower crown. Leaf mass per unit area increased by 27% with increasing leaf age in the lower crown, but LMA did not depend on age in the upper crown. Leaf age had a significant effect on N(m) but not on N(a) in both crown positions, indicating that decreases in N(m) resulted from dilution. Photosynthetic parameters decreased significantly with leaf age in the lower crown (39% for A(max) and 43% for V(cmax)), but the effect of leaf age was not as great in the upper crown, although these parameters exhibited seasonal variation in both crown positions. Regression analysis indicated a close relationship between LMA and N(a), regardless of age class or when each age class was pooled (r(2) = 0.57-0.86). Relationships between LMA and N(a) and among A(max), V(cmax) and J(max) were weak or not significant when all age classes were examined by regression analysis. However, compared with older leaves, relationships among LMA, N(a) and A(max) were stronger in younger leaves. These results indicate that changes in LMA and N(l) mainly reflect light acclimation during leaf development, but they are only slightly affected by irradiance in mature leaves. In conclusion, LMA and N(l) are useful parameters for estimating photosynthetic capacity, but age-related effects need to be taken into account, especially in evergreen conifers.

  1. The relationship between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate for Hα-selected galaxies at z ≈ 0.8 from the NewHα survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Mithi A. de los [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Ly, Chun; Lee, Janice C.; Peeples, Molly S.; Feddersen, Jesse [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Salim, Samir [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (United States); Momcheva, Ivelina [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Dale, Daniel A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, TODIAS, University of Tokyo (Japan); Finn, Rose, E-mail: madelosr@ncsu.edu [Physics Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, Loudonville, NY (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Using a sample of 299 Hα-selected galaxies at z≈0.8, we study the relationship between galaxy stellar mass, gas-phase metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR), and compare to previous results. We use deep optical spectra obtained with the IMACS spectrograph at the Magellan telescope to measure strong oxygen lines. We combine these spectra and metallicities with (1) rest-frame UV-to-optical imaging, which allows us to determine stellar masses and dust attenuation corrections, and (2) Hα narrowband imaging, which provides a robust measurement of the instantaneous SFR. Our sample spans stellar masses of ∼10{sup 9}–6 × 10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙}, SFRs of 0.4–270 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, and metal abundances of 12+log(O/H)≈8.3–9.1 (≈0.4–2.6 Z{sub ⊙}). The correlations that we find between the Hα-based SFR and stellar mass (i.e., the star-forming “main sequence”) and between the stellar mass and metallicity are both consistent with previous z∼1 studies of star-forming galaxies. We then study the relationship between the three properties using various plane-fitting techniques and a curve-fitting projection. In all cases, we exclude strong dependence of the M{sub ⋆}–Z relation on SFR, but are unable to distinguish between moderate and no dependence. Our results are consistent with previous mass–metallicity–SFR studies. We check whether data set limitations may obscure a strong dependence on the SFR by using mock samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These experiments reveal that the adopted signal-to-noise ratio cuts may have a significant effect on the measured dependence. Further work is needed to investigate these results, and to test whether a “fundamental metallicity relation” or a “fundamental plane” describes star-forming galaxies across cosmic time.

  2. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Händel, Mina Nicole; Stougaard, Maria; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Trærup, Maria; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2017-01-01

    Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited. To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2-6 years. Data was obtained from the "Healthy Start" intervention study which included 271 children aged 2-6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders. No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P = 0.68) and little picky/non-picky (P = 0.68) children at 15 month follow-up. Picky children had a lower intake of protein (P = 0.01) than non-picky children despite no differences in total energy intake (P = 0.74), or in the other macronutrients, or the intake of fruit and vegetables, though children being a little picky had a lower intake of starch compared to non-picky children (P = 0.05). Results were essentially similar before and after adjustment for key covariates. Our study showed that BMI Z-score after 15 months follow-up was similar for picky and non-picky children. Picky children seemed to develop a lower protein intake despite similar total energy intake and diet composition.

  3. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Mina Nicole; Stougaard, Maria; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Trærup, Maria; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2017-01-01

    Background Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited. Objectives To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2–6 years. Methods Data was obtained from the “Healthy Start” intervention study which included 271 children aged 2–6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders. Results No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P = 0.68) and little picky/non-picky (P = 0.68) children at 15 month follow-up. Picky children had a lower intake of protein (P = 0.01) than non-picky children despite no differences in total energy intake (P = 0.74), or in the other macronutrients, or the intake of fruit and vegetables, though children being a little picky had a lower intake of starch compared to non-picky children (P = 0.05). Results were essentially similar before and after adjustment for key covariates. Conclusion Our study showed that BMI Z-score after 15 months follow-up was similar for picky and non-picky children. Picky children seemed to develop a lower protein intake despite similar total energy intake and diet composition. PMID:28296896

  4. A High Molecular-Mass Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 Amylopullulanase: Characterization and Its Relationship in Carbohydrate Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Mau Goh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An amylopullulanase of the thermophilic Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 (ApuASK was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Though amylopullulanases larger than 200 kDa are rare, the molecular mass of purified ApuASK appears to be approximately 225 kDa, on both SDS-PAGE analyses and native-PAGE analyses. ApuASK was stable between pH 6.0 and pH 8.0 and exhibited optimal activity at pH 7.5. The optimal temperature for ApuASK enzyme activity was 60 °C, and it retained 54% of its total activity for 240 min at 65 °C. ApuASK reacts with pullulan, starch, glycogen, and dextrin, yielding glucose, maltose, and maltotriose. Interestingly, most of the previously described amylopullulanases are unable to produce glucose and maltose from these substrates. Thus, ApuASK is a novel, high molecular-mass amylopullulanase able to produce glucose, maltose, and maltotriose from pullulan and starch. Based on whole genome sequencing data, ApuASK appeared to be the largest protein present in Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4. The α-amylase catalytic domain present in all of the amylase superfamily members is present in ApuASK, located between the cyclodextrin (CD-pullulan-degrading N-terminus and the α-amylase catalytic C-terminus (amyC domains. In addition, the existence of a S-layer homology (SLH domain indicates that ApuASK might function as a cell-anchoring enzyme and be important for carbohydrate utilization in a streaming hot spring.

  5. Body mass index moderates the relationship between C-reactive protein and depressive symptoms: evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tingting; Liu, Wenhua; Yin, Minghui; Shu, Chang; Yan, Mingming; Zhang, Jianyuan; Yin, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of abnormal body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) in the depression-CRP (C-reactive protein) relationship in a healthy middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. Analytical samples were drawn from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), and participants were categorized by different BMI levels. Depressive subtypes were evaluated both at baseline and follow-up using the Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression scale. Hs-CRP and other variables were measured at baseline. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between depression and baseline hs-CRP. Depression was significantly negatively associated with BMI (ρ = −0.077, p hs-CRP and depressive subtypes were significantly positive in the underweight group (p  0.05). The significant relationship between CRP and depression in the underweight group suggested that not only obesity but also a low BMI could explain a substantial portion of the inflammation-depression link. PMID:28128231

  6. The relationship between dietary patterns, body mass index percentile, and household food security in young urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Christine M; Burke, Georgine; Gorin, Amy A; Wiley, James F; Hernandez, Dominica; Crowell, Rebecca E; Grant, Autherene; Beaulieu, Annamarie; Cloutier, Michelle M

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between food insecurity and child obesity is unclear. Few studies have examined dietary patterns in children with regard to household food security and weight status. The aim of this study was to examine the association between household food security, dietary intake, and BMI percentile in low-income, preschool children. Low-income caregivers (n=222) with children ages 2-4 years were enrolled in a primary-care-based obesity prevention/reversal study (Steps to Growing Up Healthy) between October 2010 and December 2011. At baseline, demographic data, household food security status (US Household Food Security Instrument) and dietary intake (Children's Dietary Questionnaire; CDQ) were collected. BMI percentile was calculated from anthropometric data. Participating children were primarily Hispanic (90%), Medicaid insured (95%), 50% female, 35±8.7 months of age (mean±standard deviation), 19% overweight (BMI 85th-94th percentile), and 29% obese (≥95th percentile). Thirty-eight percent of interviews were conducted in Spanish. Twenty-five percent of households reported food insecurity. There was no association between household food insecurity and child BMI percentile. Dietary patterns of the children based on the CDQ did not differ by household food security status. Food group subscale scores (fruit and vegetable, fat from dairy, sweetened beverages, and noncore foods) on the CDQ did not differ between normal weight and overweight/obese children. Maternal depression and stress did not mediate the relationship between household food insecurity and child weight status. Hispanic children were more likely to be overweight or obese in both food-secure and food-insecure households. Household food insecurity was not associated with child BMI percentile in this study. Dietary intake patterns of children from food-insecure households were not different compared to those from food-secure households.

  7. Mass Wasting during the Cretaceous/Tertiary Transition in the North Atlantic: Relationship to the Chicxulub Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Paula; Keller, Gerta; Adatte, Thierry; Spangenberg, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Deep-sea sections in the North Atlantic are claimed to contain the most complete sedimentary records and ultimate proof that the Chicxulub impact is Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) in age and caused the mass extinction. A multi-disciplinary study of North Atlantic DSDP Sites 384, 386 and 398, based on high-resolution planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy, carbon and oxygen stable isotopes, clay and whole-rock mineralogy and granulometry, reveals the age, stratigraphic completeness and nature of sedimentary disturbances. Results show a major KTB hiatus at Site 384 with zones CF1, P0 and P1a missing, spanning at least ~540 ky, similar to other North Atlantic and Caribbean localities associated with tectonic activity and Gulf Stream erosion. At Sites 386 and 398, discrete intervals of disturbed sediments with mm-to-cm-thick spherule layers have previously been interpreted as KTB age impact-generated earthquakes destabilizing continental margins prior to settling of impact spherules. However, improved age control based on planktonic foraminifera indicates deposition in the early Danian zone P1a(2) (upper Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina zone) more than 100 ky after the KTB. At Site 386, two intervals of white chalk contain very small (Chicxulub impact.

  8. Solar wind, F10.7, and geomagnetic activity relationship to the equatorial plasma mass density at geosynchronous orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veibell, V.; Weigel, R. S.; Denton, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    We consider two types of events, identified by decreases in Dst below a threshold value and increases in the equatorial mass density at geosynchronous altitudes, ρeq, above a threshold value using the Takahashi et al. (2010) data set. From the Dst events and 1 day averages, we find that there is a statistically weak and small-amplitude difference between ρeq on the day of the event and the days before and after. When hourly averages are considered, a significant peak is found to occur 6 h after event onset, and the primary factor that determines the postonset peak amplitude in ρeq is elevated F10.7. In addition, for hourly averages, ρeq following the onset of a Dst event depends on the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field, Bz, after the time of onset, with higher average Bz 4 h after the event onset corresponding to larger ρeq values 7-11 h after onset. From the ρeq events, we find a weak dependence on Bz after the onset of an event, with higher average Bz 4 h after the event onset corresponding to larger ρeq values 24-36 h after onset.

  9. Evaluating relationship in cytokines level, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Body Mass Index in women with Fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghizal, Fatima; Das, Siddharth Kumar; Verma, Narsingh; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) levels are reported to be perturbed in Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients. Moreover, Body Mass Index (BMI) may also be related to disturbed cytokines level. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate the levels of cytokines and to correlate them with BMI and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised (FIQR) in female FMS patients (n= 60) and control group (n= 60). 4 ml of blood samples were taken from both the group of patients and controls to measure the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α . Symptoms of FMS were assessed by FIQR. BMI was calculated by a standard formula of weight in kilograms divided by height in meter square. There were significant differences in BMI levels in FMS patients than in control group. However, no significant association was found between BMI and TNF-α levels, and BMI and IL-6 levels in patient and control groups. However, a significant association was found between FIQR and BMI in patients group. On the basis of the results we conclude that the levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha are not associated with BMI in FMS patients. Furthermore, patients with higher BMI may fall at the risk of FMS. Therefore, weight management may be an important aspect for treatment of FMS patients.

  10. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a case-control study evaluating its relationship with body mass index and hand and wrist measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J E; Davis, T R C

    2008-08-01

    This case-control study investigated the associations between the body mass index (BMI), hand and wrist measurements and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The hands and wrists of 50 patients with CTS and 50 age- and sex-matched controls were measured. The right and left wrist indices (wrist depth/wrist width) were significantly greater in CTS patients (mean = 0.71. SD = 0.04) than in the controls (mean = 0.69 SD = 0.04). The hand index (hand length/palm width) and BMI were not significantly different in the two groups. The hand, but not the wrist, index was found to correlate with the BMI. These results provide some support for a causative association between wrist morphometry, as measured by the wrist index, and CTS, but this difference is too small to be of diagnostic value in clinical or epidemiological practice. The results could also suggest that the previously reported association between CTS and the hand index may be secondary to differences in the BMI.

  11. Prevalence of hypertension in healthy school children in Pakistan and its relationship with body mass index, proteinuria and hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshalooz Jamila Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP in healthy school Pakistani children and its association with high body mass index (BMI, asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria, we studied 661 public school children and measured their body weight, height and BP and urine dipstick for hematuria performed on a single occasion. Hypertension (BP >95 th centile and pre-hypertension (BP >90 th centile were defined based on the US normative BP tables. Over-weight and obesity were defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO classification of BMI. The mean age of the children was 14 ± 1.3 years. The mean BMI was 18.5 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 . The majority (81.8% of the children were found to be normotensive (BP 25 (RR for BMI b/w 25-30 = 2.6, RR for BMI >30 = 4.3, positive urine dipstick for proteinuria (RR = 2.3 95% CI 0.7-7.7 and positive urine dipstick for hematuria (RR 1.0 95% CI 0.2-8.3. Hypertension in children is strongly correlated with obesity, asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria. Community based screening programs for children should include BP recording, BMI assessment and urine dipsticks analysis and approach high-risk groups for early detection and lifestyle modifications.

  12. Longitudinal relationships between glycemic status and body mass index in a multiethnic study: evidence from observational and genetic epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Adeola F.; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Engert, James C.; Mohan, Viswanathan; Diaz, Rafael; Anand, Sonia S.; Meyre, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between glycemic status and BMI and its interaction with obesity single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a multi-ethnic longitudinal cohort at high-risk for dysglycemia. We studied 17 394 participants from six ethnicities followed-up for 3.3 years. Twenty-three obesity SNPs were genotyped and an unweighted genotype risk score (GRS) was calculated. Glycemic status was defined using an oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression models were adjusted for age, sex and population stratification. Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to dysglycemia transition was associated with baseline BMI and BMI change. Impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes transition was associated with baseline BMI but not BMI change. No simultaneous significant main genetic effects and interactions between SNPs/GRS and glycemic status or transition on BMI level and BMI change were observed. Our data suggests that the interplay between glycemic status and BMI trajectory may be independent of the effects of obesity genes. This implies that individuals with different glycemic statuses may be combined together in genetic association studies on obesity traits, if appropriate adjustments for glycemic status are performed. Implementation of population-wide weight management programs may be more beneficial towards individuals with NGT than those at a later disease stage. PMID:27480816

  13. The complementary relationship between the Internet and traditional mass media: the case of online news and information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Nguyen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The question whether old media are driven out of existence by new media has been a long concern in academic and industrial research but has received no definitive answer. Aim.This paper goes beyond most previous studies of Internet impact on traditional media, which have placed their relationship within a competition-based framework, to specifically investigate the complementary effect of online news and information usage on traditional sources. Method. Secondary data analysis of a national survey of 4270 Australians conducted in late 2003, employing hypothesis testing for the mean, partial correlations, and a linear regression analysis. Results. Online news and information usage at different usage levels is positively associated with the use of traditional news and information sources, especially those that are more information-intensive. Those who relied on the Internet the most for news and information still used traditional sources substantially. Conclusion. The findings suggest that even if a displacement effect takes place, there will be no replacement (absolute displacement: traditional media will still exist to complement the Internet in serving human beings' news and information needs.

  14. The Relationship Between Menopausal Symptoms, Menopausal Age and Body Mass Index With Depression in Menopausal Women of Ahvaz in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziagham

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Depression is the commonest psychiatric disorder in women. Menopausal symptoms include hot flashes, sleep disturbance, irritability, and vaginal dryness, which can give rise to depression in postmenopausal women. Objectives This study aimed to determine the factors affecting and associated with depression in postmenopausal women. Patients and Methods In this descriptive analytical research, 250 postmenopausal women who referred to health centers in Ahvaz were selected through an easy sampling method and studied. The beck depression inventory, the menopause rating scale (MRS Questionnaire, and demographic information sheets were used to collect data. The collected data were analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficients, Spearman, chi-square, and one-way ANOVA. Results The mean depression score was 12.17 ± 8. The total MRS mean in this study is 13.04 ± 8.01. The somatic dimension had the highest score, the mean of which was 5.48 ± 3.28. We found a significant relationship between depression score and MRS scores in all three dimensions (P 0.05. However, the level of education was significantly associated with depression (P < 0.001. Conclusions Increase in menopausal symptoms is associated with a higher severity of depression. Diagnosis and treatment of menopausal symptoms is therefore recommended to reduce depression.

  15. Relationships Between Alanine Aminotransferase, Serum Triglycerides, Body Mass Index and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in an Outpatient Pediatric Clinic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah; Gonzales-Pacheco, Diana; Myers, Orrin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. The goal of this study was to describe the demographic, anthropometric and biochemical data of children and adolescents diagnosed with NAFLD during a seven-year period in an outpatient pediatric clinic in the Southwest region of the US and to evaluate relationships between race, BMI, ALT, triglyceride levels, age and gender with a diagnosis of NAFLD. A retrospective medical record review of patients who attended an outpatient pediatric clinic with a billing diagnosis ICD-9 code of 571.8 was conducted. Forty-one patients met these criteria. The majority was male (74%) Hispanic (32%), Hispanic/Latino (68%) and obese. The small number of patients diagnosed with NAFLD in our study is consistent with previously reported results. Our results indicate that the population of this culturally diverse, high-risk population has significant clinical markers that are indicative of NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Longitudinal relationships between glycemic status and body mass index in a multiethnic study: evidence from observational and genetic epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Adeola F; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Engert, James C; Mohan, Viswanathan; Diaz, Rafael; Anand, Sonia S; Meyre, David

    2016-08-02

    We investigated the relationship between glycemic status and BMI and its interaction with obesity single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a multi-ethnic longitudinal cohort at high-risk for dysglycemia. We studied 17 394 participants from six ethnicities followed-up for 3.3 years. Twenty-three obesity SNPs were genotyped and an unweighted genotype risk score (GRS) was calculated. Glycemic status was defined using an oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression models were adjusted for age, sex and population stratification. Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to dysglycemia transition was associated with baseline BMI and BMI change. Impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes transition was associated with baseline BMI but not BMI change. No simultaneous significant main genetic effects and interactions between SNPs/GRS and glycemic status or transition on BMI level and BMI change were observed. Our data suggests that the interplay between glycemic status and BMI trajectory may be independent of the effects of obesity genes. This implies that individuals with different glycemic statuses may be combined together in genetic association studies on obesity traits, if appropriate adjustments for glycemic status are performed. Implementation of population-wide weight management programs may be more beneficial towards individuals with NGT than those at a later disease stage.

  17. Relationship between level of neutral buoyancy and dual-Doppler observed mass detrainment levels in deep convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Mullendore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is generally accepted that the level of neutral buoyancy (LNB is only a coarse estimate of updraft depth, the LNB is still used to understand and predict storm structure in both observations and modeling. This study uses case studies to quantify the variability associated with using environmental soundings to predict detrainment levels. Nine dual-Doppler convective cases were used to determine the observed level of maximum detrainment (LMD to compare with the LNB. The LNB for each case was calculated with a variety of methods and with a variety of sources (including both observed and simulated soundings. The most representative LNB was chosen as the proximity sounding from NARR using the most unstable parcel and including ice processes.

    The observed cases were a mix of storm morphologies, including both supercell and multicell storms. As expected, the LMD was generally below the LNB, the mean offset for all cases being 2.2 km. However, there was a marked difference between the supercell and non-supercell cases. The two supercell cases had LMDs of 0.3 km and 0.0 km below the LNB. The remaining cases had LMDs that ranged from 4.0 km below to 1.6 km below the LNB, with a mean offset of 2.8 km below. Observations also showed that evolution of the LMD over the lifetime of the storm can be significant (e.g., >2 km altitude change in 30 min, and this time evolution is lacking from models with coarse time steps, missing significant changes in detrainment levels that may strongly impact the amount of boundary layer mass transported to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  18. Relationship of early pregnancy waist to hip ratio versus body mass index with gestational diabetes and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basraon, Sanmaan K.; Mele, Lisa; Myatt, Leslie; Roberts, James M.; Hauth, John C.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Varner, Michael W.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Thorp, John M.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Ramin, Susan M.; Sciscione, Anthony; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Sorokin, Yoram

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and insulin resistance (IR) in obesity defined by body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) or both combined. Methods Secondary analysis of a randomized multicenter trial of antioxidant supplementation versus placebo in nulliparous low-risk women to prevent pregnancy associated hypertension. Women between 9–16 weeks with data for WHR and BMI were analyzed for GDM (n=2300). Those with fasting glucose and insulin between 22–26 weeks (n=717) were analyzed for IR by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; normal≤75thpercentile). WHR and BMI were categorized as normal (WHR<0.80; BMI<25kg/m2); overweight (WHR:0.8–0.84; BMI:25–29.9kg/m2); and obese (WHR≥0.85; BMI≥30kg/m2). ROC curves and logistic regression models were used. Results Compared with normal, the risks of GDM or IR were higher in obese by BMI or WHR. The subgroup with obesity by WHR but not by BMI had no increased risk of GDM. BMI was a better predictor of IR (AUC-0.71(BMI), 0.65(WHR), p=0.03) but similar to WHR for GDM (AUC-0.68(BMI), 0.63(WHR), p=0.18. Conclusion Increased WHR and BMI in early pregnancy are associated with IR and GDM. BMI is a better predictor of IR compared with WHR. Adding WHR to BMI does not improve its ability to detect GDM or IR. Trial Registration number NCT00135707 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ PMID:26352680

  19. Relationship between body mass index and perceived insufficient sleep among U.S. adults: an analysis of 2008 BRFSS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croft Janet B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past 50 years, the average sleep duration for adults in the United States has decreased while the prevalence of obesity and associated outcomes has increased. The objective of this study was to determine whether perceived insufficient sleep was associated with body mass index (BMI in a national sample. Methods We analyzed data from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS survey (N = 384,541 in which respondents were asked, "During the past 30 days, for about how many days have you felt you did not get enough rest or sleep?" We divided respondents into six BMI categories and used multivariable linear regression and logistic regression analyses to assess the association between BMI categories and days of insufficient sleep after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, smoking, physical activity, and frequent mental distress. Results Adjusted mean days of insufficient sleep ranged from 7.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8, 8.0 days for people of normal weight to 10.5 (95% CI: 10.2, 10.9 days for those in the highest weight category (BMI ≥ 40. Days of perceived insufficient sleep followed a linear trend across BMI categories. The likelihood of reporting ≥14 days of insufficient sleep in the previous 30 days was higher for respondents in the highest weight category than for those who were normal weight (34.9% vs. 25.2%; adjusted odds ratio = 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5, 1.8]. Conclusion Among U.S. adults, days of insufficient rest or sleep strongly correlated with BMI. Sleep sufficiency should be an important consideration in the assessment of the health of overweight and obese people and should be considered by developers of weight-reduction programs.

  20. An Analysis of the Relationship between Casualty Risk Per Crash and Vehicle Mass and Footprint for Model Year 2000-2007 Light-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Building Technology and Urban Systems Dept.

    2012-08-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis (Kahane 2012) updating its 2003 and 2010 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The new study updates the previous analyses in several ways: updated FARS data for 2002 to 2008 involving MY00 to MY07 vehicles are used; induced exposure data from police reported crashes in several additional states are added; a new vehicle category for car-based crossover utility vehicles (CUVs) and minivans is created; crashes with other light-duty vehicles are divided into two groups based on the crash partner vehicle’s weight, and a category for all other fatal crashes is added; and new control variables for new safety technologies and designs, such as electronic stability controls (ESC), side airbags, and methods to meet voluntary agreement to improve light truck compatibility with cars, are included.

  1. Assessment of NHTSA’s Report “Relationships Between Fatality Risk, Mass, and Footprint in Model Year 2000-2007 Passenger Cars and LTVs”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Building Technology and Urban Systems Dept.

    2012-08-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis updating its 2003 and 2010 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The new study updates the previous analyses in several ways: updated FARS data from 2002 to 2008 for MY00 to MY07 vehicles are used; induced exposure data from police reported crashes in several additional states are added; a new vehicle category for car-based crossover utility vehicles (CUVs) and minivans is created; crashes with other light-duty vehicles are divided into two groups based on the crash partner vehicle’s weight, and a category for all other fatal crashes is added; and new control variables for new safety technologies and designs, such as electronic stability controls (ESC), side airbags, and methods to meet voluntary agreement to improve light truck compatibility with cars, are included.

  2. Assessment of NHTSA’s Report “Relationships Between Fatality Risk, Mass, and Footprint in Model Year 2000-2007 Passenger Cars and LTVs”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis Dept.

    2011-09-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis updating its 2003 and 2010 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The new study updates the previous analyses in several ways: updated FARS data from 2002 to 2008 for MY00 to MY07 vehicles are used; induced exposure data from police reported crashes in several additional states are added; a new vehicle category for car-based crossover utility vehicles (CUVs) and minivans is created; crashes with other light-duty vehicles are divided into two groups based on the crash partner vehicle’s weight, and a category for all other fatal crashes is added; and new control variables for new safety technologies and designs, such as electronic stability controls (ESC), side airbags, and methods to meet voluntary agreement to improve light truck compatibility with cars, are included.

  3. Mass concentrations and indoor-outdoor relationships of PM in selected educational buildings in Niš, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Renata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass concentrations of particulate matter (PM fractions were measured in educational buildings in the city of Niš, Republic of Serbia. Two sampling campaigns were conducted in winter periods. The first campaign was in the period from 21 February to 15 April 2010 at the Faculty of Occupational Safety (FOS and the second campaign was from 20 March to 4 April 2013 at the primary school Vožd Karađorđe (VK. PM measurements were carried out with low volume samplers Sven/Leckel LVS3. The average daily PM10 concentration inside the FOS (47.0 ±21.8 μg/m3 was lower than PM10 concentration in outdoor air (50.7 ±28.1 μg/m3. The average daily PM10 concentration inside the VK (54.6 ± 17.6 μg/m3 was higher than in outdoor air (47.9 ± 22.8 μg/m3. The 24 hours average PM10 concentrations at FOS exceeded the EU limit value (50 mg/m3 during 34 % of days outdoors, and 39 % of days indoors. The 24 hours average PM10 concentrations at VK exceeded the limit value during 35 % of days outdoors, and 53 % of days indoors. The 24 hours average PM2.5 concentrations at VK exceeded the WHO daily mean guideline value (25 mg/m3 during 71 % of days outdoors, and 88 % of days indoors. The average PM10 I/O ratio at VK was 1.57 during teaching hours, and 1.00 during no teaching hours. Similarly, average PM2.5 I/O ratio at VK was 1.11 during teaching hours and 0.90 during no teaching hours. Average daily PM2.5/PM10 ratio in the ambient air at VK was 0.87, and 0.82 at FOS. Very strong correlations between the indoor and outdoor PM concentrations were observed at VK during no teaching hours (r>0.8. Moderate to strong negative correlations were found between the wind speed and PM at both schools. High outdoor PM concentrations and resuspension of particles are probably the most possible reasons for the elevated indoor PM concentrations found in the study. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III42008: Evaluation of Energy Performances and Indoor Environment

  4. Using Statistical Multivariable Models to Understand the Relationship Between Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejecta and Magnetic Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, P.; Richardson, I. G.

    2012-01-01

    In-situ measurements of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) display a wide range of properties. A distinct subset, "magnetic clouds" (MCs), are readily identifiable by a smooth rotation in an enhanced magnetic field, together with an unusually low solar wind proton temperature. In this study, we analyze Ulysses spacecraft measurements to systematically investigate five possible explanations for why some ICMEs are observed to be MCs and others are not: i) An observational selection effect; that is, all ICMEs do in fact contain MCs, but the trajectory of the spacecraft through the ICME determines whether the MC is actually encountered; ii) interactions of an erupting flux rope (PR) with itself or between neighboring FRs, which produce complex structures in which the coherent magnetic structure has been destroyed; iii) an evolutionary process, such as relaxation to a low plasma-beta state that leads to the formation of an MC; iv) the existence of two (or more) intrinsic initiation mechanisms, some of which produce MCs and some that do not; or v) MCs are just an easily identifiable limit in an otherwise corntinuous spectrum of structures. We apply quantitative statistical models to assess these ideas. In particular, we use the Akaike information criterion (AIC) to rank the candidate models and a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to uncover any intrinsic clustering of the data. Using a logistic regression, we find that plasma-beta, CME width, and the ratio O(sup 7) / O(sup 6) are the most significant predictor variables for the presence of an MC. Moreover, the propensity for an event to be identified as an MC decreases with heliocentric distance. These results tend to refute ideas ii) and iii). GMM clustering analysis further identifies three distinct groups of ICMEs; two of which match (at the 86% level) with events independently identified as MCs, and a third that matches with non-MCs (68 % overlap), Thus, idea v) is not supported. Choosing between ideas i) and

  5. Relationship between left ventricular mass and coronary artery disease in young adults: a single-center study using cardiac computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Yong; Sun, Joo Sung; Sur, Young Keun; Park, Jin Sun; Kang, Doo Kyoung

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) and left ventricular mass (LVM) as measured by cardiac computed tomography (CT) in young adults ≤40 years of age. We retrospectively enrolled 490 consecutive individuals (383 males; mean age, 35.2 ± 4.4 years) who underwent cardiac CT. CAD was defined by the presence of any plaque detected by coronary CT angiography. Left ventricular (LV) function, including LVM, was automatically measured by a dedicated workstation. LVM and LVM index (LVMi) in patients with CT-detected CAD were compared to those of patients without CT-detected CAD. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and CAD. Fifty-five individuals had CT-detected CAD (11.2 %, 53 males). LVM measured by cardiac CT was 126.9 ± 30.0 g for males and 93.6 ± 20.9 g for females. LVM was higher (117.8 ± 30.8 vs. 133.6 ± 33.1 g, P Obesity, hypertension, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, LVM and LVMi were predictors of CT-detected CAD. Body mass index (r = 0.237, P < 0.001) and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.281, P < 0.001) were positively correlated with LVM. In the multivariate analysis, LVM [odds ratio (OR) = 1.016] and LVMi (OR = 1.026) remained independent predictors of CAD. LVM and LVMi in patients with CT-detected CAD were higher than that of patients without CT-detected CAD. LVM and LVMi measured by cardiac CT were independent predictors of CAD.

  6. A longitudinal and cross-sectional examination of the relationship between reasons for choosing a neighbourhood, physical activity and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Joy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between body mass index and neighborhood walkability, socioeconomic status (SES, reasons for choosing neighborhoods, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and demographic variables. Methods Two studies, one longitudinal and one cross-sectional, were conducted. Participants included adults (n = 572 who provided complete data in 2002 and 2008 and a concurrent sample from 2008 (n = 1164. Data were collected with longitudinal and cross-sectional telephone surveys. Objective measures of neighborhood characteristics (walkability and SES were calculated using census data and geographic information. Results In the longitudinal study, neighborhood choice for ease of walking and proximity to outdoor recreation interacted with whether participants had moved during the course of study to predict change in BMI over 6 years. Age, change in activity status, and neighborhood SES were also significant predictors of BMI change. Cross-sectionally, neighborhood SES and neighborhood choice for ease of walking were significantly related to BMI as were gender, age, activity level and fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusions Results demonstrate that placing importance on choosing neighborhoods that are considered to be easily walkable is an important contributor to body weight. Findings that objectively measured neighbourhood SES and neighborhood choice variables contributed to BMI suggest that future research consider the role of neighborhood choice in examining the relationships between the built environment and body weight.

  7. The relationship of high sensitivity C-reactive protein to percent body fat mass, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference in a Taiwanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wen-Yuan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP is an easily measured inflammatory biomarker. This study compared the association of percent body fat mass (%FM, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR with hs-CRP in a Taiwanese population. Methods A total of 1669 subjects aged 40-88 years were recruited in 2004 in a metropolitan city in Taiwan. The relationships between obesity indicators and a high level of hs-CRP were examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The upper quartile of the hs-CRP distributions was defined as the high category group. The areas under the curve (AUCs of the receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated for all obesity indicators to compare their relative ability to correctly classify subjects with a high level of hs-CRP. Results After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratio for %FM was the only significant indicator that was associated with a high level of hs-CRP in men (1.55, 95% CI: 1.07-2.25. All indicators were associated with a high level of hs-CRP in women. In men, the AUCs for %FM were significantly higher than those for BMI, WHR, and WC, when demographic and lifestyle behaviors were considered (p Conclusions Our study demonstrates that %FM is the only obesity indicator that is strongly associated with a high level of hs-CRP after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle behaviors and components of metabolic syndrome in both genders in a Taiwanese population aged forty years and over. In men, %FM had the greatest ability to classify subjects with a high level of hs-CRP when only demographic and lifestyle behaviors were considered. Our study finding has important implications for the screening of obesity in community settings.

  8. Evaluating the Relationship Between Source Zone Metrics and Down-Gradient Plume Response as a Function of Mixed DNAPL Mass Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cápiro, N. L.; Granbery, E. K.; Christ, J.; Pennell, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    phase was proportional to the mole fraction in the NAPL, consistent with a Raoult’s Law. It is hypothesized that the deviations from Raoult’s Law observed for PCE and TCE were caused by preferential solubilization of PCE within the hydrophobic core of the micelles. Work is on-going to quantify the preferential solubilization observed in the batch experiments, which will facilitate the incorporation of this relationship into multiphase compositional simulators. These simulators will then be used to improve the understanding of the inter-relationships between the initial source zone architecture, mass removal, reductions in mass flux and plume evolution in multi-component contaminated subsurface systems.

  9. Relationship of APOA5, PPARγ and HL gene variants with serial changes in childhood body mass index and coronary artery disease risk factors in young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Shikha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triglycerides is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD and is especially important in Indians because of high prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in this population. Both genetic and environmental factors determine triglyceride levels. In a birth cohort from India, hypertriglyceridemia was found in 41% of men and 11% of women. Subjects who had high triglycerides had more rapid body mass index (BMI or weight gain than rest of the cohort throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence. We analysed polymorphisms in APOA5, hepatic lipase and PPARγ genes and investigated their association with birth weight and serial changes in BMI. Results Polymorphisms in APOA5 (-1131T > C, S19W, PPARγ (Pro12Ala and hepatic lipase (-514C > T were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by restriction digestion in 1492 subjects from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (NDBC. We assessed whether these polymorphisms influence lipid and other variables and serial changes in BMI, both individually and together. The risk allele of APOA5 (-1131C resulted in 23.6 mg/dl higher triglycerides as compared to normal allele (P PPARγ Pro12Ala variation with a lower conditional weight at 6 months, (P = 0.020 and APOA5 S19W with a higher conditional BMI at 11 yrs of age (P = 0.030, none of the other associations between the gene polymorphisms and serial changes in body mass index from birth to young adulthood were significant. Conclusion The promoter polymorphism in APOA5 was associated with raised serum triglycerides and that of HL with raised HDL2 levels. None of the polymorphisms had any significant relationship with birth weight or serial changes in anthropometry from birth to adulthood in this cohort.

  10. Relationship between Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Visual Acuity in Residents of Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Ernest-Nwoke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the relationship between body mass index (BMI and blood pressure (BP on visual acuity among apparently healthy residents of Ekpoma, Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study among 225 subjects (ages of 18–35 years from whom BP, body weight, and height were collected. Visual acuity was measured using the Snellen chart following standard procedures of number of letters seen at 6-metre distance. The data were then analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results. The sampled population consists of 112 male and 113 female (mean age 31.72±14.2 years. Majority (180 of the respondents had normal visual acuity. However, compared with the respondents with normal BMI (R19.61±1.5; L19.67±1.70, visual acuity of underweight (R18.53±2.30; L18.53±2.70 and obese (R15.68±4.79; L17.73±1.70 were more deviated. Similarly, compared with respondent with normal BP (120–125/80–85 mmHg; R18.00±2.53; L18.07±3.11, hypotensive (R15.5±7.35; L15.00±10.20, and hypertensive (R15.01±21.25; L15.00±11.91 respondents had deviated visual acuity. Conclusion. Abnormal body weight (underweight and obese and BP (hypotension and hypertension have potential negative impacts on visual acuity. Based on the observed relationship between weights, BP, and visual acuity, eye examinations can be included as regular screening exercise for abnormal BMI and BP conditions.

  11. Craving for Food in Virtual Reality Scenarios in Non-Clinical Sample: Analysis of its Relationship with Body Mass Index and Eating Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Garcia, Marta; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Jose; Treasure, Janet; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran

    2015-09-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology has been successfully used to study the influence of specific and contextual food-related cues on emotional, cognitive and behavioural responses in patients with eating disorders (ED) and healthy controls. Following this research line, the present study assesses the effect on reported food craving of the type of food (low calorie versus high calorie) and the presence or absence of other people (private versus social context) in VR environments. Relationships between craving and body mass index (BMI) and ED symptoms are also explored. Eighty-seven female students were exposed to four VR scenarios presented in random order: a low-calorie kitchen, a high-calorie kitchen, a low-calorie restaurant and a high-calorie restaurant. After 2 minutes of exposure to each virtual scenario, food craving was assessed. Repeated measures analyses of covariance were conducted to assess changes in food craving following exposure to the different VR environments. Time elapsed since the last meal was introduced as a covariate to control for responses produced by food deprivation. Correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were also conducted to assess the relationship between reported food craving and BMI and ED symptoms. Participants experienced higher levels of food craving after exposure to high-calorie foods (in both the kitchen and restaurant environments) than after exposure to low-calorie foods. Being alone in the kitchen or with friends in the restaurant had no effect on reported craving. Overall, neither BMI nor ED symptoms were related with reported food craving; only in the restaurant with low-calorie food was a significant negative correlation found between BMI and food craving. The results suggest that cue exposure in virtual environments is an effective procedure for inducing food craving in healthy controls and may be useful as a research and therapeutic tool in clinical populations.

  12. Mediating effects of bullying involvement on the relationship of body mass index with social phobia, depression, suicidality, and self-esteem and sex differences in adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2014-03-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the mediating effect of bullying involvement on the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and mental health problems, including social phobia, depression, suicidality, and low self-esteem among adolescents in Taiwan. The moderation effect of sex on the mediating role of bullying involvement was also examined. Five thousand two hundred and fifty-two students of high schools completed the questionnaires. Victimization and perpetration of passive and active bullying were assessed using the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height measurements. The Social Phobia Inventory, the Mandarin Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, the suicidality-related questionnaire from the epidemiological version of the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were applied to assess social phobia, depression, suicidality, and low self-esteem, respectively. The mediating effect of bullying involvement on the associations between increased BMI and mental health problems was examined by the Sobel test. The moderation effect of sex on the mediating role of bullying involvement was tested by the multiple-group structural equation model. Victimization of passive and active bullying and perpetration of passive bullying, but not perpetration of active bullying, had a mediating effect on the relationships between increased BMI and all four mental health problems. Sex did not have a significant moderation effect on the mediating role of bullying involvement. Bullying involvement should be a target of prevention and intervention in developing a strategy to improve mental health among adolescents with increased BMI.

  13. Relationships between Serum Luteinizing Hormone Level, Endometrial Thickness and Body Mass Index in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients with and without Endometrial Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Ramezanali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The endometrial hyperplasia measured by ultrasound in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS women is strongly related to pathologic endometrial thickness, but there is no consensus on the relation between serum luteinizing hormone (LH and either of these factors: pathologic endometrial hyperplasia and body mass index (BMI. Materials and Methods: In this observational cross-sectional study, three hundred fifty infertile PCOS women were involved in this research. An endometrial biopsy was taken by using a pipelle instrument, regardless of menstrual cycle’s day and all samples were reported by the same pathologist. Basal serum LH level was compared between two subgroups (hyperplasia and non-hyperplasia. The intended population was divided into three groups according to BMI and basal serum LH, later on the comparison was made in three groups. Chi-square test was applied to compare nominal variables between groups. Mann-Whitney U, and one way ANOVA tests were used to compare means on the basis of the result of normality test. Results: The frequency of endometrial hyperplasia was 2.6%. Endometrial thickness in the patients with endometrial hyperplasia was significantly higher than that of a normal endometrium (10.78 ± 3.70 vs. 7.90 ± 2.86 respectively, P=0.020. There was no relation between endometrial hyperplasia and serum LH (P=0.600. The ANOVA test showed serum LH levels were not the same among three BMI groups (P=0.007. Post hoc test was also performed. It showed that the LH level in normal BMI group was significantly higher than those of other groups (P=0.005 and P=0.004, but there was no statistical difference between overweight and obese groups (P=0.8. We found no relationship between BMI and endometrial thickness in PCOS patients (P=0.6. Conclusion: Sonographic endometrial stripe thickness is predictive for endometrial hyperplasia in PCOS women. We could not find out any relationship between serum LH level and BMI with endometrial

  14. Body mass index modifies the relationship between γ-H2AX, a DNA damage biomarker, and pathological complete response in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Maddalena; Vici, Patrizia; Pizzuti, Laura; Di Lauro, Luigi; Sergi, Domenico; Di Benedetto, Anna; Ercolani, Cristiana; Sperati, Francesca; Terrenato, Irene; Botti, Claudio; Mentuccia, Lucia; Iezzi, Laura; Gamucci, Teresa; Natoli, Clara; Vitale, Ilio; Mottolese, Marcella; De Maria, Ruggero; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello

    2017-02-06

    Body mass index (BMI) is largely investigated as a prognostic and predictive factor in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Overweight and obesity are linked to a variety of pathways regulating tumor-promoting functions, including the DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR physiologically safeguards genome integrity but, in a neoplastic background, it is aberrantly engaged and protects cancer cells from chemotherapy. We herein verified the role of BMI on a previously assessed association between DDR biomarkers and pathological complete response (pCR) in TNBC patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). In this retrospective analysis 54 TNBC patients treated with NACT were included. The relationship between DDR biomarkers, namely phosphorylated H2A Histone Family Member X (γ-H2AX) and phosphorylated checkpoint kinase 1 (pChk1), and pCR was reconsidered in light of BMI data. The Pearson's Chi-squared test of independence (2-tailed) and the Fisher Exact test were employed to assess the relationship between clinical-molecular variables and pCR. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify variables impacting pCR. Internal validation was carried out. We observed a significant association between elevated levels of the two DDR biomarkers and pCR in patients with BMI < 25 (p = 0.009 and p = 0.022 for γ-H2AX and pChk1, respectively), but not in their heavier counterpart. Results regarding γ-H2AX were confirmed in uni- and multivariate models and, again, for leaner patients only (γ-H2AX(high) vs γ-H2AX(low): OR 10.83, 95% CI: 1.79-65.55, p = 0.009). The consistency of this finding was confirmed upon internal validation. The predictive significance of γ-H2AX varies according to BMI status. Indeed, elevated levels of γ-H2AX seemed associated with lower pCR rate only in leaner patients, whereas differences in pCR rate according to γ-H2AX levels were not appreciable in heavier patients. Larger investigations are warranted

  15. Investigating the prostate specific antigen, body mass index and age relationship: is an age-BMI-adjusted PSA model clinically useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Sean; Tilling, Kate; Turner, Emma L; Lane, J Athene; Simpkin, Andrew; Davis, Michael; Donovan, Jenny; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Martin, Richard M

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies indicate a possible inverse relationship between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and body mass index (BMI), and a positive relationship between PSA and age. We investigated the associations between age, BMI, PSA, and screen-detected prostate cancer to determine whether an age-BMI-adjusted PSA model would be clinically useful for detecting prostate cancer. Cross-sectional analysis nested within the UK ProtecT trial of treatments for localized cancer. Of 18,238 men aged 50-69 years, 9,457 men without screen-detected prostate cancer (controls) and 1,836 men with prostate cancer (cases) met inclusion criteria: no history of prostate cancer or diabetes; PSA BMI between 15 and 50 kg/m(2). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship between log-PSA, age, and BMI in all men, controlling for prostate cancer status. In the 11,293 included men, the median PSA was 1.2 ng/ml (IQR: 0.7-2.6); mean age 61.7 years (SD 4.9); and mean BMI 26.8 kg/m(2) (SD 3.7). There were a 5.1% decrease in PSA per 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI (95% CI 3.4-6.8) and a 13.6% increase in PSA per 5-year increase in age (95% CI 12.0-15.1). Interaction tests showed no evidence for different associations between age, BMI, and PSA in men above and below 3.0 ng/ml (all p for interaction >0.2). The age-BMI-adjusted PSA model performed as well as an age-adjusted model based on National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines at detecting prostate cancer. Age and BMI were associated with small changes in PSA. An age-BMI-adjusted PSA model is no more clinically useful for detecting prostate cancer than current NICE guidelines. Future studies looking at the effect of different variables on PSA, independent of their effect on prostate cancer, may improve the discrimination of PSA for prostate cancer.

  16. Impact of age on aortic wave reflection responses to metaboreflex activation and its relationship with leg lean mass in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Jaime, Salvador J; Johnson, Sarah A; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey; Campbell, Jeremiah C; Feresin, Rafaela G; Elam, Marcus L; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2015-10-01

    Wave reflection (augmentation pressure [AP] and index [AIx]) is greater in older women than men. Resting AP is a better wave reflection index than AIx in older adults. The negative relationship between wave reflection and lean mass (LM) has been inconsistent. We investigated the impact of age and LM on aortic hemodynamic responses to metaboreflex activation in post-menopausal women. Post-menopausal women, younger and older (n=20 per group) than 60 years, performed 2-min isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal force followed by 3-min post-exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI). We measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and femoral-ankle PWV (faPWV) at rest, and aortic systolic blood pressure (aSBP), pulse pressure (aPP), AP, AIx, and AIx-adjusted for heart rate (AIx@75) at rest and during PEMI using tonometry. Arm and leg LM were measured by DEXA. Resting cfPWV, aSBP, and aPP were higher, while AIx@75 and leg LM were lower in older than younger women. aSBP and aPP increased similarly during PEMI in both groups. Increases in AP (Ppost-menopausal women. Our findings suggest that the increased AP response to PEMI is related to leg arterial stiffness and muscle loss in older women.

  17. Leaf Mass per Area (LMA and Its Relationship with Leaf Structure and Anatomy in 34 Mediterranean Woody Species along a Water Availability Gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G de la Riva

    Full Text Available Leaf mass per area (LMA is a morphological trait widely used as a good indicator of plant functioning (i.e. photosynthetic and respiratory rates, chemical composition, resistance to herbivory, etc.. The LMA can be broken down into the leaf density (LD and leaf volume to area ratio (LVA or thickness, which in turn are determined by anatomical tissues and chemical composition. The aim of this study is to understand the anatomical and chemical characteristics related to LMA variation in species growing in the field along a water availability gradient. We determined LMA and its components (LD, LVA and anatomical tissues for 34 Mediterranean (20 evergreen and 14 deciduous woody species. Variation in LMA was due to variation in both LD and LVA. For both deciduous and evergreen species LVA variation was strongly and positively related with mesophyll volume per area (VA or thickness, but for evergreen species positive relationships of LVA with the VA of epidermis, vascular plus sclerenchyma tissues and air spaces were found as well. The leaf carbon concentration was positively related with mesophyll VA in deciduous species, and with VA of vascular plus sclerenchymatic tissues in evergreens. Species occurring at the sites with lower water availability were generally characterised by a high LMA and LD.

  18. Leaf Mass per Area (LMA) and Its Relationship with Leaf Structure and Anatomy in 34 Mediterranean Woody Species along a Water Availability Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Riva, Enrique G; Olmo, Manuel; Poorter, Hendrik; Ubera, José Luis; Villar, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a morphological trait widely used as a good indicator of plant functioning (i.e. photosynthetic and respiratory rates, chemical composition, resistance to herbivory, etc.). The LMA can be broken down into the leaf density (LD) and leaf volume to area ratio (LVA or thickness), which in turn are determined by anatomical tissues and chemical composition. The aim of this study is to understand the anatomical and chemical characteristics related to LMA variation in species growing in the field along a water availability gradient. We determined LMA and its components (LD, LVA and anatomical tissues) for 34 Mediterranean (20 evergreen and 14 deciduous) woody species. Variation in LMA was due to variation in both LD and LVA. For both deciduous and evergreen species LVA variation was strongly and positively related with mesophyll volume per area (VA or thickness), but for evergreen species positive relationships of LVA with the VA of epidermis, vascular plus sclerenchyma tissues and air spaces were found as well. The leaf carbon concentration was positively related with mesophyll VA in deciduous species, and with VA of vascular plus sclerenchymatic tissues in evergreens. Species occurring at the sites with lower water availability were generally characterised by a high LMA and LD.

  19. Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption Patterns: The Relationship to Nutrient Intake, Whole Grain Intake, and Body Mass Index in an Older American Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Albertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between ready-to-eat (RTE breakfast cereal consumption patterns and body mass index (BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake in an older American population. Design. A cross-sectional survey of US households, collected by the NPD Group via the National Eating Trends (NET survey. Main outcome measures include BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake. Subjects/Setting. The sample included 1759 participants age 55 and older, which was divided into approximate quartiles based on intake of RTE breakfast cereal for the 2-week period (0 servings, 1–3 servings, 4–7 servings, and ≥8 servings. Results. In the multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for energy and age; intake of dietary fiber, whole grains, and the majority of micronutrients examined were found to be positively associated with frequent RTE cereal consumption. The proportion of participants consuming less than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR was lower for the highest quartile of RTE cereal consumers compared to nonconsumers, for the majority of vitamins and minerals examined. Significant differences in BMI between RTE breakfast cereal intake groups were found for men. Conclusion. Results suggest that ready-to-eat breakfast cereals may contribute to the nutritional quality of the diets of older Americans. Prospective studies and experimental trials are needed to better evaluate the role of RTE cereal consumption in energy balance.

  20. Dietary Behaviour Pattern and Physical Activity in Overweight and Obese Egyptian Mothers: Relationships with Their Children’s Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nayera E.; Wahba, Saneya; El-Alameey, Inas R.; El-Masry, Sahar A.; AbuShady, Mones M.; Hameed, Enas R. Abdel; Ibrahim, Tarek S.; Boseila, Samia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and related morbidity increase in Egyptian women and their children. A better understanding of dietary and activity patterns is needed to reduce obesity prevalence. AIM: The present study aimed to assess dietary patterns and physical activity in Egyptian overweight and obese mothers and to explore its relationships with their children’s body mass index (BMI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This descriptive case-control study was conducted at the National Research Center. The study included a sample of 64 overweight and obese mothers and 75 children, compared with apparently healthy non-obese mothers and their children of matched age and social class. Tested questionnaires were used to collect information of the studied subjects. RESULTS: A statistically significantly higher incidence of unemployment, large family size was observed in overweight & obese women compared to controls (P < 0.05). Those women who consumed vegetables more than 3 times a week were less likely to be overweight or obese (P < 0.05). No significant association were detected between mothers’ physical activity, dietary behaviour variables and children’s BMI except for consuming beverages with added sugar (95%CI = 0.074-0.985, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Improper dietary patterns, nonworking mothers and big family size are associated with obesity among Egyptian women. Emphasis should be given to increasing physical activity and encourage healthier diets among Egyptian mothers and their children. PMID:27703555

  1. Relationships between body mass index and short-circuit current in human duodenal and colonic mucosal biopsies. Osbak PS, Bindslev N, Hansen MB. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2011 Jan;201(1):47-53

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Bindslev, Niels; Berner-Hansen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Retrospectively, to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and basal electrogenic transport as measured by short-circuit current (SCC) in human duodenal and colonic mucosal biopsies. Methods: The study included biopsies from mucosa of normal appearance in the sigmoid colo...

  2. Body image discrepancy and subjective norm as mediators and moderators of the relationship between body mass index and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pétré B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Benoit Pétré,1 André J Scheen,2 Olivier Ziegler,3 Anne-Françoise Donneau,1 Nadia Dardenne,1 Eddy Husson,1 Adelin Albert,1 Michèle Guillaume1 1Department of Public Health, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium; 2Division of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Disorders, Department of Medicine, CHU Sart Tilman, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium; 3Department of Diabetes, Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, Nancy University Hospital, Nancy, France Background and objective: Despite the strength and consistency of the relationship between body mass index (BMI and quality of life (QoL, a reduction in BMI does not necessarily lead to an improvement in QoL. Between-subject variability indicates the presence of mediators and moderators in the BMI–QoL association. This study aimed to examine the roles of body image discrepancy (BID and subjective norm (SN as potential mediators and moderators. Subjects and methods: In 2012, 3,016 volunteers (aged ≥18 years participated in a community-based survey conducted in the French-speaking region of Belgium. Participation was enhanced using a large multimedia campaign (which was supported by a large network of recruiters that employed the nonstigmatizing slogan, “Whatever your weight, your opinion will count”. Participants were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire on their weight-related experiences. Self-reported measures were used to calculate each participant’s BMI, BID, SN, and QoL (a French obesity-specific QoL questionnaire was used to calculate the participants’ physical dimension of QoL scores [PHY-QoL], psychosocial dimension of QoL scores [PSY/SOC-QoL], and their total scores. The covariates included gender, age, subjective economic status, level of education, household size, and perceived health. The mediation/moderation tests were based on Hayes’ method. Results: Tests showed that the relationships between BMI and PHY-QoL, PSY/SOC-QoL, and TOT-QoL were partially mediated by BID

  3. Assessment risk of osteoporosis in Chinese people: relationship among body mass index, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui RT

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rongtao Cui,1 Lin Zhou,2 Zuohong Li,2 Qing Li,2 Zhiming Qi,2 Junyong Zhang3 1Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Surgical Research, Duisburg-Essen University Hospital, Essen, Germany; 2Department of Orthopedics, Dalian Central Hospital, Dalian, 3Department of Gastroenterology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship among age, sex, body mass index (BMI, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose (BG, and bone mineral density (BMD, making an assessment of the risk of osteoporosis.Materials and methods: A total of 1,035 male and 3,953 female healthy volunteers (aged 41–95 years were recruited by an open invitation. The basic information, including age, sex, height, weight, waistline, hipline, menstrual cycle, and medical history, were collected by a questionnaire survey and physical examination. Serum lipid profiles, BG, postprandial blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin were obtained after 12 hours fasting. BMD in lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning.Results: The age-adjusted BMD in females was significantly lower than in males. With aging, greater differences of BMD distribution exist in elderly females than in males (P<0.001, and the fastigium of bone mass loss was in the age range from 51 to 55 in females and from 61 to 65 years in males. After adjustment for sex, there were significant differences in BMD among BMI-stratified groups in both males and females. The subjects with a BMI of <18.5 had a higher incidence of osteoporosis than BMI ≥18.5 in both sexes. BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus with a BG of >7.0 mmol/L was lower than in people with BG of ≤7.0 mmol/L (P<0.001. People with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of ≥1.56 mmol/L had a greater prevalence of osteoporosis compared with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤1.55 mmol/L. Logistic regression with odds ratios showed that

  4. Mass screening of prostate cancer in a Chinese population:the relationship between pathological features of prostate cancer and serum prostate specific antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Wen Gao; Masaaki Kuwahara; Xue-Jian Zhao; Yu-Lin Li; Shan Wu; Yi-Shu Wang; Hai-Feng Zhang; Yu-Zhuo Pan; Ling Zhang; Hiroo Tateno; Ikuro Sato

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the pathological features of the prostate biopsy through mass screening for prostate cancer in a Chinese cohort and their association with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). Methods: A total of 12 027 Chinese men in Changchun were screened for prostate cancer by means of the serum total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) test (oy Elisa assay). Transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic six-sextant biopsies were performed on those whose serum tPSA value was >4.0 ng/mL and those who had obstructive symptoms (despite their tPSA value) and were subject to subsequent pathological analysis with the aid of the statistic software SPSS 10.0 (SPSS. Inc., Chicago. USA). Results: Of the 12 027 cases, 158 (including 137 patients whose serum tPSA values were >4.0 ng/mL and 21 patients [serum tPSA <4.0 ng/mL] who had obstructive symptoms) undertook prostate biopsy. Of the 158 biopsies, 41 cases of prostatic carcinoma were found (25.9 %, 41/158). The moderately differentiated carcinoma and poorly differentiated carcinoma accounted for 61% and 34%, respectively. A significant linear positive correlation between the serum tPSA and the Gleason scores in the 41 cases of prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.312, P < 0.01) was established. A significant linear positive correlation between the serum tPSA value of the 41 prostatic carcinoma and the positive counts of carcinoma in sextant biopsies was established (r = 0.406, P < 0.01), indicating a significant linear relationship between serum tPSA and the size of tumor.Conclusion: This study was the first to conduct mass screening for prostate cancer by testing for serum tPSA values and the first to investigate the pathological features of prostate cancer in a cohort of Chinese men. Our results reveal that the moderately differentiated carcinoma is the most common type of prostate cancer. This study also has shown that the serum tPSA value in prostate cancer is associated with the Gleason score and the size of tumor.

  5. Role of educational level in the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI and health-related quality of life (HRQL among rural Spanish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guallar-Castillón Pilar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of obesity on health-related quality of life (HRQL has been little explored in rural areas. The goal of this study is to ascertain the association between obesity and HRQL among Spanish women living in a rural area, and the influence of their educational level. Methods Cross-sectional study with personal interview of 1298 women (aged 18 to 60 randomly selected from the electoral rolls of 14 towns in Galicia, a region in the north-west of Spain. HRQL was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. The association between body mass index (BMI and suboptimal scores in the different HRQL dimensions was summarised using odds ratios (ORs, obtained from multivariate logistic regression models. Separate analyses were conducted for women who had finished their education younger than 16 years old and women with secondary education to assess differences in the relationship between BMI and HRQL according to educational level. Results Among women with primary or lower education, obesity was associated with a higher prevalence of suboptimal values in the following dimensions: Physical functioning (OR: 1.97; 95%CI: 1.22–3.18; Role-physical (OR: 1.81; 95%CI: 1.04–3.14; General health (OR: 1.76; 95%CI: 1.10–2.81; and Role-emotional (OR: 2.52; 95%CI: 1.27–5.03. In women with higher education, physical functioning was the only dimension associated with obesity (OR: 2.02: 95%CI 0.83–4.97. Conclusion The impact of obesity on women's HRQL is greater among those with a lower educational level. This group registered higher prevalence of obesity and poorer self-perceived health.

  6. The relationship between body mass index, the use of second-generation antipsychotics, and dental caries among hospitalized patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kuan-Yu; Yang, Nan-Ping; Chou, Pesus; Chi, Lin-Yang; Chiu, Hsien-Jane

    2011-01-01

    Weight gain is common in schizophrenia due to use of the second-generation antipsychotic medicines (SGAs). Studies have also shown that body mass index (BMI) and the side effect of SGAs, such as anticholinergic activity, are related to the risk of dental caries. This study aims to investigate the relationship between BMI, the use of the SGAs, and the decayed, missing, and filled tooth index (DMFT) among hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. A cross-sectional survey of oral health was conducted in a psychiatric long-term care hospital in Taiwan in 2006. A total of 878 schizophrenic inpatients participated in this survey. The DMFT index was used to assess dental caries, the use of SGAs of subjects were recorded, and the BMI classification was done in accordance with Asian standard scales. Multiple regression models were used to measure the effects of SGAs or BMI on the DMFT index in each subject. Among the subjects with schizophrenia, DMFT is significantly related to independent variables such as age, length of stay, BMI, education, marital status, and grade of disability. Consequent multiple linear regression showed that being underweight (beta = 0.07, p = 0.041) and age were the most significant factors that influence the DMFT score. We found that the use of SGAs was not significantly associated with the DMFT index. After adjusting for age, being underweight is a significant factor associated with the increased risk of dental caries in hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Psychologists and dentists should pay more attention to the relation between BMI and dental caries in this population.

  7. New insight into the relationships between stress, strain and mass change at Mt. Etna during the period between the 1993-94 and 2001 eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Aloisi, Marco; Vinciguerra, Sergio; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    During the time interval between the 1991-93 and 2001 main flank eruptions of Mt. Etna, volcanic activity was confined to the summit vents. Ground deformation and tomography studies suggest that this activity was fed by a magma body located beneath the north-west flank of the volcano, at a depth of around 7 km b.s.l.. Conversely, gravity studies indicate that the most important mass redistributions during the same period took place within an elongated volume centered below the southeastern sector of the volcano, at depths of 2-4 km b.s.l.. The phases of gravity decrease during the 1994-2001 period coincide with phases of higher strain release rate. The coupling between gravity and seismic data could reflect changes in the rate of micro-fracturing along the NNW-SSE weakness zone that cuts the SE slope of the volcano. This interpretation allows to explain why the main pressure and mass sources active at Etna during the 1994-2001 period do not coincide. The extensional dynamics of the southeastern flank of Etna may represent a second-order effect, triggered by the pressure source below the western flank and accommodated along the NNW-SSE weakness zone. In order to gain quantitative insight into the relationship between stress, strain and mass changes at Etna during the 1994-2001 period, we use a finite element modeling approach. Relying on recent studies involving stress- and temperature-induced degradation of the mechanical properties of rocks, we hypothesize that the inferred NNW-SSE weakness zone is characterized by an anomalously low Young's modulus (E). Results of our analysis are summarized in the following two points. (i) The presence of the weakness zone creates a distortion of the displacements field induced by the deeper pressure source, locally resulting in a weak extensional regime. This finding supports the hypothesis of a cause-effect relation between deeper pressurization beneath the western flank and shallower extension across the fracture zone beneath

  8. The relationship of endogenous plasma concentrations of β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB) to age and total appendicular lean mass in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Lokesh, Deepa P; Selvam, Sumithra; Jayakumar, J; Philip, Mamatha G; Shreeram, Sathyavageeswaran; Kurpad, Anura V

    2016-08-01

    The maintenance of muscle mass and muscle strength is important for reducing the risk of chronic diseases. The age- related loss of muscle mass and strength is associated with adverse outcomes of physical disability, frailty and death. β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB), a metabolite of leucine, has beneficial effects on muscle mass and strength under various catabolic conditions. The objectives of the present study were to determine if age- related differences existed in endogenous plasma HMB levels, and to assess if HMB levels correlated to total appendicular lean mass and forearm grip strength. Anthropometry, dietary and physical activity assessment, and the estimation of fasting plasma HMB concentrations and handgrip strength were performed on the 305 subjects (children, young adults and older adults). Lean mass, which serves as a surrogate for muscle mass was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Mean plasma HMB concentrations were significantly lower with increasing age groups, with children having highest mean HMB concentration (plean mass normalized for body weight (%), appendicular lean mass (r=0.37; plean mass and hand grip strength in young adults and older adults group.

  9. Relationship between body mass index and exercise blood pressure%人体质量指数与运动血压的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨露; 胡伟国; 任颖; 陈逸

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study changes of exercise blood pressure of patients with different body mass index (BMI) when undergoing treadmill stress test. Methods: A total of 224 patients with normal BMI (normal control group) and 109 obese patients (obesity group) underwent treadmill stress test. Exercise blood pressure was compared between the two groups, and relationship between BMI and exercise blood pressure was also analyzed. Results: Compared with normal control group, resting blood pressure [systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP)], peak blood pressure (SBP, DBP) during exercise, blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and pulse pressure during recovery period significantly increased in obesity group (P<0. 05 all). Incidence rate of exercise hypertension in o-besity group was significantly higher than that of normal control group (9. 2% vs. 3. 6% , P<0. 05). Linear correlation analysis showed that BMI was significantly positive correlation with exercise blood pressure ( r - 0. 123 ~ 0.205, P<0. 05). Conclusion: Change of exercise blood pressure is abnormal in obese patients, suggesting that vas-omotor dysfunction and cardiac autonomic nervous dysfunction exist in obese patients.%目的:观察人体质量指数(BMI)不同的患者行平板运动试验时运动血压的变化.方法:BMI正常患者224例(正常对照组),肥胖患者109例(肥胖组),行平板运动实验检查,比较两组之间运动血压的差别,并分析BMI和运动血压之间的相关性.结果:肥胖组患者静息血压(收缩压、舒张压),运动峰值血压(收缩压、舒张压),恢复期血压(收缩压、舒张压)和恢复期脉压均明显高于正常对照组(P<0.05).肥胖组患者运动高血压的发生率明显高于正常对照组(9.2比3.6%,P<0.05),且BMI与运动血压呈明显正相关(r=0.123~0.205,P<0.05).结论:肥胖患者运动中血压变化异常,提示肥胖患者有血管舒缩功能障碍和心脏自主神经功能紊乱.

  10. Relationship between body mass index and the expression of hormone receptors or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 with respect to breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ye Won; Kang, Su Hwan; Park, Min Ho; Lim, Woosung; Cho, Se Heun; Suh, Young Jin

    2015-11-06

    The association between body mass index (BMI) at the time of breast cancer diagnosis and the prognosis of breast cancer patients remains controversial. Furthermore, the association between BMI and prognosis with respect to different breast cancer subtypes is not clearly defined. We analyzed data from 41,021 invasive breast cancer patients between January 1988 and February 2008 from the Korean Breast Cancer Registry (KBCR) database. Overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's proportional hazard regression model among all patients and specific breast cancer subtypes with respect to BMI categories. A U-shaped association between BMI and mortality was observed in the total cohort. Underweight and obese individuals exhibited worse OS (hazard ratio, 1.23 [95 % confidence interval {CI}, 1.05 to 1.44] and 1.29 [1.13 to 1.48], respectively) and BCSS (1.26 [1.03 to 1.54] and 1.21 [1.02 to 1.43], respectively) than normal-weight individuals. In the estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) - subgroup, obese individuals exhibited worse OS (1.48 [1.18 to 1.85]) and BCSS (1.31 [1.13 to 1.52]) than normal-weight individuals. Conversely, in the ER and PR-/HER2+ subgroup, underweight individuals exhibited worse OS (1.68 [1.12 to 2.47]) and BCSS (1.79 [1.11 to 2.90]) than normal-weight individuals. We observed a U-shaped relationship between BMI at diagnosis and poor OS and BCSS among all breast cancer patients. However, obesity in the ER and/or PR+/HER2- subgroup and underweight in the ER and PR-/HER2+ subgroup were poor prognostic factors. Therefore, BMI at diagnosis and breast cancer subtype should be considered simultaneously in various treatment decision processes and surveillance schedules.

  11. Light-dependent changes in the relationship between seed mass and seedling traits: a meta-analysis for rain forest tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.; Rose, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Seed mass is considered to be an important attribute for the establishment success of plant species being linked with their seed production, establishment, and survival. This meta-analysis shows that seed mass is also closely correlated to growth-related species attributes of the established phase

  12. Mass Defect from Nuclear Physics to Mass Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshahian, Soheil

    2017-09-01

    Mass defect is associated with the binding energy of the nucleus. It is a fundamental property of the nucleus and the principle behind nuclear energy. Mass defect has also entered into the mass spectrometry terminology with the availability of high resolution mass spectrometry and has found application in mass spectral analysis. In this application, isobaric masses are differentiated and identified by their mass defect. What is the relationship between nuclear mass defect and mass defect used in mass spectral analysis, and are they the same? [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Young, Star-forming Galaxies and their local Counterparts: the Evolving Relationship of Mass-SFR-Metallicity since z ~ 2.1

    CERN Document Server

    Gebhardt, Henry S Grasshorn; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Bridge, Joanna S; Schneider, Donald P; Trump, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    We explore the evolution of the Stellar Mass-Star Formation Rate-Metallicity Relation using a set of 256 COSMOS and GOODS galaxies in the redshift range 1.90 3 . 10^40 ergs s^-1) local galaxies, and this offset cannot be explained by simple systematic offsets in the derived quantities. At stellar masses above ~10^9 Msol and star formation rates above ~10 Msol yr^-1, the z ~ 2.1 galaxies have higher oxygen abundances than their local counterparts, while the opposite is true for lower-mass, lower-SFR systems.

  14. The Effect of Recent Trends in Vehicle Design on U.S. Societal Fatality Risk per Vehicle Mile Traveled, and Their Projected Future Relationship with Vehicle Mass

    OpenAIRE

    T. Wenzel

    2014-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recently updated its 2003 and 2010 logistic regression analyses of the effect of a reduction in light-duty vehicle mass on US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The current NHTSA analysis is the most thorough investigation of this issue to date. LBNL's assessment of the analysis indicates that the estimated effect of mass reduction on risk is smaller than in the previous studies, and statistically non-significant for all b...

  15. Metal-Poor, Strongly Star-Forming Galaxies in the DEEP2 Survey: The Relationship Between Stellar Mass, Temperature-Based Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Cooper, Michael; Yan, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 28 redshift (z) approximately equal to 0.8 metal-poor galaxies in DEEP2. These galaxies were selected for their detection of the weak [O (sub III)] lambda 4363 emission line, which provides a "direct" measure of the gas-phase metallicity. A primary goal for identifying these rare galaxies is to examine whether the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) holds for low stellar mass and high SFR galaxies. The FMR suggests that higher SFR galaxies have lower metallicity (at fixed stellar mass). To test this trend, we combine spectroscopic measurements of metallicity and dust-corrected SFR with stellar mass estimates from modeling the optical photometry. We find that these galaxies are 1.05 plus or minus 0.61 dex above the redshift (z) approximately 1 stellar mass-SFR relation and 0.23 plus or minus 0.23 dex below the local mass-metallicity relation. Relative to the FMR, the latter offset is reduced to 0.01 dex, but significant dispersion remains dex with 0.16 dex due to measurement uncertainties). This dispersion suggests that gas accretion, star formation, and chemical enrichment have not reached equilibrium in these galaxies. This is evident by their short stellar mass doubling timescale of approximately equal to 100 (sup plus 310) (sub minus 75) million years which suggests stochastic star formation. Combining our sample with other redshift (z) of approximately 1 metal-poor galaxies, we find a weak positive SFR-metallicity dependence (at fixed stellar mass) that is significant at 94.4 percent confidence. We interpret this positive correlation as recent star formation that has enriched the gas but has not had time to drive the metal-enriched gas out with feedback mechanisms.

  16. 孕前体质指数与早产的关系%Relationship between pre-pregnancy body mass index and preterm birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立芳; 周虹; 张妍; 王燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI)and preterm birth.Methods:A case-control study was conducted in Haidian Maternal and Child Health Hos-pital in Beijing from January to April in 201 3.This study contained 1 74 preterm births in the case group and 382 term deliveries in the control group.The height,pre-pregnancy body weight,body weight before delivery,gestational weeks,history of diseases,family history of diseases,and complications during pregnancy of the subjects were collected.Multivariate Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CI)after adjustment by maternal age,education,smoke during pregnancy,primiparous,mean income,and mean family living space.Results:After analyzing the rele-vant risk factors of preterm birth,the multivariate Logistic regression showed that pre-pregnancy obesity was a risk factor for preterm birth,the adjusted odds ratio was 2.461 (95% CI:1 .1 74 -5.1 59,P =0.01 7).The associations between pre-pregnancy overweight and preterm birth or pre-pregnancy under-weight and preterm birth were not found.The gestational diabetes mellitus,pregnancy-induced hyperten-sion,and family history of preterm birth were risk factors for preterm birth,the adjusted odds ratios were 1 .781 (95% CI:1 .025 -3.095,P =0.040),3.831 (95% CI:2.044 -7.1 80,P <0.001 ),and 3.675 (95% CI:1 .358 -9.942,P =0.01 0),respectively.Conclusion:Pre-pregnancy obesity ap-peared to be a risk factor for preterm birth.To decrease the incidence of preterm birth,women should improve preconception care and keep their BMI in a normal range before pregnancy.%目的:探讨孕前体质指数(body mass index,BMI)与早产的关系。方法:以在北京市海淀区妇幼保健院住院分娩的174例早产儿为病例,382例足月儿为对照,收集孕妇身高、孕前体重、分娩前最后一次体重、孕周、家族史、疾病史以及孕期并发症等信息,运用多因素 Logistic

  17. Relationship between effective mass and superconducting critical temperature in the organic superconductor {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulfield, J. [Physics Dept., Univ. of Oxford, Clarendon Lab. (United Kingdom); Lubczynski, W. [Physics Dept., Univ. of Oxford, Clarendon Lab. (United Kingdom); Lee, W. [School of Physics and Materials, Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom); Singleton, J. [Physics Dept., Univ. of Oxford, Clarendon Lab. (United Kingdom); Pratt, F.L. [Physics Dept., Univ. of Oxford, Clarendon Lab. (United Kingdom); Hayes, W. [Physics Dept., Univ. of Oxford, Clarendon Lab. (United Kingdom); Kurmoo, M. [Royal Institution, London (United Kingdom); Day, P. [Royal Institution, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-03-15

    We report high pressure magnetotransport on the organic superconductor {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2}. The observation of Shubnikov-de Haas and magnetic breakdown oscillations has allowed the pressure dependences of the Fermi surface topology and quasiparticle effective masses to be deduced and compared with simultaneous measurements of the superconducting critical temperature T{sub c}. The data strongly suggest that the enhancement of the effective mass and the superconducting behaviour are directly connected. The results are fitted by calculations of the linearised Eliashberg equations. (orig.)

  18. Age and gender differential relationship between employment status and body mass index among middle-aged and elderly adults : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of age and gender, respectively, on the association between employment status and body mass index (BMI) in Korean adults using a large, nationally representative sample. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: South Korea. Participants: 7228 from fourth wave of

  19. Adiponectin and Insulin in Gray Seals during Suckling and Fasting: Relationship with Nutritional State and Body Mass during Nursing in Mothers and Pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K A; Hughes, J; Stamatas, S; Brand, S; Foster, N L; Moss, S E W; Pomeroy, P P

    2015-01-01

    Animals that fast during breeding and/or development, such as phocids, must regulate energy balance carefully to maximize reproductive fitness and survival probability. Adiponectin, produced by adipose tissue, contributes to metabolic regulation by modulating sensitivity to insulin, increasing fatty acid oxidation by liver and muscle, and promoting adipogenesis and lipid storage in fat tissue. We tested the hypotheses that (1) circulating adiponectin, insulin, or relative adiponectin gene expression is related to nutritional state, body mass, and mass gain in wild gray seal pups; (2) plasma adiponectin or insulin is related to maternal lactation duration, body mass, percentage milk fat, or free fatty acid (FFA) concentration; and (3) plasma adiponectin and insulin are correlated with circulating FFA in females and pups. In pups, plasma adiponectin decreased during suckling (linear mixed-effects model [LME]: T = 4.49; P nutritional state, were also positively related to body mass (LME: T = 3.58; P = 0.004). Adiponectin and insulin levels did not change during lactation and were unrelated to milk FFA or percentage milk fat in adult females. Our data suggest that adiponectin, in conjunction with insulin, may facilitate fat storage in seals and is likely to be particularly important in the development of blubber reserves in pups.

  20. Relationship of cardiac structure and function to cardiorespiratory fitness and lean body mass in adolescents and young adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the relationships of cardiac structure and function with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among adolescents with type 2 diabetes in the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) Study Group. Cross-sectional evaluation of 233 participant...

  1. The Problem of Relationship Between Mass and Radius of the Red Dwarf Binaries%红矮星双星的质径关系难题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 朱俐颖

    2016-01-01

    红矮星的质量一般小于0.8 Mfl,有效温度介于2500~5000 K之间,包括晚K型和M型恒星,属于小质量晚型恒星.红矮星双星由于展现出许多独特的性质而备受天文界关注,最为突出的有三点:精确测量恒星半径和质量,强烈的活动性,以及由于存在质径关系难题而表现出与理论演化模型的不符.所谓红矮星质径关系难题,是指观测到的恒星半径要比理论计算的大,而有效温度却比理论计算的低,但是光度一致.对此难题的可能解释主要包括三个方面:恒星金属丰度,恒星的自转以及恒星的磁场活动.随着研究的深入,支持自转和磁场活动联合作用的证据逐渐增多,具体的细节还在研究中.%Red dwarfs which are ubiquitous in our galaxy refer to, the mass is less than 0.8 solar mass, with a low the surface effective temperature distribution between 2500~5000 K and in their main sequence evolution stage. Generally speaking, red dwarf binaries are cool stars including M and late K type stars, which belong to a part of late low-mass eclipsing binaries. Due to many unique properties, red dwarf binaries are brought into sharp focus in astronomy in recent years. The most prominent properties are the accurate measurement of stellar radius and mass; strongly activity and the discrepancy between theory evolution model and observation because of mass-radius relation problem. The so-called mass-radius relation problem means that the observed stellar radius is bigger than the theoretical calculation and the effective temperature is lower than the theoretical calculation, but the luminosity is consistent. The stellar metallicity, stellar rotation and stellar magnetic activity are three possible main explanations to this problem. As the deepening of the research, the evidence of supporting the combined action of rotation and magnetic activity is gradually increasing, the understanding of the specific details still need more efforts in

  2. On the Relationship Between Advertisers and Mass Media in Postmodern Perspective%后现代视域下广告主与大众媒体关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李若婧

    2013-01-01

    随着市场经济的进一步发展,中国的大众媒体在政治力量和经济力量的共同作用下,与广告主之间建立了密不可分的关系。为了保证自己的收入来源,大众媒介的很多行为不再是以向受众提供信息服务为主,而是逐渐变成了以向广告主提供受众为主。广告主挑战了大众媒体作为多元意见的公共场域的基本功能,同时,这种现状对大众媒体的内容产制、产业结构发展和媒介形象的塑造等都产生了深远的影响。%With the development of the marketing economy, the mass media in China have established a close relationship with the advertisers under the combined action of the political and the economic power. In order to make certain the income stream, the mass media offer the audience to the advertisers instead of offering the information service to the audience. Advertisers challenge the basic functions of mass media as a public field of multiple views. Meanwhile, this relationship causes far-reaching impacts on the content producing, the development of industrial structure and the image-building of the mass media.

  3. The Relationships Between the Center of Mass Position and the Trunk, Hip, and Knee Kinematics in the Sagittal Plane: A Pilot Study on Field-Based Video Analysis for Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki Shogo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Athletes with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament tears have common features in the sagittal plane; namely, the body’s center of mass (COM is located posterior to the base of support, the trunk and knee joints are extended, and the hip angle is flexed. However, the relationships among these variables have not been assessed in field-based movements. This study sought to determine relationships between distances from the COM to the base of support and the trunk, hip, and knee positions in women while playing soccer. Sixty events (29 single-leg landing and 31 single-leg stopping events were analyzed using two-dimensional video analysis. The relationships among the measurement variables were determined using the Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to explore the relationships between the COM position and the kinematic variables. The distance from the COM to the base of support displayed a moderate negative relationship with the trunk angle (r = - 0.623, p < .0001, r2 = 0.388 and a strong positive relationship with the limb angle (r = 0.869, p < .0001, r2 = 0.755. The limb, knee, and trunk angles were selected in the best regression model (adjusted r2 = 0.953, p < .0001, f2 = 20.277. These findings suggest that an increased trunk angle and a decreased limb angle at initial contact are associated with a safer COM position. Neuromuscular training may be useful for controlling the trunk and lower limb positions during dynamic activities.

  4. A prevalent polymorphism in the promoter of the UCP3 gene and its relationship to body mass index and long term body weight change in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, L T; Sørensen, Thomas; Drivsholm, T;

    2001-01-01

    Variability of the uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) promoter has been associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and altered lipid profiles. Here we tested the hypothesis that variation of the UCP3 promoter is associated with either juvenile or maturity-onset obesity or body weight change over a 26...... of 744 obese Danish men who at the draft board examinations had a body mass index (BMI) of at least 31 kg/m(2), 2) a randomly selected control group consisting of 857 draftees, 3) 258 middle-aged subjects, and 4) 409 60-yr-old subjects. The frequency of the T allele was 26.0% (95% confidence interval, 23......-old subjects. The polymorphism was not associated with increased BMI or percent body fat in these 2 groups. It is concluded that this variant does not play a major role in the development of common obesity among Danish subjects....

  5. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Tooth Decay in a Population of 3–6-Year-Old Children in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafti, Leila Shafie; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Poureslami, Hamidreza; Hoseinian, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and tooth decay in a population of Iranian children. In this cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study, 1482 children were selected from kindergartens and preschool centers in Kerman, Iran. The children underwent examination of deciduous teeth (using the dmft index) after determination of height and weight for calculation of BMI. The relationship between BMI (after adjustment for age) and dmft was determined using Poisson's regression model. The mean of dmft in children with normal BMI was 1.5-fold that in subjects with extra body weight. Age had a significant effect on dmft. In addition, dmft was higher in boys compared to girls. The results of the present study showed that caries rate in the deciduous teeth of 3–6-year-old children decreases with an increase in body weight. PMID:25788943

  6. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Tooth Decay in a Population of 3-6-Year-Old Children in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafti, Leila Shafie; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Poureslami, Hamidreza; Hoseinian, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and tooth decay in a population of Iranian children. In this cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study, 1482 children were selected from kindergartens and preschool centers in Kerman, Iran. The children underwent examination of deciduous teeth (using the dmft index) after determination of height and weight for calculation of BMI. The relationship between BMI (after adjustment for age) and dmft was determined using Poisson's regression model. The mean of dmft in children with normal BMI was 1.5-fold that in subjects with extra body weight. Age had a significant effect on dmft. In addition, dmft was higher in boys compared to girls. The results of the present study showed that caries rate in the deciduous teeth of 3-6-year-old children decreases with an increase in body weight.

  7. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Tooth Decay in a Population of 3–6-Year-Old Children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Shafie Bafti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and tooth decay in a population of Iranian children. In this cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study, 1482 children were selected from kindergartens and preschool centers in Kerman, Iran. The children underwent examination of deciduous teeth (using the dmft index after determination of height and weight for calculation of BMI. The relationship between BMI (after adjustment for age and dmft was determined using Poisson’s regression model. The mean of dmft in children with normal BMI was 1.5-fold that in subjects with extra body weight. Age had a significant effect on dmft. In addition, dmft was higher in boys compared to girls. The results of the present study showed that caries rate in the deciduous teeth of 3–6-year-old children decreases with an increase in body weight.

  8. Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions and the relationships with air mass history and source apportionment in the summer of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Wu, Z. J.; Yue, D. L.; He, L. Y.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, X. G.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-10-01

    A series of long-term and temporary measurements were conducted to study the improvement of air quality in Beijing during the Olympic Games period (8-24 August 2008). To evaluate actions taken to improve the air quality, comparisons of particle number and volume size distributions of August 2008 and 2004-2007 were performed. The total particle number and volume concentrations were 14 000 cm-3 and 37 μm-3 cm-3 in August of 2008, respectively. These were reductions of 41% and 35% compared with mean values of August 2004-2007. A cluster analysis on air mass history and source apportionment were performed, exploring reasons for the reduction of particle concentrations. Back trajectories were classified into five major clusters. Air masses from the south direction are always associated with pollution events during the summertime in Beijing. In August 2008, the frequency of air mass arriving from the south was 1.3 times higher compared to the average of the previous years, which however did not result in elevated particle volume concentrations in Beijing. Therefore, the reduced particle number and volume concentrations during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games cannot be only explained by meteorological conditions. Four factors were found influencing particle concentrations using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. They were identified as local and remote traffic emissions, combustion sources as well as secondary transformation. The reductions of the four sources were calculated to 47%, 44%, 43% and 30%, respectively. The significant reductions of particle number and volume concentrations may attribute to actions taken, focusing on primary emissions, especially related to the traffic and combustion sources.

  9. Antiproteinuric therapy decreases LDL-cholesterol as well as HDL-cholesterol in non-diabetic proteinuric patients: relationships with cholesteryl ester transfer protein mass and adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikken, J A; Waanders, F; Dallinga-Thie, G M; Dikkeschei, L D; Vogt, L; Navis, G J; Dullaart, R P F

    2009-05-01

    Dyslipidemia contributes to increased cardiovascular risk in nephrotic syndrome. We questioned whether reduction in proteinuria not only lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), but also high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mass and whether changes in HDL-C were related to changes in plasma adiponectin. Thirty-two non-diabetic proteinuric patients (12 on statin therapy), were followed during two double blind 6-week periods of placebo and treatment (low sodium + 100mg losartan + 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide). With placebo HDL-C was lower but LDL-C and CETP were not different in proteinuric patients compared with matched controls. LDL-C, HDL-C and CETP decreased upon proteinuria reduction. The decrease in LDL-C correlated with the drop in CETP and the degree of proteinuria reduction. HDL-C also decreased in proportion to proteinuria lowering. Individual changes in HDL-C were correlated with changes in adiponectin. LDL-C lowering upon robust reduction of proteinuria may be affected by changes in plasma CETP mass, but this treatment also decreases HDL-C in relation to the degree of proteinuria reduction. This adverse effect on HDL-C may in part be attributable to changes in adiponectin.

  10. The relationship of alcohol consumption with left ventricular mass in people 35 years old or older in rural areas of Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunjing; Zhang, Nan; Huang, Wei; Feng, Rui; Feng, Panpan; Gu, Jun; Liu, Gang; Lei, Han

    2017-02-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol intake and left ventricular mass (LVM) independent of the effects of blood pressure and other factors in rural areas of Western China. The present study included 1007 subjects (487 men and 520 women) aged ≥35 years from the Tongan district, Chongqing, China. The quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption were estimated from a validated questionnaire. Echocardiography was used to assess left ventricular dimensions. Drinkers was associated with higher LVM compared with nondrinkers (β = 6.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-12.5, P = .015). A dose-dependent higher LVM across increasing alcohol consumption was observed (P consumption (P for interaction = .013) and frequency of alcohol consumption (P for interaction = .025) were strongly associated with higher LVM when stratified by blood pressure. However, interactions linked to age, body mass index, and gender were found to be no significant difference. These results indicate that both quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption are independent predictors of LVM in rural areas of Western China. The effects of alcohol consumption on LVM are enhanced among subjects with hypertension.

  11. Relationship between implementing interpersonal communication and mass education campaigns in emergency settings and use of reproductive healthcare services: evidence from Darfur, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Izzeldin Fadl; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi; Al Rifai, Rami; Vanching, Urnaa

    2015-09-15

    (1) To examine changes in women's awareness and utilisation of reproductive healthcare services in emergency settings following provision of interpersonal communication (IPC) and mass education campaigns, and (2) to describe factors associated with reproductive healthcare service use in internally displaced person (IDP) camps. Three camps containing 88 984 IDPs in Darfur, Sudan. 640 women aged 15-49 who had experienced pregnancy in the camp during the previous 2 years were enrolled in each of two independent cross-sectional surveys 26 months apart. IPC and mass education campaigns where community health workers disseminated information by home/shelter visits, clinic sessions, public meetings and other means to raise awareness and promote reproductive healthcare service use. Awareness of the existence of antenatal care (ANC) and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination services, reception of ANC and TT vaccination, place of delivery and use of postnatal care (PNC). The percentage of women who received home visits, and attended in-clinic sessions and public meetings increased from 61.6% to 86.7%, from 43.0% to 68.8%, and from 3.8% to 39.8%, respectively, between the initial and follow-up surveys. More women were aware of ANC (OR 18.6, 95% CI 13.1 to 26.5) and TT vaccination (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.4 to 4.4) in the follow-up than the initial survey, after multivariable adjustment. More women received ≥3 ANC visits (OR 8.8, 95% CI 6.4 to 12.0) and ≥3 doses of TT (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.3), delivered at a healthcare facility (OR 5.4, 95% CI 4.0 to 7.4) and received a PNC visit (OR 5.5, 95% CI 4.0 to 7.7) in the follow-up than in the initial survey, after multivariable adjustment. Awareness about and utilisation of reproductive healthcare services were higher in the follow-up survey. An integrated IPC and mass education campaign is effective for improving women's reproductive health in emergency settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  12. Mercury's Protoplanetary Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J M

    2004-01-01

    Major element fractionation among chondrites has been discussed for decades as ratios relative to Si or Mg. Recently, by expressing ratios relative to Fe, I discovered a new relationship admitting the possibility that ordinary chondrite meteorites are derived from two components, a relatively oxidized and undifferentiated, primitive component and a somewhat differentiated, planetary component, with oxidation state like the highly reduced enstatite chondrites, which I suggested was identical to Mercury's complement of lost elements. Here, on the basis of that relationship, I derive expressions, as a function of the mass of planet Mercury and the mass of its core, to estimate the mass of Mercury's lost elements, the mass of Mercury's alloy and rock protoplanetary core, and the mass of Mercury's gaseous protoplanet. Although Mercury's mass is well known, its core mass is not, being widely believed to be in the range of 70-80 percent of the planet mass. For a core mass of 75 percent, the mass of Mercury's lost el...

  13. Tandem mass spectrometry approach for the investigation of the steroidal metabolism: structure-fragmentation relationship (SFR) in anabolic steroids and their metabolites by ESI-MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Ali, Arslan; Khan, Naik Tameem; Yousuf, Maria; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Atta-ur-Rahman

    2013-02-01

    Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was used to investigate the effect of different substitutions introduced during metabolism on fragmentation patterns of four anabolic steroids including methyltestosterone, methandrostenolone, cis-androsterone and adrenosterone, along with their metabolites. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) analysis was performed to correlate the major product ions of 19 steroids with structural features. The analysis is done to portray metabolic alteration, such as incorporation or reduction of double bonds, hydroxylations, and/or oxidation of hydroxyl moieties to keto functional group on steroidal skeleton which leads to drastically changed product ion spectra from the respective classes of steroids, therefore, making them difficult to identify. The comparative ESI-MS/MS study also revealed some characteristic peaks to differentiate different steroidal metabolites and can be useful for the unambiguous identification of anabolic steroids in biological fluid. Moreover, LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of fermented extract of methyltestosterone, obtained by Macrophomina phaseolina was also investigated.

  14. Rest mass or inertial mass?

    OpenAIRE

    Khrapko, R. I.

    2001-01-01

    Rest mass takes the place of inertial mass in modern physics textbooks. It seems to be wrong. But this phenomenon is hidden away by the facts that rest mass adherents busily call rest mass "mass", not rest mass, and the word "mass" is associated with a measure of inertia. This topic has been considered by the author in the article "What is mass?" [1, 2, 3]. Additional arguments to a confirmation of such a thesis are presented here.

  15. A quantitative structure- property relationship of gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric retention data of 85 volatile organic compounds as air pollutant materials by multivariate methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkhosh Maryam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR study is suggested for the prediction of retention times of volatile organic compounds. Various kinds of molecular descriptors were calculated to represent the molecular structure of compounds. Modeling of retention times of these compounds as a function of the theoretically derived descriptors was established by multiple linear regression (MLR and artificial neural network (ANN. The stepwise regression was used for the selection of the variables which gives the best-fitted models. After variable selection ANN, MLR methods were used with leave-one-out cross validation for building the regression models. The prediction results are in very good agreement with the experimental values. MLR as the linear regression method shows good ability in the prediction of the retention times of the prediction set. This provided a new and effective method for predicting the chromatography retention index for the volatile organic compounds.

  16. Discussion on Relationship in Occupational Football, Mass Football and Campus Soccer%职业足球、社会足球和校园足球的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鲲; 翟玉欣

    2016-01-01

    采用文献资料法、逻辑分析法讨论职业足球、社会足球和校园足球的关系。认为:校园足球不仅可以为职业足球培养后备人才,还能丰富社会足球的人员组成结构;职业足球可以为社会足球和校园足球提供相应的指导;社会足球可以营造“足球热”气氛,使更多的人参与进来,扩大足球人口;促进足球产业发展,繁荣足球市场,为职业足球更好的发展提供了基础,并扩展校园足球的发展空间。%By the methods of literature, logic analysis, this paper discusses the relationship of occupational football, campus soccer and mass football. Not only can campus soccer culture reserve talented person for occupational football, but also it can enrich the mass football team structure. Occupational football can mass football and campus soccer provide guidance for the society. Mass football can create an atmosphere of“football fever”, make more people involved, expanding population of football. Promoting the development of the football industry and football market’s prosperity provide the basis for the development of occupational football better, and expand development space of campus soccer.

  17. New quantitative structure-fragmentation relationship strategy for chemical structure identification using the calculated enthalpy of formation as a descriptor for the fragments produced in electron ionization mass spectrometry: a case study with tetrachlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Nicolae; Dragan, Simona; Dinca, Mihael; Sisu, Eugen; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-05-20

    do not contain mass spectra, as in the case of a library search, but a series of Δ(f)H values obtained by QCC. These techniques are capable of relating relative intensities to the chemical structures of analytes via Δ(f)H of ions which turns out to be a good quantitative structure-fragmentation relationship (QSFR) descriptor.

  18. In vivo analysis of thoracic mechanical response variability under belt loading: specific behavior and relationship to age, gender and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulard, David; Bermond, François; Bruyère, Karine

    2013-11-01

    Thoracic injuries are a major cause of mortality in frontal collisions, especially for elderly female and obese people. Car occupant individual characteristics like age, gender and Body Mass Index (BMI) are known to influence human vulnerability tolerance in crashes. The objective of the this study was to perform in vivo test experiments to quantify the influence of subject characteristics in terms of age, gender and anthropometry and on thorax mechanical response variability under belt loading. Thirty-nine relaxed volunteers of different anthropometries, genders and age were submitted to non-injurious sled tests (4 g, 8 km/h) with a sled buck representing the environment of a front passenger restrained by a 3-point belt. A resulting shoulder belt force FRes was computed using the external and internal shoulder belt loads and considering shoulder belt geometry. The mid sternal deflection D was calculated as the distance variation between markers placed at mid-sternum and at the 7th vertebra spinous process of the subject. Linear stiffness (K) and damping coefficient (μ) of a spring-dashpot model were identified from the FRes-D curves of each test. The analysis suggests that among subjects over 40 years old, thinness leads to higher K-values.

  19. Magnetic activity in the HARPS M-dwarf sample. The rotation-activity relationship for very low-mass stars through R'HK

    CERN Document Server

    Astudillo-Defru, Nicola; Bonfils, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Lovis, Christophe; Rameau, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric magnetic fields in stars with convective envelopes heat stellar chromospheres. Starting with the historical Mount Wilson monitoring program, CaH&K lines have been widely used to trace stellar magnetic activity, and as a proxy for rotation period and consequently for stellar age. Monitoring stellar activity has also become essential in filtering out false-positives due to magnetic activity in extra-solar planet surveys. The Ca H&Kemission is traditionally quantified through the R'HK-index, which compares the chromospheric flux in the doublet to the overall bolometric flux of the star. Much work has been done to characterize this index for FGK-dwarfs, but M-dwarfs were left out of these analyses and no calibration of their Ca ii H&K emission to an R'HK exists to date. We set out to characterize the magnetic activity of the low and very low-mass stars by providing a calibration of the R'HK-index that extends to the realm of M-dwarfs, and by evaluating the relation between R'HK and the rot...

  20. Inverse relationship between the body mass index and severity of carotid siphon calcifications (another obesity paradox): Results from the Atahualpa Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M

    2017-04-01

    The importance of the obesity paradox in the intracranial vasculature has not been explored. We assessed whether the body mass index (BMI) correlates with severity of carotid siphon calcifications (CSC) in community-dwelling adults. Using a population-based study design, Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years underwent head computed tomography (CT) for assessment of CSC. We evaluated the association between BMI and severity of CSC (dependent variable) using regression models adjusted for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors. Of 830 people enrolled in the Atahualpa Project, 651 (78%) were included. Mean BMI was 27.3 ± 5 kg/m(2), with 39% being overweight and 27% obese. CT revealed high calcium content in the carotid siphon in 25% participants. In an adjusted model, individuals with normal weight had a trend for presenting with more severe CSC than those overweight (p = 0.06), and those ones had significantly more severe CSC than obese participants (p = 0.04). Predictive margins of BMI were higher in individuals with low calcium content in the carotid siphon. A contour plot with Shepard interpolation showed that the paradox disappeared in older individuals and in those with severe obesity, irrespective of age. BMI inversely associates with severity of CSC. This paradox is relevant in younger individuals and in those without severe obesity, irrespective of age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. On the Relationship between Solar Wind Speed, Earthward-Directed Coronal Mass Ejections, Geomagnetic Activity, and the Sunspot Cycle Using 12-Month Moving Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    For 1996 .2006 (cycle 23), 12-month moving averages of the aa geomagnetic index strongly correlate (r = 0.92) with 12-month moving averages of solar wind speed, and 12-month moving averages of the number of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) (halo and partial halo events) strongly correlate (r = 0.87) with 12-month moving averages of sunspot number. In particular, the minimum (15.8, September/October 1997) and maximum (38.0, August 2003) values of the aa geomagnetic index occur simultaneously with the minimum (376 km/s) and maximum (547 km/s) solar wind speeds, both being strongly correlated with the following recurrent component (due to high-speed streams). The large peak of aa geomagnetic activity in cycle 23, the largest on record, spans the interval late 2002 to mid 2004 and is associated with a decreased number of halo and partial halo CMEs, whereas the smaller secondary peak of early 2005 seems to be associated with a slight rebound in the number of halo and partial halo CMEs. Based on the observed aaM during the declining portion of cycle 23, RM for cycle 24 is predicted to be larger than average, being about 168+/-60 (the 90% prediction interval), whereas based on the expected aam for cycle 24 (greater than or equal to 14.6), RM for cycle 24 should measure greater than or equal to 118+/-30, yielding an overlap of about 128+/-20.

  2. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and khat chewing among Aden university medical students and their relationship to BP and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laswar Al Khader

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the smoking and khat chewing habits in male Aden University medical students and correlate them with blood pressure (BP, body mass index (BMI, and year of training, we randomly selected 100 students of different levels of training and measured their BP, height, and weight, and evaluated their cigarette smoking and khat chewing habits. The mean age of the whole group was 31.8 years. The mean BMI was 23.24 with a range from 22.6 in the in first year medical students to 24.7 (4.4 in 5 th year medical students (P= 0.127. The mean SBP, DBP, and MBP were 120.35, 70.47 and 87.1 mmHg, respectively, and did not change over the years of training. Preva-lence of smoking increased from 20% to 40% and khat chewing from 35% to 90% over the 5 years of training (P= 0.0003. There was a tendency for positive correlation between age and weight, BMI and frequency of khat chewing, and BMI and MBP. We found high prevalence of smoking and khat chewing among the medical students at Aden University and their prevalence increases with student seniority with no significant changes in BMI, SBP, DBP or MBP. There was a weak positive correlation between BMI with SBP, MBP and frequency of Khat chewing.

  3. Patterns of subcutaneous fat deposition and the relationship between body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: implications for models of physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Piers L; Toveé, Martin J; Bateson, Melissa

    2009-02-07

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are two widely used anthropometric indices of body shape argued to convey different information about health and fertility. Both indices have also been shown to affect attractiveness ratings of female bodies. However, BMI and WHR are naturally positively correlated, complicating studies designed to identify their relative importance in predicting health and attractiveness outcomes. We show that the correlation between BMI and WHR depends on the assumed model of subcutaneous fat deposition. An additive model, whereby fat is added to the waist and hips at a constant rate, predicts a correlation between BMI and WHR because with increasing fat, the difference between the waist and hips becomes smaller relative to total width. This model is supported by longitudinal and cross-sectional data. We parameterized the function relating WHR to BMI for white UK females of reproductive age, and used this function to statistically decompose body shape into two independent components. We show that judgements of the attractiveness of female bodies are well explained by the component of curvaceousness related to BMI but not by residual curvaceousness. Our findings resolve a long-standing dispute in the attractiveness literature by confirming that although WHR appears to be an important predictor of attractiveness, this is largely explained by the direct effect of total body fat on WHR, thus reinforcing the conclusion that total body fat is the primary determinant of female body shape attractiveness.

  4. Relationship between Weight, Body Mass Index, and Bone Mineral Density in Men Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salamat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI and bone mineral density (BMD, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between BMI, weight and BMD in an Iranian men population. Methods. A total of 230 men 50-79 years old were examined. All men underwent a standard BMD scans of hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4 using a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA scan and examination of body size. Participants were categorised in two BMI group: normal weight <25.0 kg/m2 and overweight and obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Results. Compared to men with BMI ≥ 25, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 2.2 (95% CI 0.85, 5.93 and for osteoporosis was 4.4 (1.51, 12.87 for men with BMI < 25. It was noted that BMI and weight was associated with a high BMD, compatible with a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Conclusions. These data indicate that both BMI and weight are associated with BMD of hip and vertebrae and overweight and obesity decreased the risk for osteoporosis. The results of this study highlight the need for osteoporosis prevention strategies in elderly men as well as postmenopausal women.

  5. Relationships between structure, ionization profile and sensitivity of exogenous anabolic steroids under electrospray ionization and analysis in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eunju; Kim, Sohee; Kim, Hee Won; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ho Jun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2016-04-01

    The relationships between the ionization profile, sensitivity, and structures of 64 exogenous anabolic steroids (groups I-IV) was investigated under electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions. The target analytes were ionized as [M + H](+) or [M + H-nH2 O](+) in the positive mode, and these ions were used as precursor ions for selected reaction monitoring analysis. The collision energy and Q3 ions were optimized based on the sensitivity and selectivity. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.05-20 ng/mL for the 64 steroids. The LODs for 38 compounds, 14 compounds and 12 compounds were in the range of 0.05-1, 2-5 and 10-20 ng/mL, respectively. Steroids including the conjugated keto-functional group at C3 showed good proton affinity and stability, and generated the [M + H](+) ion as the most abundant precursor ion. In addition, the LODs of steroids using the [M + H](+) ion as the precursor ion were mostly distributed at low concentrations. In contrast, steroids containing conjugated/unconjugated hydroxyl functional groups at C3 generated [M + H - H2 O](+) or [M + H - 2H2 O](+) ions, and these steroids showed relatively high LODs owing to poor stability and multiple ion formation. An LC-MS/MS method based on the present ionization profile was developed and validated for the determination of 78 steroids (groups I-V) in human urine.

  6. Overview of the Relationship Between Credit Platform Construction and Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation%浅述信用平台建设与大众创业、万众创新的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶明

    2015-01-01

    The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the State Council called upon mass entrepreneurship and innovation. Mass entrepreneurship and innovation is very significant for China's eco-nomic structure adjustment, new engine and new power of development, and especially the road of economic growth driven by innovation. How to support the growth of small and micro enterprises is one of the most impor-tant parts of mass entrepreneurship and innovation. This paper describes the relationship between credit rating and small and micro enterprises, and also the relationship between credit rating and credit platform. This paper states how the government provides services by using credit platform for small and micro enterprises to solve their prob-lems of financing, intellectual property and management while growth and development, and thereby promotes mass entrepreneurship and innovation, further more to boost the economic development of China.%党中央、国务院发出了大众创业、万众创新的号召,对于推动经济结构调整、打造发展新引擎、增强发展新动力、走创新驱动发展道路具有重要意义。而对小微企业的发展扶持是推进大众创业和万众创新的重中之重。本文从信用评级与小微企业的关系、信用评级与信用平台的关系着手,描述了政府如何利用信用平台为小微企业提供服务,解决小微企业在降低融资成本、保护知识产权、规范企业经营等各方面面临的问题,推动大众创业与万众创新,促进中国经济发展。

  7. Tuberculosis outcomes in Papua, Indonesia: the relationship with different body mass index characteristics between papuan and non-Papuan ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenangalem, Enny; Waramori, Govert; Pontororing, Gysje J; Sandjaja; Tjitra, Emiliana; Maguire, Graeme; Kelly, Paul M; Anstey, Nicholas M; Ralph, Anna P

    2013-01-01

    Weight gain achieved during pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) treatment is associated with the likelihood of bacteriological treatment success. It is recognised that weight and body mass index (BMI) characteristics differ between ethnic groups in health and illness states. However there has been no prior investigation of how ethnic differences in BMI might influence tuberculosis treatment outcome. Our aim was to investigate predictors of microbiological response to PTB treatment at the Tuberculosis Clinic in Timika, Papua Province, Indonesia and specifically, to determine the contribution of ethnicity. The population comprises two distinct ethnic groups - Asian (Non-Papuan) and Melanesian (Papuan). We conducted a prospective study of adults with smear-positive PTB. Treatment outcomes were 1- and 2-month sputum culture and time to microscopy conversion. Clinical measures included weight, BMI, chest radiograph, pulmonary function including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and haemoglobin. One hundred eighty six participants (83 Papuan, 103 non-Papuan Indonesians) were enrolled. At baseline, Papuans had higher mean weight and BMI than non-Papuans (50.0 kg versus 46.9 kg, p = 0.006 and 20.0 kg/m2 versus 18.7 kg/m2, p = 0.001 respectively). This was despite having lower mean haemoglobin (11.3 vs 13.1 g/dL, pculture (49/56 vs 45/67, p = 0.02), in univariable and multivariable analyses controlling for other likely determinants of culture conversion. In conclusion, Papuans had better early microbiological outcome from PTB treatment, which may relate to better preservation of weight and greater early weight gain.

  8. Associations between salivary bacteria and reported sugar intake and their relationship with body mass index in women and their adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vågstrand, Karin; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Birkhed, Dowen; Linné, Yvonne

    2008-04-01

    To study associations between reported sugar intake and salivary bacteria (mutans streptococci, MS and lactobacilli, LB), and sugar intake in relation to body mass index (BMI), in women and adolescents. Cross-sectional study. Habitual dietary intake was reported in a questionnaire and whole saliva samples were collected and cultivated. Stockholm, Sweden. Four hundred and fourteen mothers and their 16-year-old children (57% girls). Reported total sugar intake was significantly associated with LB in mothers (P = 0.001), but not in daughters and sons (P = 0.03 for mother-son interaction). When excluding lactose, the associations with LB and MS were significant in daughters (P = 0.032 and 0.005, respectively). High BMI and sugar intake from milk were independently associated with MS counts in mothers in a multiple regression model (R2 = 0.053). In daughters, sugar from beverages, candies/chocolates and fruits were all independently associated with MS counts (R2 = 0.074), whereas in sons, only mothers' MS counts were associated (R2 = 0.084). High BMI, low intake from cooked meals and high intake of candies/chocolates were all independently associated with LB in mothers (R2 = 0.076), while, except for candies/chocolates in daughters, no significant associations were found in children. BMI was significantly associated with bacteria counts in both mothers and children, whereas reported sugar intake was not. The associations between reported sugar intake and bacteria were generally weak. In mothers and daughters, some significant associations were found, but not in sons. Bacteria counts, but not reported sugar intake, were positively associated with BMI.

  9. Relationship between body mass index and adiposity in prepubertal children: ethnic and geographic comparisons between New York City and Jinan City (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navder, Khursheed P.; He, Qing; Zhang, Xiaojing; He, Suyuan; Gong, Luxia; Sun, Yungao; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Thornton, John; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is often used as a surrogate estimate of percent body fat in epidemiological studies. This study tested the hypothesis that BMI is representative of body fatness independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and geographic location in prepubertal children. The study sample included a total of 605 prepubertal children (275 girls and 330 boys) of which 247 were Chinese from Jinan, Shandong, Mainland China, and 358 children were from various ethnic backgrounds in New York City (NYC): 121 Caucasians, 94 African Americans, and 143 Asians (Chinese and Korean). In this cross-sectional study, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to quantify total body fat (TBF) and percent body fat (PBF). Prepubertal status was assessed by the criteria of Tanner. Multiple regression models were developed with TBF and PBF as the dependent variables and BMI, age, sex, and ethnicity as independent variables. Multiple regression analysis showed that BMI alone explained 85% and 69% of between-subject variance for TBF and PBF, respectively. Sex was a significant contributor to the models (P < 0.001) with girls having higher TBF and PBF than boys. Ethnicity and geographic location were significant contributors to the model (P < 0.0001) with Asians (Jinan and NYC Asians) having higher PBF than all non-Asian groups (P < 0.0001), and Jinan Asians having higher TBF and PBF than NYC-Asians. Among prepubertal children, for the same BMI, Asians have significantly higher PBF compared with African Americans and Caucasians. Caution is warranted when applying BMI across sex and ethnic prepubertal groups. PMID:19541740

  10. Relationship between perceived body weight and body mass index based on self- reported height and weight among university students: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stock Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite low rates of obesity, many university students perceive themselves as overweight, especially women. This is of concern, because inappropriate weight perceptions can lead to unhealthy behaviours including eating disorders. Methods We used the database from the Cross National Student Health Survey (CNSHS, consisting of 5,900 records of university students from Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Spain and Turkey to analyse differences in perceived weight status based on the question: "Do you consider yourself much too thin, a little too thin, just right, a little too fat or much too fat?". The association between perceived weight and body mass index (BMI calculated from self-reported weight and height was assessed with generalized non-parametric regression in R library gam. Results Although the majority of students reported a normal BMI (72-84% of males, 65-83% of females, only 32% to 68% of students considered their weight "just right". Around 20% of females with BMI of 20 kg/m2 considered themselves "a little too fat" or "too fat", and the percentages increased to 60% for a BMI of 22.5 kg/m2. Male students rarely felt "a little too fat" or "too fat" below BMI of 22.5 kg/m2, but most felt too thin with a BMI of 20 kg/m2. Conclusions Weight ideals are rather uniform across the European countries, with female students being more likely to perceive themselves as "too fat" at a normal BMI, while male students being more likely to perceive themselves as "too thin". Programs to prevent unhealthy behaviours to achieve ill-advised weight ideals may benefit students.

  11. Relationship Between Respiratory Dynamics and Body Mass Index in Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia with Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) and Comparison Between Lithotomy and Supine Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao; Huang, Shiwei; Wang, Zhaomin; Chen, Lianhua; Li, Shitong

    2016-08-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to compare respiratory dynamics in patients undergoing general anesthesia with a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in lithotomy and supine positions and to validate the impact of operational position on effectiveness of LMA ventilation. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 90 patients (age range, 18-65 years) who underwent general anesthesia were selected and divided into supine position (SP group) and lithotomy position groups (LP group). Vital signs and respiratory dynamic parameters of the 2 groups were measured at different time points and after implantation of an LMA. The arterial blood gas was monitored at 15 min after induction. The intraoperative changes of hemodynamic indexes and postoperative adverse reactions of LMA were recorded. The possible correlation between body mass index (BMI) and respiratory dynamic indexes was analyzed. RESULTS With prolonged duration of the operation, the inspiratory plateau pressure (Pplat), inspiratory resistance (RI), and work of breathing (WOB) gradually increased, while chest-lung compliance (Compl) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in end-expiratory gas (PetCO2) gradually decreased (all P value <0.05). The mean airway pressure (Pmean), Pplat, and expiratory resistance (Re) in the LP group were significantly higher than in the SP group (P<0.05), while the peak inspiratory flow (FImax), peak expiratory flow (FEmax), WOB, and Compl in the LP group were significantly lower than in the SP group (P<0.05). BMI was positively correlated with peak airway pressure (PIP/Ppeak), Pplat, and airway resistance (Raw) and was negatively correlated with Compl; the differences among patients in lithotomy position were more remarkable (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS The inspiratory plateau pressure and airway resistance increased with prolonged duration of the operation, accompanied by decreased chest-lung compliance. Peak airway pressure and airway resistance were positively correlated with BMI, and chest-lung compliance was

  12. [Relationship between hypertension and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio in middle-aged and elderly residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y Q; Liu, Y; Zheng, S L; Yang, Y; Fan, S; Yang, C; Zhang, J H; Ye, Y L

    2016-09-10

    Objective: To assess the relationship between hypertension and BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio in middle-aged and elderly residents in Luzhou, Sichuan province. Methods: A total of 2 033 middle-aged and elderly local residents aged 35-69 years were enrolled from Luzhou through stratified cluster sampling from March 27 to April 20, 2015. A face-to-face questionnaire survey and physical examination were conducted by trained investigators. Results: The overall prevalence rate of hypertension was 43.48%. The overweight rate, obesity rate, centrality obesity (calculated according to waist circumference) and centrality obesity (calculated according to waist-hip ratio) were 42.5%, 14.6%, 48.4% and 74.0%, respectively. The multivariate logistic analysis showed that gender and age were related to the prevalence of hypertension. Compared with age group waist circumference) were risk factors for hypertension, waist-hip ratio was not used in the regression equation. BMI and waist circumference or waist-hip ratio had combined effect on the prevalence of hypertension. Compared with the normal adults, the risk for hypertension increased as the increase of the level of overweight and obesity [OR from 1.524 (95%CI: 1.044-2.226) to 4.461 (95%CI: 3.405-6.326) and OR from 1.569 (95%CI: 1.134-2.171) to 5.468 (95%CI: 3.797-7.876)]. Conclusions: The influences of BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio on the prevalence of hypertension were significant, but the influence of waist circumference on hypertension was greater than waist-hip ratio. Keeping normal bodyweight might be one of the effective hypertension prevention measures.

  13. The relationship between the activates of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells and body mass index in Iranian type 2 diabetes and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri Ehsaneh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by increased production of free radicals and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GR, and glutathione peroxide (GSH-PX in type 2 diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 100 healthy controls. Total antioxidant capacity and fasting serum levels of SOD, GR, and GSH-Px were measured. All data were analyzed using SPSS software compatible with Microsoft Windows. Results The activity levels of SOD were lower in diabetic patients (111.93 ± 354.99 U/g Hb than in healthy controls (1158.53 ± 381.21 U/g Hb, but this was not significant. Activity levels of GSH-PX and GR in diabetics (62.33 ± 36.29 and 7.17 ± 5.51 U/g Hb, respectively were higher than in controls (24.62 ± 11.2 and 3.16 ± 2.95 U/g Hb, respectively. The statistical difference in enzyme activity of both GSH-Px and GR was significant (P Conclusion The increasing production of free radicals and changes in activity levels of antioxidant enzymes in order to scavenge free radicals and/or the effect of diabetes on the activity levels of antioxidant enzymes has an important effect on diabetic complications and insulin resistance. Evaluation of the levels of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant factors in patients at different stages of the disease, and pharmaceutical and nutritional interventions, can be helpful in reducing oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients. There were positive relationship between BMI and the activity of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, GR and GPX in both groups.

  14. Is Mass Customization Sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Mass customizers are like other companies currently experiencing an increasing customer demand for environmentally sustainable products as well as an increasingly strict legislation regarding environmental sustainability. This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization...... and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Several factors could indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during...... three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass customized products are essential to consider during product and process...

  15. Mammalian Brains Are Made of These: A Dataset of the Numbers and Densities of Neuronal and Nonneuronal Cells in the Brain of Glires, Primates, Scandentia, Eulipotyphlans, Afrotherians and Artiodactyls, and Their Relationship with Body Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Catania, Kenneth; Manger, Paul R; Kaas, Jon H

    2015-01-01

    Comparative studies amongst extant species are one of the pillars of evolutionary neurobiology. In the 20th century, most comparative studies remained restricted to analyses of brain structure volume and surface areas, besides estimates of neuronal density largely limited to the cerebral cortex. Over the last 10 years, we have amassed data on the numbers of neurons and other cells that compose the entirety of the brain (subdivided into cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and rest of brain) of 39 mammalian species spread over 6 clades, as well as their densities. Here we provide that entire dataset in a format that is readily useful to researchers of any area of interest in the hope that it will foster the advancement of evolutionary and comparative studies well beyond the scope of neuroscience itself. We also reexamine the relationship between numbers of neurons, neuronal densities and body mass, and find that in the rest of brain, but not in the cerebral cortex or cerebellum, there is a single scaling rule that applies to average neuronal cell size, which increases with the linear dimension of the body, even though there is no single scaling rule that relates the number of neurons in the rest of brain to body mass. Thus, larger bodies do not uniformly come with more neurons--but they do fairly uniformly come with larger neurons in the rest of brain, which contains a number of structures directly connected to sources or targets in the body. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Impact of cigarette smoking on the relationship between body mass index and coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of 3264 stroke and 2706 CHD events in 378579 individuals in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated levels of body mass index (BMI and smoking are well established lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke. If these two risk factors have a synergistic relationship, rigorous lifestyle modification may contribute to greater reduction in cardiovascular burden than previously expected. Methods A pooled analysis of individual participant data from 38 cohorts, involving 378,579 participants. Hazards ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for BMI by cigarette smoking status were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Results During a mean follow-up of 3.8 years, 2706 CHD and 3264 strokes were recorded. There was a log-linear, positive relationship of BMI with CHD and stroke in both smokers and non-smokers with evidence of a synergistic effect of smoking on the association between BMI and CHD only: HRs (95% CIs associated with a 2 kg/m2 higher BMI were 1.13 (1.10 – 1.17 in current smokers and 1.09 (1.06 – 1.11 in non-smokers (p-value for interaction = 0.04. Conclusion Smoking amplifies the positive association between BMI and CHD but not stroke. If confirmed, these results suggest that effective strategies that target smoking cessation and weight loss are likely to have a greater impact than anticipated on reducing the burden of CHD.

  17. How accurate are parental responses concerning their fourth-grade children's school-meal participation, and what is the relationship between children's body mass index and school-meal participation based on parental responses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paxton-Aiken Amy E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article investigated (1 parental response accuracy of fourth-grade children's school-meal participation and whether accuracy differed by children's body mass index (BMI, sex, and race, and (2 the relationship between BMI and school-meal participation (based on parental responses. Methods Data were from four cross-sectional studies conducted from fall 1999 to spring 2003 with fourth-grade children from 13 schools total. Consent forms asked parents to report children's usual school-meal participation. As two studies' consent forms did not ask about lunch participation, complete data were available for breakfast on 1,496 children (51% Black; 49% boys and for lunch on 785 children (46% Black; 48% boys. Researchers compiled nametag records (during meal observations of meal participation on randomly selected days during children's fourth-grade school year for breakfast (average nametag days across studies: 7-35 and for lunch (average nametag days across studies: 4-10 and categorized participation as "usually" (≥ 50% of days or "not usually" ( Results Concerning breakfast participation and lunch participation, 74% and 92% of parents provided accurate responses, respectively. Parental response accuracy was better for older children for breakfast and lunch participation, and for Black than White children for lunch participation. Usual school-meal participation was significantly related to children's BMI but in opposite directions -- positively for breakfast and inversely for lunch. Conclusions Parental response accuracy of children's school-meal participation was moderately high; however, disparate effects for children's age and race warrant caution when relying on parental responses. The BMI results, which showed a relationship between school-meal participation (based on parental responses and childhood obesity, conflict with results from a recent article that used data from the same four studies and found no significant

  18. Modeling the Relationships Among Late-Life Body Mass Index, Cerebrovascular Disease, and Alzheimer's Disease Neuropathology in an Autopsy Sample of 1,421 Subjects from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Data Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Duskin, Jonathan; Besser, Lilah M; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E; Gunstad, John; Kowall, Neil W; McKee, Ann C; Stern, Robert A; Tripodis, Yorghos

    2017-03-13

    The relationship between late-life body mass index (BMI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is poorly understood due to the lack of research in samples with autopsy-confirmed AD neuropathology (ADNP). The role of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in the interplay between late-life BMI and ADNP is unclear. We conducted a retrospective longitudinal investigation and used joint modeling of linear mixed effects to investigate causal relationships among repeated antemortem BMI measurements, CVD (quantified neuropathologically), and ADNP in an autopsy sample of subjects across the AD clinical continuum. The sample included 1,421 subjects from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Set and Neuropathology Data Set with diagnoses of normal cognition (NC; n = 234), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 201), or AD dementia (n = 986). ADNP was defined as moderate to frequent neuritic plaques and Braak stageIII-VI. Ischemic Injury Scale (IIS) operationalized CVD. Joint modeling examined relationships among BMI, IIS, and ADNP in the overall sample and stratified by initial visit Clinical Dementia Rating score. Subject-specific random intercept for BMI was the predictor for ADNP due to minimal BMI change (p = 0.3028). Analyses controlling for demographic variables and APOE ɛ4 showed lower late-life BMI predicted increased odds of ADNP in the overall sample (p < 0.001), and in subjects with CDR of 0 (p = 0.0021) and 0.5 (p = 0.0012), but not ≥1.0 (p = 0.2012). Although higher IIS predicted greater odds of ADNP (p < 0.0001), BMI did not predict IIS (p = 0.2814). The current findings confirm lower late-life BMI confers increased odds for ADNP. Lower late-life BMI may be a preclinical indicator of underlying ADNP.

  19. Small Island States Green Energy Initiative. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, Nasir [Climate Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1999-10-15

    This report covers the activities carried out during a one year period from 7/15/99 to 7/15/00 as part of the Small Islands Green Energy Initiative. The three activities were: 1) Energy Ministerial conference in the Caribbean; 2) Training session on renewable energy for utility engineers; and 3) Case studies compilation on renewable energy in the Caribbean.

  20. Axino mass

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jihn E

    2012-01-01

    I will talk on my recent works. Axino, related to the SUSY transformation of axion, can mix with Goldstino in principle. In this short talk, I would like to explain what is the axino mass and its plausible mass range. The axino mass is known to have a hierarchical mass structure depending on accidental symmetries. With only one axino, if G_A=0 where G=K+ 2ln|W|, we obtain axino mass= gravitino mass. For G_A nonzero, the axino mass depends on the details of the Kaehler potential. I also comment on the usefulness of a new parametrization of the CKM matrix.

  1. Prevalência e gravidade da asma em adolescentes e sua relação com índice de massa corporal Prevalence and severity of asthma among adolescents and their relationship with the body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Cassol

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a relação entre o aumento do índice de massa corporal e a prevalência e a gravidade da asma em escolares adolescentes residentes em Santa Maria e região (RS. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base populacional, do qual participaram 4.010 adolescentes (13 e 14 anos de idade, sem restrições de sexo, tendo preenchido de forma correta o questionário do International Study of Asthma and Allergies fase III (módulo asma. Utilizou-se o índice de massa corporal (kg/m² com os seguintes percentis (Organização Mundial de Saúde para definir o estado nutricional: abaixo do quinto (desnutrição, igual ou superior ao quinto e inferior ao 85° (normal, igual ou superior ao 85° e inferior ao 95° (sobrepeso, igual ou superior ao 95° (obesidade. Para verificar a associação entre índice de massa corporal e a prevalência e gravidade da asma, foi utilizado o teste do qui-quadrado para tendência linear, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: O aumento do índice de massa corporal mostrou associação positiva e significante com o da prevalência de "sibilos alguma vez" (p = 0,036 e a de "sibilos após exercício" (p = 0,008, independentemente do sexo. Quando estratificado por gênero, houve associação positiva apenas para "sibilos alguma vez" (p = 0,028 para meninos e "sibilos após exercício" (p = 0,03 para meninas. CONCLUSÃO: O aumento do índice de massa corporal associou-se com o aumento da prevalência de sibilos alguma vez na vida, mas não com o aumento da prevalência e gravidade da asma em adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the increase of body mass index and the prevalence and severity of asthma in adolescents from Santa Maria, in southern Brazil, and surrounding regions. METHOD: A cross-sectional, observational, population-based study was carried out with 4,010 schoolchildren aged 13 and 14 years, without any gender restrictions, who answered the written questionnaire of the

  2. The sex-specific relationship between body mass index and coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 95 cohorts with 1.2 million participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana L.; Peters, Sanne A.E.; Huxley, Rachel R.; Woodward, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) differs by sex, and accumulating evidence suggests sex differences in the effect of coronary risk factors on vascular risk. To date, the existence of a sex difference in the relationship between body mass index (BMI) with CHD has yet to be systematically examined. As sexual dimorphisms in body composition exist, we hypothesized that the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and CHD would differ in women and men. Methods From systematic searches of PubMed and EMBASE up to February 2015, we identified 32 published studies of the longitudinal association between BMI and CHD in women and men from population-based cohorts. We also included individual participant data from four large studies. Study results were pooled using random effect models with inverse variance weighting. Findings Data from 95 cohorts, 1,219,187 participants, and 37,488 incident cases of CHD were included. Higher BMI was significantly associated with age-adjusted incident CHD: hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) in women and men were 1.04 (1.03–1.05) and 1.05 (1.04–1.07) for one unit BMI, 1.25(1.05–1.49), 1.09(0.91–1.23) for underweight, 1.20 (1.12–1.29), 1.22 (1.12–1.32) for overweight, 1.61 (1.42–1.82) and 1.60 (1.43–1.79) for obesity, respectively). Overall, there was no sex difference in these associations. The women-to-men ratio of the hazard ratios were 0.99 (0.98–1.00) for one unit BMI; 1.08 (0.89–1.31) for underweight; 1.00(0.92–1.07) for overweight; and, 1.05(0.94–1.17) for obesity. Similar results were obtained after multiple-adjustment and in a range of sensitivity analyses. Interpretation Higher BMI, measured continuously and categorically, has the same deleterious effects on risk of incident CHD in women and men across diverse populations. PMID:25960160

  3. Abdominal mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass in the abdomen ... care provider make a diagnosis. For example, the abdomen can be divided into four areas: Right-upper ... pain or masses include: Epigastric -- center of the abdomen just below the rib cage Periumbilical -- area around ...

  4. The evolution of the stellar mass function in star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kruijssen, J M Diederik

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) The dynamical ejection of stars from star clusters affects the shape of the stellar mass function (MF) in these clusters, because the escape probability of a star depends on its mass. The objective of this paper is to provide and to apply a simple physical model for the evolution of the MF in star clusters for a large range of the parameter space. The model is derived from the basic principles of two-body encounters and energy considerations. It is independent of the adopted mass loss rate or initial mass function (IMF), and contains stellar evolution, stellar remnant retention, dynamical dissolution in a tidal field, and mass segregation. It is found that the MF evolution in star clusters depends on the disruption time, remnant retention fraction, initial-final stellar mass relation, and IMF. Low-mass stars are preferentially ejected after t~400 Myr. Before that time, masses around 15-20% of the maximum stellar mass are lost. The degree of low-mass star depletion grows for increasing disruption ti...

  5. Neutrino Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Weinheimer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The various experiments on neutrino oscillation evidenced that neutrinos have indeed non-zero masses but cannot tell us the absolute neutrino mass scale. This scale of neutrino masses is very important for understanding the evolution and the structure formation of the universe as well as for nuclear and particle physics beyond the present Standard Model. Complementary to deducing constraints on the sum of all neutrino masses from cosmological observations two different methods to determine the neutrino mass scale in the laboratory are pursued: the search for neutrinoless double $\\beta$-decay and the direct neutrino mass search by investigating single $\\beta$-decays or electron captures. The former method is not only sensitive to neutrino masses but also probes the Majorana character of neutrinos and thus lepton number violation with high sensitivity. Currently quite a few experiments with different techniques are being constructed, commissioned or are even running, which aim for a sensitivity on the neutrino ...

  6. Sustainability Evaluation of Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld; Taps, Stig B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Some factors indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however...... other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass...

  7. MASS SPECTROMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  8. Relationship between body mass index and family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting style among African migrant parents and children in Victoria, Australia: a parent-child dyad study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, S; Halliday, J; Green, J; Renzaho, A M N

    2016-08-03

    Although childhood obesity prevalence is stabilised in developed countries including Australia, it is continuing to rise among migrants and socially disadvantaged groups in these countries. African migrants and refugees in particular, are at high risk of obesity due to changes in their family dynamics. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between children and parental perception of family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting styles and their relationship with body mass index. A cross-sectional parent-child dyad study was conducted among 284 African families from migrant and refugee backgrounds living in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Bilingual workers were trained to collect demographic, anthropometric and questionnaire data on family functioning, parenting, family type and family communication. Parents and children reported different levels of family dynamics. Children reported a higher prevalence of poor family functioning (61.5 %, 95 % CI: 55.6, 67.2 versus 56.8 %, 95 % CI: 49.7, 61.6) and protective family type (29 %, 95 % CI: 23.9, 34.5 vs. 13.4 %, 95 % CI: 9.9, 17.9), but a lower prevalence of authoritative parenting style (51.6 %, 95 % CI: 45.7, 57.5 vs. 63 %, 95 % CI: 57.5, 68.8) than parents. There was a positive relationship between poor family functioning and child BMI both before (β = 1.28; 95 % CI: 0.14, 2.41; p parental BMI and family functioning, communication, family type or parenting style. Children's perception of poor family functioning was associated with childhood obesity. Family interventions to reduce childhood obesity need to adopt an intergenerational approach to promote a clear understanding of family dynamics between children and parents. Unless these intergenerational challenges associated with family dynamics are clearly addressed in obesity interventions, current obesity prevention initiatives will continue to widen the childhood obesity gap in Australia.

  9. Relationship of body mass index to percent body fat and waist circumference among schoolchildren in Japan - the influence of gender and obesity: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Hirotaka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the correlation coefficient between body mass index (BMI and percent body fat (%BF or waist circumference (WC has been reported, studies conducted among population-based schoolchildren to date have been limited in Japan, where %BF and WC are not usually measured in annual health examinations at elementary schools or junior high schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of BMI to %BF and WC and to examine the influence of gender and obesity on these relationships among Japanese schoolchildren. Methods Subjects included 3,750 schoolchildren from the fourth and seventh grade in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan between 2004 and 2008. Information about subject's age, sex, height, weight, %BF, and WC was collected from annual physical examinations. %BF was measured with a bipedal biometrical impedance analysis device. Obesity was defined by the following two criteria: the obese definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the definition of obesity for Japanese children. Pearson's correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF or WC were calculated separately for sex. Results Among fourth graders, the correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF were 0.74 for boys and 0.97 for girls, whereas those between BMI and WC were 0.94 for boys and 0.90 for girls. Similar results were observed in the analysis of seventh graders. The correlation coefficient between BMI and %BF varied by physique (obese or non-obese, with weaker correlations among the obese regardless of the definition of obesity; most correlation coefficients among obese boys were less than 0.5, whereas most correlations among obese girls were more than 0.7. On the other hand, the correlation coefficients between BMI and WC were more than 0.8 among boys and almost all coefficients were more than 0.7 among girls, regardless of physique. Conclusions BMI was positively correlated with %BF and WC among Japanese

  10. Relationships of body mass index with serum carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol at steady-state and in response to a carotenoid-rich vegetable diet intervention in Filipino schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Maramag, Cherry C; Tengco, Lorena W; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Solon, Florentino S

    2008-04-01

    In marginally nourished children, information is scarce regarding the circulating concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols, and physiological factors influencing their circulating levels. We determined the serum concentrations of carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol at steady state and in response to a 9-week vegetable diet intervention in 9-12-year-old girls (n=54) and boys (n=65) in rural Philippines. We determined cross-sectional relationships of BMI (body mass index) with serum micronutrient levels, and whether BMI is a determinant of serum carotenoid responses to the ingestion of carotenoid-rich vegetables. We measured dietary nutrient intakes and assessed inflammation by measurement of serum C-reactive protein levels. The children had low serum concentrations of carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol as compared with published values for similar-aged children in the U.S.A. The low serum retinol levels can be ascribed to inadequate diets and were not the result of confounding due to inflammation. Significant inverse correlations of BMI and serum all-trans-beta-carotene, 13-cis-beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin and alpha-tocopherol (but not beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and retinol) were observed among girls at baseline. The dietary intervention markedly enhanced the serum concentrations of all carotenoids. Changes in serum all-trans-beta-carotene and alpha-carotene (but not changes in lutein, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin) in response to the dietary intervention were inversely associated with BMI in girls and boys. Thus, in Filipino school-aged children, BMI is inversely related to the steady-state serum concentrations of certain carotenoids and vitamin E, but not vitamin A, and is a determinant of serum beta- and alpha-carotene responses, but not xanthophyll responses, to the ingestion of carotenoid-rich vegetable meals.

  11. Relação entre índice de massa corporal e a percepção da auto-imagem em universitários Relationship between body mass index and self-perception among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalina Shiraishi Kakeshita

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as relações entre o índice de massa corporal e a autopercepção da imagem corporal. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 106 estudantes universitários, de ambos os sexos, maiores de 18 anos, na região de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo, em 2003. Para avaliar a percepção da imagem corporal, utilizou-se uma escala de silhuetas e uma escala visual analógica; a primeira aplicada por dois métodos psicométricos distintos. Para a avaliação do componente subjetivo da imagem corporal foi aplicado um questionário sobre imagem corporal. A avaliação do estado nutricional considerou a classificação do índice de massa corporal. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste post-hoc de Newman-Keuls. RESULTADOS: A maioria das mulheres eutróficas ou com sobrepeso (87% superestimaram seu tamanho corporal enquanto mulheres obesas e homens (73%, independente do índice de massa corporal, subestimaram o tamanho corporal. As diferenças devido a gênero foram estatisticamente significativas, bem como a insatisfação geral com a imagem corporal percebida, mostrado pelo desejo por menores valores do índice de massa corporal. As mulheres com sobrepeso apresentaram maior preocupação e desconforto com o corpo. CONCLUSÕES: Tanto homens como mulheres apresentaram distorção na autopercepção da imagem corporal, subestimando ou superestimando-a. Os resultados sugerem insatisfação com a imagem corporal, na medida em que desejam ter seus corpos mais magros.OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between body mass index and self-perception of body image. METHODS: A study was carried out in a sample comprising 106 female and male university students aged 18 years or more in Ribeirão Preto, Southeastern Brazil, in 2003. The Contour Drawing Rating Scale and Visual Analogue Scale were used to evaluate body image perception; the former was applied using two different psychometric methods. A body image questionnaire was used to

  12. 体检人群鸡蛋不耐受与体重指数关系的横断面研究%A cross sectional survey on the relationship between intolerance to eggs and body mass index in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赛晓勇; 郑延松; 孙玉发

    2012-01-01

    目的 探索体检人群鸡蛋不耐受与体重指数(BMI)的关系,为鸡蛋不耐受提供病因学线索.方法 采用横断面研究设计,选取2008年8月至2009年7月于解放军总医院健康医学中心查体进行食物不耐受项目检测的12 766名健康体检者进行调查,应用logistic回归模型进行鸡蛋不耐受的多因素回归分析.结果 12 766名体检人群鸡蛋不耐受的体检阳性率为28.5%,且不耐受分级与性别相关(P<0.05),女性(36.5%)显著高于男性(24.9%).logistic分析显示,鸡蛋不耐受与性别和BMI显著相关,与男性比较,女性的OR值为1.732(1.590~1.887);与正常体重者比较,体重过轻者的OR值为1.443(1.018~ 2.045).结论 鸡蛋不耐受可能与性别和BMI相关.%Objective To explore the prevalence of intolerance to eggs and its relationship with body mass index in Beijing,China.Methods A cross sectional survey which included 12 766 adults from health sciences center of general hospital of the Chinese People's Liberation Army from August,2008 to July,2009 was carried out.Data was entered computer and organized by EpiData 3.0 software for epidemiological analysis.Nonconditional logistic regression model was used for odd ratio (OR) and 95%CIcalculation,and statistics analysis was carried out by SPSS 13.0 software.Results Positive rate of intolerance to eggs in the cohort was 28.5%.Grades of intolerance to eggs were associated with sex(P<0.05 ).Positive rate of intolerance to eggs in females(36.5% ) was higher than those in males (24.9%).Data from multiple regression analysis showed that intolerance to eggs was associated with sex and body mass index.Compared with males,the OR(95%CI) of female was 1.732 (1.590-1.887).Compared with normal weights,the OR (95% CI) of low weights was 1.443 ( 1.018-2.045 ).Conclusion Sex and body mass index might be associated with intolerance to eggs.

  13. 体质量指数、嘲笑与自尊:身体意象的中介作用%Relationship between body mass index,perceived teasing and self-esteem:Mediation effect of body image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平凡; 潘清泉; 周宗奎; 田媛

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship among body mass index (BMI), perceived teasing, selfesteem and body image. Methods: Totally 390 high school students in Hubei province were tested with the Adolescent Physical Self Scale, the Perception Of Teasing Scale and the Self-Esteem Scale. They were divided into low weight group (BMI ≤ 17), normal weight group (17 < BMI ≤ 22)and overweight group (BMI > 22)according to BMI scores. Results: (1) There were significantly gender differences in BMI (x2= 8.48, P < 0. 05), perceived teasing and body image. And further comparison showed that female students scored higher in perceived teasing than male students, and female students dissatisfied their bodies higher than male students. (2) The scores of perceived teasing and self-esteem were significantly higher in overweight group than in low and normal weight group. The scores of body image were significantly higher in low weight group than in the other groups. (3) Correlation analysis showed that BMI (r= -0. 43, P < 0. 01) and perceived teasing (r= -0. 31, P < 0. 01) were significantly negatively correlated with body image, self-esteem was significantly positively correlated with body image ( r= 0. 45, P < 0. 01). (4) Regression analysis indicated BMI and perceived teasing predicted self-esteem directly (β= -0. 15, -0. 11, and 0. 36), and also exerted its influence on self-esteem through body image. Conclusion: The body mass index (BMI), perceived teasing and body image could affect self-esteem, and body image partially mediate the relationship between BMI, perceived teasing and self-esteem.%目的:探讨体质量指数(Body Mass Index,BMI)、嘲笑、身体意象和自尊的关系.方法:采用方便抽样,从湖北省某2 所高中选取学生390名,根据BMI得分将被试分为偏瘦组(BMI≤17分),正常组(17分22分).使用青少年身体自我量表(Adolescent Physical Self Scale,APS)、知觉到的嘲笑量表(The Perception of Teasing Scale

  14. 体重指数与女性骨质疏松症关系的Logistic回归分析%Logistic regression analysis of the relationship between body mass index and osteoporosis in females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊继波; 覃勇; 李莎; 鄂建设; 丁小刚

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨体重指数(body mass index BMI)是否是女性骨质疏松症(Osteoporosis OP)的危险因素.方法 收集2008年9月~2010年12月因腰腿疼痛在三峡大学第一临床医学院(宜昌市中心人民医院)康复科就诊的500例女性患者资料,经X线检查判断无骨质增生232例,采用法国DMS公司生产的双能X线骨密度仪测定腰椎(L2-4)正位骨密度(bone mineral density,BMD),记录其身高、体重(计算体重指数)、症状、运动、吸烟、饮酒等影响因素;测定腰椎(L2-4)骨密度,明确是否骨质疏松(OP);用t检验及X2检验比较骨质疏松症组和非骨质疏松症组的影响因素,用Logistic回归分析对象中各种可能影响骨质疏松症的因素及骨质疏松症发生的相关性.结果 骨质疏松症组和非骨质疏松症组比较:体重指数、运动情况、吸烟、饮酒比例有显著差异;根据多因素分析,体重指数、吸烟是骨质疏松症的危险因素,运动与偶尔饮酒是骨质疏松症的保护因素.BMI每增加一个单位,女性发生骨质疏松的风险增加2.003(P=0.034).结论 体重指数是女性骨质疏松的危险因素.%Objective To explore whether body mass index is one of the risk factors of osteoporosis in women.Methods Clinical data of 500 female patients with wrist and leg pain in Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, the First College of Clinical Medical Science (Center Hospital of Yichang) , Three Gorges University from September 2008 to December 2010 were collected.There were 232 female patients with non-hyperostosis diagnosed using X-ray.Bone mineral density (BMD) of L2-4 was measured using a dual energy absorptiometry (DMS, France).The related factors including height, body weight (calculated BMI), symptoms, exercise frequency, smoking, and drinking were recorded.BMD of the lumbar spine was determined to judge osteoporosis status.The influential factors between osteoporosis group and non-osteoporosis group were compared using t

  15. 学龄前儿童身体质量指数和维生素D水平的关系%Relationship between body mass index and vitamin D level in preschool children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欲琦; 王云双; 靳艳茹; 王峰; 黄春梅; 陈莉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the body mass index ( BMI ), blood ionized calcium and vitamin D in preschool children of Baoding City in Hebei Province and explore the relationship among them. Methods Random sampling and double-blind method were used to collect 301 preschool children in Baoding City, and their body height, body weight, blood ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured and analyzed. Results Children of normal weight, overweight and obesity accounted for 58. 5% ( 176/301 ), 20. 9% ( 63/301 ) and 20. 6% ( 62/301 ), respectively. The level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in obese children was 38. 53 ±5. 28 nmol/L, which was lower than that of normal children, and the difference was statistically significant ( t =2. 65, P < 0. 05 ). BMI was negatively correlated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in children of obesity ( r = -2.15, P<0.05), but it was not correlated with blood ionized calcium. Conclusion The BMI of preschool children of obesity is negatively correlated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level.%目的 调查河北省保定市城区学龄前儿童身体质量指数变化,探讨其与离子钙和25-羟维生素D的关系.方法 采取随机抽样双盲方法,选择保定市城区幼儿园301名学龄前儿童,测量身高、体重、血离子钙和25-羟维生素D等指标并进行分析.结果 体重正常、超重和肥胖者分别占58.47%(176/301)、20.93%(63/301)和20.60%(62/301);肥胖儿童25-羟维生素D水平为38.53±5.28nmol/L,低于正常儿童(54.65±6.36nmol/L),差异有统计学意义(t=2.65,P<0.05).肥胖儿童身体质量指数与25-羟维生素D呈负相关(r=-2.15,P<0.05),身体质量指数与离子钙之间不存在相关性.结论 在学龄前肥胖儿童中,身体质量指数与25-羟维生素D呈负相关性.

  16. Mass metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the practical aspects of mass measurements. Concepts of gravitational, inertial and conventional mass and details of the variation of acceleration of gravity are described. The Metric Convention and International Prototype Kilogram and BIPM standards are described. The effect of change of gravity on the indication of electronic balances is derived with respect of latitude, altitude and earth topography. The classification of weights by OIML is discussed. Maximum permissible errors in different categories of weights prescribed by national and international organizations are p

  17. Mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang Hartmeyer, Gitte; Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Böcher, Sidsel

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being introduced for the rapid and accurate identification of bacteria. We describe 2 MALDI-TOF MS identification cases - 1 directly on spinal fluid and 1 on grown bacteria. Rapidly obtained r...

  18. Consumo de desayuno en estudiantes universitarios: hábito, calidad nutricional y su relación con el índice de masa corporal Breakfast consumption among university students: habit, nutritional quality and relationship with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Karlen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer el hábito de desayuno y los factores que lo condicionan en estudiantes universitarios de la Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, y establecer si existe relación entre la calidad del desayuno y el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal. Se encuestaron 130 estudiantes de ambos sexos (18-21 años. Se utilizó un cuestionario cualitativo y autoadministrado para conocer los alimentos ingeridos en el desayuno y evaluar su calidad. Se consideró"desayuno de buena calidad" aquél que incluía al menos un alimento del grupo de los lácteos, de los cereales y de las frutas. Los alumnos se pesaron y midieron en altura para calcular el IMC. Resultados: La distribución de la población según el IMC fue la siguiente: 82% fueron categorizados en Normopeso, 5% Bajo Peso, 12% Sobrepeso y 1% Obesidad. El 95% de los estudiantes manifestaron desayunar, pero sólo el 15% realizó un "desayuno de buena calidad". En los estudiantes que omitieron el desayuno, los principales motivos fueron la falta de tiempo y de hambre al levantarse. El 71% realizó una colación a media mañana. En la mayoría, la selección de alimentos para la colación no fue adecuada para completar el desayuno. La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en los estudiantes universitarios no estuvo asociada a la calidad del desayuno. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos indican que es necesario mejorar la calidad del desayuno de los estudiantes Es importante fomentar la selección responsable de los alimentos consumidos en el desayuno y destacar la importancia de complementarlo con una colación adecuada en el caso que no hubiera sido de buena calidad.Objective: To assess breakfast habits and conditioning factors among university students from the Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, and establish if there is a relationship between the quality of breakfast and Body Mass Index (BMI. Method: a descriptive

  19. The relationship between prepregnancy body mass index and the occurrence of pregnancy induced hypertension%孕前人体质量指数与妊娠高血压综合征的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英惠; 吴立民; 潘玉娟; 陈浩; 李竹; 刘建蒙; 刘兰; 马蕊; 叶荣伟; 李松; 陈华; 薛明君; 成伶春

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in Chinese population. Methods Data were collected in 6 counties/cities covered by Perinatal Health Care Surveillance System which was part of the Sino-American cooperative project on neural tube defects prevention established in 1992. The study population consisted of 83 159 women who attended premarital or preconception medical physical examination and delivered single live births with at least 20 gestational weeks from 1995 to 2000 in Jiaxing area. The Chi-square test was employed to test the difference in the rates of PIH among groups with different BMI. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to examine the association between prepregnancy BMI and the risk of PIH. Results The rate of PIH was 11.01% (9153/83159;95% CI: 10.79%-11.22%). The rate of PIH among women with BMI , 18.5-22.9 kg/m2,23.0-24.9 kg/m2, and ≥25.0 kg/m2(6389/59 054;95% CI: 10. 57%-11.07% ), 14.63% (943/6444; 95% CI: 13.78% - 15.52% ), and 19. 00% (416/2189; 95% CI: 17. 38% - 20. 71% ), respectively, the difference was significant (X2 =261.028, P=0.000). Taking those with BMI 18.5-22.9 kg/m2 as reference,the unadjusted RR for PIH was 0. 82 (95% CI: 0.77-0.87) among women with BMI 2检验比较不同BMI组或其他特征人群PIH发病率的差别,利用多元logistic回归分析孕前BMI与PIH发生危险性之间的关系.结果 PIH发病率为11.01%(9153/83 159;95%CI:10.79%~11.22%).PIH的发病率自BMI2=261.028,P=0.000).以BMI为18.5~22.9 kg/m2者为参照组,BMI<18.5 kg/m2、23.0~24.9 kg/m2和≥25.0 kg/m2组发生PIH的RR值分别为0.82(95%CI:0.77~0.87)、1.41(95%CI:1.31~1.52)和1.93(95%CI:1.73~2.16).调整地区、年龄、文化程度、职业、产次、产前检查次数和既往高血压病史或家族史后,上述RR值分别为0.85(95%CI:0.80~0.90)、1.37(95%CI:1.27~1.47)和1.88(95%CI:1.68~2.10).结论 PIH的发生危险随孕前BMI的升高而升高.

  20. Relationship of body mass index and blood lipid level with cancer detection on prostate biopsy%体质指数、血脂水平与前列腺穿刺活检阳性间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩宇; 吕广霖; 袁和兴; 魏雪栋; 胡林昆; 张学锋; 侯建全

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), blood lipid level and cancer de⁃tection in prostate biopsy. Methods A total of 214 patients undergoing a prostate biopsy during 2013.2—2014.8 were re⁃viewed retrospectively. They were divided into prostate cancer and non-cancer groups by biopsy results. The differences of age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, prostate volume (PV), blood lipid level and BMI were analyzed between two groups. Risk factors for cancer detection of biopsy were also analyzed. Results Compared with non-cancer patients, pros⁃tate cancer patients were older, had higher level of PSA and BMI, but smaller PV and lower level of HDL-C ( P<0.05). Lo⁃gistic regression analysis showed that older, higher level of PSA and BMI were risk factors for prostate biopsy positive, but larger PV and higher level of HDL-C were protective factors (P<0.05). Conclusion Comprehensive assessment of BMI and blood lipid levels can provide important reference for prostate cancer screening at early time and establishment of pros⁃tate biopsy scheme, which also provide significant evidence for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer at early stage for high risk population.%目的:探讨体质指数(BMI)、血脂水平与前列腺穿刺活检阳性之间的关系。方法回顾性分析2013年2月—2014年8月间在我院行前列腺穿刺活检患者214例,根据穿刺病理结果分为前列腺癌组和非癌组,比较2组间年龄、前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)、前列腺体积(PV)、血脂水平、体质指数(BMI)等指标,并分析前列腺穿刺阳性的危险因素。结果前列腺癌组年龄、PSA、BMI高于非癌组,而PV、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)则低于非癌组(均P<0.05)。Logistic回归分析提示年龄大,PSA、BMI升高是前列腺穿刺活检阳性的危险因素,而PV、HDL-C升高则为保护因素(均P<0.05)。结论综合评估患者BMI

  1. Study on the relationship between body mass index, waist circumference,waist to hip ratio and glucose metabolism%体质指数、腰围和腰臀比与糖代谢的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶家楷; 佟伟军; 张永红; 张绍艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between body mass index ( BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and glucose metabolism. Methods Total 32 villages in Kezuohou Banner and Naiman in Inner Mongolia were selected as study field and residents aged 20 and above were served as study subjects, demographic data and tife style including cigarette smoking and alcohol intake were investigated by face to face method. Their blood pressure, height, body weight, waist and hip circumference, were measured by standardized methods. Their blood samples were collected and fasting plasma glucose level, blood lipids and C-reactive protein were examined for all subjects. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate relations between the three obesity indexes and diabetes mellitus(DM). Results Total 2 589 Mongolians aged 20 years or above were recruited as study subjects. The overall prevalence of diabetes and IFG was 3. 7% ( males 3. 9% ;females 3. 5% ) and 18. 5% (males 17.7% ;females 19.0% ) , respectively. The Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that diabetes was significantly associated with high WHR ( odds ratio; 2. 120). IFG was significantly associated with high BMI (odds ratio; 1.624) and high WC(odds ratio; 1.472) in male; In female, diabetes was significantly associated with high WC(odds ratio;2. 336). Conclusions In male, WHR may be a risk factor for DM; BMI and WC may be risk factors for IFG. In female, WC may be the risk factor for DM.%目的 探讨蒙古族居民体质指数(BMI)、腰围(WC)和腰臀比(WHR)与糖代谢的相关性.方法 选择内蒙古科左后旗朝鲁吐乡和奈曼固日班花乡的32个行政村,对20岁以上居民进行调查.采用面对面调查方式,收集人口学特征资料以及吸烟、饮酒等生活方式,测量血压、身高、体质量、腰围和臀围.采集血标本,检测血糖、血脂、C-反应蛋白等指标的水平.采用多因素logistic回归评估3个肥胖指标与

  2. Relationship between body mass index and blood lipid among middle-aged and elder persons in Chengdu city%成都市中老年人群体质指数与血脂相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑庆昆; 易延静; 贾勇; 黄晓波; 曾伟; 刘雅; 欧阳凌云; 张延杰; 徐俊波; 聂晓莉; 赵思勤

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨中老年人群体质指数(BMI)与血脂水平及脂代谢异常的关系.方法 于2008年采用分层整群抽样的方法,抽取四川省成都地区40~79岁5 175名城乡居民进行身高、体重、血脂等测量,并问卷调查.结果 成都地区中老年居民肥胖患病率为11.03%,其中男性为8.66%,女性为12.6%,超重率为35.07%,其中男性为35.7%,女性为34.7%;随着BMI的增加,中老年人群甘油三酯(TG)水平呈明显上升趋势,高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)水平呈明显下降趋势;中老年男性人群高TG血症患病率随BMI增加呈增高趋势;中老年女性人群高TG血症、高总胆固醇(TC)血症、低HDL-C血症患病率随BMI增加呈增高趋势.结论 中老年人群TG及HDL-C水平、中老年男性高TG血症及女性高TG血症、高TC血症、低HDL-C血症患病率与BMI密切相关.%Objective To investigate the relationship between body mass index(BMI) and the levels of blood lipid and lipid metabolic disorder among middle-aged and elder people. Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was used and 5 175 persons aged 40 -79 years in Chengdu city were selected for a questionnaire survey and measurements of height,weight, and blood lipid. Results The prevalence of obesity was 11.03 % ( 8. 66% for male and 12. 6% for female) and that of overweight was 35.07% (35.70 for male and 34. 70% for female) among the people. With the increase of BMI,triglyceride(TG) levels in the older aged groups showed an increase trend and high-density lipoprotein-cholesteral(HDL-C) levels showed an obvious decrease. With BMI increase, the middle-aged male showed a trend of high TG hyperlipidemia. The female showed a increase trend of high TG hyperlipidemia, high total cholesterol (TC), and low HDL-C with the increase of BMI. Conclusion BMI is closely corelated with the incidences of high TG,high TC,low HDL-C among middle-aged and elder persons.

  3. Relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index of Huai'an%淮安市市区成人体脂百分比与BMI关系初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈旸; 詹晓晴

    2011-01-01

    Objective To survey the actuality of body composition for adults in Huai 'an and know the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index ( BMI). Methods A total of 1700 health adults were enrolled in this study. It was measured by bioelectrical impedance for weight , WHR, F% , BMI, visceral fat area, in comparison with the part index of adult in Shanghai ,Taiyuan and Tokyo. The obesity diagnosis outpoint was determined for the research object . Results Along with the age, BMI and F% were significantly increased year by year trend , but not balanced. The adult index of BMI or F% in Huai'an was similar to the distribution of Shanghai ,Taiyuan and Tokyo,however,there were significant differences between that BMI of 20-30 years old male and F% of 50-60 years old female. As the growth of the age ,the visceral fat area distribution was increasing. Men achieve 50% visceral type obesity than women about ten years earlier. The again obese outpoint of male in Huai 'an was 24. 625 kg/m , and female was 22. 505 kg/m . Regression equations showed that: F% ( male) = WHR x 233. 241 - BMI x 0. 673 - year x 0. 297 - 156. 3; F% ( female ) = WHR x 43. 388 + BMI x 0. 928 - year x 0.083 - 25. 43. Conclusions There is malconformation between BMI and F%. Along with chronic disease prevention ,the outpoint of obese diagnosis should be properly adjusted .%目的 调查淮安市区部分成人体脂成分现状,了解体重指数(BMI)与体脂百分比(F%)之间的关系.方法 对1700名成人进行体格测量,应用生物电阻抗技术对体重、腰臀比、F%、BMI、内脏脂肪面积分布进行描述,部分指标与上海、太原和日本东京成人指标进行比较,重新确定研究对象的肥胖诊断切点.结果 随年龄增长,BMI和F%均呈现逐年增长的趋势,但两者之间存在不均衡性;淮安市成人与上海、太原、日本东京的BMI、F%分布相近,但20~30岁男性在BMI,50~60岁女性在F%均与其他地区

  4. 体质量指数正常的蒙古族人群炎症标志物与高血压的关系%Relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and hypertension in a Mongolian population with normal body mass index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高昕; 鞠忠; 汪桂艳; 王艾丽; 佟伟军; 刘彦斌; 张永红

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨在体质量指数(BMI)正常的蒙古族人群中炎症标志物水平与高血压的关系.方法 采用横断面研究的方法,纳入BMI正常的内蒙古通辽市的居民1784人为研究对象,收集各研究对象的基线特征信息,按照血压水平将研究对象分为高血压组(n=583)和血压正常组(n=1201),采集两组研究对象血样并进行血管紧张素Ⅱ( AngⅡ)、高敏C反应蛋白(hsCRP)、可溶性细胞间黏附分子1(sICAM-1)、可溶性E选择素(sE-selectin)的检测.采用协方差分析方法研究炎症标志物水平与血压的关系,采用logistic回归模型分析炎症标志物水平与高血压的关联.结果 高血压组的AngⅡ、hsCRP、sICAM-1、sE-selectin水平均高于血压正常组[分别为52.0(40.8,85.9)比47.0(39.3,65.8)ng/L,6.7(4.4,13.7)比5.3(3.5,9.2) mg/L,(334.3±98.0)比(320.1±95.4)μg/L,18.5(15.0,24.4)比17.9(14.1,23.4)μg/L,均P<0.05].协方差分析结果显示,收缩压与舒张压均随AngⅡ和hsCRP水平增加而升高,线性趋势性检验具有统计学意义.多因素Logistic回归分析表明,AngⅡ,hsCRP水平每升高1个单位,研究对象发生高血压的危险性分别增加至1.005,1.018倍.结论 在BMI正常的蒙古族人群中,AngⅡ、hsCRP水平与血压以及高血压相关联.%Objective To explore the association between inflammatory biomarkers and hypertension among Inner Mongolians without overweight or obesity. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 1784 Mongolians with normal body mass indexes were recruited. Baseline characteristics were collected. Subjects were divided into hypertension group(n= 583) and normotension group (n = 1201) . Angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ ), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (Sicam-1) and soluble E-selectin (Se-selectin) were examined. Covariance analysis was used to examine the relationship between inflammation biomarkers and systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure

  5. Relationship between pre-pregnant body mass index, maternal weight gain and small for gestational age%孕前体重指数及孕期增重与小于胎龄儿的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭婷婷; 岳福娟; 王芳; 冯永亮; 邬惟为; 王素萍; 张亚玮; 杨海澜

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨孕前BMI、孕期增重与小于胎龄儿(small for gestational age,SGA)的关系,为预防小于胎龄儿的发生提供理论依据.方法 以2012年3月至2014年7月在山西医科大学第一医院产科分娩的4 754例单胎孕妇为研究对象,收集其一般人口学特征及健康状况、分娩情况等资料,测量其孕前身高、体重和分娩前体重,计算孕前BMI及孕期增重并分组,收集新生儿出生结局,了解孕前BMI和孕期增重对SGA的影响.结果 SGA发生率为9.26%(440/4 754).孕前体重较低组、正常组及超重/肥胖组SGA发生率为9.85%、8.54%和9.45%,调整孕妇年龄、孕产史等因素后,孕前BMI过高和超重/肥胖者SGA发生率低于孕前BMI正常范围的孕妇(OR=0.714,95%CI:0.535 ~ 0.953);不同孕期增重组SGA发生率分别为孕期增重低于美国医学研究所(IOM)建议范围下限组12.20%、增重在建议范围组9.23%、增重超过建议范围上限组8.45%;调整孕妇年龄、孕产史等因素后,孕期增重低于IOM建议范围下限增加SGA的发生风险(OR=1.999,95%CI:1.487~ 2.685),无论是孕前BMI较低、适宜还是超重/肥胖,分别以增重适宜作为参照,孕期增重低于IOM建议范围下限均增加SGA的发生风险,OR值分别为2.558(95%CI:1.313~ 4.981)、1.804(95%CI:1.258~2.587)、3.108(95%CI:1.237 ~ 7.811).孕前高BMI和孕期增重不足间未发现相加和相乘交互作用.结论 孕前BMI超重/肥胖者SGA发生率低于孕前BMI正常范围的孕妇,孕期增重不足增加SGA的发生风险,无论孕前BMI较低、正常还是超重/肥胖的孕妇增重均应避免低于IOM推荐的增重范围下限,以减少SGA的发生.%Objective To investigate the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index,weight gain during pregnancy and small for gestational age (SGA) birth so as to provide evidence for the development of comprehensive prevention programs on SGA birth.Methods Between

  6. Mass Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶全荣

    2006-01-01

    @@ Every day,we are all influenced by the mass media.Although some critics of the media claim that these means of communication are used mainly to control our thinking and get us to buy products that we don't need,the media also contribute to keeping people informed.In other words,while dangers do exist,the benefits of the media far outweigh(超过)the disadvantages.Most of the messages brought to viewers,listeners,and readers are designed either to inform or to entertain,and neither of these goals can be considered dangerous or harmful.

  7. Critical Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070299

    2017-01-01

    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  8. Binary mass ratios: system mass not primary mass

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Simon P

    2012-01-01

    Binary properties are usually expressed (for good observational reasons) as a function of primary mass. It has been found that the distribution of companion masses -- the mass ratio distribution -- is different for different primary masses. We argue that system mass is the more fundamental physical parameter to use. We show that if system masses are drawn from a log-normal mass function, then the different observed mass ratio distributions as a function of primary mass, from M-dwarfs to A-stars, are all consistent with a universal, flat, system mass ratio distribution. We also show that the brown dwarf mass ratio distribution is not drawn from the same flat distribution, suggesting that the process which decides upon mass ratios is very different in brown dwarfs and stars.

  9. Quantifying the mediating effect of body mass index in the relationship between a Mediterranean diet and development of maternal pregnancy complications: Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenaker, D.A.J.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Mishra, G.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The contribution of body mass index (BMI) to the observed associations between dietary patterns and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) remains unclear. Objective: The objective of this study was to formally quantify the mediating eff

  10. Quantifying the mediating effect of body mass index in the relationship between a Mediterranean diet and development of maternal pregnancy complications: Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenaker, D.A.J.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Mishra, G.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The contribution of body mass index (BMI) to the observed associations between dietary patterns and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) remains unclear. Objective: The objective of this study was to formally quantify the mediating

  11. 广东省居民吸烟行为与体重指数关系的研究%Relationship between smoking and body mass index among residents in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志辉; 刘涛; 许晓君; 许燕君; 马文军; 赵劭娟; 李琴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of smoking on body mass index(BMI)among residents in Guangdong Province.Methods Using the method of multistage clustering random sampling,permanent residents aged 18 years and above were selected from Yuexiu District of Guangzhou City,Yuncheng District of Yunfu City,Town District of Shanwei City,Wuhua County of Meizhou City,Sihui County of Zhaoqing City,Nanxiong County of Shaoguan City in 2010.Questionnaire survey and physical examination were conducted using the method of combination of focused and household investigations.Contents of the questionnaire included basic personal information,smoking,drinking,diet,physical activity,and family economic status.Rate and ratio were used for statistic description.T-test,One-way ANOVA,and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the relationship between smoking and BMI.Results A total of 3591 people were surveyed,including 1621 men(45.14%)and 1970 women(54.86%).The rates of never smoking,current smoking,and past smoking were 72.29%(2596/3591),22.86% (821/3591),and 4.85%(174/3591),respectively.The average BMI of all participants was 22.96 ±3.32.The mean BMI of never smoking,current smoking,and past smoking were 23.29 ± 3.64,22.76 ± 3.35,and 23.01 ±3.28,respectively.After controlling gender,age,occupation,educational level,family income per capita,alcohol,and the amount of exercise,differences among BMI of smoking 1 to 9 cigarettes/day,smoking 10 to 19 cigarettes/day and not smoking were statistically significant(P<0.05),and their average BMI(95% CI)were 22.27(21.75-22.80),22.12(21.66-22.59),and 23.03(22.90-23.16),respectively.Current smoking and BMI were negatively correlated after adjusting for gender,age,occupation,and other variables,and its beta value was-0.552(P<0.05).Conclusion The smoking rate of residents in Guangdong Province remained high.Smoking was negatively correlated with BMI,but BMI was reduced very less.%目的 探索广东省居民吸烟行为

  12. Research on the relationship between body mass index and related diseases of residents in Jiangyin city%江阴市居民体质指数与相关疾病关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪国忠; 赵荣兴; 陆红达; 张宏宾; 周品众; 章剑; 封蓉芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨江阴居民中体质指数(BMI)的分布特征及其与主要相关疾病的关系.方法 2007年11月~2008年1月采用多阶段分层整群抽样方法随机抽取江阴市3个镇(街道)、6个行政村(居委)537个住户中的居民为调查对象.通过问卷实施入户调查及体检.结果 样本人群BMI均值为(23.00±0.19),超重率和肥胖率分别为29.8%和8.4%;城市和农村居民超重率和肥胖率分别为33.9%、28.0%和6.0%、9.4%.男性超重比例高于女性,肥胖比例低于女性;15~岁年龄组超重和肥胖率最低,随着年龄增长,超重率和肥胖率均呈上升趋势,45~岁组超重率最高(44.9%),55~岁组肥胖率最高(13.8%);已婚组男子超重与未婚组无明显差异,已婚组男子肥胖率高于未婚组;不同文化程度人群的肥胖率差异不明显,文盲组的超重率高于其它组;超重组和肥胖组的高血压、糖尿病和高脂血症均显著高于正常组.结论 近年来江阴市居民超重率、肥胖率呈上升趋势,BMI与高血压等慢性病患病率呈正相关.%Objective To explore the body mass index ( BMI) distribution characters of Jiangyin residents and its re-lationship with major related diseases. Method From November 2007 to January 2008, using multi - stage stratified clus-ter random sampling method to select 537 households from 3 towns (streets) , 6 administrative villages (the RC) of Jian-gyin as respondents. Implementation face - to - face investigation and carried out physical examination. Results The sample populations mean BMI was (23. 00 ±0. 19) , the rates of obesity and overweight were 29. 8% and 8. 4%. The overweight and obesity rates of urban residents and rural residents were 33. 9% , 28. 0% and 6. 0% , 9.4%. Proportion of men over-weight was higher than women, but obesity was lower than women. 15 -year-old age groups had the lowest rates of over-weight and obesity, with age up, overweight and obesity rates increased, the overweight rate

  13. Stratification Logistic Regression Analysis on the Relationship between Body Mass Index,Waist Circumference and Hypertension%体重指数及腰围与高血压关系的分层 Logistic 回归分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈丽丽; 沈毅

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨体重指数(BMI)、腰围(WC)与成人高血压的关系,以及对高血压的预测效果。方法用多阶段整群随机抽样抽取拱墅区540户家庭3177名18周岁以上居民作问卷调查和身高、体重、腰围及血压测量,并采用年龄分层 Logistic 回归分析 BMI、WC 与高血压之间的相关性;绘制 ROC 曲线比较不同性别、年龄BMI 及 WC 对高血压的预测效果。结果随着年龄的递增,平均收缩压、平均舒张压、WC、高血压患病率和腹型肥胖率也随之升高,调整性别、文化、职业、婚姻状况、高血压家族史、职业活动强度、吸烟和饮酒等8项有关的因素后,按年龄分层的 Logistic 回归分析结果表明:青年 BMI 肥胖组患高血压的 OR 值是正常组的15.167倍,青年腹型肥胖组患高血压的 OR 值是腰围正常组的6.995倍;BMI 肥胖组、腹型肥胖组的偏回归系数β值和OR 值均随着年龄组的递增而降低。性别和不同年龄层分别用 WC 和 BMI 预测高血压的 ROC 曲线下面积均大于0.5。结论WC 和 BMI 均是18周岁以上成人较好的高血压预测指标。青年的整体肥胖和腹型肥胖对血压的影响程度高于中老年,需重点关注。%Objective To explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI),waist circumference (WC)and adult hypertension in Gongshu District,as well as on hypertension prediction effect.Methods Age -stratified Logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation between BMI,WC and hypertension;ROC curve was used to compare hypertension prediction effect of BMI with that of WC among different gender and age people.Results BMI and WC of hypertension group were higher than that of normal group (P <0.05);the mean SBP and DBP of abdominal obesity group were higher than that of normal group (P <0.001);the mean SBP and DBP of BMI obesity group were higher than that of overweight group,and overweight group were higher than that of

  14. Mass Media Orientation and External Communication Strategies: Exploring Organisational Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonneberger, A.; Jacobs, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses relationships between mass media orientations of communication professionals in organisations and their external communication strategies. We assume that mass media orientations within an organisation may affect an organisation’s external communication strategies of bridging and

  15. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harm, if you leave the relationship twists the truth to make you feel you are to blame ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  16. Mass Determination of New Particle States

    CERN Document Server

    Serna, Mario

    2008-01-01

    We study theoretical and experimental facets of mass determination of new particle states. Assuming supersymmetry, we update the quark and lepton mass matrices at the grand unification scale accounting for threshold corrections enhanced by large tan beta. From the hypothesis that quark and lepton masses satisfy a classic set of relationships suggested in some Grand Unified Theories (GUTs), we predict tan beta needs to be large, and the gluino's soft mass needs to have the opposite sign to the wino's soft mass. Existing tools to measure the phase of the gluino's mass at upcoming hadron colliders require model-independent, kinematic techniques to determine the masses of the new supersymmetric particle states. We discuss the current techniques to determine the mass of invisible particles. We review the transverse mass kinematic variable M_{T2} and the use of invariant-mass edges to find relationships between masses. Next, we introduce a new technique to add additional constraints between the masses of new partic...

  17. Relationship between serum prostate-specific antigen levels and body mass index in Beijing men over 50 years of age%北京市社区中老年男性体重指数和前列腺特异性抗原相关性的多中心研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王义; 王增武; 那彦群; 周哲; 田野; 邵强; 陈山; 洪宝发; 张祥华; 任向红; 孙文学

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). Methods A cross-sectional study was performed at community of Beijing in men over 50 years old. Height, weight and PSA (beth serum TPSA and FPSA) were assessed in 1573 men. According to the redefined World Health Organization (WHO) criterion for Asia Pacific Region, BMI was categorized as light weight (BMI0.1).结论 BMI影响血清PSA结果,BMI和PSA呈负相关.在前列腺癌诊断时,应当考虑BMI对PSA的影响.

  18. The Party-Mass Work in the Internet Age:An Analysis Based on the Change of Information Power Relationships%互联网时代的党群工作--基于信息权力关系变化的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛小荣

    2016-01-01

    互联网时代不仅在物质经济发展上表现出以“互联网+”为主要特征的经济发展新趋向,更是在社会精神生活上日益表现出以开放、平等、自由为主要内涵的互联网式的思维取向、行动准则和社会认同。这一系列深刻变化对传统的党群关系以及党的群众工作能力提出了新挑战、新要求。因此,基于互联网时代信息权力体系的重建以及党群关系的结构性变化,提高党的群众工作能力必须以群众需求为目标牵引,树立积极服务的政治意识,充分运用开放、平等、直接、泛在的互联网思维开展群众工作。%The Internet age is characterized not only by the “Internet Plus”new trend of economic devel-opment,but also by the Internet thinking mode,behavioral norms and social identification of openness, equality and liberty in respect of social spiritual life.This series of in—depth changes brings new chal-lenges and requirements to the traditional Party—mass relationships and the Party’s abilities in the mass work.Therefore,to improve the Party’s abilities in the mass work based on the reconstruction of information power system and the structural change of the Party—mass relationship in the Internet age,we must aim at the demands of the mass,establish the political consciousness of active service,and carry out the mass work by sufficiently applying the Internet thinking of openness,equality,directness, and extensiveness.

  19. Overall mass-transfer coefficients in non-linear chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen; Hansen, Ernst

    1998-01-01

    In case of mass transfer where concentration differences in both phases must be taken into account, one may define an over-all mass-transfer coefficient basd on the apparent over-all concentration difference. If the equilibrium relationship is linear, i.e. in cases where a Henry´s law relationship...... can be applied, the over-all mass-transfer coefficient will be concentration independent. However, in mass-transfer operations, a linear equilibrium relationship is in most cases not a valid approximation wherefore the over-all mass-transfer coefficient becomes strongly concentration dependent...... as shown in this paper. In this case one has to discard the use of over-all mass-transfer coefficients and calculate the rate of mass transfer from the two film theory using the appropriate non-linear relationship to calculate the equilibrium ratio at the interface between the two films....

  20. Anthropometric parameters: weight height, body mass index and mammary volume in relationship with the mammographic pattern; Parametros antropmetricos: peso, talla, indice de masa corporal y volumen mamario, en relacion con el patron mamografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Candela, V.; Busto, C.; Avila, R.; Marrero, M. G.; Liminana, J. M.; Orengo, J. C. [Hospital Universitario Maternoinfantil de Canarias. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    A prospective study to attempt to relate the anthropometric parameters of height, weight, body mass index as well as age with the mammographic patterns obtained for the patients and obtain an anthropometric profile was carried out. The study was performed in 1.000 women who underwent a mammography in cranial-caudal and medial lateral oblique projection of both breasts, independently of whether they were screened or diagnosed. Prior to the performance of the mammography, weight and height were obtained, and this was also performed by the same technicians, and the patient were asked their bra size to deduce breast volume. With the weight, the body mass index of Quetelet was calculated (weight [kg]/height''2 (ml)). After reading the mammography, the patient was assigned to one of the four mammographic patterns considered in the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) established by the ACR (American College of Radiology): type I (fat). type II (disperse fibroglandular densities), type III (fibroglandular densities distributed heterogeneously), type 4 (dense). The results were introduced into a computer database and the SPSS 8.0 statistical program was applied, using the statistical model of multivariant logistic regression. In women under 40 years, with normal weight, the dense breast pattern accounted for 67.8% and as the body mass index (BMI) increased, this pattern decreased to 25.1%. The fat pattern is 20% and as the BMI increases, this increased to 80%. In 40-60 year old women with normal weight, the dense pattern accounts for 44% and decreases to 20.9% in the grades II, III and IV obese. The fat pattern is 11.1% and increases to 53.7% in the grade II, III and IV obese. In women over 60 with normal, the dense pattern accounts for 19.3% and and decreases to 13% in the grade III obese. The fat pattern is 5.3% and increases to 20.2% in the grade iii of obesity. As age increases, the probability of presenting a mammographic pattern with a fat

  1. Relationship between the diameter of great saphenous vein and body mass index Relação entre o diâmetro da veia safena magna e o índice de massa corporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia C. Seidel

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study has been designed to correlate the diameter of the greater saphenous vein in different levels of the lower limbs with the body mass index of each individual to determine a possible relation between them. METHODS: Fifty-two lower limbs in 26 volunteers (six males and 20 females without a chronic venous disease record, aged 21-68 were evaluated. Prior to color-flow duplex scanning the body mass index was defined. The deep and superficial venous systems and perforator veins were assessed as described in the literature. The diameter of the greater saphenous vein was measured with ultrasound longitudinal imaging in seven different levels. For the statistical analysis, Student t test for paired data and Spearman test were used. RESULTS: The difference observed in saphenous venous in the second and third levels when compared to the lower right and left limbs was not considered significant and a single group was formed to correlate with body mass index. The correlation was considered statistically irrelevant. CONCLUSION: By correlating the diameters of the greater saphenous vein with the body mass index of each individual it was noted that the relation between them is not significant, therefore it can be assumed that tall thin individuals can have greater saphenous vein with similar diameter as short fat individuals.OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve o objetivo de comparar o diâmetro da veia safena magna em diferentes níveis dos membros inferiores e o índice de massa corporal dos sujeitos para determinar uma possível relação entre esses fatores. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta e dois membros inferiores de 26 voluntários (seis homens e 20 mulheres sem registro de doença venosa crônica, com idades entre 21 e 68 anos, foram avaliados. O índice de massa corporal foi definido antes do eco-Doppler colorido. Os sistemas venosos superficial e profundo e as veias perfurantes foram avaliados de acordo com a literatura. O diâmetro da veia safena

  2. Relationship between serum testosterone, body mass index and prostate cancer%血清睾酮及体重指数与前列腺癌关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭川渡; 范治璐

    2012-01-01

    [目的]分析血清睾酮(serum testosterone,T)水平、体重指数(body mass index,BMI)与前列腺穿刺结果及前列腺癌Gleason评分之间的关系,探索它们之间可能存在的内在联系.[方法]筛选出2008年8月—2012年3月间行前列腺13针穿刺并符合本研究标准的患者共56例.根据患者的体重和身高计算出体重指数、血清睾酮与体重指数的比值(T/BMI).根据病理检查结果将研究对象分为非前列腺癌和前列腺癌两组,再根据Gleason评分将前列腺癌患者分为两组(Gleason≤7组和Gleason≥7组).分析T、BMI及T/BMI与前列腺穿刺结果、前列腺癌Gleason评分之间的相关性.[结果]56例患者的年龄与血清睾酮水平之间无显著相关性(r=-0.162,P=0.232).前列腺癌和非前列腺癌两组间,前列腺癌组的血清睾酮水平较低而体重指数较高(P<0.05),两组间T/BMI值比较差异有显著性意义(P<0.05).将26例前列腺癌患者按Gleason评分分组,Gleason≥7组的患者血清睾酮水平较低(P<0.05),两组间的体重指数与T/BMI比较差异无显著意义(P>0.05).[结论]T、BMI和T/BMI可与血清PSA水平、影像学检查、直肠指诊等检查结果结合起来,为诊断前列腺癌、判断预后及指导治疗提供依据.%To investigate the association between serum testosterone, body mass index and prostate cancer. [Methods] From August, 2008 to March, 2012, 56 cases who firstly underwent prostate needle biopsy in the Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University. The 56 cases were stratified into two groups by pathological results. The prostate cancer patients were divided into two groups by Gleason score. Variables analyzed included serum testosterone (T) , body mass index (BMI) , T/BMI, pathological results, and Gleason score. [Results] There was no significant correlation between serum testosterone and age ( r = - 0. 162, P = 0. 232) . The serum testosterone levels of cancer patients were lower than non -cancer

  3. Is Fundamental Particle Mass 4-pi Quantized?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone R. A. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Standard Model lacks an explanation for the specific mass values of the fundamental particles. This is to report that a single spin quantized mass formula can produce the masses of the proton, the $W$, and the three electron generations. The $4pi$ mass quantization pattern limits the electron generations to three, while the particle's generational property is one of the components of the proposed intra-particle quantization process. Although the developed relationships are presently phenomenological, so was Bohr's atomic quantization proposal that lead to quantum mechanics.

  4. Is Fundamental Particle Mass 4π Quantized?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone R. A. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Standard Model lacks an explanation for the specific mass values of the fundamen- tal particles. This is to report that a single spin quantized mass formula can produce the masses of the proton, the W , and the three electron generations. The 4 mass quanti- zation pattern limits the electron generations to three, while the particle’s generational property is one of the components of the proposed intra-particle quantization process. Although the developed relationships are presently phenomenological, so was Bohr’s atomic quantization proposal that lead to quantum mechanics.

  5. Investigation of relationship between body mass index and primary osteoarthritis%体重指数与原发性骨关节炎相关性的临床探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓天琼; 张怡五; 王晓勇; 杨星华; 蒲渝; 陈果; 任先军

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究体重指数(body mass index,BMI)与原发性骨关节炎(primary osteoarthrosis,POA)间是否存在某种关联.方法:选择90例原发性骨关节炎患者作为POA组,分别计算出其体重指数,随机选择健康的体重指数低于25的自愿者90例为对照组,分析体重指数与原发性骨关节炎是否存在某种相关性.结果:大部分原发性骨关节炎患者的体重指数大于25.结论: 体重指数大于25可能与原发性骨关节炎具有一定内在联系.

  6. Weight stigma in existing romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Alice D; Latner, Janet D

    2009-01-01

    Associations between body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) and relationship quality and other partner/relationship perceptions were investigated in 57 dating or married couples. Heavier women had lower quality relationships, which they predicted were more likely to end. They partnered with less desirable men and thought their partners would rate them as less warm/trustworthy. Heavier women were judged by their male partners as lower in attractiveness/vitality and as poorer matches to their partners' attractiveness ideals. In contrast, men's BMI was generally not associated with relationship functioning. These findings point to the potential mechanisms that may contribute to heavier women's relationship difficulties.

  7. 老年体重指数与血压、脂肪肝、血脂的相关性研究%The relationship between body mass index and blood pressure,fatty liver and blood lipid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李厚隽

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究并且分析老年人群体重指数和血脂、血压与脂肪肝的有关性。方法选择2015年期间本团队对所管辖区实行健康体检的60岁以上老年人患者进行研究,根据体重指数把132例患者分成A、B、C三组,每组44例。观察并对比测量后三组患者血脂的各指标值、血压值和发生脂肪肝的几率。结果 A组患者血脂的指标明显要比C、B两组低(p<0.05);C组患者除了TC(总胆固醇)之外,TG(甘油三酯)和 LDL(低密度的脂蛋白)均比 B 组高(p <0.05);C 组患者血压的水平明显比 A、B 两组高(p<0.05);但三组在发生脂肪肝的几率上,各两组之间的差异在统计学上没有意义(p>0.05)。结论老年患者体重的指数是形成脂肪肝、高血压和高血脂重要的诱因,所以在临床上需要对其实行健康宣教,用以掌控肥胖。%Objective To study and analyze the relative characteristics of body mass index,blood fat,blood pressure and fat y liver in the elderly.Methods the elderly patients who were selected for health examination in our hospital during the period of 2014 were studied.According to the body mass index,132 patients were divided into three groups,A,B,and C,44 cases in each group.Observed and compared the three groups of patients with blood lipid index values,blood pressure and the incidence of fat y liver.Results indicators of blood lipid in group A were significantly lower than C and B group(P0.05).Conclusion the index of body weight in old patients is an important inducement of fat y liver,hypertension and hyperlipidemia,so it is necessary to carry out health education to control obesity.

  8. Study on relationship between body mass index and waist circumference to slow coronary flow%冠状动脉慢血流与体质指数相关性的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付清海; 魏敦宏; 常快乐; 史锋庆

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨体质指数(BMI)和腰围(WC)与冠状动脉慢血流(SCF)之间的相关性。方法:入选左室射血功能正常,经冠状动脉造影证实矫正的TIMI血流帧计数(CTFC)>27的CSF患者及同期经冠脉造影显示冠脉血流正常者为研究对象,其中CSF组92例,正常血流组92例,所有入选者常规测量身高、腰围、体重,计算BMI。分析BMI、腰围与CTFC帧计数的关系。结果:两组入选者基线资料相当CSF组患者腰围为(92.9±12.1)cm,BMI为(30.9±5.8)kg/m2,正常血流组腰围为(80.3±8.7)cm,BMI为(26.2±4.3)kg/m2,CSF组WC和BMI均明显高于正常血流组,两组比较差异有显著统计学意义,(P<0.01);BMI及WC与CSF多因素logistic回归分析提示, WC>85cm组患病危险OR及95%CI为1.628(1.425~1.859, P<0.05);BMI≥28kg/m2对CSF的患病危险OR及95%CI为3.710(3.148~4.371, P<0.05)。结论:BMI及WC与CSF相关,BMI及WC增高是冠状动脉慢血流的危险因素。%In the present study , we sought to investigate whether waist circumference (WC)levels and body mass index [BMI] are related in patients with isolated CSF compared to normal subjects . Coronary slow flow (CSF) phenomenon is defined as delayed coronary opacification in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease . Methods:The consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography(CAG) were identified . Those with normal left ventricular ejection fraction and normal coronary arteries were included in the study (n =184). TIMI frame counts were calculated , and data on comorbidities , and waist circumference , BMI were collected . CSF was defined as corrected TIMI frame count (CTFC)>27 . Results:There were no significant differences in general date between two groups , subjects with CSF were more obese(body mass index[BMI](30 . 9 ± 5 . 8)vs . (26 . 2 ± 4.3)kg/m2, P=0.003) and had high WC levels(93.9±12.1)vs.(80.3±8.7)cm,P=0

  9. The Core Mass Growth and Stellar Lifetime of Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kalirai, Jason S; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    We establish new constraints on the intermediate-mass range of the initial-final mass relation by studying white dwarfs in four young star clusters, and apply the results to study the evolution of stars on the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB). We show that the stellar core mass on the AGB grows rapidly from 10% to 30% for stars with $M_{\\rm initial}$ = 1.6 to 2.0 $M_\\odot$. At larger masses, the core-mass growth decreases steadily to $\\sim$10% at $M_{\\rm initial}$ = 3.4 $M_\\odot$. These observations are in excellent agreement with predictions from the latest TP-AGB evolutionary models in Marigo et al. (2013). We also compare to models with varying efficiencies of the third dredge-up and mass loss, and demonstrate that the process governing the growth of the core is largely the stellar wind, while the third dredge-up plays a secondary, but non-negligible role. Based on the new white dwarf measurements, we perform an exploratory calibration of the most popular mass-loss prescriptions in the li...

  10. Central Mass Concentration and Bar Dissolution in Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Das, M; Vogel, S N; Regan, M W; Sheth, K; Harris, A I; Jefferys, W H; Das, Mousumi; Teuben, Peter J.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Regan, Michael W.; Sheth, Kartik; Harris, Andrew I.; Jefferys, William H.

    2003-01-01

    We use data from the BIMA Survey of Nearby Galaxies (SONG) to investigate the relationship between ellipticity and central mass concentration in barred spirals. Existing simulations predict that bar ellipticity decreases as inflowing mass driven by the bar accumulates in the central regions, ultimately destroying the bar. Using the ratio of the bulge mass to the mass within the bar radius as an estimate of the central mass concentration, we obtain dynamical mass estimates from SONG CO 1-0 rotation curve data. We find an inverse correlation between bar ellipticity and central mass concentration, consistent with simulations of bar dissolution.

  11. Mass Customization Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Gerhard

    Topics of the IMCM’08 & PETO’08 and this book are: Mass customization in service, mass customizing financial services, mass customization in supply networks, implementation issues in logistics, product life cycle and mass customization. The research field of mass customization is more than 15 years...

  12. Body mass index in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones among 1,558 Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Andersson, Anne-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2004-01-01

    To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and semen quality among young men from the general population.......To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and semen quality among young men from the general population....

  13. Simultaneous determination of 18 D-amino acids in rat plasma by an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method: application to explore the potential relationship between Alzheimer's disease and D-amino acid level alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yuping; Li, Xiaoyan; Guo, Xingjie; Cui, Yan

    2016-01-01

    D-Amino acids are increasingly being recognized as important signaling molecules, and abnormal levels of D-amino acids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. To evaluate the potential relationship between Alzheimer's disease and D-amino acids, a simple, sensitive, and reliable UPLC-MS/MS method with pre-column derivatization was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of 18 D-amino acids in rat plasma. The analytes were extracted from plasma samples by a protein precipitation procedure, and then derivatized with (S)-N-(4-nitrophenoxycarbonyl) phenylalanine methoxyethyl ester [(S)-NIFE]. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile containing 8 mM ammonium hydrogen carbonate at a flow rate of 0.6 mL min(-1). The analytes were detected by electrospray ionization in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring modes. Under the optimum experimental conditions, all the linear regressions were acquired with r > 0.9932. The limits of quantitation of all derivatized D-amino acids were within 0.05-40.0 ng mL(-1) in rat plasma. The intra- and inter-day precisions, expressed as percentage relative standard deviations (%RSD), were within the range of 12.3 and 10.1%, respectively. The recoveries for all the analytes were observed over the range of 82.8-100.5% with RSD values less than 12.5%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of the 18 D-amino acids in plasma from Alzheimer's disease rats and age-matched normal controls. Results showed that the concentrations of D-serine, D-aspartate, D-alanine, D-leucine, and D-proline in Alzheimer's disease rat plasma were significantly decreased compared with those in normal controls, while D-phenylalanine levels increased. It was revealed that some of these D-amino acids would be potential diagnostic biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Current status of physical activities among preschool children and relationship of activity type with bone mass%学龄前儿童体力活动状况调查及其与骨量的回归分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琚; 吴方银; 曾果; 张丽; 曾乔颖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate physical activities of preschool children by gender and to explore the effects of activity type on bone indexes.Methods During 2009 and 2010,397 preschool children of 3-5 years old were randomly selected from 4 kindergartens in Chengdu Province of China.Ultrasound bone analyzer was used to assess children's bone mass.A physical activity questionnaire was completed by parents to evaluate physical activities at leisure time.Student's t test and least square regression were used for data analysis.Results Concerning activity types,boys spent more leisure time on running and Wushu than girls did (t values were 1.94 and 2.84,respectively ; both P < 0.05).However,girls spent more time on dancing (0.78 h),jumping rope (0.08 h) and manual labour (0.22 h) each day (t values were-9.50,-3.43 and-1.92,respectively; all P < 0.05).The weekly total exercise time and energy consumption per unit of body weight of girls vs.boys were 7.29 vs.6.51 h and 127.57 vs.113.85 kJ (t values were 2.63 and 2.04,respectively ; both P < 0.05).About per day time on sleeping and per week time on watching television,there were no significant difference between boys and girls (t =0.180,0.520;P >0.05).But boys spent more time on electronic game and computer than girls (t =0.760,2.510;P < 0.05).The normalized correlation coefficient for bone mass and moderate physical activities or jumping was 0.184 and 0.275,respectively (both P < 0.05).Conclusions Our data suggest that preschool children's bone volume may be positively correlated with moderate physical activities and jumping activities.Introducing some moderate physical activities or activity appliance,toys and playing fields as well as increasing professional training might be helpful.%目的 调查学龄前儿童体力活动状况及其性别差异,探索各种不同运动类型对骨骼健康指标的影响.方法 于2009至2010年期间在成都市不同城区采用典型抽样方法抽取4所

  15. The local mass density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeder, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    An improved mass-luminosity relation for faint main-sequence stars derived from recently revised masses for some faint double stars is presented. The total local mass density is increased to nearly 0.2 solar masses per cu pc. This estimate is as large as the mass density required by Oort's (1965) dynamical analysis of stellar motions perpendicular to the galactic plane if the mass is concentrated in a narrow layer.

  16. Retrospective cohort study of relationship between pubertal growth spurt and body mass index%围青春期体脂与青春发动时相关系的回顾性队列研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珊; 史慧静; 杨鞭; 张越

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine peri-pubertal body mass index ( BMI) in relation to pubertal timing, as asseased by age at onset of pubertal growth spurt ( AOGS) and at peak height velocity ( APHV ), among children and adolescents. Methods A cluster sample of 329 nine-grade students was selected from 3 schools in Shanghai. For each subject, annual measurements of height and weight from grade one to grade nine were obtained from school health record. Age at OGS and PHV, criterion for pubertal timing, were calculated by using the cubic spline fit function. Results Advanced pubertal growth spurt was estimated by using P67 of peak height velocity of pubertal growth. BMI -Z score at pre-puberty, early puberty,and middle/late puberty were analyzed in relation to pubertal timing. The increments of BMI - Z score during pre-puberty to early puberty and during early to middle/late puberty were compared between advanced and non-advanced pubertal timing groups. Results In both of girls and boys, advanced growth spurt was associated with higher BMI -Z scores in pre-puberty, early puberty and middle/late puberty. Advanced growth spurt was significantly associated with greater increment of BMI -Z scores during pre-puberty to early puberty, which is not found in boys. Conclusion Higher level of BMI in pre-puberty and greater increments of BMI - Z score during pre-puberty to early puberty may predict advance growth spurt in adolescence as well as adulthood.%目的 研究不同青春发动时相的儿童青少年在围青春期的体脂水平及增长模式,为青春发动机制的研究和肥胖防控工作提供依据.方法 整群选择上海市3所学校的329名九年级学生,回溯一~九年级时的身高和体重体检记录,用Cubic Spline Fit函数拟合得到身高突增启动年龄和身高突增高峰年龄,并以此为青春发动时相界定的依据,分析围青春期不同阶段体质量指数(BMI)-Z值和BMI-Z增加值与青春发动时相的关系.结果 女生青春发

  17. Digital Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledborg Hansen, Richard

    -­‐Jones, 2011) for increases in effectiveness and efficiency we indiscriminately embrace digital communication and digitized information dissemination with enthusiasm – at the risk of ignoring the potentially dark side of technology. However, technology also holds a promise for better understanding precisely...... of residual deposits from technology in organizations and its effect on individuals ability to connect to one another. Based on the case study the paper describes indications and suggests potential implication hereof. Given the inherent enhancement possibilities of technology our expectation for entertainment......-­rich information and highly interesting communication are sky-­high and rising. With a continuous increase in digitized communication follows a decrease in face-­to-­face encounters and our ability to engage in inter-­personal relationships are suffering for it (Davis, 2013). The behavior described in this paper...

  18. Messy Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    “The common good” is a contested concept both presently and historically. The contestation takes place both through definitions and concrete practices of gift-giving at the messy and blurred intersection between state, marked and civil society. From the Danish constitution of 1849 until today......-giving as a continuous and negotiated process between actors whose actions and utterances have implications for the relationships between state, market and civil society. The paper first outlines a theoretical and methodological approach that connects ANT and microhistory with conceptual history and focuses on how...... to trace the networks of concepts and practices of the “common good” in a historical perspective. Second, it presents an empirical analysis of how a corporate philanthropic foundation, the Egmont Foundation from Denmark, through concrete gift-giving practices and concepts plays an important role in shaping...

  19. Relationship between pre-pregnant body mass index and pregnancy growth with maternal and neonatal outcomes%孕前体质量指数及孕期增长与母婴结局的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈露露; 刘杰; 康喻; 刘军; 何素芬

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨孕妇孕前体质量指数(BM I)及孕期BM I增长对母婴结局的影响。方法随机选取2011年度在重庆市东南医院(原西郊医院)建册、正规产检、住院分娩的孕妇250例,按孕前BM I分为3组(消瘦组、适宜组、肥胖组),比较各组的剖宫产、巨大儿、低体质量儿、产后出血、妊娠期糖尿病、妊娠期高血压、胎儿窘迫、新生儿窒息及产褥感染的发生率。另外,根据孕期BMI增幅(△BMI)的不同,将所有孕妇重新分为3组(不足组、适宜组、过多组),再比较各组不同的母婴结局。结果肥胖组的剖宫产率、巨大儿出生率、妊娠期糖尿病及妊娠期高血压的发生率均明显高于消瘦组、适宜组(P<0.05),消瘦组的低体质量儿发生率均明显高于适宜组、肥胖组(P<0.05);△BMI过多组的剖宫产率、巨大儿出生率、妊娠期糖尿病及妊娠期高血压疾病的出生率均明显高于不足组、适宜组(P<0.05),△BMI不足组的低体质量儿出生率明显高于适宜组、过多组(P<0.05)。结论孕前BMI超标及孕期BM I增长过多的孕妇,其母婴结局令人担忧。孕前BM I及孕期BM I增长的快慢和多少是监测母婴并发症的重要指标之一。%Objective To explore the effects of the pre-pregnant body mass index(BMI) and the pregnancy growth on the mater-nal and neonatal outcomes .Methods 250 pregnant women with the built file ,regular antenatal inspection and hospital delivery in our hospital during 2011 were selected and divided into the emaciation group ,the appropriate group and the obesity group according to the pre-pregnant BMI .The occurrence rates of cesarean section ,fetal macrosomia ,low birth weight ,postpartum hemorrhage ,ges-tational diabetes ,gestational hypertension disease ,fetal distress ,neonatal asphyxia and puerperal infection were compared among the various groups .In addition

  20. Mass Function of Low Mass Dark Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Yahagi, H; Yoshii, Y; Yahagi, Hideki; Nagashima, Masahiro; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2004-01-01

    The mass function of dark halos in a Lambda-dominated cold dark matter (LambdaCDM) universe is investigated. 529 output files from five runs of N-body simulations are analyzed using the friends-of-friends cluster finding algorithm. All the runs use 512^3 particles in the box size of 35 h^{-1}Mpc to 140 h^{-1}Mpc. Mass of particles for 35 h^{-1} Mpc runs is 2.67 times 10^7 h^{-1} M_{solar}. Because of the high mass resolution of our simulations, the multiplicity function in the low-mass range, where the mass is well below the characteristic mass and $\

  1. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2007-12-04

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  2. Measuring Neutron Star Mass and Radius with Three Mass-Radius Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, C M; Kojima, Y; Chang, H K; Xu, R X; Li, X D; Zhang, B; Kiziltan, B

    2006-01-01

    We propose to determine the mass and the radius of a neutron star (NS) using three measurable mass-radius relationships, namely the ``apparent'' radius inferred from neutron star thermal emission, the gravitational redshift inferred from the absorption lines, as well as the averaged stellar mass density inferred from the orbital Keplerian frequency derived from the kilohertz quasi periodic oscillation (kHz QPO) data. We apply the method to constrain the NS mass and the radius of the X-ray sources, 1E 1207.4-5209, Aql X-1 and EXO 0748-676.

  3. Heavy quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  4. Relationship between

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Lide

    2001-01-01

    [1]Craig, H., Isotopic variations in meteoric waters, Science, 1961,133: 17020703.[2]Dansgaard, W., Stable isotope in precipitation, Tellus, 1964, 14(4): 436-468.[3]Merlivat, L., Jouzel, J., Global climate interpretation of the deuterium-oxygen 18 relationship for precipitation, J. Geophys.Res.. 1979, 84: 5029-5033.[4]Jouzel, J., Merlivat, L., Deuterium and oxygen-18 in precipitation: modeling of the isotope effects during snow formation.J. Geophys. Res., 1984, 89(D7): 11749-11757.[5]Sonntag, C., Klitzsch, E., Lohnert, E. P. et al., Palaeoclimatic information from deuterium and oxygen-18 in Carbon- 14-dated North Saharan groundwaters, in Isotope Hydrology, IAEA,Vienna, 1979, 569-581.[6]Armengaud, A., Koster, R. D., Jouzel, J. et al., Deuterium excess in Greenland snow: analysis with simple and complex models, J. Geophys. Res., 1998, 103(D8): 8947-8953.[7]Jouzel, J., Merlivat, L., Lorius, C., Deuterium excess in an East Antarctic ice core suggests higher relative humidity at the oceanic surface during the last glacial maximum, Nature, 1982, 299 (5885): 688-691.[8]Qin Dahe, Ren Jiawen, Wang Wenti, et al., Distribution of δD in 25 cm surface snow across the Antarctic, Science in China, Ser. B, 1992,22(7): 768-776.[9]Yao Tandong, Ding Liangfu, Pu Jianchen et al., Characteristic of δ 18O in snow and its relation with moisture sources in Tanggula Mountains, Tibetan Plateau, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 1991, (20): 1570-1573.[10]Zhang Xinping, Shi Yafeng, Yao Tandong, Variational features of precipitation, δ 18O in Northeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.Science in China, Ser. D, 1995, 38(7): 854-864.[11]Zhang Xinping, Yao Tandong, Relations between weather systems affecting Tibetan Plateau and oxygen isotope in precipitation, Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology (in Chinese), 1995, 17(2): 125-131.[12]Tian Lide, Yao Tandong, Yang Zhihong, δ18O in precipitation and moisture sources upon the Tibetan Plateau, Cryosphere

  5. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2013-01-29

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  6. Alienation, Mass Society and Mass Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Hari N.

    This monograph examines the nature of alienation in mass society and mass culture. Conceptually based on the "Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft" paradigm of sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, discussion traces the concept of alienation as it appears in the philosophies of Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and others. Dwight Macdonald's "A Theory of Mass…

  7. Mass-dependent evolution of the relation between supermassive black hole mass and host spheroid mass since z ~ 1

    CERN Document Server

    Kisaka, Shota

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of supermassive black hole mass (M_BH) and the host spheroid mass (M_sph) in order to track the history of the M_BH-M_sph relationship. The typical mass increase of M_BH is calculated by a continuity equation and accretion history, which is estimated from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity function. The increase in M_sph is also calculated by using a continuity equation and a star formation model, which uses observational data for the formation rate and stellar mass function. We find that the black hole to spheroid mass ratio is expected to be substantially unchanged since z~1.2 for high mass objects (M_BH>10^8.5M_SUN and M_sph>10^11.3M_SUN). In the same redshift range, the spheroid mass is found to increase more rapidly than the black hole mass if M_sph>10^11M_SUN. The proposed mass-dependent model is consistent with the current available observational data in the M_BH-M_sph diagram.

  8. The Galactic disk mass-budget I. stellar mass-function and density

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we use the general theory worked out within the past few years for the structure and the evolution of low-mass stars to derive the stellar mass-function in the Galactic disk down to the vicinity of the hydrogen-burning limit, from the observed nearby luminosity functions. The accuracy of the mass-magnitude relationships derived from the afore-mentioned theory is examined by comparison with recent, accurate observational relationships in the M-dwarf domain. The mass function is shown to flatten out below $\\sim 1 \\msol$ but to keep rising down to the bottom of the main sequence. Combining the present determination below 1 $\\msol$ and Scalo's (1986) mass function for larger masses, we show that the mass function is well described over the entire stellar mass range, from $\\sim 100 \\msol$ to $\\sim 0.1 \\msol$, by three functional forms, namely a two-segment power-law, a log-normal form or an exponential form, all normalized to the Hipparcos sample at 0.8 $\\msol$. Integration of this mass function yie...

  9. Relationships between body mass index, cardiovascular mortality, and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudina, Alexandra; Cooney, Marie Therese; Bacquer, Dirk De

    2011-01-01

    Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the biggest global cause of death, CVD mortality is falling in developed countries. There is concern that this trend may be offset by increasing levels of obesity.......Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the biggest global cause of death, CVD mortality is falling in developed countries. There is concern that this trend may be offset by increasing levels of obesity....

  10. Nig. J. Physiol. Sci. The relationship between body mass index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    and monitoring programs such as: mortality and morbidity studies ... overweight, obesity and associated factors (Fonseca and Gasper de .... for approved levels of physical activity. It is known .... assessment of body fatness in children and.

  11. Stability of molar relationship after non-extraction Class II malocclusion treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Vaz de Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the stability of molar relationship after non-extraction treatment of Class II malocclusion. METHODS: The sample comprised 39 subjects (16 females, 23 males with initial Class II malocclusion treated with no extractions, using fixed appliances. Mean age at the beginning of treatment was 12.94 years, at the end of treatment was 15.14 years and at post-retention stage was 21.18 years. Mean treatment time was 2.19 years and mean time of post-treatment evaluation was 6.12 years. To verify the influence of the severity of initial Class II molar relationship in stability of molar relationship, the sample was divided into two groups, one presenting a ½-cusp or ¾-cusp Class II molar relationship, and the other with full-cusp Class II molar relationship. In dental casts from initial, final and postretention stages, molar, first and second premolars and canine relationships were measured. Data obtained were analyzed by dependent ANOVA, Tukey and Pearson's correlation tests, as well as independent t test between the two groups divided by severity of initial molar relationship. RESULTS: There was a non-statistically significant 0.12 mm relapse of molar relationship. The initial severity of Class II molar relationship was not correlated to relapse in the post-retention period. When compared, the two groups showed no difference in relapse of molar relationship. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that correction of Class II molar relationship is stable and initial severity does not influence relapse of molar relationship.

  12. Demopsicosi: potere politico e controllo delle masse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Maimone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between political power and mechanisms of control of the masses. The basic idea is to bring out the line of demarcation, subtle but pervasive, that separates a reasonably acceptable notion of political power by a distorted and psychotic vision of the public sphere.

  13. Mass Media Effect on Gender Identity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓越

    2012-01-01

      Under the mass media effect, media both enable and constrain the audience to shape their gender identity. The purpose of this article is to review and consider the role media plays in the process of construction of contemporary gendered identities; especially the relationship among men, masculinity and media

  14. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  15. A dynamical calibration of the mass-luminosity relation at very low stellar masses and young ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Laird M; Lenzen, Rainer; Guirado, Jose C; Nielsen, Eric L; Mamajek, Eric E; Brandner, Wolfgang; Hartung, Markus; Lidman, Chris; Biller, Beth

    2005-01-20

    Mass is the most fundamental parameter of a star, yet it is also one of the most difficult to measure directly. In general, astronomers estimate stellar masses by determining the luminosity and using the 'mass-luminosity' relationship, but this relationship has never been accurately calibrated for young, low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Masses for these low-mass objects are therefore constrained only by theoretical models. A new high-contrast adaptive optics camera enabled the discovery of a young (50 million years) companion only 0.156 arcseconds (2.3 au) from the more luminous (> 120 times brighter) star AB Doradus A. Here we report a dynamical determination of the mass of the newly resolved low-mass companion AB Dor C, whose mass is 0.090 +/- 0.005 solar masses. Given its measured 1-2-micrometre luminosity, we have found that the standard mass-luminosity relations overestimate the near-infrared luminosity of such objects by about a factor of approximately 2.5 at young ages. The young, cool objects hitherto thought to be substellar in mass are therefore about twice as massive, which means that the frequency of brown dwarfs and planetary mass objects in young stellar clusters has been overestimated.

  16. Baryon masses with dynamical twisted mass fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Koutsou, G; Baron, R; Guichon, P; Brinet, M; Carbonell, J; Drach, V; Liu, Z; Pène, O; Urbach, C

    2007-01-01

    We present results on the mass of the nucleon and the $\\Delta$ using two dynamical degenerate twisted mass quarks. The evaluation is performed at four quark masses corresponding to a pion mass in the range of 690-300 MeV on lattices of size 2.1 fm and 2.7 fm. We check for cutoff effects by evaluating these baryon masses on lattices of spatial size 2.1 fm with lattice spacings $a(\\beta=3.9)=0.0855(6)$ fm and $a(\\beta=4.05)=0.0666(6)$ fm, determined from the pion sector and find them to be within our statistical errors. Lattice results are extrapolated to the physical limit using continuum chiral perturbation theory. The nucleon mass at the physical point provides a determination of the lattice spacing. Using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory at ${\\cal O}(p^3)$ we find $a(\\beta=3.9)=0.0879(12)$ fm, with a systematic error due to the chiral extrapolation estimated to be about the same as the statistical error. This value of the lattice spacing is in good agreement with the value determined from the pion se...

  17. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  18. Pangloss: Reconstructing lensing mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Thomas E.; Marshall, Philip J.; Mason, Charlotte

    2015-11-01

    Pangloss reconstructs all the mass within a light cone through the Universe. Understanding complex mass distributions like this is important for accurate time delay lens cosmography, and also for accurate lens magnification estimation. It aspires to use all available data in an attempt to make the best of all mass maps.

  19. The mass action equation in pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenakin, Terry

    2016-01-01

    The mass action equation is the building block from which all models of drug-receptor interaction are built. In the simplest case, the equation predicts a sigmoidal relationship between the amount of drug-receptor complex and the logarithm of the concentration of drug. The form of this function is also the same as most dose-response relationships in pharmacology (such as enzyme inhibition and the protein binding of drugs) but the potency term in dose-response relationships very often differs in meaning from the similar term in the simple mass action relationship. This is because (i) most pharmacological systems are collections of mass action reactions in series and/or in parallel and (ii) the important assumptions in the mass action reaction are violated in complex pharmacological systems. In some systems, the affinity of the receptor R for some ligand A is modified by interaction of the receptor with the allosteric ligand B and concomitantly the affinity of the receptor for ligand B is modified to the same degree. When this occurs, the observed affinity of the ligand A for the receptor will depend on both the concentration of the co-binding allosteric ligand and its nature. The relationships between drug potency in pharmacological models and the equilibrium dissociation constants defined in single mass action reactions are discussed. More detailed knowledge of efficacy has led to new models of drug action that depend on the relative probabilities of different states, and these have taken knowledge of drug-receptor interactions beyond Guldberg and Waage. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. The Cosmological Mass Function

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, P

    1997-01-01

    This thesis aims to review the cosmological mass function problem, both from the theoretical and the observational point of view, and to present a new mass function theory, based on realistic approximations for the dynamics of gravitational collapse. Chapter 1 gives a general introduction on gravitational dynamics in cosmological models. Chapter 2 gives a complete review of the mass function theory. Chapters 3 and 4 present the ``dynamical'' mass function theory, based on truncated Lagrangian dynamics and on the excursion set approach. Chapter 5 reviews the observational state-of-the-art and the main applications of the mass function theories described before. Finally, Chapter 6 gives conclusions and future prospects.

  1. Miniaturised TOF mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, U.; Wurz, P.; Whitby, J.

    2003-04-01

    For the BepiColombo misson of ESA to Mercury, we built a prototype of a miniaturised Time of Flight mass spectrometer with a low mass and low power consumption. Particles will be set free form the surface and ionized by short laser pluses. The mass spectrometer is dedicated to measure the elemental and isotopic composition of almost all elements of Mercurys planetary surface with an adequate dynamique range, mass range and mass resolution. We will present first results of our prototype and future designs.

  2. The Meson Mass System

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzi, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The neglected 35 MeV/c2 particle mass quantization hypothesis has recently been reassessed for all known meson states. The rule is found to be statistically relevant, once the states are grouped by quark composition and JPC, with slightly different mass units for each group. In certain groups the mass unit is spin-dependent. Also the mass units are linearly quantized, with highly structured correlation patterns. The baryon masses are organized along similar lines. These results support an indication that hadrons might be shell-structured.

  3. Origins of Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Newtonian mechanics posited mass as a primary quality of matter, incapable of further elucidation. We now see Newtonian mass as an emergent property. Most of the mass of standard matter, by far, arises dynamically, from back-reaction of the color gluon fields of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The equations for massless particles support extra symmetries - specifically scale, chiral, and gauge symmetries. The consistency of the standard model relies on a high degree of underlying gauge and chiral symmetry, so the observed non-zero masses of many elementary particles ($W$ and $Z$ bosons, quarks, and leptons) requires spontaneous symmetry breaking. Superconductivity is a prototype for spontaneous symmetry breaking and for mass-generation, since photons acquire mass inside superconductors. A conceptually similar but more intricate form of all-pervasive (i.e. cosmic) superconductivity, in the context of the electroweak standard model, gives us a successful, economical account of $W$ and $Z$ boson masses. It also al...

  4. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  5. Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook.

  6. Black Hole Mass Estimates of Radio Selected Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Oshlack, Alicia; Webster, Rachel; Whiting, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    The black hole (BH) mass in the centre of AGN has been estimated for a sample of radio-selected flat-spectrum quasars to investigate the relationship between BH mass and radio properties of quasars. We have used the virial assumption with measurements of the H$\\beta$ FWHM and luminosity to estimate the central BH mass. In contrast to previous studies we find no correlation between BH mass and radio power in these AGN. We find a range in BH mass similar to that seen in radio-quiet quasars from...

  7. Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative Final Scientific/Technical Report Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. L. [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Roelke, Daniel [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Brooks, Bryan [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Grover, James [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-10-11

    A team of Texas AgriLife Research, Baylor University and University of Texas at Arlington researchers studied the biology and ecology of Prymnesium parvum (golden algae) in Texas lakes using a three-fold approach that involved system-wide monitoring, experimentation at the microcosm and mesocosm scales, and mathematical modeling. The following are conclusions, to date, regarding this organism's ecology and potential strategies for mitigation of blooms by this organism. In-lake monitoring revealed that golden algae are present throughout the year, even in lakes where blooms do not occur. Compilation of our field monitoring data with data collected by Texas Parks and Wildlife and Brazos River Authority (a period spanning a decade) revealed that inflow and salinity variables affect bloom formations. Thresholds for algae populations vary per lake, likely due to adaptations to local conditions, and also to variations in lake-basin morphometry, especially the presence of coves that may serve as hydraulic storage zones for P. parvum populations. More specifically, our in-lake monitoring showed that the highly toxic bloom that occurred in Lake Granbury in the winter of 2006/2007 was eliminated by increased river inflow events. The bloom was flushed from the system. The lower salinities that resulted contributed to golden algae not blooming in the following years. However, flushing is not an absolute requirement for bloom termination. Laboratory experiments have shown that growth of golden algae can occur at salinities ~1-2 psu but only when temperatures are also low. This helps to explain why blooms are possible during winter months in Texas lakes. Our in-lake experiments in Lake Whitney and Lake Waco, as well as our laboratory experiments, revealed that cyanobacteria, or some other bacteria capable of producing algicides, were able to prevent golden algae from blooming. Identification of this organism is a high priority as it may be a key to managing golden algae blooms. Our numerical modeling results support the idea that cyanobacteria, through allelopathy, control the timing of golden algae blooms in Lake Granbury. The in-lake experiments in Lake Whitney and Lake Waco also revealed that as golden algae blooms develop, there are natural enemies (a species of rotifer, and a virus) that help slow the population growth. Again, better characterization of these organisms is a high priority as it may be key to managing golden algae blooms. Our laboratory and in-lake experiments and field monitoring have shown that nutrient additions will remove toxicity and prevent golden algae from blooming. In fact, other algae displace the golden algae after nutrient additions. Additions of ammonia are particularly effective, even at low doses (much lower than what is employed in fish hatchery ponds). Application of ammonia in limited areas of lakes, such as in coves, should be explored as a management option. The laboratory experiments and field monitoring also show that the potency of toxins produced by P. parvum is greatly reduced when water pH is lower, closer to neutral levels. Application of mild acid to limited areas of lakes (but not to a level where acidic conditions are created), such as in coves, should be explored as a management option. Finally, our field monitoring and mathematical modeling revealed that flushing/dilution at high enough levels could prevent P. parvum from forming blooms and/or terminate existing blooms. This technique could work using deeper waters within a lake to flush the surface waters of limited areas of the same lakes, such as in coves and should be explored as a management option. In this way, water releases from upstream reservoirs would not be necessary and there would be no addition of nutrients in the lake.

  8. EnergyFit Nevada (formerly known as the Nevada Retrofit Initiative) final report and technical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvill, Anna; Bushman, Kate; Ellsworth, Amy

    2014-06-17

    The EnergyFit Nevada (EFN) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP, and referred to in this document as the EFN program) currently encourages Nevada residents to make whole-house energy-efficient improvements by providing rebates, financing, and access to a network of qualified home improvement contractors. The BBNP funding, consisting of 34 Energy Efficiency Conservation Block Grants (EECBG) and seven State Energy Program (SEP) grants, was awarded for a three-year period to the State of Nevada in 2010 and used for initial program design and implementation. By the end of first quarter in 2014, the program had achieved upgrades in 553 homes, with an average energy reduction of 32% per home. Other achievements included: Completed 893 residential energy audits and installed upgrades in 0.05% of all Nevada single-family homes1 Achieved an overall conversation rate of 38.1%2 7,089,089 kWh of modeled energy savings3 Total annual homeowner energy savings of approximately $525,7523 Efficiency upgrades completed on 1,100,484 square feet of homes3 $139,992 granted in loans to homeowners for energy-efficiency upgrades 29,285 hours of labor and $3,864,272 worth of work conducted by Nevada auditors and contractors4 40 contractors trained in Nevada 37 contractors with Building Performance Institute (BPI) certification in Nevada 19 contractors actively participating in the EFN program in Nevada 1 Calculated using 2012 U.S. Census data reporting 1,182,870 homes in Nevada. 2 Conversion rate through March 31, 2014, for all Nevada Retrofit Initiative (NRI)-funded projects, calculated using the EFN tracking database. 3 OptiMiser energy modeling, based on current utility rates. 4 This is the sum of $3,596,561 in retrofit invoice value and $247,711 in audit invoice value.

  9. Seventh Fleet field training exercise : Fleet Battle Experiment Kilo : fires initiatives final report

    OpenAIRE

    Schacher, G. E.; Pilnick, Steve; Irvine, Nelson; Gallup, Shelley

    2003-01-01

    Fleet Battle Experiment Kilo was conducted during Seventh Fleet exercise Tandem Thrust 03. During the Field Training Exercise phase, testing of Time Sensitive Targets processes using the Joint Fires Network was carried out. This report contains results obtained on contributions made by the Joint Fires Network to Navy Time Sensitive Targeting and experiment lessons learned. NA

  10. Henan Province Aluminum Enterprises Initially Finalized the Transition Path as “Aluminum +X”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In early July,Zhongfu Industrial published a notice,which revealed that it would seek finansing of 5 billion yuan through private placement,in which 3.5 billion yuan is used for investment and construction of Henan Cloud Computing Data Center project,the remaining1.5 billion yuan will be used to pay off interestbearing liability of the listed company.

  11. Seeding Entrepreneurship across Campus: Early Implementation Experiences of the Kauffman Campuses Initiative. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, Lara; Rosenberg, Linda; Kim, Benita

    2006-01-01

    Although entrepreneurship has long been considered a fundamental aspect of American society, its development as an academic field in U.S. colleges and universities is relatively recent and on-campus entrepreneurship programs have been most commonly found in business schools. Because entrepreneurs and innovative ideas can arise from within any…

  12. 超重和肥胖妇女体质量指数、感觉体质量及减肥意愿的关系研究%Relationship study on body mass index, body weight perception and weight loss efforts in overweight and obese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁柳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship among body mass index ( BMI ) , body weight perception, and efforts to lose weight in a public sample of women who were overweight and obese, to examine whether body weight perception plays the mediating role between BMI and weight loss efforts. Methods The sample was 1 739 women who were above 20 years old with the BMI≥23 kg/m2 . Bivariate relationships among variables of interests were assessed. Three separate regressions were used to test the mediating role of body weight perception on the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts. Results BMI and body weight perception were significant correlates with weight loss efforts. BMI was significantly associated with weight perception, but a large proportion of women underestimated their weight. Weight perception partially mediated the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts in women. Conclusions In light of the high prevalence of overweight or obesity and the many health problem sassociated with obesity, women should be awared of the healthy body weight and try to achieve that. Nursing interventions should be considered the body weight perception to effectively motivate overweight and obese women to lose weight as necessary.%目的:评估超重或肥胖妇女的感觉体质量、体质量指数( BMI)和减肥意愿三者之间的关系,确认感觉体质量是否在BMI和减肥意愿之间起中介作用。方法选取2012年5月—2014年5月就诊的符合条件的妇女问卷,对其进行横断面研究。样本中1739名妇女年龄在20岁以上且BMI≥23 kg/m2。分析研究变量之间的双边关系,建立3个独立的回归模型来判别感觉体质量在BMI和减肥意愿之间的中介作用。结果 BMI与感觉体质量均与减肥意愿密切相关。 BMI与感觉体质量也具有相关性,但大多数妇女都低估了她们的体质量。一定程度上感觉体质量能在BMI和减肥意愿之间起中介作用。结论由于超重

  13. The connection between mass loss and nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    van Loon, Jacco Th

    2008-01-01

    I discuss the relationship between mass loss and nucleosynthesis on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). Because of thermal pulses and possibly other mixing processes, products of nucleosynthesis can be brought to the surface of AGB stars, increasingly so as the star becomes more luminous, cooler, and unstable against pulsation of its tenuous mantle. As a result, mass loss is at its most extreme when dredge-up is too. As the high rate of mass loss truncates AGB evolution, it determines the enrichment of interstellar space with the AGB nucleosynthesis products. The changing composition of the stellar atmosphere also affects the mass-loss process, most obviously in the formation of dust grains - which play an important role in driving the wind of AGB stars.

  14. Paranormal belief, schizotypy, and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergovich, Andreas; Willinger, Ulrike; Arendasy, Martin

    2005-06-01

    There are indications that subjects with schizotypal personality have a lower Body Mass Index. Also schizotypal personality is linked to a higher incidence of paranormal belief. In this study we examined whether low Body Mass Index is also linked to paranormal belief. In a pilot study 48 students of psychology (85.4% women) between the ages of 20 and 27 years were administered a questionnaire assessing weight, height, and paranormal belief. Analysis suggested an association between belief in paranormal phenomena and low Body Mass Index. In a follow-up study with 300 subjects and equal sex distribution, the relationship was examined under control of schizotypy. The results for Body Mass Index could not be confirmed; however, paranormal belief was heavily associated with the cognitive-perceptual component of schizotypy.

  15. Mass Distribution in Galaxy Cluster Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, M T; Pulido, F; Nulsen, P E J; Russell, H R; Vantyghem, A N; Edge, A C; Main, R A

    2016-01-01

    Many processes within galaxy clusters, such as those believed to govern the onset of thermally unstable cooling and AGN feedback, are dependent upon local dynamical timescales. However, accurately mapping the mass distribution within individual clusters is challenging, particularly towards cluster centres where the total mass budget has substantial radially-dependent contributions from the stellar, gas, and dark matter components. In this paper we use a small sample of galaxy clusters with deep Chandra observations and good ancillary tracers of their gravitating mass at both large and small radii to develop a method for determining mass profiles that span a wide radial range and extend down into the central galaxy. We also consider potential observational pitfalls in understanding cooling in hot cluster atmospheres, and find tentative evidence for a relationship between the radial extent of cooling X-ray gas and nebular H-alpha emission in cool core clusters. Amongst this small sample we find no support for t...

  16. Mass transfer coefficients in cross-flow ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.B.; Rácz, I.G.; Smolders, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    Usually, in concentration polarization models, the mass transfer coefficient is an unknown parameter. Also, its variation with changing experimental circumstances is in question. In the literature, many relationships can be found to describe the mass transfer coefficient under various conditions, as

  17. Mass transfer coefficients in cross-flow ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.B.; Racz, I.G.; Smolders, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    Usually, in concentration polarization models, the mass transfer coefficient is an unknown parameter. Also, its variation with changing experimental circumstances is in question. In the literature, many relationships can be found to describe the mass transfer coefficient under various conditions, as

  18. Advances in structure elucidation of small molecules using mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehn, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The structural elucidation of small molecules using mass spectrometry plays an important role in modern life sciences and bioanalytical approaches. This review covers different soft and hard ionization techniques and figures of merit for modern mass spectrometers, such as mass resolving power, mass accuracy, isotopic abundance accuracy, accurate mass multiple-stage MS(n) capability, as well as hybrid mass spectrometric and orthogonal chromatographic approaches. The latter part discusses mass spectral data handling strategies, which includes background and noise subtraction, adduct formation and detection, charge state determination, accurate mass measurements, elemental composition determinations, and complex data-dependent setups with ion maps and ion trees. The importance of mass spectral library search algorithms for tandem mass spectra and multiple-stage MS(n) mass spectra as well as mass spectral tree libraries that combine multiple-stage mass spectra are outlined. The successive chapter discusses mass spectral fragmentation pathways, biotransformation reactions and drug metabolism studies, the mass spectral simulation and generation of in silico mass spectra, expert systems for mass spectral interpretation, and the use of computational chemistry to explain gas-phase phenomena. A single chapter discusses data handling for hyphenated approaches including mass spectral deconvolution for clean mass spectra, cheminformatics approaches and structure retention relationships, and retention index predictions for gas and liquid chromatography. The last section reviews the current state of electronic data sharing of mass spectra and discusses the importance of software development for the advancement of structure elucidation of small molecules. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12566-010-0015-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21289855

  19. 孕前体质指数与孕期并发症及妊娠结局的关系分析%Analysis of the relationship between pre-pregnant body mass index and maternal complications and outcome of preg-nancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗丽; 沈伶; 蔡雪佳; 吴宇丹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse the relationship between pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) and maternal compli-cations and outcome of pregnancy. Methods 3 200 pregnant women in our hospital from Mar 2012 to Mar 2015 were divided into four groups according to pre-pregnant BMI, underweight group,normal weight group, overweight