WorldWideScience

Sample records for initial strategy impact

  1. National strategy for suicide prevention in Japan: impact of a national fund on progress of developing systems for suicide prevention and implementing initiatives among local authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Yamauchi, Takashi; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the Cabinet Office released the 'General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy' in 2007 and suggested nine initiatives. In 2009, a national fund was launched to help prefectures (the administrative divisions of Japan) and local authorities implement five categories of suicide-prevention programs. This paper examines the impact of the national fund on the establishment of the systems for suicide prevention and the implementation of these initiatives among local authorities. The present study included 1385 local authorities (79.5%) from all 47 prefectures that responded to the cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Improved suicide-prevention systems and the implementation of nine initiatives in April 2013 were observed among 265 local authorities (19.1%) that implemented 'Training of community service providers' and 'Public awareness campaigns'; 178 local authorities (12.9%) that implemented 'Face-to-face counseling', 'Training of community service providers' and 'Public awareness campaigns'; and 324 local authorities (23.4%) that implemented 'Trauma-informed policies and practices'. There was no significant difference in suicide-prevention systems and the implementation of nine initiatives between 203 local authorities (14.7%) that implemented only 'Public awareness campaigns' and 231 local authorities (16.7%) that did not implement any suicide-prevention programs. The results of our study suggest that the national fund promoted the establishment of community systems for suicide prevention and helped implement initiatives among local authorities. The national suicide-prevention strategy in Japan should explore a standard package of programs to guide community suicide-prevention efforts with a sustained workforce among local authorities. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  2. One carbon cycle: Impacts of model integration, ecosystem process detail, model resolution, and initialization data, on projections of future climate mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; le page, Y.; Patel, P. L.; Chini, L. P.; Sahajpal, R.; Dubayah, R.; Thomson, A. M.; Edmonds, J.; Janetos, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Integrated assessment models (IAMs) simulate the interactions between human and natural systems at a global scale, representing a broad suite of phenomena across the global economy, energy system, land-use, and carbon cycling. Most proposed climate mitigation strategies rely on maintaining or enhancing the terrestrial carbon sink as a substantial contribution to restrain the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, however most IAMs rely on simplified regional representations of terrestrial carbon dynamics. Our research aims to reduce uncertainties associated with forest modeling within integrated assessments, and to quantify the impacts of climate change on forest growth and productivity for integrated assessments of terrestrial carbon management. We developed the new Integrated Ecosystem Demography (iED) to increase terrestrial ecosystem process detail, resolution, and the utilization of remote sensing in integrated assessments. iED brings together state-of-the-art models of human society (GCAM), spatial land-use patterns (GLM) and terrestrial ecosystems (ED) in a fully coupled framework. The major innovative feature of iED is a consistent, process-based representation of ecosystem dynamics and carbon cycle throughout the human, terrestrial, land-use, and atmospheric components. One of the most challenging aspects of ecosystem modeling is to provide accurate initialization of land surface conditions to reflect non-equilibrium conditions, i.e., the actual successional state of the forest. As all plants in ED have an explicit height, it is one of the few ecosystem models that can be initialized directly with vegetation height data. Previous work has demonstrated that ecosystem model resolution and initialization data quality have a large effect on flux predictions at continental scales. Here we use a factorial modeling experiment to quantify the impacts of model integration, process detail, model resolution, and initialization data on projections of

  3. Industry initiatives in impact mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.C.

    1982-08-01

    The author concludes that mitigation is the focus of conflicting opinions regarding responsibility, strategy, and effort. There are no hard, fast, or tried and true rules for company involvement in mitigation efforts. Each mitigation effort must be tailored and negotiated to match the unique characteristics of individual projects and circumstances of specific locales. Companies must assume financial responsibility for the temporary impacts and area needs created by their projects. They must also offer financial and technical assistance to impact areas, not just the host political jurisdiction, when local, state, federal, and special fund sources of revenue or technical assistance are not available or insufficient. But, local, state, and federal governments must also recognize their responsibilities and make adjustments in tax jurisdiction boundaries and disbursement formulas so that impacted areas are properly defined and receive an adequate share of lease, royalty, severance tax, permit fee, special use and service charges, and sales tax payments. Laws need to allow innovative uses of tax pre-payments, housing mortgage bonds, changeable debt and bounding limits, industrial loans with delayed prepayment, and revised revenue assistance formulas. Enabling legislation is required in most states to allow impact areas to negotiate the mitigation efforts. A review of 7 types of mitigation effort is presented: transportation; housing; public utilities; health, public safety and recreation; miscellaneous; and company-community interaction. (PBS)

  4. SP-100 initial startup and restart control strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halfen, F.J.; Wong, K.K.; Switick, D.M.; Shukla, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent Generic Flight System (GFS) updates have necessitated revisions in the initial startup and restart control strategies. The design changes that have had the most impact on the control strategies are the addition of the Auxiliary Cooling and Thaw (ACT) system for preheating the lithium filled components, changes in the reactivity worths of the reflectors and safety-rods such that initial cold criticality is achieved with only a small amount of reflector movement following the withdrawal of the safety-rods, and the removal of the scram function from the reflectors. Revised control and operating strategies have been developed and tested using the SP-100 dynamic simulation model, ARIES-GFS. The change in the total reactivity worths of the reflectors and safety-rods has eliminated the need for the use of fast and slow reflector drive speeds during the initial on-orbit approach to criticality. The relatively fast removal of the safety-rods results in a near-critical condition so that the use of slow moving (single speed) reflector drives does not add significant time to achieve full power for the initial startup. The use of the ACT system (with its NaK trace-lines for preheating and auxiliary cooling) affects the main Thermoelectric Electro-Magnetic (TEM) pump startup and the time after a shutdown before freezing occurs in the main heat transfer systems

  5. Climate geopolitics. Negotiations, strategies, impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemenne, Francois

    2015-01-01

    As countries are not equal in front of the climate change issue (some contribute more than the others, some will be more heavily impacted, some are more dependent on fossil energies, some could be affected by population movements related to the degradation of their environment), and as countries are to adopt measures for a more sustainable development while facing huge geopolitical challenges which affect international negotiations, this book aims at describing and analysing these issues which illustrate serious imbalances between countries. These issues relate to the development of energy policies, to geographical and demographic constraints. The author describes how the climate has become an international political issue, and a field of complex interactions with international relationships. After having recalled the origins of greenhouse gas emissions and their main expected impacts, he analyses the various responsibilities, describes these different impacts, outlines how global warming is basically unfair: the less responsible countries will be more impacted than the responsible ones. He also discusses mechanisms of international cooperation which have been implemented to address this issue: adaptation and mitigation policies, associated negotiations. He notices that the strongest mitigation efforts are, the least necessary adaptation efforts will be. He discusses the issue of financing and necessary financial and technological transfers to help southern countries in reducing their emissions without compromising their development. He highlights the current status of negotiations, their organisation, the present actors and forces, and their main point of tension

  6. Ramakrishna Mission initiative impact study: final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, A.

    2000-07-06

    This report has been prepared by the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It presents the results of the evaluation and impact assessment of solar photovoltaic lighting systems in the region of Sunderbans, West Bengal, that were deployed by a reputable non-governmental organization (Ramakrishna Mission) under the auspices of the INDO-US collaborative project. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the solar photovoltaic systems for their impact on the individual households as well as on the community, to assess the effectiveness of the implementation and financial mechanisms, and to draw a long-term strategy for NREL's activities in Sunderbans based on case studies of similar interventions. Under the project, provision was made to supply 300 domestic lighting systems (DLS) based on 53-Wp module capacity to individual households and a few other systems such as for lighting, medical refrigeration, and pumping water to community centers. For this study, 152 households were surveyed, of which 29 had also been a part of earlier pre- and post-installation surveys, 47 had been a part of the earlier post-installation survey, and 76 were households that were surveyed for the first time. A set of 46, out of the total 152 households, was selected for evaluating the systems for their technical performance with respect to module output, condition of the battery, and daily energy consumption. Of the total 300 modules, 2 had been stolen, 9 out of the total 300 batteries needed to be replaced, and 10 out of the 300 charge controllers were non-functional. The statistics for the surveyed households indicate 32 luminaire-related faults (blackening or flickering of compact fluorescent lights) and 11 other faults related to fuses, switches, etc.

  7. Reduction of initial shock in decadal predictions using a new initialization strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yujun; Wang, Bin; Liu, Mimi; Liu, Li; Yu, Yongqiang; Liu, Juanjuan; Li, Ruizhe; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, Shiming; Huang, Wenyu; Liu, Qun; Wang, Yong; Li, Feifei

    2017-08-01

    A novel full-field initialization strategy based on the dimension-reduced projection four-dimensional variational data assimilation (DRP-4DVar) is proposed to alleviate the well-known initial shock occurring in the early years of decadal predictions. It generates consistent initial conditions, which best fit the monthly mean oceanic analysis data along the coupled model trajectory in 1 month windows. Three indices to measure the initial shock intensity are also proposed. Results indicate that this method does reduce the initial shock in decadal predictions by Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model, Grid-point version 2 (FGOALS-g2) compared with the three-dimensional variational data assimilation-based nudging full-field initialization for the same model and is comparable to or even better than the different initialization strategies for other fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) models. Better hindcasts of global mean surface air temperature anomalies can be obtained than in other FGOALS-g2 experiments. Due to the good model response to external forcing and the reduction of initial shock, higher decadal prediction skill is achieved than in other CMIP5 models.

  8. Impact of Pre-Initiators on PSA in Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochirbat, Chimedtseren [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sok Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Most of nuclear power plants had already conducted PSA work to examine their plant safety for identifying vulnerability and preparing the mitigating strategies for severe accident. However, the PSA for research reactor has been conducted limitedly comparing with nuclear power plants due to lack of awareness and resources. Most of PSA results demonstrated that human failure events (HFEs) take a major role of risk contributor in terms of core damage frequency. HFEs are categorized as the following three types: pre-initiating event interaction (e.g., maintenance of errors, testing errors, calibration errors), initiating event related interactions (e.g., human error causing loss of power, human error causing system trip), and post-initiating event (e.g., all action actuating manual safety system backup of an automatic system). Lack of resources and utilization of research reactor calls a vicious circle in terms of safety degradation. The safety degradation poses the vulnerability of human failure during research reactor utilization process. Typically, evaluation of pre-initiators related to test and maintenance are not taking into account in PSA for research reactors. This paper aims to investigate the impact of pre-initiating events related to test and maintenance activities on PSA results in terms of core damage frequency for a research reactor.

  9. Impact of Pre-Initiators on PSA in Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochirbat, Chimedtseren; Kim, Sok Chul

    2014-01-01

    Most of nuclear power plants had already conducted PSA work to examine their plant safety for identifying vulnerability and preparing the mitigating strategies for severe accident. However, the PSA for research reactor has been conducted limitedly comparing with nuclear power plants due to lack of awareness and resources. Most of PSA results demonstrated that human failure events (HFEs) take a major role of risk contributor in terms of core damage frequency. HFEs are categorized as the following three types: pre-initiating event interaction (e.g., maintenance of errors, testing errors, calibration errors), initiating event related interactions (e.g., human error causing loss of power, human error causing system trip), and post-initiating event (e.g., all action actuating manual safety system backup of an automatic system). Lack of resources and utilization of research reactor calls a vicious circle in terms of safety degradation. The safety degradation poses the vulnerability of human failure during research reactor utilization process. Typically, evaluation of pre-initiators related to test and maintenance are not taking into account in PSA for research reactors. This paper aims to investigate the impact of pre-initiating events related to test and maintenance activities on PSA results in terms of core damage frequency for a research reactor

  10. Impact of Soil Moisture Initialization on Seasonal Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Suarez, Max J.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The potential role of soil moisture initialization in seasonal forecasting is illustrated through ensembles of simulations with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP) model. For each boreal summer during 1997-2001, we generated two 16-member ensembles of 3-month simulations. The first, "AMIP-style" ensemble establishes the degree to which a perfect prediction of SSTs would contribute to the seasonal prediction of precipitation and temperature over continents. The second ensemble is identical to the first, except that the land surface is also initialized with "realistic" soil moisture contents through the continuous prior application (within GCM simulations leading up to the start of the forecast period) of a daily observational precipitation data set and the associated avoidance of model drift through the scaling of all surface prognostic variables. A comparison of the two ensembles shows that soil moisture initialization has a statistically significant impact on summertime precipitation and temperature over only a handful of continental regions. These regions agree, to first order, with regions that satisfy three conditions: (1) a tendency toward large initial soil moisture anomalies, (2) a strong sensitivity of evaporation to soil moisture, and (3) a strong sensitivity of precipitation to evaporation. The degree to which the initialization improves forecasts relative to observations is mixed, reflecting a critical need for the continued development of model parameterizations and data analysis strategies.

  11. Impact of high resolution land surface initialization in Indian summer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The direct impact of high resolution land surface initialization on the forecast bias in a regional climate model in recent years ... surface initialization using a regional climate model. ...... ization of the snow field in a cloud model; J. Clim. Appl.

  12. Cognitive training of self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies in schizophrenia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Synthia; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Available cognitive remediation interventions have a significant but relatively small to moderate impact on episodic memory in schizophrenia. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a brief novel episodic memory training targeting the self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies. To select patients with such deficits, 28 participants with schizophrenia performed our Semantic Encoding Memory Task (SEMT) that provides a measure of self-initiated semantic encoding strategies. This task identified a deficit in 13 participants who were then offered two 60-minute training sessions one week apart. After the training, patients performed an alternate version of the SEMT. The CVLT-II (a standardised measure of semantic encoding strategies) and the BVMT-R (a control spatial memory task) were used to quantify memory pre- and post-training. After the training, participants were significantly better at self-initiating semantic encoding strategies in the SEMT (p = .004) and in the CVLT-II (p = .002). No significant differences were found in the BVMT-R. The current study demonstrates that a brief and specific training in memory strategies can help patients to improve a deficient memory process in schizophrenia. Future studies will need to test this intervention further using a randomised controlled trial, and to explore its functional impact.

  13. Measuring Impact of Stabilization Initiatives Survey Data (MISTI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The raw data from the Measuring Impact of Stabilization Initiatives (MISTI) project is the largest and most comprehensive evaluations of stabilization interventions...

  14. Stakeholder Pressures, Environmental Impact and Managerial Initiatives of SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2015-01-01

    impact was available in Denmark. Consequently, a longitudinal research project was initiated to enlighten the situation. This study investigates environmentally related initiatives taken in response to the perception of stakeholder pressures and the perceived corporate environmental impact. The empirical......Environmental sustainability has become an issue of uttermost importance for business organisations. Therefore, the implementation of corporate environmental initiatives has been vigorously embraced by industry. Two decades ago, no clear picture of industry initiatives to reduce their environmental...... popularity of self-regulation, voluntary initiatives do not tend to be widely adopted by SMEs, stressing a need for a continuing regulation of industry’s behaviour in relation to environmental issues....

  15. 75 FR 75707 - Request for Public Comment on the Draft National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategy for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... Nanotechnology Initiative Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research AGENCY..., Engineering, and Technology Subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council request comments from the public regarding the draft National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Strategy for Nanotechnology...

  16. 76 FR 2428 - Request for Public Comment on the Draft National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategy for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Nanotechnology Initiative Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research AGENCY..., Engineering, and Technology Subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council request comments from the public regarding the draft National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Strategy for Nanotechnology...

  17. Measuring and Analyzing the Scholarly Impact of Experimental Evaluation Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelini, Marco; Ferro, Nicola; Larsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation initiatives have been widely credited with contributing highly to the development and advancement of information access systems, by providing a sustainable platform for conducting the very demanding activity of comparable experimental evaluation in a large scale. Measuring the impact...

  18. Likely social impacts of proposed national-level policy initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piernot, C.A.; Rothweiler, M.A.; Levine, A.; Crews, R.

    1981-03-01

    The results are described of an investigation of likely social effects of enacting nine proposed national-level policy initiatives to accelerate development and use of solar energy. This study is part of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems (TASE) project supported by the US Department of Energy. The report presents general social impact information about the variety of ways in which the American people could be affected by enactment of these initiatives. It identifies the effects of each initiative on individuals, groups, organizations, communities, and society as a whole. In addition, it provides a framework for organizing a myriad of impact information into a set of conceptually exclusive impact categories. It illustrates that social impacts means effects on people as individuals, groups, organizations, and communities as well as on the infrastructure of society. Finally, it demonstrates the importance of specifying an audience of impact with a case example from the residential rental market.

  19. "Initiate-build-operate-transfer"--a strategy for establishing sustainable telemedicine programs in developing countries: initial lessons from the balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Merrell, Ronald C; Doarn, Charles R; Hadeed, George J; Bekteshi, Flamur; Lecaj, Ismet; Boucha, Kathe; Hajdari, Fatmir; Hoxha, Astrit; Koshi, Dashurije; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja; Berisha, Blerim; Novoberdaliu, Kadri; Imeri, Arben; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2009-12-01

    Establishing sustainable telemedicine has become a goal of many developing countries around the world. Yet, despite initiatives from a select few individuals and on occasion from various governments, often these initiatives never mature to become sustainable programs. The introduction of telemedicine and e-learning in Kosova has been a pivotal step in advancing the quality and availability of medical services in a region whose infrastructure and resources have been decimated by wars, neglect, lack of funding, and poor management. The concept and establishment of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has significantly impacted telemedicine and e-health services in the Balkans. The success of the IVeH in Kosova has led to the development of similar programs in other Balkan countries and other developing countries in the hope of modernizing and improving their healthcare infrastructure. A comprehensive, four-pronged strategy, "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), may be a useful approach in establishing telemedicine and e-health educational services in developing countries. The development strategy, IBOT, used by the IVeH to establish and develop telemedicine programs, was discussed. IBOT includes assessment of healthcare needs of each country, the development of a curriculum and education program, the establishment of a nationwide telemedicine network, and the integration of the telemedicine program into the healthcare infrastructure. The endpoint is the transfer of a sustainable telehealth program to the nation involved. By applying IBOT, a sustainable telemedicine program of Kosova has been established as an effective prototype for telemedicine in the Balkans. Once fully matured, the program will be transitioned to the national Ministry of Health, which ensures the sustainability and ownership of the program. Similar programs are being established in Albania, Macedonia, and other countries around the world. The IBOT model has been effective in creating

  20. SP-100 initial startup and restart control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, Frank J.; Wong, Kwok K.; Switick, Dennis M.; Shukla, Jaikaran N.

    Startup control strategies for SP-100 are described. Revised control and operating strategies are discussed which have been developed and tested using the SP-100 dynamic simulation model Aries-GFS (Generic Flight System).

  1. Objectives, Strategies, and Challenges for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Piet; Brent Dixon; David Shropshire; Robert Hill; Roald Wigeland; Erich Schneider; J. D. Smith

    2005-01-01

    This paper will summarize the objectives, strategies, and key chemical separation challenges for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The major objectives are as follows: Waste management--defer the need for a second geologic repository for a century or more, Proliferation resistance--be more resistant than the existing PUREX separation technology or uranium enrichment, Energy sustainability--turn waste management liabilities into energy source assets to ensure that uranium ore resources do not become a constraint on nuclear power, and Systematic, safe, and economic management of the entire fuel cycle. There are four major strategies for the disposal of civilian spent fuel: Once-through--direct disposal of all discharged nuclear fuel, Limited recycle--recycle transuranic elements once and then direct disposal, Continuous recycle--recycle transuranic elements repeatedly, and Sustained recycle--same as continuous except previously discarded depleted uranium is also recycled. The key chemical separation challenges stem from the fact that the components of spent nuclear fuel vary greatly in their influence on achieving program objectives. Most options separate uranium to reduce the weight and volume of waste and the number and cost of waste packages that require geologic disposal. Separated uranium can also be used as reactor fuel. Most options provide means to recycle transuranic (TRU) elements--plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), americium (Am), curium (Cm). Plutonium must be recycled to obtain repository, proliferation, and energy recovery benefits. U.S. non-proliferation policy forbids separation of plutonium by itself; therefore, one or more of the other transuranic elements must be kept with the plutonium; neptunium is considered the easiest option. Recycling neptunium also provides repository benefits. Americium recycling is also required to obtain repository benefits. At the present time, curium recycle provides relatively little benefit; indeed, recycling

  2. Topology-optimized metasurfaces: impact of initial geometric layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianji; Fan, Jonathan A

    2017-08-15

    Topology optimization is a powerful iterative inverse design technique in metasurface engineering and can transform an initial layout into a high-performance device. With this method, devices are optimized within a local design phase space, making the identification of suitable initial geometries essential. In this Letter, we examine the impact of initial geometric layout on the performance of large-angle (75 deg) topology-optimized metagrating deflectors. We find that when conventional metasurface designs based on dielectric nanoposts are used as initial layouts for topology optimization, the final devices have efficiencies around 65%. In contrast, when random initial layouts are used, the final devices have ultra-high efficiencies that can reach 94%. Our numerical experiments suggest that device topologies based on conventional metasurface designs may not be suitable to produce ultra-high-efficiency, large-angle metasurfaces. Rather, initial geometric layouts with non-trivial topologies and shapes are required.

  3. Review of Impact Factors on Decommissioning Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Taesik; Jung, Hyejin; Kim, Younggook [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This article is prepared to factor out decommissioning strategies mostly appropriate to the decommissioning Kori-1 nuclear power plant. Terms used to delineate the lifetime of an authorized facility and of the associated licensing process consists of six core stages such as siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning. The term decommissioning implies the administrative and technical actions taken to allow the removal of some or all of the regulatory controls from a facility except for the part of a disposal facility in which the radioactive waste is emplaced. Whole range of each process of decommissioning should be considered throughout the other five stages. The decommissioning process is typically composed of its planning, conducting actions and terminating the authorization. In order to achieve the successful decommissioning, the impact factor on the strategy should be analyzed and evaluated to optimally apply to Kori-1 project. From my perspective, among eight factor, stakeholder’s consideration and spent fuel management are considered the key elements we have to concentrate on to smoothly go ahead for successful decommissioning of Kori-1.

  4. Top-Management Decision Making and Strategies : An Approach to a Theory of Leadership-Initiated Strategies(General Contribution)

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, 東久夫; Tokuo, FUJITA; 株式会社サトー; Sato Corporation

    2006-01-01

    The article clarifies the relationship between top-management decisions and strategies. Whereas prior theoretical treatments of top-management strategies are both logical and managerial, the author recognizes the ad hoc nature of top-management decisions, which rely upon intuition and inspiration, and proposes a theory of strategies that emerge through top-management leadership. This theory of leadership-initiated strategies sees a balance between leadership and management functions as essent...

  5. [The subject repositories of strategy of the Open Access initiative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Guimarães, M C; da Silva, C H; Horsth Noronha, I

    2012-11-01

    The subject repositories are defined as a set of digital objects resulting from the research related to a specific disciplinary field and occupy a still restricted space in the discussion agenda of the Free Access Movement when compared to amplitude reached in the discussion of Institutional Repositories. Although the Subject Repository comes to prominence in the field, especially for the success of initiatives such as the arXiv, PubMed and E-prints, the literature on the subject is recognized as very limited. Despite its roots in the Library and Information Science, and focus on the management of disciplinary collections (subject area literature), there is little information available about the development and management of subject repositories. The following text seeks to make a brief summary on the topic as a way to present the potential to develop subject repositories in order to strengthen the initiative of open access.

  6. Biofuel initiatives in Japan: Strategies, policies, and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Naoko; Sano, Daisuke; Elder, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Japan has developed a variety of national strategies and plans related to biofuels which address four main policy objectives, including reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy security, rural development, and realisation of a recycle-based society. This paper reviews these national strategies and plans as well as associated implementing policies, and discusses the extent to which these objectives may be achieved. This paper found that the long-term potential of biofuels to contribute to GHG reduction goals will depend not only on the rates of technological development of the second generation biofuels but also on the development of other advanced vehicles. In the medium term, the potential contribution of biofuels to rural development and realising a recycle-based society could become significant depending on the progress of technology for both second generation biofuel production and the collection and transportation of their feedstocks. The potential contribution of biofuels to Japan's energy security is constrained by the availability of imports and the potential of domestic production. (author)

  7. Learning reliable manipulation strategies without initial physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Alan D.; Mason, Matthew T.; Mitchell, Tom M.

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of a robot, possessing limited sensory and effectory capabilities but no initial model of the effects of its actions on the world, that acquires such a model through exploration, practice, and observation. By acquiring an increasingly correct model of its actions, it generates increasingly successful plans to achieve its goals. In an apparently nondeterministic world, achieving reliability requires the identification of reliable actions and a preference for using such actions. Furthermore, by selecting its training actions carefully, the robot can significantly improve its learning rate.

  8. Risk impact of two accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.; Camp, A.

    1992-01-01

    This report probabilistic Risk Assessment is used to evaluate two accident management strategies: intentionally depressurizing the reactor coolant system of a pressurized water reactor to prevent containment-pressurization during high pressure melt ejection, and flooding the containment of a boiling water reactor to prevent or delay vessel breach. Sensitivity studies indicated that intentional depressurization would not provide a significant risk reduction at Surry. A preliminary evaluation of the containment flooding strategy indicated that it might prove beneficial for some plants, but that further strategy development would be needed to fully evaluate the strategy-

  9. Impact of E-Learning Strategy on Students' Academic Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the impact of e-learning strategies on students' academic performance at Strathmore University. The purpose of the study was to investigate the methodology, ideologies, output and ecology of ICT strategies and their impact on students' performance. This was done through comparing students' mean ...

  10. Supporting Knowledge Mobilization and Research Impact Strategies in Grant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, David; Jensen, Krista E.; Johnny, Michael; Poetz, Anneliese

    2016-01-01

    Each application to the National Science Foundation (NSF) must contain a Broader Impact (BI) strategy. Similarly, grant applications for most research funders in Canada and the UK require strategies to support the translation of research into impacts on society; however, the guidance provided to researchers is too general to inform the specific…

  11. How have Global Health Initiatives impacted on health equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the impact of Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) on health equity, focusing on low- and middle-income countries. It is a summary of a literature review commissioned by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. GHIs have emerged during the past decade as a mechanism in development assistance for health. The review focuses on three GHIs, the US President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the World Bank's Multi-country AIDS Programme (MAP) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. All three have leveraged significant amounts of funding for their focal diseases - together these three GHIs provide an estimated two-thirds of external resources going to HIV/AIDS. This paper examines their impact on gender equity. An analysis of these Initiatives finds that they have a significant impact on health equity, including gender equity, through their processes of programme formulation and implementation, and through the activities they fund and implement, including through their impact on health systems and human resources. However, GHIs have so far paid insufficient attention to health inequities. While increasingly acknowledging equity, including gender equity, as a concern, Initiatives have so far failed to adequately translate this into programmes that address drivers of health inequity, including gender inequities. The review highlights the comparative advantage of individual GHIs, which point to an increased need for, and continued difficulties in, harmonisation of activities at country level. On the basis of this comparative analysis, key recommendations are made. They include a call for equity-sensitive targets, the collection of gender-disaggregated data, the use of policy-making processes for empowerment, programmes that explicitly address causes of health inequity and impact assessments of interventions' effect on social inequities.

  12. Breast Cancer-Initiating Cells: Insights into Novel Treatment Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, Guido; Binda, Mara; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Daidone, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that breast cancer may arise from mutated mammary stem/progenitor cells which have been termed breast cancer-initiating cells (BCIC). BCIC identified in clinical specimens based on membrane phenotype (CD44 + /CD24 −/low and/or CD133 + expression) or enzymatic activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 + ), have been demonstrated to have stem/progenitor cell properties, and are tumorigenic when injected in immunocompromized mice at very low concentrations. BCIC have also been isolated and in vitro propagated as non-adherent spheres of undifferentiated cells, and stem cell patterns have been recognized even in cancer cell lines. Recent findings indicate that aberrant regulation of self renewal is central to cancer stem cell biology. Alterations in genes involved in self-renewal pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, sonic hedgehog, PTEN and BMI, proved to play a role in breast cancer progression. Hence, targeting key elements mediating the self renewal of BCIC represents an attractive option, with a solid rationale, clearly identifiable molecular targets, and adequate knowledge of the involved pathways. Possible concerns are related to the poor knowledge of tolerance and efficacy of inhibiting self-renewal mechanisms, because the latter are key pathways for a variety of biological functions and it is unknown whether their interference would kill BCIC or simply temporarily stop them. Thus, efforts to develop BCIC-targeted therapies should not only be focused on interfering on self-renewal, but could seek to identify additional molecular targets, like those involved in regulating EMT-related pathways, in reversing the MDR phenotype, in inducing differentiation and controlling cell survival pathways

  13. Initial Examination of Low Velocity Sphere Impact of Glass Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) sphere impact testing of two materials from the lithium aluminosilicate family reinforced with different amounts of ceramic particulate, i.e., glass-ceramic materials, SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-G1 and SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-L. Both materials are provided by SCHOTT Glass (Duryea, PA). This work is a follow-up to similar sphere impact studies completed by the authors on PPG's Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass and SCHOTT BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. A gas gun or a sphere-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) spheres against the glass ceramic tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the glass-ceramics were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between sphere and target material. Quasistatic spherical indentation was also performed on both glass ceramics and their contact damage responses were compared to those of soda-lime silicate and borosilicate glasses. Lastly, variability of contact damage response was assessed by performing spherical indentation testing across the area of an entire glass ceramic tile. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Resistan{trademark}-L glass ceramic required the highest velocity of sphere impact for damage to initiate. Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass was second best, then Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and then BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (2) Glass-ceramic Resistan{trademark}-L also required the largest force to initiate ring crack from quasi-static indentation. That ranking was followed, in descending order, by Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass, Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass

  14. Assessing the impact of area-based initiatives in deprived neighborhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    assumptions, and social and spatial effects of these initiatives. Among other inter-related issues, the paper discusses the impact of conflicting ideologies upon processes of radical strategy shift and of social and territorial marginalization, and appeals to the need for more pluralistic approaches......Whilst there have been many area-based initiatives to regenerate rundown areas in numerous cities around the world, many of them involving the demolition of stigmatized housing estates, far fewer attempts have been made to assess the effects of these initiatives upon the fortunes of displaced...... households and those who remain in these areas. By presenting the results of an empirical in-depth case study on the effects of an area based initiative targeted at one of the most deprived neighborhoods in Porto, this paper raises several epistemological concerns related to the goals, ideological...

  15. Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Environmental Impact Protocols For Tidal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Michael Leroy [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Zydlewski, Gayle Barbin [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Xue, Huijie [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Johnson, Teresa R. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME

    2014-02-02

    The Maine Tidal Power Initiative (MTPI), an interdisciplinary group of engineers, biologists, oceanographers, and social scientists, has been conducting research to evaluate tidal energy resources and better understand the potential effects and impacts of marine hydro-kinetic (MHK) development on the environment and local community. Project efforts include: 1) resource assessment, 2) development of initial device design parameters using scale model tests, 3) baseline environmental studies and monitoring, and 4) human and community responses. This work included in-situ measurement of the environmental and social response to the pre-commercial Turbine Generator Unit (TGU®) developed by Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) as well as considering the path forward for smaller community scale projects.

  16. Spatial strategies for managing visitor impacts in National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Resource and social impacts caused by recreationists and tourists have become a management concern in national parks and equivalent protected areas. The need to contain visitor impacts within acceptable limits has prompted park and protected area managers to implement a wide variety of strategies and actions, many of which are spatial in nature. This paper classifies and illustrates the basic spatial strategies for managing visitor impacts in parks and protected areas. A typology of four spatial strategies was proposed based on the recreation and park management literature. Spatial segregation is a common strategy for shielding sensitive resources from visitor impacts or for separating potentially conflicting types of use. Two forms of spatial segregation are zoning and closure. A spatial containment strategy is intended to minimize the aggregate extent of visitor impacts by confining use to limited designated or established Iocations. In contrast, a spatial dispersal strategy seeks to spread visitor use, reducing the frequency of use to levels that avoid or minimize permanent resource impacts or visitor crowding and conflict. Finally, a spatial configuration strategy minimizes impacting visitor behavior though the judicious spatial arrangement of facilities. These four spatial strategics can be implemented separately or in combination at varying spatial scales within a single park. A survey of national park managers provides an empirical example of the diversity of implemented spatial strategies in managing visitor impacts. Spatial segregation is frequently applied in the form of camping restrictions or closures to protect sensitive natural or cultural resources and to separate incompatible visitor activities. Spatial containment is the most widely applied strategy for minimizing the areal extent of resource impacts. Spatial dispersal is commonly applied to reduce visitor crowding or conflicts in popular destination areas but is less frequently applied or

  17. Strategies for successful mitigation of socioeconomic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The successful mitigation of socioeconomic impacts requires careful planning for project inception through project completion. Although mitigation of socioeconomic impacts imposes additional responsibilities on project sponsors, benefits derived through increased productivity of the work force can offset costs involved. Cost effective impact mitigation plans can be developed which are flexible to respond to changing circumstances and which focus on prevention of adverse effects. Mitigation plans must, by necessity, begin with proper project planning. Project location and the schedule for various construction activities can have significant effect on impacts. Particular attention should be given to labor requirements, contracting procedures and hiring practices. The effects of layoffs at project completion should also be considered. Accurate forecasts of revenues available to local governments are essential to the development of fair mitigation programs. Increased revenues created as a result of proposed projects should be the basis for mitigation planning. Housing and worker transportation issues should be considered jointly. Depending upon the proximity of a proposed site to different communities, impacts can be radically different given different housing and transportation plans. Housing requirements should be considered by type and location. Per diem and other allowances can be utilized to influence the housing choices made by workers

  18. Impact of environment on marketing strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanišić Olivera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Today companies faced with manifold shifts arose in business environment recently but particularly during the last two decades. Such issues ask for sharp response rate by companies as well as very solid level of marketing intelligence, research and customer loyalty development. Paper discuss the importance of knowing what's going on in the target market within PEST approach including unavoidable technology issues. General focus is directed to needs of an appropriate marketing strategy development.

  19. Assessing climate change impacts and adaptation strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing climate change impacts and adaptation strategies for smallholder agricultural systems in Uganda. ... from encroaching on swamps, which is one of the reported adaptation strategies to climate related stresses. Improving productivity of important crops (bananas for southwest, and sweet potatoes and bananas

  20. Aligning economic impact with environmental benefits: a green strategy model

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Q.; Lago, P.; Potenza, S.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve lower energy consumption many green strategies (e.g. virtualize applications and consolidate them on shared server machines, or optimize the usage of the private cloud by opening up to external consumers) have been discussed. In practice, however, the major incentive for a company to go green is reducing costs. While green strategies often focus on technical and environmental issues, they hardly address the economic impact that they may bring. If green strategies do not lead to an ...

  1. [Clinical impact of social marketing strategy on breast cancer detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Vidaurri, Adriana Guadalupe; Santana-Chávez, Luis Alejandro; González-Villalobos, Cynthia Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    to prove the impact of social marketing strategies in breast cancer detection, taking as a parameter the number of mammographies performed. quasi-experimental research, before and after. Sixty-nine physicians in charge of medical consultation and fourteen nurses were studied for a period of seven months, applying social marketing strategies. The total of mammographies were analyzed using Wilcoxon rank-sum test (p marketing proved to be an adequate strategy, which has an impact on the clinical practice of both physicians and nurses.

  2. DETERMINANTS OF NETWORK OUTCOMES: THE IMPACT OF MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysa, Tamyko; Sierra, Vicenta; Esteve, Marc

    2014-09-01

    The literature on network management is extensive. However, it generally explores network structures, neglecting the impact of management strategies. In this article we assess the effect of management strategies on network outcomes, providing empirical evidence from 119 urban revitalization networks. We go beyond current work by testing a path model for the determinants of network outcomes and considering the interactions between the constructs: management strategies, trust, complexity, and facilitative leadership. Our results suggest that management strategies have a strong effect on network outcomes and that they enhance the level of trust. We also found that facilitative leadership has a positive impact on network management as well as on trust in the network. Our findings also show that complexity has a negative impact on trust. A key finding of our research is that managers may wield more influence on network dynamics than previously theorized.

  3. New-onset diabetes after hemodialysis initiation: impact on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salifu, Moro O; Abbott, Kevin C; Aytug, Serhat; Hayat, Amir; Haria, Dhiren M; Shah, Syed; Friedman, Eli A; Delano, Barbara G; McFarlane, Samy I; Hurst, Frank P; Flom, Peter L; Jindal, Rahul M

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of new-onset diabetes after initiation of hemodialysis (NODAD) and its impact on survival is not known. We used data from the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) from January 2000 to December 2001, with at least 3 years of follow-up for this study. Patients aged 18-80 years were included. NODAD was defined as two Medicare institutional claims for diabetes in patients with no history of diabetes prior to starting hemodialysis (HD). Incidence (per 1,000 patient-years), prevalence (%) and hazard ratios for mortality in patients with NODAD were calculated. There were 59,340 incident patients with no history of diabetes prior to starting HD, of which 3,853 met criteria for NODAD. The overall incidence and prevalence of NODAD were 20 per 1,000 patient-years and 7.6%, respectively. In a cohort of 444 patients without diabetes and documented glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, diabetes after initiation of HD. NODAD was associated with a significantly increased risk of death as compared to non-diabetes patients (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.14-1.25). The USRDS showed a high incidence of NODAD, associated with significantly higher mortality compared to those who did not develop NODAD. The mechanism of NODAD needs to be explored further in experimental and clinical studies. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Skipping Strategy (SS) for Initial Population of Job-Shop Scheduling Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolrazzagh-Nezhad, M.; Nababan, E. B.; Sarim, H. M.

    2018-03-01

    Initial population in job-shop scheduling problem (JSSP) is an essential step to obtain near optimal solution. Techniques used to solve JSSP are computationally demanding. Skipping strategy (SS) is employed to acquire initial population after sequence of job on machine and sequence of operations (expressed in Plates-jobs and mPlates-jobs) are determined. The proposed technique is applied to benchmark datasets and the results are compared to that of other initialization techniques. It is shown that the initial population obtained from the SS approach could generate optimal solution.

  5. Senescent Swallowing: Impact, Strategies and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Denise; Weiss, Jennifer; Kind, Amy; Robbins, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    The risk for disordered oropharyngeal swallowing (dysphagia) increases with age. Loss of swallowing function can have devastating health implications including dehydration, malnutrition, and pneumonia, as well as reduced quality of life. Age-related changes place older adults at risk for dysphagia for two major reasons: One is that natural, healthy aging takes its toll on head and neck anatomy and physiologic and neural mechanisms underpinning swallowing function. This progression of change contributes to alterations in the swallowing in healthy older adults and is termed presbyphagia, naturally diminishing functional reserve. Second, disease prevalence increases with age and dysphagia is a co-morbidity of many age-related diseases and/or their treatments. Sensory changes, medication, sarcopenia and age-related diseases are discussed herein. Relatively recent findings that health complications are associated with dysphagia are presented. Nutrient requirements, fluid intake and nutritional assessment for older adults are reviewed relative to their relations to dysphagia. Dysphagia screening and the pros and cons of tube feeding as a solution are discussed. Optimal intervention strategies for elders with dysphagia ranging from compensatory interventions to more rigorous exercise approaches are presented. Compelling evidence of improved functional swallowing and eating outcomes resulting from active rehabilitation focusing on increasing strength of head and neck musculature is provided. In summary, while oropharyngeal dysphagia may be life-threatening, so are some of the traditional alternatives, particularly for frail, elderly patients. While the state of the evidence calls for more research, this review indicates the behavioral, dietary and environmental modifications emerging in this past decade are compassionate, promising and in many cases preferred alternatives to the always present option of tube feeding. PMID:19483069

  6. Impact initiation of explosives and propellants via statistical crack mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, J. K.; Zuo, Q. H.; Kershner, J. D.

    2006-06-01

    A statistical approach has been developed for modeling the dynamic response of brittle materials by superimposing the effects of a myriad of microcracks, including opening, shear, growth and coalescence, taking as a starting point the well-established theory of penny-shaped cracks. This paper discusses the general approach, but in particular an application to the sensitivity of explosives and propellants, which often contain brittle constituents. We examine the hypothesis that the intense heating by frictional sliding between the faces of a closed crack during unstable growth can form a hot spot, causing localized melting, ignition, and fast burn of the reactive material adjacent to the crack. Opening and growth of a closed crack due to the pressure of burned gases inside the crack and interactions of adjacent cracks can lead to violent reaction, with detonation as a possible consequence. This approach was used to model a multiple-shock experiment by Mulford et al. [1993. Initiation of preshocked high explosives PBX-9404, PBX-9502, PBX-9501, monitored with in-material magnetic gauging. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Detonation Symposium, pp. 459-467] involving initiation and subsequent quenching of chemical reactions in a slab of PBX 9501 impacted by a two-material flyer plate. We examine the effects of crack orientation and temperature dependence of viscosity of the melt on the response. Numerical results confirm our theoretical finding [Zuo, Q.H., Dienes, J.K., 2005. On the stability of penny-shaped cracks with friction: the five types of brittle behavior. Int. J. Solids Struct. 42, 1309-1326] that crack orientation has a significant effect on brittle behavior, especially under compressive loading where interfacial friction plays an important role. With a reasonable choice of crack orientation and a temperature-dependent viscosity obtained from molecular dynamics calculations, the calculated particle velocities compare well with those measured using

  7. Impact of Generalist Physician Initiatives on Residency Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Malloy

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare the residency selection choices of students who experienced courses resulting from generalist physician initiatives to choices made by students prior to the implementation of those courses and to describe the characteristics of students selecting primary care residencies. Background:In the fall of 1994 a first year Community Continuity Experience course was initiated and in the summer of 1995 a third year Multidisciplinary Ambulatory Clerkship was begun at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston. These courses were inserted into the curriculum to enhance and promote primary care education. Design/Methods:We examined the residency selections of cohorts of graduating medical students before (1992-1996 and after (1997-1999 the implementation of the primary care courses. Survey information on career preferences at matriculation and in the fourth year of medical school were available for students graduating after the programs began. We compared the career preferences and characteristics of those students who selected a primary care residency to those who did not. Results:Prior to the implementation of the programs, 45%(425/950 of students graduating selected primary care residencies compared to 45% (210/465 of students participating in the programs (p=0.88. At matriculation, 45% of students had listed a primary care discipline as their first career choice. Among the students who had indicated this degree of primary care interest 61% ended up matching in a primary care discipline. At year 4, 31% of students indicated a primary care discipline as their first career choice and 92% of these students matched to a primary care residency. By univariate analysis, minority students (53% were more likely to select a primary care residency than non-minority students (40%; students in the two lowest grade point average quartiles (55% and 50% selected primary care residencies compared to 37% and 38% of students in the top 2

  8. An analysis of climatic impacts and adaptation strategies in Tanzania

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojoyi, MM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management An analysis of climatic impacts and adaptation strategies in Tanzania Mercy M. Ojoyi School of Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa... of feedback results from analysis of variance tests conducted. Major indicators of climate variability and change include: increased dry spells (39.7 per cent), drying of rivers (34.7 per cent), a reduction in water flows (14.6 per cent) and poor economy...

  9. Effectiveness of a confinement strategy in reducing pack stock impacts at campsites in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Spildie; David N. Cole; Sarah C. Walker

    2000-01-01

    In 1993, a management program was initiated in the Seven Lakes Basin in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness to bring high levels of campsite impact into compliance with management standards. The core of the strategy involved confining use, particularly by stock groups, and restoring certain campsites and portions of campsites. In just five years, campsite impacts were...

  10. Impacts of climate change, variability and adaptation strategies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacts of climate change, variability and adaptation strategies on agriculture in semi arid areas of Tanzania: The case of Manyoni District in Singida Region, Tanzania. ... The changes have affected crops and livestock in a number of ways resulting in reduced productivity. Empirical analysis of rainfall suggest decreasing ...

  11. Impact assessment of adaptation options and strategies for coping ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impact assessment of adaptation options and strategies for coping with climate change on the livelihoods of pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Sudan' Butana area. Ibrahim, Abdelhamed M.M.. URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10625/53410. Date: 2013-11 ...

  12. Economic Impact Assessment of Alternative Climate Policy Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemfert, C.

    2001-10-01

    This paper investigates the world economic implications of climate change policy strategies, especially the evaluation of impacts by an implementation of Clean Development Mechanisms, Joint Implementation and Emissions trading with a world integrated assessment model. Of special interest in this context are the welfare spill over and competitiveness effects that result from diverse climate policy strategies. In particular, this study elaborates and compares multi gas policy strategies and explores the impacts of the inclusion of sinks. Because of the recent decision of an isolated climate policy strategy by the United States of America, we examine the economic impacts of all world regions by a non cooperative and free rider position of the USA. It turns out that Clean Development Mechanisms and Joint Implementation show evidence of improvement in the economic development in the host countries and increase the share of new applied technologies. The decomposition of welfare effects demonstrates that the competitiveness effect including the spill over effects from trade have the strongest importance because of the intense trade relations between countries. Climatic effects have a significant impact within the next 50 years, cause considerable welfare losses to world regions and will intensify if some highly responsible nations like the USA do not reduce their emissions

  13. A simulation model to estimate the cost and effectiveness of alternative dialysis initiation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chris P; Chertow, Glenn M; Zenios, Stefanos A

    2006-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) require dialysis to maintain survival. The optimal timing of dialysis initiation in terms of cost-effectiveness has not been established. We developed a simulation model of individuals progressing towards ESRD and requiring dialysis. It can be used to analyze dialysis strategies and scenarios. It was embedded in an optimization frame worked to derive improved strategies. Actual (historical) and simulated survival curves and hospitalization rates were virtually indistinguishable. The model overestimated transplantation costs (10%) but it was related to confounding by Medicare coverage. To assess the model's robustness, we examined several dialysis strategies while input parameters were perturbed. Under all 38 scenarios, relative rankings remained unchanged. An improved policy for a hypothetical patient was derived using an optimization algorithm. The model produces reliable results and is robust. It enables the cost-effectiveness analysis of dialysis strategies.

  14. Assessment of self-efficacy to employ self-initiated pornography use-reduction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane W; Rosenberg, Harold; Tompsett, Carolyn J

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated several psychometric properties of a newly developed questionnaire designed to assess individuals' self-efficacy (from 0% to 100%) to employ self-initiated cognitive-behavioral strategies intended to reduce the frequency and duration of their pornography use. Using a web-based data collection procedure, we recruited 1298 male users of pornography to complete questionnaires assessing hypersexuality, pornography use history, and general self-efficacy. Based on a principal component analysis and examination of inter-item correlations, we deleted 13 items from the initial pool of 21 strategies. The resulting 8-item questionnaire had excellent internal consistency reliability, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation considered indicative of unidimensionality. In support of criterion validity, self-efficacy to employ use-reduction strategies was significantly associated with the frequency with which participants used pornography, with scores on a measure of hypersexuality, and with the number of times one had attempted to cut back using pornography. In support of discriminant validity, we found that pornography use-reduction self-efficacy scores were not strongly correlated with general self-efficacy. Both researchers and clinicians could use this questionnaire to assess pornography users' confidence to employ self-initiated strategies intended to reduce the duration and frequency with which they use pornography. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Initial uncertainty impacts statistical learning in sound sequence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Juanita; Provost, Alexander; Whitson, Lisa; Mullens, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    This paper features two studies confirming a lasting impact of first learning on how subsequent experience is weighted in early relevance-filtering processes. In both studies participants were exposed to sequences of sound that contained a regular pattern on two different timescales. Regular patterning in sound is readily detected by the auditory system and used to form "prediction models" that define the most likely properties of sound to be encountered in a given context. The presence and strength of these prediction models is inferred from changes in automatically elicited components of auditory evoked potentials. Both studies employed sound sequences that contained both a local and longer-term pattern. The local pattern was defined by a regular repeating pure tone occasionally interrupted by a rare deviating tone (p=0.125) that was physically different (a 30msvs. 60ms duration difference in one condition and a 1000Hz vs. 1500Hz frequency difference in the other). The longer-term pattern was defined by the rate at which the two tones alternated probabilities (i.e., the tone that was first rare became common and the tone that was first common became rare). There was no task related to the tones and participants were asked to ignore them while focussing attention on a movie with subtitles. Auditory-evoked potentials revealed long lasting modulatory influences based on whether the tone was initially encountered as rare and unpredictable or common and predictable. The results are interpreted as evidence that probability (or indeed predictability) assigns a differential information-value to the two tones that in turn affects the extent to which prediction models are updated and imposed. These effects are exposed for both common and rare occurrences of the tones. The studies contribute to a body of work that reveals that probabilistic information is not faithfully represented in these early evoked potentials and instead exposes that predictability (or conversely

  16. Optimizing the prevention of venous thromboembolism: recent quality initiatives and strategies to drive improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Alpesh N; Deitelzweig, Steven B

    2009-11-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with a substantial health care and economic burden, yet many VTE events are preventable. Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines derailing effective thromboprophylaxis strategies, the underuse and inappropriate prescribing of VTE prophylaxis are common. Current national quality initiatives were reviewed to identify strategies that may help hospitals and health care professionals optimize current VTE prophylaxis practices. A computerized literature search was performed using PubMed and MEDLINE, and this was complemented by hand searches of relevant journals and Web sites to identify additional literature related to VTE prevention and quality improvement. Many organizations, including the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the National Quality Forum, the Joint Commission, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality have developed performance measures, quality indicators, public reporting initiatives, incentive programs, and "negative reimbursement" that are designed to help improve VTE prevention. It remains the responsibility of individual hospitals to identify specific areas in which they can improve their VTE prophylaxis rates to obtain positive results from the reporting initiatives and incentive programs. If performance measures are to be met, all hospital departments will need to implement effective VTE prevention policies, including early risk assessment, appropriate prophylaxis prescribing, monitoring, and follow-up. Multifaceted, integrated initiatives involving risk assessment tools, decision support, electronic alert systems, and hospitalwide education, with a mechanism for audit and feedback, may help ensure that all health care professionals comply with VTE-prevention policies and initiatives.

  17. Hybrid collaborative optimization based on selection strategy of initial point and adaptive relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Aimin; Yin, Xu; Yuan, Minghai [Hohai University, Changzhou (China)

    2015-09-15

    There are two problems in Collaborative optimization (CO): (1) the local optima arising from the selection of an inappropriate initial point; (2) the low efficiency and accuracy root in inappropriate relaxation factors. To solve these problems, we first develop the Latin hypercube design (LHD) to determine an initial point of optimization, and then use the non-linear programming by quadratic Lagrangian (NLPQL) to search for the global solution. The effectiveness of the initial point selection strategy is verified by three benchmark functions with some dimensions and different complexities. Then we propose the Adaptive relaxation collaborative optimization (ARCO) algorithm to solve the inconsistency between the system level and the disciplines level, and in this method, the relaxation factors are determined according to the three separated stages of CO respectively. The performance of the ARCO algorithm is compared with the standard collaborative algorithm and the constant relaxation collaborative algorithm with a typical numerical example, which indicates that the ARCO algorithm is more efficient and accurate. Finally, we propose a Hybrid collaborative optimization (HCO) approach, which integrates the selection strategy of initial point with the ARCO algorithm. The results show that HCO can achieve the global optimal solution without the initial value and it also has advantages in convergence, accuracy and robustness. Therefore, the proposed HCO approach can solve the CO problems with applications in the spindle and the speed reducer.

  18. Hybrid collaborative optimization based on selection strategy of initial point and adaptive relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Aimin; Yin, Xu; Yuan, Minghai

    2015-01-01

    There are two problems in Collaborative optimization (CO): (1) the local optima arising from the selection of an inappropriate initial point; (2) the low efficiency and accuracy root in inappropriate relaxation factors. To solve these problems, we first develop the Latin hypercube design (LHD) to determine an initial point of optimization, and then use the non-linear programming by quadratic Lagrangian (NLPQL) to search for the global solution. The effectiveness of the initial point selection strategy is verified by three benchmark functions with some dimensions and different complexities. Then we propose the Adaptive relaxation collaborative optimization (ARCO) algorithm to solve the inconsistency between the system level and the disciplines level, and in this method, the relaxation factors are determined according to the three separated stages of CO respectively. The performance of the ARCO algorithm is compared with the standard collaborative algorithm and the constant relaxation collaborative algorithm with a typical numerical example, which indicates that the ARCO algorithm is more efficient and accurate. Finally, we propose a Hybrid collaborative optimization (HCO) approach, which integrates the selection strategy of initial point with the ARCO algorithm. The results show that HCO can achieve the global optimal solution without the initial value and it also has advantages in convergence, accuracy and robustness. Therefore, the proposed HCO approach can solve the CO problems with applications in the spindle and the speed reducer

  19. Corporate Initiatives and Strategies to Meet the Environmental Challenges – Contributions Towards a Green Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ogrean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to emphasize, based on an interdisciplinary and multi-level approach, on the actual and potential contributions of businesses towards a green economic development - through the positive integration of the environmental challenges within their initiatives and strategies. The main objectives that the paper will target in order to accomplish this mission are: (1. to outline the general framework of the green economic development; (2. to identify the specific environmental challenges businesses could and have to address in order to support the green economic development; (3. to analyze particular initiatives and strategies which have been successfully developed by companies aiming at internalizing the environmental imperative - and to argue in favor of a new business model, able to end, through the green economic development, a virtuous circle of co-evolution between businesses and the environment.

  20. Integrated manure management to reduce environmental impact: II. Environmental impact assessment of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Groenestein, C.M.; Schroder, J.J.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Sukkel, W.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Manure management contributes to adverse environmental impacts through losses of nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and carbon (C). In this study, we aimed to assess the potential of newly designed strategies for integrated manure management (IS) to reduce environmental impact. An important aspect of the

  1. Initial surface deformations during impact on a liquid pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, W.; Hendrix, M.H.W.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2015-01-01

    A tiny air bubble can be entrapped at the bottom of a solid sphere that impacts onto a liquid pool. The bubble forms due to the deformation of the liquid surface by a local pressure buildup inside the surrounding gas, as also observed during the impact of a liquid drop on a solid wall. Here, we

  2. Environmental impact assessment of the national climate strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, M.; Attila, M.; Hiltunen, M.; Karvosenoja, N.; Syri, S.

    2001-01-01

    The national climate strategy aims at fulfilling the obligations to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in accordance with the Kyoto protocol. The environmental impacts of the strategy were analysed by comparing a business as usual scenario with two scenarios based on additional measures. Both scenarios with additional measures are based on more emphasis on energy saving and use of renewable sources of energy, but they differ with respect to energy production. The environmental consequences until 2010 are similar in the scenarios with additional measures, and they are better from an environmental point of view than the business as usual scenario. Many of the measures have significant effects only in the long term, and all have indirect effects, opportunities and uncertain factors. Some measures can create societal conflicts, which further increases the uncertainty in implementing the climate strategy. In order to be able to adapt to and react on deviations from the development that the strategy aims at achieving the monitoring of the strategy should examine the implementation from many different aspects, because profound knowledge of the nature of the effects and key cause and effects relations is essential in revising and updating the strategy. (orig.)

  3. Initial impact of a systematic multidisciplinary approach on the management of patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tamagno, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    According to the international guidelines, a multidisciplinary approach is currently advised for the optimal care of patients with a gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (GEP NET). In our institution (tertiary care center), a systematic multidisciplinary approach was established in May 2007. In this study, we have aimed to assess the initial impact of establishing a systematic multidisciplinary approach to the management of GEP NET patients. We have collected and compared the biochemical, imaging, and pathological data and the therapeutic strategies in GEP NET patients diagnosed, treated, or followed-up from January 1993 to April 2007 versus GEP NET patients attending our institution after the multidisciplinary approach starting, from May 2007 to October 2008. Data of 91 patients before and 42 patients after the establishment of the multidisciplinary approach (total: 133 consecutive GEP NET patients) have been finally collected and analyzed. Before the establishment of the multidisciplinary approach, a lack of consistency in the biochemical, imaging, and pathological findings before treatment initiation as well as during follow-up of GEP NET patients was identified. These inconsistencies have been reduced by the systematic multidisciplinary approach. In addition, the therapeutic management of GEP NET patients has been altered by the multidisciplinary approach and became more consistent with recommended guidelines. We think that a systematic multidisciplinary approach significantly impacts on GEP NET patient care and should be established in all centers dealing with these tumors.

  4. Promotional Strategy Impacts on Organizational Market Share and Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Adesoga Dada Adefulu

    2015-01-01

    The paper examined promotional strategy impacts on market share and profitability in Coca-Cola and 7up companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. Survey research method was adopted. The study population was the staff in marketing positions in the selected companies. Questionnaire was administered on the samples from Coca-Cola and 7UP companies. The statistical tool employed was the univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine the statistical significance and the extent to which...

  5. Initial results of India's environmental impact assessment of nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.

    The Indian Deepsea Experiment (INDEX) was intiated in 1995, with the objective of predicting the environmental impact of nodule mining, in the Central Indian Basin. More than 20 scientists and technical staff of the National Institute...

  6. Financing urban adaptation to climate change impacts mapping of existing initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschalier, Claire; Leseur, Alexia; Archambault, Sabrina; Joubert, Marion; Larrue, Clement; Rossin, Nicolas; Salenson, Irene

    2015-01-01

    In June 2015, CDC Climat research, in partnership with AFD, published a mapping of the types of initiatives available for the financing of urban adaptation to climate change, offering additional options to more conventional sources of funding for climate change and sustainable development (national budget transfers, Official Development Aid, etc.). Based on the review of 27 main initiatives, the report shows a strong prevalence of initiatives supporting soft adaptation measures (strategy planning, capacity building, project design, technical assistance, etc). These are in a position to help support the development of a coherent portfolio of bankable projects. The mapping also reveals that local intermediaries (regional and local banks, national development funds, etc.) play a significant role in financing urban adaptation to climate change. Several key factor of success for the cities' access to these sources of funding are also identified, among which liaising with international development stakeholders (such as multilateral and bilateral donors) at the local level, and the identification of various co-benefits and synergies between the economic, environmental and climate impacts. (authors)

  7. Initial foot contact and related kinematics affect impact loading rate in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Van Caekenberghe, Ine; Fiers, Pieter; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed kinematic differences between different foot strike patterns and their relationship with peak vertical instantaneous loading rate (VILR) of the ground reaction force (GRF). Fifty-two runners ran at 3.2 m · s -1 while we recorded GRF and lower limb kinematics and determined foot strike pattern: Typical or Atypical rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS) of forefoot strike (FFS). Typical RFS had longer contact times and a lower leg stiffness than Atypical RFS and MFS. Typical RFS showed a dorsiflexed ankle (7.2 ± 3.5°) and positive foot angle (20.4 ± 4.8°) at initial contact while MFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-10.4 ± 6.3°) and more horizontal foot (1.6 ± 3.1°). Atypical RFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-3.1 ± 4.4°) and a small foot angle (7.0 ± 5.1°) at initial contact and had the highest VILR. For the RFS (Typical and Atypical RFS), foot angle at initial contact showed the highest correlation with VILR (r = -0.68). The observed higher VILR in Atypical RFS could be related to both ankle and foot kinematics and global running style that indicate a limited use of known kinematic impact absorbing "strategies" such as initial ankle dorsiflexion in MFS or initial ankle plantar flexion in Typical RFS.

  8. Promotional Strategy Impacts on Organizational Market Share and Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesoga Dada Adefulu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined promotional strategy impacts on market share and profitability in Coca-Cola and 7up companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. Survey research method was adopted. The study population was the staff in marketing positions in the selected companies. Questionnaire was administered on the samples from Coca-Cola and 7UP companies. The statistical tool employed was the univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA to determine the statistical significance and the extent to which promotional strategy brings about variation in market share and profitability in the selected companies The study revealed the need for a better understanding of the organizational factors that determine the commitment of organizational resources to drive the achievement of marketing goals. In addition, promotional strategy measured by advertising, publicity and sales promotion affected market share and profitability at different percentage rates while Personal selling did not .The study concluded that promotional strategy suitable to a business caused variations in market share and profitability. Managers concerned about maintaining competitive edge in the market may find it appropriate to begin by examining promotional strategy adoption. Suggestions are also made for further research and study limitations are denoted. Researchers are encouraged to devote efforts to identifying what variables may modify the nature of relationship?

  9. Impact of nutritional strategies on water productivity indicators for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Pascale Palhares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of water is a poorly considered indicator in animal agriculture. This is because water is a resource still believed by persons in the production network to be abundant and of good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutritional strategies in water productivity indicators for growing and slaughtering pigs. Five strategies were evaluated: control diet (T1, with a reduction in the level of crude protein (T2, phytase (T3, organic minerals (T4 and the three nutritional strategies combined (T5. The water productivity indicator is defined as the quantity of product by water used. The following indicators were calculated: total weight (kg L-1, cold carcass (kg L-1 lean carcass (L kg-1, and nutrition (kcal L-1. T5 showed the best productivities for each liter of water used. The total weight productivity in this treatment was 3.0 kg L-1, while in T1 was 2.5 kg L-1. T3 had the lowest productivities. The nutritional water productivities were 2,512, 2,763, 2,657, 2,814, and 3,039 kcal L-1, respectively for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. Nutritional strategies reduce the use of drinking water and therefore improve water productivities. The best productivities were observed when combining the strategies.

  10. Overall impact of speed-related initiatives and factors on crash outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, A; Newstead, S; Cameron, M

    2007-01-01

    From December 2000 until July 2002 a package of speed-related initiatives and factors took place in Victoria, Australia. The broad aim of this study was to evaluate the overall impact of the package on crash outcomes. Monthly crash counts and injury severity proportions were assessed using Poisson and logistic regression models respectively. The model measured the overall effect of the package after adjusting as far as possible for non-speed road safety initiatives and socio-economic factors. The speed-related package was associated with statistically significant estimated reductions in casualty crashes and suggested reductions in injury severity with trends towards increased reductions over time. From December 2000 until July 2002, three new speed enforcement initiatives were implemented in Victoria, Australia. These initiatives were introduced in stages and involved the following key components: More covert operations of mobile speed cameras, including flash-less operations; 50% increase in speed camera operating hours; and lowering of cameras' speed detection threshold. In addition, during the period 2001 to 2002, the 50 km/h General Urban Speed Limit (GUSL) was introduced (January 2001), there was an increase in speed-related advertising including the "Wipe Off 5" campaign, media announcements were made related to the above enforcement initiatives and there was a speeding penalty restructure. The above elements combine to make up a package of speed-related initiatives and factors. The package represents a broad, long term program by Victorian government agencies to reduce speed based on three linked strategies: more intensive Police enforcement of speed limits to deter potential offenders, i.e. the three new speed enforcement initiatives just described - supported by higher penalties; a reduction in the speed limit on local streets throughout Victoria from 60 km/h to 50 km/h; and provision of information using the mass media (television, radio and billboard) to

  11. The effect of alternative cost and environmental impact minimisation strategies on radioactive waste disposal strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laundy, R.S.; James, A.R.; Groom, M.S.; Dalrymple, G.J.

    1985-06-01

    The study reported here investigates the effects of different cost and environmental impact minimisation strategies for a single waste disposal scenario. Four disposal options are considered. The study examines the environmental impacts from waste storage and transport and the disposal impacts in terms of collective dose, maximum individual dose and individual dose from intrusion. The total cost of disposing of waste takes account of storage, transport and disposal costs to each of the four facilities. Two minimum cost scenarios and seven minimum impact assessments were performed. The results showed clearly that a trade-off has to be made between the environmental impacts from transport and storage of waste. A low objective risk of transport is achieved by directing waste to the engineered trench, assumed to have a central location. This waste is stored until the facility is available in 1995 thus increasing the potential impact from storage. The results also show a trade-off has to be made between minimising the maximum individual dose from disposal and collective dose. The study shows that for relatively little cost large reductions in the impacts can be obtained particularly in short and long-term collective dose and the individual dose from intrusion. (author)

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance Control Strategies: A Coordinated Research Initiative Experience in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Lisette; Asenjo, Gabriela; Vergara, Constanza; Cornejo, Javiera

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to gather information on the status of antimicrobial surveillance in the Asia Pacific region and suggest control strategies. Twenty-one economies of the Asia Pacific region participated in this initiative. A survey was conducted on antimicrobial use and surveillance throughout the region. A workshop was carried out to create awareness about the issue and discuss the implementation of control strategies. Based on the survey results and workshop conclusions, it can be established that there is better understanding of the implications of antimicrobial resistance in the human medicine area. Only few economies take actions to control antimicrobial resistance on a veterinary/agricultural level. To confront antimicrobial resistance, it is critical to raise awareness; cooperation between all countries is needed to apply international standards, to be able to have harmonized public policies. Countries must align and improve their systems for surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human, animals, and the environment.

  13. Deduction of initial strategy distributions of agents in mix-game models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Chengling

    2006-11-01

    This paper reports the effort of deducing the initial strategy distributions (ISDs) of agents in mix-game models that is used to predict a real financial time series generated from a target financial market. Using mix-games to predict Shanghai Index, we find that the time series of prediction accurate rates is sensitive to the ISDs of agents in group 2 who play a minority game, but less sensitive to the ISDs of agents in group 1 who play a majority game. And agents in group 2 tend to cluster in full strategy space (FSS) if the real financial time series has obvious tendency (upward or downward), otherwise they tend to scatter in FSS. We also find that the ISDs and the number of agents in group 1 influence the level of prediction accurate rates. Finally, this paper gives suggestion about further research.

  14. Pricing strategies and levels and their impact on corporate profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonir De Toni

    Full Text Available Abstract Price policy definition is one of the most important decisions in management as it affects corporate profitability and market competitiveness. Despite the importance that prices take in organizations, it appears that this element has not received proper attention by many academics and marketers since it represents, according to estimates, less than 2% of the papers on leading journals in the field. Thus, the aim of this study was to propose and test a theoretical model showing the impacts of pricing policy on corporate profitability. To this end, 150 companies in the metal-mechanic sector situated in the Northeast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil were studied, integrating customer value-based pricing strategies, competition-based pricing strategies and cost-based pricing strategies with price levels (high and low and performance with respect to profitability. The results indicate that the profitability of the surveyed companies is positively affected by value-based pricing strategy and high price levels while it is negatively affected by low price levels. Such findings indicate that pricing policies influence the profitability of organizations and therefore, a more strategic look at the pricing process may constitute one aspect that cannot be overlooked by managers.

  15. Impacts of initial convective structure on subsequent squall line evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varble, A.; Morrison, H.; Zipser, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    A Weather Research and Forecasting simulation of the 20 May 2011 MC3E squall line using 750-m horizontal grid spacing produces wide convective regions with strongly upshear tilted convective updrafts and mesoscale bowing segments that are not produced in radar observations. Similar features occur across several different bulk microphysics schemes, despite surface observations exhibiting cold pool equivalent potential temperature drops that are similar to and pressure rises that are greater than those in the simulation. Observed rear inflow remains more elevated than simulated, partly counteracting the cold pool circulation, whereas the simulated rear inflow descends to low levels, maintaining its strength and reinforcing the cold pool circulation that overpowers the pre-squall line low level vertical wind shear. The descent and strength of the simulated rear inflow is fueled by strong latent cooling caused by large ice water contents detrained from upshear tilted convective cores that accumulate at the rear of the stratiform region. This simulated squall evolution is sensitive to model resolution, which is too coarse to resolve individual convective drafts. Nesting a 250-m horizontal grid spacing domain into the 750-m domain substantially alters the initial convective cells with reduced latent cooling, weaker convective downdrafts, and a weaker initial cold pool. As the initial convective cells develop into a squall line, the rear inflow remains more elevated in the 250-m domain with a cold pool that eventually develops to be just as strong and deeper than the one in the 750-m run. Despite this, the convective cores remain more upright in the 250-m run with the rear inflow partly counteracting the cold pool circulation, whereas the 750-m rear inflow near the surface reinforces the shallower cold pool and causes bowing in the squall line. The different structure in the 750-m run produces excessive mid-level front-to-rear detrainment that widens the convective region

  16. DWAF water services IAM strategy positioned within the context of other major national IAM initiatives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available STRATEGY POSITIONED WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF OTHER MAJOR NATIONAL IAM INITIATIVES Nino Manus, Kribbs Moodley, Kevin Wall, Louis Boshoff and Arno Ottermann Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Private Bag X313, Pretoria 0001. ManusA@dwaf.gov.za P D... into one or other of 9 “solution types”, viz: • Awareness • Finance • Guidelines • HR (i.e. including ski l ls and appointments) • Legal and procurement • Monitoring and evaluation • Management and leadership • Operation and maintenance...

  17. Monetary and social macroeconomic impact of equivalent energy production strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattes, Robert; Thiriet, Lucien

    1981-01-01

    This current report updates a previous report (February 1979) and brings to light many new factors; a comparative analysis of global impacts is presented, particular emphasis being given to large scale equilibria, and equivalent, but different energy strategies and policies. The way in which different energy strategies might reduce externally imposed constraints is examined in detail, i.e. enabling higher economic growth to be achieved, and unemployment to be reduced without increasing or even with a decrease in the external balance-of-payments deficit. A reference electricity generating program (realized with coal, oil or uranium) similar to the medium and long term French nuclear program was retained. Attention was given to ensure that the ratio between the amount of electricity generated and the total electricity requirements remained realistic. This was also true for the ratio between the amount of nuclear origin generated electricity and the total amount of electricity generated [fr

  18. Initial studies to assess microbial impacts on nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.; McCright, R.D.; Economides, B.

    1996-01-01

    The impacts of the native and introduced bacteria on the performance of geologic nuclear waste disposal facilities should be evaluated because these bacteria could promote corrosion of repository components and alteration of chemical and hydrological properties of the surrounding engineered and rock barriers. As a first step towards investigating these potentialities, native and introduced bacteria obtained from post-construction Yucca Mountain (YM) rock were isolated under varying conditions, including elevated temperature, low nutrient availability, and the absence of available oxygen. Individual isolates are being screened for activities associated with microbially induced corrosion of metals (MIC). Preliminary determination of growth rates of whole YM microbial communities under varying conditions was also undertaken

  19. Public policy and risk financing strategies for global catastrophe risk management - the role of global risk initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, Patrick; Mitchell, Andrew; Anderson, Rebecca

    2010-05-01

    Decision-makers in both public and private organisations depend on accurate data and scientific understanding to adequately address climate change and the impact of extreme events. The financial impacts of catastrophes on populations and infrastructure can be offset through effective risk transfer mechanisms, structured to reflect the specific perils and levels of exposure to be covered. Optimal strategies depend on the likely socio-econonomic impact, the institutional framework, the overall objectives of the covers placed and the level of both the frequency and severity of loss potential expected. The diversity of approaches across different countries has been documented by the Spanish "Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros". We discuss why international public/private partnerships are necessary for addressing the risk of natural catastrophes. International initiatives such as the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) and the World Forum of Catastrophe Programmes (WFCP) can provide effective guidelines for constructing natural catastrophe schemes. The World Bank has been instrumental in the creation of many of the existing schemes such as the Turkish Catastrophe Insurance Pool, the Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility and the Mongolian Index-Based Livestock Insurance Program. We review existing schemes and report on best practice in relation to providing protection against natural catastrophe perils. The suitability of catastrophe modelling approaches to support schemes across the world are discussed and we identify opportunities to improve risk assessment for such schemes through transparent frameworks for quantifying, pricing, sharing and financing catastrophe risk on a local and global basis.

  20. Strategies to initiate and control the nucleation behavior of bimetallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Gopi; de Graaf, Sytze; Ten Brink, Gert H; Persson, Per O Å; Kooi, Bart J; Palasantzas, George

    2017-06-22

    In this work we report strategies to nucleate bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) made by gas phase synthesis of elements showing difficulty in homogeneous nucleation. It is shown that the nucleation assisted problem of bimetallic NP synthesis can be solved via the following pathways: (i) selecting an element which can itself nucleate and act as a nucleation center for the synthesis of bimetallic NPs; (ii) introducing H 2 or CH 4 as an impurity/trace gas to initiate nucleation during the synthesis of bimetallic NPs. The latter can solve the problem if none of the elements in a bimetallic NP can initiate nucleation. We illustrate the abovementioned strategies for the case of Mg based bimetallic NPs, which are interesting as hydrogen storage materials and exhibit both nucleation and oxidation issues even under ultra-high vacuum conditions. In particular, it is shown that adding H 2 in small proportions favors the formation of a solid solution/alloy structure even in the case of immiscible Mg and Ti, where normally phase separation occurs during synthesis. In addition, we illustrate the possibility of improving the nucleation rate, and controlling the structure and size distribution of bimetallic NPs using H 2 /CH 4 as a reactive/nucleating gas. This is shown to be associated with the dimer bond energies of the various formed species and the vapor pressures of the metals, which are key factors for NP nucleation.

  1. Exploring technology impacts of Healthcare 2.0 initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randeree, Ebrahim

    2009-04-01

    As Internet access proliferates and technology becomes more accessible, the number of people online has been increasing. Web 2.0 and the social computing phenomena (such as Facebook, Friendster, Flickr, YouTube, Blogger, and MySpace) are creating a new reality on the Web: Users are changing from consumers of Web-available information and resources to generators of information and content. Moving beyond telehealth and Web sites, the push toward Personal Health Records has emerged as a new option for patients to take control of their medical data and to become active participants in the push toward widespread digitized healthcare. There is minimal research on the impact of Web 2.0 in healthcare. This paper reviews the changing patient-physician relationship in the Healthcare 2.0 environment, explores the technological challenges, and highlights areas for research.

  2. Developing and implementing a data acquisition strategy for global agricultural monitoring: an inter-agency initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, C. O.; Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Killough, B.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, in response to global food crises, the G20 Agricultural Ministers launched a satellite-based global agricultural monitoring initiative to develop the Group on Earth Observations Global Agriculture Monitoring (GEOGLAM) system. The GEO is aimed at enhancing the availability and use of both satellite and in situ data for societal benefit. This initiative builds on the observation requirements developed by the GEO Agricultural Community of Practice, the understanding that no one satellite system can currently provide all the data needed for agricultural monitoring and the resulting recommendation for improved acquisition and availability of data by the World's space agencies. Implicit in this recommendation is the fact that certain regions of the Earth are imagery rich while others are imagery poor, leaving knowledge gaps about agricultural processes and food supply for certain areas of the World. In order to respond to these knowledge gaps and to strengthen national, regional, and global agricultural monitoring networks, GEOGLAM is working with the Committee on Earth Observations (CEOS), the space arm of GEO, to develop a coordinated global acquisition strategy. A key component of GEOGLAM is an effort to articulate the temporal and spatial Earth Observation (EO) requirements for monitoring; second, the identification of current and planned missions which are capable of fulfilling these EO requirements; and third, the development of a multi-agency, multi-mission image acquisition strategy for agricultural monitoring. CEOS engineers and GEOGLAM scientists have been collaborating on the EO requirements since 2012, and are now beginning the first implementation phase of the acquisition strategy. The goal is to put in place an operational system of systems using a virtual constellation of satellite-based sensors acquiring data to meet the needs for monitoring and early warning of shortfalls in agricultural production, a goal that was articulated in the 1970's

  3. Different initiatives across Europe to enhance losartan utilization post generics: impact and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, James C.; Godman, Brian; Petzold, Max; Alvarez-Madrazo, Samantha; Bennett, Kathleen; Bishop, Iain; Bucsics, Anna; Hesse, Ulrik; Martin, Andrew; Simoens, Steven; Zara, Corinne; Malmström, Rickard E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There is an urgent need for health authorities across Europe to fully realize potential savings from increased use of generics to sustain their healthcare systems. A variety of strategies were used across Europe following the availability of generic losartan, the first angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) to be approved and marketed, to enhance its prescribing vs. single-sourced drugs in the class. Demand-side strategies ranged from 100% co-payment for single-sourced ARBs in Denmark to no specific measures. We hypothesized this heterogeneity of approaches would provide opportunities to explore prescribing in a class following patent expiry. Objective: Contrast the impact of the different approaches among European countries and regions to the availability of generic losartan to provide future guidance. Methodology: Retrospective segmented regression analyses applying linear random coefficient models with country specific intercepts and slopes were used to assess the impact of the various initiatives across Europe following the availability of generic losartan. Utilization measured in defined daily doses (DDDs). Price reductions for generic losartan were also measured. Results: Utilization of losartan was over 90% of all ARBs in Denmark by the study end. Multiple measures in Sweden and one English primary care group also appreciably enhanced losartan utilization. Losartan utilization actually fell in some countries with no specific demand-side measures. Considerable differences were seen in the prices of generic losartan. Conclusion: Delisting single-sourced ARBs produced the greatest increase in losartan utilization. Overall, multiple demand-side measures are needed to change physician prescribing habits to fully realize savings from generics. There is no apparent “spill over” effect from one class to another to influence future prescribing patterns even if these are closely related. PMID:25339902

  4. Risk management strategy for initiating nuclear desalination in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Full text:The Gulf countries are one of the most water short regions in the world, classified from the arid and semiarid regions. The average precipitation received is 100 mm/year which indicate very limited renewable water resources per capita and per hectare of irrigated land. The water resources in gulf countries not only continued under pressure, but also it drought from other factors such as increasing population and water demand for irrigation and industrial use. Furthermore, Rain is considered the only source of recharging the ground water in the gulf countries and its fall depends upon the storms that occur irregularly in respect of quantity or distribution year-round. While the countries of the Gulf region have the capacity to rapidly expand their economic growth and gross domestic product (GDP). Also, one may observe that their growth rate is very high. For solving their limitation to use fresh water and to develop and sustain their economy and development, they need to nuclear desalinations. Risk management strategy helps to reduce issues in initiating nuclear desalination plants. There are vast theories, strategies and tools that have discussed in regards to risk management strategy in the nuclear desalinations. However, this paper chiefly provides and introduces a new risk management methodology in the Gulf countries This methodology helps to highlight the critical factors and their consequences at nuclear desalinations. This paper is intended to reduce risks in using nuclear desalinations and increase opportunities. Also, the objectives of this paper are how to plan and initiate nuclear desalination plants in Gulf Countries. Consequently, the new methodology helps their sustainable water industry.

  5. Strategy for an assessment of cumulative ecological impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, P.; Collins, J.; Nelsen, J.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a strategy to conduct an assessment of the cumulative ecological impact of operations at the 300-square-mile Savannah River Site. This facility has over 400 identified waste units and contains several large watersheds. In addition to individual waste units, residual contamination must be evaluated in terms of its contribution to ecological risks at zonal and site-wide levels. DOE must be able to generate sufficient information to facilitate cleanup in the immediate future within the context of a site-wide ecological risk assessment that may not be completed for many years. The strategy superimposes a more global perspective on ecological assessments of individual waste units and provides strategic underpinnings for conducting individual screening-level and baseline risk assessments at the operable unit and zonal or watershed levels. It identifies ecological endpoints and risk assessment tools appropriate for each level of the risk assessment. In addition, it provides a clear mechanism for identifying clean sites through screening-level risk assessments and for elevating sites with residual contamination to the next level of assessment. Whereas screening-level and operable unit-level risk assessments relate directly to cleanup, zonal and site-wide assessments verity or confirm the overall effectiveness of remediation. The latter assessments must show, for example, whether multiple small areas with residual pesticide contamination that have minimal individual impact would pose a cumulative risk from bioaccumulation because they are within the habitat range of an ecological receptor

  6. The Impact of Brand Awareness on Companies` Marketing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Zaif

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper,we will try to emphasize the importance of brand awareness and its significant role in brand-building,discussing how companies implementing brand-awareness marketing strategies will have a substantial role in creating brand image,strenghten brand equity and increase profitability . Firstly,we will conduct an empirical research based on previous published literature concerning brand awareness and will discuss the effectiveness of marketing strategies that incorporate in their objectives brand awareness increase,acknowledging its impact on significant factors such as brand image ,sales increase,influencing customer behaviour and other important equity-related aspects.We will try to corroborate our statements by referring to a marketing strategy designed to enhance brand awareness and stimulate other brand-equity dimensions (brand association,brand loyalty,etc.,as well as generate higher sales revenues , namely sponsorship and we will discuss a particular category,respectively sponsorship in the sports industry.The study case wil be concluded with an example of a succesfull partnership involving a sponsorship agreement between a reputable multinational food and beverage corporation,PepsiCo(known for famous products such as Pepsi soft drinks and foods such as Lay`s Chips and one of the most important events expected by football enthusiasts around the world,the UEFA Champions` League annual tournament.

  7. Communication strategies to address geohydrological risks: the POLARIS web initiative in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Paola; Pernice, Umberto; Bianchi, Cinzia; Marchesini, Ivan; Fiorucci, Federica; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2016-06-01

    Floods and landslides are common phenomena that cause serious damage and pose a severe threat to the population of Italy. The social and economic impact of floods and landslides in Italy is severe, and strategies to target the mitigation of the effects of these phenomena are needed. In the last few years, the scientific community has started to use web technology to communicate information on geohydrological hazards and the associated risks. However, the communication is often targeted at technical experts. In the attempt to communicate relevant information on geohydrological hazards with potential human consequences to a broader audience, we designed the POpoLazione A RISchio (POLARIS) website. POLARIS publishes accurate information on geohydrological risk to the population of Italy, including periodic reports on landslide and flood risk, analyses of specific damaging events and blog posts on landslide and flood events. By monitoring the access to POLARIS in the 21-month period between January 2014 and October 2015, we found that access increased during particularly damaging geohydrological events and immediately after the website was advertised by press releases. POLARIS demonstrates that the scientific community can implement suitable communication strategies that address different societal audiences, exploiting the role of mass media and social media. The strategies can help multiple audiences understand how risks can be reduced through appropriate measures and behaviours, contributing to increasing the resilience of the population to geohydrological risk.

  8. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative: Unconventional Fuel Development Issues, Impacts, and Management Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Hagood, M.; Pasqualini, D.; Wood, T.; Wilson, C.; Witkowski, M.; Levitt, D.; Pawar, R.; Keating, G.; Ziock, H.

    2008-12-01

    The United States is increasingly dependent on imported oil and gas; commodities for which other nations are competing and for which future supply may be inadequate to support our transportation fuel needs. Therefore, a renewed interest in 'harder-to-get' unconventional fuels has emerged in both industry and government with directed focus on world class hydrocarbon resources within a corridor extending from Canada southward through the Rocky Mountain States. Within this Western Energy Corridor, co-located with significant conventional hydrocarbon and renewable energy resources, lie some of the world's richest unconventional hydrocarbon resources in oil shales, oil sands and coal for coal-to-liquid conversion. However, development of these resources poses substantial environmental concerns as well as increasing competition for limited resources of water and habitat. With large-scale energy development in the predominantly rural region, local communities, infrastructures, and economies will face increasing demands for roads, electricity, law enforcement, labor, and other support services. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI) seeks to develop an integrated assessment of the impacts of unconventional fuel development, the interrelationships of planned energy developments in different basins, and the resultant demands placed on the region. This initial WECI study focuses on two of the most important current issues for industry, regulators, and stakeholders -- the assessment of carbon and water resources issues, impacts, and management strategies. Through scenario analyses using coupled systems and process level models, this study investigates the viability of integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon neutral and environmentally acceptable manner, and the interrelationships of various energy resource development plans. The modeling framework is designed to extend to include infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal and economic demands

  9. The regions and global warming: Impacts and response strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    To date, much of the attention given to global warming in scientific research as well as in policy development has focused on the global picture. International negotiations and agreements to stabilize, and eventually reduce, greenhouse gas emissions are very important. By themselves, however, they are not sufficient to address global warming. Regional strategies are also needed. They can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and they will be the most effective way to mitigate the consequences of global warming. Adaptive strategies must respond to local and regional conditions. In many countries, subnational jurisdictions such as states and provinces or community organizations can already take effective actions without direction from their national government or waiting for international agreements. An important factor in defining regional approaches is the disparate consequences of climate change for developed and developing areas. Different strategies will also be needed for industrial and agricultural regions. Wealthy industrial regions may be better able to develop capital-intensive, adaptive infrastructure than regions with fewer discretionary resources where people are more vulnerable to the vagaries of weather patterns. On the other hand, regions that rely on indigenous knowledge and local resources may be better equipped to make incremental adaptations and more willing to modify life-styles. Ultimately, all climate change effects are experienced in specific places and effective response depends upon local action. We recognize that individual localities cannot solve a problem of global proportions by acting alone. However, a regional strategy can supplement international and national action and be the focal point for addressing risks in the unique social and economic context of a particular area. These meetings discussions dealt with the impacts and implications of climate change on such things as agriculture, forestry, and policy

  10. Initial studies on temperature impact of humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashalidis, I.; Colocassidou, C.; Costa, C.N.; Efstathiou, A.M.; Buckau, G.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of temperature on the stability of the humic acid Gohy-573(HA) is studied. The studies are made both in order to add general knowledge about humic acid but also in order to provide the basis for experimental setup of studies, and judgment of published data, on the metal ion humate complexation as a function of temperature. Methods applied are mass spectroscopy as a function of temperature elevation up to 240 C, and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Mass spectroscopy is conducted under inertgas atmosphere in order to avoid burning with air oxygen. UV/Vis spectra are measured after storage of humic acid solution (pH=6.0, I=0.1 M NaClO 4 ) at temperatures up to 95 C. The reversibility of changes is also studied by UV/Vis spectroscopy after subsequent storage at room temperature. Already at 50 C release of water is observed from dried humic acid with a peak around 60 C. A second large water release is found with the maximum around 100 C. Above 100 C also carbon dioxide is released, followed by release of carbon monoxide above 130 C. The carbon monoxide and dioxide releases show two distinct maxima at around 180 and 210 C. The UV/Vis spectra show an increase in the absorption towards short wavelengths with increasing temperature and storage time. Already at 60 C, considerable changes occur after storage for one week. At 95 C the change in the spectral feature after 24 h is in the order of that found for 1 week storage at 80 C. After storage at elevated temperatures, the changes in the spectra remain even after 1 week of storage at room temperature. Release of water, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide at high temperature is certainly related to oxidation with the high oxygen inventory in humic acid. The nature of the water release and changes in the UV/Vis spectra at lower temperature is not fully clear. Further experiments, including complexation properties, fluorescence spectroscopy and IR-reflection spectroscopy at elevated temperature are under consideration. (orig.)

  11. An Evidence-Based Review of Impacts, Strategies and Tools to Mitigate Urban Heat Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Leal Filho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate changes on cities, which are home to over half of the world’s population, are already being felt. In many cases, the intensive speed with which urban centres have been growing means that little attention has been paid to the role played by climatic factors in maintaining quality of life. Among the negative consequences of rapid city growth is the expansion of the problems posed by urban heat islands (UHIs, defined as areas in a city that are much warmer than other sites, especially in comparison with rural areas. This paper analyses the consistency of the UHI-related literature in three stages: first it outlines its characteristics and impacts in a wide variety of cities around the world, which poses pressures to public health in many different countries. Then it introduces strategies which may be employed in order to reduce its effects, and finally it analyses available tools to systematize the initial high level assessment of the phenomenon for multidisciplinary teams involved in the urban planning process. The analysis of literature on the characteristics, impacts, strategies and digital tools to assess on the UHI, reveals the wide variety of parameters, methods, tools and strategies analysed and suggested in the different studies, which does not always allow to compare or standardize the diagnosis or solutions.

  12. An Evidence-Based Review of Impacts, Strategies and Tools to Mitigate Urban Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Filho, Walter; Echevarria Icaza, Leyre; Emanche, Victoria Omeche; Quasem Al-Amin, Abul

    2017-01-01

    The impacts of climate changes on cities, which are home to over half of the world’s population, are already being felt. In many cases, the intensive speed with which urban centres have been growing means that little attention has been paid to the role played by climatic factors in maintaining quality of life. Among the negative consequences of rapid city growth is the expansion of the problems posed by urban heat islands (UHIs), defined as areas in a city that are much warmer than other sites, especially in comparison with rural areas. This paper analyses the consistency of the UHI-related literature in three stages: first it outlines its characteristics and impacts in a wide variety of cities around the world, which poses pressures to public health in many different countries. Then it introduces strategies which may be employed in order to reduce its effects, and finally it analyses available tools to systematize the initial high level assessment of the phenomenon for multidisciplinary teams involved in the urban planning process. The analysis of literature on the characteristics, impacts, strategies and digital tools to assess on the UHI, reveals the wide variety of parameters, methods, tools and strategies analysed and suggested in the different studies, which does not always allow to compare or standardize the diagnosis or solutions. PMID:29257100

  13. "Endovascular embolic hemispherectomy": a strategy for the initial management of catastrophic holohemispheric epilepsy in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima; Pearl, Monica S; Tsuchida, Tammy N; Chang, Taeun; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Gaillard, William D

    2017-03-01

    Conflicting challenges abound in the management of the newborn with intractable epilepsy related to hemimegalencephaly. Early hemispherectomy to stop seizures and prevent deleterious consequences to future neurocognitive development must be weighed against the technical and anesthetic challenges of performing major hemispheric surgery in the neonate. We hereby present our experience with two neonates with hemimegalencephaly and intractable seizures who were managed using a strategy of initial minimally invasive embolization of the cerebral blood supply to the involved hemisphere. Immediate significant seizure control was achieved after embolization of the cerebral blood supply to the involved hemisphere followed by delayed ipsilateral hemispheric resection at a later optimal age. The considerations and challenges encountered in the course of the management of these patients are discussed, and a literature review is presented.

  14. The Impact of Corporate Sustainability Strategies on the Financial Performance of Romanian Companies in the Context of Green Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Siminică

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current research paper aims at making a comprehensive analysis of the current green marketing initiatives adopted by the top performing Romanian companies, in order to understand the determinant factors that influence their green approach and to evaluate the impact of the sustainability strategies implemented on their financial performance. The research of business sustainability strategies in 31 top performing companies in Romania is conducted by analyzing their green marketing initiatives, the ability to communicate online current and past Corporate Sustainability (CS actions (substantive action and their future commitments towards green marketing (symbolic action. The authors also analyzed the impact of companies’ dimensions on their green performance and commitment, substantiating that the size of a company is a significant influential factor. The analysis of the impact of substantive and symbolic action on the financial performance of the companies shows that there is not a significant correlation between these indicators.

  15. Understanding the impact of eating disorders: using the reflecting team as a learning strategy for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Alicia; Evans, Nicola; Evans, Anne-Marie

    2018-02-08

    This article outlines how the application of a reflecting team from systemic family therapy practice was used as a learning strategy for a postgraduate programme for healthcare students. The programme was designed to increase the students' skills, knowledge and awareness of the needs of people with eating disorders, and their families. There were some benefits to this learning strategy. Students reported that the use of a reflecting team enabled them to gain a deep understanding of the emotional impact of eating disorders on individuals and their carers. However, as this method of learning was new to the students, they needed some initial instruction on the approach. During the programme of study, it became evident that the health professionals were deeply affected by the experiences of people with eating disorders. This would suggest that possibly it was the presence of the sufferers themselves as part of the reflecting team that provided the pivotal learning opportunity, rather than the reflecting team per se.

  16. Impact of Laboratory Test Use Strategies in a Turkish Hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Meriç Yılmaz

    Full Text Available Eliminating unnecessary laboratory tests is a good way to reduce costs while maintain patient safety. The aim of this study was to define and process strategies to rationalize laboratory use in Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital (ANH and calculate potential savings in costs.A collaborative plan was defined by hospital managers; joint meetings with ANHTA and laboratory professors were set; the joint committee invited relevant staff for input, and a laboratory efficiency committee was created. Literature was reviewed systematically to identify strategies used to improve laboratory efficiency. Strategies that would be applicable in local settings were identified for implementation, processed, and the impact on clinical use and costs assessed for 12 months.Laboratory use in ANH differed enormously among clinics. Major use was identified in internal medicine. The mean number of tests per patient was 15.8. Unnecessary testing for chloride, folic acid, free prostate specific antigen, hepatitis and HIV testing were observed. Test panel use was pinpointed as the main cause of overuse of the laboratory and the Hospital Information System test ordering page was reorganized. A significant decrease (between 12.6-85.0% was observed for the tests that were taken to an alternative page on the computer screen. The one year study saving was equivalent to 371,183 US dollars.Hospital-based committees including laboratory professionals and clinicians can define hospital based problems and led to a standardized approach to test use that can help clinicians reduce laboratory costs through appropriate use of laboratory tests.

  17. The Impact of Relationship Marketing Strategy in Indonesia Retail Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Pandapotan Simbolon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the impact of relationship marketing strategy on customer loyalty in Indonesia’s retail industries. A questionnaire derived from previous studies and the relevant literature was completed by 182 retail customers in Jakarta. Multiple regression analysis assessed the impact on customer loyalty of four key constructs of relationship marketing (trust, commitment, communication, and conflict handling. The two variables (trust and commitment had a significant effect and predicted a good proportion of the variance in customer loyalty. Moreover, they were significantly related to one another. The relationships investigated in this study deserved further research. Since the data analyzed were collected from one sector of the service industry in one region, more studies were required before general conclusions can be drawn. It is reasonable to conclude, on this evidence, that customer loyalty can be created, reinforced, and retained by marketing plans aimed at building trust, demonstrating a commitment to service, communicating with customers in a timely, reliable and proactive fashion, and handling conflict efficiently, reinforces and refines the body of knowledge relating to customer loyalty in service industries.

  18. The impact of global health initiatives on the health system in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craveiro, Isabel; Dussault, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the impact of global health initiatives (GHIs) on the health care system of Angola, as a contribution to documenting how GHIs, such as the Global Fund, GAVI and PEPFAR, influence the planning and delivery of health services in low-income countries and how national systems respond. We collected the views of national and sub-national key informants through 42 semi-structured interviews between April 2009 and May 2011 (12 at the national level and 30 at the sub-national level). We used a snowball technique to identify respondents from government, donors and non-governmental organisations. GHIs stimulated the formulation of a health policy and of plans and strategies, but the country has yet to decide on its priorities for health. At the regional level, managers lack knowledge of how GHIs' function, but they assess the effects of external funds as positive as they increased training opportunities, and augment the number of workers engaged in HIV or other specific disease programmes. However, GHIs did not address the challenge of attraction and retention of qualified personnel in provinces. Since Angola is not entirely dependent on external funding, national strategic programmes and the interventions of GHIs co-habit well, in contrast to countries such as Mozambique, which heavily depend on external aid.

  19. The Impact of Teaching Communication Strategies on English Speaking of Engineering Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsom, Tiwaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of teaching communication strategies on Thai engineering undergraduate students' communication strategy use and strategic competence. Fifty-seven engineering undergraduate students were taught ten communication strategies for ten weeks and responded to a self-report communication strategy questionnaire before and…

  20. Leadership Strategies of Performance Measures Impacts in Public Sector Management: A National Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, James Joseph

    A quantitative and qualitative study examined three leadership strategies found in performance-based management (human resource, scientific management and political strategies used in public sector management); a framework by which performance measurement (PM) supports leadership strategies; and how the strategies impact PM. It examined leadership…

  1. "Initiate-build-operate-transfer" - a strategy for establishing sustainable telemedicine programs not only in the developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat

    2011-01-01

    Establishing sustainable telemedicine has become a goal of many developing countries around the world. Yet, despite initiatives from a select few individuals and on occasion from various governments, often these initiatives never mature to become sustainable programs. The introduction of telemedicine and e-learning in the Balkans has been a pivotal step in advancing the quality and availability of medical services in a region whose infrastructure and resources have been decimated by wars, neglect, lack of funding, and poor management. The concept and establishment of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has significantly impacted telemedicine and e-health services in Kosova. The success of the IVeH in Kosova has led to the development of similar programs in other Balkan countries and other developing countries in the hope of modernizing and improving their healthcare infrastructure. A comprehensive, four-pronged strategy developed by IVeH "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), may be a useful approach in establishing telemedicine and e-health educational services not only in developing countries, but in developed countries. The development strategy, IBOT, used by the IVeH to establish and develop telemedicine programs is described. IBOT includes assessment of healthcare needs of each country, the development of a curriculum and education program, the establishment of a nationwide telemedicine network, and the integration of the telemedicine program into the very core of healthcare infrastructure. The end point is the transfer of a sustainable telehealth program to the nation involved. By applying IBOT, a sustainable telemedicine program of Kosova and Albania has been established as an effective prototype for telemedicine in the Balkans. Once fully matured, the program is transitioned to the Ministry of Health, which ensures the sustainability and ownership of the program. Similar programs are being established in Macedonia, Montenegro and other countries

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment strategies for initial Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varier, R U; Biltaji, E; Smith, K J; Roberts, M S; Jensen, M K; LaFleur, J; Nelson, R E

    2014-12-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is costly. Current guidelines recommend metronidazole as first-line therapy and vancomycin as an alternative. Recurrence is common. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy for recurrent CDI (RCDI). This study explores the cost-effectiveness of FMT, vancomycin and metronidazole for initial CDI. We constructed a decision-analytic computer simulation using inputs from published literature to compare FMT with a 10-14-day course of oral metronidazole or vancomycin for initial CDI. Parameters included cure rates (baseline value (range)) for metronidazole (80% (65-85%)), vancomycin (90% (88-92%)) and FMT(91% (83-100%)). Direct costs of metronidazole, vancomycin and FMT, adjusted to 2011 dollars, were $57 ($43-72), $1347 ($1195-1499) and $1086 ($815-1358), respectively. Our effectiveness measure was quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted from the third-party payer perspective. Analysis using baseline values showed that FMT($1669, 0.242 QALYs) dominated (i.e. was less costly and more effective) vancomycin ($1890, 0.241 QALYs). FMT was more costly and more effective than metronidazole ($1167, 0.238 QALYs), yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $124 964/QALY. One-way sensitivity analyses showed that metronidazole dominated both strategies if its probability of cure were >90%; FMT dominated if it cost costly. FMT and vancomycin are more effective. However, FMT is less likely to be economically favourable, and vancomycin is unlikely to be favourable as first-line therapy when compared with FMT. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  3. Impact of Advanced Practice Registered Nurses on Quality Measures: The Missouri Quality Initiative Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, Marilyn J; Popejoy, Lori; Vogelsmeier, Amy; Galambos, Colleen; Alexander, Greg; Flesner, Marcia; Murray, Cathy; Crecelius, Charles; Ge, Bin; Petroski, Gregory

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the impact of advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) on the quality measure (QM) scores of the 16 participating nursing homes of the Missouri Quality Initiative (MOQI) intervention. The MOQI was one of 7 program sites in the US, with specific interventions unique to each site tested for the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services Innovations Center. While the goals of the MOQI for long-stay nursing home residents did not specifically include improvement of the QM scores, it was anticipated that improvement most likely would occur. Primary goals of the MOQI were to reduce the frequency of avoidable hospital admissions and readmissions; improve resident health outcomes; improve the process of transitioning between inpatient hospitals and nursing facilities; and reduce overall healthcare spending without restricting access to care or choice of providers. A 2-group comparison analysis was conducted using statewide QMs; a matched comparison group was selected from facilities in the same counties as the intervention homes, similar baseline QM scores, similar size and ownership. MOQI nursing homes each had an APRN embedded full-time to improve care and help the facility achieve MOQI goals. Part of their clinical work with residents and staff was to focus on quality improvement strategies with potential to influence healthcare outcomes. Trajectories of QM scores for the MOQI intervention nursing homes and matched comparison group homes were tested with nonparametric tests to examine for change in the desired direction between the 2 groups from baseline to 36 months. A composite QM score for each facility was constructed, and baseline to 36-month average change scores were examined using nonparametric tests. Then, adjusting for baseline, a repeated measures analysis using analysis of covariance as conducted. Composite QM scores of the APRN intervention group were significantly better (P = .025) than the comparison group

  4. The development and initial assessment of the strategy and leadership systems capability evaluation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Cheryl D; Bokowy, Kay L; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Zisman, Robert S; McLeod, Lori D; Brown, T Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Hospital management and leadership systems are associated with organizational success and quality care. The Strategy and Leadership Systems Capability Evaluation (CE) survey was developed by GE Healthcare to assess management and leadership systems at health care institutions, serve as a benchmark for improvement, and measure progress. To assess the psychometric properties of the 29-item CE survey, including the factor structure, scoring algorithm, reliability, and discriminant validity, an online survey was completed by 3450 employees at 15 US hospitals. Of these employees, 609 worked at a hospital where a leadership and management intervention occurred after the initial survey administration. Data were also collected on job level, number of hospital beds, hospital ownership, location, community type, and the implementation of hospital interventions. Item response frequencies showed no floor or ceiling effects and limited missing data. Interitem correlations were strong without obvious redundancies, and factor analysis suggested a unidimensional scale. The resulting scale had strong internal consistency and was able to discriminate among known groups. The CE survey was developed to evaluate management and leadership systems at health care institutions. This study provides psychometric evidence in support of the reliability, validity, and scoring structure of this survey.

  5. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption.

  6. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption

  7. Star marketer’s impact on the market strategy choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlašić Goran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on understanding the role of star marketers in pursuing a market-driven vs. a market-driving strategy. Results indicate that market-driving and market-driven strategies are two approaches that can be pursued by market-oriented firms. A star marketer has a robust positive influence on market-driving strategy. In contrast, a star marketer has no meaningful influence on market-driven strategy. In short, while star marketers are very important for market-driving strategy and long term success, they represent an unnecessary cost and provide no added value to companies focusing on market-driven strategies and short term results.

  8. IMPACT OF MARKETING STRATEGIES ON SACHET PRODUCTS IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A product is anything that can be accessible to the market for satisfaction. The basic objective of marketing is maximum satisfaction since satisfaction of consumer and business performance is positively related to each other. For satisfaction, product is diversified in different categories i.e. generic product, product type product, substitute product and product line etc. Sachet product is one of the expansions of product line. The term ‘Sachet’ is originated from the French word which means “mini”. In Bangladesh, sachet product has a strong market share. Thus, this study attempts to determine the exiting share of sachet product and measure the impact of marketing strategies on sachet product in Bangladesh. This study uses the selective 22 dimensions to favor the sachet product on the basis of 4Ps (Product, Price, Place and Promotion. To accomplish the study, 125 samples have been taken from selective markets in Cosmopolitan city, Chittagong. The study found that sachet product has strong market position comparative with other categories of products, where promotional effect is the dominant factor who played the vital role to sustain the sachet product in Bangladesh. The results of this study will be constructive for executives and policy-makers of business organization who works with fast moving consumer good (FMCG items effectively in Bangladesh.

  9. Suicidality in sleep disorders: prevalence, impact, and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drapeau CW

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Christopher W Drapeau, Michael R Nadorff Department of Psychology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA Abstract: Sleep disturbances are associated with suicide-related thoughts and behaviors, and the incidence of sleep concerns and suicide has increased recently in the US. Most published research exploring the sleep–suicidality relation is focused on select sleep disorders, with few reviews offering a comprehensive overview of the sleep–suicidality literature. This narrative review broadly investigates the growing research literature on sleep disorders and suicidality, noting the prevalence of suicide ideation and nonfatal and fatal suicide attempts, the impact of several sleep disorders on suicide risk, and potential sleep-disorder management strategies for mitigating suicide risk. Aside from insomnia symptoms and nightmares, there exist opportunities to learn more about suicide risk across many sleep conditions, including whether sleep disorders are associated with suicide risk independently of other psychiatric conditions or symptoms. Generally, there is a lack of randomized controlled trials examining the modification of suicide risk via evidence-based sleep interventions for individuals with sleep disorders. Keywords: sleep, suicide, suicidality, insomnia, nightmares, treatment

  10. View from Silicon Valley: Maximizing the Scientific Impact of Global Brain Initiatives through Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pushkar S; Ghosh, Kunal K

    2016-11-02

    In this era of technology-driven global neuroscience initiatives, the role of the neurotechnology industry remains woefully ambiguous. Here, we explain why industry is essential to the success of these global initiatives, and how it can maximize the scientific impact of these efforts by (1) scaling and ultimately democratizing access to breakthrough neurotechnologies, and (2) commercializing technologies as part of integrated, end-to-end solutions that accelerate neuroscientific discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Compression of thick laminated composite beams with initial impact-like damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, N. L.; Guerdal, Z.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    While the study of compression after impact of laminated composites has been under consideration for many years, the complexity of the damage initiated by low velocity impact has not lent itself to simple predictive models for compression strength. The damage modes due to non-penetrating, low velocity impact by large diameter objects can be simulated using quasi-static three-point bending. The resulting damage modes are less coupled and more easily characterized than actual impact damage modes. This study includes the compression testing of specimens with well documented initial damage states obtained from three-point bend testing. Compression strengths and failure modes were obtained for quasi-isotropic stacking sequences from 0.24 to 1.1 inches thick with both grouped and interspersed ply stacking. Initial damage prior to compression testing was divided into four classifications based on the type, extent, and location of the damage. These classifications are multiple through-thickness delaminations, isolated delamination, damage near the surface, and matrix cracks. Specimens from each classification were compared to specimens tested without initial damage in order to determine the effects of the initial damage on the final compression strength and failure modes. A finite element analysis was used to aid in the understanding and explanation of the experimental results.

  12. Initiative Optimization Operation Strategy and Multi-objective Energy Management Method for Combined Cooling Heating and Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhao; Chenghui Zhang; Bo Sun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed an initiative optimization operation strategy and multi-objective energy management method for combined cooling heating and power(CCHP) with storage systems.Initially,the initiative optimization operation strategy of CCHP system in the cooling season,the heating season and the transition season was formulated.The energy management of CCHP system was optimized by the multi-objective optimization model with maximum daily energy efficiency,minimum daily carbon emissions and minimum daily operation cost based on the proposed initiative optimization operation strategy.Furthermore,the pareto optimal solution set was solved by using the niche particle swarm multi-objective optimization algorithm.Ultimately,the most satisfactory energy management scheme was obtained by using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution(TOPSIS) method.A case study of CCHP system used in a hospital in the north of China validated the effectiveness of this method.The results showed that the satisfactory energy management scheme of CCHP system was obtained based on this initiative optimization operation strategy and multi-objective energy management method.The CCHP system has achieved better energy efficiency,environmental protection and economic benefits.

  13. Impacts of model initialization on an integrated surface water - groundwater model

    KAUST Repository

    Ajami, Hoori

    2015-04-01

    Integrated hydrologic models characterize catchment responses by coupling the subsurface flow with land surface processes. One of the major areas of uncertainty in such models is the specification of the initial condition and its influence on subsequent simulations. A key challenge in model initialization is that it requires spatially distributed information on model states, groundwater levels and soil moisture, even when such data are not routinely available. Here, the impact of uncertainty in initial condition was explored across a 208 km2 catchment in Denmark using the ParFlow.CLM model. The initialization impact was assessed under two meteorological conditions (wet vs dry) using five depth to water table and soil moisture distributions obtained from various equilibrium states (thermal, root zone, discharge, saturated and unsaturated zone equilibrium) during the model spin-up. Each of these equilibrium states correspond to varying computation times to achieve stability in a particular aspect of the system state. Results identified particular sensitivity in modelled recharge and stream flow to the different initializations, but reduced sensitivity in modelled energy fluxes. Analysis also suggests that to simulate a year that is wetter than the spin-up period, an initialization based on discharge equilibrium is adequate to capture the direction and magnitude of surface water–groundwater exchanges. For a drier or hydrologically similar year to the spin-up period, an initialization based on groundwater equilibrium is required. Variability of monthly subsurface storage changes and discharge bias at the scale of a hydrological event show that the initialization impacts do not diminish as the simulations progress, highlighting the importance of robust and accurate initialization in capturing surface water–groundwater dynamics.

  14. Star marketer’s impact on the market strategy choice

    OpenAIRE

    Goran, Vlašić; Hair, Joe F.; Krupka, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    We focus on understanding the role of star marketers in pursuing a market-driven vs. a market-driving strategy. Results indicate that market-driving and market-driven strategies are two approaches that can be pursued by market-oriented firms. A star marketer has a robust positive influence on market-driving strategy. In contrast, a star marketer has no meaningful influence on market-driven strategy. In short, while star marketers are very important for market-driving strategy and long term su...

  15. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario (HSFO high blood pressure strategy's hypertension management initiative study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Von Sychowski Shirley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving control of hypertension prevents target organ damage at both the micro and macrovascular level and is a highly cost effective means of lowering the risk for heart attack and stroke particularly in people with diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrate that blood pressure control can be achieved in a large proportion of people. Translating this knowledge into widespread practice is the focus of the Hypertension Management Initiative, which began in 2004 with the goal of improving the management of this chronic health condition by primary care providers and patients in the community. Methods This study will test the effect of a systems change on the management of high blood pressure in real world practice in primary care in Ontario, Canada. The systems change intervention involves an interprofessional educational program bringing together physicians, nurses and pharmacists with tools for both providers and patients to facilitate blood pressure management. Each of two waves of subjects were enrolled over a 6 month period with the initial enrollment between waves separated by 9 months. Blood pressure will be measured with the BpTru ® automated blood pressure device. To determine the effectiveness of the intervention, a before and after analysis within all subjects will compare blood pressure at baseline to annual measurements for the three year study. To assess whether the intervention has an impact on blood pressure control independent of community trends, a betwen group comparison of baseline blood pressures in the delayed wave will be made with the immediate wave during the same time period, so that the immediate wave has experienced the intervention for at least 9 months. The total enrollment goal is 5,000 subjects. The practice locations include 10 Family Health Teams (FHTs and 1 Community Health Centre (CHC and approximately 49 primary care physicians, 15 nurse practitioners, 37 registered nurses and over 150

  16. U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Chong, Geneva W.; Drummond, Mark A.; Homer, Collin G.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Knick, Steven T.; Kosovich, John J.; Miller, Kirk A.; Owens, Tom; Shafer, Sarah L.; Sweat, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Southwest Wyoming's wildlife and habitat resources are increasingly affected by energy and urban/exurban development, climate change, and other key drivers of ecosystem change. To ensure that southwest Wyoming's wildlife populations and habitats persist in the face of development and other changes, a consortium of public resource-management agencies proposed the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), the overall goal of which is to implement conservation actions. As the principal agency charged with conducting WLCI science, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a Science Strategy for the WLCI. Workshops were held for all interested parties to identify and refine the most pressing management needs for achieving WLCI goals. Research approaches for addressing those needs include developing conceptual models for understanding ecosystem function, identifying key drivers of change affecting WLCI ecosystems, and conducting scientific monitoring and experimental studies to better understand ecosystems processes, cumulative effects of change, and effectiveness of habitat treatments. The management needs drive an iterative, three-phase framework developed for structuring and growing WLCI science efforts: Phase I entails synthesizing existing information to assess current conditions, determining what is already known about WLCI ecosystems, and providing a foundation for future work; Phase II entails conducting targeted research and monitoring to address gaps in data and knowledge during Phase I; and Phase III entails integrating new knowledge into WLCI activities and coordinating WLCI partners and collaborators. Throughout all three phases, information is managed and made accessible to interested parties and used to guide and improve management and conservation actions, future habitat treatments, best management practices, and other conservation activities.

  17. China's Coal Methane: Actors, Structures, Strategies and their Global Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ke; Charnoz, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    The need for China to alleviate its energy shortage, reduce its dependence on foreign sources and mitigate its climate impact is driving a dire quest for alternative fuels. Coal Mine Methane (CMM), in this context, holds significant potential. While the 11. Five-Year Plan aimed to capture and use 10 billion m"3 per year of CMM by 2010, the country achieved less than a quarter of this. This paper enquires into this puzzling outcome, which bears consequences for the world at large. China is indeed responsible for more than 40% of the world's total un-captured CMM emissions - which act as a greenhouse gas 21 times more potent than CO_2, and whose role in global warming is often underestimated, especially in short- and medium-term climate strategies. While the Chinese central government may have incentive to work towards promoting CMM, the benefits of such policies at the sub-national level are far from self-evident. National CMM policies can have significant economic and social costs at the local level, and thus their implementation can be jeopardized. Implementation of such policies is inherently ambiguous, conflicting, and as such, political. Current research on the Chinese CMM industry has largely focused on its techno-economic aspects, with little if any politico-institutional analyses. As for policy research on the larger Chinese energy sector, this seems sturdily to embody a top-down view: it mostly ends up blaming the country's decentralized governance structure and lack of a stringent implementation chain. Such top-down approaches do not help uncover 'the sinews of war': the range of less formal mechanisms, negotiations and agreements among the local actors, without which implementation does not in fact occur at the sub-national level. Nor do top-down research approaches facilitate inquiry into the way local stakeholders re-frame the meaning, content and impact of CMM policies. More generally, the top-down approaches fail to consider the significance of

  18. The impact of ART initiation on household food security over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patenaude, Bryan N; Chimbindi, Natsayi; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2018-02-01

    While evidence suggests that adequate nutrition contributes to the efficacy of ART, the potential causal impact of ART initiation on household food security has not been thoroughly examined. In this study, we present some of the first causal evidence of the impact of ART initiation on household food security. We employ a quasi-experimental design, regression discontinuity, over 5540 individuals from an ongoing population cohort study in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, by utilizing the CD4 count-based ART eligibility threshold to examine the impact of ART initiation on household food security. We find that ART initiation causes a significant increase in the probability of food insecurity in the first year, which diminishes to zero within three years of initiation. Within the first year, ART initiation was found to significantly increase the probabilities that (1) the surveyed adult had missed any food in the past month by 10.2 percentage points (coefficient = 0.102, 95%CI = [0.039, 0.166]); (2) any adult in the household had missed a meal in the past month by 15.2 percentage points (coefficient = 0.152, 95%CI = [0.073, 0.231]); and (3) any child in the household had missed a meal in the past month by 8.9 percentage points (coefficient = 0.0898, 95%CI = [0.0317, 0.148]). While we cannot definitively isolate the mechanistic pathways from ART to household food security, our results are consistent with ART affecting food security through household resource strain and patient appetite recovery. Several policies could mitigate the negative impact of ART on food security, in particular food parcels or food vouchers for ART patients in the first two years after treatment initiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Framework for Testing the Effectiveness of Bat and Eagle Impact-Reduction Strategies at Wind Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The objectives of this framework are to facilitate the study design and execution to test the effectiveness of bat and eagle impact-reduction strategies at wind energy sites. Through scientific field research, the wind industry and its partners can help determine if certain strategies are ready for operational deployment or require further development. This framework should be considered a living document to be improved upon as fatality-reduction technologies advance from the initial concepts to proven readiness (through project- and technology-specific testing) and as scientific field methods improve.

  20. Dosimetric impact of a frame-based strategy in stereotactic radiotherapy of lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldeland, Einar; Ramberg, Christina; Arnesen, Marius Roethe; Helland, Aaslaug; Brustugun, Odd Terje; Malinen, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Technological innovations have taken stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) from frame-based strategies to image-guided strategies. In this study, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images acquired prior to SBRT of patients with lung tumors was used to study the dosimetric impact of a pure frame-based strategy. Material and methods. Thirty patients with inoperable lung tumors were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had received CBCT-guided SBRT with 3 fractions of 15 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) margin including immobilization in a stereotactic body frame (SBF). Using the set-up corrections from the co-registration of the CBCT with the planning CT, all individual dose plans were recalculated with an isocenter position equal to the initial set-up position. Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) parameters of the recalculated dose plans were then analyzed. Results. The simulated plans showed that 88% of all fractions resulted in minimum 14.5 Gy to the internal target volume (ITV). For the simulated summed treatment (3 fractions per patient), 83% of the patients would minimum receive the prescription dose (45 Gy) to 100% of the ITV and all except one would receive the prescription dose to more than 90% of the ITV. Conclusions. SBRT including SBF, but without image guidance, results in appropriate dose coverage in most cases, using the current margins. With image guidance, margins for SBRT of lung tumors could possibly be reduced

  1. Approaches to evaluating climate change impacts on species: A guide to initiating the adaptation planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika L. Rowland; Jennifer E. Davison; Lisa J. Graumlich

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the impact of climate change on species and associated management objectives is a critical initial step for engaging in the adaptation planning process. Multiple approaches are available. While all possess limitations to their application associated with the uncertainties inherent in the data and models that inform their results, conducting and incorporating...

  2. Autobiographically recalled emotional states impact forward gait initiation as a function of motivational direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawver, Bradley; Hass, Chris J; Park, Kyoungshin D; Janelle, Christopher M

    2014-12-01

    The impact of self-generated affective states on self-initiated motor behavior remains unspecified. The purpose of the current study was to determine how self-generated emotional states impact forward gait initiation. Participants recalled past emotional experiences (anger, fear, happy, sad, and neutral), "relived" those emotional memories before gait initiation (GI), and then walked ∼4 m across the laboratory floor. Kinetic and kinematic data revealed GI characteristics consistent with a motivational direction hypothesis. Specifically, participants produced greater posterior-lateral displacement and velocity of their center of pressure (COP) during the initial phase of GI after self-generation of happy and anger emotional states relative to sad ones. During the second phase of GI, greater medial displacement of COP was found during the happy condition compared with sad, greater velocity was occasioned during happy and angry trials compared with sad, and greater velocity was exhibited after happy compared with fear memories. Finally, greater anterior velocity was produced by participants during the final phase of GI for happy and angry memories compared with sad ones. Steady state kinetic and kinematic data when recalling happy and angry memories (longer, faster, and more forceful stepping behavior) followed the anticipatory postural adjustments noted during GI. Together the results from GI and steady state gait provide robust evidence that self-generated emotional states impact forward gait behavior based on motivational direction. Endogenous manipulations of emotional states hold promise for clinical and performance interventions aimed at improving self-initiated movement.

  3. Strategies Utilized by Superintendents and Mathematics District Personnel That Impact Minority Student Outcomes in Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPree, Jared Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the constructs from effective instruction from the literature on teacher education to understand the impact of school district strategies on algebra outcomes for minority students. The purpose of this study was to examine the strategies utilized by superintendents and district personnel and the impact of these identified…

  4. Strategies for Selecting Routes through Real-World Environments: Relative Topography, Initial Route Straightness, and Cardinal Direction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tad T Brunyé

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that route planners use several reliable strategies for selecting between alternate routes. Strategies include selecting straight rather than winding routes leaving an origin, selecting generally south- rather than north-going routes, and selecting routes that avoid traversal of complex topography. The contribution of this paper is characterizing the relative influence and potential interactions of these strategies. We also examine whether individual differences would predict any strategy reliance. Results showed evidence for independent and additive influences of all three strategies, with a strong influence of topography and initial segment straightness, and relatively weak influence of cardinal direction. Additively, routes were also disproportionately selected when they traversed relatively flat regions, had relatively straight initial segments, and went generally south rather than north. Two individual differences, extraversion and sense of direction, predicted the extent of some effects. Under real-world conditions navigators indeed consider a route's initial straightness, cardinal direction, and topography, but these cues differ in relative influence and vary in their application across individuals.

  5. The uneven impact of the European Employment Strategy on member states' employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    2008-01-01

    policies to varying degrees, but that the impact, generally speaking, has been limited. In the article, the author examines the impact of the strategy as a result of peer pressure and key actors' strategic use of the strategy and shows how these mechanisms work. Factors that can explain why greater impact......In the mid-1990s, EU member states decided to coordinate their national employment policies through a common European Employment Strategy (EES). Building on a systematic comparative study of four member states, the author argues that the strategy has influenced the member states' employment...

  6. Impacts, trends and strategies in urban transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the urban mobility evolution from 1985 to 1995 and the possible future assets for transportation demand. For some scenarios are quantized the environmental impacts and energetic impacts [it

  7. Impact of Advocacy Initiatives on Nurses' Motivation to Sustain Momentum in Public Policy Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Melissa R S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elicit insight from the public policy leaders of 2 regional professional nursing organizations on key qualities of their current advocacy initiatives that motivate nurses to sustain momentum in public policy advocacy beyond a single episode. The goal is to inform quality improvement in the development of future advocacy initiatives to increase sustained engagement of nurses. Social cognitive theory was used as the rationale for this qualitative, descriptive study. A purposive convenience sample of executive leadership and board committee members from 2 regional professional nursing organizations were recruited to complete an initial Web-based electronic survey, followed by separate semistructured interview focus groups. One organization was composed primarily of advanced practice registered nurses, and the other group composed of diverse, multispecialty nursing members with varied educational levels. Nine themes emerged, categorized as facilitators or challenges to the positive impact of advocacy initiatives on nurses' motivation. Highlighting and marketing facilitators to the positive impact of advocacy initiatives on nurses' motivation to sustain momentum in public policy advocacy, while designing and testing new initiatives that address the challenges, may increase the number of nurses who sustain engagement in the policy advocacy process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonlinear Coupled Dynamics of a Rod Fastening Rotor under Rub-Impact and Initial Permanent Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear coupled dynamic model of a rod fastening rotor under rub-impact and initial permanent deflection was developed in this paper. The governing motion equation was derived by the D’Alembert principle considering the contact characteristic between disks, nonlinear oil-film force, rub-impact force, unbalance mass, etc. The contact effects between disks was modeled as a flexural spring with cubical nonlinear stiffness. The coupled nonlinear dynamic phenomena of the rub-impact rod fastening rotor bearing system with initial permanent deflection were investigated by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Bifurcation diagram, vibration waveform, frequency spectrum, shaft orbit and Poincaré map are used to illustrate the rich diversity of the system response with complicated dynamics. The studies indicate that the coupled dynamic responses of the rod fastening rotor bearing system under rub-impact and initial permanent deflection exhibit a rich nonlinear dynamic diversity, synchronous periodic-1 motion, multiple periodic motion, quasi-periodic motion and chaotic motion can be observed under certain conditions. Larger radial stiffness of the stator will simplify the system motion and make the oil whirl weaker or even disappear at a certain rotating speed. With the increase of initial permanent deflection length, the instability speed of the system gradually rises, and the chaotic motion region gets smaller and smaller. The corresponding results can provide guidance for the fault diagnosis of a rub-impact rod fastening rotor with initial permanent deflection and contribute to the further understanding of the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the rod fastening rotor bearing system.

  9. Impact Safety Control Strategy for the Battery System of an Example Electric Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-po Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a side impact safety control strategy for the battery system, aiming at defusing the hazards of unacceptable behaviors of the battery system such as high-voltage hazards. Based on some collision identification metrics, a side impact discrimination algorithm and a side impact severity algorithm are developed for electric buses. Based on the study on the time to break for power battery, the side impact discrimination algorithm response time is about 20 ms posing a great challenge to the side impact discrimination algorithm. At the same time, the reliability of the impact safety control strategy developed in this paper is evaluated for other plausible side impact signals generated by finite element analysis. The results verify that the impact safety control strategy exhibits robust performance and is able to trigger a breaking signal for power battery system promptly and accurately.

  10. The Mutual Impact of Global Strategy and Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Lyles, Marjorie A.; Easterby-Smith, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Despite the interest in issues of knowing and learning in the global strategy field, there has been limited mutual engagement and interaction between the fields of global strategy and organizational learning. The purpose of our article is to reflect on and articulate how the mutual exchange...... of ideas between these fields can be encouraged. To this end, we first conduct a review of the intersection of the fields of global strategy and organizational learning. We then present two recommendations regarding how the interaction between the two fields can be enhanced. Our first recommendation...... is for global strategy research to adopt a broader notion of organizational learning. Our second recommendation is for global strategy research to capitalize on its attention to context in order to inform and enhance organizational learning theory. We discuss the use of context in a number of common research...

  11. Evaluation of optimization strategies and the effect of initial conditions on IMAT optimization using a leaf position optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Mike; Jensen, Michael; Chen, Jeff; Wong, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) is a rotational variant of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that can be implemented with or without angular dose rate variation. The purpose of this study is to assess optimization strategies and initial conditions using a leaf position optimization (LPO) algorithm altered for variable dose rate IMAT. A concave planning target volume (PTV) with a central cylindrical organ at risk (OAR) was used in this study. The initial IMAT arcs were approximated by multiple static beams at 5 deg. angular increments where multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions were determined from the beam's eye view to irradiate the PTV but avoid the OAR. For the optimization strategy, two arcs with arc ranges of 280 deg. and 150 deg. were employed and plans were created using LPO alone, variable dose rate optimization (VDRO) alone, simultaneous LPO and VDRO and sequential combinations of these strategies. To assess the MLC initialization effect, three single 360 deg. arc plans with different initial MLC configurations were generated using the simultaneous LPO and VDRO. The effect of changing optimization degrees of freedom was investigated by employing 3 deg., 5 deg. and 10 deg. angular sampling intervals for the two 280 deg., two 150 deg. and single arc plans using LPO and VDRO. The objective function value, a conformity index, a dose homogeneity index, mean dose to OAR and normal tissues were computed and used to evaluate the treatment plans. This study shows that the best optimization strategy for a concave target is to use simultaneous MLC LPO and VDRO. We found that the optimization result is sensitive to the choice of initial MLC aperture shapes suggesting that an LPO-based IMAT plan may not be able to overcome local minima for this geometry. In conclusion, simultaneous MLC leaf position and VDRO are needed with the most appropriate initial conditions (MLC positions, arc ranges and number of arcs) for IMAT.

  12. E-waste: impacts, issues and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Mumtaz, Saniea

    2014-01-01

    The present electronic era has seen massive proliferation of electrical and electronic equipment especially during the last two decades. These gadgets have become indispensable components of human life. The gravity of this sensitive 21st century problem is being felt by relevant stakeholders from the community to global level. Consequently, the annual global generation of e-waste is estimated to be 20-50 million tons. According to the Basel Action Network, 500 million computers contain 287 billion kilograms (kg) plastics; 716.7 million kg lead; and 286,700 kg mercury. These gadgets contain over 50 elements from the periodic table. The lethal components include heavy metals (like cadmium, mercury, copper, nickel, lead, barium, hexavalent chromium and beryllium); phosphor; plastics; and brominated flame retardants. These are persistent, mobile, and bioaccumulative toxins that remain in the environment but their forms are changed and are carcinogens, mutagens and teratogens. The ensuing hazardous waste has created deleterious impacts on physical, biological and socioeconomic environments. The lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere of Earth are being gravely polluted. Human beings and other biodiversity face fatal diseases, such as cancer, reproductive disorders, neural damages, endocrine disruptions, asthmatic bronchitis, and brain retardation. Marginal populations of developing countries living in squatter/slums are most vulnerable. Numerous issues are associated with uncontrolled generation, unscientific and environmentally inappropriate recycling processes for the extraction of heavy and precious metals (e.g., gold, platinum, and silver), illegal transboundary shipments from advanced to developing countries and weak conventions/legislations at global and national levels. Although the Basel Convention has been ratified by most countries, illicit trading/trafficking of hazardous substances remains unchecked, sometimes "disguised" as donations. The fact

  13. Green initiative impact on stock prices: A quantitative study of the clean energy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurisich, John M.

    The purpose of this quantitative ex post facto research study was to explore the relationship between green initiative expense disclosures and stock prices of 46 NASDAQ listed Clean Edge Green Energy global companies from 2007 to 2010. The independent variables were sales and marketing, environmental, customer and supplier, community, and corporate governance practices that were correlated with the dependent variable in the study of stock prices. Expense disclosures were examined in an effort to measure the impact of green initiative programs and to expose the interrelationships between green initiative expense disclosures and fluctuations of stock prices. The data for the research was secondary data from existing annual reports. A statistically significant relationship was revealed between environmental practices and changes in stock prices. The study results also provided substantial evidence for leadership and managerial decision making to reduce or increase green initiative practices to maximize shareholder wealth of their respective organizations.

  14. Competing initiatives: a new tobacco industry strategy to oppose statewide clean indoor air ballot measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Gregory J; Hendlin, Yogi H; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-03-01

    To describe how the tobacco and gaming industries opposed clean indoor air voter initiatives in 2006, we analyzed media records and government and other publicly available documents and conducted interviews with knowledgeable individuals. In an attempt to avoid strict "smoke free" regulations pursued by health groups via voter initiatives in Arizona, Ohio, and Nevada, in 2006, the tobacco and gaming industries sponsored competing voter initiatives for alternative laws. Health groups succeeded in defeating the pro-tobacco competing initiatives because they were able to dispel confusion and create a head-to-head competition by associating each campaign with its respective backer and instructing voters to vote "no" on the pro-tobacco initiative in addition to voting "yes" on the health group initiative.

  15. The Impact of a Strategies-Based Instruction on Iranian EAP Students’ Reading Strategy Use: Developing Strategic EAP Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Hossein Kashef

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Underperformance of students in EAP reading comprehension has been an issue of concern for teachers, syllabus designers, and curriculum developers in general and for EAP practitioners in particular. In spite of the fact that considerable efforts have been made to improve reading comprehension of students through strategies instruction over past decades, EAP students however have not benefited much from learning strategies. Thus, this study intended to investigate the impact of a Strategies-Based Instruction (SBI on undergraduate students’ reading strategy use in an EAP context. Taking an instructional model from strategies taxonomy of Oxford (1990; 2001, it was assumed that in contrast to conventional EAP reading methods, SBI would be more effective in encouraging reading strategy use and as a result developing reading comprehension of EAP students through encouraging the use of effective strategies and skills. To do so, 80 freshman undergraduate students were chosen as the participants of this study who were in two intact classes. After administration of a pre-test, treatment (22 sessions, 2 sessions per week, and a post-test, the collected data was analyzed using t-test to examine the effect of the proposed method of instruction. The results of the analysis showed that the teaching intervention had a significant effect on students’ reading strategy use. The findings have implications for teachers encouraging effective reading comprehension instruction through the use of strategies in EAP teaching contexts.

  16. State and local fiscal impacts associated with nuclear energy centers: some initial considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, D.J.

    1976-04-01

    The concept of the nuclear energy center is designed to consolidate a number of electrical power reactors and/or related fuel cycle activities on a single site. Such a siting strategy would concentrate a great deal of economic activity in one area and, as a consequence, generate significant impacts on state and local governments by increasing tax bases and public service demands and by altering intergovernmental fiscal relations. This study was designed to place rough empirical measures on relevant impact variables and to highlight areas for which a need for further research was indicated.

  17. Associations between Forced Sexual Initiation, HIV Status, Sexual Risk Behavior, Life Stressors, and Coping Strategies among Adolescents in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan

    Full Text Available Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status.We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10-19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman's conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies.Eighty-one adolescents (18.6% reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14-11.87, and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56-4.95. Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96-1.11 and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73-2.65, but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34-1.18. They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62-3.50 than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49-1.64 to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03 and loss and grief (p = 0.009. Adolescents reporting forced sexual initiation and HIV

  18. Associations between Forced Sexual Initiation, HIV Status, Sexual Risk Behavior, Life Stressors, and Coping Strategies among Adolescents in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status. Methods We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10–19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman’s conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies. Results Eighty-one adolescents (18.6%) reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14–11.87), and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56–4.95). Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96–1.11) and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73–2.65), but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34–1.18). They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62–3.50) than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49–1.64) to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03) and loss and grief (p = 0.009). Adolescents reporting forced

  19. Identification and initial assessment of candidate BWR late-phase in-vessel accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    Work sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to identify and perform preliminary assessments of candidate BWR [boiling water reactor] in-vessel accident management strategies was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during fiscal year 1990. Mitigative strategies for containment events have been the subject of a companion study at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The focus of this Oak Ridge effort was the development of new strategies for mitigation of the late phase events, that is, the events that would occur in-vessel after the onset of significant core damage. The work began with an investigation of the current status of BWR in-vessel accident management procedures and proceeded through a preliminary evaluation of several candidate new strategies. The steps leading to the identification of the candidate strategies are described. The four new candidate late-phase (in-vessel) accident mitigation strategies identified by this study and discussed in the report are: (1) keep the reactor vessel depressurized; (2) restore injection in a controlled manner; (3) inject boron if control blade damage has occurred; and (4) containment flooding to maintain core and structural debris in-vessel. Additional assessments of these strategies are proposed

  20. Differential use of learning strategies in first-year higher education: the impact of personality, academic motivation, and teaching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Coertjens, Liesje; Van Daal, Tine; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Although the evidence in support of the variability of students' learning strategies has expanded in recent years, less is known about the explanatory base of these individual differences in terms of the joint influences of personal and contextual characteristics. Previous studies have often investigated how student learning is associated with either personal or contextual factors. This study takes an integrative research perspective into account and examines the joint effects of personality, academic motivation, and teaching strategies on students' learning strategies in a same educational context in first-year higher education. In this study, 1,126 undergraduate students and 90 lecturers from eight professional bachelor programmes in a university college participated. Self-report measures were used to measure students' personality, academic motivation, and learning strategies. Students' processing and regulation strategies are mapped using the Inventory of Learning Styles. Key characteristics of more content-focused versus learning-focused teaching strategies were measured. Multivariate multi-level analysis was used to take the nested data structure and interrelatedness of learning strategies into account. Different personality traits (openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism) and academic motivation (amotivation, autonomous, and controlled motivation) were found to be independently associated with student learning strategies. Besides these student characteristics, also teaching strategies were found to be directly associated with learning strategies. The study makes clear that the impact of teaching strategies on learning strategies in first-year higher education cannot be overlooked nor overinterpreted, due to the importance of students' personality and academic motivation which also partly explain why students learn the way they do. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  1. The Impact of Brand Awareness on Companies` Marketing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Zaif

    2016-01-01

    Within this paper,we will try to emphasize the importance of brand awareness and its significant role in brand-building,discussing how companies implementing brand-awareness marketing strategies will have a substantial role in creating brand image,strenghten brand equity and increase profitability . Firstly,we will conduct an empirical research based on previous published literature concerning brand awareness and will discuss the effectiveness of marketing strategies that incorporate ...

  2. IMPACT OF HEURISTIC STRATEGIES ON PUPILS’ ATTITUDES TO PROBLEM SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVOTNÁ, Jarmila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a sequel to the article (Novotná et al., 2014, where the authors present the results of a 4-month experiment whose main aim was to change pupils’ culture of problem solving by using heuristic strategies suitable for problem solving in mathematics education. (Novotná et al., 2014 focused on strategies Analogy, Guess – check – revise, Systematic experimentation, Problem reformulation, Solution drawing, Working backwards and Use of graphs of functions. This paper focuses on two other heuristic strategies convenient for improvement of pupils’ culture of problem solving: Introduction of an auxiliary element and Omitting a condition. In the first part, the strategies Guess – Check – Revise, Working backwards, Introduction of an auxiliary element and Omitting a condition are characterized in detail and illustrated by examples of their use in order to capture their characteristics. In the second part we focus on the newly introduced strategies and analyse work with them in lessons using the tools from (Novotná et al., 2014. The analysis of results of the experiment indicates that, unlike in case of the strategy Introduction of an auxiliary element, successful use of the strategy Omitting a condition requires longer teacher’s work with the pupils. The following analysis works with the strategy Systematic experimentation, which seemed to be the easiest to master in (Novotná et al., 2014; we focus on the dangers it bears when it is used by pupils. The conclusion from (Novotná et al., 2014, which showed that if pupils are introduced to an environment that supports their creativity, their attitude towards problem solving changes in a positive way already after the period of four months, is confirmed.

  3. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 4, Comments and Responses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) contains public comments addressing the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Draft EIS, August 1990 and Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) responses. The Introduction provides information about the process BPA follows in addressing these comments. Part I contains a listing of the Alternative Actions evaluated in the Final EIS; Part II is organized by Alternatives and includes summaries of the comments and BPA responses; Part III provides copies of the original comments letters, and, for ease of identification, are coded in the margins according to the alternative(s) addressed.

  4. NASA's Carbon Cycle OSSE Initiative - Informing future space-based observing strategies through advanced modeling and data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, L.; Sellers, P. J.; Schimel, D.; Moore, B., III; O'Dell, C.; Crowell, S.; Kawa, S. R.; Pawson, S.; Chatterjee, A.; Baker, D. F.; Schuh, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are critically needed to improve understanding of the contemporary carbon budget and carbon-climate feedbacks. Though current carbon observing satellites have provided valuable data in regions not covered by surface in situ measurements, limited sampling of key regions and small but spatially coherent biases have limited the ability to estimate fluxes at the time and space scales needed for improved process-level understanding and informed decision-making. Next generation satellites will improve coverage in data sparse regions, either through use of active remote sensing, a geostationary vantage point, or increased swath width, but all techniques have limitations. The relative strengths and weaknesses of these approaches and their synergism have not previously been examined. To address these needs, a significant subset of the US carbon modeling community has come together with support from NASA to conduct a series of coordinated observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs), with close collaboration in framing the experiments and in analyzing the results. Here, we report on the initial phase of this initiative, which focused on creating realistic, physically consistent synthetic CO2 and CH4 observational datasets for use in inversion and signal detection experiments. These datasets have been created using NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS) to represent the current state of atmospheric carbon as well as best available estimates of expected flux changes. Scenarios represented include changes in urban emissions, release of permafrost soil carbon, changes in carbon uptake in tropical and mid-latitude forests, changes in the Southern Ocean sink, and changes in both anthropogenic and natural methane emissions. This GEOS carbon `nature run' was sampled by instrument simulators representing the most prominent observing strategies with a focus on consistently representing the impacts of

  5. Strategies for Ensuring High-Impact Outreach and Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ginny

    2011-01-01

    How do you become an effective Extension professional--produce scholarly work, provide strong educational programs for clientele, and show impact and outcomes? It requires proactive planning so that valuable impact can be measured and shared with appropriate stakeholders. Learn how the Department of 4-H Youth Development, Rutgers Cooperative…

  6. Cognitive impact of social stress and coping strategy throughout development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kevin P; Barry, Mark; Valentino, Rita J

    2015-01-01

    Stress experience during adolescence has been linked to the development of psychiatric disorders in adulthood, many of which are associated with impairments in prefrontal cortex function. The current study was designed to determine the immediate and enduring effects of repeated social stress on a prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive task. Early adolescent (P28), mid-adolescent (P42), and adult (P70) rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress for 5 days and tested in an operant strategy-shifting task (OSST) during the following week or several weeks later during adulthood. Engagement of prefrontal cortical neurons during the task was assessed by expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos. Social stress during adolescence had no immediate effects on task performance, but impaired strategy-shifting in adulthood, whereas social stress that occurred during adulthood had no effect. The cognitive impairment produced by adolescent social stress was most pronounced in rats with a passive coping strategy. Notably, strategy-shifting performance was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortical c-fos in adulthood but not in adolescence, suggesting that the task engages different brain regions in adolescents compared to adults. Adolescent social stress produces a protracted impairment in prefrontal cortex-mediated cognition that is related to coping strategy. This impairment may be selectively expressed in adulthood because prefrontal cortical activity is integral to task performance at this age but not during adolescence.

  7. Cost benefit analysis of outsourcing initiatives/strategy at water utilities corporation (Botswana) / G Mogomotsi

    OpenAIRE

    Mogomotsi, G

    2016-01-01

    After the Water Utilities Corporation adopted outsourcing as a policy initiative and operational directive various non-core functions were outsourced. This raises obvious questions as to why the Corporation suddenly decided to do this. Does the Corporation indeed benefit in terms of value addition from outsourced functions? Some of the pertinent questions include: To what extent did policy guidelines and operational measures govern the said outsourcing initiatives? What are the...

  8. Stakeholders' participatory diagnosis of climate change impacts on subsistence agriculture in Sikkim, India, for identifying adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhoni, A.; Goyal, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Narrowing the gap between research, policy making and implementing adaptation remains a challenge in many parts of the world where climate change is likely to severely impact subsistence agriculture. This research aims to narrow this gap by matching the adaptation strategies being framed by policy makers and perspectives of consultants and researchers which are expected to be implemented by development agencies farmers in the state of Sikkim in India. Our case study examined the framing and implementation of State Action Plan on Climate Change through semi-structured interviews carried out with decision makers in the State Government, Scientific Organisations, consultants, local academia, implementing and development agencies, and farmers for whom the adaptation strategies are targeted. Using Social Network and Stakeholder Analysis approach, this research unravels the complexities of perceiving climate change impacts, identifying adaptation strategies, and implementing climate change adaptation strategies. While farmers are less aware about the global phenomenon of climate change impacts for their subsistence livelihood, their knowledge of the local conditions and their close interaction with the State Government Agriculture Department provides them an access to new and high value crops. Although important steps are initiated through the Sikkim State Action Plan on Climate Change it is yet to deliver effective means of adaptation implementation and identifying the networks of close coordination between the various implementing agencies will likely to pay rich dividends. While Sikkim being a small and hilly state with specific contextual challenges of climate change impacts, the results from this study highlights how the internal and external networks between various types of stakeholders informs decision makers in identifying local impacts of climate change and plan adaptation strategies.

  9. Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loxton, Edwina A.; Schirmer, Jacki; Kanowski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ► Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ► Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ► Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to change ► Mitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ► Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing

  10. Impact of an emergency medicine pharmacist on initial antibiotic prophylaxis for open fractures in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Somer; Brad Hall, A; Wilson, Kayla

    2018-02-01

    Targeted antibiotic treatment reduces the infection risk of open fractures when soft tissue and bone are exposed to the environment. The risk of infection increases with higher degrees of injury. The Gustilo-Anderson system was developed to identify the degree of injury of open fractures and can be utilized to guide initial antibiotic therapy. Few studies have been published evaluating the potential impact of emergency medicine pharmacists in trauma, and currently no study has evaluated a pharmacist's influence on antibiotic selection and timing for open fractures. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of an emergency medicine pharmacist on initial antibiotic selection and timing in trauma patients with open fractures. This was a retrospective cohort study. Trauma alerts with open fractures from May 1, 2014 to June 30, 2016 were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome was to determine if pharmacist participation during trauma resuscitation was associated with an increased proportion of initial antibiotic selection meeting guideline recommendations. The secondary outcome was the door-to-antibiotic administration time during resuscitation. Initial prophylactic antibiotic recommendations were met in 81% of trauma resuscitations when a pharmacist was present versus 47% without a pharmacist present (pfractures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of weed control strategies on resistance evolution in Alopecurus myosuroides – a long-term field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulber, Lena

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of various herbicide strategies on populations of Alopecurus myosuroides is investigated in a longterm field trial situated in Wendhausen (Germany since 2009. In the initial years of the field experiment, resistant populations were selected by means of repeated application of the same herbicide active ingredients. For the selection of different resistance profiles, herbicides with actives from different HRAC groups were used. The herbicide actives flupyrsulfuron, isoproturon und fenoxaprop-P were applied for two years on large plots. In a succeeding field trial starting in 2011, it was investigated if the now existing resistant field populations could be controlled by various herbicide strategies. Eight different strategies consisting of various herbicide combinations were tested. Resistance evolution was investigated by means of plant counts and molecular genetic analysis.

  12. Sino-Myanmar Nexus: Regional Impact and US Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Kunming, the capital of China’s Yunnan Province and Yangon, with plans to extend the line up to Tavoy, where a major Thai port development project is...accessed November 25, 2012) 101 Billy Tea , “China and Myanmar: Strategic Interests, Strategies and the Road Ahead,” IPCS Research Paper 26

  13. Modeling an impact control strategy using HyPA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.J.L.; Reniers, M.A.; Cassandras, C.G.; Giua, A.; Seatzu, C.; Zaytoon, J.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze a control strategy for the pick-and-place module of a component mounting device.We use a combination of techniques from bondgraph-theory, systems theory, process algebra and differential algebra to achieve this, and we show how the hybrid process algebra HyPA aides us in combining these

  14. The Impact of Age on Using Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepasdar, Mansoreh; Soori, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Since age plays an important role in learning a second or foreign language, the present study investigated how different students in different age groups used language learning strategies. The participants of this study were 94 Iranian EFL students from four educational levels and different age groups as, primary (10-12), guidance (13-15), high…

  15. Aligning economic impact with environmental benefits: a green strategy model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Q.; Lago, P.; Potenza, S.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve lower energy consumption many green strategies (e.g. virtualize applications and consolidate them on shared server machines, or optimize the usage of the private cloud by opening up to external consumers) have been discussed. In practice, however, the major incentive for a company to go

  16. Initiating Self-Assessment Strategies in Novice Physiotherapy Students: A Method Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Student self- and peer-assessment strategies ideally are instigated early in programmes for health professionals. This study presents an innovative method of stimulating critical evaluation of clinical skills learned in the practical class setting for first year physiotherapy students. Twice in the semester (beginning and end) students assessed…

  17. A guide to the translation of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) strategy into improved care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulet, Louis-Philippe; FitzGerald, J Mark; Levy, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    In 1995, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) published an evidence-based workshop report as a guide to clinicians managing asthma patients, and has updated it annually to ensure that recommendations remain current. Although the report has been widely disseminated and influenced clinical...... practice and research, its major objective, of forming the basis for local and national initiatives to improve services for asthma patients, remains to be achieved. Over recent years, the science of guideline implementation has progressed, and encouraging examples of successful asthma programmes have been...... published. This report is intended to draw on this experience and assist with the translation of asthma guideline recommendations into quality programmes for patients with asthma using current knowledge translation principles. It also provides examples of successful initiatives in various socioeconomic...

  18. Effect of microstructure on the nucleation and initiation of adiabatic shear bands (ASBs) during impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boakye Yiadom, Solomon, E-mail: boakyeys@cc.umanitoba.ca; Khaliq Khan, Abdul, E-mail: abdulkhaliq.khan@umanitoba.ca; Bassim, Nabil, E-mail: nabil.bassim@ad.umanitoba.ca

    2014-10-06

    While instability may occur homogenously during plastic deformation, the formation of adiabatic shear band (ASBs) does not follow a homogenous instability during impact. Geometrical stress concentration sites and/or microstructural inhomogeneities result in the nucleation and initiation of shear strain localization. In this study, initial microstructural inhomogeneity was found to produce nucleation sites for the initiation of ASBs. It was observed that double misfit interfaces and boundary layers with random arrangement of atomic columns are formed around precipitated carbides and they increase the volume fraction of dislocation sources within the specimens. The AISI 4340 steel specimens which were tempered at the lowest temperature had smaller precipitated carbides with high aspect ratios densely distributed within the matrix and were easily susceptible to the formation of ASBs. As the tempering temperature increased, the relative sizes of the carbides increased with a corresponding reduction in their aspect ratios and their distribution density within the matrix and thus were more resistant to the formation of ASBs. In this study, it is demonstrated that the intersection of an activated dislocation source with the direction of maximum shear (regions of stress concentrations) within the specimens during impact, is a necessary condition for the point of intersection to act as a possible site for the nucleation of ASBs, depending on the rate of dislocation generation, local strain and strain rate. At a constant carbide volume fraction, the higher susceptibility of the tempered specimens to the initiation of ASBs is attributed to the volume fraction of the points of intersection between activated dislocation sources and direction of maximum shear during impact. Additionally, the smaller carbides, with their higher aspect ratios and distribution densities, accentuate the effect of strain gradients and the microstructural inhomogeneities associated with the tempered

  19. Antipsychotic-associated weight gain: management strategies and impact on treatment adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayabandara M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Madhubhashinee Dayabandara, Raveen Hanwella, Suhashini Ratnatunga, Sudarshi Seneviratne, Chathurie Suraweera, Varuni A de Silva Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka Abstract: Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is a major management problem for clinicians. It has been shown that weight gain and obesity lead to increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality, reduced quality of life and poor drug compliance. This narrative review discusses the propensity of various antipsychotics to cause weight gain, the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions available to counteract this effect and its impact on adherence. Most antipsychotics cause weight gain. The risk appears to be highest with olanzapine and clozapine. Weight increases rapidly in the initial period after starting antipsychotics. Patients continue to gain weight in the long term. Children appear to be particularly vulnerable to antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Tailoring antipsychotics according to the needs of the individual and close monitoring of weight and other metabolic parameters are the best preventive strategies at the outset. Switching to an agent with lesser tendency to cause weight gain is an option, but carries the risk of relapse of the illness. Nonpharmacologic interventions of dietary counseling, exercise programs and cognitive and behavioral strategies appear to be equally effective in individual and group therapy formats. Both nonpharmacologic prevention and intervention strategies have shown modest effects on weight. Multiple compounds have been investigated as add-on medications to cause weight loss. Metformin has the best evidence in this respect. Burden of side effects needs to be considered when prescribing weight loss medications. There is no strong evidence to recommend routine prescription of add-on medication for weight reduction. Heterogeneity of study methodologies and other

  20. Stakeholder initiatives in flood risk management: exploring the role and impact of bottom-up initiatives in three ‘Room for the River’ projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Edelenbos (Jurian); M.W. van Buuren (Arwin); D. Roth (Dik); M.H. Winnubst (Madelinde)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years stakeholder participation has become a popular topic in flood management. Little is known about how and under which circumstances local stakeholders initiate and develop successful flood management strategies and how governmental actors respond to them. Drawing on

  1. Protected area types, strategies and impacts in Brazil's Amazon: public protected area strategies do not yield a consistent ranking of protected area types by impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Herrera, Diego

    2015-11-05

    The leading policy to conserve forest is protected areas (PAs). Yet, PAs are not a single tool: land users and uses vary by PA type; and public PA strategies vary in the extent of each type and in the determinants of impact for each type, i.e. siting and internal deforestation. Further, across regions and time, strategies respond to pressures (deforestation and political). We estimate deforestation impacts of PA types for a critical frontier, the Brazilian Amazon. We separate regions and time periods that differ in their deforestation and political pressures and document considerable variation in PA strategies across regions, time periods and types. The siting of PAs varies across regions. For example, all else being equal, PAs in the arc of deforestation are relatively far from non-forest, while in other states they are relatively near. Internal deforestation varies across time periods, e.g. it is more similar across the PA types for PAs after 2000. By contrast, after 2000, PA extent is less similar across PA types with little non-indigenous area created inside the arc. PA strategies generate a range of impacts for PA types--always far higher within the arc--but not a consistent ranking of PA types by impact. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Protected area types, strategies and impacts in Brazil's Amazon: public protected area strategies do not yield a consistent ranking of protected area types by impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Herrera, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The leading policy to conserve forest is protected areas (PAs). Yet, PAs are not a single tool: land users and uses vary by PA type; and public PA strategies vary in the extent of each type and in the determinants of impact for each type, i.e. siting and internal deforestation. Further, across regions and time, strategies respond to pressures (deforestation and political). We estimate deforestation impacts of PA types for a critical frontier, the Brazilian Amazon. We separate regions and time periods that differ in their deforestation and political pressures and document considerable variation in PA strategies across regions, time periods and types. The siting of PAs varies across regions. For example, all else being equal, PAs in the arc of deforestation are relatively far from non-forest, while in other states they are relatively near. Internal deforestation varies across time periods, e.g. it is more similar across the PA types for PAs after 2000. By contrast, after 2000, PA extent is less similar across PA types with little non-indigenous area created inside the arc. PA strategies generate a range of impacts for PA types—always far higher within the arc—but not a consistent ranking of PA types by impact. PMID:26460126

  3. Subdivision, Sampling, and Initialization Strategies for Simplical Branch and Bound in Global Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Zilinskas, A,

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimizing a Lipshitzian function. The branch and bound technique is a well-known solution method, and the key components for this are the subdivision scheme, the bound calculation scheme, and the initialization. For Lipschitzian optimization, the bound calculations are...

  4. The National Higher Education and Workforce Initiative: Strategy in Action: Building the Cybersecurity Workforce in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business-Higher Education Forum, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Business-Higher Education Forum (BHEF) has achieved particular success in operationalizing the National Higher Education and Workforce Initiative (HEWI) in Maryland around cybersecurity. Leveraging its membership of corporate CEOs, university presidents, and government agency leaders, BHEF partnered with the University System of Maryland to…

  5. Tumor initiating cells and chemoresistance: which is the best strategy to target colon cancer stem cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldino, Emanuela; Tesori, Valentina; Casalbore, Patrizia; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice

    2014-01-01

    There is an emerging body of evidence that chemoresistance and minimal residual disease result from selective resistance of a cell subpopulation from the original tumor that is molecularly and phenotypically distinct. These cells are called "cancer stem cells" (CSCs). In this review, we analyze the potential targeting strategies for eradicating CSCs specifically in order to develop more effective therapeutic strategies for metastatic colon cancer. These include induction of terminal epithelial differentiation of CSCs or targeting some genes expressed only in CSCs and involved in self-renewal and chemoresistance. Ideal targets could be cell regulators that simultaneously control the stemness and the resistance of CSCs. Another important aspect of cancer biology, which can also be harnessed to create novel broad-spectrum anticancer agents, is the Warburg effect, also known as aerobic glycolysis. Actually, little is yet known with regard to the metabolism of CSCs population, leaving an exciting unstudied avenue in the dawn of the emerging field of metabolomics.

  6. Chemical & Material Risk Management Initiatives: Reach & Cr6+ Strategies (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Definition Acquisition, Technology and Logistics 17 DoD Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Strategy Non‐ Chrome  Primer Acquisition, Technology and...Logistics 18 Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6+) - Some Facts • Cr6+ compounds are wonderful corrosion inhibitors • Cr6+ compounds are highly toxic – We’ve learned...and Logistics 21 DoD Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Policy Acquisition, Technology and Logistics 22 Myth-busters • The DoD policy does not ban the

  7. Managing the Transformation: A Change Management Strategy for U.S. Marine Corps Expeditionary Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    sensegiving in transformational change processes from the bottom up. Higher Education , 65(6), 761–780. doi:10.1007/s10734-012-9575-7 Kezar, A...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. MANAGING THE TRANSFORMATION : A...DATE December 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MANAGING THE TRANSFORMATION : A CHANGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

  8. The impact of price reduction on exploration-production strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, F.

    1994-01-01

    Six trends seem to be prevailing: a best ratio cost-efficiency in exploration-production; a certain geographical concentration; the impact of technological advance; the opening to exploration of areas closed in the past to the western companies; accent put on natural gas

  9. The Impact of Brain-Based Strategies: One School's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Jane Allen

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown student inattention, off-task behaviors, and lack of listening skills in the classroom can impact progress in reading, math, and language development. Lack of verbal interaction in home environments, variations in learning and teaching modalities, and larger class sizes contribute to the difficulties students have in developing…

  10. Roles, Strategies and Impact of MOOCs on Flipping Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Kai; Lin, Chun-Yu; Lin, Zih-Cin; Wang, Cui

    2017-01-01

    In a globalized digital age, the creation of curriculum innovation, along with the way we deliver course content has a great impact on preparing and equipping students with the knowledge and skills needed to succeed in the workplace. The affordance of connectivity of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) has provided new opportunities for higher…

  11. Initial Assessment of the Acceptability of a Push-Pull Aedes aegypti Control Strategy in Iquitos, Peru and Kanchanaburi, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Plasai, Valaikanya; Morrison, Amy C.; Rios-Lopez, Esther J.; Guedez-Gonzales, Shirly; Grieco, John P.; Mundal, Kirk; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Achee, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger research program evaluating chemical threshold levels for a Push-Pull intervention to reduce man-vector (Aedes aegypti) contact, this qualitative study explored local perceptions and strategies associated with mosquito control within dengue-endemic communities in Peru and Thailand. Focus groups were used to provide preliminary information that would identify possible public acceptance issues to the Push-Pull strategy in each site. Nine focus group discussions (total of 102 individuals) conducted between September 2008 and March 2009 examined several themes: 1) current mosquito control practices; 2) perceptions of spatial repellency and contact irritancy versus killing mosquitoes; and 3) initial perceptions toward mosquito host-seeking traps. Results indicate participants use household-level strategies for insect control that reveal familiarity with the concept of spatial repellent and contact irritant actions of chemicals and that placing traps in the peridomestic environment to remove repelled mosquitoes was acceptable. Preliminary evidence suggests a Push-Pull strategy should be well accepted in these locations. These results will be beneficial for developing future large scale push-pull interventions and are currently being used to guide insecticide application strategies in (entomological) proof-of-concept studies using experimental huts. PMID:21292886

  12. Changes in Attitudes, Beliefs and Behaviour: A Critical Review of Research into the Impacts of Environmental Education Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralton, Anna; Sinclair, Mark; Purnell, Ken

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature on the impact of environmental education initiatives on learners' attitudes, beliefs and behaviours. The review focuses on initiatives involving learners of all ages and school-aged learners in particular. The review shows two things. There is some evidence that environmental education initiatives are…

  13. The Comparative Impacts of Using Lexical Glossing and Inferencing Strategies on Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliana

    2018-01-01

    The study compared the use of the lexical glossing and inferencing strategies that impact toward the students' reading comprehension. The objective of the study was to find out the effective strategy to use for enhancing the students' reading comprehension. The population of the study was 40 Informatics Systems students of Potensi Utama…

  14. A national strategy for identification, prioritisation and management of pollution from abandoned non-coal mine sites in England and Wales. I. Methodology development and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, W M; Johnston, D; Potter, H A B; Jarvis, A P

    2009-10-15

    In regions affected by historic non-coal (principally metal) mining activity, government agencies are often faced with the challenge of deploying limited remedial resources at abandoned mine sites to achieve maximum improvements in the chemical and ecological quality of impacted ground and surface waters. As such, strategies for the defensible allocation of public funds require comprehensive and systematic frameworks by which to identify and prioritise polluting sites for remediation. This paper describes the development and initial findings of such a national initiative in England and Wales which allies catchment-scale environmental impact assessments using existing public archive data, with recognition of the uncertainty in impact appraisals arising from disparities in data availability between sites and regions. The methodology identifies polluting sites and takes account not only of the chemical and ecological impacts of mine water discharges on receiving watercourses, but also of socio-economic factors such as conservation and heritage concerns, which can both impede or complement efforts to remediate mine sites. Using a Geographic Information System database and a suite of spatial analyses employing Boolean operators, both the extent of the pollution problem from abandoned non-coal mines in England and Wales (6% of 7815 surface water bodies are affected nationally) and the insight that can be gleaned from systematic analyses of existing archive data are highlighted. The results of the nationwide survey can be used as a dynamic database to inform future remedial planning, in terms of prioritising impacted river basins and abandoned non-coal mine sites themselves for either remediation or future monitoring efforts. As the assessment framework is built upon existing water quality and ecological data and mine site/geological data, there is considerable scope for the approach to be applied elsewhere where the legacy of historic mining persists through the

  15. Strategies for baseline/environmental impact studies in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odu, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in order to assess the environmental impact of site activities and ecosystem change brought about by stress, basic baseline data are necessary to characterize the normal environment so that environmental quality control programs can be developed with a firm ecological base. The program and methodology adopted in our field surveys to assess the character, magnitude and extent of pollutant effects on soil, vegetation and water, as a basis for economic assessment of pollutant effects on agriculture, forestry and the aquatic system and for preparing environmental impact statements, are presented. These techniques were modified and adopted in the environmental impact study of the Isampou Manifold Oil Spill, a study which circumstances made necessary seven years after the oil spill. Reliance on the extent of pollution soon after the incidence was based on the determination of total hydrocarbons at creek bottoms as well as on the determinations of nickel/vanadium ratios. Hydrocarbon contents of creek banks and creek bottoms were within biogenic levels at the time of field sampling. Ni/V ratios were high in heavy impact areas and decreased in areas of medium and very light impact areas. Use of the Ni/V ratio as evidence of past oil pollution agreed closely with a sketch of the extent of crude oil pollution drawn by the Shell Petroleum Development Company seven years earlier. There were nor abnormal vegetation features. The presence of 10-15 years old Musanga cecropioides at the edge of the manifold slot and creeks indicated that vegetation above water level was not affected by the oil spillage. The physico-chemical properties of the waters, plankton composition and density of the species found, as well as the presence of endroproct bryozoan in the benthos showed that the aquatic system had by the time of sample collection, completely recovered from the oil spillage

  16. Magnitude and Spatial Distribution of Impact Intensity Under the Foot Relates to Initial Foot Contact Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Segers, Veerle; Gerlo, Joeri; Derie, Rud; Pataky, Todd; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid-, or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m·s -1 over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A 4-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot. We calculated peak vertical instantaneous loading rate of the GRF (VILR) per foot zone as the impact intensity measure. Midfoot contact patterns were shown to have the lowest, and atypical rearfoot contact patterns the highest impact intensities, respectively. The greatest local impact intensity was mainly situated under the rear- and midfoot for the typical rearfoot contact patterns, under the midfoot for the atypical rearfoot contact patterns, and under the mid- and forefoot for the midfoot contact patterns. These findings indicate that different foot contact patterns could benefit from cushioning in different shoe zones.

  17. Software Impact of Selected En Route ATC Computer Replacement Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Compare 188 SDG Duplicate Flight Plan Search 558 SDU Amendment Output Initiator 3,094 SHA Heading Angle Correction 22 STB Chained -Table Management 278...communications) 1would be required in both systems. However the uses of MK in the two systems to supply information to the two copies of SBB would be...this, all current use of Commniand Chaining -11- and Program Controlled Interrupts will have to be deleted from the existing 9020 programs. For the

  18. Impact of Strategy Implementation on Performance of Generic Strategy: Evidence from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayookapan Chaimankong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the strategic orientation in terms of Miles and Snow typologies of the firms in emerging country and investigate their implications on performance. Unlike previous research, this paper focuses the importance of strategy implementation to the performance implications of Miles and Snow typology. Data was collected from 111 key informants from firms in Thailand’s chemical industry using probability sampling. The one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA results showed that prospectors performed better than the other three strategic types, whereas reactors exhibited the lowest performance scores. While the success in strategy implementation is found to be a significant predictor of firm performance, the two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA results revealed that the success in strategy implementation did not alter the relationship between Miles and Snow strategic type and a firm’s performance. This finding suggests that the relationship between Miles and Snow strategic type and a firm’s performance may be universal, regardless of the location where the study is conducted. However, additional studies in other contexts are required before the conclusion can be made whether the strategic type performance relationship will be contingent on strategy implementation.

  19. Social Media Impact on Human Resources Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela-Eliza Micu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to do a research of human resource management in Romania for the ITsector, and focus the attention to a couple of things like culture, trainings and the impact resultedon social media that this companies and their employees are producing. The use of social media has a huge impact on the quality of the work and also is contributing tostrengthen the relationships between employees. It can be a good resource in attracting new talentsand also promoting the company. This research used mined data from LinkedIn and other socialmedia and publicly available websites in order to statistically test hypotheses using the Pearsonchi-square method and successfully finding 6 strong correlations between data analyzed forRomanian software development companies.

  20. Perturbations in the initial soil moisture conditions: Impacts on hydrologic simulation in a large river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroula, Sundar; Halder, Subhadeep; Ghosh, Subimal

    2018-06-01

    Real time hydrologic forecasting requires near accurate initial condition of soil moisture; however, continuous monitoring of soil moisture is not operational in many regions, such as, in Ganga basin, extended in Nepal, India and Bangladesh. Here, we examine the impacts of perturbation/error in the initial soil moisture conditions on simulated soil moisture and streamflow in Ganga basin and its propagation, during the summer monsoon season (June to September). This provides information regarding the required minimum duration of model simulation for attaining the model stability. We use the Variable Infiltration Capacity model for hydrological simulations after validation. Multiple hydrologic simulations are performed, each of 21 days, initialized on every 5th day of the monsoon season for deficit, surplus and normal monsoon years. Each of these simulations is performed with the initial soil moisture condition obtained from long term runs along with positive and negative perturbations. The time required for the convergence of initial errors is obtained for all the cases. We find a quick convergence for the year with high rainfall as well as for the wet spells within a season. We further find high spatial variations in the time required for convergence; the region with high precipitation such as Lower Ganga basin attains convergence at a faster rate. Furthermore, deeper soil layers need more time for convergence. Our analysis is the first attempt on understanding the sensitivity of hydrological simulations of Ganga basin on initial soil moisture conditions. The results obtained here may be useful in understanding the spin-up requirements for operational hydrologic forecasts.

  1. Adaptation strategies for health impacts of climate change in Western Australia: Application of a Health Impact Assessment framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spickett, Jeffery T.; Brown, Helen L.; Katscherian, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the globe and there is substantial evidence that this will result in a number of health impacts, regardless of the level of greenhouse gas mitigation. It is therefore apparent that a combined approach of mitigation and adaptation will be required to protect public health. While the importance of mitigation is recognised, this project focused on the role of adaptation strategies in addressing the potential health impacts of climate change. The nature and magnitude of these health impacts will be determined by a number of parameters that are dependent upon the location. Firstly, climate change will vary between regions. Secondly, the characteristics of each region in terms of population and the ability to adapt to changes will greatly influence the extent of the health impacts that are experienced now and into the future. Effective adaptation measures therefore need to be developed with these differences in mind. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used to consider the implications of climate change on the health of the population of Western Australia (WA) and to develop a range of adaptive responses suited to WA. A broad range of stakeholders participated in the HIA process, providing informed input into developing an understanding of the potential health impacts and potential adaptation strategies from a diverse sector perspective. Potential health impacts were identified in relation to climate change predictions in WA in the year 2030. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed using a qualitative process that considered the consequences and the likelihood of the health impact occurring. Adaptations were then developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by Government for future decision making. The periodic application of a HIA framework is seen as an ideal tool to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to

  2. Land Use in Korean Tidal Wetlands: Impacts and Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun-Kee; Koh, Chul-Hwan; Harris, Richard R.; Kim, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jeom-Sook; Ihm, Byung-Sun

    2010-05-01

    The coastal landscapes in southwestern Korea include a diverse array of tidal wetlands and salt marshes. These coastal zones link the ecological functions of marine tidal wetlands and freshwater ecosystems with terrestrial ecosystems. They are rich in biological diversity and play important roles in sustaining ecological health and processing environmental pollutants. Korean tidal wetlands are particularly important as nurseries for economically important fishes and habitats for migratory birds. Diking, draining, tourism, and conversion to agricultural and urban uses have adversely affected Korean tidal wetlands. Recent large development projects have contributed to further losses. Environmental impact assessments conducted for projects affecting tidal wetlands and their surrounding landscapes should be customized for application to these special settings. Adequate environmental impact assessments will include classification of hydrogeomorphic units and consideration of their responses to biological and environmental stressors. As is true worldwide, Korean laws and regulations are changing to be more favorable to the conservation and protection of tidal wetlands. More public education needs to be done at the local level to build support for tidal wetland conservation. Some key public education points include the role of tidal wetlands in maintaining healthy fish populations and reducing impacts of nonpoint source pollution. There is also a need to develop procedures for integrating economic and environmental objectives within the overall context of sustainable management and land uses.

  3. The impact of source initialization on performance of the FMBMC-ICEU algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenner, Michael T.; Haghighat, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in the completely fission matrix based Monte Carlo (FMBMC) eigenvalue methodology showed that the fission matrix coefficients are independent of the source eigenvector in the limit of small mesh sizes. As a result, fission matrix element autocorrelation should be insignificant. We have developed a modified fission matrix based Monte Carlo methodology for achieving unbiased solutions even for high Dominance Ratio (DR) problems. This methodology utilizes an initial source from a deterministic calculation using the PENTRAN 3-D Parallel SN code, autocorrelation and normality tests, and a Monte Carlo Iterated Confidence Interval (ICI) formulation for estimation of uncertainties in the fundamental eigenvalue and eigenfunction. This methodology is referred to as Fission Matrix Based Monte Carlo Initial-source Controlled Elements with Uncertainties (FMBMC-ICEU). In this paper, we will investigate the impact of different starting sources (PENTRAN initialized with a flat source and a boundary source) on the final results of a test problem with high source correlation. It is shown that although the fission matrix element correlation is significantly reduced, a good initial guess is still important within the framework of the FMBMC-ICEU methodology since the FMBMC-ICEU methodology still utilizes a standard source iteration scheme. (author)

  4. Please Ask Gently: Using Culturally Targeted Communication Strategies to Initiate End-of-Life Care Discussions With Older Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Han-Lin; Cataldo, Janine; Ho, Evelyn Y; Rehm, Roberta S

    2018-01-01

    Health-care providers (HCPs) find facilitating end-of-life (EOL) care discussions challenging, especially with patients whose ethnicities differ from their own. Currently, there is little guidance on how to initiate and facilitate such discussions with older Chinese Americans (≥55 years) and their families. To explore communication strategies for HCPs to initiate EOL care discussions with older Chinese Americans in the San Francisco Bay Area. This qualitative (focused) ethnographic study included field observations and individual semistructured interviews with 14 community-dwelling older Chinese Americans who lived independently at home, 9 adult children, and 7 HCPs. Responses were analyzed using open coding, memos, and comparison across participants. The study participants emphasized the importance of assessing readiness for early EOL care discussions. All recommended using indirect communication approaches to determine older Chinese Americans' readiness. Indirect communication can be culturally targeted and applied at both system-wide (ie, health-care system) and individual (ie, HCP) levels. To institutionalize the practice, health-care facilities should implement EOL care discussion inquiries as part of routine during check-in or intake questionnaires. In individual practice, using depersonalized communication strategies to initiate the discussion was recommended to determine older Chinese Americans' readiness. Assessing readiness should be an essential and necessary action for early EOL care discussions. Culturally targeted assessment of older Chinese Americans includes using indirect communication approaches to initiate an EOL care discussion to determine their readiness. In addition to health-care system integration, providers should implement and evaluate proposed EOL discussion initiation prompts with their older Chinese American patients.

  5. Simulation of the Initial 3-D Instability of an Impacting Drop Vortex Ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdson, Lorenz; Wiwchar, Justin; Walther, Jens Honore

    2013-01-01

    , a Rayleigh centrifugal instability, or a vortex breakdown-type instability. Simulations which simply have a perturbed solitary ring result in an instability similar to that seen experimentally. Waviness of the core which would be expected from a Widnall instability is not visible. Adding an opposite......-signed secondary vortex ring or an image vortex ring to the initial conditions, to trigger a Rayleigh or breakdown respectively, does not appear to significantly change the instability from what is seen with a solitary ring. This suggests that a Rayleigh or vortex breakdown-type instability are not likely at work......Computational vortex particle method simulations of a perturbed vortex ring are performed to recreate and understand the instability seen in impacting water drop experiments. Three fundamentally different initial vorticity distributions are used to attempt to trigger a Widnall instability...

  6. Evaluation of the Impact of Media Marketing Strategies on Continuing Education Enrollments. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jill F.; Spiro, Louis M.

    The impact of media marketing strategies on continuing education enrollment at the State University of New York College at Brockport (SUNY-CB), was evaluated. The evaluation of advertising impacts used advertising records of SUNY-CB and other area colleges and a telephone questionnaire instrument. A stratified, random countywide sample, in…

  7. Where It Begins: Parental Strategies that Impact the Kindergarten Readiness of African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Katrina E.

    2010-01-01

    The need to close the educational gap between Black and White students necessitated a search for answers through parental strategies that impact school readiness. Educational and child development literature support the fact that what a caregiver/parent does and/or does not do for their children, essentially, beginning at birth , has an impact on…

  8. Factor Analysis of the HEW National Strategy for Youth Development Model's Community Program Impact Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truckenmiller, James L.

    The former HEW (Health, Education, and Welfare) National Strategy for Youth Development Model proposed a community-based program to promote positive youth development and to prevent delinquency through a sequence of youth needs assessments, needs-targeted programs, and program impact evaluation. HEW Community Program Impact Scales data obtained…

  9. The Impact of Metacognitive Strategies and Self-Regulating Processes of Solving Math Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vula, Eda; Avdyli, Rrezarta; Berisha, Valbona; Saqipi, Blerim; Elezi, Shpetim

    2017-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes in learners' achievement on solving math word problems. It specifically analyzes the impact of the linguistic factor and the number of steps and arithmetical operations that learners need to apply during the process of solving math word problems.…

  10. Impact of Training Deep Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Es-hagi Sardroud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the overall tendency of foreign language learners to use mechanical strategies of rote rehearsal in vocabulary learning and their resistance towards use of 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies, namely contextual guessing, Keyword Method, metacognitive strategy, and semantic mapping, this study intended (a to explore what impact the instruction of these deep strategies, on vocabulary retention of 32 post-intermediate adult EFL Iranian learners, (b to determine how the variable of gender influences the vocabulary retention of students after receiving training in these strategies. To this end, on the basis of a strategy-based model of instruction–CALLA (Chamot & O'Malley, 1994, the experimental group received training in using 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies while the control group received only the common method of vocabulary teaching. After the treatment, following factorial design, the performance of the participants in the teacher-made vocabulary test as posttest was analyzed statistically.  The results indicated higher vocabulary retention for the experimental group, and it was revealed that female students were more receptive to strategy training. This study provides evidence for confirmation of 'depth of processing' hypothesis and the emerging theory about the impact of gender on effective strategy teaching and use, and it recommends incorporation of teaching these 'deep' strategies of vocabulary learning into EFL classrooms.

  11. Tumor Initiating Cells and Chemoresistance: Which Is the Best Strategy to Target Colon Cancer Stem Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Paldino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging body of evidence that chemoresistance and minimal residual disease result from selective resistance of a cell subpopulation from the original tumor that is molecularly and phenotypically distinct. These cells are called “cancer stem cells” (CSCs. In this review, we analyze the potential targeting strategies for eradicating CSCs specifically in order to develop more effective therapeutic strategies for metastatic colon cancer. These include induction of terminal epithelial differentiation of CSCs or targeting some genes expressed only in CSCs and involved in self-renewal and chemoresistance. Ideal targets could be cell regulators that simultaneously control the stemness and the resistance of CSCs. Another important aspect of cancer biology, which can also be harnessed to create novel broad-spectrum anticancer agents, is the Warburg effect, also known as aerobic glycolysis. Actually, little is yet known with regard to the metabolism of CSCs population, leaving an exciting unstudied avenue in the dawn of the emerging field of metabolomics.

  12. Dasatinib and Doxorubicin Treatment of Sarcoma Initiating Cells: A Possible New Treatment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Demouth, Christina; Safwat, Akmal

    2016-01-01

    Background. One of the major challenges affecting sarcoma treatment outcome, particularly that of metastatic disease, is resistance to chemotherapy. Cancer-initiating cells are considered a major contributor to this resistance. Methods. An immortalised nontransformed human stromal (mesenchymal......) stem cell line hMSC-TERT4 and a transformed cell line hMSC-TERT20-CE8, known to form sarcoma-like tumours when implanted in immune-deficient mice, were used as models. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation was analysed by RTK arrays and cellular viability after tyrosine kinases inhibitor (TKI...

  13. Impact of antimissile defence on nuclear strategies in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delory, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    As antimissile defence has become a mean to compensate the limitations of nuclear deterrence in Asia, notably within the frame of the US-North Korea relationship, but has also influence on the relationships between countries which do not possess an actual operational antimissile defence like Pakistan and India, the author proposes an assessment of the consequences antimissile defence may have on deterrence logics in Asia. He also notices that various issues must be taken into account: arsenal sizes, the slow rate of ballistic modernisation processes, the weaknesses of C4ISR systems and advanced alarm systems. He recalls the peculiarities of antimissile defence, and then addresses the cases of North Korea, India and Pakistan, and China. For each country, he analyses and discusses the influence of a choice or of the existence of an antimissile defence on the nuclear strategy and doctrine, but also on the posture of other countries like the USA

  14. The Bio-Inspired Optimization of Trading Strategies and Its Impact on the Efficient Market Hypothesis and Sustainable Development Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Dreżewski

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the evolutionary algorithm for the optimization of Forex market trading strategies is proposed. The introduction to issues related to the financial markets and the evolutionary algorithms precedes the main part of the paper, in which the proposed trading system is presented. The system uses the evolutionary algorithm for optimization of a parameterized greedy strategy, which is then used as an investment strategy on the Forex market. In the proposed system, a model of the Forex market was developed, including all elements that are necessary for simulating realistic trading processes. The proposed evolutionary algorithm contains several novel mechanisms that were introduced to optimize the greedy strategy. The most important of the proposed techniques are the mechanisms for maintaining the population diversity, a mechanism for protecting the best individuals in the population, the mechanisms preventing the excessive growth of the population, the mechanisms of the initialization of the population after moving the time window and a mechanism of choosing the best strategies used for trading. The experiments, conducted with the use of real-world Forex market data, were aimed at testing the quality of the results obtained using the proposed algorithm and comparing them with the results obtained by the buy-and-hold strategy. By comparing our results with the results of the buy-and-hold strategy, we attempted to verify the validity of the efficient market hypothesis. The credibility of the hypothesis would have more general implications for many different areas of our lives, including future sustainable development policies.

  15. Impact of VSC Control Strategies and Incorporation of Synchronous Condensers on Distance Protection under Unbalanced Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Jundi; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2018-01-01

    on distance protection are evaluated using a commercial relay through hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) tests. Based on the test results, we propose to avoid using constant reactive power control strategy. It poses an adverse impact on the reliability and speed of distance protection regardless of the presence of SC....... This might bring up challenges to the protection system of a converter-dominated power system. This paper derives a generic converter peak current limitation method for three different VSC control strategies. The impact of the control strategies and the combined impact of a VSC with a synchronous condenser...... at the point of common coupling (PCC), while constant active power and balanced current control strategies favor the performances of distance protection....

  16. How Instructional Strategies Impact Students' Learning, Motivation, and Learning Strategies in Introductory Geology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D.; Budd, D. A.; Stempien, J. A.; Kraft, K.; Matheney, R. K.; McConnell, D.; Wirth, K. R.; Bykerk-Kauffman, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Geoscience Affective Research Network (GARNET) quantified the relationship between classroom teaching styles, student learning, and students’ motivations and attitudes for 14 different instructors at 2 community colleges, a private college, and 4 large public universities. Instruction was characterized with the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP). The 0-100 scale reflects the span between traditional instructor-centered lecture and interactive, student-centered courses. Every participating instructor was observed at least twice. Student learning was measured using a 15-question concept inventory (CI) focused on geologic time and plate tectonics. Twelve questions were from the Geologic Concept Inventory of Libarkin and Anderson (2005) and 3 questions were added on relative time. Students’ affective domain was measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), 81 questions that define 15 motivation and cognitive subcategories. 1152 students completed both surveys in the 2nd and 14th weeks of their class during the 2008-2010 academic years. RTOP scores ranged from 19 to 87. Learning gains ranged from 18.6% to 47.4% with students learning significantly more from instructors with higher RTOP scores. Learning gains and RTOP positively covary (R2 = 0.67). Adjusting for questions on which students scored high prior to instruction (>90% correct), results in an even stronger relationship (R2 = 0.89). Higher RTOP scores correlate to significant declines in many aspects of student motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic goals, task value, control of learning, and effort regulation). Declines occur mainly in lower and/or middle performing students as measured by grades. The highest performing students only show declines with respect to their control of learning beliefs. Students’ self-efficacy also declines with increasing use of student-student interactions. Higher RTOP scores only exhibit positive correlations to a few aspects of

  17. Dasatinib and Doxorubicin Treatment of Sarcoma Initiating Cells: A Possible New Treatment Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninna Aggerholm-Pedersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the major challenges affecting sarcoma treatment outcome, particularly that of metastatic disease, is resistance to chemotherapy. Cancer-initiating cells are considered a major contributor to this resistance. Methods. An immortalised nontransformed human stromal (mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-TERT4 and a transformed cell line hMSC-TERT20-CE8, known to form sarcoma-like tumours when implanted in immune-deficient mice, were used as models. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK activation was analysed by RTK arrays and cellular viability after tyrosine kinases inhibitor (TKI treatment with or without doxorubicin was assessed by MTS assay. Results. Initial results showed that the hMSC-TERT4 was more doxorubicin-sensitive while hMSC-TERT20-CE8 was less doxorubicin-sensitive evidenced by monitoring cell viability in the presence of doxorubicin at different doses. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR was activated in both cell lines. However hMSC-TERT20-CE8 exhibited significantly higher expression of the EGFR ligands. EGFR inhibitors such as erlotinib and afatinib alone or in combination with doxorubicin failed to further decrease cell viability of hMSC-TERT20-CE8. However, inhibition with the TKI dasatinib in combination with doxorubicin decreased cell viability of the hMSC-TERT20-CE8 cell line. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that dasatinib, but not EGFR-directed treatment, can decrease cell viability of stromal cancer stem cells less sensitive to doxorubicin.

  18. Dasatinib and Doxorubicin Treatment of Sarcoma Initiating Cells: A Possible New Treatment Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Demuth, Christina; Safwat, Akmal; Meldgaard, Peter; Kassem, Moustapha; Sandahl Sorensen, Boe

    2016-01-01

    Background. One of the major challenges affecting sarcoma treatment outcome, particularly that of metastatic disease, is resistance to chemotherapy. Cancer-initiating cells are considered a major contributor to this resistance. Methods. An immortalised nontransformed human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cell line hMSC-TERT4 and a transformed cell line hMSC-TERT20-CE8, known to form sarcoma-like tumours when implanted in immune-deficient mice, were used as models. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation was analysed by RTK arrays and cellular viability after tyrosine kinases inhibitor (TKI) treatment with or without doxorubicin was assessed by MTS assay. Results. Initial results showed that the hMSC-TERT4 was more doxorubicin-sensitive while hMSC-TERT20-CE8 was less doxorubicin-sensitive evidenced by monitoring cell viability in the presence of doxorubicin at different doses. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was activated in both cell lines. However hMSC-TERT20-CE8 exhibited significantly higher expression of the EGFR ligands. EGFR inhibitors such as erlotinib and afatinib alone or in combination with doxorubicin failed to further decrease cell viability of hMSC-TERT20-CE8. However, inhibition with the TKI dasatinib in combination with doxorubicin decreased cell viability of the hMSC-TERT20-CE8 cell line. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that dasatinib, but not EGFR-directed treatment, can decrease cell viability of stromal cancer stem cells less sensitive to doxorubicin.

  19. Pharmacologically directed strategies in academic anticancer drug discovery based on the European NCI compounds initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Hans R; Govaerts, Anne-Sophie; Fichtner, Iduna; Burtles, Sally; Westwell, Andrew D; Peters, Godefridus J

    2017-07-11

    The European NCI compounds programme, a joint initiative of the EORTC Research Branch, Cancer Research Campaign and the US National Cancer Institute, was initiated in 1993. The objective was to help the NCI in reducing the backlog of in vivo testing of potential anticancer compounds, synthesised in Europe that emerged from the NCI in vitro 60-cell screen. Over a period of more than twenty years the EORTC-Cancer Research Campaign panel reviewed ∼2000 compounds of which 95 were selected for further evaluation. Selected compounds were stepwise developed with clear go/no go decision points using a pharmacologically directed programme. This approach eliminated quickly compounds with unsuitable pharmacological properties. A few compounds went into Phase I clinical evaluation. The lessons learned and many of the principles outlined in the paper can easily be applied to current and future drug discovery and development programmes. Changes in the review panel, restrictions regarding numbers and types of compounds tested in the NCI in vitro screen and the appearance of targeted agents led to the discontinuation of the European NCI programme in 2017 and its transformation into an academic platform of excellence for anticancer drug discovery and development within the EORTC-PAMM group. This group remains open for advice and collaboration with interested parties in the field of cancer pharmacology.

  20. Blind CT image quality assessment via deep learning strategy: initial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sui; He, Ji; Wang, Yongbo; Liao, Yuting; Zeng, Dong; Bian, Zhaoying; Ma, Jianhua

    2018-03-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is one of the most important medical imaging modality. CT images can be used to assist in the detection and diagnosis of lesions and to facilitate follow-up treatment. However, CT images are vulnerable to noise. Actually, there are two major source intrinsically causing the CT data noise, i.e., the X-ray photo statistics and the electronic noise background. Therefore, it is necessary to doing image quality assessment (IQA) in CT imaging before diagnosis and treatment. Most of existing CT images IQA methods are based on human observer study. However, these methods are impractical in clinical for their complex and time-consuming. In this paper, we presented a blind CT image quality assessment via deep learning strategy. A database of 1500 CT images is constructed, containing 300 high-quality images and 1200 corresponding noisy images. Specifically, the high-quality images were used to simulate the corresponding noisy images at four different doses. Then, the images are scored by the experienced radiologists by the following attributes: image noise, artifacts, edge and structure, overall image quality, and tumor size and boundary estimation with five-point scale. We trained a network for learning the non-liner map from CT images to subjective evaluation scores. Then, we load the pre-trained model to yield predicted score from the test image. To demonstrate the performance of the deep learning network in IQA, correlation coefficients: Pearson Linear Correlation Coefficient (PLCC) and Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (SROCC) are utilized. And the experimental result demonstrate that the presented deep learning based IQA strategy can be used in the CT image quality assessment.

  1. Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) embarked on an initiative to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (shade trees, reflective roofs and pavements) in reducing cooling energy use in buildings, lowering the ambient air temperature and improve air quality. This report summarizes the efforts of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the impacts of HIR measures on building cooling- and heating-energy use. We discuss our efforts to calculate annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of HIR strategies in the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area. The analysis is focused on three major building types that offer most saving potentials: residence, office and retail store. Using an hourly building energy simulation model, we quantify the energy saving potentials of (1) using cool roofs on individual buildings[direct effect], (2) planting deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building[direct effect], (3) planting coniferous wind-shielding vegetation near building[direct effect], (4) ambient cooling by a large-scale program of urban reforestation with reflective building roofs and pavements[indirect effect], (5) and the combined direct and indirect effects. Results show potential annual energy savings of over$11M (with uniform residential and commercial electricity and gas prices of$0.084/kWh and$5.54/GJ) could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Of that total, about 88 percent was from the direct impact roughly divided equally among reflective roofs, shade trees and wind-shielding, and the remainder (12 percent) from the indirect impact of the cooler ambient air temperature. The residential sector accounts for over half (59 percent) of the total, offices 13 percent and retail stores 28 percent. Savings from cool roofs were about 20 percent, shade trees 30 percent, wind shielding of tree 37 percent, and indirect effect 12 percent. These

  2. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in the elderly: initial treatment strategy and overall survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Scott M; Dohopolski, Michael J; Balasubramani, Goundappa K; Flickinger, John C; Beriwal, Sushil

    2017-08-01

    The EORTC trial which solidified the role of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus temozolomide (TMZ) in the management of GBM excluded patients over age 70. Randomized studies of elderly patients showed that hypofractionated EBRT (HFRT) alone or TMZ alone was at least equivalent to conventionally fractionated EBRT (CFRT) alone. We sought to investigate the practice patterns and survival in elderly patients with GBM. We identified patients age 65-90 in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) with histologically confirmed GBM from 1998 to 2012 and known chemotherapy and radiotherapy status. We analyzed factors predicting treatment with EBRT alone vs. EBRT plus concurrent single-agent chemotherapy (CRT) using multivariable logistic regression. Similarly, within the EBRT alone cohort we compared CFRT (54-65 Gy at 1.7-2.1 Gy/fraction) to HFRT (34-60 Gy at 2.5-5 Gy/fraction). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards model (MVA) with propensity score adjustment was used to compare survival. A total of 38,862 patients were included. Initial treatments for 1998 versus 2012 were: EBRT alone = 50 versus 10%; CRT = 6 versus 50%; chemo alone = 1.6% (70% single-agent) versus 3.2% (94% single-agent). Among EBRT alone patients, use of HFRT (compared to CFRT) increased from 13 to 41%. Numerous factors predictive for utilization of CRT over EBRT alone and for HFRT over CFRT were identified. Median survival and 1-year overall survival were higher in the CRT versus EBRT alone group at 8.6 months vs. 5.1 months and 36.0 versus 15.7% (p GBM patients in the United States, CRT is the most common initial treatment and appears to offer a survival advantage over EBRT alone. Adoption of hypofractionation has increased over time but continues to be low.

  3. Sport Commercialism and its Impact on Sponsorship Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Trachsler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sport commercialism has increased tremendously over the past twenty years. Major sporting events and organizations are at the point where most cannot survive without outside sponsor- ship revenue. This study on American attitudes towards sport sponsorships analyzes the increased sport commercialism’s impact on sport fans. Previous studies on sport sponsorship and commercialism showed that increased sport commercial- ism leads to a negative purchase intent although a younger fan may be resistant to the negative influence of over-commercial- ism. This study builds upon such research by comparing gen- der, age, type of sport (professional versus amateur and fan- avidity. Perhaps paradoxically, this research suggests there is no correlation between over-commercialism and sport interest across numerous demographic categories. This data of corporate influence on sport commercialism may provide insights for sport sponsors as they best position their brands to the sport avid consumer.

  4. BUILDING HUMAN CAPITAL: THE IMPACT OF PARENTS´ INITIAL EDUCATIONAL LEVEL AND LIFELONG LEARNING ON THEIR CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FISCHER, Jakub

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of parents´ educational level on lifelong learning of children and relationship between parents´ and student´ lifelong learning including language skills and computer literacy. This intergenerational transmission, if proven, could influence the investments into the human capital in the long run. We used data from Adult Education Survey 2011 (AES to test the hypothesis that the parental attained level of education has a significant impact on the initial educational level of their children as well as on their lifelong learning participation. Furthermore, using data from AES, we tested the association between parental educational level and children´s language skills and reading activity and between parental non-formal as well as informal education and students´ lifelong learning. We have found that the parental effect on lifelong learning participation is slightly weaker than the effect of initial adult´s education. Nevertheless, the intergenerational transmission mechanism obviously works. The relationship between parental and students computer literacy is statistically significant, nevertheless weak. As for the nominal and ordinal character of the data, we used mainly the standard statistical methods including nonparametric tests, logit model and correspondence analysis.

  5. Transfusion Strategy: Impact of Haemodynamics and the Challenge of Haemodilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Carl-Johan

    2014-01-01

    Blood transfusion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and numerous reports have emphasised the need for reduction. Following this there is increased attention to the concept of patient blood management. However, bleeding is relatively common following cardiac surgery and is further enhanced by the continued antiplatelet therapy policy. Another important issue is that cardiopulmonary bypass leads to haemodilution and a potential blood loss. The basic role of blood is oxygen transport to the organs. The determining factors of oxygen delivery are cardiac output, haemoglobin, and saturation. If oxygen delivery/consumption is out of balance, the compensation mechanisms are simple, as a decrease in one factor results in an increase in one or two other factors. Patients with coexisting cardiac diseases may be of particular risk, but studies indicate that patients with coexisting cardiac diseases tolerate moderate anaemia and may even benefit from a restrictive transfusion regimen. Further it has been shown that patients with reduced left ventricular function are able to compensate with increased cardiac output in response to bleeding and haemodilution if normovolaemia is maintained. In conclusion the evidence supports that each institution establishes its own patient blood management strategy to both conserve blood products and maximise outcome. PMID:25177515

  6. Strategies to enhance the impact of research on human resources for health on policy making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghreed Adam

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite global recognition of the importance of human resources for health (HRH in achieving health system goals, very little is known about what works, for whom and under what circumstances, especially for low-income and middleincome countries. Several important events and reports have called for increased funding and capacity for HRH research in recent years and several initiatives have started as a result. Progress has been slow, however. The following strategies can be most valuable in ensuring the relevance of the generated evidence for decision making and its contribution to stronger health systems. The first is to promote national processes to set priorities for HRH research with active participation from decision makers. The second is to make conscious efforts to scale up primary research to address priority questions and to develop sustainable mechanisms to evaluate the impact of current or new HRH strategies to feed into the policy making process. The third is to invest in the development of systematic reviews to synthesize available evidence and in the adaptation of the underlying methods to make them more responsive to the type of questions and the nature of research involving HRH issues. The fourth and most important is to consistently use a systems approach in framing and addressing research questions. While a narrow approach may be more attractive and simple, health systems and the problems facing them are not. Increasing the body of evidence that takes into account the complexity of health systems, and particularly human resources for health, will advance knowledge in this area and will make big strides in the quality and usefulness of the generated evidence.

  7. Impact of initial tumor volume on radiotherapy outcome in patients with T2 glottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of initial tumor volume (TV) on radiotherapy (RT) outcome in patients with T2 glottic cancer. Initial TV was calculated for 115 consecutive patients with T2 glottic cancer who had been treated with definitive RT alone at a single institution. The results showed strong correlations of TV with 3-year local tumor control (LTC) and disease-free survival (DFS). For TV ≤ 0.7 cm 3 , 3-year LTC was 83 %; for TV 0.7-3.6 cm 3 this was 70 % and for TV 3.6-17 cm 3 44 %. Analysis of total dose vs. initial TV showed that larger T2 glottic tumors with a TV of around 5 cm 3 (2-2.5 cm in diameter with 10 10 cancer cells) need an extra 6.5 Gy to achieve similar 3-year LTC rates as for small tumors with a TV of 0.5 cm 3 (∝1 cm in diameter with 10 9 cancer cells). Although classification of tumors according to TV cannot replace TNM staging in daily practice, it could represent a valuable numerical supplement for planning the optimal dose fractionation scheme for individual patients. (orig.)

  8. Leveraging Agriculture for Nutrition Impact through the Feed the Future Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lidan; Pinga, Victor; Klein, Alyssa; Danton, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is a multisectoral problem; current state of empirical evidence for agricultural interventions' impacts on nutrition is weak. In the past 10 years, both agriculture and nutrition have risen on the global policy agenda. Several recent international movements have created great momentum for nutrition among global political leaders and policymakers. The 2008 world food price crisis prompted larger investment pledges to agricultural development. The U.S. Government launched the Feed the Future initiative in 2009 to address global hunger and food security, with a primary goal to reduce poverty and undernutrition by simultaneously promoting inclusive agriculture sector growth and improved nutritional status for women and children. With operations in 19 focus countries, Feed the Future provides an important laboratory of learning where efforts can be effective and, once proven, taken to scale to make agriculture work for nutrition. The Strengthening Partnerships, Results, and Innovations in Nutrition Globally (SPRING) project has been conducting a series of research on the Feed the Future initiative. This chapter will first provide a review of the nutrition narrative in relation to food and nutrition, introduce the current understanding of linkages between agriculture and nutrition and the Feed the Future initiative's efforts to strengthen the nutritional impact of agricultural and economic growth activities, and describe an extensive review of how the design and early implementation of Feed the Future activities linked agriculture and nutrition. Finally, the chapter presents an updated framework that incorporates ways to improve nutrition outcomes of agricultural programming in the broader context of food system. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Initial shunt type at the Norwood operation impacts myocardial function in hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Hanna K; Pihkala, Jaana; Salminen, Jukka; Hornberger, Lisa K; Sairanen, Heikki; Ojala, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the impact of initial shunt type, a Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt versus a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit (RV-PA) on myocardial function at different stages of surgical palliation in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). A population-based cohort of 63 Finnish children with HLHS (BT n  = 23, RV-PA n  = 40) born between 2003 and 2010 were studied retrospectively by echocardiography prior to Stages 1, 2 and 3 palliation and 0.5-3 years after Stage 3. For comparison of systolic myocardial function, we evaluated the RV fractional area change (FAC), strain, strain rate and mechanical synchrony from the apical 4-chamber view by velocity vector imaging. There were no intergroup differences in demographics during the study period. At baseline, no intergroup differences were detected in RV systolic myocardial function. Before Stage 2, RV FAC was higher ( P  = 0.03) in the RV-PA conduit group. At Stage 3, an increase in all systolic myocardial functional parameters was observed in the BT shunt group. After Stage 3, the BT shunt group had better RV systolic function. In multiple regression analysis, the shunt type and the stage of palliation had an impact on myocardial function. Although patients with HLHS initially palliated with a BT shunt demonstrate lower RV FAC after Stage I, RV FAC improves after Stage 2 with better systolic performance after Stage 3 compared with those initially palliated with an RV-PA conduit. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear Knowledge Preservation Initiative: Strategies, Information Technology Options And The Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundu, M.A

    2004-01-01

    The launching of National Nuclear Programme and the designation of OAU Ife and Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria as centers of excellence in nuclear research in 1977 marked the beginning of a systematic development of manpower and physical infrastructure for the peaceful application of nuclear science and technology are carried out in the Universities Research Institutes and the Industry, in Health, Hydrology, Agriculture, Petroleum, Mineral Development and Environmental Management. A major challenge arising form these development, is the collection, accumulated over the years. The resolution adopted on nuclear knowledge at the IAEA General Conference in 2002 and 2003 has given us the impetus to reposition the INIS centre toward the establishment of an information resource capable of meeting the needs of our scientists and engineers. A necessary step toward this end is to build a network of Universities and Research Institutes in nuclear science that will be used to pool, analyze and share national nuclear knowledge and experience, address preservation and promotion of knowledge, maintain competence and avoid duplication wherever necessary. This paper discusses the strategies, information technology options, stake holders and their responsibilities and the way forward

  11. Initiation process of earthquakes and its implications for seismic hazard reduction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, H

    1996-04-30

    For the average citizen and the public, "earthquake prediction" means "short-term prediction," a prediction of a specific earthquake on a relatively short time scale. Such prediction must specify the time, place, and magnitude of the earthquake in question with sufficiently high reliability. For this type of prediction, one must rely on some short-term precursors. Examinations of strain changes just before large earthquakes suggest that consistent detection of such precursory strain changes cannot be expected. Other precursory phenomena such as foreshocks and nonseismological anomalies do not occur consistently either. Thus, reliable short-term prediction would be very difficult. Although short-term predictions with large uncertainties could be useful for some areas if their social and economic environments can tolerate false alarms, such predictions would be impractical for most modern industrialized cities. A strategy for effective seismic hazard reduction is to take full advantage of the recent technical advancements in seismology, computers, and communication. In highly industrialized communities, rapid earthquake information is critically important for emergency services agencies, utilities, communications, financial companies, and media to make quick reports and damage estimates and to determine where emergency response is most needed. Long-term forecast, or prognosis, of earthquakes is important for development of realistic building codes, retrofitting existing structures, and land-use planning, but the distinction between short-term and long-term predictions needs to be clearly communicated to the public to avoid misunderstanding.

  12. Israel wildfires: future trends, impacts and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Lea

    2017-04-01

    Forest fires in the Euro-Mediterranean region burn about 450,000 ha each year. In Israel, the frequency and extent of wildfires have been steadily increasing over the past decades, culminating in several large and costly fires in 2010, 2012 and 2016. The extensive development of forest areas since the 1950's and the accumulation of fuel in the forests, has led to increased occurrences of high intensity fires. Land-use changes and human population growth are the most prevailing and common determinant of wildfire occurrence and impacts. Climate extremes, possibly already a sign of regional climate change, are another frequent determinant of increasing wildfire risk. Therefore, the combination of extreme dry spells, high fuel loads and increased anthropogenic pressure on the open spaces result in an overall amplified wildfire risk. These fires not only cause loss of life and damage to properties but also carry serious environmental repercussions. Combustion of standing vegetation and the leaf litter leave the soil bare and vulnerable to runoff and erosion, thereby increasing risks of flooding. Today, all of Israel's open spaces, forests, natural parks, major metropolitan centers, towns and villages are embedded within the wildland urban interface (WUI). Typically, wildfires near or in the WUI occur on uplands and runoff generated from the burned area poses flooding risks in urban and agricultural zones located downstream. Post-fire management aims at reducing associated hazards as collapsing trees and erosion risk. Often the time interval between a major fire and the definition of priority sites is in the order of days-to-weeks since administrative procedures, financial estimates and implementation of post-fire salvage logging operations require time. Defining the magnitude of the burn scar and estimating its potential impact on runoff and erosion must therefore be done quickly. A post-fire burn severity, runoff and erosion model is a useful tool in estimating

  13. Measles in Morocco: epidemiological profile and impact of vaccination strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh, Amine; Ziani, Mouncif; Cheikh, Zakia; Barakat, Amina; El Menzhi, Omar; Braikat, Mohammed; Benomar, Ali; Cherrah, Yahya; El Hassani, Amine

    2015-02-01

    Measles continues to persist as one of the leading causes of infant mortality due to preventable diseases through vaccination. This study aims to highlight measles in Morocco, and to present the vaccination strategy implemented to control and eliminate the disease in this country. Throughout this study, and based on data from the Directorate of Epidemiology and Control of Diseases and those of the Directorate of Population, we present an overview on the epidemiological trends of measles from 1997 to 2012, while evoking the plans established by the Ministry of Health (MoH) for the control and elimination of this disease. The number of measles cases has decreased in Morocco between 1997 and 2012 (2574-720 reported cases per year) as a result of four important steps: first, increasing the routine vaccination coverage (73-94%); second, the introduction of the second dose of the combined vaccine against measles and rubella in schools (children aged 6 years) since 2003; third, the first catch-up campaign of vaccination in Morocco in 2008, for which coverage was highly satisfactory (96% and 100% for age groups 5-59 months and 5-14 years, respectively); and fourth, the organization of a mass vaccination campaign in 2013 that targeted children from aged 9 months to 19 years. The vaccination plan and the surveillance system executed in Morocco within the framework of the regional project implemented by the World Health Organization (WHO) to eliminate measles has given remarkable results regarding the reduction of measles cases and mortality due to this disease. According to the data from MoH and WHO, the number of reported and confirmed measles cases decreased drastically during 2014. However, these efforts are still unsatisfactory compared to the prospective of eliminating the disease by 2015.

  14. The Impact of the Arab Spring on Islamist Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana E. Matesan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt created a contagion effect that inspired a series of uprisings by sending two signals: first, that even entrenched authoritarian regimes are vulnerable; and second, that nonviolent tactics can be effective in bringing about dramatic political changes. Subsequent developments, especially in Libya and Syria, convoluted these messages. Nonetheless, the political openings and the electoral victory of Islamists in Egypt and Tunisia continue to send the signal to many Islamist opposition groups that nonviolent means and participation in politics can be effective ways to produce political change. The chance of gaining power through electoral means can give Islamists strong incentives to join in the demands for democratic institutions and change their stance towards political participation. The appeal of nonviolent tactics, however, is undermined when external threats surpass domestic considerations. When the primary concern of the public is about outside threats and the main enemy is external rather than a domestic despot, the impact of the Arab Spring on views regarding the efficacy of nonviolent tactics is diminished. Similarly, when an Islamic group is primarily concerned with the "far enemy," the incentives for moderation offered by political participation are undermined.

  15. Evaluating impacts of Clean Air Act compliance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirer, D.A.; Evans, R.J.; Harrison, C.D.; Kehoe, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires that by the year 2000, US SO 2 emissions must be reduced by 10 million tons. This requirement will have significant impact on coal-fired electric utilities. As a result, most utilities are currently evaluating numerous compliance options, including buying allowances, coal cleaning/blending/switching, and flue gas scrubbing. Moreover, each utility must address its own unique circumstances with regard to competition, efficiency, capital expenditures, reliability, etc. and many utilities may choose a combination of compliance options to simultaneously satisfy their environmental, performance, and financial objectives. The Coal Quality Expert, which is being developed under a clean coal technology project funded by US DOE and EPRI, will predict the economic, operational, and environmental benefits of using higher-quality coals and provides an assessment of the merits of various post-combustion control technologies for specific utility applications. This paper presents background on how utilities evaluate their compliance options, and it describes how the Coal Quality Expert could be used for such evaluations in the future to assure that each utility can select the best combination of coal specifications and emission control technologies to meet its compliance objectives

  16. Do generic strategies impact performance in higher educational institutions? A SEM-based investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlam Mohammad Alzoubi; Okechukwu Lawrence Emeagwali

    2016-01-01

    This study set out to initiate an investigation into the linkage between generic strategy and performance in higher educational institutions and the moderating effect of institution-type. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), it examined the responses of a stratified sample of academics and administrative staff (n= 333) randomly selected from eight universities in northern Cyprus. Findings suggest that while there is a weak effect of differentiation strategy on performance, a strong effec...

  17. Argumentative Strategies in the Action of Compensation for Moral Damages: a Study of an Initial Petition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana de Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Guided by the semiolinguistics theory, this work intended to investigate initial petition involving a claim for compensation for moral damages in consumer relations, verifying how the dimensions of the features of logos and pathos were used by lawyers to persuade the judge that the claim for compensation was valid. This study also aimed to investigate which socio-discursive imaginaries were expressed in these speeches. We came to the conclusion that the notion of communication contract is very striking and guiding in these speeches. It was also found a predominance of the dimension of logos and a regularity in the use of techniques from this dimension. We also found that the patêmica order arguments also had a great importance in the argumentation, as being the moral damage connected directly to the emotional shock of the applicant for the violation of his rights, the argument based only on the logos would be somewhat consistent. It was clear that the lawyer’s voice comes from the collectivity with which he shares values and principles.

  18. Impact of eccentricity build-up and graveyard disposal Strategies on MEO navigation constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Jonas; Domínguez-González, Raúl; Flegel, Sven K.; Sánchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Merz, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    With currently two constellations being in or close to the build-up phase, in a few years the Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) region will be populated with four complete navigation systems in relatively close orbital altitudes: The American GPS, Russian GLONASS, European Galileo, and Chinese BeiDou. To guarantee an appropriate visibility of constellation satellites from Earth, these constellations rely on certain defined orbits. For this, both the repeat pattern, which is basically defined by the semimajor axis and inclination, as well as the orbital planes, which are defined by the right ascension of ascending node, are determining values. To avoid an overcrowding of the region of interest, the disposal of satellites after their end-of-life is recommended. However, for the MEO region, no internationally agreed mitigation guidelines exist. Because of their distances to Earth, ordinary disposal manoeuvres leading to a direct or delayed re-entry due to atmospheric drag are not feasible: The needed fuel masses for such manoeuvres are by far above the reasonable limits and available fuel budgets. Thus, additional approaches have to be applied. For this, in general two options exist: disposal to graveyard orbits or the disposal to eccentricity build-up orbits. In the study performed, the key criterion for the graveyard strategy is that the disposed spacecraft must keep a safe minimum distance to the altitude of the active constellation on a long-term time scale of up to 200 years. This constraint imposes stringent requirements on the stability of the graveyard orbit. Similar disposals are also performed for high LEO satellites and disposed GEO payloads. The eccentricity build-up strategy on the other hand uses resonant effects between the Earth's geopotential, the Sun and the Moon. Depending on the initial conditions, these can cause a large eccentricity build-up, which finally can lead to a re-entry of the satellite. In this paper, the effects of applying either the first or

  19. An evaluation of the process and initial impact of disseminating a nursing e-thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macduff, Colin

    2009-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to evaluate product, process and outcome aspects of the dissemination of a nursing PhD thesis via an open-access electronic institutional repository. Despite the growth of university institutional repositories which make theses easily accessible via the world wide web, nursing has been very slow to evaluate related processes and outcomes. Drawing on Stake's evaluation research methods, a case study design was adopted. The case is described using a four-phase structure within which key aspects of process and impact are reflexively analysed. In the conceptualization/re-conceptualization phase, fundamental questions about the purpose, format and imagined readership for a published nursing PhD were considered. In the preparation phase, seven key practical processes were identified that are likely to be relevant to most e-theses. In the dissemination phase email invitations were primarily used to invite engagement. The evaluation phase involved quantitative indicators of initial impact, such as page viewing and download statistics and qualitative feedback on processes and product. Analysis of process and impact elements of e-thesis dissemination is likely to have more than intrinsic value. The advent of e-theses housed in web-based institutional repositories has the potential to transform thesis access and use. It also offers potential to transform the nature and scope of thesis production and dissemination. Nursing scholars can exploit and evaluate such opportunities.

  20. Effective Dissemination - Building an 'Evidence to Impact' Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan O'Neill

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available When a piece of ‘evidence’ is generated in the research environment and almost nobody hears about it, then can we really still call it a piece of ‘evidence’? Does evidence only become evidence once it is used; and until then, is it just a piece of insignificant information? As we inexorably travel through the EBVM era, we must increasingly prioritise effective dissemination of evidence. This paper will use the VetCompass Programme at the Royal Veterinary College as a case study to explore a strategic dissemination plan and examine routes for effective dissemination.Although EBVM traditionally assumes an audience of academics or practicing veterinarians, the authors contend that substantial welfare gains can be additionally achieved by targeting current and future pet owners, the non-owner general public, industry, welfare bodies, scientific groups, breeders and kennel clubs. Effective dissemination should be strategic and give a priori consideration to identifying target audiences, appropriate formatting of the messages and open access routes for dissemination. Scientists who generate EBVM may not always be best placed to also disseminate these messages and therefore research teams should consider widening their combined skill-base to also incorporate marketing and media savvy.The VetCompass Programme is a new and hugely exciting project that shares de-identified primary-practice clinical data for research to support effective evidence based veterinary medicine and welfare reforms. VetCompass data collection commenced in 2009 and the current 470 collaborating primary-care practices have shared data on 4 million small animals and 45 million unique episodes of care. VetCompass has 15 peer-reviewed publications to date.In order to maximise the welfare gains from an array of evidence silos generated within VetCompass, a dissemination strategy was designed based on a Systems Thinking approach. The outcomes from a range of dissemination trials

  1. Strategies to Build Readiness in Community Mobilization Efforts for Implementation in a Multi-Year Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, Nazmim; House, L Duane; Desmarais, Jeffrey; Fletcher, Erica; Conlin, Maeve; Perez-McAdoo, Sarah; Waggett, Jessica; Tendulkar, Shalini A

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes an assessment of community readiness to implement a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative, Youth First, and presents strategies used to enhance this readiness as informed by the assessment. Twenty-five community stakeholder interviews were conducted to assess four domains of readiness: (1) attitudes, perception, and knowledge of teen pregnancy; (2) perceived level of readiness; (3) resources, existing and current efforts; and (4) leadership. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Stakeholders acknowledged teen pregnancy as an issue but lacked contextual information. They also perceived the community as ready to address the issue and recognized some organizations already championing efforts. However, many key players were not involved, and ongoing data collection to assess teen pregnancy and prevention efforts was limited. Though many stakeholders were ready to engage in teen pregnancy prevention efforts, they required additional information and training to appropriately address the issue. In response to the assessment findings, several strategies were applied to address readiness and build Youth First partners' capacity to implement the community-wide initiative. Thus, to successfully implement community-wide prevention efforts, it is valuable to assess the level of community readiness to address health issues. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identifying potential environmental impacts of waste handling strategies in textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacout, Dalia M M; Hassouna, M S

    2016-08-01

    Waste management is a successful instrument to minimize generated waste and improve environmental conditions. In spite of the large share of developing countries in the textile industry, limited information is available concerning the waste management strategies implemented for textiles on those countries and their environmental impacts. In the current study, two waste management approaches for hazardous solid waste treatment of acrylic fibers (landfill and incineration) were investigated. The main research questions were: What are the different impacts of each waste management strategy? Which waste management strategy is more ecofriendly? Life cycle assessment was employed in order to model the environmental impacts of each waste streaming approach separately then compare them together. Results revealed that incineration was the more ecofriendly approach. Highest impacts of both approaches were on ecotoxicity and carcinogenic potentials due to release of metals from pigment wastes. Landfill had an impact of 46.8 % on human health as compared to 28 % by incineration. Incineration impact on ecosystem quality was higher than landfill impact (68.4 and 51.3 %, respectively). As for resources category, incineration had a higher impact than landfill (3.5 and 2.0 %, respectively). Those impacts could be mitigated if state-of-the-art landfill or incinerator were used and could be reduced by applying waste to energy approaches for both management systems In conclusion, shifting waste treatment from landfill to incineration would decrease the overall environmental impacts and allow energy recovery. The potential of waste to energy approach by incineration with heat recovery could be considered in further studies. Future research is needed in order to assess the implementation of waste management systems and the preferable waste management strategies in the textile industry on developing countries.

  3. Transcription initiation patterns indicate divergent strategies for gene regulation at the chromatin level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Rach

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of deep sequencing to map 5' capped transcripts has confirmed the existence of at least two distinct promoter classes in metazoans: "focused" promoters with transcription start sites (TSSs that occur in a narrowly defined genomic span and "dispersed" promoters with TSSs that are spread over a larger window. Previous studies have explored the presence of genomic features, such as CpG islands and sequence motifs, in these promoter classes, but virtually no studies have directly investigated the relationship with chromatin features. Here, we show that promoter classes are significantly differentiated by nucleosome organization and chromatin structure. Dispersed promoters display higher associations with well-positioned nucleosomes downstream of the TSS and a more clearly defined nucleosome free region upstream, while focused promoters have a less organized nucleosome structure, yet higher presence of RNA polymerase II. These differences extend to histone variants (H2A.Z and marks (H3K4 methylation, as well as insulator binding (such as CTCF, independent of the expression levels of affected genes. Notably, differences are conserved across mammals and flies, and they provide for a clearer separation of promoter architectures than the presence and absence of CpG islands or the occurrence of stalled RNA polymerase. Computational models support the stronger contribution of chromatin features to the definition of dispersed promoters compared to focused start sites. Our results show that promoter classes defined from 5' capped transcripts not only reflect differences in the initiation process at the core promoter but also are indicative of divergent transcriptional programs established within gene-proximal nucleosome organization.

  4. Impact of Age at Smoking Initiation on Smoking-Related Morbidity and All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Stommel, Manfred

    2017-07-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, the aims of this study were to examine the impact of early smoking initiation on the development of self-reported smoking-related morbidity and all-cause mortality. National Health Interview Survey data from 1997 through 2005 were linked to the National Death Index with follow-up to December 31, 2011. Two primary dependent variables were smoking-related morbidity and all-cause mortality; the primary independent variable was age of smoking initiation. The analyses included U.S. population of current and former smokers aged ≥30 years (N=90,278; population estimate, 73.4 million). The analysis relied on fitting logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models. Among the U.S. population of smokers, 7.3% started smoking before age 13 years, 11.0% at ages 13-14 years, 24.2% at ages 15-16 years, 24.5% at ages 17-18 years, 14.5% at ages 19-20 years, and 18.5% at ages ≥21 years. Early smoking initiation before age 13 years was associated with increased risks for cardiovascular/metabolic (OR=1.67) and pulmonary (OR=1.79) diseases as well as smoking-related cancers (OR=2.1) among current smokers; the risks among former smokers were cardiovascular/metabolic (OR=1.38); pulmonary (OR=1.89); and cancers (OR=1.44). Elevated mortality was also related to early smoking initiation among both current (hazard ratio, 1.18) and former smokers (hazard ratio, 1.19). Early smoking initiation increases risks of experiencing smoking-related morbidities and all-cause mortality. These risks are independent of demographic characteristics, SES, health behaviors, and subsequent smoking intensity. Comprehensive tobacco control programs should be implemented to prevent smoking initiation and promote cessation among youth. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of recent Federal tax and R and D initiatives on enhanced oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brashear, J.P.; Biglarbigi, K.; Ray, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Strategy contains two major elements designed to increase oil production from known reservoirs in the contiguous United States: (1) a tax credit for specific investment and injectant costs for qualified enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects; and (2) a highly focused, public-private cooperative R ampersand D program. Both are currently being implemented by the Department of the Treasury and the Department of Energy, respectively. The present paper estimates the potential reserve additions and impacts on public treasuries at oil prices between $22 and $34/Bbl. The new Federal tax credit, alone, could doubler current proved EOR reserves at oil prices in the $22/Bbl range and increase them by about one-third at prices in the $30/Bbl range. The effect of technology advances alone could also about double EOR reserves at these prices. The combination of technology advances and the tax incentive synergistically amplifies the effects on potential EOR reserves

  6. Gaps within the Biomedical Literature: Initial Characterization and Assessment of Strategies for Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Peng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Within well-established fields of biomedical science, we identify “gaps,” topical areas of investigation that might be expected to occur but are missing. We define a field by carrying out a topical PubMed query and analyze Medical Subject Headings (MeSH by which the set of retrieved articles are indexed. MeSH terms that occur in >1% of the articles are examined pairwise to see how often they are predicted to co-occur within individual articles (assuming that they are independent of each other. A pair of MeSH terms that are predicted to co-occur in at least 10 articles, yet are not observed to co-occur in any article, are “gaps” and were studied further in a corpus of 10 disease-related article sets and 10 related to biological processes. Overall, articles that filled gaps were cited more heavily than non-gap-filling articles and were 61% more likely to be published in multidisciplinary high-impact journals. Nine different features of these “gaps” were characterized and tested to learn which, if any, correlate with the appearance of one or more articles containing both MeSH terms within the next 5 years. Several different types of gaps were identified, each having distinct combinations of predictive features: (a those arising as a byproduct of MeSH indexing rules; (b those having little biological meaning; (c those representing “low hanging fruit” for immediate exploitation; and (d those representing gaps across disciplines or subdisciplines that do not talk to each other or work together. We have built a free, open tool called “Mine the Gap!” that identifies and characterizes the “gaps” for any PubMed query, which can be accessed via the Anne O’Tate value-added PubMed search interface (http://arrowsmith.psych.uic.edu/cgi-bin/arrowsmith_uic/AnneOTate.cgi.

  7. THE IMPACT OF THE CULTURE ON THE STRATEGIES OF THE COUNTY MEHEDINTI ORGANISATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Doina Rosca; Adriana Schiopoiu Burlea; Marioara Avram; Mirela Sîrbu; Laurentiu Constantin Dragomir; Mihail Cristian Negulescu; Irina Morarasu; Viorina Judeu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate the influence of the strategies and culture on the social behaviour of County Mehedinti organizations. Starting from the reference literature on strategies management and culture, this article is an investigation of the impact that short/long term orientation has on the behaviour of the employees in organizations. Our research underpins quantitative and qualitative methodology based on the outcomes of the COMOR project

  8. Impact of Optimization Strategy and Adoption Rate on V2X Technology on Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-12-31

    This research evaluated the effects of automated vehicle control strategies on system level emissions, travel time and wait time through a series of traffic lights. The study was conducted using traffic simulation and a realistic vehicle mix. Two con...

  9. Gender influences the initial impact of subarachnoid hemorrhage: an experimental investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Friedrich

    Full Text Available Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH carries high early patient mortality. More women than men suffer from SAH and the average age of female SAH survivors is greater than that of male survivors; however, the overall mortality and neurological outcomes are not better in males despite their younger age. This pattern suggests the possibility of gender differences in the severity of initial impact and/or in subsequent pathophysiology. We explored gender differences in survival and pathophysiology following subarachnoid hemorrhage induced in age-matched male and female rats by endovascular puncture. Intracranial pressure (ICP, cerebral blood flow (CBF, blood pressure (BP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP were recorded at and after induction of SAH. Animals were sacrificed 3 hours after lesion and studied for subarachnoid hematoma size, vascular pathology (collagen and endothelium immunostaining, inflammation (platelet and neutrophil immunostaining, and cell death (TUNEL assay. In a second cohort, 24-hour survival was determined. Subarachnoid hematoma, post-hemorrhage ICP peak, BP elevation, reduction in CPP, intraluminal platelet aggregation and neutrophil accumulation, loss of vascular collagen, and neuronal and non-neuronal cell death were greater in male than in female rats. Hematoma size did not correlate with the number of apoptotic cells, platelet aggregates or neutrophil. The ICP peak correlated with hematoma size and with number of apoptotic cells but not with platelet aggregates and neutrophil number. This suggests that the intensity of ICP rise at SAH influences the severity of apoptosis but not of inflammation. Mortality was markedly greater in males than females. Our data demonstrate that in rats gender influences the initial impact of SAH causing greater bleed and early injury in males as compared to females.

  10. Perceived impact and feasibility of strategies to improve access to healthy foods in Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donna B; Quinn, Emilee L; Podrabsky, Mary; Beckwith-Stanley, Nadia; Chan, Nadine; Ellings, Amy; Kovacs, Tricia; Lane, Claire

    2013-12-01

    The present study measured the perceived impact and political and implementation feasibility of state-level policy strategies related to increasing access to healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods. Potential state-level policy strategies to improve access to healthy foods were identified through a review of evidence-based literature and policy recommendations. Respondents rated the perceived impact and political and implementation feasibility of each policy on a five-point scale using online surveys. Washington State policy process. Forty-nine content experts (national researchers and subject experts), forty policy experts (state elected officials or their staff, gubernatorial or legislative policy analysts) and forty-five other stakeholders (state-level advocates, programme administrators, food producers). In aggregate, respondents rated policy impact and implementation feasibility higher than political feasibility. Policy experts rated policy strategies as less politically feasible compared with content experts (P political and implementation feasibility. These included policies related to nutrition standards in schools and child-care facilities, food distribution systems, urban planning projects, water availability, joint use agreements and breast-feeding supports. Although they may be perceived as potentially impactful, some policies will be more difficult to enact than others. Information about the potential feasibility of policies to improve access to healthy foods can be used to focus limited policy process resources on strategies with the highest potential for enactment, implementation and impact.

  11. Polyhomologation based on in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites: a novel strategy towards the synthesis of polyethylene-based complex architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hefeng; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    A novel strategy, based on the in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites for the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide, has been developed for the synthesis of complex polyethylene-based architectures. As examples

  12. ICT Integration in Mathematics Initial Teacher Training and Its Impact on Visualization: The Case of GeoGebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockendorff, Monika; Solar, Horacio

    2018-01-01

    This case study investigates the impact of the integration of information and communications technology (ICT) in mathematics visualization skills and initial teacher education programmes. It reports on the influence GeoGebra dynamic software use has on promoting mathematical learning at secondary school and on its impact on teachers' conceptions…

  13. Europe Agrees on Common Strategy to Initiate Study of LSA/MMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Council Specifies ESO's Role in Planning In an extraordinary meeting at the ESO Headquarters, the ESO Council today endorsed ESO's involvement in the planning of a major new astronomical facility in the southern hemisphere. Some years from now, the Large Southern Array/Millimetre Array (LSA/MMA) may become the world's prime sub-mm/mm radio observatory [1] at a pristine site at 5000 m altitude in the Chilean Andes, not very far from the VLT Paranal Observatory. Background One of the highest-priority items in astronomy today is a large millimetre-wavelength array. This would be a millimetre counterpart to the ESO VLT and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with similar scientific objectives and comparable high angular resolution and sensitivity. An antenna array with about 10,000 m 2 area would provide very high sensitivity and angular resolution, compatible with that of the VLT and HST. Such a large collecting area implies an array with many antennas and baselines, which give the added advantage of fast, high-quality images. The site must be high, dry, large, and flat - a high plateau in the Atacama desert is ideal, and has the great advantage of being in the southern hemisphere, important for compatibility with the VLT. Thus, discussions in Europe have focussed on a "Large Southern Array" (LSA) . The scientific case for such a telescope is overwhelming. It would be able to study the origins of galaxies and stars: the epoch of first galaxy formation and the evolution of galaxies at later stages, including the dust-obscured star-forming galaxies that the HST and VLT cannot see, and all phases of star formation hidden away in dusty molecular clouds. But the LSA will go far beyond these main science drivers - it will have a major impact on virtually all areas of astronomy, and make millimetre astronomy accessible to all astronomers. It may well have as big a user community as the VLT itself. European involvement in millimetre astronomy Europe already has a

  14. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections produced with CMIP5 and applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report indicate that changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to occur throughout Europe in the 21th century, with a likely decrease of water availability in many regions. Besides, water demand is also expected to increase, in link with these expected climate modifications, but also due to socio-economic and demographic changes. In this respect, the use of future freshwater resources may not be sustainable from the current water management perspective. Therefore adaptation strategies will most likely be needed to cope with these evolutions. In this context, the main objective of the ClimAware project (2010-2013 - www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE/, a project implemented within the IWRM-NET Funding Initiative) was to analyse the impacts of climate change (CC) on freshwater resources at the continental and regional scales and to identify efficient adaptation strategies to improve water management for various socio-economic sectors. This should contribute to a more effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its instruments (river basin management plans, programmes of measures). The project developed integrated measures for improved freshwater management under CC constraints. More specifically, the objectives of the ClimAware project were to: • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river flows and consequences such as flood frequency, drought occurrence and sectorial water uses. • analyse the effect of CC on the hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and therefore the definition of "good status". • define management rules/strategies concerning dam management and irrigation practices on different time perspectives. • investigate uncertainties in climate model - scenario combinations. The research approach considered both European and regional perspectives, to get

  15. Technology-Enhanced Science Partnership Initiative: Impact on Secondary Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan; Fergusson, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    The issue of student disengagement in school science continues to pose a threat to lifting the participation rates of students undertaking STEM courses and careers in Australia and other countries globally. In Australia, several science initiatives to reverse the problem have been funded over the last two decades. Many of these initiatives involve partnerships with scientists, science educators and with industries, as is the case in this paper. The research in this paper investigated a recent partnership initiative between secondary science teachers, scientists and an educational technology company to produce science e-modules on adaptive learning platforms, enabling students to engage in personalised, inquiry-based learning and the investigation of real-world problems. One of the objectives of the partnership project was to build theoretical and pedagogical skills in teachers to deliver science by exposing them to new ways of engaging students with new digital tools, for example analytics. Using a mixed methods approach, the research investigated science teachers' pedagogical involvement in the partnership project and their perceptions of the project's impact on their teaching and students' learning. The findings indicate that the teachers believed that new technology could enhance their teaching and students' learning and that while their students were motivated by the online modules, there was still a need for scaffolding for many of the students. The effectiveness of this would depend on the teachers' ability to internalise the new technological and content knowledge resulting from the partnership and realign them with their existing pedagogical framework. The research is significant in identifying elements for successful partnership projects as well as challenges that need to be considered. It is significant in facilitating continuous discourse about new evidence-based pedagogical approaches to science education in engaging students to learn STEM subjects in a

  16. Evaluation of Heliostat Standby Aiming Strategies to Reduce Avian Flux Hazards and Impacts on Operational Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelin, Timothy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Laboratories; Horstman, Luke [Sandia National Laboratories

    2017-06-03

    This paper presents a study of alternative heliostat standby aiming strategies and their impact on avian flux hazards and operational performance of a concentrating solar power plant. A mathematical model was developed that predicts the bird-feather temperature as a function of solar irradiance, thermal emittance, convection, and thermal properties of the feather. The irradiance distribution in the airspace above the Ivanpah Unit 2 heliostat field was simulated using a ray-trace model for two different times of the day, four days of the year, and nine different standby aiming strategies. The impact of the alternative aiming strategies on operational performance was assessed by comparing the heliostat slew times from standby position to the receiver for the different aiming strategies. Increased slew times increased a proxy start-up time that reduced the simulated annual energy production. Results showed that spreading the radial aim points around the receiver to a distance of ~150 m or greater reduced the hazardous exposure times that the feather temperature exceeded the hazard metric of 160 degrees C. The hazardous exposure times were reduced by ~23% and 90% at a radial spread of aim points extending to 150 m and 250 m, respectively, but the simulated annual energy production decreased as a result of increased slew times. Single point-focus aiming strategies were also evaluated, but these strategies increased the exposure hazard relative to other aiming strategies.

  17. Psychological impact on house staff of an initial versus subsequent emergency medicine rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagappan, K; Grlic, N; Steinberg, M; Pollack, S

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the psychological impact of a 4-week emergency medicine (EM) rotation on residents undergoing their first EM experience. These findings were compared to the psychological impact the rotation had on residents with prior EM experience. Data were obtained from a post hoc analysis of a previous study. Prerotation and postrotation psychological distress levels were assessed over a 4-week EM rotation. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Dissociative Experience Scale that together comprise a total of 14 psychometric scales. All scales were given at the beginning and end of the initial EM rotation for the academic year of 1994-1995. All information was coded and confidential. Eighteen junior residents (9/18 EM [50%]) were analyzed as a group and compared to 53 residents (34/51 EM [66%]) with prior exposure to the authors' emergency department. Residents doing their first EM rotation (N = 18) showed improvement in 13 of 14 scales (P = .002). Of the 13 scales that improved, 3 improved significantly: Brief Symptom Inventory = anxiety (P = .002) and Dissociative Experience Scale = absorption (P = .001) and other (P = .001). Residents with prior EM experience (N = 53) displayed worsening in 9 of 13 scales (P = not significant) and no change in 1. Residents undergoing their first EM rotation showed a significant decrease in psychological distress over the 4-week period. Residents with prior EM experience did not show a similar change.

  18. Activities of NASA's Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) in the Assessment of Subsonic Aircraft Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, J. M.; Logan, J. A.; Rotman, D. A.; Bergmann, D. J.; Baughcum, S. L.; Friedl, R. R.; Anderson, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimated a peak increase in ozone ranging from 7-12 ppbv (zonal and annual average, and relative to a baseline with no aircraft), due to the subsonic aircraft in the year 2015, corresponding to aircraft emissions of 1.3 TgN/year. This range of values presumably reflects differences in model input (e.g., chemical mechanism, ground emission fluxes, and meteorological fields), and algorithms. The model implemented by the Global Modeling Initiative allows testing the impact of individual model components on the assessment calculations. We present results of the impact of doubling the 1995 aircraft emissions of NOx, corresponding to an extra 0.56 TgN/year, utilizing meteorological data from NASA's Data Assimilation Office (DAO), the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), and the Middle Atmosphere Community Climate Model, version 3 (MACCM3). Comparison of results to observations can be used to assess the model performance. Peak ozone perturbations ranging from 1.7 to 2.2 ppbv of ozone are calculated using the different fields. These correspond to increases in total tropospheric ozone ranging from 3.3 to 4.1 Tg/Os. These perturbations are consistent with the IPCC results, due to the difference in aircraft emissions. However, the range of values calculated is much smaller than in IPCC.

  19. Impact of Tobacco Control Interventions on Smoking Initiation, Cessation, and Prevalence: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Policymakers need estimates of the impact of tobacco control (TC policies to set priorities and targets for reducing tobacco use. We systematically reviewed the independent effects of TC policies on smoking behavior. Methods. We searched MEDLINE (through January 2012 and EMBASE and other databases through February 2009, looking for studies published after 1989 in any language that assessed the effects of each TC intervention on smoking prevalence, initiation, cessation, or price participation elasticity. Paired reviewers extracted data from studies that isolated the impact of a single TC intervention. Findings. We included 84 studies. The strength of evidence quantifying the independent effect on smoking prevalence was high for increasing tobacco prices and moderate for smoking bans in public places and antitobacco mass media campaigns. Limited direct evidence was available to quantify the effects of health warning labels and bans on advertising and sponsorship. Studies were too heterogeneous to pool effect estimates. Interpretations. We found evidence of an independent effect for several TC policies on smoking prevalence. However, we could not derive precise estimates of the effects across different settings because of variability in the characteristics of the intervention, level of policy enforcement, and underlying tobacco control environment.

  20. The impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes of solving math word problems

    OpenAIRE

    Eda Vula; Rrezarta Avdyli; Valbona Berisha; Blerim Saqipi; Shpetim Elezi

    2017-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes in learners’ achievement on solving math word problems. It specifically analyzes the impact of the linguistic factor and the number of steps and arithmetical operations that learners need to apply during the process of solving math word problems. Two hundred sixty-three learners, of three classes of third graders (N=130) and four classes of fifth ...

  1. Do transition towns have the potential to promote health and well-being? A health impact assessment of a transition town initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J; Nichols, A; Henry, T

    2012-11-01

    Climate change and energy vulnerability present significant challenges for the development and sustainability of our communities. The adverse effects will most likely impact on those already experiencing poverty, as energy and food costs will rise, thus increasing inequalities in health. Transition town initiatives seek to build cohesive sustainable communities to prepare for a future with limited oil and a changing climate. Increasingly, public health practitioners are interested in the role of transition towns as a community development initiative, and their potential to support the wider public health agenda. Health impact assessment (HIA) is an evidence-based process that aims to predict the positive and negative impacts of a strategy, proposal or development. The HIA process provides an opportunity to promote sustainable communities by ensuring that new strategies and developments are considered in the context of their contribution to the health and well-being of local populations. The aim of this study was to use an HIA to examine the potential health and well-being benefits of two related transition town initiatives. A rapid HIA to consider the potential lifestyle changes and health and well-being impacts of Transition Together/Transition Streets (TT/TS) projects. An HIA template was used to assess key documents related to the TT/TS initiatives and those related to the characteristics of the community. Additionally, meetings with 12 key informants (four involved in TT/TS and eight purposively selected for their local knowledge) were held using the HIA template to focus the discussion. The findings highlight the associated lifestyle changes such as increased physical activity and healthy eating, and possible social and well-being benefits of engagement in such an initiative. Engagement may be limited to those already concerned about environmental issues. This paper illustrates the important links between transition towns and the wider public health agenda

  2. Impact of initial lipid content and oxygen supply on alcoholic fermentation in champagne-like musts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochando, Thomas; Mouret, Jean-Roch; Humbert-Goffard, Anne; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Farines, Vincent

    2017-08-01

    Available nitrogen, lipids, or oxygen are nutrients with major impact on the kinetics of winemaking fermentation. Assimilable nitrogen is usually the growth-limiting nutrient which availability determines the fermentation rate and therefore the fermentation duration. In some particular cases, as in Champagne, grape musts have high available nitrogen content and low turbidity, i.e., below 50 Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU). In the case of low turbidity, the availability of lipids, particularly phytosterols, becomes limiting. In this situation, control of oxygenation, which is necessary for lipid synthesis by yeast, is particularly crucial during fermentation. To mimic and understand these situations, a synthetic medium simulating the average composition of a Champagne must was used. This medium contained phytosterol (mainly β-sitosterol) concentrations ranging from 0 to 8mg/L corresponding to turbidity between 10 and 90 NTU. Population reached during the stationary phase and the maximum fermentation rate are conditioned by the initial phytosterol concentration determining the amount of nitrogen consumption. An early loss of viability was observed when the lipid concentrations were very low. For example, the viability continuously decreased during the stationary phase to a final value of 50% for an initial phytosterol concentration of 1mg/L. In some fermentations, 10mg/L oxygen were added at the end of the growth phase to combine the effects of initial content of phytosterols in the musts and the de novo synthesis of ergosterol and unsaturated fatty acids induced by oxygen addition. Effect of oxygen supply on the fermentation kinetics was particularly significant for media with low phytosterol contents. For example, the maximum fermentation rate was increased by 1.4-fold and the fermentation time was 70h shorter with oxygen addition in the medium containing 2mg/L of phytosterols. As a consequence of the oxygen supply, for the media containing 3, 5 and 8mg/L of

  3. Impact of Different Ventilation Strategies on Driving Pressure, Mechanical Power, and Biological Markers During Open Abdominal Surgery in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maia, Lígia de A.; Samary, Cynthia S.; Oliveira, Milena V.; Santos, Cintia L.; Huhle, Robert; Capelozzi, Vera L.; Morales, Marcelo M.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Abreu, Marcelo G.; Pelosi, Paolo; Silva, Pedro L.; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2017-01-01

    Intraoperative mechanical ventilation may yield lung injury. To date, there is no consensus regarding the best ventilator strategy for abdominal surgery. We aimed to investigate the impact of the mechanical ventilation strategies used in 2 recent trials (Intraoperative Protective Ventilation

  4. Mapping longitudinal scientific progress, collaboration and impact of the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Yao

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI is a landmark imaging and omics study in AD. ADNI research literature has increased substantially over the past decade, which poses challenges for effectively communicating information about the results and impact of ADNI-related studies. In this work, we employed advanced information visualization techniques to perform a comprehensive and systematic mapping of the ADNI scientific growth and impact over a period of 12 years.Citation information of ADNI-related publications from 01/01/2003 to 05/12/2015 were downloaded from the Scopus database. Five fields, including authors, years, affiliations, sources (journals, and keywords, were extracted and preprocessed. Statistical analyses were performed on basic publication data as well as journal and citations information. Science mapping workflows were conducted using the Science of Science (Sci2 Tool to generate geospatial, topical, and collaboration visualizations at the micro (individual to macro (global levels such as geospatial layouts of institutional collaboration networks, keyword co-occurrence networks, and author collaboration networks evolving over time.During the studied period, 996 ADNI manuscripts were published across 233 journals and conference proceedings. The number of publications grew linearly from 2008 to 2015, so did the number of involved institutions. ADNI publications received much more citations than typical papers from the same set of journals. Collaborations were visualized at multiple levels, including authors, institutions, and research areas. The evolution of key ADNI research topics was also plotted over the studied period.Both statistical and visualization results demonstrate the increasing attention of ADNI research, strong citation impact of ADNI publications, the expanding collaboration networks among researchers, institutions and ADNI core areas, and the dynamic evolution of ADNI research topics. The visualizations

  5. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Spring Barley Production in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trnka, M.; Zalud, Z.; Dubrovsky, M.

    2004-01-01

    The crop model CERES-Barley was used to assess the impacts of increased concentration of atmospheric CO2 on growth and development of the most important spring cereal in Central and Western Europe, i.e., spring barley, and to examine possible adaptation strategies. Three experimental regions were selected to compare the climate change impacts in various climatic and pedological conditions. The analysis was based on multi-year crop model simulations run with daily weather series obtained by stochastic weather generator and included two yield levels: stressed yields and potential yields. Four climate change scenarios based on global climate models and representing 2 x CO2 climate were applied. Results: (1) The crop model is suitable for use in the given environment, e.g., the coefficient of determination between the simulated and experimental yields equals 0.88. (2) The indirect effect related to changed weather conditions is mostly negative. Its magnitude ranges from -19% to +5% for the four scenarios applied at the three regions. (3) The magnitude of the direct effect of doubled CO2 on the stressed yields for the three test sites is 35-55% in the present climate and 25-65% in the 2 x CO2 climates. (4) The stressed yields would increase in 2 x CO2 conditions by 13-52% when both direct and indirect effects were considered. (5) The impacts of doubled CO2 on potential yields are more uniform throughout the localities in comparison with the stressed yields. The magnitude of the indirect and direct effects ranges from -1 to -9% and from +31 to +33%, respectively. Superposition of both effects results in 19-30% increase of the potential yields. (6) Application of the earlier planting date (up to 60 days) would result in 15-22% increase of the yields in 2 x CO2 conditions. (7) Use of a cultivar with longer vegetation duration would bring 1.5% yield increase per one extra day of the vegetation season. (8) The initial water content in the soil water profile proved to be one

  6. Better Than Nothing: A Rational Approach for Minimizing the Impact of Outflow Strategy on Cerebrovascular Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chnafa, C; Brina, O; Pereira, V M; Steinman, D A

    2018-02-01

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations of neurovascular diseases are impacted by various modeling assumptions and uncertainties, including outlet boundary conditions. Many studies of intracranial aneurysms, for example, assume zero pressure at all outlets, often the default ("do-nothing") strategy, with no physiological basis. Others divide outflow according to the outlet diameters cubed, nominally based on the more physiological Murray's law but still susceptible to subjective choices about the segmented model extent. Here we demonstrate the limitations and impact of these outflow strategies, against a novel "splitting" method introduced here. With our method, the segmented lumen is split into its constituent bifurcations, where flow divisions are estimated locally using a power law. Together these provide the global outflow rate boundary conditions. The impact of outflow strategy on flow rates was tested for 70 cases of MCA aneurysm with 0D simulations. The impact on hemodynamic indices used for rupture status assessment was tested for 10 cases with 3D simulations. Differences in flow rates among the various strategies were up to 70%, with a non-negligible impact on average and oscillatory wall shear stresses in some cases. Murray-law and splitting methods gave flow rates closest to physiological values reported in the literature; however, only the splitting method was insensitive to arbitrary truncation of the model extent. Cerebrovascular simulations can depend strongly on the outflow strategy. The default zero-pressure method should be avoided in favor of Murray-law or splitting methods, the latter being released as an open-source tool to encourage the standardization of outflow strategies. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  7. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of biomass-based energy strategy: Using an impact matrix framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldu, Yemane W., E-mail: ywweldem@ucalgary.ca [Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta 2500, University Drive NW, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Assefa, Getachew [Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta 2500, University Drive NW, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Athena Chair in Life Cycle Assessment in Design (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    A roadmap for a more sustainable energy strategy is complex, as its development interacts critically with the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. This paper applied an impact matrix method to evaluate the environmental sustainability and to identify the desirable policy objectives of biomass-based energy strategy for the case of Alberta. A matrix with the sustainability domains on one axis and areas of environmental impact on the other was presented to evaluate the nexus effect of policy objectives and bioenergy production. As per to our analysis, economic diversification, technological innovation, and resource conservation came up as the desirable policy objectives of sustainable development for Alberta because they demonstrated environmental benefits in all environmental impact categories, namely climate change, human health, and ecosystem. On the other hand, human health and ecosystem impacts were identified as trade-offs when the policy objectives for sustainability were energy security, job creation, and climate change. Thus, bioenergy can mitigate climate change but may impact human health and ecosystem which then in turn can become issues of concern. Energy strategies may result in shifting of risks from one environmental impact category to another, and from one sustainable domain to another if the technical and policy-related issues are not identified.

  8. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of biomass-based energy strategy: Using an impact matrix framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldu, Yemane W.; Assefa, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    A roadmap for a more sustainable energy strategy is complex, as its development interacts critically with the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. This paper applied an impact matrix method to evaluate the environmental sustainability and to identify the desirable policy objectives of biomass-based energy strategy for the case of Alberta. A matrix with the sustainability domains on one axis and areas of environmental impact on the other was presented to evaluate the nexus effect of policy objectives and bioenergy production. As per to our analysis, economic diversification, technological innovation, and resource conservation came up as the desirable policy objectives of sustainable development for Alberta because they demonstrated environmental benefits in all environmental impact categories, namely climate change, human health, and ecosystem. On the other hand, human health and ecosystem impacts were identified as trade-offs when the policy objectives for sustainability were energy security, job creation, and climate change. Thus, bioenergy can mitigate climate change but may impact human health and ecosystem which then in turn can become issues of concern. Energy strategies may result in shifting of risks from one environmental impact category to another, and from one sustainable domain to another if the technical and policy-related issues are not identified.

  9. The Ne3LS Network, Quebec's initiative to evaluate the impact and promote a responsible and sustainable development of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Charles-Anica; Emond, Claude; Battista, Renaldo; Parizeau, Marie-Helene; Beaudry, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The spectacular progress made by nanosciences and nanotechnologies elicits as much hope and fear. Consequently, a great number of research and training initiatives on the ethical, environmental, economic, legal and social issues regarding nanotechnology development (Ne 3 LS) are emerging worldwide. In Quebec, Canada, a Task Force was mandated by NanoQuebec to conceive a Ne 3 LS research and training strategy to assess those issues. This Task Force brought together experts from universities, governments or industry working in nanosciences and nanotechnologies or in Ne 3 LS. Their resulting action plan, made public in November 2006, contained several recommendations, including the creation of a knowledge network (Ne 3 LS Network). In the following years, after consulting with numerous key players concerned with the possible impacts of nanosciences and nanotechnologies in Quebec, the Ne 3 LS Network was launched in January 2010 in partnership with the Fonds quebecois de la recherche sur la nature et les technologies, the Fonds quebecois de la recherche sur la societe et la culture and the Fonds de la recherche en sante du Quebec, NanoQuebec, the Institut de recherche Robert-Sauve en sante et en securite du travail as well as the University of Montreal. Its objectives are to 1) Foster the development of Ne 3 LS research activities (grants and fellowships); 2) Spearhead the Canadian and international Ne 3 LS network; 3) Take part in the training of researchers and experts; 4) Encourage the creation of interactive tools for the general public; 5) Facilitate collaboration between decision-makers and experts; 6) Involve the scientific community through a host of activities (symposium, conferences, thematic events); 7) Build multidisciplinary research teams to evaluate the impact of nanotechnology.

  10. An innovative strategy to increase a professional workforce: the fast track initiative for health visitors in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Lynn; Barriball, K Louise; Bliss, Julie; Bakhshi, Savita; While, Alison E

    2016-04-01

    Fast tracking is one strategy that organizations use to ameliorate workforce shortfalls by attracting new recruits, and accelerating their skills development and experience. In response to the Government's target of rapidly expanding the number of health visitors in England's National Health Service, the fast track initiative was launched to recruit newly qualified (fast track) as well as experienced (standard entry) nurses and midwives onto health visiting programmes. This paper evaluates the fast track initiative, from the perspective of fast track and standard entry students, practice teachers and health visitor managers. A mixed methods design was used comprising a questionnaire survey (n = 71 students), semi-structured interviews (n = 37 students), telephone interviews (n = 13 managers) and six focus groups (n = 24 practice teachers). Data were collected between April 2012 and July 2013. Descriptive statistics, t-tests and the Pearson Chi-square test were used to analyse the quantitative data. The qualitative data were analysed thematically. Motivations for health visiting as a career choice were similar for fast track and standard entry students, with career progression and interest in health promotion being key motivators. There was consensus that personal qualities and characteristics were more important than experience or qualifications. However, fast track students were significantly less confident about their public health competencies in leadership and management (p communication (p  0.5). Fast tracking offers a useful recruitment strategy in order to expand the health visitor workforce, but longitudinal research is needed to confirm benefits such as retention and career trajectories. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. High Return on Investments in Scientist-Educator Partnerships: Broader Impact Strategies That Endure and Propagate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, C. L.; Franks, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    Tackling the broader impact section of a research proposal need not be a dilemma that "rears its ugly head" with each proposal deadline. By investing in partnerships with informal science education (ISE) organizations, researchers can establish a foundation for efficient, high quality, research-based educational outreach (EO) that can help them fulfill their broader impact obligations for years to come. Just as an interdisciplinary research project requires collaboration among scientists from a variety of disciplines, a research project with exemplary EO requires partnerships with those who specialize in science education. By engaging in such partnerships scientists gain access to professionals who have expertise in translating research topics into concept-centered programs, exhibits and online resources, and to the diverse student, teacher and public audience reached through ISE. By leveraging the intellectual and material resources of researchers and educators, these potentially long-lived relationships provide an efficient and effective means for achieving broader impact. Ultimately, the efficacy of this investment strategy depends on relieving the researcher of the time consuming burden of seeking out appropriate partners, initiating partnerships and conferring with science educators on potential projects. Recognizing this barrier to scientists' participation, the California Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (CACOSEE) has adopted a unique approach - one in which CACOSEE serves primarily as a catalyst and facilitator of researchers EO activities rather than as an EO provider. We have apprised ourselves of the programs, interests and needs of a carefully selected group of ISE organizations and used this information as the basis for creating a spectrum of EO opportunities for researchers. These options are flexible, scalable and easily customized to fit the research interests, time constraints and budgetary limitations of any researcher. Through e

  12. The Impact of Teaching Communication Strategies on EFL Learners' Willingness to Communicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesgarshahr, Abulfazl; Abdollahzadeh, Esmaeel

    2014-01-01

    One of the pedagogical implications of the research on the Willingness to Communicate (WTC) might be to propose practical ways of making language learners more willing to communicate in the classroom. This study investigated the impact of teaching communication strategies (CSs) on Iranian EFL learners' WTC. To this end, 8 intact classes were…

  13. Assessing climate change impacts and adaptation strategies for smallholder agricultural systems in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Bashaasha, B.; Claessens, L.F.G.; Antle, J.

    2012-01-01

    The debate on whether climate change will impact on peoples’ livelihoods and, hence, the need to act is essentially over and has instead shifted to the development of strategies needed by different regions and countries to adapt to climate change effects. However, there is still scanty information

  14. The Impact of Training Metacognitive Strategies on Reading Comprehension among ESL Learner's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibian, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the impact of training metacognitive strategies in reading comprehension and has been conducted among students from University Putra Malaysia. Forty eight subjects majoring in English including both males and females participated in the study. They have been chosen from first level of reading and divided into two…

  15. Childbirth attendance strategies and their impact on maternal mortality and morbidity in low-income settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyone, Thidar; Sorensen, Bjarke Lund; Tellier, Siri

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To review quantitative evidence of the effect on maternal health of different childbirth attendance strategies in low-income settings. Design. Systematic review. Methods. Studies using quantitative methods, referring to the period 1987-2011, written in English and reporting the impact ...

  16. Impact of European Media Education Strategies on Russian Media Education Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaleva, Galina V.

    2015-01-01

    The article attempts to examine the impact of European media education theories and approaches on Russian media education evolution basing on a comparative analysis of Russian and European media literacy promotion strategies in the historical context. This influence resulted in the appearance and development of socio-cultural models of media…

  17. The Relationship between Offshoring Strategies and Firm Performance: Impact of innovation, absorptive capacity and firm size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Roza-van Vuren (Marja)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHow do offshoring strategies impact firm performance? And how are innovation, absorptive capacity and firm size influencing this relationship? This research investigates how firms of varying size, well-established firms and growing firms may profit from relocating business activities to

  18. Impact assessment of the carbon reduction strategy for transport, low carbon transport : a greener future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This is an impact assessment for the Carbon Reduction Strategy for Transport (DfT, 2009), Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future, which is part of the UK Governments wider UK Low Carbon Transition Plan (DECC, 2009), Britains path to ta...

  19. Bridging or Buffering? The Impact of Schools' Adaptive Strategies on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, Michael F.; Tschannen-Moran, Megan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Rational and open system theories offer divergent sets of tactics on how best to deal with factors outside the boundary of the school. This study compared two competing strategies that emerge from these theories: bridging and buffering. The impact of how schools interact with their environments was examined in relation to student…

  20. Multimedia Instructional Tools' Impact on Student Motivation and Learning Strategies in Computer Applications Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Debra; Wang, Shuyan

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia instructional tools (MMIT) have been identified as a way effectively and economically present instructional material. MMITs are commonly used in introductory computer applications courses as MMITs should be effective in increasing student knowledge and positively impact motivation and learning strategies, without increasing costs. This…

  1. Long-term persistence of quality improvements for an intensive care unit communication initiative using the VALUE strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysham, Nicholas G; Mularski, Richard A; Schmidt, David M; Nord, Shirley C; Louis, Deborah L; Shuster, Elizabeth; Curtis, J Randall; Mosen, David M

    2014-06-01

    Communication in the intensive care unit (ICU) is an important component of quality ICU care. In this report, we evaluate the long-term effects of a quality improvement (QI) initiative, based on the VALUE communication strategy, designed to improve communication with family members of critically ill patients. We implemented a multifaceted intervention to improve communication in the ICU and measured processes of care. Quality improvement components included posted VALUE placards, templated progress note inclusive of communication documentation, and a daily rounding checklist prompt. We evaluated care for all patients cared for by the intensivists during three separate 3 week periods, pre, post, and 3 years following the initial intervention. Care delivery was assessed in 38 patients and their families in the pre-intervention sample, 27 in the post-intervention period, and 41 in follow-up. Process measures of communication showed improvement across the evaluation periods, for example, daily updates increased from pre 62% to post 76% to current 84% of opportunities. Our evaluation of this quality improvement project suggests persistence and continued improvements in the delivery of measured aspects of ICU family communication. Maintenance with point-of-care-tools may account for some of the persistence and continued improvements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Challenge and strategy of prevention and control of important parasitic diseases under the Belt and Road Initiative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Li, Cao; Jia-Gang, Guo

    2018-04-17

    China was once a country with the heaviest burden of parasitic diseases. Under the leadership of the Communist Party and national authority, after more than 60 years' efforts of prevention and control, the remarkable results have been achieved in China. However, affected by the social and economic development and environmental changes, the prevention and control of parasitic diseases, especially imported parasitic diseases, are facing new challenges, and the parasitic diseases, such as malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, filariasis and trypanosomiasis, appear increasingly. With the development of the Belt and Road Initiative, the transmission risks of these diseases are more increased. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience and results of parasitic disease prevention and control in China, understand the present parasitic disease epidemic situation of the Belt and Road Initiative related countries, analyze the transmission risks of important parasitic diseases, and present some relevant suggestions, so as to provide the evidence for the health administrative department formulating the prevention and control strategies of such parasitic diseases timely and effectively.

  3. The impacts of different bidding segment numbers on bidding strategies of generation companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Yu, C.W.; Wen, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In a competitive electricity market, generation companies design bidding strategies to maximize their individual profits subject to the constraints imposed by bidding rules. For a generation company, obviously, the optimal bidding strategy and hence the potential of exercising market power may be different if different bidding rules are employed. Hence, a well-designed bidding protocol is vital to the effective and efficient operation of an electricity market. Based on the widely used stepwise bidding rules, the impacts of different numbers of bidding segments on the bidding strategies of generation companies are investigated. This study is focused on a price-taker generation company in an electricity market. A probabilisic model is used to simulate electricity price in the competitive market environment. With a given number of bidding segments, the optimal bidding strategy for a price-taker generation company is then developed. The effects of risk preferences as well as information asymmetry on the optimal bidding strategy are also examined. With particular references to the impacts of different numbers of bidding segments on the optimal bidding strategy, a numerical example is employed to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model and methodology. (author)

  4. Impact of Contractors’ Bidding Strategies on Bid Success in the Nigeria Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolulope Samuel Fawale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several types of researches have been carried out prior to the new millennium on the subject of bidding strategies in the construction industry. Today, organizations are faced with a very complex decision of bid/no-bid because it requires the assessment of large number of highly inter-related variables. The study aims at examining different types of Contractors’ Bidding Strategies (CBS with a view to determining their impact on bid success. In line with the aim, the study objectives include; evaluation of different types of CBS and; assessment of the success rate of contractors’ bid. The method of approach elicits information on the number of projects bided and successes recorded over a period of time. A total of one hundred and seventy-one useable responses were retrieved from questionnaire administration. Descriptive statistics, tables and percentages as well as mean item score (MIS were used for data analysis. The study showed that lowest bid, public relations and joint venture bidding strategies have great impact on contractors’ bid success especially on residential, educational and administrative projects in the Nigeria Construction Industry (NCI. Therefore, the study concluded that relationship exists between contractors’ bidding strategies and equivalent successes recorded over a period of time. It is important to also know that lowest bid strategy still remains the most effective bidding strategy for public works contracting in the NCI.

  5. [Impact of care pathway on the delay for initiation of antituberculosis treatment in Conakry, Guinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, A; Bah-Sow, O Y; Baldé, N M; Camara, L M; Barry, I S; Bah, B; Diallo, M; Chaperon, J; Riou, F

    2009-06-01

    Complex care pathways can result in detrimental treatment delay particularly in tuberculosis patients. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the care pathways followed by tuberculosis patients prior to diagnosis and to assess impact on the delay for initiation of treatment in Conakry, Guinea. A total of 112 patients were interviewed at the time of first admission for pulmonary tuberculosis with positive bacilloscopy. Based on interview data, pathways were classified as conventional (use of health care facilities only) and mixed (use of health care facilities, self-medication, and traditional medicine). The correlation between patient characteristics and type of pathway was assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis and the two groups, i.e., conventional vs. mixed, were compared with regard to delay for initiation of treatment. The care pathway was classified as mixed in two out of three patients. Multivariate analysis showed that this type of pathway was only correlated with schooling (p=0.02). The mean delay for treatment was similar, i.e., 13.4 and 12.8 weeks for conventional and mixed pathways respectively (p<0.68). The percentage of pathways including three consultations at health care facilities was significantly higher in the conventional than mixed group (72% vs. 30%, p<0.001). The main reasons given for delayed use of health care facilities were poor knowledge of tuberculosis symptoms (26%) and high cost of care (12%). The findings of this study indicate that tuberculosis patients follow a variety of care pathways that can lead to delayed treatment. An information campaign is needed to increase awareness among the population and care providers.

  6. Impact of initial surface parameters on the final quality of laser micro-polished surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Michael; Bordatchev, Evgueni V.; Knopf, George K.

    2012-03-01

    Laser micro-polishing (LμP) is a new laser-based microfabrication technology for improving surface quality during a finishing operation and for producing parts and surfaces with near-optical surface quality. The LμP process uses low power laser energy to melt a thin layer of material on the previously machined surface. The polishing effect is achieved as the molten material in the laser-material interaction zone flows from the elevated regions to the local minimum due to surface tension. This flow of molten material then forms a thin ultra-smooth layer on the top surface. The LμP is a complex thermo-dynamic process where the melting, flow and redistribution of molten material is significantly influenced by a variety of process parameters related to the laser, the travel motions and the material. The goal of this study is to analyze the impact of initial surface parameters on the final surface quality. Ball-end micromilling was used for preparing initial surface of samples from H13 tool steel that were polished using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The height and width of micromilled scallops (waviness) were identified as dominant parameter affecting the quality of the LμPed surface. By adjusting process parameters, the Ra value of a surface, having a waviness period of 33 μm and a peak-to-valley value of 5.9 μm, was reduced from 499 nm to 301 nm, improving the final surface quality by 39.7%.

  7. The Impact of Servitization Strategy on Relational Capital and Relational Performance: Evidences from China's Industrial Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hua; ZHANG Song-bo

    2014-01-01

    By identifying the characteristics of services management and the levels of specialty resources,the servitization strategy in the service supply chain management can be defined as the following three types,i.e.the business process oriented services,the technique application oriented services and the system integrated or packaged services.At the same time,it is found based on an empirical study of the data of China's enterprises that these strategies have different impact on relational capital and relational performance of the customers with different types of size.For large-scale enterprises,the business process oriented services and the technique application oriented services are significant factors impacting their relational capital and relational performance,while for SMEs,their relational capital and relational performance are impacted more by the technique application oriented services and the system integrated and packaged services.

  8. High- Versus Low-Gradient Severe Aortic Stenosis: Demographics, Clinical Outcomes, and Effects of the Initial Aortic Valve Replacement Strategy on Long-Term Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiko; Morimoto, Takeshi; Shiomi, Hiroki; Ando, Kenji; Kanamori, Norio; Murata, Koichiro; Kitai, Takeshi; Kawase, Yuichi; Izumi, Chisato; Miyake, Makoto; Mitsuoka, Hirokazu; Kato, Masashi; Hirano, Yutaka; Matsuda, Shintaro; Inada, Tsukasa; Nagao, Kazuya; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Takeuchi, Yasuyo; Yamane, Keiichiro; Toyofuku, Mamoru; Ishii, Mitsuru; Minamino-Muta, Eri; Kato, Takao; Inoko, Moriaki; Ikeda, Tomoyuki; Komasa, Akihiro; Ishii, Katsuhisa; Hotta, Kozo; Higashitani, Nobuya; Kato, Yoshihiro; Inuzuka, Yasutaka; Maeda, Chiyo; Jinnai, Toshikazu; Morikami, Yuko; Saito, Naritatsu; Minatoya, Kenji; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-05-01

    There is considerable debate on the management of patients with low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (LG-AS), defined as aortic valve area strategy: n=977, and conservative strategy: n=1120) with high-gradient severe aortic stenosis (HG-AS) and 1712 patients (initial AVR strategy: n=219, and conservative strategy: n=1493) with LG-AS. AVR was more frequently performed in HG-AS patients than in LG-AS patients (60% versus 28%) during the entire follow-up. In the comparison between the initial AVR and conservative groups, the propensity score-matched cohorts were developed in both HG-AS (n=887 for each group) and LG-AS (n=218 for each group) strata. The initial AVR strategy when compared with the conservative strategy was associated with markedly lower risk for a composite of aortic valve-related death or heart failure hospitalization in both HG-AS and LG-AS strata (hazard ratio, 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.37; P strategy was associated with a better outcome than the conservative strategy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.59; P strategy was associated with better outcomes than the conservative strategy in both HG-AS and LG-AS patients, although AVR was less frequently performed in LG-AS patients than in HG-AS patients. The favorable effect of initial AVR strategy was also seen in patients with LG-AS with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. URL: http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm. Unique identifier: UMIN000012140. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. The initial impact of EU ETS verification events on stock prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwers, Roel; Schoubben, Frederiek; Van Hulle, Cynthia; Van Uytbergen, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of verified emissions publications in the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) on the market value of participating companies. Using event study methodology on a unique sample of 368 listed companies, we show that verified emissions only resulted in statistically significant market responses when the carbon price was high and allowance scarcity was anticipated. The cross-section analysis of abnormal returns surrounding the publication of verified emissions shows that share prices decrease when actual emissions relative to allocated emissions increase. This negative relationship between allocation shortfalls and firm value is only significant for firms that are either carbon-intensive, compared to sector peers, or are less likely to pass through carbon-related costs in their product prices. The results suggest that although the EU ETS has been deemed unsuccessful so far due to over-allocation and low carbon price, shareholders initially perceived allowance holdings as value relevant. Our results highlight that a significant carbon market price and addressing pass-through costing are essential for successful future reforms of the EU ETS and other analogous carbon cap-and-trade systems implemented or planned worldwide. - Highlights: •We study the impact of EU ETS verified emissions disclosure on firms' market value. •Disclosure is relevant if carbon price is high and permits scarcity is anticipated. •We find a negative relationship between allocation shortfalls and firm value. •Stronger relationship for carbon – intensive and no cost pass-through firms. •High carbon price and addressing cost pass-through are crucial for EU ETS reforms.

  10. Financial Impact of Cancer Drug Wastage and Potential Cost Savings From Mitigation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Caitlyn Y W; Cheung, Matthew C; Charbonneau, Lauren F; Prica, Anca; Ng, Pamela; Chan, Kelvin K W

    2017-07-01

    Cancer drug wastage occurs when a parenteral drug within a fixed vial is not administered fully to a patient. This study investigated the extent of drug wastage, the financial impact on the hospital budget, and the cost savings associated with current mitigation strategies. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three University of Toronto-affiliated hospitals of various sizes. We recorded the actual amount of drug wasted over a 2-week period while using current mitigation strategies. Single-dose vial cancer drugs with the highest wastage potentials were identified (14 drugs). To calculate the hypothetical drug wastage with no mitigation strategies, we determined how many vials of drugs would be needed to fill a single prescription. The total drug costs over the 2 weeks ranged from $50,257 to $716,983 in the three institutions. With existing mitigation strategies, the actual drug wastage over the 2 weeks ranged from $928 to $5,472, which was approximately 1% to 2% of the total drug costs. In the hypothetical model with no mitigation strategies implemented, the projected drug cost wastage would have been $11,232 to $149,131, which accounted for 16% to 18% of the total drug costs. As a result, the potential annual savings while using current mitigation strategies range from 15% to 17%. The financial impact of drug wastage is substantial. Mitigation strategies lead to substantial cost savings, with the opportunity to reinvest those savings. More research is needed to determine the appropriate methods to minimize risk to patients while using the cost-saving mitigation strategies.

  11. Assessing the Impact of a Focused Deterrence Strategy to Combat Intimate Partner Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechrist, Stacy M; Weil, John D

    2018-03-01

    The Offender Focused Domestic Violence Initiative (OFDVI) represents for the first time anywhere the application of the evidence-based focused deterrence policing approach to combat intimate partner domestic violence (IPDV). Through holding offenders accountable, the strategy has resulted in 20% reductions each in IPDV-related calls for police service and arrests. Victim injuries have been significantly reduced and the 1-year IPDV offender recidivism rate is about 16-17%. The backbone of the OFDVI strategy is the multidisciplinary collaboration of law enforcement and community partners which has resulted in identification and resolving system issues which have historically allowed offenders to repeat IPDV without consequence.

  12. Impact of global health governance on country health systems: the case of HIV initiatives in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Charles Chikodili; Homedes, Nuria

    2015-06-01

    Three global health initiatives (GHIs) - the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and the World Bank Multi-Country HIV/AIDS Program - finance most HIV services in Nigeria. Critics assert that GHIs burden fragile health systems in resource-poor countries and that health system limitations in these countries constrain the achievement of the objectives of GHIs. This study analyzed interactions between HIV GHIs and the Nigerian Health System and explored how the impact of the GHIs could be optimized. A country case study was conducted using qualitative methods, including: semi-structured interviews, direct observation, and archival review. Semi-structured interviews were held with key informants selected to reach a broad range of stakeholders including policymakers, program managers, service providers, representatives of donor agencies and their implementing partners; the WHO country office in Nigeria; independent consultants; and civil society organizations involved in HIV work. The fieldwork was conducted between June and August 2013. HIV GHIs have had a mixed impact on the health system. They have enhanced availability of and access to HIV services, improved quality of services, and strengthened health information systems and the role of non-state actors in health care. On the negative end, HIV donor funding has increased dependency on foreign aid, widened disparities in access to HIV services, done little to address the sustainability of the services, crowded out non-HIV health services, and led to the development of a parallel supply management system. They have also not invested significantly in the production of new health workers and have not addressed maldistribution problems, but have rather contributed to internal brain drain by luring health workers from the public sector to non-governmental organizations and have increased workload for existing health workers. There is poor policy direction

  13. Impact of Educational Activities in Reducing Pre-Analytical Laboratory Errors: A quality initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghaithi, Hamed; Pathare, Anil; Al-Mamari, Sahimah; Villacrucis, Rodrigo; Fawaz, Naglaa; Alkindi, Salam

    2017-08-01

    Pre-analytic errors during diagnostic laboratory investigations can lead to increased patient morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to ascertain the effect of educational nursing activities on the incidence of pre-analytical errors resulting in non-conforming blood samples. This study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2015. All specimens received at the Haematology Laboratory of the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, during this period were prospectively collected and analysed. Similar data from 2007 were collected retrospectively and used as a baseline for comparison. Non-conforming samples were defined as either clotted samples, haemolysed samples, use of the wrong anticoagulant, insufficient quantities of blood collected, incorrect/lack of labelling on a sample or lack of delivery of a sample in spite of a sample request. From 2008 onwards, multiple educational training activities directed at the hospital nursing staff and nursing students primarily responsible for blood collection were implemented on a regular basis. After initiating corrective measures in 2008, a progressive reduction in the percentage of non-conforming samples was observed from 2009 onwards. Despite a 127.84% increase in the total number of specimens received, there was a significant reduction in non-conforming samples from 0.29% in 2007 to 0.07% in 2015, resulting in an improvement of 75.86% ( P educational activities directed primarily towards hospital nursing staff had a positive impact on the quality of laboratory specimens by significantly reducing pre-analytical errors.

  14. Impact of the Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative on Clinical Pharmacy Specialist Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Judith; Ray, Shaunta'; Danelich, Ilya; Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth; Eckel, Stephen; Guharoy, Roy; Militello, Michael; O'Donnell, Paul; Sam, Teena; Crist, Stephanie M; Smidt, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the goals of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) and its recommendations for health-system pharmacy practice transformation to meet future patient care needs and elevate the role of pharmacists as patient care providers. PPMI envisions a future in which pharmacists have greater responsibility for medication-related outcomes and technicians assume greater responsibility for product-related activities. Although the PPMI recommendations have elevated the level of practice in many settings, they also potentially affect existing clinical pharmacists, in general, and clinical pharmacy specialists, in particular. Moreover, although more consistent patient care can be achieved with an expanded team of pharmacist providers, the role of clinical pharmacy specialists must not be diminished, especially in the care of complex patients and populations. Specialist practitioners with advanced training and credentials must be available to model and train pharmacists in generalist positions, residents, and students. Indeed, specialist practitioners are often the innovators and practice leaders. Negotiation between hospitals and pharmacy schools is needed to ensure a continuing role for academic clinical pharmacists and their contributions as educators and researchers. Lessons can be applied from disciplines such as nursing and medicine, which have developed new models of care involving effective collaboration between generalists and specialists. Several different pharmacy practice models have been described to meet the PPMI goals, based on available personnel and local goals. Studies measuring the impact of these new practice models are needed. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  15. Do Community Based Initiatives foster sustainability transitions? Towards a unique Environmental Impact Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellozzo, Federico; Hendrickson, Cary; Gozdowska, Iga; Groß, Helge; Henderson, Charles; Reusser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    The active participation in Community Based Initiatives (CBI) is a spreading phenomenon that has reached a significant magnitude and - in some cases - CBIs are also supposed to have catalysed social and technological innovation, thus contributing to global transition into low-carbon economy. Generally speaking, CBIs are grassroots initiatives with broad sustainability foci that promote a plethora of activities such as alternative transportation, urban gardening, renewable energy implementation, waste regeneration/reduction, etc. Some advocate that such practices fostered by bottom-up activities, rather than top-down policies, represent a proficient countermeasure to alleviate global environmental change and effectively foster a societal transition towards sustainability. However, thus far most empirical research grounds mainly on anecdotal evidence and little work has been done to quantitatively assess CBIs' "environmental impacts" (EI) or their carbon footprints using comparative methodologies. This research main aim is to frame a methodology to assess univocally CBIs' EIs which are crucial to understanding their role in societal sustainability transition. However, to do so, three main caveats need to be addressed: first, some CBIs do not directly produce tangible measurable outputs, nor have an intelligibly defined set of inputs (e.g. CBIs focusing on environmental education and awareness rising). Thus, calculating their "indirect" EI may represent an intricate puzzle that is very much open to subjective interpretation. Second, CBIs' practices are heterogenic and therefore existing methodologies to make comparisons of their EIs are neither straightforward nor proficient, also given the lack of available data. Third, another issue closely related to the one previously mentioned, is a general lack of consensus among already existing impact-assessment frameworks for certain practices (e.g. composting). A potential way of estimating a CBI's EI is a standard Carbon

  16. Impact of the Converter Control Strategies on the Drive Train of Wind Turbine during Voltage Dips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Miao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of converter control strategies on the drive train of wind turbines during voltage dips is investigated in this paper using a full electromechanical model. Aerodynamics and tower vibration are taken into consideration by means of a simulation program, named FAST. Detailed gearbox and electrical subsystems are represented in MATLAB. The dynamic response of electromagnetic torque and its impact on the mechanical variables are the concern in this paper and the response of electrical variables is less discussed. From the mechanical aspects, the effect of rising power recovery speed and unsymmetrical voltage dips are analyzed on the basis of the dynamic response of the high-speed shaft (HSS. A comparison of the impact on the drive train is made for two converter control strategies during small voltage dips. Through the analysis of torque, speed and tower vibration, the results indicate that both power recovery speed and the sudden torque sag have a significant impact on drive trains, and the effects depend on the different control strategies. Moreover, resonance might be excited on the drive train by an unbalanced voltage.

  17. Study of impacts of physical contracts and financial contracts on bidding strategies of GENCOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaoling Chen; He, Y.; Song, Y.H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the impacts of physical contracts and financial contracts on the bidding strategies of GENCOs, including Physical Bilateral Contracts, Contracts for Difference (CfDs), Call Options and Put Options under discriminatory pricing mechanism. The integrated bidding decision model is applied, which has three main modules - probabilistic local marginal price simulator, market-oriented unit commitment model and multi-criteria decision system. The numerical results show that the GENCO will choose different bidding strategies if it holds different types of contract. The results also suggest that CfDs have the best performance for risk alleviation. (author)

  18. Women's strategies for coping with the impacts of domestic violence in Kyrgyzstan: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Saltanat; Gioia, Deborah; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2018-03-01

    This paper provides an account of the adverse impacts of domestic violence on women in Kyrgyzstan and develops a grounded theory of coping among survivors of abuse. The results indicate that women adopt a range of strategies to prevent, avert, and minimize anticipated violence. Two key aspects of coping appeared in the narratives: 1) maintaining the status quo and 2) developing agency to resist the abuse. The results suggest that Government and nongovernmental organizations must take additional action to draw women to formal violence prevention services. Providing professional help at several levels (e.g., clinical, community, and societal) and promoting problem-focused strategies as part of therapeutic intervention are essential.

  19. The Impact of Quantum Teaching Strategy on Student Academic Achievements and Self-Esteem in Inclusive Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunarhadi; Kassim, Mustapa; Shaari, Abdull Sukor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research was aimed at showing the impact of a teaching strategy called the Quantum Teaching Strategy on students' academic achievements in two school subjects, namely in Bahasa Indonesia and Science, in comparison to that experienced through classes using a conventional teaching strategy. This research also examined the role of…

  20. Getting men in the room: perceptions of effective strategies to initiate men's involvement in gender-based violence prevention in a global sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Erin A; Leek, Cliff; Tolman, Richard M; Allen, Christopher T; Carlson, Juliana M

    2017-09-01

    As engaging men in gender-based violence prevention efforts becomes an increasingly institutionalised component of gender equity work globally, clarity is needed about the strategies that best initiate male-identified individuals' involvement in these efforts. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived relevance and effectiveness of men's engagement strategies from the perspective of men around the world who have organised or attended gender-based violence prevention events. Participants responded to an online survey (available in English, French and Spanish) and rated the effectiveness of 15 discrete engagement strategies derived from earlier qualitative work. Participants also provided suggestions regarding strategies in open-ended comments. Listed strategies cut across the social ecological spectrum and represented both venues in which to reach men, and the content of violence prevention messaging. Results suggest that all strategies, on average, were perceived as effective across regions of the world, with strategies that tailor messaging to topics of particular concern to men (such as fatherhood and healthy relationships) rated most highly. Open-ended comments also surfaced tensions, particularly related to the role of a gender analysis in initial men's engagement efforts. Findings suggest the promise of cross-regional adaptation and information sharing regarding successful approaches to initiating men's anti-violence involvement.

  1. The Impact of Competencies, Information Search, and Competitive Strategy on the Export Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Elitan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This confirmatory study is aimed at analyzing the impact of relationships, information search, and competencies on competitive strategy and SMEs performance in Indonesia. The study used 100 SMEs samples that obtained through mailed questionnaires. The results show: Firstly, the perception of information, information sources, and export competence has no significant effect on competitive strategy. However the findings for SMEs in Indonesia, indicated that export related information has negative effects on competitive strategy. Secondly, export competencies has an enormous influence on the company’s capacity and ability to use information appropriately, when the company must deal with challenges or when the company is eager to take advantage of the opportunities to increase growth and profitability. Thirdly, competitive strategy does not directly affect export performance but it is moderated by the environment uncertainty. It indicates that the influence of competitive strategy would be greater in an uncertain business environment. The uncertain business environment will encourage companies to explore competitive strategy to improve their performance.

  2. The Impact of Competencies, Information Search, and Competitive Strategy on the Export Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Elitan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This confirmatory study is aimed at analyzing the impact of relationships, information search, and competencies on competitive strategy and SMEs performance in Indonesia. The study used 100 SMEs samples that obtained through mailed questionnaires. The results show: Firstly, the perception of information, information sources, and export competence has no significant effect on competitive strategy. However the findings for SMEs in Indonesia, indicated that export related information has negative effects on competitive strategy. Secondly, export competencies has an enormous influence on the company’s capacity and ability to use information appropriately,when the company must deal with challenges or when the company is eager to take advantage of the opportunities to increase growth and profitability. Thirdly, competitive strategy does not directly affect export performance but it is moderated by the environment uncertainty. It indicates that the influence of competitive strategy would be greater in an uncertain business environment. The uncertain business environment will encourage companies to explore competitive strategy to improve their performance.

  3. Impact of different recruitment strategies on accelerometry adherence and resulting physical activity data: A secondary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Rudolf

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for increasing adherence to physical activity assessments are often linked to extra financial or personal effort. This paper aims to investigate the influence of the recruitment strategy on participants' adherence to accelerometry and resulting PA data. Data were used from two previous studies conducted in 2013 and 2016 in Cologne, Germany, differing in recruitment strategy (N = 103, 40.8% male, mean age 20.9 ± 3.7 years, mean BMI 23.7 ± 4.1 kg/m2. In the passive recruitment (PR group, vocational students took part in the accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+ in line with the main study unless they denied participation. In the active recruitment (AR group, vocational students were invited to actively volunteer for the accelerometry. Impact of recruitment strategy on adherence and PA data was examined by regression analysis. Average adherence to the accelerometry was 66.7% (AR and 74.0% (PR. No statistically significant influence of recruitment strategy on adherence and resulting PA was found (all p > 0.05. The difference in recruitment strategy did not affect adherence to accelerometry. The data imply that AR may be applicable. Future studies using larger sample sizes and diverse populations should further investigate these trends. Keywords: Physical activity, Adherence, Recruitment, Accelerometry, Vocational school students, Sampling bias

  4. Impact of different recruitment strategies on accelerometry adherence and resulting physical activity data: A secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Kevin; Grieben, Christopher; Petrowski, Katja; Froböse, Ingo; Schaller, Andrea

    2018-06-01

    Strategies for increasing adherence to physical activity assessments are often linked to extra financial or personal effort. This paper aims to investigate the influence of the recruitment strategy on participants' adherence to accelerometry and resulting PA data. Data were used from two previous studies conducted in 2013 and 2016 in Cologne, Germany, differing in recruitment strategy ( N  = 103, 40.8% male, mean age 20.9 ± 3.7 years, mean BMI 23.7 ± 4.1 kg/m 2 ). In the passive recruitment (PR) group, vocational students took part in the accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+) in line with the main study unless they denied participation. In the active recruitment (AR) group, vocational students were invited to actively volunteer for the accelerometry. Impact of recruitment strategy on adherence and PA data was examined by regression analysis. Average adherence to the accelerometry was 66.7% (AR) and 74.0% (PR). No statistically significant influence of recruitment strategy on adherence and resulting PA was found (all p  > 0.05). The difference in recruitment strategy did not affect adherence to accelerometry. The data imply that AR may be applicable. Future studies using larger sample sizes and diverse populations should further investigate these trends.

  5. Identifying and assessing strategies for evaluating the impact of mobile eye health units on health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shiwan; Turner, Angus; Tan, Irene; Muir, Josephine

    2017-12-01

    To identify and assess strategies for evaluating the impact of mobile eye health units on health outcomes. Systematic literature review. Worldwide. Peer-reviewed journal articles that included the use of a mobile eye health unit. Journal articles were included if outcome measures reflected an assessment of the impact of a mobile eye health unit on health outcomes. Six studies were identified with mobile services offering diabetic retinopathy screening (three studies), optometric services (two studies) and orthoptic services (one study). This review identified and assessed strategies in existing literature used to evaluate the impact of mobile eye health units on health outcomes. Studies included in this review used patient outcomes (i.e. disease detection, vision impairment, treatment compliance) and/or service delivery outcomes (i.e. cost per attendance, hospital transport use, inappropriate referrals, time from diabetic retinopathy photography to treatment) to evaluate the impact of mobile eye health units. Limitations include difficulty proving causation of specific outcome measures and the overall shortage of impact evaluation studies. Variation in geographical location, service population and nature of eye care providers limits broad application. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  6. The Impact of Breakthrough Therapy Designation on Development Strategies and Timelines for Nononcology Drugs and Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, A F; Murphy, W R

    2016-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA, 2012) introduced the Breakthrough Therapy Designation (BTD), a new tool to expedite development of medicines to treat serious or life-threatening diseases. The majority of BTDs have gone to oncology drugs, and a recent publication by Shea et al. 1 reviewed the impact of BTD on oncology drug development. This article reviews the impact of BTD on development strategies and timelines for nononcology drugs. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  7. Beyond "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" strategy for creating sustainable telemedicine programs: lesson from the first decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Dasho, Erion; Lecaj, Ismet; Latifi, Kalterina; Bekteshi, Flamur; Hadeed, Molly; Doarn, Charles R; Merrell, Ronald C

    2012-06-01

    December 10, 2012 will mark the 10th anniversary of the implementation of telemedicine in the Balkans. This first decade of development and function is due to the passion, creativity, experience, and implementation know-how of the award-winning concept of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) Foundation. The objective of this article is to analyze the results of the IVeH's core strategy, "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), which has been instrumental in establishing telemedicine in the Balkans and has been adopted by many other countries worldwide, and to describe the lessons learned that go beyond IBOT. A retrospective review of the results of IVeH engagement in establishing telemedicine in developing countries was conducted. Using IBOT, the IVeH has successfully established two national programs: one in Kosova and one in Albania. Together, they have connected 16 hospitals. Currently IVeH is in the process of creating such programs in many countries around the world. During the analysis of the first decade, we have identified eight factors that should be considered when establishing telemedicine programs. IBOT has been successful, but further studies are needed to demonstrate its effectiveness in countries beyond the Balkans.

  8. Antibiotic discovery throughout the Small World Initiative: A molecular strategy to identify biosynthetic gene clusters involved in antagonistic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth; Sloan, Tyler; Aurelius, Krista; Barbour, Angela; Bodey, Elijah; Clark, Brigette; Dennis, Celeste; Drown, Rachel; Fleming, Megan; Humbert, Allison; Glasgo, Elizabeth; Kerns, Trent; Lingro, Kelly; McMillin, MacKenzie; Meyer, Aaron; Pope, Breanna; Stalevicz, April; Steffen, Brittney; Steindl, Austin; Williams, Carolyn; Wimberley, Carmen; Zenas, Robert; Butela, Kristen; Wildschutte, Hans

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of bacterial pathogens resistant to all known antibiotics is a global health crisis. Adding to this problem is that major pharmaceutical companies have shifted away from antibiotic discovery due to low profitability. As a result, the pipeline of new antibiotics is essentially dry and many bacteria now resist the effects of most commonly used drugs. To address this global health concern, citizen science through the Small World Initiative (SWI) was formed in 2012. As part of SWI, students isolate bacteria from their local environments, characterize the strains, and assay for antibiotic production. During the 2015 fall semester at Bowling Green State University, students isolated 77 soil-derived bacteria and genetically characterized strains using the 16S rRNA gene, identified strains exhibiting antagonistic activity, and performed an expanded SWI workflow using transposon mutagenesis to identify a biosynthetic gene cluster involved in toxigenic compound production. We identified one mutant with loss of antagonistic activity and through subsequent whole-genome sequencing and linker-mediated PCR identified a 24.9 kb biosynthetic gene locus likely involved in inhibitory activity in that mutant. Further assessment against human pathogens demonstrated the inhibition of Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of this compound, thus supporting our molecular strategy as an effective research pipeline for SWI antibiotic discovery and genetic characterization. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prevalence and impact of initial misclassification of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Avnish; Rizvi, Ali A; Knight, Lisa M; Jerrell, Jeanette M

    2012-10-01

    To characterize rates of initial misclassification of type 1 diabetes mellitus as type 2/unspecified diabetes mellitus in a cohort of children/adolescents and to examine the impact of misclassification on the risk of diabetes-related complications. An 11-year dataset (1996-2006) was analyzed. Inclusion criteria included age 17 years and younger, enrollees in South Carolina State Medicaid, and diagnosis of type 2/unspecified or type 1 diabetes mellitus for at least two visits, 15 days apart. Survival analysis was used to assess the association of "misclassification" with the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and the cumulative incidence of neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular complications, after controlling for individual risk factors and comorbid conditions. A total of 1130 individuals meeting the inclusion criteria were studied for a median of 7 years. Of the 1130 individuals, 669 (59.2%) maintained a diagnosis of type 2/unspecified diabetes mellitus, 205 (18.1%) were consistently diagnosed as type 1 diabetes mellitus, and the remaining 256 individuals (22.7%) were misclassified. Insulin treatment was used in 100% of the type 1 diabetes mellitus group and 73% of the misclassified group. Compared with the type 2 diabetes mellitus group, being misclassified was associated with earlier development of DKA (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 5.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.09-8.37), neuropathy (aHR 1.94, CI 1.31-2.88), and nephropathy (aHR 1.72, CI 1.19-2.50), whereas being consistently classified with type 1 diabetes mellitus was associated only with earlier development of DKA (aHR 4.96, CI 2.56-9.61). Proper categorization of pediatric diabetes can be challenging, especially with comorbid obesity. Failure to ascertain type 1 diabetes mellitus in a timely manner in a pediatric population may increase the risk of substandard care and diabetes-related complications.

  10. Initial shifts in nitrogen impact on ecosystem carbon fluxes in an alpine meadow: patterns and causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bing; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Qingping; Zong, Ning; Li, Linghao; Niu, Shuli

    2017-09-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) deposition can greatly stimulate ecosystem net carbon (C) sequestration through positive N-induced effects on plant productivity. However, how net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and its components respond to different N addition rates remains unclear. Using an N addition gradient experiment (six levels: 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 gN m-2 yr-1) in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, we explored the responses of different ecosystem C fluxes to an N addition gradient and revealed mechanisms underlying the dynamic responses. Results showed that NEE, ecosystem respiration (ER), and gross ecosystem production (GEP) all increased linearly with N addition rates in the first year of treatment but shifted to N saturation responses in the second year with the highest NEE (-7.77 ± 0.48 µmol m-2 s-1) occurring under an N addition rate of 8 gN m-2 yr-1. The saturation responses of NEE and GEP were caused by N-induced accumulation of standing litter, which limited light availability for plant growth under high N addition. The saturation response of ER was mainly due to an N-induced saturation response of aboveground plant respiration and decreasing soil microbial respiration along the N addition gradient, while decreases in soil microbial respiration under high N addition were caused by N-induced reductions in soil pH. We also found that various components of ER, including aboveground plant respiration, soil respiration, root respiration, and microbial respiration, responded differentially to the N addition gradient. These results reveal temporal dynamics of N impacts and the rapid shift in ecosystem C fluxes from N limitation to N saturation. Our findings bring evidence of short-term initial shifts in responses of ecosystem C fluxes to increases in N deposition, which should be considered when predicting long-term changes in ecosystem net C sequestration.

  11. Strategies to accommodate resident work-hour restrictions: impact on surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiburg, Carter; James, Ted; Ashikaga, Takamura; Moalem, Jacob; Cherr, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of duty-hour restrictions has impacted surgical training. Several strategies were introduced by training programs in response to these restrictions. The purpose of this study was to assess the various strategies employed by residency programs to comply with work-hour restrictions with respect to the impact on the quality of surgical education. A national survey was developed and distributed to resident members of the Resident and Associate Society of the American College of Surgeons in all accredited residency programs across North America. Questions in the survey addressed 10 separate accommodation strategies used by training programs to adhere to resident work-hour restrictions. Resident respondents completed a 5-point Likert scale rating each strategy according to its impact on surgical education (detrimental, not very helpful, neutral, somewhat helpful, and very helpful). A total of 599 (9.7%) responses were received from 6186 members of the Resident Associate Society. The use of health information technology (IT), nurse practitioners, and physician assistants were most highly rated. Hiring clinical fellows, establishing nonteaching services, and shift-work scheduling were the three most poorly rated accommodations to work-hour restrictions with respect to resident education. Hospital IT and nonphysician care providers were rated by residents to optimize surgical education in the current work-hour limitation environment. We infer that strategies which lead to increased efficiency and redistribution of resident workload allow surgical trainees to spend more time on activities perceived to have higher educational value. Copyright © 2011 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of sampling strategy on stream load estimates in till landscape of the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidon, P.; Hubbard, L.E.; Soyeux, E.

    2009-01-01

    Accurately estimating various solute loads in streams during storms is critical to accurately determine maximum daily loads for regulatory purposes. This study investigates the impact of sampling strategy on solute load estimates in streams in the US Midwest. Three different solute types (nitrate, magnesium, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) and three sampling strategies are assessed. Regardless of the method, the average error on nitrate loads is higher than for magnesium or DOC loads, and all three methods generally underestimate DOC loads and overestimate magnesium loads. Increasing sampling frequency only slightly improves the accuracy of solute load estimates but generally improves the precision of load calculations. This type of investigation is critical for water management and environmental assessment so error on solute load calculations can be taken into account by landscape managers, and sampling strategies optimized as a function of monitoring objectives. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. The Impact of the Iowa Franchise Law on Restaurant Franchisor Expansion Strategy,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-18

    the federal and state level to attempt to prevent franchisor abuses. The 1992 Iowa Franchise Law has been called the most controversial and restrictive...its 1995 Amendments on restaurant franchisor expansion strategy, litigation with franchisees, and operational changes. The study sought information...from US restaurant franchisors who may have been impacted by the law. The research instrument consisted of a self-administered questionnaire, which was

  14. Market Impact of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Control Strategies: A UK Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyi Feng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD poses a serious threat to the agricultural sector due to its highly contagious nature. Outbreaks of FMD can lead to substantial disruptions to livestock markets due to loss of production and access to international markets. In a previously FMD-free country, the use of vaccination to augment control of an FMD outbreak is increasingly being recognized as an alternative control strategy to direct slaughtering [stamping-out (SO]. The choice of control strategy has implications on production, trade, and hence prices of the sector. Specific choice of eradication strategies depends on their costs and benefits. Economic impact assessments are often based on benefit–cost framework, which provide detailed information on the changes in profit for a farm or budget implications for a government (1. However, this framework cannot capture price effects caused by changes in production due to culling of animals; access to international markets; and consumers’ reaction. These three impacts combine to affect equilibrium within commodity markets (2. This paper provides assessment of sectoral level impacts of the eradication choices of FMD outbreaks, which are typically not available from benefit–cost framework, in the context of the UK. The FAPRI-UK model, a partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector, is utilized to investigate market outcomes of different control strategies (namely SO and vaccinate-to-die in the case of FMD outbreaks. The outputs from the simulations of the EXODIS epidemiological model (number of animals culled/vaccinated and duration of outbreak are used as inputs within the economic model to capture the overall price impact of the animal destruction, export ban, and consumers’ response.

  15. A STUDY ON IMPACT OF ICT ON THE MARKETING STRATEGY OF INDIAN TOURISM INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Kashif Ansari; Garima Jain; Jasleen Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Deployment of ICT has been changing the way companies in every industry conduct their business. The most impacted is the marketing department. Marketers need to constantly study the market and the rapid changes in technology to continue satisfying the new-age customers. These customers have access to multiple sources of information due to increased usage of ICT. The present study analyses the evolution of Indian tourism industry, focusing on its marketing strategies over the years. The author...

  16. Impact of Financing Instruments and Strategies on the Wind Power Production Costs: A Case of Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobinaite, V.; Konstantinaviciute, I.

    2018-04-01

    The paper aims at demonstrating the relevance of financing instruments, their terms and financing strategies in relation to the cost of wind power production and the ability of wind power plant (PP) to participate in the electricity market in Lithuania. The extended approach to the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) is applied. The feature of the extended approach lies in considering the lifetime cost and revenue received from the support measures. The research results have substantiated the relevance of financing instruments, their terms and strategies in relation to their impact on the LCOE and competitiveness of wind PP. It has been found that financing of wind PP through the traditional financing instruments (simple shares and bank loans) makes use of venture capital and bonds coming even in the absence of any support. It has been estimated that strategies consisting of different proportions of hard and soft loans, bonds, own and venture capital result in the average LCOE of 5.1-5.7 EURct/kWh (2000 kW), when the expected electricity selling price is 5.4 EURct/kWh. The financing strategies with higher shares of equity could impact by around 6 % higher LCOE compared to the strategies encompassing higher shares of debt. However, seeking to motivate venture capitalists, bond holders or other new financiers entering the wind power sector, support measures (feed-in tariff or investment subsidy) are relevant in case of 250 kW wind PP. It has been estimated that under the unsupported financing strategies, the average LCOE of 250 kW wind PP will be 7.8-8.8 EURct/kWh, but it will reduce by around 50 % if feed-in tariff or 50 % investment subsidy is applied.

  17. Impact of Reduction Parameters on the Initial Performance and Stability of Ni/(Sc)YSZ Cermet Anodes for SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, Søren Lyng; Ramos, Tania; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    In-situ reduction of Ni cermet anodes produces the porosity and influences the microstructure, performance and stability of the anodes. The impact on initial performance, stability and microstructure of two different reduction procedures currently in use at DTU Energy Conversion with reduction...

  18. Impact and Process Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the impacts and processes of the former Wind Powering America(WPA) initiative sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). WPA has an underlying goal of dramatically increasing the use of wind energy in the U.S.

  19. Impact of Infection Prevention and Control Initiatives on Acute Respiratory Infections in a Pediatric Long-Term Care Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Meghan T; Jackson, Olivia; Cohen, Bevin; Hutcheon, Gordon; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine; Neu, Natalie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the collective impact of several infection prevention and control initiatives aimed at reducing acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in a pediatric long-term care facility. ARIs did not decrease overall, though the proportion of infections associated with outbreaks and average number of cases per outbreak decreased. Influenza rates decreased significantly. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:859-862.

  20. [Management strategies for major depressive episodes as a function of initial response to an SSRI or SNRI antidepressant: results of the ORACLE survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadone, C; Sylvestre, M; Chiarelli, P; Richard-Berthe, C

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of the major depressive episode treatment is to obtain a complete remission. However, partial remission (persistence of residual symptoms) is a frequent outcome of major depressive episodes, concerning approximately half of the patients who were responders to the treatment. An inadequate treatment response after three weeks of treatment is considered by the ANAES recommendations as a potential reason to modify the treatment regimen. The primary objectives of this survey were to describe the therapeutic strategies implemented in subjects treated as outpatients for a major depressive episode following evaluation of the initial response to an SSRI or an SNRI antidepressant and to assess by a naturalistic way the impact of these strategies on the extent of remission at three months. The secondary objective was to determine, by multivariate analysis, others factors able to influence the remission. This prospective observational survey concerned 2 138 patients treated by community psychiatrists (n=582) and presenting a major depressive episode in the context of a recurrent depressive disorder. Patients were assessed at inclusion and at Weeks 3, at Week 6 and at Week 12. Changes in score on the Hamilton Depression Scale (Ham-D) and CGI severity between inclusion and Week 3 and improvement scores were evaluated. The therapeutic strategies after evaluation were described. Remission was defined as a score of 1 or 2 on the CGI-improvement scale; a treatment response at Week 3 was defined as a decrease of at least 50% in the Ham-D score. The physician also provided an overall rating of satisfaction with the treatment at Week 3. Data from 1 974 patients were analysed. The mean age at inclusion was 42.7 years, 70% of the patients were women; the mean age at first episode was 32.2 years, the average time since the last episode was 3.6 years. The mean Ham-D score at inclusion was 23.6 +/- 5.8. At Week 3, 29.1% of patients were considered treatment responders. The

  1. Physical/biogeochemical coupled model : impact of an offline vs online strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameau, Angélique; Perruche, Coralie; Bricaud, Clément; Gutknecht, Elodie; Reffray, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    Mercator-Ocean, the French ocean forecasting center, has been developing several operational forecasting systems and reanalysis of the physical and biogeochemical 3D-Ocean. Here we study the impact of an offline vs online strategy to couple the physical (OPA) and biogeochemical (PISCES) modules included in the NEMO platform. For this purpose, we perform global one-year long simulations at 1° resolution. The model was initialized with global climatologies. The spin-up involved 10 years of biogeochemical off-line simulation forced by a climatology of ocean physics. The online mode consists in running physical and biogeochemical models simultaneously whereas in the offline mode, the biogeochemical model is launched alone, forced by averaged physical forcing (1 day, 7 days,… ). The Mercator operational biogeochemical system is currently using the offline mode with a weekly physical forcing. A special treatment is applied to the vertical diffusivity coefficient (Kz): as it varies of several orders of magnitude, we compute the mean of the LOG10 of Kz. Moreover, a threshold value is applied to remove the highest values corresponding to enhanced convection. To improve this system, 2 directions are explored. First, 3 physical forcing frequencies are compared to quantify errors due to the offline mode: 1 hour (online mode), 1 day and 1 week (offline modes). Secondly, sensitivity tests to the threshold value applied to Kz are performed. The simulations are evaluated by systematically comparing model fields to observations (Globcolour product and World Ocean Atlas 2005) at global and regional scales. We show first that offline simulations are in good agreement with online simulation. As expected, the lower the physical forcing frequency is, the closer to the online solution is the offline simulation. The threshold value on the vertical diffusivity coefficient manages the mixing strength within the mixed layer. A value of 1 m2.s-1 appears to be a good compromise to approach

  2. Evaluating the Impact of Open Access at Berkeley: Results from the 2015 Survey of Berkeley Research Impact Initiative (BRII) Funding Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitzky, Samantha; Phillips, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The Berkeley Research Impact Initiative (BRII) was one of the first campus-based open access (OA) funds to be established in North America and one of the most active, distributing more than $244,000 to support University of California (UC) Berkeley authors. In April 2015, we conducted a qualitative study of 138 individuals who had received BRII…

  3. Initiatives and strategies for development of nanotechnology in nations: a lesson for Africa and other least developed countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezema, Ikechukwu C.; Ogbobe, Peter O.; Omah, Augustine D.

    2014-03-01

    It is a known fact that the progress and development of different nations of the world is strongly connected with the type of materials under their use. This paper highlighted the development of nanotechnology in some selected countries of the world through a careful review of their road maps by way of public and private initiatives, funding/investment profile, human resources development, industrial potentials, and focus in order to draw inferences. The peculiar challenges and opportunities for some African nations and other least developed countries (LDC) were drawn for their economic and technological developments. This investigation was simply based on open access literatures. The review showed that although nanotechnology is new globally, most countries of the world have had growing public and private investments aimed at bringing about new materials and systems that can impact positively on their economy and ensure their global competitiveness and sustainability. The global scenario suggests the crucial role of cooperation in a multidisciplinary collaboration/partnership between government ministries, agencies, institutions, and private sector/donor agencies in order to pool enough resource capital required for activities in nanotechnology.

  4. Initiatives and strategies for development of nanotechnology in nations: a lesson for Africa and other least developed countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    It is a known fact that the progress and development of different nations of the world is strongly connected with the type of materials under their use. This paper highlighted the development of nanotechnology in some selected countries of the world through a careful review of their road maps by way of public and private initiatives, funding/investment profile, human resources development, industrial potentials, and focus in order to draw inferences. The peculiar challenges and opportunities for some African nations and other least developed countries (LDC) were drawn for their economic and technological developments. This investigation was simply based on open access literatures. The review showed that although nanotechnology is new globally, most countries of the world have had growing public and private investments aimed at bringing about new materials and systems that can impact positively on their economy and ensure their global competitiveness and sustainability. The global scenario suggests the crucial role of cooperation in a multidisciplinary collaboration/partnership between government ministries, agencies, institutions, and private sector/donor agencies in order to pool enough resource capital required for activities in nanotechnology. PMID:24650295

  5. ICT integration in mathematics initial teacher training and its impact on visualization: the case of GeoGebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockendorff, Monika; Solar, Horacio

    2018-01-01

    This case study investigates the impact of the integration of information and communications technology (ICT) in mathematics visualization skills and initial teacher education programmes. It reports on the influence GeoGebra dynamic software use has on promoting mathematical learning at secondary school and on its impact on teachers' conceptions about teaching and learning mathematics. This paper describes how GeoGebra-based dynamic applets - designed and used in an exploratory manner - promote mathematical processes such as conjectures. It also refers to the changes prospective teachers experience regarding the relevance visual dynamic representations acquire in teaching mathematics. This study observes a shift in school routines when incorporating technology into the mathematics classroom. Visualization appears as a basic competence associated to key mathematical processes. Implications of an early integration of ICT in mathematics initial teacher training and its impact on developing technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) are drawn.

  6. THE DANUBE STRATEGY AND ITS IMPACT ON THE PROCESS OF UKRAINE-EU RAPPROCHEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem FYLYPENKO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research paper analyzes the impact of the Danube strategy on the process of Ukraine-EU rapprochement. The strategy itself is primarily a political document, which provides guidance to States in the region and the EU institutions to ensure the development of the Danube region. This document is unique in a number of parameters. First, its implementation will affect not only the eight Danube States - members of the EU, but also the neighboring countries of the EU. Secondly, it is a comprehensive document that covers not only the transport sector, but environmental issues, development of culture and tourism, education and many others. For Ukraine, the value of the Strategy is primarily due to the fact that in the context of the course of European integration this document provides additional opportunities for entry into the common European space. In addition, the Danube strategy can be considered as a tool for regional development. Strategy parameters cover four regions of Ukraine, located in the Danube River Basin - Odessa, Chernivtsi, Transcarpathian and Ivano-Frankivsk region.

  7. Evaluation of the environmental impact of apple pest control strategies using pesticide risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Agnello, Arthur M; Martini, Fabrizio; Kovach, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Various pesticide risk indicators have been developed for estimating pesticide impact on human health and the environment. The present work applied a pesticide risk indicator to estimate change in pesticide risk in apple production between 2001 and 2009. The "Environmental Impact Quotient" was used, which evaluates potential impacts of pesticide active ingredients on farm workers, consumers, and nontarget organisms. A modified Environmental Impact Quotient was also tested, which accounts for all ingredients in the formulation presenting a health or environmental hazard, as identified in the Security Data Sheet. Irrespective of the rating system applied, an overall average improvement in environmental impact of apple protection strategies was indicated ranging from 23 to 24%. Hazard reduction was more significant when estimated per treatment, and was higher for acaricides and insecticides than for fungicides. Improvement appeared to be a consequence of using more selective and more effective active ingredients, applying alternative pest control techniques, compulsory periodic sprayer calibration, and wider use of dwarfing orchards. The modified Environmental Impact Quotient does not overcome all limitations regarding accuracy of pesticide risk indicators, but its ease of use in relying on official, easily accessible data, and the consistency of its results, makes it a good candidate for monitoring the success of reduced risk policies. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  8. Initial shifts in nitrogen impact on ecosystem carbon fluxes in an alpine meadow: patterns and causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Increases in nitrogen (N deposition can greatly stimulate ecosystem net carbon (C sequestration through positive N-induced effects on plant productivity. However, how net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE and its components respond to different N addition rates remains unclear. Using an N addition gradient experiment (six levels: 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 gN m−2 yr−1 in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, we explored the responses of different ecosystem C fluxes to an N addition gradient and revealed mechanisms underlying the dynamic responses. Results showed that NEE, ecosystem respiration (ER, and gross ecosystem production (GEP all increased linearly with N addition rates in the first year of treatment but shifted to N saturation responses in the second year with the highest NEE (−7.77 ± 0.48 µmol m−2 s−1 occurring under an N addition rate of 8 gN m−2 yr−1. The saturation responses of NEE and GEP were caused by N-induced accumulation of standing litter, which limited light availability for plant growth under high N addition. The saturation response of ER was mainly due to an N-induced saturation response of aboveground plant respiration and decreasing soil microbial respiration along the N addition gradient, while decreases in soil microbial respiration under high N addition were caused by N-induced reductions in soil pH. We also found that various components of ER, including aboveground plant respiration, soil respiration, root respiration, and microbial respiration, responded differentially to the N addition gradient. These results reveal temporal dynamics of N impacts and the rapid shift in ecosystem C fluxes from N limitation to N saturation. Our findings bring evidence of short-term initial shifts in responses of ecosystem C fluxes to increases in N deposition, which should be considered when predicting long-term changes in ecosystem net C sequestration.

  9. Impact of demographic factors on usage of stress coping strategies chosen by elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Lembas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Old age is a particular time in which people experience plenty of changes – both progressive and regressive. Their social and economic position is changing, and human beings are confronted with a lot of difficult situations, such as the death of a spouse, illness, retirement – which particularly require them to apply a proper strategy of coping with stress. Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the demographic factors and strategies of coping with stress used by elderly people. Material and methods . The study was carried out on a group of 296 residents of Szczecin who are over 60 years old. It was conducted by means of a diagnostic survey with the use of the Inventory to Measure Coping Strategies with Stress – Mini-COPE, as well as an original questionnaire form. The statistical analysis was conducted by means of SPSS Statistics 21.0 (p ≤ 0.05. Results . The results have proven the existence of a relationship between the strategies of coping with stress used by individuals over 60 and factors such as gender, level of education, economic status and financial situation. Conclusions . When coping with stress, men and women apply different strategies. In case of individuals over 60, the higher level of education and financial status they declare, the more eager they are to use active strategies of coping with stress. Seniors with a lower level of education and lower economic status have more trouble adapting to difficult situations. They have problems with taking the initiative and actively dealing with stressful events. They also more often use psychoactive substances as part of their coping mechanism.

  10. Relationship between urbanisation and pollutant emissions in transboundary river basins under the strategy of the Belt and Road Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sen; Lu, Hongwei

    2018-07-01

    Urbanisation has increased the discharge of pollutants, altered water flow regimes, and modified the morphology of transboundary river basins. All these actions have resulted in multiple pressures on aquatic ecosystems of transboundary river basins, undermining the healthy development of their aquatic ecosystems as well as impairing the sustainable economic and social development associated therewith. Quantifying the relationship between socio-economic factors, and water environment systems, and understanding the multiple pressures in their combined impact on environmental fairness of transboundary river basins is challenging, and it is crucial to the strategic planning of the Belt and Road strategy. Here, the Songhua River basin, which is the largest branch of the China-Russia boundary river is taken as the study area. The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) model, which is coupled with the integrated model (pollutant emissions intensity, pollutant discharge efficiency, and pollutant emissions per capita), are used to reveal the spatio-temporal variations in regional pollutant emissions in the SRB. The results show that the features of the EKC are present in the pollutant emissions during economic development of the SRB. It also demonstrates that the turning point value of the EKC appeared when the GDP per capita is around ¥40,000 (CNY) in the SRB, which means that the pollutant emissions show an increasing trend, when the GDP per capita is less than ¥40,000. Our findings could contribute to a better understanding of the coupling relationship between pollutant emissions in transboundary river basins and urbanisation process in water stress to help address water allocation problems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Videoconferencing for site initiations in clinical studies: Mixed methods evaluation of usability, acceptability, and impact on recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Rebecca; Backhouse, Michael R; Nelson, E Andrea

    2016-12-01

    A critical issue for multicentre clinical studies is conducting site initiations, ensuring sites are trained in study procedures and comply with relevant governance requirements before they begin recruiting patients. How technology can support site initiations has not previously been explored. This study sought to evaluate use of off-the-shelf web-based videoconferencing to deliver site initiations for a large national multicentre study. Participants in the initiations, including podiatrists, diabetologists, trial coordinators, and research nurses, completed an online questionnaire based on the System Usability Scale (SUS) (N = 15). This was followed by semi-structured interviews, with a consultant diabetologist, a trial coordinator, and three research nurses, exploring perceived benefits and limitations of videoconferencing. The mean SUS score for the videoconferencing platform was 87.2 (SD = 13.7), suggesting a good level of usability. Interview participants perceived initiations delivered by videoconferencing as being more interactive and easier to follow than those delivered by teleconference. In comparison to face-to-face initiations, videoconferencing takes less time, easily fitting in with the work of staff at the local sites. Perceptions of impact on communication varied according to the hardware used. Off-the-shelf videoconferencing is a viable alternative to face-to-face site initiations and confers advantages over teleconferencing.

  12. Impact of guided reflection with peers on the development of effective problem solving strategies and physics learning

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    Students must learn effective problem solving strategies in order to develop expertise in physics. Effective problem solving strategies include a conceptual analysis of the problem followed by planning of the solution, and then implementation, evaluation and reflection upon the process. Research suggests that converting a problem from the initial verbal representation to other suitable representation, e.g., diagrammatic representation, during the initial conceptual analysis can facilitate fur...

  13. The Impact of Listening Strategy Training on the Meta-Cognitive Listening Strategies Awareness of Different Learner Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of listening strategy instruction on the metacognitive listening strategies awareness of different EFL learner types (LTs). To achieve this goal, 150 EFL students took part in the study and were taught based on a guided lesson plan regarding listening strategies and a pre-test/post-test design was…

  14. Impact of initial pulse shape on the nonlinear spectral compression in optical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo, Sonia; Chaussard, Frederic; Andresen, Esben; Rigneault, Hervé; Finot, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    We theoretically study the effects of the temporal intensity profile of the initial pulse on the nonlinear propagation spectral compression process arising from nonlinear propagation in an optical fibre. Various linearly chirped input pulse profiles are considered, and their dynamics is explained with the aid of time-frequency representations. While initially parabolic-shaped pulses show enhanced spectral compression compared to Gaussian pulses, no significant spectral narrowing occurs when initially super-Gaussian pulses are used. Triangular pulses lead to a spectral interference phenomenon similar to the Fresnel bi-prism experiment.

  15. SUPPLIER SELECTION STRATEGY AND MANUFACTURING FLEXIBILITY: IMPACT OF QUALITY AND TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Jantan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates the relationship between technology, quality, cost and delivery performance-based, supplier selection strategies, and manufacturing flexibilities namely, product flexibility, launch flexibility, and volume flexibility. Moreover, the moderating impact of supplier management strategies, namely quality roadmap and technology roadmap on the above relationships were also explored. The data for the study was drawn from a sample of companies listed in the factory directory published by the Penang Development Corporation (PDC. A postal survey of 120 manufacturers provided a return of 92 usable responses. The results reveal that the selection of suppliers based on technological and quality performance positively affects all the three dimensions of manufacturing flexibility, with complementary effects of good technology and quality roadmaps. Technology and quality roadmaps act as predictors for product and volume flexibilities. However, when launch flexibility is the focus, both technology and quality roadmaps moderate the impact of supplier selection strategies. Details of the findings, theoretical and practical implications, and the research limitation are discussed.

  16. Impact assessment of emission management strategies of the pharmaceuticals Metformin and Metoprolol to the aquatic environment using Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmayr, Caterina; Kerber, Heide; Winker, Martina; Schramm, Engelbert

    2015-11-01

    The issue of pharmaceuticals in the environment has caused increasing concern in the recent years and various strategies have been proposed to tackle this problem. This work describes a Bayesian network (BN)-based socio-ecological impact assessment of a set of measures aimed at reducing the entry of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. The measures investigated were selected across three sectors: public health market, environmental politics and drug design innovation. The BN model was developed for two drugs, Metformin and Metoprolol, and it models the distribution of the Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC) values as a function of different measures. Results show that the sensitivity of the PEC for the two drugs to the measures investigated reflects the distinct drug characteristics, suggesting that in order to ensure the successful reduction of a broad range of substances, a spectrum of measures targeting the entire lifecycle of a pharmaceutical should be implemented. Furthermore, evaluation of two scenarios reflecting different emission management strategies highlights that the integrated implementation of a comprehensive set of measures across the three sectors results in a more extensive reduction of the contamination. Finally, the BN provides an initial forecasting tool to model the PEC of a drug as a function of a combination of measures in a context-specific manner and possible adaptations of the model are proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Autism Impact Measure (AIM): Initial Development of a New Tool for Treatment Outcome Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanne, Stephen M.; Mazurek, Micah O.; Sikora, Darryn; Bellando, Jayne; Branum-Martin, Lee; Handen, Benjamin; Katz, Terry; Freedman, Brian; Powell, Mary Paige; Warren, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure targeting sensitivity to change of core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, the Autism Impact Measure (AIM). The AIM uses a 2-week recall period with items rated on two corresponding 5-point scales (frequency and impact). Psychometric properties were…

  18. Polyhomologation based on in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites: a novel strategy towards the synthesis of polyethylene-based complex architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhen

    2015-04-10

    A novel strategy, based on the in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites for the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide, has been developed for the synthesis of complex polyethylene-based architectures. As examples, the synthesis of a 4-arm polyethylene star, three (polystyrene)(polyethylene)2 3-miktoarm stars and a PE-branched double graft copolymers are given.

  19. Systematic Management of Change Is the Key to Successful Staff Development. An Initial Study of the Bloomfield Public Schools Staff Development Project. Teacher Essentials, Styles & Strategies (TESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celso, Nicholas; Morris, Harold

    Confronted by a maturing staff, lower teacher turnover rates, declining enrollments, and more sophisticated instructional methods, the Bloomfield (New Jersey) Public School District adopted an ambitious staff development initiative in 1983. This paper describes the planning and implementation strategies used to launch Bloomfield's Teaching…

  20. Impact of digital intraoral scan strategies on the impression accuracy using the TRIOS Pod scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Philipp; Ender, Andreas; Joda, Tim; Katsoulis, Joannis

    2016-04-01

    Little information is available on the impact of different scan strategies on the accuracy of full-arch scans with intraoral scanners. The aim of this in-vitro study was to investigate the trueness and precision of full-arch maxillary digital impressions comparing three scan strategies. Three scan strategies (A, B, and C) were applied each five times on one single model (A, first buccal surfaces, return from occlusal-palatal; B, first occlusal-palatal, return buccal; C, S-type one-way). The TRIOS Pod scanner (3shape, Copenhagen, Denmark) with a color detector was used for these digital impressions. A cast of a maxillary dentate jaw was fabricated and scanned with an industrial reference scanner. This full-arch data record was digitally superimposed with the test scans (trueness) and within-group comparison was performed for each group (precision). The values within the 90/10 percentiles from the digital superimposition were used for calculation and group comparisons with nonparametric tests (ANOVA, post-hoc Bonferroni). The trueness (mean ± standard deviation) was 17.9 ± 16.4 μm for scan strategy A, 17.1 ± 13.7 μm for B, and 26.8 ± 14.7 μm for C without statistically significant difference. The precision was lowest for scan strategy A (35.0 ± 51.1 μm) and significantly different to B (7.9 ± 5.6 μm) and C (8.5 ± 6.3 μm). Scan strategy B may be recommended as it provides the highest trueness and precision in full-arch scans and therefore minimizes inaccuracies in the final reconstruction.

  1. Impacts of model initialization on an integrated surface water - groundwater model

    KAUST Repository

    Ajami, Hoori; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated hydrologic models characterize catchment responses by coupling the subsurface flow with land surface processes. One of the major areas of uncertainty in such models is the specification of the initial condition and its influence

  2. Evaluating the impact of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) on corruption in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Fenton Villar (Paul); E. Papyrakis (Elissaios)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) is internationally recognised as a leading anti-corruption scheme, which promotes transparency, accountability and good governance of public oil, gas, and mining revenues. This article provides the first rigorous quantitative

  3. Automatic Generation of Least-Possible-Impact Traffic Management Initiatives, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Weather accounts for 70% of the annual cost of air traffic delays and cancellations, of which about 60% are estimated to be avoidable. Traffic Management Initiatives...

  4. Recruitment strategy cost and impact on minority accrual to a breast cancer prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Alexander; Khan, Seema; Babinski, Christie; Michel, Nancy; Heffernan, Marie; Stephan, Stefanie; Jordan, Neil; Jovanovic, Borko; Carney, Paula; Bergan, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    Recruitment of minorities to cancer prevention trials is difficult and costly. Early-phase cancer prevention trials have fewer resources to promote recruitment. Identifying cost-effective strategies that can replace or supplement traditional recruitment methods and improve minority accrual to small, early-phase cancer prevention trials are of critical importance. To compare the costs of accrual strategies used in a small breast cancer prevention trial and assess their impact on recruitment and minority accrual. A total of 1196 potential subjects with a known recruitment source contacted study coordinators about the SOY study, a breast cancer prevention trial. Recruitment strategies for this study included recruitment from within the Northwestern University network (internal strategy), advertisements placed on public transportation (Chicago Transit Authority (CTA)), health-related events, media (print/radio/television), and direct mail. Total recruitment strategy cost included the cost of study personnel and material costs calculated from itemized receipts. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated to compare the relative cost-effectiveness of each recruitment strategy. If a strategy was more costly and less effective than its comparator, then that strategy was considered dominated. Scenarios that were not dominated were compared. The primary effectiveness measure was the number of consents. Separate ICERs were calculated using the number of minority consents as the effectiveness measure. The total cost of SOY study recruitment was US$164,585, which included the cost of materials (US$26,133) and personnel (US$138,452). The internal referral strategy was the largest source of trial contacts (748/1196; 63%), consents (107/150; 71%), and minority consents (17/34; 50%) and was the most expensive strategy (US$139,033). CTA ads generated the second largest number of trial contacts (326/1196; 27%), the most minority contacts (184/321; 57%), and 16

  5. Dietary Strategies to Reduce Environmental Impact: A Critical Review of the Evidence Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, Bradley G; Hendrie, Gilly A; Noakes, Manny

    2017-11-01

    The food system is a major source of environmental impact, and dietary change has been recommended as an important and necessary strategy to reduce this impact. However, assessing the environmental performance of diets is complex due to the many types of foods eaten and the diversity of agricultural production systems and local environmental settings. To assess the state of science and identify knowledge gaps, an integrative review of the broad topic of environment and diet was undertaken, with particular focus on the completeness of coverage of environmental concerns and the metrics used. Compared with the 14 discrete environmental areas of concern identified in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, the located journal literature mainly addressed greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and, to a lesser extent, land and water use. Some relevant concerns were rarely addressed or not addressed at all. In the case of GHG emissions, changes in land use and soil carbon stocks were seldom considered. This represents a disconnect between the science informing strategic climate action in the agricultural sector and the science informing public health nutrition. In the case of land and water use, few studies used metrics that are appropriate in a life-cycle context. Some metrics produce inherently biased results, which misinform about environmental impact. The limited evidence generally points to recommended diets having lower environmental impacts than typical diets, although not in every case. This is largely explained by the overconsumption of food energy associated with average diets, which is also a major driver of obesity. A shared-knowledge framework is identified as being needed to guide future research on this topic. Until the evidence base becomes more complete, commentators on sustainable diets should not be quick to assume that a dietary strategy to reduce overall environmental impact can be readily defined or recommended. © 2017 American Society for

  6. Developing Broader Impacts Activities through Informal STEM Education Collaborations and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James

    2015-03-01

    With the National Science Foundation and other funding agencies' renewed emphasis on broader impacts merit criterion in proposals, investigators and directors of education, outreach and engagement are challenged to identify, plan and implement innovative and transformative activities that engage a variety of audiences in the broader impacts of scientific research. These activities are also often required to have an evaluation plan for assessing the effectiveness of the strategies employed to achieve learning goals or other intended impacts. One approach to developing such plans is to partner with an informal science education institution, program, project or individual to create exhibits, media or programming that will convey the scientific concepts and processes involved in research and engage students and public audiences in appreciation for, and understanding of same. A growing body of evidence -based knowledge about what works for whom and under what conditions in fostering science learning and literacy in informal settings, as well as an expanding network of informal science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education professionals provide researchers, graduate students and staff resources to tap into as they consider their broader impacts directions. Web infrastructure like the informalscience.org website and others offer aggregated, vetted, and searchable examples of successful partnerships and strategies, as well as access to a community of colleagues working at the nexus of scientific research and informal education for further exploration. Through heightened awareness, stronger connectivity and a growing repository of knowledge, projects like the Center for Advancement of Informal Science Education (CAISE) hope to support and disseminate the results of efforts that are enhancing the quality and visibility of broader impacts activities in whatever form they take.

  7. Strategies for reducing the environmental impacts of room air conditioners in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grignon-Masse, Laurent; Riviere, Philippe; Adnot, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    In Europe, buildings tend to be equipped with individual air conditioners, which constitute a fast growing electrical end-use. In this context, this study aims to assess the environmental impacts of European individual air conditioners and to analyse policy strategies to reduce these impacts. After analysing the European context concerning individual air conditioners, the environmental impacts of European air conditioners are assessed using a Life Cycle Analysis approach. The following step consists in studying, both technically and economically, different improvement options aiming at reducing the environmental impacts of these appliances. These results, obtained at the product level, are then generalised at the European level and different policy measures are defined and analysed. The main conclusion is that the implementation of a Minimum Energy Performance Standard based on Least Life Cycle Costs could save up to 49 TWh and 20 MtCO 2-eq in 2020 and be economically beneficial to the European end-user. - Research highlights: → A methodology based on Life Cycle Analysis is applied to European air conditioners. → Environmental impacts are mainly due to energy consumption. → There is a high potential for energy savings at very low costs for end users.

  8. A bi-level environmental impact assessment framework for comparing construction and demolition waste management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Ardavan

    2018-04-27

    Several pioneering life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have been conducted in the past to assess the environmental impact of specific methods for managing mineral construction and demolition waste (MCDW), such as recycling the waste for use in concrete. Those studies focus on comparing the use of recycled MCDW and that of virgin components to produce materials or systems that serve specified functions. Often, the approaches adopted by the studies do not account for the potential environmental consequence of avoiding the existing or alternative waste management practices. The present work focuses on how product systems need to be defined in recycling LCA studies and what processes need to be within the system boundaries. A bi-level LCA framework is presented for modelling alternative waste management approaches in which the impacts are measured and compared at two scales of strategy and decision-making. Different functional units are defined for each level, all of which correspond to the same flow of MCDW in a cascade of product systems. For the sole purpose of demonstrating how the framework is implemented an illustrative example is presented, based on real data and a number of simplifying assumptions, which compares the impacts of a number of potential MCDW management strategies in New York City. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A geomorphological strategy for conducting environmental impact assessments in karst areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veni, George

    1999-12-01

    In their efforts to protect regional groundwater supplies, governmental agencies are increasingly requiring studies of karst areas and their features. In areas where tracer tests or geophysics are not required, funded, or otherwise feasible, geomorphological methods remain as the primary tool for assessing karst. This study proposes a geomorphologically-based environmental impact assessment strategy for karst areas. While it is supported with results from a study of the karstic Edwards Aquifer recharge zone on the Camp Bullis Military Training Installation, TX, USA, it is based on the study of several karst areas and is generalized to accommodate and be fine-tuned for regional variations. Biological and other resource issues can also be assessed with this strategy. The assessment identifies environmentally sensitive features and areas, as is often required to meet regulatory directives. In karst areas with relatively small features, excavation is a key tool for accurate assessment. Although the results of this study will help to better manage karst areas, proper management must be done on a regional scale. The highly permeable nature of karst precludes adequate management solely on a feature-by-feature basis. Studies on the relationship of water quality to impervious cover show adverse environmental impacts significantly increase when impervious cover exceeds 15% of a surface watershed. The Camp Bullis study finds similar impacts in its groundwater drainage basin, supporting the argument of 15% impervious cover as a regionally effective means of also protecting karst aquifers when coupled with protection of critical areas identified by field surveys.

  10. Impacts of a national strategy to reduce population salt intake in England: serial cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Christopher; Laverty, Anthony A; Stylianou, Neophytos; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Pape, Utz J

    2012-01-01

    The UK introduced an ambitious national strategy to reduce population levels of salt intake in 2003. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strategy on salt intake in England, including potential effects on health inequalities. Secondary analysis of data from the Health Survey for England. Our main outcome measure was trends in estimated daily salt intake from 2003-2007, as measured by spot urine. Secondary outcome measures were knowledge of government guidance and voluntary use of salt in food preparation over this time period. There were significant reductions in salt intake between 2003 and 2007 (-0.175 grams per day per year, pprofessional; 64.9% v 71.0% AOR 0.76 95% CI 0.58-0.99). Self reported use of salt added at the table reduced significantly during the study period (56.5% to 40.2% pcooking (white 42.8%, black 74.1%, south Asian 88.3%) and those from lower social class groups (unskilled manual 46.6%, professional 35.2%) were more likely to add salt at the table. The introduction a national salt reduction strategy was associated with uniform but modest reductions in salt intake in England, although it is not clear precisely which aspects of the strategy contributed to this. Knowledge of government guidance was lower and voluntary salt use and total salt intake was higher among occupational and ethnic groups at greatest risk of cardiovascular disease.

  11. How externalities impact an evaluation of strategies to prevent antimicrobial resistance in health care organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenine R. Leal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rates of antimicrobial-resistant organisms (ARO continue to increase for both hospitalized and community patients. Few resources have been allocated to reduce the spread of resistance on global, national and local levels, in part because the broader economic impact of antimicrobial resistance (i.e. the externality is not fully considered when determining how much to invest to prevent AROs, including strategies to contain antimicrobial resistance, such as antimicrobial stewardship programs. To determine how best to measure and incorporate the impact of externalities associated with the antimicrobial resistance when making resource allocation decisions aimed to reduce antimicrobial resistance within healthcare facilities, we reviewed the literature to identify publications which 1 described the externalities of antimicrobial resistance, 2 described approaches to quantifying the externalities associated with antimicrobial resistance or 3 described macro-level policy options to consider the impact of externalities. Medline was reviewed to identify published studies up to September 2016. Main body An externality is a cost or a benefit associated with one person’s activity that impacts others who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit. We did not identify a well-accepted method of accurately quantifying the externality associated with antimicrobial resistance. We did identify three main methods that have gained popularity to try to take into account the externalities of antimicrobial resistance, including regulation, charges or taxes on the use of antimicrobials, and the right to trade permits or licenses for antimicrobial use. To our knowledge, regulating use of antimicrobials is the only strategy currently being used by health care systems to reduce antimicrobial use, and thereby reduce AROs. To justify expenditures on programs that reduce AROs (i.e. to formally incorporate the impact of the negative externality of

  12. Design and construction strategies for reducing embodied impacts from buildings – Case study analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Tove; Nehasilova, Marie; Moncaster, Alice

    2018-01-01

    , individual building projects. This is done by a systematic analysis of the Annex 57 case study collection as well as additional scientific literature. While it should be noted that the actual EEG savings at building level illustrated in this collection of studies are only applicable to each specific case...... of national energy mixes. Stakeholders therefore have a growing interest in understanding the possibilities for reducing em- bodied impacts in buildings. In the IEA EBC project ‘Annex 57’ a broad call for case studies was launched with the aim to identify design strategies for reducing embodied energy and GHG...... emissions (EEG) from buildings. The aim of this paper is to identify and provide a collected and comprehensive overview of quantitative reduction potentials of the particular EEG reduction strategies which should be considered by the stakeholders engaged in, and with the capacity to influence the outcome of...

  13. Critical corrosion issues and mitigation strategies impacting the operability of LWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Recent corrosion experience in US light water reactor nuclear power plants is reviewed with emphasis on mitigation strategies to control the cost of corrosion to LWR operators. Many components have suffered corrosion problems resulting in industry costs of billions of dollars. The most costly issues have been stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel coolant piping in boiling water reactors and corrosion damage to steam generator tubes in pressurized water reactors. Through industry wide R and D programs these problems are now understood and mitigation strategies have been developed to address the issues in a cost effective manner. Other significant corrosion problems for both reactor types are briefly reviewed. Tremendous progress has been made in controlling corrosion, however, minimizing its impact on plant operations will present a continuing challenge throughout the remaining service lives of these power plants

  14. Management strategies in anticipation of climatic change and the resulting impact on wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay, R.; Neraasen, T.; Coley, R.

    1991-01-01

    Two significant impacts of climate change could affect waterfowl. Climate changes that induce dryness and reduce surface water would have a detrimental effect on waterfowl production capabilities. Global warming could also increase sea levels and flood critical waterfowl overwintering habitat. Strategies undertaken by Ducks Unlimited, a waterfowl conservation organization, to respond to the threat posed by global warming to waterfowl are reviewed. Ducks Unlimited will continue to assist with wetland restoration and preservation throughout the Great Plains. Strategies to enhance retention include converting marginally arable land to permanent forage, forage backflooding, and encouragement of zero and minimum tillage operations. Improved efficiency of irrigation projects is important to foster water conservation. Widespread surface water drainage should be discouraged, by combinations of legislation and economic incentives. Ducks Unlimited is refocusing its activites on parts of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba that are likely to have relatively wetter conditions under climatic warming

  15. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  16. Dam pre-release as an important operation strategy in reducing flood impact in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah Ishak, Nurul; Mustafa Hashim, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    The 2014 flood was reported to be one of the worst natural disaster has ever affected several states in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. Overwhelming rainfall was noted as one of the main factors causing such impact, which was claimed to be unprecedented to some extent. The state of Perak, which is blessed with four cascading dams had also experienced flood damage at a scale that was considered the worst in history. The rainfall received had caused the dam to reach danger level that necessitated additional discharge to be released. Safety of the dams was of great importance and such unavoidable additional discharge was allowed to avoid catastrophic failure of the dam structures. This paper discusses the dam pre-release as a significant dam management strategy in reducing flood impact. An important balance between required dam storage to be maintained and the risk element that can be afforded is the crucial factor in such enhanced operation strategy. While further possibility in developing a carefully engineered dam pre-release strategy can be explored for dam operation in Malaysia, this has already been introduced in some developed countries. Australia and South Africa are examples where pre-release has been practiced and proven to reduce flood risk. The concept involves controlling the dam lake level throughout the year, in reference to the rainfall data and the hydrological properties for the catchment area of the dams. Plentiful data analysis need to be done in contemplation of producing the optimal pre-release model. The amount of heavy rainfalls received is beyond human control but the distribution of the discharge from the dams can be further managed with the appropriate pre-release strategy.

  17. Improving occupational physicians' adherence to a practice guideline: feasibility and impact of a tailored implementation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Margot C W; van Beurden, Karlijn M; Terluin, Berend; van Weeghel, Jaap; Brouwers, Evelien P M; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2015-04-24

    Although practice guidelines are important tools to improve quality of care, implementation remains challenging. To improve adherence to an evidence-based guideline for the management of mental health problems, we developed a tailored implementation strategy targeting barriers perceived by occupational physicians (OPs). Feasibility and impact on OPs' barriers were evaluated. OPs received 8 training-sessions in small peer-learning groups, aimed at discussing the content of the guideline and their perceived barriers to adhere to guideline recommendations; finding solutions to overcome these barriers; and implementing solutions in practice. The training had a plan-do-check-act (PDCA) structure and was guided by a trainer. Protocol compliance and OPs' experiences were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. Using a questionnaire, impact on knowledge, attitude, and external barriers to guideline adherence was investigated before and after the training. The training protocol was successfully conducted; guideline recommendations and related barriers were discussed with peers, (innovative) solutions were found and implemented in practice. The participating 32 OPs were divided into 6 groups and all OPs attended 8 sessions. Of the OPs, 90% agreed that the peer-learning groups and the meetings spread over one year were highly effective training components. Significant improvements (p implementation strategy focusing on perceived barriers and tailor-made implementation interventions is a feasible method to enhance guideline adherence. Moreover, the strategy contributed to OPs' knowledge, attitudes, and skills in using the guideline. As a generic approach to overcome barriers perceived in specific situations, this strategy provides a useful method to guideline implementation for other health care professionals too.

  18. Active Redesign of a Medicaid Care Management Strategy for Greater Return on Investment: Predicting Impactability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBard, C Annette; Jackson, Carlos T

    2018-04-01

    Care management of high-cost/high-needs patients is an increasingly common strategy to reduce health care costs. A variety of targeting methodologies have emerged to identify patients with high historical or predicted health care utilization, but the more pertinent question for program planners is how to identify those who are most likely to benefit from care management intervention. This paper describes the evolution of complex care management targeting strategies in Community Care of North Carolina's (CCNC) work with the statewide non-dual Medicaid population, culminating in the development of an "Impactability Score" that uses administrative data to predict achievable savings. It describes CCNC's pragmatic approach for estimating intervention effects in a historical cohort of 23,455 individuals, using a control population of 14,839 to determine expected spending at an individual level, against which actual spending could be compared. The actual-to-expected spending difference was then used as the dependent variable in a multivariate model to determine the predictive contribution of a multitude of demographic, clinical, and utilization characteristics. The coefficients from this model yielded the information required to build predictive models for prospective use. Model variables related to medication adherence and historical utilization unexplained by disease burden proved to be more important predictors of impactability than any given diagnosis or event, disease profile, or overall costs of care. Comparison of this approach to alternative targeting strategies (emergency department super-utilizers, inpatient super-utilizers, or patients with highest Hierarchical Condition Category risk scores) suggests a 2- to 3-fold higher return on investment using impactability-based targeting.

  19. Protected areas and territorial exclusion of traditional communities: analyzing the social impacts of environmental compensation strategies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felisa C. Anaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The creation of the protected areas (PAs of restricted use dominates conservation policies throughout the world and reflects the western idea of separation between pristine nature and human-modified habitats. However, this conservation strategy has caused the proliferation of environmental conflicts involving territorial rights of traditional peoples and local communities throughout the world. Our study aims to analyze the impacts of the creation of a system of PAs of restricted use on the livelihoods and well-being of traditional communities in the north of Minas Gerais State, in Brazil. We analyzed the conflicts emerging in the study region from the perspective of the environmental justice paradigm. We used the extended-case method, conducting fieldwork to observe and register the movements of social resistance of traditional communities, and interviews with key stakeholders. Between 1970-1990, the Jaíba irrigation project was implemented in the north of Minas Gerais and, to compensate for the huge environmental impact of the project, several PAs of restricted use were created, disregarding the traditional peoples that inhabited the region. As a consequence, these populations were expelled from their territories without compensation or resettlement, causing severe restrictions to their traditional livelihoods and well-being, including access to natural resources such as water, fisheries and timber, and nontimber products, jeopardizing their food security, cultural identity, and social integrity. They initiated the "Movement of the People Cornered by Parks," lately evolving to "Vazanteiros in Movement," incorporating elements of the environmental arena to politically dispute alternative conservation projects. Sustainable development policies that incorporate the "economy of repair," expressed as environmental compensation strategies, are intrinsically contradictory and inappropriate from the perspective of environmental justice. Inclusive

  20. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Environmental Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This is volume 1 of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration Information is included on the following: Purpose of and need for action; alternatives including the proposed action; affected environment; and environmental consequences.

  1. Baseline Survey for an Impact Evaluation of the Greenbelt Transformation Initiative in South Sudan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set is derived from a 2013 household baseline survey in the country's Greenbelt region as part of an impact evaluation of the Food, Agribusiness, and Rural...

  2. The impact of globalisation on SME-subcontractors'supply chain strategies: a Danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Gammelgaard, Britta

    2007-01-01

    with higher demands on all parameters but again the price has become decisive and the traditional customer relations no longer automatically generate new orders. Subcontractors in their turn try to meet these new conditions using various strategies, moving production facilities and accepting new roles...... chain linkages between large and SMEs through growing base of international customers. The new conditions impact on SME-subcontractors owing to supply chain connections and this paper using Danish case studies explores these conditions. The results of the study show that the SME-subcontractors are met...

  3. The impact of self-handicapping strategies use on the impression formation

    OpenAIRE

    Hip-Fabek, Irena

    2006-01-01

    Self-handicapping is usually defined as any claim, action or choice of performance setting that enhances the opportunity to externalize (or excuse) failure and to internalize (accept credit for) success. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of using different self-handicapping strategies on formation of the impression about the person. We collected data from 365 participants, whose task was to read a story about the person who failed on the task delegated to him/her, and to app...

  4. LC-MS/MS strategies for therapeutic antibodies and investigation into the quantitative impact of antidrug-antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewles, Matthew; Mannu, Ranbir; Fox, Chris; Stanta, Johannes; Evans, Graeme; Goodwin, Lee; Duffy, James; Bell, Len; Estdale, Sian; Firth, David

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to establish novel, high-throughput LC-MS/MS strategies for quantification of monoclonal antibodies in human serum and examine the potential impact of antidrug antibodies. We present two strategies using a thermally stable immobilized trypsin. The first strategy uses whole serum digestion and the second introduces Protein G enrichment to improve the selectivity. The impact of anti-trastuzumab antibodies on the methods was tested. Whole serum digestion has been validated for trastuzumab (LLOQ 0.25 µg/ml). Protein G enrichment has been validated for trastuzumab (LLOQ 0.1 µg/ml), bevacizumab (LLOQ 0.1 µg/ml) and adalimumab (LLOQ 0.25 µg/ml). We have shown the potential for anti-drug antibodies to impact on the quantification and we have subsequently established a strategy to overcome this impact where total quantification is desired.

  5. Forging New Pathways: The Impact of the Breaking through Initiative in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanker, Jennifer B.; Taylor, Judith C.

    2012-01-01

    The Michigan Center for Student Success commissioned this study to determine whether strategies employed to improve adult students' success at 41 Breaking Through colleges nationwide have taken root at Michigan's original colleges and spread beyond them. A statewide survey revisited four of the colleges profiled in previous publications, and the…

  6. Forging New Pathways: The Impact of the Breaking through Initiative in Michigan. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanker, Jennifer B.; Taylor, Judith C.

    2012-01-01

    The Michigan Center for Student Success commissioned this study to determine whether strategies employed to improve adult students' success at 41 Breaking Through colleges nationwide have taken root at Michigan's original colleges and spread beyond them. A statewide survey revisited four of the colleges profiled in previous publications, and the…

  7. Diagnosing the impact of alternative calibration strategies on coupled hydrologic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T. J.; Perera, C.; Corrigan, C.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic models represent a significant tool for understanding, predicting, and responding to the impacts of water on society and society on water resources and, as such, are used extensively in water resources planning and management. Given this important role, the validity and fidelity of hydrologic models is imperative. While extensive focus has been paid to improving hydrologic models through better process representation, better parameter estimation, and better uncertainty quantification, significant challenges remain. In this study, we explore a number of competing model calibration scenarios for simple, coupled snowmelt-runoff models to better understand the sensitivity / variability of parameterizations and its impact on model performance, robustness, fidelity, and transferability. Our analysis highlights the sensitivity of coupled snowmelt-runoff model parameterizations to alterations in calibration approach, underscores the concept of information content in hydrologic modeling, and provides insight into potential strategies for improving model robustness / fidelity.

  8. Initial teacher training. His musical impact on children in terms of refuge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Castañeda-de Liendo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The initial teacher training was the cultivation of teacher preparation in order to be the executors of government projects drive enacted by social groups of power in the historical development of Venezuela This article analyzes the initial teacher training in Venezuela, with the help of the logical place to unveil what characterizes the initial training of teachers historical method, specifically the working conditions of temporary shelter, and develops the axiological dynamics through musical training, which determine the current and future behavior regarding the formation of these. There is insufficient number of documents that allow raising the methodological work in the preparation of teachers of children of preschool age who are in temporary shelter provided, this work contributes to the improvement of such problems.

  9. ICES and PICES strategies for coordinating research on the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.; Hollowed, Anne B.; Barange, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    organizations to develop a research initiative that focuses on their shared interests. A phased implementation will ensure that SICCME will be responsive to a rapidly evolving research area while delivering ongoing syntheses of existing knowledge, thereby advancing new science and methodologies......The social, economic, and ecological consequences of projected climate change on fish and fisheries are issues of global concern. In 2012, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) established a Strategic Initiative...... on Climate Change Effects on Marine Ecosystems (SICCME) to synthesize and to promote innovative, credible, and objective science-based advice on the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere. SICCME takes advantage of the unique and complementary strengths of the two...

  10. Being tough or being nice? A meta-analysis on the impact of hard- and softline strategies in distributive negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüffmeier, J.; Freund, P.A.; Zerres, A.; Backhaus, K.; Hertel, G.

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis (34 studies) is reported on the impact of hard- and softline bargaining strategies on economic (135 effect sizes) and socioemotional negotiation outcomes (30 effect sizes) in distributive negotiations. As expected, hardline strategies lead to higher economic outcomes, whereas

  11. Teaching Students with Behavioral Disorders to Use a Negotiation Procedure: Impact on Classroom Behavior and Conflict Resolution Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the instruction of a six-step problem solving negotiation procedure on the conflict resolution strategies and classroom behavior of six elementary students with challenging behaviors was examined. Moderately positive effects were found for the following negotiation strategies used by students: independent problem solving, problem…

  12. Detection of soil moisture impact in convective initiation in the central region of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores, Edgar; Caetano, Ernesto

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture is important for understanding hydrological cycle variability in many regions. Local surface heat and moisture fluxes represent a major source of convective rainfall in Mexico during the summer, driven by positive evaporation-precipitation feedback. The effects of soil moisture are directly reflected in the limitation of evapotranspiration, affecting the development of the planetary boundary layer and, therefore, the initiation and intensity of convective precipitation. This study presents preliminary analysis of the role of soil moisture in convective initiations in central Mexico, for which a methodology for the detection of convective initiations similar to Taylor (2015) has been considered. The results show that the moisture fluxes from the surface influence the development of convection favored by mesoscale circulations at low levels. Initiations are more frequent in regions less humid than their surroundings with the very strong signal during the month of September. The knowledge of the soil predisposition to allow the development of deep convection suggests an alternative tool for the prediction of convective rains in Mexico.

  13. Impact of combination antiretroviral therapy initiation on adherence to antituberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Knight

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare workers are often reluctant to start combination antiretroviral therapy (ART in patients receiving tuberculosis (TB treatment because of the fear of high pill burden, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, and side-effects. Object: To quantify changes in adherence to tuberculosis treatment following ART initiation. Design: A prospective observational cohort study of ART-naïve individuals with baseline CD4 count between 50 cells/mm3 and 350 cells/mm3 at start of TB treatment at a primary care clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. Adherence to TB treatment was measured by pill count,self-report, and electronic Medication Event Monitoring System (eMEMS before and after initiation of ART. Results: ART tended to negatively affect adherence to TB treatment, with an 8% – 10% decrease in the proportion of patients adherent according to pill count and an 18% – 22% decrease in the proportion of patients adherent according to eMEMS in the first month following ART initiation, independent of the cut-off used to define adherence (90%, 95% or 100%. Reasons for non-adherence were multi factorial, and employment was the only predictor for optimal adherence (adjusted odds ratio 4.11, 95% confidence interval 1.06–16.0. Conclusion: Adherence support in the period immediately following ART initiation could optimise treatment outcomes for people living with TB and HIV.

  14. Investigating the Impacts of Design Heuristics on Idea Initiation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Julia; Daly, Shanna R.; Yilmaz, Seda; Seifert, Colleen M.; Gonzalez, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of engineering students' use of Design Heuristics as part of a team project in an undergraduate engineering design course. Design Heuristics are an empirically derived set of cognitive "rules of thumb" for use in concept generation. We investigated heuristic use in the initial concept generation phase,…

  15. The impact of a technology-rich intervention on grade 7 students' skills in initial algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel - Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a classroom experiment on the use of digital technology in initial algebra. Indonesian grade seven students of 12-13 year-old took part in a four session teaching sequence on beginning algebra enriched with digital technology, and in particular applets embedded in the Digital

  16. Impact of inhomogeneity on SH-type wave propagation in an initially stressed composite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Singh, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    The present analysis has been made on the influence of distinct form of inhomogeneity in a composite structure comprised of double superficial layers lying over a half-space, on the phase velocity of SH-type wave propagating through it. Propagation of SH-type wave in the said structure has been examined in four distinct cases of inhomogeneity viz. when inhomogeneity in double superficial layer is due to exponential variation in density only (Case I); when inhomogeneity in double superficial layers is due to exponential variation in rigidity only (Case II); when inhomogeneity in double superficial layer is due to exponential variation in rigidity, density and initial stress (Case III) and when inhomogeneity in double superficial layer is due to linear variation in rigidity, density and initial stress (Case IV). Closed-form expression of dispersion relation has been accomplished for all four aforementioned cases through extensive application of Debye asymptotic analysis. Deduced dispersion relations for all the cases are found in well-agreement to the classical Love-wave equation. Numerical computation has been carried out to graphically demonstrate the effect of inhomogeneity parameters, initial stress parameters as well as width ratio associated with double superficial layers in the composite structure for each of the four aforesaid cases on dispersion curve. Meticulous examination of distinct cases of inhomogeneity and initial stress in context of considered problem has been carried out with detailed analysis in a comparative approach.

  17. Making Inclusive Education Happen: The Impact of Initial Teacher Education in Remote Aboriginal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Marguerite

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the "Growing Our Own" initial teacher education (ITE) pilot programme which allowed Indigenous assistant teachers in their own communities to study to become a teacher with the support of a non-Indigenous teacher. There are five sections in this paper, including: (1) the underpinning theory and philosophy of one…

  18. Health impact assessment as an agent of policy change: improving the health impacts of the mayor of London's draft transport strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, J; Sheridan, L; Joffe, M; Samson-Barry, H; Atkinson, S

    2004-03-01

    To increase the positive and mitigate the negative health impacts of the mayor's draft transport strategy for London. A rapid prospective health impact assessment (HIA) of the penultimate draft of the strategy, using a review commissioned by the regional director of public health; an appraisal of congestion charging; and a participatory workshop. Two audits of changes were performed to assess the impact on policy of the HIA process. Regional government policy development. Recommendations from the rapid HIA were fed back into the drafting process. Changes (a) between the penultimate draft and the draft for public consultation and (b) between that and the final mayoral strategy. The draft transport strategy published for consultation differed in a number of respects from the previous version. Almost all the recommendations from the HIA were incorporated into the final strategy. Significant changes included promoting sustainable travel plans for workplaces and schools; giving priority to infrastructure and services that benefit London's deprived communities; increased emphasis on promoting walking and cycling and reducing reliance on private cars; and a commitment to track the health impacts of the final strategy and its implementation. Specific additions included re-allocating road space. HIA was successful in influencing the transport strategy for London, resulting in several improvements from a health viewpoint. HIA is an effective method both for bringing about significant change in policy proposals and in increasing policy makers' understanding of determinants of health and hence in changing attitudes of policy makers.

  19. The impact of UV irradiation on the radical initiating capacity of dissolved dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vig, A.; Czilik, M.; Rusznak, I.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Kinetics of photodecomposition of three model dyes dissolved in isopropanol-water mixture has been determined after exposure to UV radiation in the range from 360 through 400 nm and from 220 through 400 nm, respectively. It has been disclosed earlier that photodecomposition of the dissolved dyes was decelerated initially by the presence of the dissolved oxygen in the system. The presence of a radical initiator, AIBN was indispensable for arriving at the decomposition of the irradiated dye solution in the range from 360 through 400 nm. The equation of W i D = [O 2 ]/τ D was used for the calculation of radical initiating rate of the irradiated dye molecule on the isopropanol (W i D (mol/l x s)), where [O 2 ] (mol/l) is the dissolved oxygen concentration in the system and τ D (s) is duration of the induction period of the photodestruction of the dissolved dye. The equation is valid only for photodecomposition which are not chain reaction. The photodegradation of dissolved dyes was also other then chain reaction, consequently the above equation could be applied in the study too. The average radical initiating rate of the dyes applied in this study was in the order of magnitude equal to that of AIBN. The number of cycles between the first radical formation and the last regeneration of the dye molecule could be calculated in bath systems (in the presence and absence of oxygen, respectively): K = W i D /W D , where K is the number of cycles, W D (mol/l x s) is the initial rate of the decomposition of the dissolved dyed. The number of cycles in the oxygen containing systems significantly exceeded those obtained in the oxygen systems because W D was markedly higher in the latter system than in the former one

  20. Impact of selection strategies on representation of underserved populations and intention to practise: international findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkins, Sarah; Michielsen, Kristien; Iputo, Jehu; Elsanousi, Salwa; Mammen, Marykutty; Graves, Lisa; Willems, Sara; Cristobal, Fortunato L; Samson, Rex; Ellaway, Rachel; Ross, Simone; Johnston, Karen; Derese, Anselme; Neusy, André-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Socially accountable medical schools aim to reduce health inequalities by training workforces responsive to the priority health needs of underserved communities. One key strategy involves recruiting students from underserved and unequally represented communities on the basis that they may be more likely to return and address local health priorities. This study describes the impacts of different selection strategies of medical schools that aspire to social accountability on the presence of students from underserved communities in their medical education programmes and on student practice intentions. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to students starting medical education in five institutions with a social accountability mandate in five different countries. The questionnaire assessed students' background characteristics, rurality of background, and practice intentions (location, discipline of practice and population to be served). The results were compared with the characteristics of students entering medical education in schools with standard selection procedures, and with publicly available socio-economic data. The selection processes of all five schools included strategies that extended beyond the assessment of academic achievement. Four distinct strategies were identified: the quota system; selection based on personal attributes; community involvement, and school marketing strategies. Questionnaire data from 944 students showed that students at the five schools were more likely to be of non-urban origin, of lower socio-economic status and to come from underserved groups. A total of 407 of 810 (50.2%) students indicated an intention to practise in a non-urban area after graduation and the likelihood of this increased with increasing rurality of primary schooling (p = 0.000). Those of rural origin were statistically less likely to express an intention to work abroad (p = 0.003). Selection strategies to ensure that members of underserved communities

  1. Damage initiation and growth in laminated polymer compsosite plates with fluid-structure interaction under impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Kwon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Damage initiation and growth as well as dynamic response of laminated polymer composite plates were investigated with the effect of Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI when they were subjected to impact loading. The E-glass composite plates were clamped along the boundaries and impact loading was applied from a specially designed vertical drop-impact testing machine while the plates were surrounded by either water or air. The damage and transient responses such as force- and strain-time history were measured during the progressive impact tests, and the test data collected from either impact in air or under water were compared to determine the effect of FSI. The study showed that FSI was generally detrimental to composite plates because of the hydrodynamic mass effect so that damage occurred at a lower impact force for the composite plate submerged in water. The strain measure also suggested that the FSI effect varied from location to location of the plate surface. Additionally, the FSI effect yielded a significant change in the strain response in terms of both magnitude and shape in time history for the plate in water along with progressive damage. In summary, it is essential to include the FSI effect for design and analysis of composite structures when they are in contact with water.

  2. Impact of Water Scarcity on the Fenhe River Basin and Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Shao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study produced a drought map for the Fenhe River basin covering the period from 150 BC to 2012 using regional historical drought records. Based on meteorological and hydrological features, the characteristics and causes of water scarcity in the Fenhe River basin were examined, along with their impact on the national economy and ecological environment. The effects of water scarcity in the basin on the national economy were determined from agricultural, industrial, and domestic perspectives. The impact on aquatic ecosystems was ascertained through an evolution trend analysis of surface water systems, including rivers, wetlands, and slope ecosystems, and subterranean water systems, including groundwater and karst springs. As a result of these analyses, strategies are presented for coping with water scarcity in this basin, including engineering countermeasures, such as the construction of a water network in Shanxi, and the non-engineering approach of groundwater resource preservation. These comprehensive coping strategies are proposed with the aim of assisting the prevention and control of water scarcity in the arid and semi-arid areas of China.

  3. The impact of familiarization strategies on the missing-letter effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Andréanne; Roy-Charland, Annie; Chamberland, Justin; Quenneville, Joannie; Laforge, Christian

    2017-08-01

    When reading a text and searching for a target letter, readers make more omissions of the target letter if it is embedded in frequent function words than if it is in rare content words. While word frequency effects are consistently found, few studies have examined the impacts of passage familiarity on the missing-letter effect and studies that have present conflicting evidence. The present study examines the effects of passage familiarity, as well as the impacts of passage familiarization strategy promoting surface or deep encoding, on the missing-letter effect. Participants were familiarized with a passage by retyping a text, replacing all common nouns with synonyms, or generating a text on the same topic as that of the original text, and then completed a letter search task on the familiar passage as well as an unfamiliar passage. In Experiment 1, when both familiar and unfamiliar passages use the same words, results revealed fewer omissions for the retyping and synonyms conditions. However, in Experiment 2, when different words are used in both types of texts, no effect of familiarization strategy was observed. Furthermore, the missing-letter effect is maintained in all conditions, adding support to the robustness of the effect regardless of familiarity with the text.

  4. National nursing strategies in seven countries of the Region of the Americas: issues and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasanmi, Rebecca O; Kim, Esther M; Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli

    2015-07-01

    To identify and examine the current national nursing strategies and policy impact of workforce development regarding human resources for health in seven selected countries in the Region of the Americas: Argentina, Canada, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. A review of available literature was conducted to identify publicly-available documents that describe the general backdrop of nursing human resources in these seven countries. A keyword search of PubMed was supplemented by searches of websites maintained by Ministries of Health and nursing organizations. Inclusion criteria limited documents to those published in 2008-2013 that discussed or assessed situational issues and/or progress surrounding the nursing workforce. Nursing human resources for health is progressing. Canada, Mexico, and the United States have stronger nursing leadership in place and multisectoral policies in workforce development. Jamaica shows efforts among the Caribbean countries to promote collaborative practices in research. The three selected countries in Central and South America championed networks to revive nursing education. Yet, overall challenges limit the opportunities to impact public health. The national nursing strategies prioritized multisectoral collaboration, professional competencies, and standardized educational systems, with some countries underscoring the need to align policies with efforts to promote nursing leadership, and others, focusing on expanding the scope of practice to improve health care delivery. While each country wrestles with its specific context, all require proper leadership, multisectoral collaboration, and appropriate resources to educate, train, and empower nurses to be at the forefront.

  5. National nursing strategies in seven countries of the Region of the Americas: issues and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca O. Shasanmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify and examine the current national nursing strategies and policy impact of workforce development regarding human resources for health in seven selected countries in the Region of the Americas: Argentina, Canada, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. METHODS: A review of available literature was conducted to identify publicly-available documents that describe the general backdrop of nursing human resources in these seven countries. A keyword search of PubMed was supplemented by searches of websites maintained by Ministries of Health and nursing organizations. Inclusion criteria limited documents to those published in 2008-2013 that discussed or assessed situational issues and/or progress surrounding the nursing workforce. RESULTS: Nursing human resources for health is progressing. Canada, Mexico, and the United States have stronger nursing leadership in place and multisectoral policies in workforce development. Jamaica shows efforts among the Caribbean countries to promote collaborative practices in research. The three selected countries in Central and South America championed networks to revive nursing education. Yet, overall challenges limit the opportunities to impact public health. CONCLUSIONS: The national nursing strategies prioritized multisectoral collaboration, professional competencies, and standardized educational systems, with some countries underscoring the need to align policies with efforts to promote nursing leadership, and others, focusing on expanding the scope of practice to improve health care delivery. While each country wrestles with its specific context, all require proper leadership, multisectoral collaboration, and appropriate resources to educate, train, and empower nurses to be at the forefront.

  6. The impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes of solving math word problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Vula

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study investigates the impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes in learners’ achievement on solving math word problems. It specifically analyzes the impact of the linguistic factor and the number of steps and arithmetical operations that learners need to apply during the process of solving math word problems. Two hundred sixty-three learners, of three classes of third graders (N=130 and four classes of fifth graders (N=133 of the elementary cycle from two urban schools of Kosovo, participated in the study. Almost half of the total number of the third and fifth-graderswere exposed to metacognitive instruction. The rest of the learners were included in control classes in which they performed tasks without having been given any specific guidance, based exclusively on traditional methods and respective textbooks. All the learners were tested in math word problems twice, before the intervention and after it. Research findings have shown that metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes that learners use to control their actions, to reason, and to reflect, are one of the main resources that influence their success in solving a math word problem. Although the difference between the pre-test and the post-test resultswas statistically significant solely with the fifth-grade experimental classes, yet an improved performance was observed in third-grade experimental learners’ classes compared to control classes. Theoretical and practical implications of the research are discussed in the end of the study.

  7. Domestic burns prevention and first aid awareness in and around Jamshedpur, India: strategies and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A; Bharat, R

    2000-11-01

    This article highlights the strategy for awareness creation regarding burns prevention and first aid and its impact in and around the steel-producing city of Jamshedpur, India. This is a joint venture of the Burns Centre and the Medico Social Welfare Unit of the Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur in collaboration with the Social Service Division of Tata Steel and city schools. The first phase of 5 years has been devoted to general awareness building in the population through two main programmes, namely "Community Awareness Programmes" for the target group of ladies and teenage girls and "School Education Programmes" for the target group of school children of Standard 8 in the steel-producing city. These programmes include audio-visual presentations as well as face to face interactions regarding structure and arrangements in the kitchen, floor level cooking, clothing while cooking, careful use of electrical appliances, pressure stoves, etc. The discussions also include suicidal and homicidal burns prevention strategies. Various competitions for the target group provide feedback on programmes. The growing awareness about burns prevention among school children and community members, and steady increase in the number of patients who use water as first aid, speak about the success of the strategies.

  8. Progress on Protection Strategies to Mitigate the Impact of Renewable Distributed Generation on Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Norshahrani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of distributed generation (DG based on renewable energy sources leads to its high integration in the distribution network (DN. Despite its well-known benefits, mainly in improving the distribution system reliability and security, there are challenges encountered from a protection system perspective. Traditionally, the design and operation of the protection system are based on a unidirectional power flow in the distribution network. However, the integration of distributed generation causes multidirectional power flows in the system. Therefore, the existing protection systems require some improvement or modification to address this new feature. Various protection strategies for distribution system have been proposed so that the benefits of distributed generation can be fully utilized. This paper reviews the current progress in protection strategies to mitigate the impact of distributed generation in the distribution network. In general, the reviewed strategies in this paper are divided into: (1 conventional protection systems and (2 modifications of the protection systems. A comparative study is presented in terms of the respective benefits, shortcomings and implementation cost. Future directions for research in this area are also presented.

  9. Metabolomic analysis of urine samples by UHPLC-QTOF-MS: Impact of normalization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnebin, Yoric; Tonoli, David; Lescuyer, Pierre; Ponte, Belen; de Seigneux, Sophie; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Schappler, Julie; Boccard, Julien; Rudaz, Serge

    2017-02-22

    Among the various biological matrices used in metabolomics, urine is a biofluid of major interest because of its non-invasive collection and its availability in large quantities. However, significant sources of variability in urine metabolomics based on UHPLC-MS are related to the analytical drift and variation of the sample concentration, thus requiring normalization. A sequential normalization strategy was developed to remove these detrimental effects, including: (i) pre-acquisition sample normalization by individual dilution factors to narrow the concentration range and to standardize the analytical conditions, (ii) post-acquisition data normalization by quality control-based robust LOESS signal correction (QC-RLSC) to correct for potential analytical drift, and (iii) post-acquisition data normalization by MS total useful signal (MSTUS) or probabilistic quotient normalization (PQN) to prevent the impact of concentration variability. This generic strategy was performed with urine samples from healthy individuals and was further implemented in the context of a clinical study to detect alterations in urine metabolomic profiles due to kidney failure. In the case of kidney failure, the relation between creatinine/osmolality and the sample concentration is modified, and relying only on these measurements for normalization could be highly detrimental. The sequential normalization strategy was demonstrated to significantly improve patient stratification by decreasing the unwanted variability and thus enhancing data quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of the future water value on wind-reversible hydro offering strategies in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez de la Nieta, A.A.; Contreras, J.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic mixed integer linear model is proposed to maximize the profit and the future water value. • Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) is used for risk-hedging. • The offer strategies analyzed are single and separate, with and without a physical connection. • The effect of considering the future water value of the reservoirs is studied for several time horizons. - Abstract: A coordinated offering strategy between a wind farm and a reversible hydro plant can reduce wind power imbalances, improving the system efficiency whilst decreasing the total imbalances. A stochastic mixed integer linear model is proposed to maximize the profit and the future water value FWV of the system using Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) for risk-hedging. The offer strategies analyzed are: (i) single wind-reversible hydro offer with a physical connection between wind and hydro units to store spare wind energy, and (ii) separate wind and reversible hydro offers without a physical connection between them. The effect of considering the FWV of the reservoirs is studied for several time horizons: one week (168 h) and one month (720 h) using an illustrative case study. Conclusions are duly drawn from the case study to show the impact of FWV in the results.

  11. National climate policies across Europe and their impacts on cities strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, O; Reckien, D; Olazabal, M; Foley, A; Salvia, M; de Gregorio Hurtado, S; Orru, H; Flacke, J; Geneletti, D; Pietrapertosa, F; Hamann, J J-P; Tiwary, A; Feliu, E; Dawson, R J

    2016-03-01

    Globally, efforts are underway to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to climate change impacts at the local level. However, there is a poor understanding of the relationship between city strategies on climate change mitigation and adaptation and the relevant policies at national and European level. This paper describes a comparative study and evaluation of cross-national policy. It reports the findings of studying the climate change strategies or plans from 200 European cities from Austria, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. The study highlights the shared responsibility of global, European, national, regional and city policies. An interpretation and illustration of the influences from international and national networks and policy makers in stimulating the development of local strategies and actions is proposed. It was found that there is no archetypical way of planning for climate change, and multiple interests and motivations are inevitable. Our research warrants the need for a multi-scale approach to climate policy in the future, mainly ensuring sufficient capacity and resource to enable local authorities to plan and respond to their specific climate change agenda for maximising the management potentials for translating environmental challenges into opportunities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Economic Impact of the Dutch Gas Hub Strategy on the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.; Bazelon, C.; Humphreys, B.; Dickson, P.

    2010-09-01

    Since the discovery of the Groningen gas field in 1959, the Netherlands has been a key player in the European gas market. The Netherlands has built up a large onshore and offshore Exploration and Production sector, it has a highly developed gas transmission and distribution network, and is a major exporter of gas to other EU Member States. The Netherlands has considerable expertise in all parts of the gas supply chain, and is a world centre for Research and development in natural gas supply and use. More recently construction has begun on terminals to allow the import of Liquid Natural Gas to the Netherlands. However, Dutch gas reserves are now in decline, and the Netherlands will become a net importer of gas around 2025. The Dutch government wishes to capitalise on the existing industry and skills and sustain the Netherlands' place in the European gas industry beyond the life of the existing gas fields. In November 2009 the Minister of Economic Affairs published a paper describing the strategy of turning the Netherlands into a 'Gas Hub' or 'gas roundabout' for north-west Europe. The Dutch government intends that the gas hub would capitalise on the existing skills and industry, increase competition and security of supply in the Dutch gas market, create employment and make a significant contribution to the Dutch economy. The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation has commissioned The Brattle Group to perform an analysis of the economic impact of the gas hub concept. The study has several aims including: To analyse the current contribution of the Dutch gas sector to the economy; To assess the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats associated with the gas hub strategy; To quantify the benefits of the gas hub strategy to the Dutch economy. Note that the aim of the study is to define in more detail what a successful Dutch gas hub strategy would look like, to assess the strengths and weakness of the Dutch gas sector in achieving a

  13. What Research On Learning Transfer Can Teach About Improving The Impact of Leadership-Development Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide effort to improve organizational performance through leadership Development has been impressive, with huge sums of money being devoted to it each year. Unfortunately, the evaluation of the impact of leadership development has not kept pace, resulting in little evidence-based guidanc...

  14. Formation of Close-in Super-Earths by Giant Impacts: Effects of Initial Eccentricities and Inclinations of Protoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Yuji [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba, 275-0016 (Japan); Kokubo, Eiichiro, E-mail: ymatsumoto@cfca.nao.ac.jp [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    Recent observations have revealed the eccentricity and inclination distributions of close-in super-Earths. These distributions have the potential to constrain their formation processes. In the in situ formation scenario, the eccentricities and inclinations of planets are determined by gravitational scattering and collisions between protoplanets on the giant impact stage. We investigate the effect of the initial eccentricities and inclinations of protoplanets on the formation of close-in super-Earths. We perform N -body simulations of protoplanets in gas-free disks, changing the initial eccentricities and inclinations systematically. We find that while the eccentricities of protoplanets are well relaxed through their evolution, the inclinations are not. When the initial inclinations are small, they are not generally pumped up since scattering is less effective and collisions occur immediately after orbital crossing. On the other hand, when the initial inclinations are large, they tend to be kept large since collisional damping is less effective. Not only the resultant inclinations of planets, but also their number, eccentricities, angular momentum deficit, and orbital separations are affected by the initial inclinations of protoplanets.

  15. Multi-model assessment of the impact of soil moisture initialization on mid-latitude summer predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardilouze, Constantin; Batté, L.; Bunzel, F.; Decremer, D.; Déqué, M.; Doblas-Reyes, F. J.; Douville, H.; Fereday, D.; Guemas, V.; MacLachlan, C.; Müller, W.; Prodhomme, C.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface initial conditions have been recognized as a potential source of predictability in sub-seasonal to seasonal forecast systems, at least for near-surface air temperature prediction over the mid-latitude continents. Yet, few studies have systematically explored such an influence over a sufficient hindcast period and in a multi-model framework to produce a robust quantitative assessment. Here, a dedicated set of twin experiments has been carried out with boreal summer retrospective forecasts over the 1992-2010 period performed by five different global coupled ocean-atmosphere models. The impact of a realistic versus climatological soil moisture initialization is assessed in two regions with high potential previously identified as hotspots of land-atmosphere coupling, namely the North American Great Plains and South-Eastern Europe. Over the latter region, temperature predictions show a significant improvement, especially over the Balkans. Forecast systems better simulate the warmest summers if they follow pronounced dry initial anomalies. It is hypothesized that models manage to capture a positive feedback between high temperature and low soil moisture content prone to dominate over other processes during the warmest summers in this region. Over the Great Plains, however, improving the soil moisture initialization does not lead to any robust gain of forecast quality for near-surface temperature. It is suggested that models biases prevent the forecast systems from making the most of the improved initial conditions.

  16. Impact of initial biodegradability on sludge anaerobic digestion enhancement by thermal pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrère, Hélène; Bougrier, Claire; Castets, Delphine; Delgenès, Jean Philippe

    2008-11-01

    Thermal treatments with temperature ranging from 60 to 210 degrees C were applied to 6 waste-activated sludge samples originating from high or medium load, extended aeration wastewater treatment processes that treated different wastewaters (urban, urban and industrial or slaughterhouse). COD sludge solubilisation was linearly correlated with the treatment temperature on the whole temperature range and independently of the sludge samples. Sludge batch mesophilic biodegradability increased with treatment temperature up to 190 degrees C. In this temperature range, biodegradability enhancement or methane production increase by thermal hydrolysis was shown to be a function of sludge COD solubilisation but also of sludge initial biodegradability. The lower the initial biodegradability means the higher efficiency of thermal treatment.

  17. Expatriate Adjustment Process: The Impact of Accompanying Children on Self-Initiated Expatriates

    OpenAIRE

    Zakariyya, Abdul Hameed

    2011-01-01

    Expatriation as a career choice has been growing and gaining popularity. Even multinational enterprises (MNEs) that once depended entirely on their own staff for postings abroad have begun to recruit from the global self-initiated expatriate (SIE) labour market. Though qualified and competent, SIEs face tremendous challenges in relocation and cross cultural adjustment. Previous research suggests that the greatest challenge both categories of expatriates – businesses backed organizational expa...

  18. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B.; Smith, Ward N.; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Worth, Devon E.; Zentner, Robert; Malhi, Sukhdev S.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha −1 decreased on average the emissions of N 2 O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO 2 emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact. - Highlights: • LCA was combined with DNDC model to estimate the GWP of a cropping system. • N 2 O, NO and NH 3 flux increased by 39% under the higher fertilizer rate. • A change from 75 to 50 kg N ha −1 reduced the GWP per ha and GJ basis by 18%. • N 2 O emissions contributed 67% to the overall GWP of the cropping system. • Small changes in N fertilizer can have a substantial environmental impact

  19. Institutional Infrastructure for Broader Impacts Engagement - Showcasing Effective Strategies and Approaches from a Large Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A. U.; Sullivan, S. B.; Smith, L. K.; Lynds, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The need for robust scientific and especially climate literacy is increasing. Funding agencies mandate that scientists make their findings and data publically available. Ideally, this mandate is achieved by scientists and educators working together to translate research findings into common knowledge. The Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) is the largest research institute at the University of Colorado and home institute to over 500 scientists. CIRES provides an effective organizational infrastructure to support its scientists in broadening their research impact. Education specialists provide the necessary experience, connections, logistical support, and evaluation expertise to develop and conduct impactful education and outreach efforts. Outreach efforts are tailored to the project needs and the scientists' interests. They span from deep engagement efforts with a high time commitment by the scientist thus a high dosage to short presentations by the scientists that reach many people without stimulating a deep engagement and have therefore a low dosage. We use three examples of current successful programs to showcase these different engagement levels and report on their impact: i) deep transformative and time-intensive engagement through a Research Experience for Community College students program, ii) direct engagement during a teacher professional development workshop centered around a newly developed curriculum bringing authentic climate data into secondary classrooms, iii) short-time engagement through a virtual panel discussion about the state of recent climate science topics, the recordings of which were repurposed in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). In this presentation, we discuss the challenges and opportunities of broader impacts work. We discuss successful strategies that we developed, stress the importance of robust impact evaluation, and summarize different avenues of funding outreach efforts.

  20. The Validation of Peer Review through Research Impact Measures and the Implications for Funding Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Stephen A.; Carpenter, Afton S.; Irwin, David; McPartland, Caitlin D.; Travis, Joseph; Reynders, Sofie; Thompson, Lisa A.; Glisson, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of data in the literature concerning the validation of the grant application peer review process, which is used to help direct billions of dollars in research funds. Ultimately, this validation will hinge upon empirical data relating the output of funded projects to the predictions implicit in the overall scientific merit scores from the peer review of submitted applications. In an effort to address this need, the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) conducted a retrospective analysis of peer review data of 2,063 applications submitted to a particular research program and the bibliometric output of the resultant 227 funded projects over an 8-year period. Peer review scores associated with applications were found to be moderately correlated with the total time-adjusted citation output of funded projects, although a high degree of variability existed in the data. Analysis over time revealed that as average annual scores of all applications (both funded and unfunded) submitted to this program improved with time, the average annual citation output per application increased. Citation impact did not correlate with the amount of funds awarded per application or with the total annual programmatic budget. However, the number of funded applications per year was found to correlate well with total annual citation impact, suggesting that improving funding success rates by reducing the size of awards may be an efficient strategy to optimize the scientific impact of research program portfolios. This strategy must be weighed against the need for a balanced research portfolio and the inherent high costs of some areas of research. The relationship observed between peer review scores and bibliometric output lays the groundwork for establishing a model system for future prospective testing of the validity of peer review formats and procedures. PMID:25184367

  1. Strategies towards Evaluation beyond Scientific Impact. Pathways not only for Agricultural Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birge M. Wolf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Various research fields, like organic agricultural research, are dedicated to solving real-world problems and contributing to sustainable development. Therefore, systems research and the application of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches are increasingly endorsed. However, research performance depends not only on self-conception, but also on framework conditions of the scientific system, which are not always of benefit to such research fields. Recently, science and its framework conditions have been under increasing scrutiny as regards their ability to serve societal benefit. This provides opportunities for (organic agricultural research to engage in the development of a research system that will serve its needs. This article focuses on possible strategies for facilitating a balanced research evaluation that recognises scientific quality as well as societal relevance and applicability. These strategies are (a to strengthen the general support for evaluation beyond scientific impact, and (b to provide accessible data for such evaluations. Synergies of interest are found between open access movements and research communities focusing on global challenges and sustainability. As both are committed to increasing the societal benefit of science, they may support evaluation criteria such as knowledge production and dissemination tailored to societal needs, and the use of open access. Additional synergies exist between all those who scrutinise current research evaluation systems for their ability to serve scientific quality, which is also a precondition for societal benefit. Here, digital communication technologies provide opportunities to increase effectiveness, transparency, fairness and plurality in the dissemination of scientific results, quality assurance and reputation. Furthermore, funders may support transdisciplinary approaches and open access and improve data availability for evaluation beyond scientific impact. If they begin to

  2. The validation of peer review through research impact measures and the implications for funding strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Gallo

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data in the literature concerning the validation of the grant application peer review process, which is used to help direct billions of dollars in research funds. Ultimately, this validation will hinge upon empirical data relating the output of funded projects to the predictions implicit in the overall scientific merit scores from the peer review of submitted applications. In an effort to address this need, the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS conducted a retrospective analysis of peer review data of 2,063 applications submitted to a particular research program and the bibliometric output of the resultant 227 funded projects over an 8-year period. Peer review scores associated with applications were found to be moderately correlated with the total time-adjusted citation output of funded projects, although a high degree of variability existed in the data. Analysis over time revealed that as average annual scores of all applications (both funded and unfunded submitted to this program improved with time, the average annual citation output per application increased. Citation impact did not correlate with the amount of funds awarded per application or with the total annual programmatic budget. However, the number of funded applications per year was found to correlate well with total annual citation impact, suggesting that improving funding success rates by reducing the size of awards may be an efficient strategy to optimize the scientific impact of research program portfolios. This strategy must be weighed against the need for a balanced research portfolio and the inherent high costs of some areas of research. The relationship observed between peer review scores and bibliometric output lays the groundwork for establishing a model system for future prospective testing of the validity of peer review formats and procedures.

  3. The validation of peer review through research impact measures and the implications for funding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Stephen A; Carpenter, Afton S; Irwin, David; McPartland, Caitlin D; Travis, Joseph; Reynders, Sofie; Thompson, Lisa A; Glisson, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of data in the literature concerning the validation of the grant application peer review process, which is used to help direct billions of dollars in research funds. Ultimately, this validation will hinge upon empirical data relating the output of funded projects to the predictions implicit in the overall scientific merit scores from the peer review of submitted applications. In an effort to address this need, the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) conducted a retrospective analysis of peer review data of 2,063 applications submitted to a particular research program and the bibliometric output of the resultant 227 funded projects over an 8-year period. Peer review scores associated with applications were found to be moderately correlated with the total time-adjusted citation output of funded projects, although a high degree of variability existed in the data. Analysis over time revealed that as average annual scores of all applications (both funded and unfunded) submitted to this program improved with time, the average annual citation output per application increased. Citation impact did not correlate with the amount of funds awarded per application or with the total annual programmatic budget. However, the number of funded applications per year was found to correlate well with total annual citation impact, suggesting that improving funding success rates by reducing the size of awards may be an efficient strategy to optimize the scientific impact of research program portfolios. This strategy must be weighed against the need for a balanced research portfolio and the inherent high costs of some areas of research. The relationship observed between peer review scores and bibliometric output lays the groundwork for establishing a model system for future prospective testing of the validity of peer review formats and procedures.

  4. The U.S. Gas Flooding Experience: CO2 Injection Strategies and Impact on Ultimate Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Lopez, Vanessa [The University of Texas at Austin; Hosseini, Seyyed; Gil-Egui, Ramon

    2017-09-29

    The Permian Basin in West Texas and southwestern New Mexico has seen 45 years of oil reserve growth through CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR). More than 60 CO2 EOR projects are currently active in the region’s limestone, sandstone and dolomite reservoirs. Water alternating gas (WAG) has been the development strategy of choice in the Permian for several technical and economic reasons. More recently, the technology started to get implemented in the much more porous and permeable clastic depositional systems of the onshore U.S. Gulf Coast. Continued CO2 injection (CGI), as opposed to WAG, was selected as the injection strategy to develop Gulf Coast oil fields, where CO2 injection volumes are significantly larger (up to 6 times larger) than those of the Permian. We conducted a compositional simulation based study with the objective of comparing the CO2 utilization ratios (volume of CO2 injected to produce a barrel of oil) of 4 conventional and novel CO2 injection strategies: (1) continuous gas injection (CGI), (2) water alternating gas (WAG), (3) water curtain injection (WCI), and (4) WAG and WCI combination. These injection scenarios were simulated using the GEM module from the Computer Modeling Group (CMG). GEM is an advanced general equation-of-state compositional simulator, which includes equation of state, CO2 miscible flood, CO2/brine interactions, and complex phase behavior. The simulator is set up to model three fluid phases including water, oil, and gas. Our study demonstrates how the selected field development strategy has a significant impact on the ultimate recovery of CO2-EOR projects, with GCI injection providing maximum oil recovery in absolute volume terms, but with WAG offering a more balanced technical-economical approach.

  5. Impacts of a national strategy to reduce population salt intake in England: serial cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Millett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The UK introduced an ambitious national strategy to reduce population levels of salt intake in 2003. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strategy on salt intake in England, including potential effects on health inequalities. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from the Health Survey for England. Our main outcome measure was trends in estimated daily salt intake from 2003-2007, as measured by spot urine. Secondary outcome measures were knowledge of government guidance and voluntary use of salt in food preparation over this time period. RESULTS: There were significant reductions in salt intake between 2003 and 2007 (-0.175 grams per day per year, p<0.001. Intake decreased uniformly across all other groups but remained significantly higher in younger persons, men, ethnic minorities and lower social class groups and those without hypertension in 2007. Awareness of government guidance on salt use was lowest in those groups with the highest intake (semi-skilled manual v professional; 64.9% v 71.0% AOR 0.76 95% CI 0.58-0.99. Self reported use of salt added at the table reduced significantly during the study period (56.5% to 40.2% p<0.001. Respondents from ethnic minority groups remained significantly more likely to add salt during cooking (white 42.8%, black 74.1%, south Asian 88.3% and those from lower social class groups (unskilled manual 46.6%, professional 35.2% were more likely to add salt at the table. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction a national salt reduction strategy was associated with uniform but modest reductions in salt intake in England, although it is not clear precisely which aspects of the strategy contributed to this. Knowledge of government guidance was lower and voluntary salt use and total salt intake was higher among occupational and ethnic groups at greatest risk of cardiovascular disease.

  6. Initial impact of integrated agricultural research for development in East and Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nkonya, Ephraim; Kato, Edward; Oduol, Judith; Pali, Pamela; Farrow, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Conventional agricultural research approaches have generated research results with limited adoption rates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Recently, a new research approach – integrated agricultural research for development (IAR4D) was introduced in SSA. The IAR4D approach goes beyond the conventional research focus on agricultural production technologies, as it includes marketing and development activities. This paper analyses the impact of IAR4D in the East and Central African region using pa...

  7. Development and initial validation of the Bristol Impact of Hypermobility questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, S; Cramp, F; Lewis, R; Gould, G; Clark, E M

    2017-06-01

    Stage 1 - to identify the impact of joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) on adults; Stage 2 - to develop a questionnaire to assess the impact of JHS; and Stage 3 - to undertake item reduction and establish the questionnaire's concurrent validity. A mixed methods study employing qualitative focus groups and interviews (Stage 1); a working group of patients, clinicians and researchers, and 'think aloud' interviews (Stage 2); and quantitative analysis of questionnaire responses (Stage 3). Stages 1 and 2 took place in one secondary care hospital in the UK. Members of a UK-wide patient organisation were recruited in Stage 3. In total, 15, four and 615 participants took part in Stages 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years; diagnosis of JHS; no other conditions affecting physical function; able to give informed consent; and able to understand and communicate in English. None. The development of a questionnaire to assess the impact of JHS. Stage 1 identified a wide range of impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions In Stage 2, a draft questionnaire was developed and refined following 'think aloud' analysis, leaving 94 scored items. In Stage 3, items were removed on the basis of low severity and/or high correlation with other items. The final Bristol Impact of Hypermobility (BIoH) questionnaire had 55 scored items, and correlated well with the physical component score of the Short Form 36 health questionnaire (r=-0.725). The BIoH questionnaire demonstrated good concurrent validity. Further psychometric properties need to be established. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael L; Boesch, Christophe; Fruth, Barbara; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gilby, Ian C; Hashimoto, Chie; Hobaiter, Catherine L; Hohmann, Gottfried; Itoh, Noriko; Koops, Kathelijne; Lloyd, Julia N; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Mitani, John C; Mjungu, Deus C; Morgan, David; Muller, Martin N; Mundry, Roger; Nakamura, Michio; Pruetz, Jill; Pusey, Anne E; Riedel, Julia; Sanz, Crickette; Schel, Anne M; Simmons, Nicole; Waller, Michel; Watts, David P; White, Frances; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Wrangham, Richard W

    2014-09-18

    Observations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) provide valuable comparative data for understanding the significance of conspecific killing. Two kinds of hypothesis have been proposed. Lethal violence is sometimes concluded to be the result of adaptive strategies, such that killers ultimately gain fitness benefits by increasing their access to resources such as food or mates. Alternatively, it could be a non-adaptive result of human impacts, such as habitat change or food provisioning. To discriminate between these hypotheses we compiled information from 18 chimpanzee communities and 4 bonobo communities studied over five decades. Our data include 152 killings (n = 58 observed, 41 inferred, and 53 suspected killings) by chimpanzees in 15 communities and one suspected killing by bonobos. We found that males were the most frequent attackers (92% of participants) and victims (73%); most killings (66%) involved intercommunity attacks; and attackers greatly outnumbered their victims (median 8:1 ratio). Variation in killing rates was unrelated to measures of human impacts. Our results are compatible with previously proposed adaptive explanations for killing by chimpanzees, whereas the human impact hypothesis is not supported.

  9. Initiating running barefoot: Effects on muscle activation and impact accelerations in habitually rearfoot shod runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Priego Quesada, José Ignacio; Giménez, José Vicente; Aparicio, Inma; Jimenez-Perez, Irene; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Runners tend to shift from a rearfoot to a forefoot strike pattern when running barefoot. However, it is unclear how the first attempts at running barefoot affect habitually rearfoot shod runners. Due to the inconsistency of their recently adopted barefoot technique, a number of new barefoot-related running injuries are emerging among novice barefoot runners. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the influence of three running conditions (natural barefoot [BF], barefoot with a forced rearfoot strike [BRS], and shod [SH]) on muscle activity and impact accelerations in habitually rearfoot shod runners. Twenty-two participants ran at 60% of their maximal aerobic speed while foot strike, tibial and head impact accelerations, and tibialis anterior (TA), peroneus longus (PL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) muscle activity were registered. Only 68% of the runners adopted a non-rearfoot strike pattern during BF. Running BF led to a reduction of TA activity as well as to an increase of GL and GM activity compared to BRS and SH. Furthermore, BRS increased tibial peak acceleration, tibial magnitude and tibial acceleration rate compared to SH and BF. In conclusion, 32% of our runners showed a rearfoot strike pattern at the first attempts at running barefoot, which corresponds to a running style (BRS) that led to increased muscle activation and impact accelerations and thereby to a potentially higher risk of injury compared to running shod.

  10. Impact of particle density and initial volume on mathematical compression models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    In the calculation of the coefficients of compression models for powders either the initial volume or the particle density is introduced as a normalising factor. The influence of these normalising factors is, however, widely different on coefficients derived from the Kawakita, Walker and Heckel...... equations. The problems are illustrated by investigations on compaction profiles of 17 materials with different molecular structures and particle densities. It is shown that the particle density of materials with covalent bonds in the Heckel model acts as a key parameter with a dominating influence...

  11. Measuring health systems strength and its impact: experiences from the African Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, Kenneth; Fernandes, Quinhas; Kanté, Almamy M; Bawah, Ayaga; Condo, Jeanine; Mutale, Wilbroad

    2017-12-21

    Health systems are essential platforms for accessible, quality health services, and population health improvements. Global health initiatives have dramatically increased health resources; however, funding to strengthen health systems has not increased commensurately, partially due to concerns about health system complexity and evidence gaps demonstrating health outcome improvements. In 2009, the African Health Initiative of the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation began supporting Population Health Implementation and Training Partnership projects in five sub-Saharan African countries (Ghana, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia) to catalyze significant advances in strengthening health systems. This manuscript reflects on the experience of establishing an evaluation framework to measure health systems strength, and associate measures with health outcomes, as part of this Initiative. Using the World Health Organization's health systems building block framework, the Partnerships present novel approaches to measure health systems building blocks and summarize data across and within building blocks to facilitate analytic procedures. Three Partnerships developed summary measures spanning the building blocks using principal component analysis (Ghana and Tanzania) or the balanced scorecard (Zambia). Other Partnerships developed summary measures to simplify multiple indicators within individual building blocks, including health information systems (Mozambique), and service delivery (Rwanda). At the end of the project intervention period, one to two key informants from each Partnership's leadership team were asked to list - in rank order - the importance of the six building blocks in relation to their intervention. Though there were differences across Partnerships, service delivery and information systems were reported to be the most common focus of interventions, followed by health workforce and leadership and governance. Medical products, vaccines and technologies, and

  12. Urban Security Initiative: Earthquake impacts on the urban ``system of systems``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheshwari, S.; Jones, E.; Rasmussen, S.

    1999-06-01

    This paper is a discussion of how to address the problems of disasters in a large city, a project titled Urban Security Initiative undertaken by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The paper first discusses the need to address the problems of disasters in large cities and ten provides a framework that is suitable to address this problem. The paper then provides an overview of the module of the project that deals with assessment of earthquake damage on urban infrastructure in large cities and an internet-based approach for consensus building leading to better coordination in the post-disaster period. Finally, the paper discusses the future direction of the project.

  13. Success in Global New Product Development: Impact of Strategy and the Behavioral Environment of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Brentani, U.; Kleinschmidt, E.J.; Salomo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Product innovation and the trend toward globalization are two important dimensions driving business today, and a firm's global new product development (NPD) strategy is a primary determinant of performance. Succeeding in this competitive and complex market arena calls for corporate resources...... America and Europe, business-to-business, services and goods), a structural model testing for the hypothesized mediation effects was substantially supported. Specifically, having an organizational posture that, at once, values innovation plus globalization, as well as a senior management that is active...... as primary determinants of competitive advantage and, thus, of superior performance through the strategic initiatives that these enable. In the study, global NPD programs are assessed in terms of three dimensions: (1) the organizational resources or behavioral environment of the firm relevant...

  14. Senate Voting On the Strategic Defense Initiative: The Impact of the 1991 Gulf War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Pasley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of the success of the Patriot missile system in the 1991 Gulf War on Senate roll call votes for the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI. Previous studies have shown that both Party Identification (PID and Ideology have had a significant effect on senators' votes on defense weapons systems. Using Logit regression techniques, this paper examines whether PID and Ideology, both of which are central to political identity, remained significant factors in three Senate votes on SDI; this paper is unique compare to previous studies of such matters in that it adds two additional explanatory variables to existing models: (1 the extent to which each state might benefit from SDI and (2 whether or not the senator from each state was up for re-election in 1992 It is hypothesized that the findings will suggest that external factors played a role in the SDI Senate votes in question. Specifically, it is hypothesized that the effects of the Gulf War Patriot missile successes led to greater legislative support (compared to support levels from previous years for the Strategic Defense Initiative among Democrats, those senators whose states would benefit from SDI funding, and those senators seeking re-election.

  15. Impact of continuous quality improvement initiatives on clinical outcomes in peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yusheng; Zhou, Yan; Wang, Han; Zhou, Tingting; Li, Qing; Li, Taoyu; Wu, Yan; Liu, Zhihong

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated the role of a quality improvement initiative in improving clinical outcomes in peritoneal dialysis (PD). In a retrospective analysis of 6 years of data from a hospital registry, the period between 1 July 2005 and 30 June 2008 (control group) provided baseline data from before implementation of systemic outcomes monitoring, and the period between 1 July 2008 and 30 June 2011 [continuous quality improvement (CQI) group] represented the time when a CQI program was in place. Peritonitis incidence, patient and technique survival, cardiovascular status, causes of death, and drop-out were compared between the groups. In the 370 patients of the CQI group and the 249 patients of the control group, the predominant underlying kidney diseases were chronic glomerulonephritis and diabetic nephropathy. After implementation of the CQI initiative, the peritonitis rate declined to 1 episode in 77.25 patient-months from 1 episode in 22.86 patient-months. Ultrasound parameters of cardiac structure were generally unchanged in the CQI group, but significant increases in cardiothoracic ratio and interventricular septal thickness were observed in the control group (both p improve technique survival rates: 95.6%, 92.6%, and 92.6% in the CQI group compared with 89.6%, 79.2%, and 76.8% in the control group (p improve the quality of therapy and its outcomes. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  16. Effects of School Staff Communication on Initiations and Repair Strategies of Students with Severe Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzroni, Orit E.; Shalev, Maayan

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the effects of the types of communication breakdowns of the communication partners on the repair strategies of students with severe intellectual disability during interaction within the natural school environment. Forty-eight staff members, divided into two groups based on daily vs. weekly contact with the student, and 12…

  17. An initial evaluation of potential options for managing riparian reserves of the Aquatic Conservation Strategy of the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Brian R. Pickard; K. Norman. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    The Aquatic Conservation Strategy (ACS) of the Northwest Forest Plan guides management of riparian and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands in western Oregon, western Washington, and northern California. We applied new scientific findings and tools to evaluate two potential options, A and B, for refining interim riparian reserves to meet ACS goals and likely challenges...

  18. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B; Smith, Ward N; Desjardins, Raymond L; Worth, Devon E; Zentner, Robert; Malhi, Sukhdev S

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha(-1) decreased on average the emissions of N2O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO2 emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing urban strategies for reducing the impacts of extreme weather on infrastructure networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnolato, Maria; Ford, Alistair; Robson, Craig; Glenis, Vassilis; Barr, Stuart; Dawson, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Critical infrastructure networks, including transport, are crucial to the social and economic function of urban areas but are at increasing risk from natural hazards. Minimizing disruption to these networks should form part of a strategy to increase urban resilience. A framework for assessing the disruption from flood events to transport systems is presented that couples a high-resolution urban flood model with transport modelling and network analytics to assess the impacts of extreme rainfall events, and to quantify the resilience value of different adaptation options. A case study in Newcastle upon Tyne in the UK shows that both green roof infrastructure and traditional engineering interventions such as culverts or flood walls can reduce transport disruption from flooding. The magnitude of these benefits depends on the flood event and adaptation strategy, but for the scenarios considered here 3-22% improvements in city-wide travel times are achieved. The network metric of betweenness centrality, weighted by travel time, is shown to provide a rapid approach to identify and prioritize the most critical locations for flood risk management intervention. Protecting just the top ranked critical location from flooding provides an 11% reduction in person delays. A city-wide deployment of green roofs achieves a 26% reduction, and although key routes still flood, the benefits of this strategy are more evenly distributed across the transport network as flood depths are reduced across the model domain. Both options should form part of an urban flood risk management strategy, but this method can be used to optimize investment and target limited resources at critical locations, enabling green infrastructure strategies to be gradually implemented over the longer term to provide city-wide benefits. This framework provides a means of prioritizing limited financial resources to improve resilience. This is particularly important as flood management investments must typically exceed

  20. Environmental impact statement for initiation of transuranic waste disposal at the waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.E.; Whatley, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    WIPP's long-standing mission is to demonstrate the safe disposal of TRU waste from US defense activities. In 1980, to comply with NEPA, US DOE completed its first environmental impact statement (EIS) which compared impacts of alternatives for TRU waste disposal. Based on this 1980 analysis, DOE decided to construct WIPP in 1981. In a 1990 decision based on examination of alternatives in a 1990 Supplemental EIS, DOE decided to continue WIPP development by proceeding with a testing program to examine WIPP's suitability as a TRU waste repository. Now, as DOE's Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) attempts to complete its regulatory obligations to begin WIPP disposal operations, CAO is developing WIPP's second supplemental EIS (SEIS-II). To complete the SEIS-II, CAO will have to meet a number of challenges. This paper explores both the past and present EISs prepared to evaluate the suitability of WIPP. The challenges in completing an objective comparison of alternatives, while also finalizing other critical-path compliance documents, controlling costs, and keeping stakeholders involved during the decision-making process are addressed

  1. Measuring the difference made by conservation initiatives: protected areas and their environmental and social impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Paul J; Pressey, Robert L

    2015-11-05

    Success in conservation depends on our ability to reduce human pressures in areas that harbour biological diversity and ecosystem services. Legally protecting some of these areas through the creation of protected areas is a key component of conservation efforts globally. To develop effective protected area networks, practitioners need credible, scientific evidence about the degree to which protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes, and how these effects vary with context. Such evidence has been lacking, but the situation is changing as conservation scientists adopt more sophisticated research designs for evaluating protected areas' past impacts and for predicting their future impacts. Complementing these scientific advances, conservation funders and practitioners are paying increasing attention to evaluating their investments with more scientifically rigorous evaluation designs. This theme issue highlights recent advances in the science of protected area evaluations and explores the challenges to developing a more credible evidence base that can help societies achieve their goals of protecting nature while enhancing human welfare. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Strategy for safety case development: impact of a volunteering approach to siting a japanese HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitayama, K.; Ishiguro, K.; Takeuchi, M.; Tsuchi, H.; Kato, T.; Sakabe, Y.; Wakasugi, K.

    2008-01-01

    NUMO strategy for safety case development is constrained by a staged siting approach, which has been initiated by a call for volunteer municipalities to host the HLW repository. For each site, the safety case is an important factor to be considered at the selection steps which narrow down towards the preferred repository location. This is particularly challenging, however, as every site requires a tailored repository concept, with associated performance assessment and an individual site evaluation programme all of which evolve with gradually increasing understanding of the host environment. In order to maintain flexibility without losing focus, NUMO has developed a formalized tailoring procedure, termed the NUMO Structured Approach (NSA). The NSA guides the interaction of the key site characterisation, repository design and performance assessment groups and is facilitated by tools to help the decision making associated with the tailoring process (e.g. a requirements management system) and with comparison of siting and design options (e.g. multi-attribute analysis). Pragmatically, the post-closure safety case will initially emphasize near-field processes and a robust engineering barrier system, considering the limited geological information at early stages. This will be complemented by a more realistic assessment of total system performance, as needed to compare options. In addition, efforts to rigorously assess operational phase safety and the practicality of assuring quality of the constructed engineered barriers are components of the total safety case which are receiving particular attention now, as they may better discriminate between sites while information is still limited. (authors)

  3. [Current strategies to diminish the impact of cardiovascular diseases in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramba Badiale, Marco; Priori, Silvia G

    2006-11-01

    The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has recently promoted the "Women at Heart" program in order to organize initiatives targeted at promoting research and education in the field of cardiovascular diseases in women. Comparisons of the gender differences in specific disease and treatment trends across Europe are provided by analyzing data from the Euro Heart Surveys. A Policy Conference has been organized with the objective to summarize the state of the art from an European perspective, to identify the scientific gaps and to delineate the strategies for changing the misperception of cardiovascular diseases in women, improving risk stratification, diagnosis, and therapy from a gender perspective and increasing women representation in clinical trials. A Statement from the Policy Conference has been provided and published in the European Heart Journal. Synergic activities should be undertaken at European level with the support of national scientific societies, European institutions, national health care authorities, patients' associations, and foundations. The commitment of the Board of the ESC is that these initiatives contribute to increase the awareness across Europe that cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death in women and to improve the knowledge of risk factors, presentation and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in women.

  4. Poor WOMAC scores in contralateral knee negatively impact TKA outcomes: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Timothy L; Soheili, Aydin C; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2014-08-01

    While total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been shown to have excellent outcomes, a significant proportion of patients experience relatively poor post-operative function. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the level of osteoarthritic symptoms in the contralateral knee at the time of TKA is associated with poorer post-operative outcomes in the operated knee. Using longitudinal cohort data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), we included 171 patients who received a unilateral TKA. We compared pre-operative Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores in the contralateral knee to post-operative WOMAC scores in the index knee. Pre-operative contralateral knee WOMAC scores were associated with post-operative index knee WOMAC Total scores, indicating that the health of the pre-operative contralateral knee is a significant factor in TKA outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Control strategy to limit duty cycle impact of earthquakes on the LIGO gravitational-wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscans, S.; Warner, J.; Mittleman, R.; Buchanan, C.; Coughlin, M.; Evans, M.; Gabbard, H.; Harms, J.; Lantz, B.; Mukund, N.; Pele, A.; Pezerat, C.; Picart, P.; Radkins, H.; Shaffer, T.

    2018-03-01

    Advanced gravitational-wave detectors such as the laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatories (LIGO) require an unprecedented level of isolation from the ground. When in operation, they measure motion of less than 10‑19 m. Strong teleseismic events like earthquakes disrupt the proper functioning of the detectors, and result in a loss of data. An earthquake early-warning system, as well as a prediction model, have been developed to understand the impact of earthquakes on LIGO. This paper describes a control strategy to use this early-warning system to reduce the LIGO downtime by  ∼30%. It also presents a plan to implement this new earthquake configuration in the LIGO automation system.

  6. Contextual Factors Affecting E-Government Strategy Implementation and Its Impact on Public Sector Performance in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. James Gathungu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the contextual factors affecting the implementation of e-government strategy and its impact on the performance of the public sector in Kenya using the Wing Lam, (2005 E-government Integration Model. Electronic government (E-government is viewed in this study as the utilization of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs to transform the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of exchanges within government, between government and citizens and businesses locally and abroad; and to empower citizens through access and use of information. Although e-government is a rapidly growing concept in both developing and developed countries very few e-government initiatives progress to maturity. Different countries are faced with different contextual circumstances and environments in the realization of e-government initiatives. This study attempts to address the gap between theory and rhetoric about the potential of e-government and the reality of its application on the ground in Kenya. The study attempts to analyze the philosophy, theories and paradigms of e-government. The development of the commercial concept as a new paradigm in public administration replacing the traditional bureaucratic systems of government is highlighted in the study. A detailed conceptual discussion anchors the study on the Wing Lam, (2005 E-government Integration Model (EGI basing it on the Kenyan perspective. The study also reviews relevant e-government studies from an international, regional and local perspective anchoring the study on the configuration school of management thought. These discussions are used to develop new insights in view of the emerging issues and their relevance to the public sector in Kenya.

  7. Contextual Factors Affecting E-Government Strategy Implementation and Its Impact on Public Sector Performance in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. James Gathungu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the contextual factors affecting the implementation of e-government strategy and its impact on the performance of the public sector in Kenya using the Wing Lam, (2005 E-government Integration Model. Electronic government (E-government is viewed in this study as the utilization of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs to transform the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of exchanges within government, between government and citizens and businesses locally and abroad; and to empower citizens through access and use of information. Although e-government is a rapidly growing concept in both developing and developed countries very few e-government initiatives progress to maturity. Different countries are faced with different contextual circumstances and environments in the realization of e-government initiatives. This study attempts to address the gap between theory and rhetoric about the potential of e-government and the reality of its application on the ground in Kenya. The study attempts to analyze the philosophy, theories and paradigms of e-government. The development of the commercial concept as a new paradigm in public administration replacing the traditional bureaucratic systems of government is highlighted in the study. A detailed conceptual discussion anchors the study on the Wing Lam, (2005 E-government Integration Model (EGI basing it on the Kenyan perspective. The study also reviews relevant e-government studies from an international, regional and local perspective anchoring the study on the configuration school of management thought. These discussions are used to develop new insights in view of the emerging issues and their relevance to the public sector in Kenya.  

  8. Strategies used to inhibit postoperative swelling following removal of impacted lower third molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Sortino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative swelling following different surgical strategies is an area of great interest. The main part of literature on the topic deals with swelling after extraction of low impacted third molar. In this review, we have analyzed publications of the last 20 years with a pubmed search using the following key words: impacted third molar, swelling third molar, wisdom tooth, edema jaw, corticosteroids and extraction third molar, antibiotic prophylaxis and tooth extraction. Attention has often been focused on corticosteroid therapy administered by diverse routes (orally, IV, IM, topically and at different time schedules (before or after surgery or both. This investigation revealed how the use of different molecules and dosages makes the obtained results hardly comparable. Similar conclusions can be drawn from studies aimed at evaluating the efficacy of antibiotic therapy administered either before or after surgery. A complete review has also to take into account different surgical strategies used including various flaps, no traumatic osteothomy, and primary or secondary closure. The use of pharmacological therapy and application of an ice pack is critical in the postoperative period and has always provided positive results. However, even if it is difficult to come to definite conclusions, due to the variability of the design of studies analyzed, the postoperative discomfort identified with edema, pain and trismus following wisdom tooth removal is influenced by various factors such as the difficulty of the surgical procedure involved, age and gender of the patient, and experience of the surgeon. The pharmacological therapy when performed with corticosteroids seems to improve control of the postoperative swelling related with this kind of surgeries.

  9. Impact of everolimus: update on immunosuppressive therapy strategies and patient outcomes after renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Tedesco-Silva Jr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Helio Tedesco-Silva Jr, Claudia Rosso Felipe, Tainá Veras de Sandes Freitas, Marina Pontello Cristeli, Carolina Araújo Rodrigues, José Osmar Medina PestanaNephrology Division, Hospital do Rim e Hipertensão, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Everolimus is an immunosuppressive agent used for the prophylaxis of acute rejection after kidney transplantation. Everolimus inhibits the activity of the serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, a key enzyme that controls cell growth and metabolism, producing cell cycle arrest from the G1 to S phase. As a consequence, everolimus has antiproliferative and antineoplastic effects. Everolimus is a drug with a narrow therapeutic index. The pharmacokinetics of everolimus indicates a need for twice-daily dosing. Intra- and interindividual variability and drug–drug interactions suggest the need for therapeutic drug monitoring to maximize the efficacy/toxicity ratio. The good correlation between exposure (area under the concentration–time curve and trough concentration indicates that monitoring of everolimus trough concentrations is an adequate strategy after kidney transplantation. Everolimus is indicated for low- to moderate-risk de novo kidney transplant candidates. There are no conclusive studies thus far indicating that everolimus can be used in high-risk patients, such as sensitized patients, retransplants, and African Americans. In de novo kidney transplant recipients, the recommended initial dose of everolimus is 0.75 mg twice daily, adjusted to maintain blood trough concentrations of 3–8 ng/mL, in combination with progressive reduction in blood trough cyclosporine concentrations to 25–50 ng/mL. In combination with reduced trough blood tacrolimus concentrations of 4–7 ng/mL the recommended initial dose of everolimus is 1.5 mg twice daily, adjusted to maintain trough blood concentrations of 3–8 ng/mL. Everolimus can also be used as a conversion strategy

  10. The impact of problem solving strategy with online feedback on students’ conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, H. Y.; Winarko, W.; Ayu, H. D.

    2018-04-01

    The study aimed to determine the impact of the implementation of problem solving strategy with online feedback towards the students’ concept understanding. This study used quasi experimental design with post-test only control design. The participants were all Physics Education students of Kanjuruhan University year 2015. Then, they were divided into two different groups; 30 students belong to experiment class and the remaining 30 students belong to class of control. The students’ concept understanding was measured by the concept understanding test on multiple integral lesson. The result of the concept understanding test was analyzed by prerequisite test and stated to be normal and homogenic distributed, then the hypothesis was examined by T-test. The result of the study shows that there is difference in the concept understanding between experiment class and control class. Next, the result also shows that the students’ concept understanding which was taught using problem solving strategy with online feedback was higher than those using conventional learning; with average score of 72,10 for experiment class and 52,27 for control class.

  11. Possible impacts of sea level rise on disease transmission and potential adaptation strategies, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Ana C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Galletti, Andrea; Benzecry, Bernardo; Malone, Hannah; Boguszewski, Vicki; Bird, Jason

    2018-04-18

    Sea levels are projected to rise in response to climate change, causing the intrusion of sea water into land. In flat coastal regions, this would generate an increase in shallow water covered areas with limited circulation. This scenario raises a concern about the consequences it could have on human health, specifically the possible impacts on disease transmission. In this review paper we identified three categories of diseases which are associated with water and whose transmission can be affected by sea level rise. These categories include: mosquitoborne diseases, naturalized organisms (Vibrio spp. and toxic algae), and fecal-oral diseases. For each disease category, we propose comprehensive adaptation strategies that would help minimize possible health risks. Finally, the City of Key West, Florida is analyzed as a case study, due to its inherent vulnerability to sea level rise. Current and projected adaptation techniques are discussed as well as the integration of additional recommendations, focused on disease transmission control. Given that sea level rise will likely continue into the future, the promotion and implementation of positive adaptation strategies is necessary to ensure community resilience. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation and Management of Neonatal Dysphagia: Impact of Pharyngoesophageal Motility Studies and Multidisciplinary Feeding Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.; Stoner, Erin; Gupta, Alankar; Bates, D. Gregory; Fernandez, Soledad; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Linscheid, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Abnormal swallowing (dysphagia) among neonates is commonly evaluated using the videofluoroscopic swallow study (VSS). Radiological findings considered high risk for administration of oral feeding include nasopharyngeal reflux, laryngeal penetration, aspiration, or pooling. Our aims were to determine pharyngoesophageal motility correlates in neonates with dysphagia and the impact of multidisciplinary feeding strategy. Methods Twenty dysphagic neonates (mean gestation ± standard deviation [SD] = 30.9 ± 4.9 weeks; median 31.1 weeks; range = 23.7–38.6 weeks) with abnormal VSS results were evaluated at 49.9 ± 16.5 weeks (median 41.36 weeks) postmenstrual age. The subjects underwent a swallow-integrated pharyngoesophageal motility assessment of basal and adaptive swallowing reflexes using a micromanometry catheter and pneumohydraulic water perfusion system. Based on observations during the motility study, multidisciplinary feeding strategies were applied and included postural adaptation, sensory modification, hunger manipulation, and operant conditioning methods. To discriminate pharyngoesophageal manometry correlates between oral feeders and tube feeders, data were stratified based on the primary feeding method at discharge, oral feeding versus tube feeding. Results At discharge, 15 of 20 dysphagic neonates achieved oral feeding success, and the rest required chronic tube feeding. Pharyngoesophageal manometry correlates were significantly different (P dysphagia or its consequences. Manometry may be a better predictor than VSS in identifying patients who are likely to succeed in vigorous intervention programs. PMID:19179881

  13. Impact of Molecular Technologies on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Breeding Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is a major food and feed legume because of the high nutritional value of its seeds. The main objectives of faba bean breeding are to improve yield, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, seed quality and other agronomic traits. The partial cross-pollinated nature of faba bean introduces both challenges and opportunities for population development and breeding. Breeding methods that are applicable to self-pollinated crops or open-pollinated crops are not highly suitable for faba bean. However, traditional breeding methods such as recurrent mass selection have been established in faba bean and used successfully in breeding for resistance to diseases. Molecular breeding strategies that integrate the latest innovations in genetics and genomics with traditional breeding strategies have many potential applications for future faba bean cultivar development. Hence, considerable efforts have been undertaken in identifying molecular markers, enriching genetic and genomic resources using high-throughput sequencing technologies and improving genetic transformation techniques in faba bean. However, the impact of research on practical faba bean breeding and cultivar release to farmers has been limited due to disconnects between research and breeding objectives and the high costs of research and implementation. The situation with faba bean is similar to other small crops and highlights the need for coordinated, collaborative research programs that interact closely with commercially focused breeding programs to ensure that technologies are implemented effectively.

  14. Effective Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Public Health Impacts of Heatwaves for Brookline, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalzadeh Fard, B.; Hassanzadeh, H.; Bhatia, U.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Studies on urban areas show a significant increase in frequency and intensity of heatwaves over the past decades, and predict the same trend for future. Since heatwaves have been responsible for a large number of life losses, urgent adaptation and mitigation strategies are required in the policy and decision making level for a sustainable urban planning. The Sustainability and Data Sciences Laboratory at Northeastern University, under the aegis of Thriving Earth Exchange of AGU, is working with the town of Brookline to understand the potential public health impacts of anticipated heatwaves. We consider the most important social and physical factors to obtain vulnerability and exposure parameters for each census block group of the town. Utilizing remote sensing data, we locate Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) during a recent heatwave event, as the hazard parameter. We then create priority risk map using the risk framework. Our analyses show spatial correlations between the UHIs and social factors such as poverty, and physical factors such as land cover variations. Furthermore, we investigate the future heatwave frequency and intensity increases by analyzing the climate models predictions. For future changes of UHIs, land cover changes are investigated using available predictive data. Also, socioeconomic predictions are carried out to complete the futuristic models of heatwave risks. Considering plausible scenarios for Brookline, we develop different risk maps based on the vulnerability, exposure and hazard parameters. Eventually, we suggest guidelines for Heatwave Action Plans for prioritizing effective mitigation and adaptation strategies in urban planning for the town of Brookline.

  15. The impact of translucent fabric shades and control strategies on energy savings and visual quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankanapon, Pimonmart

    Translucent fabric shades provide opportunities for building occupants to control sunlight penetration for heat reduction, thermal comfort, and visual quality. Regulating shades affects building energy and can potentially reduce the size of mechanical cooling systems. Shades are not normally included in energy model studies during the design process, even though shades potential impact energy use. This is because the occupants normally leave shades closed a large fraction of the time, but models are generally performed with no shades. Automatic shade control is now available, so it is necessary to understand the impact of shades on visual quality and their energy saving potential in order to optimize their overall performance. There are very limited studies that have address shades and their integrated performance on energy consumption and visual quality. Most of these do not reflected modern shade types and their application. The goals of this study are: First, to determine the impact of shades on total, heating, cooling and lighting energy savings with different design and operation parameters. Second, to study and develop different automatic shade control strategies to promote and optimize energy savings and visual quality. A simulation-based approach using EnergyPlus in a parametric study provide better understanding energy savings under different shade conditions. The parametric runs addressed various building parameters such as geometry, orientation, site climate, glazing/shade properties, and shade control strategies with integrated lighting control. The impact of shades was determined for total building and space heating, cooling and lighting energy savings. The effect of shades on visual quality was studied using EnergyPlus, AGI32 and DAYSIM for several indices such as daylight glare index (DGI), work plane illuminance, luminance ratios and view. Different shade control strategies and integrated lighting control were considered with two translucent fabric

  16. How drug life-cycle management patent strategies may impact formulary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jan; Dunn, Jeffrey D; Johnson, Margaret M; Karst, Kurt R; Shear, W Chad

    2016-10-01

    Drug manufacturers may employ various life-cycle management patent strategies, which may impact managed care decision making regarding formulary planning and management strategies when single-source, branded oral pharmaceutical products move to generic status. Passage of the Hatch-Waxman Act enabled more rapid access to generic medications through the abbreviated new drug application process. Patent expirations of small-molecule medications and approvals of generic versions have led to substantial cost savings for health plans, government programs, insurers, pharmacy benefits managers, and their customers. However, considering that the cost of developing a single medication is estimated at $2.6 billion (2013 dollars), pharmaceutical patent protection enables companies to recoup investments, creating an incentive for innovation. Under current law, patent protection holds for 20 years from time of patent filing, although much of this time is spent in product development and regulatory review, leaving an effective remaining patent life of 7 to 10 years at the time of approval. To extend the product life cycle, drug manufacturers may develop variations of originator products and file for patents on isomers, metabolites, prodrugs, new drug formulations (eg, extended-release versions), and fixed-dose combinations. These additional patents and the complexities surrounding the timing of generic availability create challenges for managed care stakeholders attempting to gauge when generics may enter the market. An understanding of pharmaceutical patents and how intellectual property protection may be extended would benefit managed care stakeholders and help inform decisions regarding benefit management.

  17. The impact of demand side management strategies in the penetration of renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, André; Silva, Carlos; Ferrão, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    High fuel costs, increasing energy security and concerns with reducing emissions have pushed governments to invest in the use of renewable energies for electricity generation. However, the intermittence of most renewable resources when renewable energy provides a significant share of the energy mix can create problems to electricity grids, which can be minimized by energy storage systems that are usually not available or expensive. An alternative solution consists on the use of demand side management strategies, which can have the double effect of reducing electricity consumption and allowing greater efficiency and flexibility in the grid management, namely by enabling a better match between supply and demand. This work analyzes the impact of demand side management strategies in the evolution of the electricity mix of Flores Island in the Azores archipelago which is characterized by high shares of renewable energy and therefore the introduction of more renewable energy sources makes it an interesting case study for testing innovative solutions. The electricity generation system is modeled in TIMES, a software which optimizes the investment and operation of wind and hydro plants until 2020 based on scenarios for demand growth, deployment of demand response technologies in the domestic sector and promotion of behavioral changes to eliminate standby power. The results show that demand side management strategies can lead to a significant delay in the investment on new generation capacity from renewable resources and improve the operation of the existing installed capacity. -- Highlights: ► Energy efficiency can help reduce the need for investment in more renewable energy. ► Dynamic demand helps increase the use of renewable energy in low demand periods. ► Around 40% of total consumption by domestic appliances is used as dynamic demand. ► The load of domestic appliances is mainly shifted to the 5:00 to 9:00 period.

  18. Reviewing the impact of organisational factors on nuclear power plants safety. A Spanish research initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, R.; Garces, M.I.; Vaquero, C.; Sendio, F.; De la Cal, C.; Villadoniga, J.I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the Spanish R and D project 'Development of methods to evaluate and model the impact of organisation on nuclear power plants safety' framed in an specific agreement among UNESA (Association of Spanish Utilities), CSN (Spanish Nuclear Safety Council) and CIEMAT (Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology), being this last one the institution in charge of the development of the research activities. The main goal of the proposed project is to increase the knowledge related the way nuclear power plants organise and manage their activities to enhance safety. This goal will be achieved through three perspectives: the development of preventive and corrective methodologies and the development of models to incorporate the organisation and management in the probabilistic safety assessment, PSA. (author)

  19. Systems dynamics (SD) strategy for Small Modular Reactor (SMR) marketing - Conquest at the MIT Energy Laboratory (Pres. MIT Energy Initiative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, T. H. [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This reactor has the specification as the power is 330 MWt pressurized water reactor (PWR) with integral steam generators and advanced safety features. In the plant design, it is planned for electricity generation of 100 MWe and thermal applications of seawater desalination where the life span is a 60-year operation design and three-year refueling cycle. Regarding of the licensing, the standard design was approved from the Korean regulator in mid-2012 and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has a plan to build a demonstration plant to operate from 2017. According to the previous study of the marketing strategy of the Canadian small reactor, Safe LOW-POwer Kritical Experiment (SLOWPOKE) reactor had been investigated in 1988. Therefore, it is interesting to compare SMART and SLOWPOKE. In this work, it is to find out the strategy of the successful marketing of SMART and suggest continuous marketing prospects. There are specifications and parameters of SMART in Tables 1 and 2. The public acceptance (PA) had been studies as safety-public interpretation, SLOWPOKE safety-experience and process, and economics in the previous paper of the SLOWPOKE, which was about the marketing strategy for the commercial nuclear reactor. The highly cognitive networking based dynamical modeling was discussed where the system is treated by a complex and non-linear way. The linear networking of the interested issue was changed by the SD algorithm where the feedback and multiple connections are added to the original networking theory. The non-linear method has shown the complexity of the marketing strategy, especially for the NPP which is the very expensive and safety focused facility.

  20. Planning Strategies for Transportation Fuel Consumption Reduction: An Evaluation of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative’s Transportation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    illustrate alternatives to automobile travel to stakeholders. Specific strategic actions include promoting telecommuting , carpooling, and vanpooling...Systematics (2009), as well as Ewing et al (2007). VMT Reduction Strategies The HCEI advocates for promoting telecommuting , carpooling, and...Promote telecommuting Unknown; 1.4% Promote car- and van-pooling 2-5% Transit service studies TBD Quantify "true cost" of autos (parking fees) 2-12% VMT

  1. Systems dynamics (SD) strategy for Small Modular Reactor (SMR) marketing - Conquest at the MIT Energy Laboratory (Pres. MIT Energy Initiative)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, T. H.

    2016-01-01

    This reactor has the specification as the power is 330 MWt pressurized water reactor (PWR) with integral steam generators and advanced safety features. In the plant design, it is planned for electricity generation of 100 MWe and thermal applications of seawater desalination where the life span is a 60-year operation design and three-year refueling cycle. Regarding of the licensing, the standard design was approved from the Korean regulator in mid-2012 and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has a plan to build a demonstration plant to operate from 2017. According to the previous study of the marketing strategy of the Canadian small reactor, Safe LOW-POwer Kritical Experiment (SLOWPOKE) reactor had been investigated in 1988. Therefore, it is interesting to compare SMART and SLOWPOKE. In this work, it is to find out the strategy of the successful marketing of SMART and suggest continuous marketing prospects. There are specifications and parameters of SMART in Tables 1 and 2. The public acceptance (PA) had been studies as safety-public interpretation, SLOWPOKE safety-experience and process, and economics in the previous paper of the SLOWPOKE, which was about the marketing strategy for the commercial nuclear reactor. The highly cognitive networking based dynamical modeling was discussed where the system is treated by a complex and non-linear way. The linear networking of the interested issue was changed by the SD algorithm where the feedback and multiple connections are added to the original networking theory. The non-linear method has shown the complexity of the marketing strategy, especially for the NPP which is the very expensive and safety focused facility

  2. Differential Use of Learning Strategies in First-Year Higher Education: The Impact of Personality, Academic Motivation, and Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Coertjens, Liesje; Van Daal, Tine; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background. Although the evidence in support of the variability of students' learning strategies has expanded in recent years, less is known about the explanatory base of these individual differences in terms of the joint Influences of personal and contextual characteristics. Aims. Previous studies have often investigated how student learning is…

  3. The Coffs Harbour 'Our Living City Settlement Strategy' Health Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugwell, Andrew; Johnson, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The short report reviews an experience of conducting a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the local government context. The aim of this review was to identify if carrying out an HIA would result in recommendations that could influence council planning and help establish ongoing working relationships between North Coast Area Health Service (NCAHS) staff and the Coffs Harbour City Council. Methods: A process and impact evaluation was conducted on the Coffs Harbour 'Our Living City Settlement Strategy' HIA, which focused on the Coffs Harbour City Council's strategic planning document. Information gained through the evaluation was themed and the findings were reviewed against published information on HIA experience. Main findings: HIA has reported benefits for both the Coffs Harbour City Council and NCAHS as it provides a tool to address many of the issues facing these organisations. Local council has increasing responsibilities including the environment, housing and urban planning, which all have health implications. HIA has been demonstrated as an effective tool for NCAHS staff and the Coffs Harbour City Council to engage and build relationships, increase the understanding of all planning aspects related to health, and most importantly utilise evidence to inform decision making. Conclusion: HIA should be adopted as a key tool to facilitate effective working partnerships between organisations. Improved engagement, partnerships and use of evidence to produce shared outcomes can result from utilising this tool.

  4. Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Menon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Several short-lived pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the short-lived pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.

  5. Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Surabi; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Baum, E.; Doubleday, N.; Fiore, A.M.; Flanner, M.; Fridlind, A.; Garrett, T.J.; Koch, D.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D.; Stohl, A.; Warren, S.G.

    2007-09-24

    Several short-lived pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the short-lived pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.

  6. Middle manager involvement in strategy development in not-for profit organizations: the director of nursing perspective--how organizational structure impacts on the role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, M

    2004-01-01

    An attempt was made to link organizational structure and strategic management and, in the process, to identify how organizational structure impacts on the strategic management role of Directors of Nursing working in acute care hospitals in the Republic of Ireland. Directors of Nursing are recognized as holding a pivotal role in health care delivery. The need for their involvement in strategic management is acknowledged, yet it is not clear if this role is influenced by organizational structure. It is recognized that strategic involvement increases the likelihood that middle managers' initiatives will be in line with top management's concept of corporate strategy. The principal thesis is that organizational members will exercise a higher level of strategic consensus if they have been initially involved in the development of strategy. The study was undertaken in not-for-profit health service organizations, through a series of 25 semi-structured interviews with Directors of Nursing. The review of the literature was undertaken simultaneously with grounded theory analysis of the interviews. This research suggests that structure does impact on the role, conferring both positive benefits and negative consequences. Structure is identified in this study, in terms of organizational hierarchy, and the locus of control pertaining in each organization. Two predominating structure models are discussed and analysed.

  7. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B.; Smith, Ward N. [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Desjardins, Raymond L., E-mail: ray.desjardins@agr.gc.ca [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Worth, Devon E. [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Zentner, Robert [Swift Current Research Station, Swift Current, Saskatchewan S0E 1A0 (Canada); Malhi, Sukhdev S. [Melfort Research Farm, PO Box 1240, Melfort, Saskatchewan S0E 1A0 (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha{sup −1} decreased on average the emissions of N{sub 2}O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO{sub 2} emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact. - Highlights: • LCA was combined with DNDC model to estimate the GWP of a cropping system. • N{sub 2}O, NO and NH{sub 3} flux increased by 39% under the higher fertilizer rate. • A change from 75 to 50 kg N ha{sup −1} reduced the GWP per ha and GJ basis by 18%. • N{sub 2}O emissions contributed 67% to the overall GWP of the cropping system. • Small changes in N fertilizer can have a substantial environmental impact.

  8. Impact of Rocuronium and Succinylcholine on Sedation Initiation After Rapid Sequence Intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric G; Meier, Alex; Shirakbari, Alicia; Weant, Kyle; Baker Justice, Stephanie

    2015-07-01

    Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) involves a rapidly acting sedative plus a neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBA) to facilitate endotracheal intubation. Rocuronium and succinylcholine are NMBAs commonly used in RSI with drastically different durations of action. Evaluate whether patients receiving RSI with a longer-acting NMBA had a greater delay in sedation or analgesia than patients that received a short-acting NMBA. This was a retrospective review of patients presenting to the emergency department requiring endotracheal intubation. Exclusions included age rocuronium or succinylcholine. Secondary endpoints included hospital length of stay (HLOS), intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS), and impact of an emergency medicine pharmacist (EPh). A total 106 patients met inclusion criteria, 76 patients receiving rocuronium and 30 receiving succinylcholine. Mean time to sedation or analgesia was longer in the rocuronium group when compared to the succinylcholine group at 34 ± 36 min vs. 16 ± 21 min (p = 0.002). In the presence of an EPh, the mean time to sedation or analgesia was 20 ± 21 min, vs. 49 ± 45 min (p rocuronium in RSI had a significantly longer time to sedation or analgesia when compared to patients receiving succinylcholine. The presence of an EPh significantly decreased the time to administration of sedation or analgesia after RSI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Initial assessment of intrinsic and assisted bioremediation potential for diesel fuel impacted soils at Eureka, NWT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J. J.; Yeske, B.; Lee, D.; Nahir, M.

    1999-01-01

    Two diesel fuel-impacted soil columns prepared to simulate in situ conditions for assessing intrinsic bioremediation were studied. The samples were from Eureka in the Northwest Territories. Two soil jars that were mixed periodically to simulate the ex situ land treatment bioremediation option, were also part of the treatability study. Results strongly suggest that bioremediation at Eureka is a viable option, although the slow rate of biodegradation and the short operating season will necessitate treatment over several years to achieve the remediation endpoint. The intrinsic bioremediation process can be accelerated using periodic addition of a water soluble nitrogen fertilizer, as shown by the nitrogen-amended soil column test. Ex situ bioremediation also appears to be possible judged by the response of the natural bacterial population to periodic mixing and oxygen uptake at 5 degrees C. The principal challenge will be to adequately mix the soil at the surface and to prevent it from drying out. The addition of organic bulking material may be required. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  10. Impact of attenuation correction strategies on the quantification of High Resolution Research Tomograph PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velden, Floris H P van; Kloet, Reina W; Berckel, Bart N M van; Molthoff, Carla F M; Jong, Hugo W A M de; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the quantitative accuracy of different attenuation correction strategies presently available for the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT) was investigated. These attenuation correction methods differ in reconstruction and processing (segmentation) algorithms used for generating a μ-image from measured 2D transmission scans, an intermediate step in the generation of 3D attenuation correction factors. Available methods are maximum-a-posteriori reconstruction (MAP-TR), unweighted OSEM (UW-OSEM) and NEC-TR, which transforms sinogram values back to their noise equivalent counts (NEC) to restore Poisson distribution. All methods can be applied with or without μ-image segmentation. However, for MAP-TR a μ-histogram is a prior during reconstruction. All possible strategies were evaluated using phantoms of various sizes, simulating preclinical and clinical situations. Furthermore, effects of emission contamination of the transmission scan on the accuracy of various attenuation correction strategies were studied. Finally, the accuracy of various attenuation corrections strategies and its relative impact on the reconstructed activity concentration (AC) were evaluated using small animal and human brain studies. For small structures, MAP-TR with human brain priors showed smaller differences in μ-values for transmission scans with and without emission contamination (<8%) than the other methods (<26%). In addition, it showed best agreement with true AC (deviation <4.5%). A specific prior designed to take into account the presence of small animal fixation devices only very slightly improved AC precision to 4.3%. All methods scaled μ-values of a large homogeneous phantom to within 4% of the water peak, but MAP-TR provided most accurate AC after reconstruction. However, for clinical data MAP-TR using the default prior settings overestimated the thickness of the skull, resulting in overestimations of μ-values in regions near the skull and thus in incorrect

  11. Prognostic impact of metastatic pattern in stage IV breast cancer at initial diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Bernardo Amadeo; Vallejo, Carlos Teodoro; Romero, Alberto Omar; Machiavelli, Mario Raúl; Pérez, Juan Eduardo; Leone, Julieta; Leone, José Pablo

    2017-02-01

    To analyze the prognostic influence of metastatic pattern (MP) compared with other biologic and clinical factors in stage IV breast cancer at initial diagnosis (BCID) and evaluate factors associated with specific sites of metastases (SSM). We evaluated women with stage IV BCID with known metastatic sites, reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program from 2010 to 2013. MP was categorized as bone-only, visceral, bone and visceral (BV), and other. Univariate and multivariate analyses determined the effects of each variable on overall survival (OS). Logistic regression examined factors associated with SSM. We included 9143 patients. Bone represented 37.5% of patients, visceral 21.9%, BV 28.8%, and other 11.9%. Median OS by MP was as follows: bone 38 months, visceral 21 months, BV 19 months, and other 33 months (P < 0.0001). Univariate analysis showed that higher number of metastatic sites had worse prognosis. In multivariate analysis, older age (hazard ratio 1.9), black race (hazard ratio 1.17), grade 3/4 tumors (hazard ratio 1.6), triple-negative (hazard ratio 2.24), BV MP (hazard ratio 2.07), and unmarried patients (hazard ratio 1.25) had significantly shorter OS. As compared with HR+/HER2- tumors, triple-negative and HR-/HER2+ had higher odds of brain, liver, lung, and other metastases. HR+/HER2+ had higher odds of liver metastases. All three subtypes had lower odds of bone metastases. There were substantial differences in OS according to MP. Tumor subtypes have a clear influence among other factors on SSM. We identified several prognostic factors that could guide therapy selection in treatment naïve patients.

  12. The impact of the board's strategy-setting role on board-management relations and hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Vera Antonia; Schreyögg, Jonas; Schultz, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The appropriate governance of hospitals largely depends on effective cooperation between governing boards and hospital management. Governing boards play an important role in strategy-setting as part of their support for hospital management. However, in certain situations, this active strategic role may also generate discord within this relationship. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of the roles, attributes, and processes of governing boards on hospital performance. We examine the impact of the governing board's strategy-setting role on board-management collaboration quality and on financial performance while also analyzing the interaction effects of board diversity and board activity level. The data are derived from a survey that was sent simultaneously to German hospitals and their associated governing board, combined with objective performance information from annual financial statements and quality reports. We use a structural equation modeling approach to test the model. The results indicate that different board characteristics have a significant impact on hospital performance (R = .37). The strategy-setting role and board-management collaboration quality have a positive effect on hospital performance, whereas the impact of strategy-setting on collaboration quality is negative. We find that the positive effect of strategy-setting on performance increases with decreasing board diversity. When board members have more homogeneous backgrounds and exhibit higher board activity levels, the negative effect of the strategy-setting on collaboration quality also increases. Active strategy-setting by a governing board may generally improve hospital performance. Diverse members of governing boards should be involved in strategy-setting for hospitals. However, high board-management collaboration quality may be compromised if managerial autonomy is too highly restricted. Consequently, hospitals should support board-management collaboration about

  13. Impact of external knowledge acquisition strategies on innovation: a comparative study based on Dutch and Swiss panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Arvanitis, S.; Lokshin, B.; Mohnen, P.; Wörter, M.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that firms increasingly adopt open innovation practices. In this paper we investigate the impact of two such external knowledge acquisition strategies, ‘buy’ and ‘cooperate’, on firm’s product innovation performance. Taking a direct (productivity)approach, we test for complementarity effects in the simultaneous use of the two strategies, and in the intensity of their use. Our results based on large panels of Dutch and Swiss innovating firms, suggest that while both ‘...

  14. The psychological impact of IVF failure after two or more cycles of IVF with a mild versus standard treatment strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Klerk, Cora; Macklon, Nick; Heijnen, E.M.; Eijkemans, René; Fauser, Bart; Passchier, Jan; Hunfeld, Joke

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Failure of IVF treatment after a number of cycles can be devastating for couples. Although mild IVF strategies reduce the psychological burden of treatment, failure may cause feelings of regret that a more aggressive approach, including the transfer of two embryos, was not employed. In this study, the impact of treatment failure after two or more cycles on stress was studied, following treatment with a mild versus a standard treatment strategy. Methods: Randomized cont...

  15. The impact of a workplace catering initiative on dietary intakes of salt and other nutrients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geaney, F; Harrington, J; Fitzgerald, Ap; Perry, Ij

    2011-08-01

    Owing to modern lifestyles, individuals are dependent on out-of-home eating. The catering sector can have a pivotal role in influencing our food choices. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of a structured catering initiative on food choices in a public sector workplace setting. A cross-sectional comparison study in two hospitals, one of which had implemented a catering initiative designed to provide nutritious food while reducing sugar, fat and salt intakes. Two public sector hospitals in Cork, Ireland. A total of 100 random participants aged 18-64 years (fifty intervention, fifty non-intervention) who consumed at least one main meal in the hospital staff canteen daily. Each respondent was asked to complete one anonymous 24 h dietary recall and questionnaire. Food and nutrient analysis was conducted using WISP (Weighed Intake Software Program). Reported mean intakes of total sugars (P catering initiatives in the workplace are a potentially important option in the promotion of healthy food choices. Targeted public health programmes and health policy changes are needed to motivate caterers in the public sector and other industries to develop interventions that promote a healthy diet.

  16. Using Twitter™ to drive research impact: A discussion of strategies, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Katy; Davies, Nigel; Ross, Fiona; Harris, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Researchers have always recognised the importance of disseminating the findings of their work, however, recently the need to proactively plan and drive the impact of those findings on the wider society has become a necessity. Firstly, this is because funders require evidence of return from investment and secondly and crucially because national research assessments are becoming powerful determinants of future funding. In research studies associated with nursing, impact needs to be demonstrated by showing the effect on a range of stakeholders including service users, patients, carers, the nursing workforce and commissioners. Engaging these groups is a well-known challenge influenced by lack of access to academic journals, lack of time to read long complex research papers and lack of opportunities to interact directly with the researchers. This needs to be addressed urgently to enable nursing research to increase the impact that it has on health delivery and the work of clinical practitioners. Social media is potentially a novel way of enabling research teams to both communicate about research as studies progress and to disseminate findings and research funders are increasingly using it to publicise information about research programmes and studies they fund. A search of the healthcare literature reveals that advice and guidance on the use of social media for research studies is not well understood or exploited by the research community. This paper, therefore, explores how using social networking platforms, notably Twitter™ offers potential new ways for communicating research findings, accessing diverse and traditionally hard-to-reach audiences, knowledge exchange at an exponential rate, and enabling new means of capturing and demonstrating research impact. The paper discusses approaches to initiate the setup of social networking platforms in research projects and considers the practical challenges of using Twitter™ in nursing and healthcare research. The

  17. Initial Impacts of the Mount Polley Tailings Pond Breach on Adjacent Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, Ellen; Gantner, Nikolaus; Albers, Sam; Owens, Philip

    2015-04-01

    . Notably, some of these fish provide food to recipients as diverse as aboriginal communities and large commercial markets embedded within a global marketplace. Moreover, metals can be accumulated in aquatic organisms, thus it is very important to understand its long-term biomagnification and potential health effects on organisms. We present initial findings from physical and chemical limnological early response-sampling and recommendations for future monitoring in the affected watershed.

  18. Impact of maternal and neonatal health initiatives on inequity in maternal health care utilization in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Mohammad Rifat; Rahman, Mohammad Masudur; Moinuddin, Md; Rahman, Ahmed Ehsanur; Ahmed, Shakil; Khan, M Mahmud

    2017-01-01

    Despite remarkable progress in maternal and child health, inequity persists in maternal care utilization in Bangladesh. Government of Bangladesh (GOB) with technical assistance from United Nation Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nation Children's Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO) started implementing Maternal and Neonatal Health Initiatives in selected districts of Bangladesh (MNHIB) in 2007 with an aim to reduce inequity in healthcare utilization. This study examines the effect of MNHIB on inequity in maternal care utilization. Two surveys were carried out in four districts in Bangladesh- baseline in 2008 and end-line in 2013. The baseline survey collected data from 13,206 women giving birth in the preceding year and in end-line 7,177 women were interviewed. Inequity in maternal healthcare utilization was calculated pre and post-MNHIB using rich-to-poor ratio and concentration index. Mean age of respondents were 23.9 and 24.6 years in 2008 and 2013 respectively. Utilization of pregnancy-related care increased for all socioeconomic strata between these two surveys. The concentration indices (CI) for various maternal health service utilization in 2013 were found to be lower than the indices in 2008. However, in comparison to contemporary BDHS data in nearby districts, MNHIB was successful in reducing inequity in receiving ANC from a trained provider (CI: 0.337 and 0.272), institutional delivery (CI: 0.435 in 2008 to 0.362 in 2013), and delivery by skilled personnel (CI: 0.396 and 0.370). Overall use of maternal health care services increased in post-MNHIB year compared to pre-MNHIB year and inequity in maternal service utilization declined for three indicators out of six considered in the paper. The reductions in CI values for select maternal care indicators imply that the program has been successful not only in improving utilization of maternal health services but also in lowering inequality of service utilization across socioeconomic groups

  19. Impact of analgesics on executive function and memory in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Lisa; Choi, Daniel; Kline, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Pain is common in older adults but may be undertreated in part due to concerns about medication toxicity. Analgesics may affect cognition. In this retrospective cohort study, we used the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database to examine the interaction of cognitive status and medications, especially non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We hypothesized NSAID use would be associated with cognition and that this could be mediated through changes in brain structure. In this post hoc analysis of the ADNI database, subjects were selected by searching the "concurrent medications log" for analgesic medications. Subjects were included if the analgesic was listed on the medication log prior to enrollment in ADNI and throughout the study. Subjects taking analgesics, particularly NSAIDs, at each study visit were compared to control subjects taking no analgesics. Using descriptive statistics as well as univariate, multivariate and repeated measure ANOVA, we explored the relationship between NSAID use and scores for executive function and memory related cognitive activities. We further took advantage of the extensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data available in ADNI to test whether cognitive change was associated with brain structure. The multitude of imaging variables was compressed into a small number of features (five eigenvectors (EV)) using principal component analysis. There were 87 NSAID users, 373 controls, and 71 taking other analgesics. NSAID use was associated with higher executive function scores for cognitively normal (NL) subjects as well as subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). NSAID use was also associated with higher memory scores, but for NL females only. We analysed MRI data using principal component analysis to generate a set of five EVs. Examining NL and MCI subjects, one EV had significantly larger values in subjects taking NSAIDs versus control. This EV was one of two EVs which significantly correlated with

  20. Impact of Conflict Management Strategies on the Generation Mechanism of Miners' Unsafe Behavior Tendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Zu; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Yao-Long; Wang, Tian-Ri

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between the generation mechanism of miners' unsafe behavior tendency and conflict management strategies, including cooperative conflict management strategy, competitive conflict management strategy and avoidant conflict management strategy. Miners from 3 collieries in Shanxi province completed a…

  1. Accelerating Research Impact in a Learning Health Care System: VA's Quality Enhancement Research Initiative in the Choice Act Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Amy M; Elwy, A Rani; Sales, Anne E; Atkins, David

    2017-07-01

    Since 1998, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) has supported more rapid implementation of research into clinical practice. With the passage of the Veterans Access, Choice and Accountability Act of 2014 (Choice Act), QUERI further evolved to support VHA's transformation into a Learning Health Care System by aligning science with clinical priority goals based on a strategic planning process and alignment of funding priorities with updated VHA priority goals in response to the Choice Act. QUERI updated its strategic goals in response to independent assessments mandated by the Choice Act that recommended VHA reduce variation in care by providing a clear path to implement best practices. Specifically, QUERI updated its application process to ensure its centers (Programs) focus on cross-cutting VHA priorities and specify roadmaps for implementation of research-informed practices across different settings. QUERI also increased funding for scientific evaluations of the Choice Act and other policies in response to Commission on Care recommendations. QUERI's national network of Programs deploys effective practices using implementation strategies across different settings. QUERI Choice Act evaluations informed the law's further implementation, setting the stage for additional rigorous national evaluations of other VHA programs and policies including community provider networks. Grounded in implementation science and evidence-based policy, QUERI serves as an example of how to operationalize core components of a Learning Health Care System, notably through rigorous evaluation and scientific testing of implementation strategies to ultimately reduce variation in quality and improve overall population health.

  2. Planning for Increased Bioenergy use - Strategies for Minimising Environmental Impacts and Analysing the Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Anna

    2006-08-01

    There are several goals aimed at increasing the use of renewable energy in the Swedish energy system. Bioenergy is one important renewable energy source and there is a potential to increase its use in the future. This thesis aimed to develop and analyse strategies and tools that could be used when planning for conversion to bioenergy-based heating systems and the building of new residential areas with bioenergy-based heating. The goal was to enable the increase of bioenergy and simultaneously minimise the negative health effects caused by emissions associated with the combustion of bioenergy. The thesis consists of two papers. Paper I concerned existing residential areas and conversion from electric heating and individual heating systems, such as firewood and oil boilers, to more modern and low-emitting pellet techniques and small-scale district heating. Paper II concerned new residential areas and how to integrate bioenergy-based heating systems that cause impacts on local air quality into the physical planning process through using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and a meteorological dispersion model, ALARM. The results from Paper I indicated that it was possible to convert areas currently using electric heating to pellet techniques and small-scale district heating without degrading local air quality. Furthermore, it was possible to decrease high emissions caused by firewood boilers by replacing them with pellet boilers. The results from Paper II highlighted that GIS and ALARM were advantageous for analysing local air quality characteristics when planning for new residential areas and before a residential area is built: thus, avoiding negative impacts caused by bioenergy-based combustion. In conclusion, the work procedures developed in this thesis can be used to counteract negative impacts on local air quality with increasing use of bioenergy in the heating system. Analysis of potentially negative aspects before conversion to bioenergy-based heating

  3. Impact of educational strategies in positioning Samarium-153 EDTMP as a treatment for metastatic bone pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminario, C.; Morales, R.; Castro, M.; Cano, R.A.; Mendoza, G.

    2005-01-01

    , which has finished in December 2004. Three television spots were delivered to public: 'Hello, Doctor', which has a morning audience and in two interviews in news programs, with high rating performance. Five interviews were given in radio programs, one of them was for a feminine audience, three for general public and the other two with national impact. In every program a web page, an e-mail and a telephone number were given for consultation. In Nuclear Medicine Centers in Lima telephone calls have been received since the beginning of the campaign every day, up to date. In a year, a monthly conference was delivered to physicians. Samarium EDTMP treatment increased substantially after the campaign. The more significant means in mass media for changing management were patient education, continuous meetings with specialists and one of the television spots used ('Hello, doctor'), which continues to be delivered in the closed circuit TV network of the social security system. We conclude that repetitive educational strategies have a positive impact in delivering radiopharmaceuticals for bone pain palliation to patients with bone metastases

  4. Diagnosing climate change impacts and identifying adaptation strategies by involving key stakeholder organisations and farmers in Sikkim, India: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhoni, Adani; Goyal, Manish Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Narrowing the gap between research, policy making and implementing adaptation remains a challenge in many parts of the world where climate change is likely to severely impact water security. This research aims to narrow this gap by matching the adaptation strategies being framed by policy makers to that of the perspectives of development agencies, researchers and farmers in the Himalayan state of Sikkim in India. Our case study examined the perspectives of various stakeholders for climate change impacts, current adaptation strategies, knowledge gaps and adaptation barriers, particularly in the context of implementing the Sikkim State Action Plan on Climate Change through semi-structured interviews carried out with decision makers in the Sikkim State Government, researchers, consultants, local academia, development agencies and farmers. Using Stakeholders Network Analysis tools, this research unravels the complexities of perceiving climate change impacts, identifying strategies, and implementing adaptation. While farmers are less aware about the global phenomenon of climate change impacts for water security, their knowledge of the local conditions and their close interaction with the State Government Agriculture Department provides them opportunities. Although important steps are being initiated through the Sikkim State Action Plan on Climate Change it is yet to deliver effective means of adaptation implementation and hence, strengthening the networks of close coordination between the various implementing agencies will pay dividends. Knowledge gaps and the need for capacity building identified in this research, based on the understandings of key stakeholders are highly relevant to both the research community and for informing policy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Small-scale bioenergy initiatives: brief description and preliminary lessons on livelihood impacts from case studies in Asia, Latin America and Afica. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    Fifteen case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America were undertaken to assess the impacts that different types of local-level bioenergy initiatives can have on rural livelihoods. The report concludes with preliminary lessons and recommendations for further work.

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance: Its Surveillance, Impact, and Alternative Management Strategies in Dairy Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Rokana, Namita; Chandra, Mudit; Singh, Brij Pal; Gulhane, Rohini Devidas; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh; Ray, Pallab; Puniya, Anil Kumar; Panwar, Harsh

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), one among the most common priority areas identified by both national and international agencies, is mushrooming as a silent pandemic. The advancement in public health care through introduction of antibiotics against infectious agents is now being threatened by global development of multidrug-resistant strains. These strains are product of both continuous evolution and un-checked antimicrobial usage (AMU). Though antibiotic application in livestock has largely contributed toward health and productivity, it has also played significant role in evolution of resistant strains. Although, a significant emphasis has been given to AMR in humans, trends in animals, on other hand, are not much emphasized. Dairy farming involves surplus use of antibiotics as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. This non-therapeutic application of antibiotics, their dosage, and withdrawal period needs to be re-evaluated and rationally defined. A dairy animal also poses a serious risk of transmission of resistant strains to humans and environment. Outlining the scope of the problem is necessary for formulating and monitoring an active response to AMR. Effective and commendably connected surveillance programs at multidisciplinary level can contribute to better understand and minimize the emergence of resistance. Besides, it requires a renewed emphasis on investments into research for finding alternate, safe, cost effective, and innovative strategies, parallel to discovery of new antibiotics. Nevertheless, numerous direct or indirect novel approaches based on host–microbial interaction and molecular mechanisms of pathogens are also being developed and corroborated by researchers to combat the threat of resistance. This review places a concerted effort to club the current outline of AMU and AMR in dairy animals; ongoing global surveillance and monitoring programs; its impact at animal human interface; and strategies for combating resistance with an extensive

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance: Its Surveillance, Impact, and Alternative Management Strategies in Dairy Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Rokana, Namita; Chandra, Mudit; Singh, Brij Pal; Gulhane, Rohini Devidas; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh; Ray, Pallab; Puniya, Anil Kumar; Panwar, Harsh

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), one among the most common priority areas identified by both national and international agencies, is mushrooming as a silent pandemic. The advancement in public health care through introduction of antibiotics against infectious agents is now being threatened by global development of multidrug-resistant strains. These strains are product of both continuous evolution and un-checked antimicrobial usage (AMU). Though antibiotic application in livestock has largely contributed toward health and productivity, it has also played significant role in evolution of resistant strains. Although, a significant emphasis has been given to AMR in humans, trends in animals, on other hand, are not much emphasized. Dairy farming involves surplus use of antibiotics as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. This non-therapeutic application of antibiotics, their dosage, and withdrawal period needs to be re-evaluated and rationally defined. A dairy animal also poses a serious risk of transmission of resistant strains to humans and environment. Outlining the scope of the problem is necessary for formulating and monitoring an active response to AMR. Effective and commendably connected surveillance programs at multidisciplinary level can contribute to better understand and minimize the emergence of resistance. Besides, it requires a renewed emphasis on investments into research for finding alternate, safe, cost effective, and innovative strategies, parallel to discovery of new antibiotics. Nevertheless, numerous direct or indirect novel approaches based on host-microbial interaction and molecular mechanisms of pathogens are also being developed and corroborated by researchers to combat the threat of resistance. This review places a concerted effort to club the current outline of AMU and AMR in dairy animals; ongoing global surveillance and monitoring programs; its impact at animal human interface; and strategies for combating resistance with an extensive

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance: Its Surveillance, Impact, and Alternative Management Strategies in Dairy Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR, one among the most common priority areas identified by both national and international agencies, is mushrooming as a silent pandemic. The advancement in public health care through introduction of antibiotics against infectious agents is now being threatened by global development of multidrug-resistant strains. These strains are product of both continuous evolution and un-checked antimicrobial usage (AMU. Though antibiotic application in livestock has largely contributed toward health and productivity, it has also played significant role in evolution of resistant strains. Although, a significant emphasis has been given to AMR in humans, trends in animals, on other hand, are not much emphasized. Dairy farming involves surplus use of antibiotics as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. This non-therapeutic application of antibiotics, their dosage, and withdrawal period needs to be re-evaluated and rationally defined. A dairy animal also poses a serious risk of transmission of resistant strains to humans and environment. Outlining the scope of the problem is necessary for formulating and monitoring an active response to AMR. Effective and commendably connected surveillance programs at multidisciplinary level can contribute to better understand and minimize the emergence of resistance. Besides, it requires a renewed emphasis on investments into research for finding alternate, safe, cost effective, and innovative strategies, parallel to discovery of new antibiotics. Nevertheless, numerous direct or indirect novel approaches based on host–microbial interaction and molecular mechanisms of pathogens are also being developed and corroborated by researchers to combat the threat of resistance. This review places a concerted effort to club the current outline of AMU and AMR in dairy animals; ongoing global surveillance and monitoring programs; its impact at animal human interface; and strategies for combating resistance

  9. Qualitative interviews with mentor mothers living with HIV: potential impacts of role and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhlamini, Lebohang; Knight, Lucia; van Rooyen, Heidi; van Heerden, Alastair; Jane Rotheram-Borus, Mary

    2012-07-11

    In South Africa where HIV prevalence is high, mentor mother programmes have been used to promote the health and wellbeing of women enrolled in government programmes preventing vertical transmission. The Masihambisane Project trained mentors to be educators and facilitators as "expert patients" in self-help groups. While this and other similar interventions demonstrate positive outcomes for mothers and their children, the long-term repercussions for mentors delivering the intervention are seldom considered. This article explores the personal impact of being a mentor, the potentially traumatizing effects of repeatedly sharing their experiences of living with HIV and the coping strategies they adopt. Towards the end of the Masihambisane intervention, 10 semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with locally recruited mentors living with HIV and were thematically analysed. Mentors found the repeated telling of their stories a painful reminder of adverse personal experiences. In some cases, retelling caused a physical reaction. Mentors relied on coping strategies like taking breaks, writing their experiences down and debriefing sessions. Despite the difficulties associated with their role, some mentors found being advisors and the group sessions therapeutic and empowering. These findings indicate that the inclusion of peer mentors comes with certain responsibilities. While the mentors were resilient and some found the experience therapeutic and empowering found creative ways to cope with secondary trauma, the negative implications cannot be ignored. To effectively deliver a mentor-driven intervention to mothers enrolled in a programme to prevent vertical transmission, the possibilities of secondary trauma should be considered and mentors provided with ongoing counselling, training on coping skills and regular debriefing sessions.

  10. Impact of Guided Reflection with Peers on the Development of Effective Problem Solving Strategies and Physics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-05-01

    Students must learn effective problem solving strategies in order to develop expertise in physics. Effective problem solving strategies include a conceptual analysis of the problem followed by planning of the solution, and then implementation, evaluation, and reflection upon the process. Research suggests that converting a problem from the initial verbal representation to other suitable representation, e.g., diagrammatic representation, during the initial conceptual analysis can facilitate further analysis of the problem. But without guidance, many introductory physics students solve problems using superficial clues and cues and do not perceive problem solving as an opportunity for learning. Here, we describe a study that suggests that engaging students in reflection with peers about effective problem solving strategies while effective approaches are modeled for them and prompt feedback is provided may enhance desirable skills.

  11. Redundancy in electronic health record corpora: analysis, impact on text mining performance and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raphael; Elhadad, Michael; Elhadad, Noémie

    2013-01-16

    The increasing availability of Electronic Health Record (EHR) data and specifically free-text patient notes presents opportunities for phenotype extraction. Text-mining methods in particular can help disease modeling by mapping named-entities mentions to terminologies and clustering semantically related terms. EHR corpora, however, exhibit specific statistical and linguistic characteristics when compared with corpora in the biomedical literature domain. We focus on copy-and-paste redundancy: clinicians typically copy and paste information from previous notes when documenting a current patient encounter. Thus, within a longitudinal patient record, one expects to observe heavy redundancy. In this paper, we ask three research questions: (i) How can redundancy be quantified in large-scale text corpora? (ii) Conventional wisdom is that larger corpora yield better results in text mining. But how does the observed EHR redundancy affect text mining? Does such redundancy introduce a bias that distorts learned models? Or does the redundancy introduce benefits by highlighting stable and important subsets of the corpus? (iii) How can one mitigate the impact of redundancy on text mining? We analyze a large-scale EHR corpus and quantify redundancy both in terms of word and semantic concept repetition. We observe redundancy levels of about 30% and non-standard distribution of both words and concepts. We measure the impact of redundancy on two standard text-mining applications: collocation identification and topic modeling. We compare the results of these methods on synthetic data with controlled levels of redundancy and observe significant performance variation. Finally, we compare two mitigation strategies to avoid redundancy-induced bias: (i) a baseline strategy, keeping only the last note for each patient in the corpus; (ii) removing redundant notes with an efficient fingerprinting-based algorithm. (a)For text mining, preprocessing the EHR corpus with fingerprinting yields

  12. Impacts of Storm Surge Mitigation Strategies on Aboveground Storage Tank Chemical Spill Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, C.; Bass, B. J.; Bernier, C.; Samii, A.; Dawson, C.; Bedient, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Houston Ship Channel (HSC), located in the hurricane-prone Houston-Galveston region of the upper Texas Coast, is one of the busiest waterways in the United States and is home to one of the largest petrochemical complexes in the world. Due to the proximity of the HSC to Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, chemical spills resulting from storm surge damage to aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) pose serious threats to the environment, residential communities, and national/international markets whose activities in the HSC generate billions of dollars annually. In an effort to develop a comprehensive storm surge mitigation strategy for Galveston Bay and its constituents, Rice University's Severe Storm Prediction, Education, and Evacuation from Disasters Center proposed two structural storm surge mitigation concepts, the Mid Bay Structure (MBS) and the Lower Bay Structure (LBS) as components of the Houston-Galveston Area Protection System (H-GAPS) project. The MBS consists of levees along the HSC and a navigational gate across the channel, and the LBS consists of a navigation gate and environmental gates across Bolivar Road. The impacts of these two barrier systems on the fate of AST chemical spills in the HSC have previously been unknown. This study applies the coupled 2D SWAN+ADCIRC model to simulate hurricane storm surge circulation within the Gulf of Mexico and Galveston Bay due to a synthetic storm which results in approximately 250-year surge levels in Galveston Bay. The SWAN+ADCIRC model is run using high-resolution computational meshes that incorporate the MBS and LBS scenarios, separately. The resulting wind and water velocities are then fed into a Lagrangian particle transport model to simulate the spill trajectories of the ASTs most likely to fail during the 250-year proxy storm. Results from this study illustrate how each storm surge mitigation strategy impacts the transport of chemical spills (modeled as Lagrangian particles) during storm surge as

  13. Assessment of impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on maize production in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikoyo, Duncan A.; Nobert, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Globally, various climatic studies have estimated a reduction of crop yields due to changes in surface temperature and precipitation especially for the developing countries which is heavily dependent on agriculture and lacks resources to counter the negative effects of climate change. Uganda's economy and the wellbeing of its populace depend on rain-fed agriculture which is susceptible to climate change. This study quantified the impacts of climate change and variability in Uganda and how coping strategies can enhance crop production against climate change and/or variability. The study used statistical methods to establish various climate change and variability indicators across the country, and uses the FAO AquaCrop model to simulate yields under possible future climate scenarios with and without adaptation strategies. Maize, the most widely grown crop was used for the study. Meteorological, soil and crop data were collected for various districts representing the maize growing ecological zones in the country. Based on this study, it was found that temperatures have increased by up to 1 °C across much of Uganda since the 1970s, with rates of warming around 0.3 °C per decade across the country. High altitude, low rainfall regions experience the highest level of warming, with over 0.5 °C/decade recorded in Kasese. Rainfall is variable and does not follow a specific significant increasing or decreasing trend. For both future climate scenarios, Maize yields will reduce in excess of 4.7% for the fast warming-low rainfall climates but increase on average by 3.5% for slow warming-high rainfall regions, by 2050. Improved soil fertility can improve yields by over 50% while mulching and use of surface water management practices improve yields by single digit percentages. The use of fertilizer application needs to go hand in hand with other water management strategies since more yields as a result of the improved soil fertility leads to increased water stress, especially

  14. A narrative review of binge eating disorder in adolescence: prevalence, impact, and psychological treatment strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzilli, Eleonora; Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) represents one of the most problematic clinical conditions among youths. Research has shown that the developmental stage of adolescence is a critical stage for the onset of eating disorders (EDs), with a peak prevalence of BED at the age of 16–17 years. Several studies among adults with BED have underlined that it is associated with a broad spectrum of negative consequences, including higher concern about shape and weight, difficulties in social functioning, and emotional-behavioral problems. This review aimed to examine studies focused on the prevalence of BED in the adolescent population, its impact in terms of physical, social, and psychological outcomes, and possible strategies of psychological intervention. The review of international literature was made on paper material and electronic databases ProQuest, PsycArticles, and PsycInfo, and the Scopus index were used to verify the scientific relevance of the papers. Epidemiological research that examined the prevalence of BED in adolescent samples in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition showed a prevalence ranging from 1% to 4%. More recently, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of BED, in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria, reporting a prevalence of ~1%–5%. Studies that focused on the possible impact that BED may have on physical, psychological, and social functioning showed that adolescents with BED have an increased risk of developing various adverse consequences, including obesity, social problems, substance use, suicidality, and other psychological difficulties, especially in the internalizing area. Despite the evidence, to date, reviews on possible and effective psychological treatment for BED among young population are rare and focused primarily on adolescent females. PMID:29379325

  15. Alignment of business and information strategies and its impact on business performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Björn; Sudzina, Frantisek; Pucihar, Andreja

    2014-01-01

    people perceived their business strategy and information strategy to be aligned. Respondents’ statements from the questionnaire survey on their perceived alignment between business strategy and information strategy were checked against the firms’ revenue growth. The analysis of perceived alignment...... between business strategy, information strategy, and revenue growth shows that there is a significant relationship between alignment and revenue growth in Slovenia, and this link is positive. Managers should aim to align business and information strategies in order to achieve better business performance.......Alignment between business strategy and information strategy has been focused on for several years with research suggesting different explanations to how this alignment influences a firm’s performance. This article presents results from an investigation of firms in Slovenia about how business...

  16. Economic and energy impacts from participation in the regional greenhouse gas initiative: A case study of the State of Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, Matthias; Gabriel, Steven A.; Palmer, Karen L.; Burtraw, Dallas; Paul, Anthony; Chen, Yihsu; Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Irani, Daraius; Michael, Jeffrey; Ross, Kim M.; Conklin, Russell; Miller, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Tradable emissions allowance systems to reduce carbon emissions are increasingly promoted as means to mitigate climate change. This paper briefly reviews the application of such systems at the global, regional, and corporate scales. Given the recent expansion of cap-and-trade systems at the regional level, the paper concentrates on energy and economic implications at that level, using the decision of the State of Maryland, USA, to join the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative as an illustration. The paper presents the results of an analysis of the implications for technology choice, generation capacity, energy reliability, and cost to ratepayers of that decision, combining a national electricity market model with a regional model that includes market power and an economic impact model. The results suggest several issues that will be key to the acceptability and effectiveness of cap-and-trade systems for regional climate change mitigation policy, including rules for distribution of allowances and subsidies for energy efficiency programs. (author)

  17. Economic and energy impacts from participation in the regional greenhouse gas initiative: A case study of the State of Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Matthias [Center for Integrative Environmental Research, Division of Research, University of Maryland, 2101 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Environmental Policy Program, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, MD (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, A. James Clark School of Engineering, University of Maryland, MD (United States); Gabriel, Steven A. [Center for Integrative Environmental Research, Division of Research, University of Maryland, 2101 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, A. James Clark School of Engineering, University of Maryland, MD (United States); Applied Mathematics and Scientific Computation Program, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD (United States); Palmer, Karen L.; Burtraw, Dallas; Paul, Anthony [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States); Chen, Yihsu [School of Engineering, Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts, University of California, Merced, CA (United States); Hobbs, Benjamin F. [Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, MD (United States); Irani, Daraius [Regional Economic Studies Institute, Towson University, Towson, Maryland, MD (United States); Michael, Jeffrey [Eberhardt School of Business, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States); Ross, Kim M. [Center for Integrative Environmental Research, Division of Research, University of Maryland, 2101 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Conklin, Russell; Miller, Julia [Center for Integrative Environmental Research, Division of Research, University of Maryland, 2101 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Environmental Policy Program, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, MD (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Tradable emissions allowance systems to reduce carbon emissions are increasingly promoted as means to mitigate climate change. This paper briefly reviews the application of such systems at the global, regional, and corporate scales. Given the recent expansion of cap-and-trade systems at the regional level, the paper concentrates on energy and economic implications at that level, using the decision of the State of Maryland, USA, to join the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative as an illustration. The paper presents the results of an analysis of the implications for technology choice, generation capacity, energy reliability, and cost to ratepayers of that decision, combining a national electricity market model with a regional model that includes market power and an economic impact model. The results suggest several issues that will be key to the acceptability and effectiveness of cap-and-trade systems for regional climate change mitigation policy, including rules for distribution of allowances and subsidies for energy efficiency programs. (author)

  18. Evaluating the impact of Internet provision on students' information-gathering strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Meek

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Universities may invest millions of pounds in the provision of computer hardware without ever seriously considering the educational results such investment may deliver. Equally, academics may be committed to the use of IT in teaching and learning because it is expected of them (cf. Dearing, 1997, and rarely give serious consideration to the impact which the effective use of IT may have on student learning (Lauillard, 1993. The use of the WWW to deliver material in support of university teaching is still in its infancy, yet already two distinct approaches to its use can be seen. The first approach uses the WWW passively to deliver existing lecture notes in a technologically impressive and, perhaps more importantly, highly convenient fashion. The second approach attempts to shape the material delivered to maximize the teaching and learning potential of the WWW and to develop students' skills in the use of the medium. But which approach works more effectively? And how does one balance the needs of an academic community pressured by the Research Assessment Exercise with the need to develop effective teaching and learning strategies which maximize the potential of IT for the academic community, for the students and for their future employers?

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of Unsteady Flow Fields and Impact of Measurement Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Misaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulty of data assimilation arises from a large difference between the sizes of a state vector to be determined, that is, the number of spatiotemporal mesh points of a discretized numerical model and a measurement vector, that is, the amount of measurement data. Flow variables on a large number of mesh points are hardly defined by spatiotemporally limited measurements, which poses an underdetermined problem. In this study we conduct the sensitivity analysis of two- and three-dimensional vortical flow fields within a framework of data assimilation. The impact of measurement strategy, which is evaluated by the sensitivity of the 4D-Var cost function with respect to measurements, is investigated to effectively determine a flow field by limited measurements. The assimilation experiment shows that the error defined by the difference between the reference and assimilated flow fields is reduced by using the sensitivity information to locate the limited number of measurement points. To conduct data assimilation for a long time period, the 4D-Var data assimilation and the sensitivity analysis are repeated with a short assimilation window.

  20. Coculture strategies in bone tissue engineering: the impact of culture conditions on pluripotent stem cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Sathyanarayana; Wang, Martha O; Fisher, John P

    2012-08-01

    The use of pluripotent stem cell populations for bone tissue regeneration provides many opportunities and challenges within the bone tissue engineering field. For example, coculture strategies have been utilized to mimic embryological development of bone tissue, and particularly the critical intercellular signaling pathways. While research in bone biology over the last 20 years has expanded our understanding of these intercellular signaling pathways, we still do not fully understand the impact of the system's physical characteristics (orientation, geometry, and morphology). This review of coculture literature delineates the various forms of coculture systems and their respective outcomes when applied to bone tissue engineering. To understand fully the key differences between the different coculture methods, we must appreciate the underlying paradigms of physiological interactions. Recent advances have enabled us to extrapolate these techniques to larger dimensions and higher geometric resolutions. Finally, the contributions of bioreactors, micropatterned biomaterials, and biomaterial interaction platforms are evaluated to give a sense of the sophistication established by a combination of these concepts with coculture systems.

  1. Impacts of calibration strategies and ensemble methods on ensemble flood forecasting over Lanjiang basin, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble flood forecasting driven by numerical weather prediction products is becoming more commonly used in operational flood forecasting applications.In this study, a hydrological ensemble flood forecasting system based on Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and quantitative precipitation forecasts from TIGGE dataset is constructed for Lanjiang Basin, Southeast China. The impacts of calibration strategies and ensemble methods on the performance of the system are then evaluated.The hydrological model is optimized by parallel programmed ɛ-NSGAII multi-objective algorithm and two respectively parameterized models are determined to simulate daily flows and peak flows coupled with a modular approach.The results indicatethat the ɛ-NSGAII algorithm permits more efficient optimization and rational determination on parameter setting.It is demonstrated that the multimodel ensemble streamflow mean have better skills than the best singlemodel ensemble mean (ECMWF) and the multimodel ensembles weighted on members and skill scores outperform other multimodel ensembles. For typical flood event, it is proved that the flood can be predicted 3-4 days in advance, but the flows in rising limb can be captured with only 1-2 days ahead due to the flash feature. With respect to peak flows selected by Peaks Over Threshold approach, the ensemble means from either singlemodel or multimodels are generally underestimated as the extreme values are smoothed out by ensemble process.

  2. The Impact of Trampling on Reef Macrobenthos in Northeastern Brazil: How Effective are Current Conservation Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Gleice S.; Burgos, Douglas C.; Lira, Simone M. A.; Schwamborn, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    Tropical reefs are used for intensive tourism in various parts of the world. However, few studies have investigated the effect of regular trampling on these fragile ecosystems. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different conservation strategies (open access, partial protection, and total long-term closure) on intertidal reef tops in Porto de Galinhas and Tamandaré, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Analysis of the macrobenthic community was performed with photo transects and image analysis (CPCe). Twenty-seven transects were surveyed from January to August 2012, in intensively impacted (I) open-access sites, in partially protected (P) sites with occasional, illegal trampling, and in a permanently closed (C) site. In I sites, total live cover was half the cover found in adjacent P sites. The area of bare rock averaged 53.6 and 25.0 % in I and P sites, respectively. In the C site, the area of bare rock was only 19.8 %. In I and P sites, macroalgae ( Palisada perforata) were dominating, while in the C site, the zoanthid Zoanthus sociatus was most abundant. Shell-bearing vermetids ( Petaloconchus varians) and bivalves ( Isognomon bicolor) were more abundant at the C site, being possible bioindicators for areas with zero or little trampling. Twelve years of total closure produced near-pristine communities in the C site, dominated by zoanthids and fragile mollusks. This study showed that trampling has severe and long-lasting consequences for the structure of these ecosystems.

  3. A narrative review of binge eating disorder in adolescence: prevalence, impact, and psychological treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzilli E

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleonora Marzilli,1 Luca Cerniglia,2 Silvia Cimino1 1Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, Psychology and Medicine Faculty, Sapienza – University of Rome, 2Department of Psychology, Psychology Faculty, International Telematic University Uninettuno, Rome, Italy Abstract: Binge eating disorder (BED represents one of the most problematic clinical conditions among youths. Research has shown that the developmental stage of adolescence is a critical stage for the onset of eating disorders (EDs, with a peak prevalence of BED at the age of 16–17 years. Several studies among adults with BED have underlined that it is associated with a broad spectrum of negative consequences, including higher concern about shape and weight, difficulties in social functioning, and emotional-behavioral problems. This review aimed to examine studies focused on the prevalence of BED in the adolescent population, its impact in terms of physical, social, and psychological outcomes, and possible strategies of psychological intervention. The review of international literature was made on paper material and electronic databases ProQuest, PsycArticles, and PsycInfo, and the Scopus index were used to verify the scientific relevance of the papers. Epidemiological research that examined the prevalence of BED in adolescent samples in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition showed a prevalence ranging from 1% to 4%. More recently, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of BED, in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria, reporting a prevalence of ~1%–5%. Studies that focused on the possible impact that BED may have on physical, psychological, and social functioning showed that adolescents with BED have an increased risk of developing various adverse consequences, including obesity, social problems, substance use, suicidality, and other psychological difficulties

  4. Environmental impact assessment of different end-of-life LCD management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Alessia; Rocchetti, Laura; Beolchini, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    The strong growth of the electrical and electronic equipment production combined with its short lifespan are causing the production of a significant amount of waste to treat. In particular, the present paper focuses on end-of-life liquid crystal displays (LCDs) for their significant content of valuable materials, like plastic, glass and metals that could be recovered after dismantling. In the recent literature, traditional LCD recycling processes are combined with innovative treatments, which allow to recover critical raw materials, such as indium. In this context, we have evaluated the environmental impact of four different strategies of end-of-life LCD management: the disposal in landfilling sites, the incineration, the traditional recycling treatment and an innovative process also addressed to the recovery of indium. The traditional recycling treatment resulted to be the best scenario for the environment. Indeed, a life cycle assessment study gave following environmental burdens (if negative they are credits): 18, 81, -68, -60kg CO 2 -equiv. and 0.08, 0.01, -0.25, -0.18mol H + -equiv., for the four scenarios in the categories of global warming and acidification, respectively. The limit of the variability of LCD composition was overcome including additional literature data in the study. In order to improve the innovative process sustainability, a system of water recirculation was optimized with a consequent impact decrease of 35% in the global warming category. Nevertheless, this action should be combined with an increase of indium concentration in the panel because the low metal content represents the bottleneck of the overall approach. In this regard, a sensitivity analysis showed that an increase of at least five times in indium concentration in the waste is needed to observe an advantage of the innovative vs the traditional recycling process, when the impact category of climate change is considered. As a whole, the life cycle assessment was confirmed as a key

  5. Sediment impact assessment of check-dam removal strategies on a mountain river in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, W.; Wang, H.; Stark, C. P.

    2011-12-01

    Dam removal is important for reconnecting river habitats and restoring the free flow of water and sediment, so managing accumulated sediments is crucial in dam removal planning as the cost and potential impacts of dam removal can vary substantially depending on local conditions. A key uncertainty in dam removal is the fate of reservoir sediment stored upstream of the dam. Release of impounded sediment could raise downstream bed elevations leading to flooding, increase lateral channel mobility leading to bank erosion, and potentially bury downstream ecologically sensitive habitats if the sediment is fine. The ability to predict the sediment impacts of dam removal in highly sediment-filled systems is thus increasingly important as the number of such dam-removal cases is growing. Due to the safety concerns and the need for habitat restoration for the Formosan landlocked salmon, the Shei-Pa National Park in Taiwan removed the 15m high Chijiawan "No. 1 Check Dam" in late May 2011. During the planning process prior to removal, we conducted field surveys, numerical simulations, and flume experiments to determine sediment impacts and to suggest appropriate dam removal strategies. We collected river-bed topography and sediment bulk samples in 2010 to establish the channel geometry and grain-size distribution for modeling input. The scaled flume experiment was designed to provide insights on how and if the position of a notch location and size would affect the rate and amount of reservoir erosion under particular discharges. Observations indicated that choices of notch location can force the river to migrate differently. For long-term prediction, we used the quasi-two-dimensional numerical model NETSTARS (Network of Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation) to simulate the channel responses. These simulations indicated that high suspended sediment concentrations would be the most likely major concern in the first year, while concerns for downstream sediment deposition

  6. Medicine shortages in Australia: causes, impact and management strategies in the community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yee Xi; Moles, Rebekah J; Chaar, Betty B

    2016-10-01

    Background Medicine shortages are an ongoing global problem. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) dedicated a website for monitoring of medicine shortages in Australia in May 2014, as part of the Medicine Shortage Information Initiative. This study aimed to explore the views of pharmacists regarding medicine shortages in the community setting and the impact of the TGA website in Australia. Setting Community pharmacies in New South Wales, Australia. Method Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with community pharmacists. Data collected were analysed thematically utilising the framework analysis method. Main outcome measure Qualitative analysis conducted using the framework approach. Results Findings clearly indicated that medicine shortages were experienced on a regular basis, but most participants were unaware of the TGA website. Medicine shortages reportedly impacted both pharmacists and consumers; and various workarounds were undertaken to manage the issue. The "price disclosure policy" was found to be a prominent contributing factor in emerging shortages. Suggestions were made for ways to improve the growing occurrence of shortages. Conclusion Overall, the study found that there was a lack of familiarity with the TGA website, despite experiencing regular shortages of medicines in practice. Also highlighted, was the importance of pharmacists prioritising patient care over business decisions. To reduce prescribing of out-of-stock medicines notifying doctors about shortages was also considered important, to allow for early action to be taken at higher levels of the supply chain. Findings of this study may help direct future policy-making around the world, as medicine shortages is a problem shared by healthcare providers in most countries around the world.

  7. Meta-Cognitive Awareness of Writing Strategy Use among Iranian EFL Learners and Its Impact on Their Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Azizi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that by improving students’ meta-cognitive awareness of elements of language, learning can be enhanced. Therefore, this study consisted of two main objectives. First, it aimed at examining meta-cognitive awareness of writing strategy use among Iranian EFL learners. Using a Friedman test to check if there was any significant difference among the participants in their use of writing strategies, it was found that the differences among the strategies were not significant. The second objective of the study was to examine the impact of the participants’ meta-cognitive awareness of writing strategy use on their L2 writing performance. This was answered using two statistical techniques, namely Pearson correlation and Multiple Regression. Using Pearson Correlation, it was found that there was a significant relationship between writing performance and all writing strategy categories (planning, monitoring, evaluation, and self-awareness. Moreover, using Multiple Regression, it was found that the p–value was significant only for evaluation strategy category, but not for the rest. That is, it was found that strategy categories such as planning, monitoring, and self-awareness did not predict students’ writing performance. The result of this study responds to the ongoing problems students have in their meta-cognitive awareness of writing strategy use which can contribute to raising proficiency levels in shorter time frames.

  8. The Impact of Interface on ESL Reading Comprehension and Strategy Use: A Comparison of E-Books and Paper Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    The use of e-books in postsecondary education is projected to increase, yet many English as a second language (ESL) institutions have not yet incorporated e-books into their curricula, in part due to a dearth of research regarding their potential impacts on ESL reading comprehension and strategy use. This study fills a gap in the existing research…

  9. Acquisition of Requests and Apologies in Spanish and French: Impact of Study Abroad and Strategy-Building Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew D.; Shively, Rachel L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of a curricular intervention on study-abroad students' use of language- and culture-learning strategies and on their acquisition of requests and apologies. The intervention consisted of a brief face-to-face orientation to learning speech acts, a self-study guidebook on language and culture…

  10. The Impact of Perceived Barriers, Academic Anxiety, and Resource Management Strategies on Achievement in First-Year Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Monica L.; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2017-01-01

    The current study explored the impact of internal and external barriers (e.g., academic anxiety, employment) that place subgroups of college students at risk for academic failure in the first year. The mitigating potential of academic resource management strategies (e.g., time-study environment) was also examined. In a sample of 885 first-semester…

  11. Impact of Text-Mining and Imitating Strategies on Lexical Richness, Lexical Diversity and General Success in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çepni, Sevcan Bayraktar; Demirel, Elif Tokdemir

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the impact of "text mining and imitating" strategies on lexical richness, lexical diversity and general success of students in their compositions in second language writing. The participants were 98 students studying their first year in Karadeniz Technical University in English Language and Literature…

  12. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme V: The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact. Teacher Strategies. Experimental Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Designed to assist teachers and supervisors in the implementation of the global history course, this bulletin presents learning activities which include the rationale, performance objectives, and teaching strategies related to Theme V entitled, "The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact." This theme has seven subthemes: (1)…

  13. The impact on air quality of energy saving measures in the major cities signatories of the Covenant of Mayors initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforti-Ferrario, Fabio; Kona, Albana; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Pernigotti, Denise; Pisoni, Enrico

    2018-06-08

    This study is a first attempt to evaluate how the major efforts made by several European cities in the frame of the Covenant of Mayors (CoM) initiative can impact the air pollution levels in the participating cities. CoM is by no mean one of the major cities initiatives aimed at mitigating climate change, supporting local authorities in the implementation of their climate action plans. Energy savings measures reported in the CoM cities' action plans have been analysed from the air quality perspective in order to find quantitative relations in the way local authorities deal with mitigation and how these practices are expected to have consequences on the air quality at urban level and finally positively impacting the citizens' health. In the paper, the air quality 2713 energy saving measures proposed by 146 cities located in 23 countries in the frame of the CoM are selected and their co-benefits for air quality and public health estimated by means of SHERPA, a fast modelling tool that mimics the behaviour of a full physically-based Chemical Transport Model. Besides evaluating the overall benefits of this subset of mitigation measures for the air quality, the study also investigates the relevance of some factors such as the implementation sector, the city size and the pollution levels in achieving the highest possible co-benefits. The results presented refer to the special field covered by the study, i.e. energy saving measures and are not automatically referable to other types of measures. Nevertheless, they clearly show how climate mitigation and air quality policies are deeply interconnected at the urban level. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Implementation Fidelity on Mortality Under a CD4-Stratified Timing Strategy for Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients With Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Monita R; Westreich, Daniel; Yotebieng, Marcel; Nana, Mbonze; Eron, Joseph J; Behets, Frieda; Van Rie, Annelies

    2015-05-01

    Among patients with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus type 1, CD4-stratified initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended, with earlier ART in those with low CD4 counts. However, the impact of implementation fidelity to this recommendation is unknown. We examined a prospective cohort study of 395 adult patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus between August 2007 and November 2009 in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. ART was to be initiated after 1 month of tuberculosis treatment at a CD4 count of implementation fidelity on 6-month mortality. Observed implementation fidelity was low (46%); 54% of patients either experienced delays in ART initiation or did not initiate ART, which could be avoided under perfect implementation fidelity. The observed mortality risk was 12.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2, 15.7); under complete (counterfactual) implementation fidelity, the mortality risk was 7.8% (95% CI: 2.4, 12.3), corresponding to a risk reduction of 4.2% (95% CI: 0.3, 8.1) and a preventable fraction of 35.1% (95% CI: 2.9, 67.9). Strategies to achieve high implementation fidelity to CD4-stratified ART timing are needed to maximize survival benefit. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Assessing Development Impacts Associated with Low Emission Development Strategies: Lessons Learned from Pilot Efforts in Kenya and Montenegro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Katz, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wurtenberger, L. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate economy-wide policies and implementation plans designed to enable a country to meet its long-term development objectives while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A development impact assessment tool was developed to inform an analytically robust and transparent prioritization of LEDS actions based on their economic, social, and environmental impacts. The graphical tool helps policymakers communicate the development impacts of LEDS options and identify actions that help meet both emissions reduction and development goals. This paper summarizes the adaptation and piloting of the tool in Kenya and Montenegro. The paper highlights strengths of the tool and discusses key needs for improving it.

  16. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies: management strategies and economic impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S.B.; Pedersen, A.M.L.; Vissink, A.

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to assess the literature for management strategies and economic impact of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies and to determine the quality of evidence-based management recommendations. The electronic databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and E......This systematic review aimed to assess the literature for management strategies and economic impact of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies and to determine the quality of evidence-based management recommendations. The electronic databases of MEDLINE......, amifostine, muscarinic agonist stimulation, oral mucosal lubricants, acupuncture, and submandibular gland transfer. There is evidence that salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies can be prevented or symptoms be minimized to some degree, depending on the type of cancer treatment...... formulas, submandibular gland transfer, acupuncture, hyperbaric oxygen treatment, management strategies in pediatric cancer populations, and the economic consequences of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia...

  17. Timing of Initiating Glycopeptide Therapy for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: The Impact on Clinical Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hsiang Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When a Staphylococcus-like organism (SLO is microscopically found in Gram staining of blood culture (BC specimen, it seems reasonable to administrate a glycopeptide (GP for empirical therapy. The paper investigates the risk factors for 14-day mortality in patients with methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSAB and clarifies the impact of the timing for initiating GP therapy. A retrospective study identifies patients with MRSAB (endocarditis was excluded between 2006 and 2009. Patients were categorized as receiving GP at the interval before a preliminary BC report indicating the growth of SLO and the onward 24 hours or receiving GP 24 h after a preliminary BC report indicating the growth of SLO. Total 339 patients were enrolled. There was no difference on the 14-day overall or infection-related mortality rates at the time to administer GP. Multivariate analysis disclosed pneumonia (OR = 4.47; of 95% CI; of 2.09–9.58; and high APACHE II score (OR, 2.81, with 95% CI, 1.19–6.65; were independent risk factors for infection-related mortality. The mortality rate did not decrease following administrating GP immediately after a preliminary BC indicating SLO growth. An additional research for the optimal timing for initiating GP treatment is warranted.

  18. Impact of the national biotechnology strategy on the South African biopharma industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msomi, N

    2008-11-17

    Full Text Available The national biotechnology strategy was published in 2001. The process followed for drafting the strategy is as follows: involvement of experts; wider consultation with stakeholders and adoption and publication. The mandate for the BRICs...

  19. Effect of initial-state target polarization on the single ionization of helium by 1-keV electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shi-Yan; Ma Xiao-Yan; Li Xia; Miao Xiang-Yang; Jia Xiang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    We report new results of triple differential cross sections for the single ionization of helium by 1-KeV electron impact at the ejection energy of 10 eV. Investigations have been made for both the perpendicular plane and the plane perpendicular to the momentum transfer geometries. The present calculation is based on the three-Coulomb wave function. Here we have also incorporated the effect of target polarization in the initial state. A comparison is made between the present calculation with the results of other theoretical methods and a recent experiment [Dürr M, Dimopoulou C, Najjari B, Dorn A, Bartschat K, Bray I, Fursa D V, Chen Z, Madison D H and Ullrich J 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 032717]. At an impact energy of 1 KeV, the target polarization is found to induce a substantial change of the cross section for the ionization process. We observe that the effect of target polarization plays a dominant role in deciding the shape of triple differential cross sections. (atomic and molecular physics)

  20. An initial assessment of the impact of Australian aerosols on surface ultraviolet radiation and implications for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, C Y; Mills, F P

    2010-01-01

    Aerosols can have significant influence on surface radiation, and the intense surface ultraviolet radiation Australia experiences contributes to Australia's high incidence rates for related human diseases. Aerosol properties, such as total column aerosol optical depth, have been measured over several years for varying lengths of time at sites across Australia using sunphotometers. Statistical analysis of the average daily aerosol optical depth over sites near Alice Springs, Canberra, Darwin, and Perth provides one measure of the annual atmospheric loading of aerosols over these sites. The sunphotometers used at these sites do not make measurements in the UV-B spectral region and have only one channel in the UV-A spectral region, the regions of most interest for assessing human health impact. Consequently, model calculations using standard aerosol types have been used to make an initial estimate of the impact of the aerosols found over these four sites on surface ultraviolet radiation. The aerosol loading is at times sufficient to significantly reduce the surface ultraviolet radiation, but few such days occur each year. The annual average effect of aerosols on surface ultraviolet radiation, thus, appears to be small compared to lifestyle factors, such as clothing and use of sunscreen.

  1. The Landscape Ecological Impact of Afforestation on the British Uplands and Some Initiatives to Restore Native Woodland Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunce Robert G. H.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of forest cover in the British Uplands had been lost by the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, because of felling followed by overgrazing by sheep and deer. The situation remained unchanged until a government policy of afforestation, mainly by exotic conifers, after the First World War up to the present day. This paper analyses the distribution of these predominantly coniferous plantations, and shows how they occupy specific parts of upland landscapes in different zones throughout Britain Whilst some landscapes are dominated by these new forests, elsewhere the blocks of trees are more localised. Although these forests virtually eliminate native ground vegetation, except in rides and unplanted land, the major negative impacts are at the landscape level. For example, drainage systems are altered and ancient cultural landscape patterns are destroyed. These impacts are summarised and possible ways of amelioration are discussed. By contrast, in recent years, a series of projects have been set up to restore native forest cover, as opposed to the extensive plantations of exotic species. Accordingly, the paper then provides three examples of such initiatives designed to restore native forests to otherwise bare landscapes, as well as setting them into a policy context. Whilst such projects cover a limited proportion of the British Uplands they nevertheless restore forest to landscapes at a local level.

  2. What Is the Impact of Online Resource Materials on Student Self-Learning Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, David John; Small, Felicity A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how students are incorporating online resources into their self-regulated learning strategies. The process of developing these learning strategies and the importance of these strategies has been widely researched, but there has been little empirical research into how the students are affected by online…

  3. The Collective Impact Model and Its Potential for Health Promotion: Overview and Case Study of a Healthy Retail Initiative in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Johnna; Minkler, Meredith; Hennessey Lavery, Susana; Estrada, Jessica; Falbe, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    As resources for health promotion become more constricted, it is increasingly important to collaborate across sectors, including the private sector. Although many excellent models for cross-sector collaboration have shown promise in the health field, collective impact (CI), an emerging model for creating larger scale change, has yet to receive much study. Complementing earlier collaboration approaches, CI has five core tenets: a shared agenda, shared measurement systems, mutually reinforcing activities, continuous communication, and a central infrastructure. In this article, we describe the CI model and its key dimensions and constructs. We briefly compare CI to community coalition action theory and discuss our use of the latter to provide needed detail as we apply CI in a critical case study analysis of the Tenderloin Healthy Corner Store Coalition in San Francisco, California. Using Yin's multimethod approach, we illustrate how CI strategies, augmented by the community coalition action theory, are being used, and with what successes or challenges, to help affect community- and policy-level change to reduce tobacco and alcohol advertising and sales, while improving healthy, affordable, and sustainable food access. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of CI as a framework for health promotion, as well as the benefits, challenges, and initial outcomes of the healthy retail project and its opportunities for scale-up. Implications for health promotion practice and research also are discussed. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. Initiation of detonation by impact on granular explosives; Contribution a l'etude de la generation de la detonation provoquee par impact sur un explosif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    A good number of experiments have shown up the particular behaviour of granular explosives when they are detonated by barrier transmitted shocks. Similar results can be obtained when the shock is induced by impact. In this case the pressure signal shape applied at the explosive is better known and both its intensity and duration can be varied. By using a mathematical model in which the law of chemical kinetics is a linear function of pressure, and different temperatures are used for solids and gases, it is possible to describe most of the behaviour of detonation initiation in solid granular explosives. (author) [French] De nombreuses etudes experimentales ont montre le comportement particulier des explosifs granulaires lors de la detonation provoquee par choc transmis a travers une barriere. Les memes resultats peuvent etre obtenus lorsque la detonation est engendree par impact. Dans ce cas, la forme du signal de pression induit dans l'explosif est mieux connue, et il est possible d'en faire varier l'intensite et la duree d'application. Un modele mathematique utilisant une loi de cinetique chimique fonction lineaire de la pression et ou les temperatures des etats solide et gazeux pendant la reaction sont differenciees, permet de retrouver la plupart des caracteres specifiques de la generation dans un explosif solide granulaire. (auteur)

  5. Vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania: the impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy on coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekar Meera

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+ approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania Methods We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and maternal education within vitamin A coverage in children between 1 and 2 years of age from two independent household level child health surveys conducted (1 during a continuous universal targeting scheme based on routine EPI contacts for children aged 9, 15 and 21 months (1999; and (2 three years later after the introduction of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation campaigns for children aged 6 months to 5 years, a 6-monthly universal targeting scheme (2002. A representative cluster sample of approximately 2,400 rural households was obtained from Rufiji, Morogoro Rural, Kilombero and Ulanga districts. A modular questionnaire about the health of all children under the age of five was administered to consenting heads of households and caretakers of children. Information on the use of child health interventions including vitamin A was asked. Results Coverage of vitamin A supplementation among 1–2 year old children increased from 13% [95% CI 10–18%] in 1999 to 76% [95%CI 72–81%] in 2002. In 2002 knowledge of two or more child health danger signs was negatively associated with vitamin A supplementation coverage (80% versus 70% (p = 0.04. Nevertheless, we did not find any disparities in coverage of vitamin A by district, gender, socio-economic status and DPT vaccinations. Conclusion Change in programmatic delivery of vitamin A supplementation was associated with a major improvement in coverage in Tanzania that was been sustained by repeated campaigns for at least three years. There is a

  6. Assessing concentrations and health impacts of air quality management strategies: Framework for Rapid Emissions Scenario and Health impact ESTimation (FRESH-EST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milando, Chad W; Martenies, Sheena E; Batterman, Stuart A

    2016-09-01

    In air quality management, reducing emissions from pollutant sources often forms the primary response to attaining air quality standards and guidelines. Despite the broad success of air quality management in the US, challenges remain. As examples: allocating emissions reductions among multiple sources is complex and can require many rounds of negotiation; health impacts associated with emissions, the ultimate driver for the standards, are not explicitly assessed; and long dispersion model run-times, which result from the increasing size and complexity of model inputs, limit the number of scenarios that can be evaluated, thus increasing the likelihood of missing an optimal strategy. A new modeling framework, called the "Framework for Rapid Emissions Scenario and Health impact ESTimation" (FRESH-EST), is presented to respond to these challenges. FRESH-EST estimates concentrations and health impacts of alternative emissions scenarios at the urban scale, providing efficient computations from emissions to health impacts at the Census block or other desired spatial scale. In addition, FRESH-EST can optimize emission reductions to meet specified environmental and health constraints, and a convenient user interface and graphical displays are provided to facilitate scenario evaluation. The new framework is demonstrated in an SO2 non-attainment area in southeast Michigan with two optimization strategies: the first minimizes emission reductions needed to achieve a target concentration; the second minimizes concentrations while holding constant the cumulative emissions across local sources (e.g., an emissions floor). The optimized