WorldWideScience

Sample records for initial radiograph beschwerden

  1. Initial image interpretation of appendicular skeletal radiographs: A comparison between nurses and radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, Keith J.; Paterson, Audrey

    2009-01-01

    , although differences in performance between the two groups remained, with the radiographer group achieving a better overall performance than the nurse group. As patients in MIUs and A/E receive treatment based on the initial interpretation of their imaging investigations by either nurses or radiographers, the improvement after training is encouraging but the difference in the overall performance is less so. More work is required to evaluate the performance of radiographers and nurses undertaking initial image interpretation as part of their normal practice

  2. Initial test of a proton radiographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffett, D.R.; Colton, E.P.; Concaildi, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Protons have a well defined range in matter. A detector, therefore, placed near the end of range of a monoenergetic proton beam becomes a very sensitive measure of changes in the mass of material which the beam has traversed. This property of protons can be exploited in a variety of ways to make radiographs of solid objects. The experimental radiography system we have built to use with the 200 MeV booster synchrotron of the Zero Gradient Synchrotron(ZGS) is described. In addition, there is a brief description of a more elegant system which would operate with a suitable source such as the proton diagnostic accelerator proposed by R. Martin. (U.S.)

  3. Do Routine Radiographs Obtained at Initial Outpatient Postoperative Visit Change Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Eric; Tennent, Dave; Patzkowski, Jean; Hsu, Joseph; Johnson, Anthony

    Routine postoperative radiographs are commonly obtained at the initial postoperative visit. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the clinical utility of routine postoperative radiographs and quantify the radiation exposure and cost to the health care system. All orthopaedic surgeries performed during 2007 at a level I trauma center were retrospectively analyzed. Surgical procedures that were likely to require follow-up radiographs were included. Analysis demonstrated 878 procedures with 471 procedures (54%) receiving initial postoperative radiographs. Routine radiographs were performed in 455 (96.6%) procedures with 4/455 (0.879%) resulting in a change in management. Nonroutine radiographs were performed in 16 (3.40%) procedures with 2/16 (12.5%) triggering a change in management. Subjects receiving radiographs at the initial postoperative visit obtained a mean of 2.54 radiographs per procedure with a mean exposure of 0.199 mSv with a median cost of $29.98 per radiographic series in 2013 Medicare reimbursement dollars. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances.

  4. Prototype radiographic system for emergency and intensive care units: Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirvis, S.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype radiographic system has been developed for use in bedside examinations in multibed trauma or intensive care units and emergency rooms. The system features a single-phase, high-frequency 30-kW ceiling-mounted generator with an x-ray tube extending from a long counterbalanced arm. All movements are servo-assisted for ease of operation. Based on initial experience, the unit allows easier access to the patient around resuscitation and monitoring equipment, occupies less floor space, and yields better quality images than do standard mobile radiographic units

  5. CT colonography: accuracy of initial interpretation by radiographers in routine clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burling, D.; Wylie, P.; Gupta, A.; Illangovan, R.; Muckian, J.; Ahmad, R.; Marshall, M.; Taylor, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate performance of computed-assisted detection (CAD)-assisted radiographers interpreting computed tomography colonography (CTC) in routine practice. Materials and methods: Three hundred and three consecutive symptomatic patients underwent CTC. Examinations were double-read by trained radiographers using primary two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) analysis supplemented by 'second reader' CAD. Radiographers recorded colonic neoplasia, interpretation times, and patient management strategy code (S0, inadequate; S1, normal; S2, 6-9 mm polyp; S3, ≥10 mm polyp; S4, cancer; S5, diverticular stricture) for each examination. Strategies were compared to the reference standard using kappa statistic, interpretation times using paired t-test, learning curves using logistic regression and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Of 303 examinations, 69 (23%) were abnormal. CAD-assisted radiographers detected 17/17 (100%) cancers, 21/28 (72%) polyps ≥10 mm and 42/60 (70%) 6-9 mm polyps. The overall agreement between radiographers and the reference management strategy was good (kappa 0.72; CI: 0.65, 0.78) with agreement for S1 strategy in 189/211 (90%) exams; S2 in 19/27 (70%); S3 in 12/19 (63%); S4 in 17/17 (100%); S5 in 5/6 (83%). The mean interpretation time was 17 min (SD = 11) compared with 8 min (SD = 3.5) for radiologists. There was no learning curve for recording correct strategies (OR 0.88; p = 0.12) but a significant reduction in interpretation times, mean 14 and 31 min (last/first 50 exams; -0.46; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Routine CTC interpretation by radiographers is effective for initial triage of patients with cancer, but independent reporting is currently not recommended.

  6. Radiographic detection of initial carious lesions on the proximal surfaces of teeth. Part I. The influence of exposure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, L.V.

    1987-08-01

    The relationship between a number of technical exposure conditions and the diagnostic value of bitewing radiographs in the interpretation of initial proximal carious lesions was evaluated. The most important exposure factors for radiographs are tube voltage, filtration, and exposure time. Tube voltage and filtration were found to have an insignificant influence on the diagnostic quality. Exposure time proved to be the most critical factor in influencing diagnostic quality. The greatest difference in diagnostic quality, however, was caused by differences between observers.

  7. Directional fractal signature methods for trabecular bone texture in hand radiographs: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolski, M., E-mail: marcin.wolski@curtin.edu.au; Podsiadlo, P.; Stachowiak, G. W. [Tribology Laboratory, School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia 6102 (Australia)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To develop directional fractal signature methods for the analysis of trabecular bone (TB) texture in hand radiographs. Problems associated with the small size of hand bones and the orientation of fingers were addressed. Methods: An augmented variance orientation transform (AVOT) and a quadrant rotating grid (QRG) methods were developed. The methods calculate fractal signatures (FSs) in different directions. Unlike other methods they have the search region adjusted according to the size of bone region of interest (ROI) to be analyzed and they produce FSs defined with respect to any chosen reference direction, i.e., they work for arbitrary orientation of fingers. Five parameters at scales ranging from 2 to 14 pixels (depending on image size and method) were derived from rose plots of Hurst coefficients, i.e., FS in dominating roughness (FS{sub Sta}), vertical (FS{sub V}) and horizontal (FS{sub H}) directions, aspect ratio (StrS), and direction signatures (StdS), respectively. The accuracy in measuring surface roughness and isotropy/anisotropy was evaluated using 3600 isotropic and 800 anisotropic fractal surface images of sizes between 20 × 20 and 64 × 64 pixels. The isotropic surfaces had FDs ranging from 2.1 to 2.9 in steps of 0.1, and the anisotropic surfaces had two dominating directions of 30° and 120°. The methods were used to find differences in hand TB textures between 20 matched pairs of subjects with (cases: approximate Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade ≥2) and without (controls: approximate KL grade <2) radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA). The OA Initiative public database was used and 20 × 20 pixel bone ROIs were selected on 5th distal and middle phalanges. The performance of the AVOT and QRG methods was compared against a variance orientation transform (VOT) method developed earlier [M. Wolski, P. Podsiadlo, and G. W. Stachowiak, “Directional fractal signature analysis of trabecular bone: evaluation of different methods to detect early

  8. Is a radiographer led immediate reporting service for emergency department referrals a cost effective initiative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Maryann; Hutton, John; Snaith, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    Rationale, aims, objectives: Demand for both Emergency Department (ED) and radiology services continues to increase across the UK while simultaneously, healthcare organisations are being asked to evaluate the quality of care provided and constrain service costs. National guidance on radiograph reporting times recommends ED radiographs are reported on day of patient attendance but in practice, delays in reporting persist. This study considers whether a radiographer led immediate reporting service for ED referrals could provide a cost-effective service improvement solution. Methods: A pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial was undertaken. 1502 patients were recruited and randomly assigned to an immediate or delayed reporting arm and treated according to group assignment. Patient health gain was measured in terms of change in utilities derived from EQ-5D responses at baseline and 8 week follow-up. Resources used and the costs of an immediate reporting service were analysed at the patient level and compared to standard reporting practices. Results: 1688 radiographic examinations were performed (1502 patients). 79 discordant radiographic interpretations were identified (n = 79/1688; 4.7%). Interpretive errors were significantly reduced within immediate reporting arm. No significant difference was noted in the relative improvement in patient perceived health status between the 2 arms of the study. The average cost saving per patient in the immediate reporting arm was £23.40. Conclusions: Radiographer led immediate reporting of ED radiographs is a cost-effective service development and its universal introduction could make a significant contribution to the current drive to increase service productivity within current budget constraints.

  9. The lumbosacral radiographs in the initial screening of low back pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Radiological imaging is mandatory, when investigating patients with low back pain (LBP). A minimum of three plain radiographic views of lumbosacral spine are routinely requested for by the attending clinicians. Objective: This study is therefore carried out to determine if only one view will be sufficient in the ...

  10. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  11. Quantitative measures of meniscus extrusion predict incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis – data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, K.; Quinn, E.; Niu, J.; Guermazi, A.; Roemer, F.; Wirth, W.; Eckstein, F.; Felson, D.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective To test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of meniscus extrusion predict incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis (KOA), prior to the advent of radiographic disease. Methods 206 knees with incident radiographic KOA (Kellgren Lawrence Grade (KLG) 0 or 1 at baseline, developing KLG 2 or greater with a definite osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) grade ≥1 by year 4) were matched to 232 control knees not developing incident KOA. Manual segmentation of the central five slices of the medial and lateral meniscus was performed on coronal 3T DESS MRI and quantitative meniscus position was determined. Cases and controls were compared using conditional logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, BMI, race and clinical site. Sensitivity analyses of early (year [Y] 1/2) and late (Y3/4) incidence was performed. Results Mean medial extrusion distance was significantly greater for incident compared to non-incident knees (1.56 mean ± 1.12 mm SD vs 1.29 ± 0.99 mm; +21%, P meniscus (25.8 ± 15.8% vs 22.0 ± 13.5%; +17%, P meniscus in incident medial KOA, or for the tibial plateau coverage between incident and non-incident knees. Restricting the analysis to medial incident KOA at Y1/2 differences were attenuated, but reached significance for extrusion distance, whereas no significant differences were observed at incident KOA in Y3/4. Conclusion Greater medial meniscus extrusion predicts incident radiographic KOA. Early onset KOA showed greater differences for meniscus position between incident and non-incident knees than late onset KOA. PMID:26318658

  12. Quantitative measures of meniscus extrusion predict incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis--data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, K; Quinn, E; Niu, J; Guermazi, A; Roemer, F; Wirth, W; Eckstein, F; Felson, D

    2016-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of meniscus extrusion predict incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis (KOA), prior to the advent of radiographic disease. 206 knees with incident radiographic KOA (Kellgren Lawrence Grade (KLG) 0 or 1 at baseline, developing KLG 2 or greater with a definite osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) grade ≥1 by year 4) were matched to 232 control knees not developing incident KOA. Manual segmentation of the central five slices of the medial and lateral meniscus was performed on coronal 3T DESS MRI and quantitative meniscus position was determined. Cases and controls were compared using conditional logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, BMI, race and clinical site. Sensitivity analyses of early (year [Y] 1/2) and late (Y3/4) incidence was performed. Mean medial extrusion distance was significantly greater for incident compared to non-incident knees (1.56 mean ± 1.12 mm SD vs 1.29 ± 0.99 mm; +21%, P meniscus (25.8 ± 15.8% vs 22.0 ± 13.5%; +17%, P meniscus in incident medial KOA, or for the tibial plateau coverage between incident and non-incident knees. Restricting the analysis to medial incident KOA at Y1/2 differences were attenuated, but reached significance for extrusion distance, whereas no significant differences were observed at incident KOA in Y3/4. Greater medial meniscus extrusion predicts incident radiographic KOA. Early onset KOA showed greater differences for meniscus position between incident and non-incident knees than late onset KOA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Directional fractal signature methods for trabecular bone texture in hand radiographs: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, M; Podsiadlo, P; Stachowiak, G W

    2014-08-01

    To develop directional fractal signature methods for the analysis of trabecular bone (TB) texture in hand radiographs. Problems associated with the small size of hand bones and the orientation of fingers were addressed. An augmented variance orientation transform (AVOT) and a quadrant rotating grid (QRG) methods were developed. The methods calculate fractal signatures (FSs) in different directions. Unlike other methods they have the search region adjusted according to the size of bone region of interest (ROI) to be analyzed and they produce FSs defined with respect to any chosen reference direction, i.e., they work for arbitrary orientation of fingers. Five parameters at scales ranging from 2 to 14 pixels (depending on image size and method) were derived from rose plots of Hurst coefficients, i.e., FS in dominating roughness (FSSta), vertical (FSV) and horizontal (FSH) directions, aspect ratio (StrS), and direction signatures (StdS), respectively. The accuracy in measuring surface roughness and isotropy/anisotropy was evaluated using 3600 isotropic and 800 anisotropic fractal surface images of sizes between 20 × 20 and 64 × 64 pixels. The isotropic surfaces had FDs ranging from 2.1 to 2.9 in steps of 0.1, and the anisotropic surfaces had two dominating directions of 30° and 120°. The methods were used to find differences in hand TB textures between 20 matched pairs of subjects with (cases: approximate Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade ≥ 2) and without (controls: approximate KL grade Stachowiak, "Directional fractal signature analysis of trabecular bone: evaluation of different methods to detect early osteoarthritis in knee radiographs," Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part H 223, 211-236 (2009)]. The AVOT method correctly quantified the isotropic and anisotropic surfaces for all image sizes and scales. Values of FSSta were significantly different (P < 0.05) between the isotropic surfaces. Using the VOT and QRG methods no differences were found at large scales for the

  14. Complaints in the follow-up of conservatively treated distal radius fractures - predictors in the initial radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, W.; Aschoff, A.J.; Einsiedel, T.; Kramer, M.; Trnavac, S.; Bezirkskrankenhaus Guenzburg

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Radius fractures are frequent in adults, and the long-term results of conservative treatment remain disappointing. This study examines predictors for the clinical outcome in the initial radiograph. This will help to identify patients who will benefit from surgical treatment. Materials and Methods: A cohort study including a standardized telephone interview (Cooney score) was used to identify all conservatively treated patients with a distal radius fracture over a five-year period. The additional selection criteria were: over 15 years old, initial X-ray available, patient reachable by phone for the follow-up interview. The following measurements were taken from the initial radiograph: Radius-base angle, radial shortening, radiopalmar angle and intraarticular displacement. Correlations and a simple test to predict negative outcome were computed. Results: Of the initially identified 2211 patients with distal radius fracture, 179 also fulfilled the other criteria. The patients were 56.2 years old on average (standard deviation SD = ± 22.45 years) and 72 % were female. 60 % of the fractures were on the right side. The average follow-up was 4.3 years (SD ± 1.66). The Cooney score results averaged 85 points (with 100 being the optimal and maximum score), indicating good or very good functional results in the long term follow-up for 61 % of patients. However, 31 % received a rating of fair or poor and therefore had an unfavorable outcome. With respect to the correlations, age and shortening of the radius (but not gender) had a significant influence on the functional result. Using an age of 75 years or above and a radial shortening of at least 4 mm to predict an unfavorable outcome, the sensitivity is only 16 %, but the positive predictive value is 73 % and the specificity is 96 %. (orig.)

  15. A radiographic analysis of alignment of the lower extremities--initiation and progression of varus-type knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T; Hashimura, M; Takayama, K; Ishida, K; Kawakami, Y; Matsuzaki, T; Nakano, N; Matsushita, T; Kuroda, R; Kurosaka, M

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate alignment based on age in normal knees and alignment based on deformity in osteoarthritis (OA) knees using detailed radiographic parameters. Various parameters were measured from weight-bearing long leg radiographs of 1251 legs (797 normal and 454 OA knees) as a cross-sectional study. Normal knees were classified by age (young, middle aged, aged, and elderly) and symptomatic OA knees on the basis of the alignment (femorotibial angle (FTA): mild, moderate, severe and profound). The mean measurements in each group were calculated and compared within each group. The femoral shaft showed medially bowed curvature (femoral bowing) of approximately 2° in the young normal group, which shifted to lateral bowing with age. However, OA knees showed larger lateral bowing with OA grade, which might reduce the condylar-shaft angle and subsequently shifted the mechanical axis medially. Progression of mild to moderate OA might be associated with a decreasing condylar-shaft angle (femoral condylar orientation) and widening condylar-plateau angle (joint space narrowing) rather than decreasing tibial plateau flattering. Steeping of the tibial plateau inclination due to increasing tibial plateau shift (tibial plateau compression) rather than medial tibial bowing might be the main contributor to worsening of varus deformity in knees with severe and profound OA. This cross-sectional study might provide the possibility of OA initiation and progression. The lateral curvature of the femoral shaft associated with aging may contribute to the initiation of varus-type OA of the knee. These changes in the femur may be followed by secondary signs of OA progression including varus femoral condylar orientation, medial joint space narrowing, and tibial plateau compression. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hand joint space narrowing and osteophytes are associated with magnetic resonance imaging-defined knee cartilage thickness and radiographic knee osteoarthritis: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Ida K; Cotofana, Sebastian; Englund, Martin; Kvien, Tore K; Dreher, Donatus; Nevitt, Michael; Lane, Nancy E; Eckstein, Felix

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether features of radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA) are associated with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-defined knee cartilage thickness, radiographic knee OA, and 1-year structural progression. A total of 765 participants in Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI; 455 women, mean age 62.5 yrs, SD 9.4) obtained hand radiographs (at baseline), knee radiographs (baseline and Year 1), and knee MRI (baseline and Year 1). Hand radiographs were scored for presence of osteophytes and joint space narrowing (JSN). Knee radiographs were scored according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scale. Cartilage thickness in the medial and lateral femorotibial compartments was measured quantitatively from coronal FLASHwe images. We examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between features of hand OA (total osteophyte and JSN scores) and knee cartilage thickness, 1-year knee cartilage thinning (above smallest detectable change), presence of knee OA (KL grade ≥ 3), and progression of knee OA (KL change ≥ 1) by linear and logistic regression. Both hand OA features were included in a multivariate model (if p ≤ 0.25) adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Hand JSN was associated with reduced knee cartilage thickness (ß = -0.02, 95% CI -0.03, -0.01) in the medial femorotibial compartment, while hand osteophytes were associated with the presence of radiographic knee OA (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.18; multivariate models) with both hand OA features as independent variables adjusted for age, sex, and BMI). Radiographic features of hand OA were not associated with 1-year cartilage thinning or radiographic knee OA progression. Our results support a systemic OA susceptibility and possibly different mechanisms for osteophyte formation and cartilage thinning.

  17. Can ultrasound extended emergency (EFAST) replace the chest radiograph in the initial approach to trauma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre Jimenez, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    The sensitivity diagnosed between ultrasound Extended emergency (EFAST) and portable radiography was compared. Life-threatening pathologies are detected in the initial approach to trauma, through an analysis comparative between EFAST and portable chest radiography. So, the need or not both studies or if the use of EFAST as the only diagnostic method in primary evaluation of trauma can be limited. The study has concluded that the EFAST can be used as the only tool for polytrauma patients, although in this analysis the sample has been very small [es

  18. Comparison of radiographic joint space width and magnetic resonance imaging for prediction of knee replacement: A longitudinal case-control study from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, Felix; Wirth, Wolfgang; Cotofana, Sebastian [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg and Nuremberg Austria and Chondrometrics GmbH, Institute of Anatomy, Ainring (Germany); Boudreau, Robert [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Zhijie; Hannon, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh and Pittsburgh VAHS, Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Duryea, Jeff [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Imaging Core Lab (BICL), LLC, Boston, MA (United States); Roemer, Frank [Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Imaging Core Lab (BICL), LLC, Boston, MA (United States); University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Nevitt, Michael [OAI Coordinating Ctr., UCSF, San Francisco, CA (United States); John, Markus R. [Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland); Ladel, Christoph [Merck KGaA, Darmstadt (Germany); Sharma, Leena [Northwestern University, Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Hunter, David J. [University Sydney, Royal North Shore Hospital and Institute of Bone and Joint Research, Kolling Institute, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Kwoh, C.K. [University of Arizona, Division of Rheumatology and the University of Arizona Arthritis Center, Tucson, AZ (United States); Collaboration: OAI Investigators

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate whether change in fixed-location measures of radiographic joint space width (JSW) and cartilage thickness by MRI predict knee replacement. Knees replaced between 36 and 60 months' follow-up in the Osteoarthritis Initiative were each matched with one control by age, sex and radiographic status. Radiographic JSW was determined from fixed flexion radiographs and subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness from 3 T MRI. Changes between the annual visit before replacement (T{sub 0}) and 2 years before T{sub 0} (T{sub -2}) were compared using conditional logistic regression. One hundred and nineteen knees from 102 participants (55.5 % women; age 64.2 ± 8.7 [mean ± SD] years) were studied. Fixed-location JSW change at 22.5 % from medial to lateral differed more between replaced and control knees (case-control [cc] OR = 1.57; 95 % CI: 1.23-2.01) than minimum medial JSW change (ccOR = 1.38; 95 % CI: 1.11-1.71). Medial femorotibial cartilage loss displayed discrimination similar to minimum JSW, and central tibial cartilage loss similar to fixed-location JSW. Location-independent thinning and thickening scores were elevated prior to knee replacement. Discrimination of structural progression between knee pre-placement cases versus controls was stronger for fixed-location than minimum radiographic JSW. MRI displayed similar discrimination to radiography and suggested greater simultaneous cartilage thickening and loss prior to knee replacement. (orig.)

  19. Update Cimicifuga racemosa – neue Erkenntnisse aus Wissenschaft und Forschung: Differenzierte Evidenz für Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit von Traubensilberkerzen-Arzneimitteln zur Behandlung klimakterischer Beschwerden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beer AM

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unter den bei Wechseljahresbeschwerden eingesetzten Phytotherapeutika ist die Traubensilberkerze (Cimicifuga racemosa, Actaea racemosa am besten dokumentiert. Die Monographie des Herbal Medicinal Product Committee der Europäischen Arzneimittelbehörde bestätigt das positive Nutzen-Risiko-Profil von Cimicifugaracemosa-(CR- Arzneimitteln. Voraussetzung ist deren Herstellung unter GMP-Bedingungen mit nachweislicher pharmazeutischer Qualität. In einer aktualisierten Metaanalyse unter Berücksichtigung aller geeigneten randomisierten kontrollierten Studien (RCTs zeigt CR eine signifikant bessere Wirksamkeit bei der Besserung klimakterischer Beschwerden im Vergleich zu Placebo. Ein aktueller Review zur Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit von CR bei Wechseljahresbeschwerden differenziert erstmalig zwischen Extrakten, deren Qualität (nachgewiesen durch den Arzneimittelstatus und Indikation – und wird somit den Besonderheiten der Phytotherapie gerecht. Hierbei erwiesen sich alle in klinischen Studien untersuchten CR-Extrakte als sicher und gut verträglich. Jedoch konnten nur qualitativ hochwertige, offiziell geprüfte, zugelassene CR-Arzneimittel ihre Wirksamkeit und somit ein positives Nutzen-Risiko-Profil nachweisen. Konsistent konfirmatorische Evidenz mit Oxford-Evidenzlevel 1 und höchstem Empfehlungsgrad A erbringt hierbei nur der isopropanolische Cimicifuga-racemosa-Spezialextrakt (iCR, der in vielen Studien an 11.000 Patientinnen untersucht wurde.

  20. Aortic stentgraft movement detection using digital roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis on plane film radiographs - initial results of a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, C.; Welker, V.; Eidam, H.; Alfke, H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of aortic stentgraft micromovement detection using digital roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis on plane film radiographs. Material and Methods: An aortic stentgraft used for demonstration purposes was marked with 10 tantalum markers of 0.8 mm in diameter. The stentgraft was placed on a Plexiglas phantom with 5 tantalum markers of 1 mm in diameter simulating a fixed segment needed for mathematical analysis. In a subsequent step, the stentgraft was placed onto an orthopaedic spine model to simulate in vivo conditions in a next step.Two radiographs taken simultaneously from different angles were used for simulating different stentgraft movement, e.g. translation, angulation, aortic pulsation and migration in the spine model. Movement of the stentgraft markers was analysed using a commercially available digital RSA setup (UmRSA registered 4.1, RSA Biomedical, Umea, Sweden). Results: Our study shows the feasibility of measuring aortic stentgraft movement and changes in stentgraft shape in the submillimeter range using digital roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. Translation along the 3 cardinal axes, change in stentgraft shape, simulation of aortic pulsation and simulation of in vivo conditions could be described precisely. Conclusion: Aortic stentgraft movement detection using digital roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis on plane film radiographs is a very promising, precise method. (orig.)

  1. Radiographic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The author describes how to: perform a systematic evaluation of a chest radiograph; state the classic radiographic description of hyaline membrane disease; list the conditions that cause hyperaeration and describe the radiologic feature of hyperaeration; describe the radiograph of a patient with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia; identify optimum placement of an endotracheal tube, gastric feeding tube, and umbilical artery catheter on a radiograph; differentiate between pulmonary interstitial air and hyaline membrane disease; select radiographic features that would indicate the presence of a tension pneumothorax; describe a lateral decubitus projection and state the type of problem it is most often used to identify; explain the procedure used in obtaining a lateral neck radiograph and list two problems that may require this view; and describe the radiograph of a patient with cystic fibrosis

  2. Is goniometry suitable for measuring ankle range of motion in female ballet dancers? An initial comparison with radiographic measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jeffrey A; Shave, Ruth M; Kruse, David W; Nevill, Alan M; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A

    2011-06-01

    Female ballet dancers require extreme ankle motion to attain the demi-plié (weight-bearing full dorsiflexion [DF]) and en pointe (weight-bearing full plantar flexion [PF]) positions of ballet. However, techniques for assessing this amount of motion have not yet received sufficient scientific scrutiny. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine possible differences between weight-bearing goniometric and radiographic ankle range of motion measurements in female ballet dancers. Ankle range of motion in 8 experienced female ballet dancers was assessed by goniometry and 2 radiographic measurement methods. The latter were performed on 3 mediolateral x-rays, in demi-plié, neutral, and en pointe positions; one of them used the same landmarks as goniometry. DF values were not significantly different among the methods, but PF values were (P ballet dancers and suggest that goniometry may not be ideal for assessing ankle range of motion in these individuals. Therefore, further research is needed to standardize how DF and PF are measured in ballet dancers. Diagnostic, Level I.

  3. Radiographic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, J.

    1978-01-01

    In view of great differencies in X-ray transmission it is more difficult to get optimum radiographs of plastics and especially of reinforced plastics than for example of metals. A procedure will be reported how to get with little effort optimum radiographs especially also in the range of long wave-length radiation corresponding 10 to 25 kV.P. (orig.) [de

  4. Patient doses in radiographic examinations in 12 countries in Asia, Africa, and Eastern Europe: initial results from IAEA projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhogora, Wilbroad E; Ahmed, Nada A; Almosabihi, Aziz; Alsuwaidi, Jamila S; Beganovic, Adnan; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Kabuya, Francois K; Krisanachinda, Anchali; Milakovic, Milomir; Mukwada, Godfrey; Ramanandraibe, Marie J; Rehani, Madan M; Rouzitalab, Jalil; Shandorf, Cyril

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey image quality and the entrance surface air kerma for patients in radiographic examinations and to perform comparisons with diagnostic reference levels. In this multinational prospective study, image quality and patient radiation doses were surveyed in 12 countries in Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe, covering 45 hospitals. The rate of unsatisfactory images and image quality grade were noted, and causes for poor image quality were investigated. The entrance surface doses for adult patients were determined in terms of the entrance surface air kerma on the basis of X-ray tube output measurements and X-ray exposure parameters. Comparison of dose levels with diagnostic reference levels was performed. The fraction of images rated as poor was as high as 53%. The image quality improved up to 16 percentage points in Africa, 13 in Asia, and 22 in Eastern Europe after implementation of a quality control (QC) program. Patient doses varied by a factor of up to 88, although the majority of doses were below diagnostic reference levels. The mean entrance surface air kerma values in mGy were 0.33 (chest, posteroanterior), 4.07 (lumbar spine, anteroposterior), 8.53 (lumbar spine, lateral), 3.64 (abdomen, anteroposterior), 3.68 (pelvis, anteroposterior), and 2.41 (skull, anteroposterior). Patient doses were found to be similar to doses in developed countries and patient dose reductions ranging from 1.4% to 85% were achieved. Poor image quality constitutes a major source of unnecessary radiation to patients in developing countries. Comparison with other surveys indicates that patient dose levels in these countries are not higher than those in developed countries.

  5. Radiographic Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J; Yang, S.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report contains theory, procedure technique and interpretation of radiographic examination and written for whom preparing radiographic test Level II. To determine this baseline of technical competence in the examination, the individual must demonstrate a knowledge of radiography physics, radiation safety, technique development, radiation detection and measurement, facility design, and the characteristics of radiation-producing devices and their principles of operation. (author) 98 figs., 23 tabs.

  6. The contribution of 3D quantitative meniscal and cartilage measures to variation in normal radiographic joint space width—Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Melanie, E-mail: melanie.roth@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Wirth, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.wirth@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ulrichshöglerstrasse 23, 83404, Ainring (Germany); Emmanuel, Katja, E-mail: katja.emmanuel@icloud.com [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Paracelsus Medical University, Müllner Hauptstraße 48, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Culvenor, Adam G., E-mail: adam.culvenor@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, 3086, Victoria (Australia); Eckstein, Felix, E-mail: felix.eckstein@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ulrichshöglerstrasse 23, 83404, Ainring (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Objective: To explore to what extent three-dimensional measures of the meniscus and femorotibial cartilage explain the variation in medial and lateral femorotibial radiographic joint space width (JSW), in healthy men and women. Methods: The right knees of 87 Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference participants (no symptoms, radiographic signs or risk factors of osteoarthritis; 37 men, 50 women; age 55.0 ± 7.6; BMI 24.4 ± 3.1) were assessed. Quantitative measures of subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness and meniscal position and morphology were computed from segmented magnetic resonance images. Minimal and medial/lateral fixed-location JSW were determined from fixed-flexion radiographs. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the contribution of demographic, cartilage and meniscal parameters to JSW in healthy subjects. Results: The correlation with (medial) minimal JSW was somewhat stronger for cartilage thickness (0.54 ≤ r ≤ 0.67) than for meniscal (−0.31 ≤ r ≤ 0.50) or demographic measures (−0.15 ≤ r ≤ 0.48), in particular in men. In women, in contrast, the strength of the correlations of cartilage thickness and meniscal measures with minimal JSW were in the same range. Fixed-location JSW measures showed stronger correlations with cartilage thickness (r ≥ 0.68 medially; r ≥ 0.59 laterally) than with meniscal measures (r ≤ |0.32| medially; r ≤ |0.32| laterally). Stepwise regression models revealed that meniscal measures added significant independent information to the total variance explained in minimal JSW (adjusted multiple r{sup 2} = 58%) but not in medial or lateral fixed-location JSW (r{sup 2} = 60/51%, respectively). Conclusions: In healthy subjects, minimal JSW was observed to reflect a combination of cartilage and meniscal measures, particularly in women. Fixed-location JSW, in contrast, was found to be dominated by variance in cartilage thickness in both men and women, with somewhat higher correlations

  7. Radiographers and trainee radiologists reporting accident radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskov, L; Abild, A; Christensen, A

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical validity of reporting radiographers with that of trainee radiologists whom they have recently joined in reporting emergency room radiographs at Bispebjerg University Hospital.......To compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical validity of reporting radiographers with that of trainee radiologists whom they have recently joined in reporting emergency room radiographs at Bispebjerg University Hospital....

  8. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, T.I.; Jones, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    Radiographic elements are disclosed having first and second silver halide emulsion layers comprised of a dispersing medium and radiation-sensitive silver halide grains, and a support interposed between said silver halide emulsion layers capable of transmitting radiation to which said second silver halide emulsion layer is responsive. These elements are characterized in that at least said first silver halide emulsion layer contains tabular silver halide grains and spectral sensitizing dye adsorbed to the surface of the grains. Crossover can be improved in relation to the imaging characteristics. (author)

  9. Radiographic tales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder

    Purpose Until now a large number of scientific studies have focused on technological aspects of radiography. This study is a step in another direction which examines the relationship between man and technology within radiography instead of considering man and technology as separate entities. Meth...... of their narrative alertness. Errors and failure to keep the time schedule can, however, lead the radiographers to a change of perspective that makes them displace man from the scene of radiography by playing on the premises of technology........ Methods The study is designed as an observational study with a narrative approach. The participant observations took place in a Danish radiological department and involved 20 examinations followed up by three semi-structured interviews. Conclusions Through emergent narratives radiographers construct...... and symptoms. The plot is organized in a relatively concrete and fairly limited space of possibilities, i.e. the number of different diagnoses that can be made. In opposition to the diagnostic plot stands the lifestory as a masterplot. In the lifestory the examination is plotted as a significant experience...

  10. Radiographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidus, S.N.

    1979-01-01

    Raytheon Company, U.S.A. have patented an on-line electronic system of normalising the responses from the photomultiplier tubes used in conjunction with a scintillator in an X-ray radiographic camera. A problem with present cameras is that the individual photomultipliers have different intensity responses which also change in time with respect to each other. The individual responses of each photomultiplier tube are measured with a uniform sheet of radioactive material in front of the camera. The associated electronic equipment then calculates scaling factors which give all photomultiplier tubes an identical response and then places these factors in an addressable store. The store is then addressed in an on-line mode to produce a visual display of the transmitted X-rays. (U.K.)

  11. Quality of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discussed on how to get a good radiograph. There are several factors that can make good radiograph such as density of radiograph, the contrast of radiograph, definition of radiograph, the present of artifact and backscattering. All of this factor will discuss detailed on each unit of chapter with some figure, picture to make the reader understand more when read this book. And at the end, the reader will introduce with penetrameter, one of device to determine the level of quality of the radiograph. There are two type of penetrameter like wire type or holes type. This standard must be followed by all the radiographer around the world to produce the good result that is standard and more reliable.

  12. Radiographer commenting of trauma radiographs: a survey of the benefits, barriers and enablers to participation in an Australian healthcare setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neep, Michael J.; Steffens, Tom; Owen, Rebecca; McPhail, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Radiographer abnormality detection systems that highlight abnormalities on trauma radiographs ('red dot' system) have been operating for more than 30 years. Recently, a number of pitfalls have been identified. These limitations initiated the evolution of a radiographer commenting system, whereby a radiographer provides a brief description of abnormalities identified in emergency healthcare settings. This study investigated radiographers' participation in abnormality detection systems, their perceptions of benefits, barriers and enablers to radiographer commenting, and perceptions of potential radiographer image interpretation services for emergency settings. A cross-sectional survey was implemented. Participants included radiographers from four metropolitan hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Conventional descriptive statistics, histograms and thematic analysis were undertaken. Seventy-three surveys were completed and included in the analysis (68% response rate); 30 (41%) of respondents reported participating in abnormality detection in 20% or less of examinations, and 26(36%) reported participating in 80% or more of examinations. Five overarching perceived benefits of radiographer commenting were identified: assisting multidisciplinary teams, patient care, radiographer ability, professional benefits and quality of imaging. Frequently reported perceived barriers included 'difficulty accessing image interpretation education', 'lack of time' and 'low confidence in interpreting radiographs'. Perceived enablers included 'access to image interpretation education' and 'support from radiologist colleagues'. A range of factors are likely to contribute to the successful implementation of radiographer commenting in addition to abnormality detection in emergency settings. Effective image interpretation education amenable to completion by radiographers would likely prove valuable in preparing radiographers for participation in abnormality detection and commenting systems in

  13. Chest radiographic findings in acute paraquat poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, Hee Jun; Sun, In O

    2016-01-01

    To describe the chest radiographic findings of acute paraquat poisoning. 691 patients visited the emergency department of our hospital between January 2006 and October 2012 for paraquat poisoning. Of these 691, we identified 56 patients whose initial chest radiographs were normal but who developed radiographic abnormalities within one week. We evaluated their radiographic findings and the differences in imaging features based on mortality. The most common finding was diffuse consolidation (29/56, 52%), followed by consolidation with linear and nodular opacities (18/56, 32%), and combined consolidation and pneumomediastinum (7/56, 13%). Pleural effusion was noted in 17 patients (30%). The two survivors (4%) showed peripheral consolidations, while the 54 patients (96%) who died demonstrated bilateral (42/54, 78%) or unilateral (12/54, 22%) diffuse consolidations. Rapidly progressing diffuse pulmonary consolidation was observed within one week on follow-up radiographs after paraquat ingestion in the deceased, but the survivors demonstrated peripheral consolidation

  14. Chest radiographic findings in acute paraquat poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, Hee Jun; Sun, In O [Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To describe the chest radiographic findings of acute paraquat poisoning. 691 patients visited the emergency department of our hospital between January 2006 and October 2012 for paraquat poisoning. Of these 691, we identified 56 patients whose initial chest radiographs were normal but who developed radiographic abnormalities within one week. We evaluated their radiographic findings and the differences in imaging features based on mortality. The most common finding was diffuse consolidation (29/56, 52%), followed by consolidation with linear and nodular opacities (18/56, 32%), and combined consolidation and pneumomediastinum (7/56, 13%). Pleural effusion was noted in 17 patients (30%). The two survivors (4%) showed peripheral consolidations, while the 54 patients (96%) who died demonstrated bilateral (42/54, 78%) or unilateral (12/54, 22%) diffuse consolidations. Rapidly progressing diffuse pulmonary consolidation was observed within one week on follow-up radiographs after paraquat ingestion in the deceased, but the survivors demonstrated peripheral consolidation.

  15. Supine Lateral Bending Radiographs Predict the Initial In-brace Correction of the Providence Brace in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Hallager, Dennis Winge; Gehrchen, Poul Martin

    2016-01-01

    are used to assess curve flexibility in patients undergoing surgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). A low rate of in-brace correction (IBC) has been associated with a higher risk of curve progression, but to what extent SLBR can be used to predict IBC before initiating bracing...

  16. Fast radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1984-08-01

    Industrial radiography can be performed with shorter exposure times, when instead of X-ray film with lead intensifying screens the radiographic paper with fluorescent screen is used. With paper radiography one can obtain lower material, equipment, and labor costs, shorter exposure and processing times, and easier radiation protection. The speed of the radiographic inspection can also be increased by the use of fluorometallic intensifying screens together with a special brand of X-ray film. Before accepting either of the two fast radiographic systems one must be sure that they can produce radiographs of adequate image quality. Therefore an investigation was performed on that subject using ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters. The radiographic image quality was tested for aluminium and steel up to 30 mm thick using various brands of radiographic paper and X-ray film with fluorometallic screens and comparing them with fast X-ray films with lead screens. Both systems give satisfactory results. (author)

  17. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality was tes...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  18. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  19. Visual simulation of radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, G.

    1985-01-01

    A method for computer simulation of radiographs has been added to the LLNL version of the solid modeler TIPS-1 (Technical Information Processing System-1). This new tool will enable an engineer to compare an actual radiograph of a solid to its computer-generated counterpart. The appearance of discrepancies between the two can be an indication of flaws in the solid object. Simulated radiographs can also be used to preview the placement of x-ray sources to focus on areas of concern before actual radiographs are made

  20. Coronal ultra-thick multiplanar CT reconstructions (MPR) of the pelvis in the multiple trauma patient: an alternative for the initial conventional radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leschka, S.; Alkadhi, H.; Boehm, T.; Marincek, B.; Wildermuth, S.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: multiple trauma patients with clinically suspected pelvic fractures often directly undergo a CT scan. However, the initial portable pelvis film (PPF) for further follow-up is then not available. This study examines whether coronal ultra-thick multiplanar reconstructions from CT data are similar when compared with the initial PPF, thus having the potential to serve as an alternative baseline image. Materials and methods: initial PPF and coronal ultra-thick multiplanar CT reconstructions of 33 multiple trauma patients with pelvic fractures were retrospectively analyzed by two independent radiologists with regard to image quality, visualization of anatomical landmarks, and diagnostic accuracy. The primary diagnosis of pelvic fractures was made by using thin axial CT images and thin slice coronal and sagittal reconstructions and served as the standard of reference. Results: coronal ultra-thick multiplanar CT reconstructions were superior to PPF regarding image adjustment (p < 0.02), absence of overlaying structures (p < 0.05), and overall image quality (p < 0.01). Visualization of most anatomical landmarks was similar with both modalities, except of the iliosacral joint and acetabular lines which were more accurately depicted on ultrathick multiplanar CT reconstructions (p < 0.05). Diagnostic accuracy of coronal ultra-thick CT reconstructions was similar to PPF regarding most fracture types, except of a higher accuracy of coronal ultra-thick CT reconstructions for iliosacral joint and acetabular column fractures (p < 0.05). Conclusion: coronal ultrathick multiplanar CT reconstructions of the pelvis provide similar image quality and diagnostic accuracy compared to PPF and are therefore suited as alternative baseline image in multiple trauma patients who directly undergo CT. (orig.)

  1. Legalities of the radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The radiograph itself plays a major role in medical malpractice cases. Also, many questions arise concerning the rights to and storage of x-ray films. These issues are addressed in this chapter. To keep the terminology simple, the word radiograph represents all imaging documentation on hard copy film (x-rays, nuclear medicine, computer-assisted studies, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging)

  2. Applied pathology for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudicina, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a basic text for the student of radiologic sciences. It includes most of the pathology recommended by the ASRT Curriculum Guide. Radiographic technique and positioning are examined when relevant to obtaining quality radiographs of specific disease conditions. Brief overviews of these conditions include background etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Many illustrations are included to enhance understanding

  3. [A comparison of chest radiographs between patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection and those with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the initial stage of disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Eri; Senoo, Mami; Nagayama, Naohiro; Masuda, Kimihiko; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Tamura, Atsuhisa; Nagai, Hideaki; Akagawa, Shinobu; Toyoda, Emiko; Oota, Ken

    2013-08-01

    To elucidate the differences in affected lung segments between patients with pulmonary M. kansasii infection and those with M. tuberculosis infection in the initial stage of disease, we examined chest radiography images and CT scans. The initial stage of disease was defined as the period when less than one-sixth of the total lung area was affected by the infection, as visualized on chest radiography and CT. One hundred eighty-four patients were diagnosed with M.kansasii infection between 1996 and 2010 and 835 patients, with M.tuberculosis infection between 2008 and 2009 at our hospital. The diagnosis was made on the basis of the results of sputum culture and/or bronchial washing. After excluding the patients with underlying lung diseases such as chronic pulmonary emphysema, interstitial pneumonia, and old pulmonary tuberculosis as well as those in advanced stages, 24 patients with M. kansasii infection and 62 patients with M. tuberculosis infection were included in this study. The affected segments of the lungs and the rates of cavity development were determined by using CT scans. In patients with M.kansasii, 17 had an infected right lung, while 7 had an infected left lung. Additionally, in patients with M.tuberculosis, 58 had an infected right lung, 3 had an infected left lung, and 1 had a bilateral infection. In patients infected with M. kansasii, the upper lobes were affected in 22 cases and the lower lobes in 3 cases. In patients infected with M. tuberculosis, the upper, middle, and lower lobes and the lingular segment were affected in 41, 8, 24, and 1 cases, respectively. Upper lobe lesions were seen more frequently in patients with M. kansasii infection than in those with M. tuberculosis infection (p formation was identified more frequently in patients infected with M. kansasii (91.7%) than in those infected with M. tuberculosis (32.3%) (p < 0.001). Cavitary lesions were more frequently localized to the apical, posterior, and apico-posterior regions (S1, S2

  4. Interactive radiographic image retrieval system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Malay Kumar; Chowdhury, Manish; Das, Sudeb

    2017-02-01

    Content based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) systems enable fast diagnosis through quantitative assessment of the visual information and is an active research topic over the past few decades. Most of the state-of-the-art CBMIR systems suffer from various problems: computationally expensive due to the usage of high dimensional feature vectors and complex classifier/clustering schemes. Inability to properly handle the "semantic gap" and the high intra-class versus inter-class variability problem of the medical image database (like radiographic image database). This yields an exigent demand for developing highly effective and computationally efficient retrieval system. We propose a novel interactive two-stage CBMIR system for diverse collection of medical radiographic images. Initially, Pulse Coupled Neural Network based shape features are used to find out the most probable (similar) image classes using a novel "similarity positional score" mechanism. This is followed by retrieval using Non-subsampled Contourlet Transform based texture features considering only the images of the pre-identified classes. Maximal information compression index is used for unsupervised feature selection to achieve better results. To reduce the semantic gap problem, the proposed system uses a novel fuzzy index based relevance feedback mechanism by incorporating subjectivity of human perception in an analytic manner. Extensive experiments were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed CBMIR system on a subset of Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA)-2009 database consisting of 10,902 labeled radiographic images of 57 different modalities. We obtained overall average precision of around 98% after only 2-3 iterations of relevance feedback mechanism. We assessed the results by comparisons with some of the state-of-the-art CBMIR systems for radiographic images. Unlike most of the existing CBMIR systems, in the proposed two-stage hierarchical framework, main importance

  5. Retreatment or radiographic monitoring in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhuysen, J P; Aouar, M; D'Hoore, W

    1994-03-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to assess 1032 endodontically treated roots in relation to: (i) the success rate of retreatment (612 roots)--only cases that had recall examinations of 6 months or longer were evaluated; (ii) the influence of various factors on the technical and clinical results of the retreatment; and (iii) the consequences of radiographic monitoring of 420 asymptomatic roots when the root filling was radiographically deficient (short, overextended and/or permeable root fillings). Technical assessment of the retreatment showed that the root was adequately sealed in 52.3% of cases, the root filling was improved in 33.8%, was identical with the initial treatment in 11.1% and was worse than the first treatment in 2.8% of the canals. Clinical assessment of the retreatment of symptomatic roots showed that 71.8% of the retreatments were judged successful, 18.9% showed some healing and 9.3% had failed. The initial size of the periapical lesion, the use of rubber dam, the root filling technique and the apical level of the root filling had a statistically significant influence on the result of the retreatment. Monitoring radiographically (median time span 6 years) led to maintenance of the status quo in 94.8% of cases, healing in 2.4% and failure in 2.8% of the canals. Retreatment is clearly indicated when periapical radiolucency, clinical signs and/or symptoms are present with relative success of up to 91%. When no or little radiographic evidence of periapical pathology was present, when clinical signs and symptoms were absent or when the root filling was radiographically deficient, radiographic monitoring led to complications in only a limited number of cases. clinical decision, endodontic retreatment, radiographic evaluation.

  6. The radiographer's role in child protection: Comparison of radiographers perceptions by use of focus groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Michaela; Reeves, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    The research presented in this paper is taken from a larger study whose aims were to devise a holistic picture of how diagnostic radiographers approach child protection issues and to explore how radiographers and other professionals see the role of radiographers in the chain of evidence in relation to child protection as this applies to children who present at the Imaging Department with suspected non-accidental injuries (NAI). A focus group methodology was used with focus groups being conducted in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. The results indicated that both United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland radiographers agreed that they had a role in child protection; however, they identified a wide interpretation as to the extent of that role. Although radiographers in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland work within different legal systems there were themes identified which were common to both countries. Although radiographers referred to a duty to the child as to all patients, no radiographer specifically mentioned the system and child care law under which it is assumed they operate. This research revealed an area which would benefit from more detailed research using a wider audience. However, the study revealed a need for training in relation to possible NAI indicators and the correct procedure for documenting their suspicions and initiating an NAI referral

  7. Interpretation of panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perschbacher, Susanne

    2012-03-01

    Panoramic radiography has become a commonly used imaging modality in dental practice and can be a valuable diagnostic tool in the dentist's armamentarium. However, the panoramic image is a complex projection of the jaws with multiple superimpositions and distortions which may be exacerbated by technical errors in image acquisition. Furthermore, the panoramic radiograph depicts numerous anatomic structures outside of the jaws which may create additional interpretation challenges. Successful interpretation of panoramic radiographs begins with an understanding of the normal anatomy of the head and neck and how it is depicted in this image type. This article will describe how osseous structures, soft tissues, air spaces and ghost shadows contribute to the final panoramic image. A systematic and repeated approach to examining panoramic radiographs, which is recommended to ensure that critical findings are not overlooked, is also outlined. Examples of challenging interpretations, including variations of anatomy, artefacts and disease, are presented to illustrate these concepts. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  8. Radiographic aspects of xeroradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.U.V.; Fatouros, P.P.

    1980-01-01

    The quality of a conventional radiographic image can be characterized in terms of five basic parameters; density, contrast, latitude, resolution and noise. Since xeroradiographic images exhibit very limited broad area contrasts, and image formation is predominantly due to edge enhancement, a straightforward description of image quality using the same five parameters is not adequate. A detailed study was made of the radiographic aspects of xeroradiography with special reference to mammography, and a summary of major findings to date with appropriate references to published papers is presented

  9. Nondestructive examination - radiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    First the basic principles of radiography are to be treated, especially the different radiation sources (X-ray, gamma-ray, neutrons, heat). In the second part those radiographic methods are shown, which are in common use for technical purposes, especially under the aspect of flaw recognition. (orig./RW)

  10. Matching hand radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, J.A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Bernelot Moens, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Biometric verification and identification methods of medical images can be used to find possible inconsistencies in patient records. Such methods may also be useful for forensic research. In this work we present a method for identifying patients by their hand radiographs. We use active appearance

  11. Learner concerns of radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popli, Pawan Kumar

    1998-01-01

    Today radiology is fastest developing branch of medical sciences. Most of the radiographers are trained in old fashion, most of training institutes lack proper equipment. It not only affects their career but radiological quality at large. For this purpose it is necessary to find out educational possibilities and needs of group. Therefore this project was taken up

  12. Computed tomography for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is directed towards giving radiographers an introduction to and basic knowledge of computerized tomography. The technical section discusses gantries and x-ray production, computer and disc drive image display, storage, artefacts quality assurance and design of departments. The clinical section includes patient preparation, radiotherapy planning, and interpretation of images from various areas of the anatomy. (U.K.)

  13. Radiographic interpretation of the appendicular skeleton: A comparison between casualty officers, nurse practitioners and radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Liz; Piper, Keith

    2009-01-01

    difference (p = 0.94). The radiographers' results demonstrated a moderate positive correlation (r = 0.51) between their clinical practice estimations and their actual image test bank scores (p = 0.02); however, no significant correlation was found for the nurse practitioners (r = 0.41, p = 0.16) or casualty officers (r = 0.07, p = 0.87). Conclusion: The scores and values achieved by the radiographers were statistically higher than those demonstrated by the participating nurse practitioners and/or casualty officers. The results of this research suggest that radiographers have the ability to formally utilise their knowledge in image interpretation by providing the ED with a written comment (initial interpretation) to assist in the radiographic diagnosis and therefore replace the ambiguous 'red dot' system used to highlight abnormal radiographs.

  14. Prognostic radiographic aspects of spondylolisthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraste, H.; Brostroem, L.A.; Aparisi, T.

    1984-01-01

    A series of 202 patients (133 men, 69 women) with lumbar spondylolysis were examined radiographically on two occasions, first at the time of diagnosis and later at a follow-up, after an observation period of 20 years or more. The films from patients in groups without and with moderate and severe olisthesis were evaluated with respect to variables describing lumbosacral lordosis, wedging of the spondylolytic vertebra, lengths of the transverse processes and iliolumbar ligaments, disk height, progression of slipping, and influence on measured olisthesis of lumbar spine flexion and extension at the radiographic examination. The evaluation was made with special attention to possible signs which could be predictive for the prognosis of vertebral slipping. Progression of slipping did not differ between patients diagnosed as adults or adolescents. Reduction of disk height was correlated to the degree of slipping present at the initial examination and to the progression of olisthesis. Flexion and extension of the lumbar spine did not modify the degree of olisthesis. Data concerning the lengths of the transverse processes and the iliolumbar ligaments, and lumbar lordosis, cannot be used for prognostic purposes. The lumbar index reflecting the degree of wedge deformity of the spondylolytic vertebra was shown to be the only variable of prognostic value for the development of vertebral slipping.

  15. Prognostic radiographic aspects of spondylolisthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraste, H.; Brostroem, L.A.; Aparisi, T.

    1984-01-01

    A series of 202 patients (133 men, 69 women) with lumbar spondylolysis were examined radiographically on two occasions, first at the time of diagnosis and later at a follow-up, after an observation period of 20 years or more. The films frompatients in groups without and with moderate and severe olisthesis were evaluated with respect to variables describing lumbosacral lordosis, wedging of the spondylolytic vertebra, lengths of the transverse processes and iliolumbar ligaments, disk height, progression of slipping, and influence on measured olisthesis of lumbar spine flexion and extension at the radiographic examination. The evaluation was made with special attention to possible signs which could be predictive for the prognosis of vertebral slipping. Progression of slipping did not differ between patients diagnosed as adults or adolescents. Reduction of disk height was correlated to the degree of slipping present at the initial examination and to the progression of olisthesis. Flexion and extension of the lumbar spine did not modify the degree of olisthesis. Data concerning the lengths of the transverse processes and the iliolumbar ligaments, and lumbar lordosis, cannot be used for prognostic purposes. The lumbar index reflecting the degree of wedge deformity of the spondylolytic vertebra was shown to be the only variable of prognostic value for the development of vertebral slipping. (orig.)

  16. Osteology for radiographers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shillingford, C.

    1985-01-01

    Radiographers need a detailed knowledge of the skeleton and it is not easy to find the correct level of information in the textbooks available to date. This book aims to fill this void. Descriptions of individual bones are logical and easy to follow, and common examples of pathology are included for each bone. Self-assessment questions are given at the end of each paper to enable students to assess their acquired knowledge and to facilitate private study.

  17. Radiographic evaluation of hallux valgus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, M.L.; Hansen, S.T.; Kilcoyne, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the common preoperative and postoperative findings in hallux valgus, a common foot disorder of multiple etiologies, which can lead to significant foot pain and deformity. Little has been published in radiologic literature about the proper initial radiographic workup and the postoperative follow-up of this very common and very treatable cause of foot pain. Besides the primary findings of varus angulation of the first metatarsal and valgus angulation of the great toe, one may also see dorsal slaying of the first metatarsal head. As increased weight is borne by the central metatarsals, they may develop hyperostosis and stress fractures. Angular deformities of the hallux sesamoid joint and lesser toes may also be seen

  18. Pocket atlas of radiographic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.; Stark, P.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Pocket Atlas of Radiographic Anatomy' presents 170 radiographs of the various body regions of adults, showing only the normal radiographic anatomy. Each radiograph is supplemented on the opposite page by a drawing of the particular body region. There is no commenting text, but the drawings are provided with captions in English. The atlas is a useful guide for interpreting radiographs. The pictures are arranged in chapters entitled as follows: Skeletal Imaging (skull, spine, upper extremity), lower extremity; Miscellaneous Plain Films (chest, mammogram, trachea, lung tomograms); Contrast Examinations (gastrointestinal tract, intravenous contrast examinations, arthrography, angiography); Special Examinations (myelograms, lymphangiograms, bronchograms, sialograms). (UWA). 348 figs [de

  19. Radiographic findings in immunodeficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obregon, R.; Lynch, D.A.; Cink, T.M.; Newell, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the chest radiographs and high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans in patients with immunodeficiency disorders and define the role of HRCT. Thirty-three cases were retrospectively graded according to the consensus of two radiologists. Patients with HIV seropositivity and asthma were excluded. HRCT was performed in 12 cases with standard techniques. Diagnoses included common variable hypogammaglobulinemia (n = 19), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 4), chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (n = 4), and selective immunoglobulin g deficiencies (n = 2). Chest radiographs showed bronchiectasis in 11 of 33 cases with a predominant lower lobe distribution (82%). Nodules were present in six cases and mucus plugs in four cases. HRCT showed bronchiectasis in nine of 12 cases; in five of these nine cases, bronchiectasis was not apparent on chest radiographs. Other HRCT findings included segmental air trapping (four of 12), mucus plugs (three of 12), hazy consolidation (four of 12), nodules (five of 12), and bronchiolectasis (two of 12). Therapy was altered in seven of 12 cases in which HRCT was performed. Most pertinent to clinical management were the presence of a thymoma (n = 1) and severe focal of diffuse bronchiectasis

  20. Radiograph identifying means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    A flexible character-indentable plastics embossing tape is backed by and bonded to a lead strip, not more than 0.025 inches thick, to form a tape suitable for identifying radiographs. The lead strip is itself backed by a relatively thin and flimsy plastics or fabric strip which, when removed, allows the lead plastic tape to be pressure-bonded to the surface to be radiographed. A conventional tape-embossing gun is used to indent the desired characters in succession into the lead-backed tape, without necessarily severing the lead; and then the backing strip is peeled away to expose the layer of adhesive which pressure-bonds the indented tape to the object to be radiographed. X-rays incident on the embossed tape will cause the raised characters to show up dark on the subsequently-developed film, whilst the raised side areas will show up white. Each character will thus stand out on the developed film. (author)

  1. Radiographic testing of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Zscherpel, U.; Raedel, C.; Weidemann, G.; Meinel, D.; Goebbels, J.; Ewert, U.; Hasenstab, A.; Buecherl, T.

    2007-01-01

    Wood is an old and established consumption and construction material. It is still the most common material for constructing furniture, roofs, playgrounds and mine supports. In contrast to steel and concrete, wood warns of extreme loads by creaking. Its mechanical stability is more influenced by decay than by peripheral cracks. While external cracks are visible, internal decay by fungus growth is undetectable from outside. This may be a safety problem in supporting structures. The best analysis of the internal structure is provided by computed tomography, but this is also the most complex method, much more so than simple radiographic testing. However, the latter is made inaccurate by scattered radiation resulting from internal moisture. With the image processing options of digital radiographic techniques, the structural information can be separated effectively from noise. In contrast to X-ray and gamma radiography, neutron radiography provides information on the spatial distribution of moisture. In healthy wood, water is conducted in the sapwood while the hardwood is dry. Moisture in hardwood is caused by infestations, e.g. fungus growth. The contribution presents a comparative analysis of the available radiographic methods. (orig.)

  2. Large Format Radiographic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, J. S.; Stewart, Lacey; Wilke, M. D.; King, N. S.; Baker A, S.; Lewis, Wilfred

    1999-01-01

    Radiographic imaging continues to be a key diagnostic in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiographic recording systems have taken on many form, from high repetition-rate, gated systems to film recording and storage phosphors. Some systems are designed for synchronization to an accelerator while others may be single shot or may record a frame sequence in a dynamic radiography experiment. While film recording remains a reliable standby in the radiographic community, there is growing interest in investigating electronic recording for many applications. The advantages of real time access to remote data acquisition are highly attractive. Cooled CCD camera systems are capable of providing greater sensitivity with improved signal-to-noise ratio. This paper begins with a review of performance characteristics of the Bechtel Nevada large format imaging system, a gated system capable of viewing scintillators up to 300 mm in diameter. We then examine configuration alternatives in lens coupled and fiber optically coupled electro-optical recording systems. Areas of investigation include tradeoffs between fiber optic and lens coupling, methods of image magnification, and spectral matching from scintillator to CCD camera. Key performance features discussed include field of view, resolution, sensitivity, dynamic range, and system noise characteristics

  3. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  4. Peritoneal tuberculosis: radiographic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ospina-Moreno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal tuberculosis (TB is an extrapulmonary form of presentation of tuberculosis. HIV infection is a primary risk factor for this condition. Diagnosis requires microbiological or histopathological confirmation in addition to supporting radiological imaging studies. Abdominal ultrasonography and CT are useful to obtain a radiographic diagnosis, with typical findings including diffuse peritoneal thickening, presence of ascites in varying volumes, adenopathies, and caseating nodes. We report 2 cases of patients with ascites and nodular peritoneal thickening on diagnostic images, as well as high CA-125 levels in laboratory tests. In both patients, a diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis was reached following a US-guided peritoneal biopsy.

  5. Interpreting radiographs. 4. The carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguez, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    The complexity of the carpus which has three major joints, seven or eight carpal bones and five adjacent bones, each of which articulates with one or more of the carpal elements, necessitates good quality radiographs for definitive radiographic interpretation may be extremely difficult because of the disparity between radiographic changes and obvious clinical signs and, therefore, must be discussed in the light of a thorough clinical assessment

  6. Radiographer interpretation of trauma radiographs: Issues for radiography education providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Maryann; Snaith, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    Background: The role of radiographers with respect to image interpretation within clinical practice is well recognised. It is the expectation of the professional, regulatory and academic bodies that upon qualification, radiographers will possess image interpretation skills. Additionally, The College of Radiographers has asserted that its aspiration is for all radiographers to be able to provide an immediate written interpretation on skeletal trauma radiographs by 2010. This paper explores the readiness of radiography education programmes in the UK to deliver this expectation. Method: A postal questionnaire was distributed to 25 Higher Education Institutions in the UK (including Northern Ireland) that provided pre-registration radiography education as identified from the Society and College of Radiographers register. Information was sought relating to the type of image interpretation education delivered at pre- and post-registration levels; the anatomical range of image interpretation education; and education delivery styles. Results: A total of 19 responses (n = 19/25; 76.0%) were received. Image interpretation education was included as part of all radiographer pre-registration programmes and offered at post-registration level at 12 academic centres (n = 12/19; 63.2%). The anatomical areas and educational delivery methods varied across institutions. Conclusion: Radiography education providers have embraced the need for image interpretation education within both pre- and post-registration radiography programmes. As a result, UK education programmes are able to meet the 2010 College of Radiographers aspiration.

  7. Odontogenic keratocyst radiographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nartey, N. O.; Saini, T.

    1990-01-01

    The clinical features often patients with odontogenic keratocysts were studied. One patient had Gorlin-GoJtz syndrome. A total of fourteen radiolucent lesions were observed on radiographic examination. All the fourteen lesions were diagnosed as odontogenic keratocyst after histopathclogical examination of biopsied tissue from the patients. The age at diagnosis ranged from 25-72 years with a mean age of 37.6 years. The male : female ratio was 2.3:1. Thirteen of these lesions occurred in the mandible, nine involved the mandibular third molar region. Involvement of the ramus of the mandible produced a sausage-shaped radiolucency. Cystic lesions which have been present for long periods of time showed scalloped margins, due to the regional resorption of the surrounding bone. The bony ledges present on the cortical bones simulated multilocular appearance in such cases. It was also observed that the lesions in older individuals perforated the cortical plates rather than eliciting a periostally induced bony expansion. (author)

  8. Radiographic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golman, K.; Holtz, E.; Almen, T.

    1987-01-01

    Contrast media are used in diagnostic radiology to enhance the X-ray attenuation between a body structure of interest and the surrounding tissue. A detail becomes perceptible on a roentgenogram only when its contrast exceeds a minimum value in relation to the background. Small areas of interest must have higher contrast than the background. The contrast effect depends on concentration of the contrast media with the body. A high contrast media concentration difference thus gives rise to more morphological details in the radiographs. Contrast media can be divided into negative contrast media such as air and gas which attenuate X-rays less than the body tissues, and positive contrast materials which attenuate X-rays more than the body tissues. The positive contrast media all contain either iodine (atomic number 53) or barium (atomic number 56) and can be divided into water-insoluble and water-soluble contrast media

  9. A radiographic examination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, A.P.; Cable, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    A system for performing radiographic examination, particularly of large items such as international container units is disclosed. The system is formed as an installation comprising housings for respective linear accelerators transmitting a beam of radiation across the path of a conveyor along which the units can be displaced continuously or incrementally. On either end of the installation are container handling areas including roller conveyors with drag chains and transverse manipulators, and the whole installation is secured within automatically operated doors which seal the high energy region when a container on the conveyor is being subjected to examination. The radiation transmitted through a container is detected in a detector system incorporating a fluoroscopic screen light output from which is detected in a camera system such as a television camera, and transmitted as coded pulsed signals by a coding transfer unit to display screens where an image of the transmitted information can be displayed and/or recorded for further use. (author)

  10. Puncture wounds into the navicular bursa of the horse: role of radiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, G.L.; O'Brien, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    Radiography was used to evaluate 32 horses presented for puncture wounds into the navicular bursa. At the initial radiographic examination, 21 horses had no radiographic signs of osteomyelitis, while 11 did. The mean-time interval between injury and radiographic examination was 20.6 days for horses without evidence of osteomyelitis and 59.3 days for those with evidence of osteomyelitis. Radiographic signs of osteomyelitis of the navicular bone included flexor cortical destruction and irregularity of the flexor surface. Other abnormalities included pathologic fracture of the navicular bone, subluxation of the distal interphalangeal joint, or secondary joint disease. The lateromedial and palmaroproximal-palmarodistal oblique projections were most useful for identifying abnormalities of the navicular bone. There was a high correlation between horses that had positive presurgical radiographic signs and surgical findings. However, approximately 50% of horses that had negative radiographic findings initially had positive surgical findings. Ten of 21 horses with negative radiographic findings on initial examination had evidence of bony lesions when reevaluated from 3 weeks to 6 years later. Nine of 11 horses with radiographic signs of osteomyelitis on initial radiographic examination were euthanatized or had an unsatisfactory outcome. Seven of 10 horses with radiographic signs on reexamination were euthanatized. Thirteen of 20 horses with positive surgical findings for navicular bone infection were euthanatized or had an unsatisfactory outcome

  11. Clavicle segmentation in chest radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, L.E.; Sanchez, C.I.; Jong, P.A. de; Maduskar, P.; Ginneken, B. van

    2012-01-01

    Automated delineation of anatomical structures in chest radiographs is difficult due to superimposition of multiple structures. In this work an automated technique to segment the clavicles in posterior-anterior chest radiographs is presented in which three methods are combined. Pixel classification

  12. Chesneys' radiographic imaging. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Price, T.

    1989-01-01

    This new edition of Chesney and Chesney: Radiographic Imaging has been completely written by two new authors. The book reflects the change in emphasis in radiology from photographic processes towards electronic imaging methods. There is new material on image intensifiers and television imaging, digital imaging and digital subtractions. Analyses of the various characteristics of, and defects in, images on radiographs, xeroradiographs and the television screen are included. The methods, equipment and materials used to record the cathode ray tube image are described and there is new material on the principles of alternative diagnostic imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography and radionuclide imaging which provide cathode ray tube images. The book is primarily for student radiographers studying for the Diploma of the College of Radiographers, but radiographers studying for postdiplomate qualifications such as the Higher Diploma (HDCR) will also find the book helpful. (author)

  13. The reliability of tablet computers in depicting maxillofacial radiographic landmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadinada, Aditya; Mahdian, Mina; Sheth, Sonam; Chandhoke, Taranpreet K.; Gopalakrishna, Aadarsh; Potluri, Anitha; Yadav, Sumit [University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States)

    2015-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the reliability of the identification of anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs on a standard medical grade picture archiving communication system (PACS) monitor and a tablet computer (iPad 5). A total of 1000 radiographs, including 500 panoramic and 500 lateral cephalometric radiographs, were retrieved from the de-identified dataset of the archive of the Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology of the University Of Connecticut School Of Dental Medicine. Major radiographic anatomical landmarks were independently reviewed by two examiners on both displays. The examiners initially reviewed ten panoramic and ten lateral cephalometric radiographs using each imaging system, in order to verify interoperator agreement in landmark identification. The images were scored on a four-point scale reflecting the diagnostic image quality and exposure level of the images. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two displays regarding the visibility and clarity of the landmarks in either the panoramic or cephalometric radiographs. Tablet computers can reliably show anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs.

  14. Radiographic scanner apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wake, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The preferred embodiment of this invention includes a hardware system, or processing means, which operates faster than software. Moreover the computer needed is less expensive and smaller. Radiographic scanner apparatus is described for measuring the intensity of radiation after passage through a planar region and for reconstructing a representation of the attenuation of radiation by the medium. There is a source which can be rotated, and detectors, the output from which forms a data line. The detectors are disposed opposite the planar region from the source to produce a succession of data lines corresponding to the succession of angular orientations of the source. There is a convolver means for convolving each of these data lines, with a filter function, and a means of processing the convolved data lines to create the representation of the radiation attenuation in the planar region. There is also apparatus to generate a succession of data lines indicating radiation attenuation along a determinable path with convolver means. (U.K.)

  15. Which factors influence radiographic progression during treatment with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Østergaard, Mikkel; Bøyesen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    years after anti-TNF initiation in clinical practice. METHODS: DANBIO-registered patients with RA who had available radiographs (anti-TNF initiation and ∼2 yrs followup) were included. Radiographs were scored, blinded to chronology with the Sharp/van der Heijde method and linked with DANBIO data...... with radiographic progression during 2 years of followup of 930 anti-TNF-treated patients with RA in clinical practice. High disease activity and switching/stopping anti-TNF treatment were associated with radiographic progression....

  16. Chest radiographic findings of leptospirosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mee Hyun; Jung, Hee Tae; Lee, Young Joong; Yoon, Jong Sup

    1986-01-01

    1. A study on chest radiographic findings of 54 cases with pneumonia like symptoms was performed. Of 54 cases, 8 cases were confirmed to be leptospirosis and 7 cases were leptospirosis combined with Korean hemorrhagic fever. 2. Of 8 cases of leptospirosis, 4 cases showed abnormal chest radiographic findings: acinar nodular type 2, massive confluent consolidation type 2. Of 7 cases of leptospirosis combined with Korean hemorrhagic fever: acinar nodular type 3, massive confluent consolidation type 1, and increased interstitial markings type 1 respectively. 3. It was considered to be difficult to diagnose the leptospirosis on chest radiographic findings alone, especially the case combined with Korean hemorrhagic fever.

  17. Opportunistic esophagitis in AIDS: radiographic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, M S; Woldenberg, R; Herlinger, H; Laufer, I

    1987-12-01

    Thirty-five of 90 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) seen between 1983 and 1986 underwent esophagography (double contrast in all but two) to rule out opportunistic esophagitis; 20 of the 35 were found to have fungal or viral esophagitis. A radiographic diagnosis of Candida esophagitis was made in 17 patients because of varying degrees of plaque formation. Seven of those patients had a grossly irregular or "shaggy" esophagus; in four, the diagnosis of AIDS was initially suspected from this finding. In the remaining three patients, a radiographic diagnosis of viral esophagitis (herpes simplex in two and cytomegalovirus in one) was made because of discrete ulcers on a normal background mucosa. Eighteen patients had endoscopic, clinical, or autopsy findings that corroborated the radiographic diagnosis; follow-up data were not available for two patients with Candida esophagitis. This experience suggests that fungal and viral esophagitis can often be differentiated with double-contrast esophagography, enabling appropriate antifungal or antiviral therapy to be instituted without endoscopic intervention.

  18. The radiographic image: A cultural artefact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the role of the radiographic images produced by diagnostic radiographers. An ethnographic study of the workplace culture in one diagnostic imaging department was undertaken using participant observation for four months and semi-structured interviews with ten key informants. One of the key themes; that of the radiographic image as a cultural artefact, is explored in this article. The radiographic image is a cultural artefact which radiographers are protective of and take ownership of. Radiographers are conscious of the quality of their images and the images are an important aspect of their work. Radiographers take criticism of their images personally. The radiographic image is a record of the interaction that occurs between the radiographer and the patient. The way in which radiographic images are viewed, used and judged is an important aspect of the role of diagnostic radiographer

  19. Scanning radiographic apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Visual display of dental, medical or other radiographic images is realized with an x-ray tube in which an electron beam is scanned through an x-y raster pattern on a broad anode plate, the scanning being synchronized with the x-y sweep signals of a cathode ray tube display and the intensity signal for the display being derived from a small x-ray detector which receives x-rays that have passed through the subject to be imaged. Positioning and support of the detector are provided for by disposing the detector in a probe which may be attached to the x-ray tube at any of a plurality of different locations and by providing a plurality of such probes of different configuration in order to change focal length, to accommodate to different detector placements relative to the subject, to enhance patient comfort and to enable production of both periapical images and wider angle pantomographic images. High image definition with reduced radiation dosage is provided for by a lead glass collimator situated between the x-ray tube and subject and having a large number of spaced-apart minute radiation transmissive passages convergent on the position of the detector. Releasable mounting means enable changes of collimator in conjunction with changes of the probe to change focal length. A control circuit modifies the x-y sweep signals applied to the x-ray tube and modulates electron beam energy and current in order to correct for image distortions and other undesirable effects which can otherwise be present in a scanning x-ray system.

  20. Method for taking X radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, G.

    1983-01-01

    The method is aimed at obtaining X radiographs of any human organ with the aid of an X-ray-shadowless radiation detector of a dose measuring device, which is arranged between patient and imaging system, and of a controlling microprocessor system, so that the image-forming parameters are automatically adjusted to the specific properties of the patient. This procedure minimices the efforts in preparing the radiograph and the radiation exposure of the patient

  1. A radiographic study of mental foramen in intraoral radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Ick; Choi, Karp Shik

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position and shape of mental foramen in periapical radiographs. For this study, periapical radiographs of premolar areas were obtained from the 200 adults. Accordingly, the positional and shape changes of mental foramen were evaluated. The authors obtained radiographs according to changes in radiation beam direction in periapical radiographs of premolar areas, and then evaluated the positional and shape changes of mental foramen. The following results were obtained: 1. Shapes of mental foramen were observed elliptical (34.3%), round or oval (28.0%), unidentified (25.5%) and diffuse (12.2%) type in descending order of frequency. 2, Horizontal positions of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the 2nd premolar area (55.3%), the area between the 1st premolar and 2nd premolar (39.6%), the area between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar (3.4%), the 1st premolar area (1.0%), the area between the canine and 1st premolar (0.7%) in descending order of frequency. 3. Vertical positions of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the inferior to apex (67.1%), and at apex (24.8%), overlap with apex (6.4%), superior to apex (1.7%) in descending order of frequency. 4. Shapes of mental foramen were more obviously observed at the upward 10 degree positioned periapical radiographs. And according to the changes of horizontal and vertical position, they were observed similar to normally positioned periapical radiographs.

  2. A radiographic study of mental foramen in intraoral radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jeong Ick; Choi, Karp Shik [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position and shape of mental foramen in periapical radiographs. For this study, periapical radiographs of premolar areas were obtained from the 200 adults. Accordingly, the positional and shape changes of mental foramen were evaluated. The authors obtained radiographs according to changes in radiation beam direction in periapical radiographs of premolar areas, and then evaluated the positional and shape changes of mental foramen. The following results were obtained: 1. Shapes of mental foramen were observed elliptical (34.3%), round or oval (28.0%), unidentified (25.5%) and diffuse (12.2%) type in descending order of frequency. 2, Horizontal positions of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the 2nd premolar area (55.3%), the area between the 1st premolar and 2nd premolar (39.6%), the area between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar (3.4%), the 1st premolar area (1.0%), the area between the canine and 1st premolar (0.7%) in descending order of frequency. 3. Vertical positions of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the inferior to apex (67.1%), and at apex (24.8%), overlap with apex (6.4%), superior to apex (1.7%) in descending order of frequency. 4. Shapes of mental foramen were more obviously observed at the upward 10 degree positioned periapical radiographs. And according to the changes of horizontal and vertical position, they were observed similar to normally positioned periapical radiographs.

  3. Attitudes of radiographers to radiographer-led discharge: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumsden, Laura; Cosson, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background: The traditional role of the Diagnostic Radiographer in image acquisition has gradually been extended through skill-mix, particularly to include abnormality detection. Aims: This research focused on the attitudes of Radiographers to Radiographer-led Discharge (RLD), where Radiographers discharge patients with minor injuries and perform tasks previously undertaken by Accident and Emergency staff. The effects of job role, hospital type, experience and whether RLD was used in the participant's trust were examined. Method: A multiple-indicator online questionnaire assessed attitudes to RLD. Snowball sampling was used with advertisement via emails, posters and cards, containing Quick Response (QR) codes. Statement responses were coded, with reverse coding for negative statements and total scores were calculated. A higher score represented a more positive attitude. Results: 101 questionnaires were completed (an estimated 30% response rate) and the mean total score was 84/115. 95% of participants supported radiographer involvement in abnormality detection, with 46.5% selecting RLD as the preferred system for minor injuries patients vs 48.5% preferring commenting alone. Discussion: Participants were positive about extending their role through RLD and felt confident in their image interpretation abilities, though expressed concern for the legal consequences of the role and adequate pay. Generalization of the results is limited due to the possible low response rate. Conclusion: Overall, participants demonstrated positive attitudes towards RLD but they also indicate the need for appropriate payment for any additional responsibility. These findings are promising for successful implementation of RLD, though larger-scale research including radiologists, business managers, A and E staff and patients would be beneficial. - Highlights: • 101 questionnaires were completed (an estimated 30% response rate). • 95% of participants supported radiographer involvement

  4. Intra-observer reproducibility and interobserver reliability of the radiographic parameters in the Spinal Deformity Study Group's AIS Radiographic Measurement Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Natasha Radhika; Moreau, Marc J; Hill, Douglas L; Mahood, James K; Raso, James

    2005-05-01

    Retrospective cross-sectional assessment of the reproducibility and reliability of radiographic parameters. To measure the intra-examiner and interexaminer reproducibility and reliability of salient radiographic features. The management and treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) depends on accurate and reproducible radiographic measurements of the deformity. Ten sets of radiographs were randomly selected from a sample of patients with AIS, with initial curves between 20 degrees and 45 degrees. Fourteen measures of the deformity were measured from posteroanterior and lateral radiographs by 2 examiners, and were repeated 5 times at intervals of 3-5 days. Intra-examiner and interexaminer differences were examined. The parameters include measures of curve size, spinal imbalance, sagittal kyphosis and alignment, maximum apical vertebral rotation, T1 tilt, spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis, and skeletal age. Intra-examiner reproducibility was generally excellent for parameters measured from the posteroanterior radiographs but only fair to good for parameters from the lateral radiographs, in which some landmarks were not clearly visible. Of the 13 parameters observed, 7 had excellent interobserver reliability. The measurements from the lateral radiograph were less reproducible and reliable and, thus, may not add value to the assessment of AIS. Taking additional measures encourages a systematic and comprehensive assessment of spinal radiographs.

  5. Industrial radiography on radiographic paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1977-11-01

    An investigation was performed to compare the quality of radiographic paper with that of X-ray film, after a review had been made of the rather scarce literature on the subject. The equipment used throughout the investigation is described, and characteristic curves for Agfa-Gevaert and Kodak papers exposed with different intensifying screens in the low and intermediate voltage range are reproduced. The relative speed, contrast and exposure latitude were computed from these curves. The quality of the radiographic image was checked on U/Al blocks and plates, Al and Fe blocks, and fiber-reinforced composites. Exposure charts for Al and Fe were made for various paper and screen combinations. Both the sharpness of the radiographic image as well as the influence of processing on speed and contrast were checked. Examples are given of the practical application of the paper for radiography of castings, weldings, solderings, assemblies, etc. (author)

  6. Caries detection in dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Caries, or the decay of teeth are difficult to automatically detect in dental radiographs because of the small area of the image that is occupied by the decay. Images of dental radiographs has distinct regions of homogeneous gray levels, and therefore naturally lead to a segmentation based automatic caries detection algorithm. This paper describes a method for caries detection based on a multiclass, area independent thresholding and segmenting scheme. This multiclass thresholding algorithm is an extension of the uniform error threshold, an area independent, distribution free thresholding method used for images of only two classes of objects. The authors first consider the problem of caries detection and the image features that characterize the presence of caries. Next, the uniform error threshold is reviewed, and the general multiclass uniform error threshold algorithm is presented. This algorithm is used to automatically detect caries in dental radiographs

  7. Digital image analysis of NDT radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeme, W.A. Jr.; Eizember, A.C.; Douglass, J.

    1989-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detectors the majority of image analysis performed on NDT radiographic images was done visually in the analog domain. While some film digitization was being performed, the process was often unable to capture all the usable information on the radiograph or was too time consuming. CCD technology now provides a method to digitize radiographic film images without losing the useful information captured in the original radiograph in a timely process. Incorporating that technology into a complete digital radiographic workstation allows analog radiographic information to be processed, providing additional information to the radiographer. Once in the digital domain, that data can be stored, and fused with radioscopic and other forms of digital data. The result is more productive analysis and management of radiographic inspection data. The principal function of the NDT Scan IV digital radiography system is the digitization, enhancement and storage of radiographic images

  8. PACS influence the radiographer's work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridell, Kent; Aspelin, Peter; Edgren, Lars; Lindskoeld, Lars; Lundberg, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Radiological departments are changing rapidly due to the implementation of digital images and PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems). The introduction of new technology seems to dissolve boundaries between the professions in the work environment where the technology is introduced. This process tends to change the organization and its routines. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore changes in radiographers' work with regard to skills, work practice and technology. The study used open-ended interviews to explore the radiographers' perceptions of such changes, and to identify problems and solutions pertaining to work practice. Inspiration is taken from grounded theory to explain the changes in work that were found. Respondents were selected from a total of 133 potential participants as a theoretical or purposive sample. The changing trends within the professional role indicated that radiographers, as image producers, shifted their focus from the ability to set the optimal exposure parameters in order to obtain the optimal image for diagnosis to become expert in exposure parameters, projection techniques and diagnostic practice, having multifaceted skills, as being the jack of all trades. When implementing PACS there was an obvious change in image production. At the start there were visions of new routines, and therefore the radiographers became early adopters to the new technology; in practice the organization was stacked in old routines, as the routines were inflexible and PACS work was pushed into old work routines. Although inflexible, this does not mean that they cannot change, and obviously in 2006 new routines had been implemented making it possible for the radiographers in finding new ways for collaborating with colleagues. The new technology immediately created a vision of improved service to the clinicians. In order to optimize the service the radiographers developed an insight into the need for a more comprehensive change in work using

  9. Limitations of radiographs in evaluating non-displaced osteochondral lesions of the talus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dheer, Sachin [Department of Radiology, Kennedy Health System, Cherry Hill, NJ (United States); Khan, Mustafa [University of Toledo Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Toledo, OH (United States); Zoga, Adam C.; Morrison, William B. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate what limitations, if any, radiographs have in detecting and characterizing the morphology of non-displaced OCLTs (size, cystic change, fragmentation, and avascular necrosis [AVN]). Thirty-three OCLTs in 32 patients were reviewed in consensus by a board-certified, fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist and orthopedic surgeon, on radiographs and MRI examinations performed within 15 days of one another. Location, dimensions, and characteristics of the OCLT (fragmentation, bone marrow edema, cystic change, and necrosis) were documented on the radiographs and MRI examinations. There was an average of 7.5 days (range: 1-15 days) between the MRIs and radiographs. Eighteen (55%) medial and 15 (45%) lateral OCLTs were found; none was displaced. OCLTs were categorized into three groups: Group 1 - initially diagnosed with radiographs (4/33; 12%), Group 2 - diagnosed with radiographs only after MRI correlation (20/33; 61%), and Group 3 - not identifiable on radiographs despite MRI correlation (9/33; 27%). The dimensions of all of the lesions in Groups 1 and 2 were underestimated on radiographs. Only 1 of the 4 (25%) lesions in Group 1 and 1 of the 20 (5%) lesions in Group 2 could be measured in the anteroposterior (AP) dimension (using a lateral radiograph). The most common radiographic appearance of non-displaced OCLTs was an ''ill-defined'' lucency at the talar dome (20/33; 61%). Across all three groups, fragmentation, cystic change, and AVN were radiographically apparent in 3/10 (30%), 4/19 (21%), and 1/6 (17%) cases respectively. Compared with MRI, radiographs are limited in their evaluation of the size (particularly the AP dimension) and characteristics (fragmentation, cystic change, and AVN) of non-displaced OCLTs. The most common appearance of non-displaced OCLTs is an ''ill-defined'' lucency at the talar dome. When this appearance is also considered, the estimated retrospective sensitivity of radiographs

  10. Follow-up radiographs of the cervical spine after anterior fusion with titanium intervertebral disc; Roentgen-Verlaufsuntersuchung der Halswirbelsaeule nach anteriorer Fusion mit Titaninterponaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederer, J.; Hutzelmann, A.; Heller, M. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Rama, B. [Paracelsus Klinik, Osnabrueck (Germany). Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie

    1999-08-01

    Purpose: We examined the postoperative changes of the cervical spine after treatment of cervical nerve root compression with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with a new titanium intervertebral disc. Patients and Methods: 37 patients were examined prior to, as well as 4 days, 6 weeks, and 7 months after surgery. Lateral view X-rays and functional imaging were used to evaluate posture and mobility of the cervical spine, the position of the implants, and the reactions of adjacent bone structures. Results: Implantation of the titanium disc led to post-operative distraction of the intervertebral space and slight lordosis. Within the first 6 months a slight loss of distraction and re-kyphosis due to impression of the implants into the vertebral end-plates were found in all patients. We noted partial infractions into the vertebral end-plates in 10/42 segments and slight mobility of the implants in 14/42 segments. Both groups of patients showed reactive spondylosis and local symptoms due to loosening of the implants. The pain subsided after onset of bone bridging and stable fixation of the loosened discs. Conclusions: The titanium intervertebral disc provides initial distraction of the fusioned segments with partial recurrence of kyphosis during the subsequent course. Loosening of the implants with local symptoms can be evaluated with follow-up X-rays and functional imaging. (orig.) [German] Ziel: An Patienten mit zervikalen Kompressionssyndromen wurden Stellung und Funktion der Halswirbelsaeule nach Diskektomie und Fusion mit einem neuartigen Titaninterponat untersucht. Patienten und Methoden: Bei 37 Patienten (42 Segmente) wurden praeoperativ sowie 4 Tage, 6 Wochen und 7 Monate postoperativ mit seitlichen Uebersichts- und Funktionsaufnahmen Stellung und Mobilitaet der HWS beurteilt. Erfasst wurden Lageveraenderungen des Titaninterponates und die Reaktion der angrenzenden Wirbelkoerperabschlussplatten. Ergebnisse: Das Titaninterponat bewirkte postoperativ eine

  11. Radiographic findings of Proteus Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Mukesh Gandhi, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extremely rare Proteus Syndrome is a hamartomatous congenital syndrome with substantial variability between clinical patient presentations. The diagnostic criteria consist of a multitude of clinical findings including hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly, epidermal nevi, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors, and bony abnormalities. These clinical findings correlate with striking radiographic findings.

  12. Radiographic findings of Proteus Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nishant Mukesh; Davalos, Eric A.; Varma, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    The extremely rare Proteus Syndrome is a hamartomatous congenital syndrome with substantial variability between clinical patient presentations. The diagnostic criteria consist of a multitude of clinical findings including hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly, epidermal nevi, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors, and bony abnormalities. These clinical findings correlate with striking radiographic findings. PMID:27186241

  13. Radiographic testing in concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, D. de

    1987-01-01

    The radiographic testing done in concrete structures is used to analyse the homogeneity, position and corrosion of armatures and to detect discontinuity in the concrete such as: gaps, cracks and segregations. This work develops a Image quality Indicator (IQI) with an adequated sensibility to detect discontinuites based on BS4408 norm. (E.G.) [pt

  14. Radiographic evidence of femoroacetabular impingement in athletes with athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economopoulos, Kostas J; Milewski, Matthew D; Hanks, John B; Hart, Joseph M; Diduch, David R

    2014-03-01

    Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevalence of underlying FAI. Case series. Level 4. A retrospective review of all patients evaluated at our institution with athletic pubalgia who underwent surgical treatment (ie, for sports hernia) from 1999 to 2011 was performed. The radiographs of patients with athletic pubalgia were reviewed for radiographic signs of FAI. Alpha angles were measured using frog-leg lateral radiographs. Pincer lesions were identified by measuring the lateral center-edge angle and identifying the presence of a "crossover" sign on anteroposterior radiographs. Phone follow-up was performed 2 years or more after the initial sports hernia surgery to evaluate recurrent symptoms. Forty-three patients underwent 56 athletic pubalgia surgeries. Radiographic evidence of FAI was identified in at least 1 hip in 37 of 43 patients (86%). Cam lesions were identified in 83.7% of the population; the alpha angle averaged 66.7° ± 17.9° for all hips. Pincer lesions were present in 28% of the hips. Eight patients had recurrent groin pain, 3 patients had revision athletic pubalgia surgery, and 1 had hip arthroscopy. The study demonstrates a high prevalence of radiographic FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Underlying FAI may be a cause of continued groin pain after athletic pubalgia surgery. Patients with athletic pubalgia should be evaluated closely for FAI.

  15. Radiographic imaging for Ilizarov limb lengthening in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blane, C.E.; DiPietro, M.A.; Herzenberg, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Ilizarov method for limb lengthening is rapidly gaining popularity in North America. Use of this new technique has necessitated modifications in radiographic protocol. Initial imaging problems gained from our experience with twenty children are detailed including accurate centering for the plain films, correcting for magnification to accurately measure the distraction gap and the expected radiographic appearance of the regenerate bone. Ultrasonography has potential value in accurately measuring the distraction gap and in imaging the new bone prior to radiographic appearance. Since overly fast distraction inhibits bone formation and overly slow distraction leads to premature consolidation, ultrasound may serve a useful role in the qualitative evaluation of new bone formation in Ilizarov limb lengthening, enabling the orthopedic surgeon to tailor the distraction rate to the particular child. (orig.)

  16. [Transparency regime: semiotics of radiographical images in urological diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Fangerau, H

    2012-10-01

    Shortly after Röntgen discovered x-rays urology became one of the main test fields for the application of this new technology. Initial scepticism among physicians, who were inclined to cling to traditional manual methods of diagnosing, was replaced by enthusiasm for radiographic technologies and the new method soon became the standard in, for example the diagnosis of concrements. Patients favoring radiographic procedures over the use of probes and a convincing documentation of stones in radiograms were factors that impacted the relatively rapid integration of radiology into urology. The radiographic representation of soft tissues and body cavities was more difficult and the development of contrast agents in particular posed a serious problem. Several patients died during this research. A new diagnostic dimension was revealed when radiography and cystography were combined to form the method of retrograde pyelography. However, the problem of how urologists could learn how to read the new images remained. In order to allow trainee physicians to practice interpreting radiograms atlases were produced which offered explanatory texts and drawings for radiographic images of the kidneys, the bladder etc. Thus, urologists developed a self-contained semiotics which facilitated the appropriation of a unique urological radiographical gaze.

  17. [The importance of conventional radiographs in the diagnosis of osteosarcoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S; Reinhard, H; Graf, N; Püschel, W; Ziegler, K; Schneider, G

    2002-01-01

    We report about a 12-year-old boy with a history of recurrent patella luxation. Due to persistent pain in the distal left femur a MRI examination was performed in another hospital which suggested a malignant bone tumor. Without validation of the MRI findings by conventional radiographs bone biopsy was performed. Histopathological examination yielded the diagnosis of a chondroblastic osteosarcoma. Before initiating polychemotherapy, plain radiographs for the first time, a nuclear imaging study and an additional MRI examination were performed in our hospital. The results of these studies made the diagnosis of an osteosarcoma unlikely. In particular, plain radiographs did not show any osseous lesion which was characteristic of an osteosarcoma. To establish a definite diagnosis biopsy was repeated with resection of the bone area which showed suspicious changes in MRI studies. An osteosarcoma was ruled out by histopathological examination. The pathologic changes detected in MRI were rated as bone bruise on plain radiographs and seemed to be of traumatic origin. Our case report emphasises the importance of conventional radiographs in establishing the diagnosis of an osteoarcoma respectively bone tumors and tumor-like lesions in general. They still remain the mainstay in diagnosing bone forming tumors. MRI imaging studies may show changes which mimick solid lesions but in deed can be of traumatic origin. Without informing the pathologist about the exact origin of the specimen, histopathological examination may lead to the misdiagnosis of a chondroblastic osteosarcoma if specimen, like in this case report, represents epiphyseal tissue showing cartilaginous areas with reactive bone formation.

  18. Radiographic assessment of endodontic working length

    OpenAIRE

    Osama S Alothmani; Lara T Friedlander; Nicholas P Chandler

    2013-01-01

    The use of radiographs for working length determination is usual practice in endodontics. Exposing radiographs following the principles of the paralleling technique allows more accurate length determination compared to the bisecting-angle method. However, it has been reported that up to 28.5% of cases can have the file tip extending beyond the confines of the root canals despite an acceptable radiographic appearance. The accuracy of radiographic working length determination could be affected ...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin...

  20. Chest radiographic findings in Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients had postero-anterior (PA) chest radiographs done in full inspiration, with a Roentgen 301 radiographic machine (GEC Medical) using the following factors; KVp = 65, focus-film distance = 150cm and 12 – 15mAs. A total of 308 confirmed HIV- positive patients had chest radiographic examinations. Ninety-nine ...

  1. A survey to assess audit mechanisms practised by skeletal reporting radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, H.C.; Manning, D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the role of plain film reporting radiographers and the methods they employ to evaluate the quality of their performance. Method: The survey was conducted in 2003. Questionnaires were sent, via the universities, to radiographers who had registered on a post-graduate musculoskeletal image interpretation course at a University in England since their introduction (9 years earlier). Results: The response rate was 37% (n = 112). Sixty-four percent of the trained reporting radiographers surveyed are creating independent reports on musculoskeletal images and an additional 15% contribute to a double reporting system. Twenty-one percent of the reporting radiographers in this study are not undertaking audit of their practice. Of the 79% who are participating in audit programmes the variety of methods being used are widespread. In order to protect against litigation, 19% of reporting radiographers have a portfolio of evidence supporting their competency; 71% have a specific job description for their advanced role; 73% of reporting radiographers are members of a trade union; and 82% of reporting radiographers work to a departmental protocol. Conclusion: The majority of reporting radiographers are participating in some form of audit. However, it is imperative that the sizeable minority who are not should initiate this process promptly. It is important that national standards are set so that these audit processes become embedded into practice for the protection of both the patient and radiographer. The inconsistency shown with regard to audit processes and protection against litigation suggests that further clarification is required from the professional bodies

  2. Assessment of Radiographic Image Quality by Visual Examination of Neutron Radiographs of the Calibration Fuel Pin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    Up till now no reliable radiographic image quality standards exist for neutron radiography of nuclear reactor fuel. Under the Euratoro Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG) Test Program neutron radiographs were produced at different neutron radiography facilities within the European Community...... of a calibration fuel pin. The radiographs were made by the direct, transfer and tracketch methods using different film recording materials. These neutron radiographs of the calibration fuel pin were used for the assessement of radiographic image quality. This was done by visual examination of the radiographs...... and assessing their radiographic image quality on an arbitrary scale....

  3. Pulmonary edema: radiographic differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Dong Soo; Choi, Young Hi; Kim, Seung Cheol; An, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jee Young; Park, Hee Hong

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using chest radiography to differentiate between three different etiologies of pulmonary edema. Plain chest radiographs of 77 patients, who were clinically confirmed as having pulmonary edema, were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were classified into three groups : group 1 (cardiogenic edema : n = 35), group 2 (renal pulmonary edema : n = 16) and group 3 (permeability edema : n = 26). We analyzed the radiologic findings of air bronchogram, heart size, peribronchial cuffing, septal line, pleural effusion, vascular pedicle width, pulmonary blood flow distribution and distribution of pulmonary edema. In a search for radiologic findings which would help in the differentiation of these three etiologies, each finding was assessed. Cardiogenic and renal pulmonary edema showed overlapping radiologic findings, except for pulmonary blood flow distribution. In cardiogenic pulmonary edema (n=35), cardiomegaly (n=29), peribronchial cuffing (n=29), inverted pulmonary blood flow distribution (n=21) and basal distribution of edema (n=20) were common. In renal pulmonary edema (n=16), cardiomegaly (n=15), balanced blood flow distribution (n=12), and central (n=9) or basal distribution of edema (n=7) were common. Permeability edema (n=26) showed different findings. Air bronchogram (n=25), normal blood flow distribution (n=14) and peripheral distribution of edema (n=21) were frequent findings, while cardiomegaly (n=7), peribronchial cuffing (n=7) and septal line (n=5) were observed in only a few cases. On plain chest radiograph, permeability edema can be differentiated from cardiogenic or renal pulmonary edema. The radiographic findings which most reliably differentiated these two etiologies were air bronchogram, distribution of pulmonary edema, peribronchial cuffing and heart size. Only blood flow distribution was useful for radiographic differentiation of cardiogenic and renal edema

  4. Occupational health and the radiographer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stronach, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper identifies some of the occupational health hazards faced by radiographers in the hospital environment. There has been very little work done in this area in the past, and as the subject is so large this paper can do little other than raise some of the issues . The hazards addressed include: radiation, ergonomics, chemical, environmental, biological, occupational injury and accident, stress. 14 refs., 2 figs

  5. Automatic segmentation of vertebrae from radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Peter; Petersen, Peter Kersten; Nielsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Segmentation of vertebral contours is an essential task in the design of automatic tools for vertebral fracture assessment. In this paper, we propose a novel segmentation technique which does not require operator interaction. The proposed technique solves the segmentation problem in a hierarchical...... manner. In a first phase, a coarse estimate of the overall spine alignment and the vertebra locations is computed using a shape model sampling scheme. These samples are used to initialize a second phase of active shape model search, under a nonlinear model of vertebra appearance. The search...... is constrained by a conditional shape model, based on the variability of the coarse spine location estimates. The technique is evaluated on a data set of manually annotated lumbar radiographs. The results compare favorably to the previous work in automatic vertebra segmentation, in terms of both segmentation...

  6. A Radiographic Study of Odontoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Ho; Choi, Karp Shik

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the clinical and radiographic features of the odontomas in the jaws. For this study, the authors examined and analyzed the clinical records and radiographs of 119 patients who had lesion of odontoma diagnosed by clinical and radiographic examinations. The obtained results were as follows ; 1. Odontoma occurred the most frequently in the 2nd decade (45.4%) and occurred more frequently in males (60.5%) than in females (39.5%). 2. The most common clinical symptom was the delayed eruption of the teeth (34.2%). 3. The type of lesions was mainly observed as compound odontoma (80.8%), and internal pattern of the complex odontoma was unevenly radiopaque (73.9%). 4. The compound odontoma frequently occurred in anterior portion of the maxilla (57.7%) and mandible (30.9%), and complex odontoma frequently occurred in anterior portion of maxilla (34.8%) and posterior portion of mandible (30.5%). 5. The effects on adjacent teeth were impaction of teeth (71.7%) and prolonged retention of deciduous teeth (31.7%). 6. The impaction of the teeth occurred in anterior portion of maxilla (44.2%) amd mandible (19.2%), but root resorption of the adjacent teeth were not seen. 7. The boundary to adjacent structure was well-defined , the lesions appear as radiopaque mass with radiolucent rim.

  7. A Radiographic Study of Odontoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ho; Choi, Karp Shik [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the clinical and radiographic features of the odontomas in the jaws. For this study, the authors examined and analyzed the clinical records and radiographs of 119 patients who had lesion of odontoma diagnosed by clinical and radiographic examinations. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Odontoma occurred the most frequently in the 2nd decade (45.4%) and occurred more frequently in males (60.5%) than in females (39.5%). 2. The most common clinical symptom was the delayed eruption of the teeth (34.2%). 3. The type of lesions was mainly observed as compound odontoma (80.8%), and internal pattern of the complex odontoma was unevenly radiopaque (73.9%). 4. The compound odontoma frequently occurred in anterior portion of the maxilla (57.7%) and mandible (30.9%), and complex odontoma frequently occurred in anterior portion of maxilla (34.8%) and posterior portion of mandible (30.5%). 5. The effects on adjacent teeth were impaction of teeth (71.7%) and prolonged retention of deciduous teeth (31.7%). 6. The impaction of the teeth occurred in anterior portion of maxilla (44.2%) amd mandible (19.2%), but root resorption of the adjacent teeth were not seen. 7. The boundary to adjacent structure was well-defined , the lesions appear as radiopaque mass with radiolucent rim.

  8. Automating the radiographic NDT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    Automation, the removal of the human element in inspection, has not been generally applied to film radiographic NDT. The justication for automating is not only productivity but also reliability of results. Film remains in the automated system of the future because of its extremely high image content, approximately 8 x 10 9 bits per 14 x 17. The equivalent to 2200 computer floppy discs. Parts handling systems and robotics applied for manufacturing and some NDT modalities, should now be applied to film radiographic NDT systems. Automatic film handling can be achieved with the daylight NDT film handling system. Automatic film processing is becoming the standard in industry and can be coupled to the daylight system. Robots offer the opportunity to automate fully the exposure step. Finally, computer aided interpretation appears on the horizon. A unit which laser scans a 14 x 17 (inch) film in 6 - 8 seconds can digitize film information for further manipulation and possible automatic interrogations (computer aided interpretation). The system called FDRS (for Film Digital Radiography System) is moving toward 50 micron (*approx* 16 lines/mm) resolution. This is believed to meet the need of the majority of image content needs. We expect the automated system to appear first in parts (modules) as certain operations are automated. The future will see it all come together in an automated film radiographic NDT system (author) [pt

  9. A radiographic study of cementoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Division of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-11-15

    This study was undertaken to document and better define this condition to help clarify this clinical and radiographic appearances by analysis of clinical and radiographic features of cementoma. A study was made of a series of 104 cases with cementoma. This investigation of cementoma revealed the following features: 1. The female occurred in 73% of periapical cemental dysplasia and benign cementoblastoma, and 80% of cementifying fibroma. 2. 40% of periapical cemental dysplasia occurred in the fifth decades, and 73% of benign cementoblastoma during the second and third decades, while there was no age predilection in the cementifying fibroma. 3. 63% of periapical cemental dysplasia occurred in the mandibular anterior region. 91% of benign cementoblastom a and 80% of cementifying fibroma occurred in the mandibular premolar and/or molar region. 4. There were no cases complaining the associated clinical signs and subjective symptoms in the periapical cemental dysplasia, however the patient complained the pain in 36% of benign cementoblastoma and 40% of cementifying fibroma. 5. There were no cases expanding the cortical plates in the periapical cemental dysplasia, however 73% of benign cementoblastoma and all of 5 cases of cementifying fibroma showed the expansion of cortical plates. 6. Several radiographic features of the periapical cemental dysplasia were shown. a. 29% of the cases had multiple lesion. b. 53% of the cases were in mature stage. c. During the osteolytic stage, the alveolar lamina dura was lost in 89% of the cases.

  10. Radiographic follow-up study of Little Leaguer's shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Yoshiji; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Kashiwaguchi, Shinji; Iwase, Takenobu; Suzue, Naoto; Iwame, Toshiyuki; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Little Leaguer's shoulder is a syndrome involving the proximal humeral epiphyseal plate. Conservative treatment usually resolves the symptoms. However, there are no reports of a radiographic follow-up study of this disease. The purpose of this study was to show the radiographic healing process of Little Leaguer's shoulder. A total of 19 male baseball players diagnosed as having Little Leaguer's shoulder were retrospectively evaluated. The mean age at first presentation was 12.7 years. External rotation anteroposterior radiographs of the shoulder were taken. All patients were treated with rest from throwing, and no throwing was recommended until remodeling was confirmed. Follow-up radiographs were taken at 1-month intervals to assess healing. All patients were observed until healing was confirmed radiographically, after which they returned to baseball. The mean follow-up period was 8.5 months. In addition to radiography, patients were asked whether they had any symptoms and whether they had been able to return to baseball. At the first examination, radiographs showed a wider epiphyseal plate of the throwing side compared with the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder. Healing was observed in all cases. Healing occurred first along the medial side and was then extended laterally. The mean time required for healing was 4.7 months. All patients were able to return to playing baseball at their pre-injury level of play and were asymptomatic when examined at the final follow-up. The healing process of Little Leaguer's shoulder advanced from medial to lateral, and healing was achieved about 5 months after initial examination.

  11. Accuracy of dental radiographs for caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, James R; Keenan, Analia Veitz

    2016-06-01

    0.43 (0.41/0.45) and the specificity was 0.97 (0.95/0.98) and 0.89 (0.88/0.90).With regard to the dentine lesions the sensitivities were 0.36 (0.24-0.49) for proximal to 0.56 (0.53-0.59) for occlusal lesions and specificities ranged between 0.87 (0.85-0.89) and 0.95 (0.94-0.96). No reports were found for cavitated occlusal lesions. For proximal lesions sensitivities were above 0.60 and sensitivities above 0.90. Diagnostic Odds Ratios (DOR) were >1 (indicates a useful test) and were higher in proximal than in occlusal lesions. The DOR calculated for proximal lesions in vitro studies was 16.0 (11.5/22.4) and DOR 7.5 (3.4/16.5) for clinical studies). Heterogeneity calculated using I(2) test was moderate: > 50-67%.ConclusionsCaries detection determined by dental radiographs is highly accurate for proximal lesions and dentine caries lesions. For initial carious lesions the test needs to be used with other more sensitive methods in populations that present with high caries risk.

  12. Reliability analysis of radiographic methods for determination of posterolateral lumbossacral fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotfryd, Alberto Ofenhejm; Moraes Pomar, Felipe de; Carneiro, Nicola Jorge Neto; Franzin, Fernando José; Rodrigues, Luciano Miller Reis; Poletto, Patricia Rios

    2014-01-01

    To analyze intra and interobserver agreement of two radiographic methods for evaluation of posterolateral lumbar arthrodesis. Twenty patients undergoing instrumented posterolateral fusion were evaluated by anteroposterior and dynamic lateral radiographs in maximal flexion and extension. The images were evaluated initially by 6 orthopedic surgeons, and after 8 weeks, reassessed by 4 of them, totaling 400 radiographic measurements. Intra and interobserver reliability were analyzed using the Kappa coefficient and Landis and Koch criteria. Intra and interobserver agreement regarding anteroposterior radiographs were, respectively, 76 and 63%. On lateral views, these values were 78 and 84%, respectively. However, the Kappa analysis showed poor intra and interobserver agreement in most cases, regardless of the radiographic method used. There was poor intra and interobserver agreement in the evaluation of lumbosacral fusion by plain film in anteroposterior and dynamic lateral views, with no statistical superiority between the methods

  13. Chest radiographic abnormalities in HIV-infected African children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Richard D; Lombard, Carl J; Cotton, Mark F; Beningfield, Stephen J; Workman, Lesley; Zar, Heather J

    2015-09-01

    There is limited knowledge of chest radiographic abnormalities over time in HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings. To investigate the natural history of chest radiographic abnormalities in HIV-infected African children, and the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Prospective longitudinal study of the association of chest radiographic findings with clinical and immunological parameters. Chest radiographs were performed at enrolment, 6-monthly, when initiating ART and if indicated clinically. Radiographic abnormalities were classified as normal, mild or moderate severity and considered persistent if present for 6 consecutive months or longer. An ordinal multiple logistic regression model assessed the association of enrolment and time-dependent variables with temporal radiographic findings. 258 children (median (IQR) age: 28 (13-51) months; median CD4+%: 21 (15-24)) were followed for a median of 24 (18-42) months. 70 (27%) were on ART at enrolment; 130 (50%) (median age: 33 (18-56) months) commenced ART during the study. 154 (60%) had persistent severe radiographic abnormalities, with median duration 18 (6-24) months. Among children on ART, 69% of radiographic changes across all 6-month transition periods were improvements, compared with 45% in those not on ART. Radiographic severity was associated with previous radiographic severity (OR=120.80; 95% CI 68.71 to 212.38), lack of ART (OR=1.72; 95% CI 1.29 to 2.27), enrolment age ART was beneficial, reducing the risk of radiographic deterioration or increasing the likelihood of radiological improvement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Chest Radiographic Findings of Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, So Young; Hong, Eun Sook; Paik, Sang Hyun; Park, Seong Jin; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    To analyze chest radiographic findings in children infected with laboratory confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus. Three hundred seventy-two out of 2,014 children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 infection and who also underwent a chest radiograph from September to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into in-patients, out-patients, and patients with co-infections and further subdivided into with underlying disease and without underlying disease as well as age (<2 years old, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, 10-18 years old). The initial radiographs were evaluated for radiographic findings and the anatomic distribution of abnormalities. The initial radiographs were abnormal in 154 (41.39%) patients. The predominant radiographic findings were peribronchial wall opacity found in 85 (22.84%) patients and hyperinflation observed in 69 (18.54%) patients. Further, 75 (71.42%) patients exhibited central predominance and the right lower lung zone was also commonly involved. There were statistically significant differences in the radiological findings between in-patient and out-patient groups. However, there were no significant differences in the radiographic findings between in-patients and the co-infection group with respect the presence of underlying disease and age. Initial radiographs of children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 virus were abnormal in 41.39% of cases. The common radiographic findings included peribronchial opacities, hyperinflation, lower lung zonal distribution, and central predominance

  15. Chest Radiographic Findings of Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, So Young; Hong, Eun Sook; Paik, Sang Hyun; Park, Seong Jin; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Hae Kyung; Jang, Yun Woo

    2011-01-01

    To analyze chest radiographic findings in children infected with laboratory confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus. Three hundred seventy-two out of 2,014 children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 infection and who also underwent a chest radiograph from September to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into in-patients, out-patients, and patients with co-infections and further subdivided into with underlying disease and without underlying disease as well as age (<2 years old, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, 10-18 years old). The initial radiographs were evaluated for radiographic findings and the anatomic distribution of abnormalities. The initial radiographs were abnormal in 154 (41.39%) patients. The predominant radiographic findings were peribronchial wall opacity found in 85 (22.84%) patients and hyperinflation observed in 69 (18.54%) patients. Further, 75 (71.42%) patients exhibited central predominance and the right lower lung zone was also commonly involved. There were statistically significant differences in the radiological findings between in-patient and out-patient groups. However, there were no significant differences in the radiographic findings between in-patients and the co-infection group with respect the presence of underlying disease and age. Initial radiographs of children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 virus were abnormal in 41.39% of cases. The common radiographic findings included peribronchial opacities, hyperinflation, lower lung zonal distribution, and central predominance

  16. The future for the radiographer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder

    that it is not the patient who must comply with technology, but the other way around. My point is that if reporting radiographers merely focuses on technology then they leave behind the very core of radiography, namely radiography as a caring practice, which would leave care in the hands of less educated personnel. So I....... We believe that it is time that we take responsibility for this important part of radiography and systematically teaching it in the context where it unfolds instead of insinuating that care is learned best elsewhere. I believe and hope that especially the Nordic countries could learn from each other...

  17. Association of hip pain with radiographic evidence of hip osteoarthritis: diagnostic test study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevitt, Michael C; Niu, Jingbo; Clancy, Mary M; Lane, Nancy E; Link, Thomas M; Vlad, Steven; Tolstykh, Irina; Jungmann, Pia M.; Felson, David T; Guermazi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is there concordance between hip pain and radiographic hip osteoarthritis? Methods In this diagnostic test study, pelvic radiographs were assessed for hip osteoarthritis in two cohorts: the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study (community of Framingham, Massachusetts) and the Osteoarthritis Initiative (a multicenter longitudinal cohort study of osteoarthritis in the United States). Using visual representation of the hip joint, participants reported whether they had hip pain on most days and the location of the pain: anterior, groin, lateral, buttocks, or low back. In the Framingham study, participants with hip pain were also examined for hip pain with internal rotation. The authors analysed the agreement between radiographic hip osteoarthritis and hip pain, and for those with hip pain suggestive of hip osteoarthritis they calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of radiographs as the diagnostic test. Study answer and limitations In the Framingham study (n=946), only 15.6% of hips in patients with frequent hip pain showed radiographic evidence of hip osteoarthritis, and 20.7% of hips with radiographic hip osteoarthritis were frequently painful. The sensitivity of radiographic hip osteoarthritis for hip pain localised to the groin was 36.7%, specificity 90.5%, positive predictive value 6.0%, and negative predictive value 98.9%. Results did not differ much for hip pain at other locations or for painful internal rotation. In the Osteoarthritis Initiative study (n=4366), only 9.1% of hips in patients with frequent pain showed radiographic hip osteoarthritis, and 23.8% of hips with radiographic hip osteoarthritis were frequently painful. The sensitivity of definite radiographic hip osteoarthritis for hip pain localised to the groin was 16.5%, specificity 94.0%, positive predictive value 7.1%, and negative predictive value 97.6%. Results also did not differ much for hip pain at other locations. What this

  18. Radiographic appearance of a post-epidural headache.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Weekes, G

    2012-02-01

    We report the case of a 35-year-old lady who presented with a 6-day history of a postural headache following an uncomplicated epidural catheter insertion. Meningitis was initially suspected and a neurology review was obtained. CT and MRI brain revealed features suggestive of meningitis. However these radiological features are also consistent with post dural puncture headache (PDPH). This case highlights the under reported and possible misleading radiographical features of PDPH.

  19. An evaluation of musculoskeletal discomfort experience by radiographers performing mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, A.G.; May, J.

    1997-01-01

    work and the design of the mammography units, breast screening radiographers are often subjected to frequent bending and twisting, static working postures, forceful movements and repetitive work. These are factors which have all been related to muscular problems. It is possible that these factors may have a cumulative effect of wear and tear on the musculoskeletal system of radiographers thus possibly aggravating existing or past injuries and paving the way for new ones. It is important therefore that recommendations are proposed to further the ergonomic design of mammography units, the training, the working practices and conditions of the radiographers. Both causal and contributory factors present in the workplace, regardless of whether the original injury was caused in performing breast screening, general radiography or actually outside work should be addressed. Recommendations are made in order to reduce the adoption of poor and awkward postures while breast screening in the future and therefore reduce the amount of musculoskeletal discomfort experienced by radiographers. All changes to the workplace should be initially conducted on a trial basis and monitored to determine their success to ensure that they represent no additional problems

  20. Mentoring assistant practitioners - The radiographer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colthart, Iain; McBride, Margot; Murray, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the experiences of diagnostic and therapeutic radiographers as they mentored trainee assistant practitioners undertaking an educational programme. The evaluation study describes the challenges and benefits the radiographers experienced as mentors as well as giving their insights into the introduction of assistant practitioners in their departments. Method: The mentors' opinions were sought by a questionnaire which formed part of the evaluation of the respective diagnostic imaging and therapeutic educational programmes run by two colleges. Results: The response rate was 54% (22/41). Mentors described personal and professional benefits for themselves from undertaking this role. Although mentoring had provided a number of challenges including an increase in workload, the experience had also enhanced their teaching and mentoring skills and contributed to their Continuing Professional Development (CPD). Whilst the role was more time consuming than initially expected this had not impacted generally on their ability to undertake CPD or deliver patient care. In relation to the wider impact of the programmes some negative impact was reported on the speed of service delivery but not on the quality of practice. Mentors felt that the programmes had a positive effect on teamworking and had been beneficial for patient care. Some difficulties were noted in balancing the mentoring of trainee assistant practitioners and radiography undergraduates. Conclusion: The mentors strongly endorsed the educational programmes and their roles and responsibilities in their delivery. Protected time to carry out mentoring duties and establishing good communication with the colleges providing the theoretical teaching were identified as means of further improving the mentoring process.

  1. Para-acetabular peritendinitis calcarea; its radiographic manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Akira; Murayama, Sadayuki; Ohuchida, Toshiyuki; Russell, W.J.

    1987-02-01

    Peritendinitis calcarea and os acetabuli have long been confused during interpretations of hip-joint radiographs. Such confusion is reflected in the medical literature. The present study differentiated these two entities according to their interval radiographic progression and regression. There were 137 instances of para-acetabular calcifications among 110 subjects (59 men and 51 women), whose mean age was 46.8 years at the time of their initial detection. Twenty-six of the subjects had lumbago, which was probably unrelated. Other abnormalities including narrowed intervertebral spaces, scoliosis, and spondylolysis were observed in 21 of the subjects. These could have been responsible for any symptoms they had had, but none of the subjects complained of local hip-joint pain when the radiographs in question were made. Ninety-three of these instances of calcification were reviewed by means of serial radiographs. Interval changes in the sizes and shapes of the calcifications occurred among 90 of them, indicative of the latent type of peritendinitis calcarea. No interval changes were noted in the remaining three cases, indicating they were secondary ossification centers; namely, os acetabuli. This study showed that in asymptomatic adults, most para-acetabular calcifications were really not os acetabuli, but actually peritendinitis calcarea. (author)

  2. Radiographic evaluation of degenerative joint disease in horses: interpretive principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmer, W.R.; Blevins, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease in horses is characterized by the progressive deterioration of articular cartilage of synovial joints. The morbidity associated with degenerative joint disease, particularly the loss of function in pleasure and performance horses, costs horse owners millions of dollars each year. Although new drugs, such as polysulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid, are available for the treatment of patients with degenerative joint disease, the success of therapy depends on early diagnosis. Diagnostic imaging strategies, therefore, should focus on accurate and timely diagnosis of degenerative joint disease to provide prompt therapy. Early identification of degenerative joint disease is also beneficial because the use and/or training methods of affected patients may be altered, possibly limiting the progression of the disease. The pathogenesis of degenerative joint disease is complex and multifactorial. Current evidence suggests that initiating factors lead to a final common pathway-breakdown of articular cartilage. There are many diagnostic tests that aid practitioners in detecting degenerative joint disease; however, the most important imaging technique is radiography. During the early stages of the disease, radiographic changes may be slight; therefore, it is essential that practitioners have adequate equipment to obtain high-quality radiographs. Thinning of the joint space, osteophytosis, enthesopathy, changes in subchondral bone, and increased synovium and synovia provide radiographic evidence of degenerative joint disease. By understanding the pathophysiology of the disease and how technical alterations affect the subtle radiographic changes, practitioners can more accurately diagnose degenerative joint disease during its early stages and institute proper therapy

  3. Gastric tumors on chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shozo; Kawanami, Takashi; Russell, W.J.

    1978-04-01

    Gastric neoplasms of three patients protruded into their gas-containing fornices and were first visualized on plain chest radiographs. Endoscopy and/or surgery confirmed these to be a polyp, a leiomyoma, and an adenocarcinoma. The polyp, 1.3 cm in diameter, was the smallest of these three, but smaller lesions may be detectable under suitable conditions. Adequate technique and positioning, sufficiently large lesions in the upper portion of the stomach, a central beam tangential to the tumor, sufficient gas in the stomach, and careful scrutiny by the observer are required. Lesions may be more readily visualized during chest radiography when oral sodium bicarbonate is used to distend the stomach. In chest radiography, exposure limited to the lung fields has been advocated for economy and dose reduction. However, too small an exposure field may result in loss of information potentially beneficial to the patient. Using the smaller of two popular film sizes (35 x 43 cm and 35 x 35 cm), the saving in surface and bone marrow doses is negligible, and the saving in gonad dose may be nil over that when shielding is used. The interest of the observer may be absorbed by a concomitant cardiac or pulmonary lesion. Careful scrutiny of the entire radiograph is therefore essential. (author)

  4. Digital processing of radiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A. D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1973-01-01

    Some techniques are presented and the software documentation for the digital enhancement of radiographs. Both image handling and image processing operations are considered. The image handling operations dealt with are: (1) conversion of format of data from packed to unpacked and vice versa; (2) automatic extraction of image data arrays; (3) transposition and 90 deg rotations of large data arrays; (4) translation of data arrays for registration; and (5) reduction of the dimensions of data arrays by integral factors. Both the frequency and the spatial domain approaches are presented for the design and implementation of the image processing operation. It is shown that spatial domain recursive implementation of filters is much faster than nonrecursive implementations using fast fourier transforms (FFT) for the cases of interest in this work. The recursive implementation of a class of matched filters for enhancing image signal to noise ratio is described. Test patterns are used to illustrate the filtering operations. The application of the techniques to radiographic images of metallic structures is demonstrated through several examples.

  5. Total elbow arthroplasty: a radiographic outcome study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xue Susan [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Box 357115, Seattle, WA (United States); Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle M. [Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Ha, Alice S. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Box 354755, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is becoming a popular alternative to arthrodesis for patients with end-stage elbow arthrosis and comminuted distal humeral fractures. Prior outcome studies have primarily focused on surgical findings. Our purpose is to determine the radiographic outcome of TEA and to correlate with clinical symptoms such as pain. This is an IRB-approved retrospective review from 2005 to 2015 of all patients with semiconstrained TEA. All available elbow radiographs and clinical data were reviewed. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier survival curves for radiographic and clinical survival. A total of 104 total elbow arthroplasties in 102 patients were reviewed; 75 % were in women and the mean patient age was 63.1 years. Mean radiographic follow-up was 826 days with average of four radiographs per patient. Seventy TEAs (67 %) developed radiographic complications, including heterotopic ossification (48 %), perihardware lucency (27 %), periprosthetic fracture (23 %), hardware subluxation/dislocation (7 %), polyethylene wear (3 %), and hardware fracture/dislodgement (3 %); 56 patients (55 %) developed symptoms of elbow pain or instability and 30 patients (30 %) underwent at least one reoperation. In patients with radiographic complications, 66 % developed elbow pain, compared to 19 % of patients with no radiologic complications (p = 0.001). Of the patients with radiographic complications, 39 % had at least one additional surgery compared to 0 % of patients without radiographic complications (p = 0.056). Radiographic complications are common in patients after total elbow arthroplasty. There is a strong positive association between post-operative radiographic findings and clinical outcome. Knowledge of common postoperative radiographic findings is important for the practicing radiologist. (orig.)

  6. A radiographic analysis of implant component misfit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sharkey, Seamus

    2011-07-01

    Radiographs are commonly used to assess the fit of implant components, but there is no clear agreement on the amount of misfit that can be detected by this method. This study investigated the effect of gap size and the relative angle at which a radiograph was taken on the detection of component misfit. Different types of implant connections (internal or external) and radiographic modalities (film or digital) were assessed.

  7. Radiation protection - radiographer's role and responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popli, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Ever since discovery of x-rays, radiographers has been the prime user of radiation. With the passage of time, the harmful effects of radiation were detected. Some of radiographers, radiologists and public were affected by radiation, but today with enough knowledge of radiation, the prime responsibility of radiation protection lies with the radiographers only. The radiologist and physicist are also associated with radiation protection to some extent

  8. Measure by image analysis of industrial radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillault, B.

    1988-01-01

    A digital radiographic picture processing system for non destructive testing intends to provide the expert with computer tool, to precisely quantify radiographic images. The author describes the main problems, from the image formation to its characterization. She also insists on the necessity to define a precise process in order to automatize the system. Some examples illustrate the efficiency of digital processing for radiographic images [fr

  9. Early radiographic changes in radiation bone injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, M.; Tanimoto, K.; Wada, T.

    1986-06-01

    A chronologic series of periapical radiographs was evaluated for the purpose of detecting damage to bone and tooth-supporting tissues in a patient receiving radiation therapy for a basal cell carcinoma of the mandibular gingiva. Widening of the periodontal space was one of the early radiographic changes observed. It is suggested, from the sequence of radiographic changes, that radiation-induced changed in the circulatory system of the bone might be primarily responsible for the resulting changes.

  10. Early radiographic changes in radiation bone injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, M.; Tanimoto, K.; Wada, T.

    1986-01-01

    A chronologic series of periapical radiographs was evaluated for the purpose of detecting damage to bone and tooth-supporting tissues in a patient receiving radiation therapy for a basal cell carcinoma of the mandibular gingiva. Widening of the periodontal space was one of the early radiographic changes observed. It is suggested, from the sequence of radiographic changes, that radiation-induced changed in the circulatory system of the bone might be primarily responsible for the resulting changes

  11. Inferior alveolar canal course: a radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Xia, Bing; Gu, Zhiyuan

    2009-11-01

    To describe the morphology and course of the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) as it appears in digital panoramic radiographs. Three hundred and eighty-six digital rotational panoramic radiographs (OPG) were studied using the Clinview Software (6.1.3.7 version, Instrumentarium). Among the 386 radiographs, 86 radiographs with 5-mm steel balls were used to calculate the magnification. The average magnification of radiographs in this study was 7.24+/-7.55%. The course of IAC as seen in the panoramic radiograph may be classified into four types: (1) linear curve, 12.75%, (2) spoon-shaped curve, 29.25%, (3) elliptic-arc curve, 48.5%, and (4) turning curve, 9.5%. On panoramic radiographs, the IAC appeared closest to the inferior border of the mandible in the region of the first molar. In relation to the teeth, on panoramic radiographs, the IAC appeared closest to the distal root tip of the third molar and furthest from the mesial root tip of the first molar. In the OPG, there are four types of IAC: linear, spoon shape, elliptic-arc, and turning curve. The data found in the study may be useful for dental implant, mandibule surgery, and dental anesthesia. The limitations of the panoramic radiograph in depicting the true three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the IAC are recognized, computed tomography (CT) and cone beam (CB)3D imaging being more precise.

  12. Reference Neutron Radiographs of Nuclear Reactor Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    Reference neutron radiographs of nuclear reactor fuel were produced by the Euraton Neutron Radiography Working Group and published in 1984 by the Reidel Publishing Company. In this collection a classification is given of the various neutron radiographic findings, that can occur in different parts...... of pelletized, annular and vibro-conpacted nuclear fuel pins. Those parts of the pins are shown where changes of appearance differ from those for the parts as fabricated. Also radiographs of those as fabricated parts are included. The collection contains 158 neutron radiographs, reproduced on photographic paper...... (twice enlarged) and on duplicating film (original size)....

  13. Developing radiographer roles in the context of advanced and consultant practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Lisa J; Snaith, Beverly A

    2013-03-01

    Skill-mix initiatives have provided opportunities for radiographers to develop roles and achieve their potential, thus contributing to radiographer retention rates and increased job satisfaction. This reflective article explores two radiographic roles within an interprofessional context including the implications for confidence, competence, and future sustainability. These were reporting roles which extended into two modalities, one into bone densitometry and another into ultrasound. This article discusses how successful skill mix can benefit the individual, their department, and NHS organization and that role expansion can develop a more dynamic and resourceful workforce with transferability of skills and attributes.

  14. Developing radiographer roles in the context of advanced and consultant practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Lisa J; Snaith, Beverly A [Radiology Department, Mid Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Pinderfields Hospital, Aberford Road, Wakefield, WF1 4DG (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-15

    Skill-mix initiatives have provided opportunities for radiographers to develop roles and achieve their potential, thus contributing to radiographer retention rates and increased job satisfaction. This reflective article explores two radiographic roles within an interprofessional context including the implications for confidence, competence, and future sustainability. These were reporting roles which extended into two modalities, one into bone densitometry and another into ultrasound. This article discusses how successful skill mix can benefit the individual, their department, and NHS organization and that role expansion can develop a more dynamic and resourceful workforce with transferability of skills and attributes.

  15. Developing radiographer roles in the context of advanced and consultant practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Lisa J; Snaith, Beverly A

    2013-01-01

    Skill-mix initiatives have provided opportunities for radiographers to develop roles and achieve their potential, thus contributing to radiographer retention rates and increased job satisfaction. This reflective article explores two radiographic roles within an interprofessional context including the implications for confidence, competence, and future sustainability. These were reporting roles which extended into two modalities, one into bone densitometry and another into ultrasound. This article discusses how successful skill mix can benefit the individual, their department, and NHS organization and that role expansion can develop a more dynamic and resourceful workforce with transferability of skills and attributes

  16. Do we really need radiographic assessment for the diagnosis of non-specific heel pain (calcaneal apophysitis) in children?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kose, Ozkan [Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, Orthopaedics and Traumatology Clinic, Diyarbakir (Turkey); Diclekent Bulvari, Ataslar Serhat Evleri, Diyarbakir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Non-specific heel pain (calcaneal apophysitis) is a common disorder, particularly in physically active growing children. Foot radiographs are usually obtained as part of the clinical evaluation in routine orthopaedic practice. However, there is still controversy about the specific findings on radiographs, and it is unclear what information is present on radiographs that may alter the diagnosis and management. The purpose of this study was to review a consecutive series of patients with the diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis to assess the yield of routine radiographs of the foot. A prospective study was performed on 61 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis in a single-surgeon practice. Standard anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing foot radiographs were obtained for each patient. Seventy-one sets of foot radiographs were reviewed to determine whether radiographs had an impact on diagnosis and management. Patients with antecedent trauma, penetrating injury, foot deformity, achilles tendonitis, bursitis and infections were excluded from the study. Seventy foot radiographs were considered to be normal. The radiographs changed the diagnosis in only one patient, in whom a simple bone cyst of the calcaneous was seen. Calcaneal apophysitis is a self-limiting disease, and patients can be treated conservatively. Neither the sclerosis nor the fragmentation of the apophysis could be used to establish the diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis. Therefore, obtaining radiographs as an initial step in their evaluation does not seem to be justified. (orig.)

  17. Do we really need radiographic assessment for the diagnosis of non-specific heel pain (calcaneal apophysitis) in children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kose, Ozkan

    2010-01-01

    Non-specific heel pain (calcaneal apophysitis) is a common disorder, particularly in physically active growing children. Foot radiographs are usually obtained as part of the clinical evaluation in routine orthopaedic practice. However, there is still controversy about the specific findings on radiographs, and it is unclear what information is present on radiographs that may alter the diagnosis and management. The purpose of this study was to review a consecutive series of patients with the diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis to assess the yield of routine radiographs of the foot. A prospective study was performed on 61 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis in a single-surgeon practice. Standard anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing foot radiographs were obtained for each patient. Seventy-one sets of foot radiographs were reviewed to determine whether radiographs had an impact on diagnosis and management. Patients with antecedent trauma, penetrating injury, foot deformity, achilles tendonitis, bursitis and infections were excluded from the study. Seventy foot radiographs were considered to be normal. The radiographs changed the diagnosis in only one patient, in whom a simple bone cyst of the calcaneous was seen. Calcaneal apophysitis is a self-limiting disease, and patients can be treated conservatively. Neither the sclerosis nor the fragmentation of the apophysis could be used to establish the diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis. Therefore, obtaining radiographs as an initial step in their evaluation does not seem to be justified. (orig.)

  18. Is the lateral radiograph necessary for the management of intra-capsular proximal femoral fractures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korim, Muhammad Tawfiq; Mohan Reddy, Venthurla Ram; Gibbs, David; Wildin, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate if a lateral hip radiograph is always needed in the management of intra-capsular proximal femoral fractures. Furthermore, we sought to evaluate if a radiographer could accurately identify cases in which the lateral radiograph is not required. Methods: All patients who underwent surgical management of an intra-capsular proximal femoral fracture over a 3 month period at our unit were identified. Radiographs were reviewed by 6 observers: 2 consultant orthopaedic surgeons, 2 registrars, and 2 radiographers. Initially the observers viewed the AP radiographs alone and classified the fractures into displaced, undisplaced, or unclear categories. They were then shown the lateral view and asked for a diagnosis and management plan. Comparison of diagnosis and management based on AP views alone, and AP in-combination with a lateral view was made. Results: 90 patients were included; the mean age was 80.8 years with a range of 42–100 years. 73 underwent arthroplasty and 17 had internal fixation. All observers, including the radiographer were able to make a surgical decision in 90% of the cases based on AP views alone. Lateral radiographs improved the diagnostic accuracy by 6%. The availability of the lateral view did not alter the management in patients where the AP clearly demonstrated a displaced fracture. Conclusion: Elderly patients with a displaced intra-capsular fracture identifiable on the AP do not require a lateral radiograph. Such patients can be accurately identified by the radiographer. Patient discomfort experienced during positioning for the lateral view would be avoided, and a financial saving made.

  19. Radiographic techniques for digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, Katsuhei

    2007-01-01

    Since the differences in X-ray absorption between various breast tissues are small, a dedicated X-ray system for examination of the breast and a high-contrast, high-resolution screen/film system (SFM) (light-receiving system) are employed for X-ray diagnosis. Currently, however, there is a strong trend toward digital imaging in the field of general radiography, and this trend is also reflected in the field of mammographic examination. In fact, approximately 70% of facilities purchasing new mammography systems are now selecting a digital mammography system (DRM). Given this situation, this report reviews the differences between SFM and DRM and discusses the radiographic techniques and quality assurance procedures for digital mammography. (author)

  20. Picture chamber for radiographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The picture chamber for a radiographic system is characterised by a base, a first electrode carried in the base, an X-ray irradiation window provided with an outer plate and an inner plate and a conducting surface which serves as a second electrode, which has a plate gripping it at each adjacent edge and which has at the sides a space which is occupied by a filling material, maintained at a steady pressure, by means of the mounting against the base and wherein the inner plate lies against the first electrode and which is provided with a split, and with means for the separation of the split in the area of the inner plate so that a fluid may be retained in the split. (G.C.)

  1. Radiographic study of the odontoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Department of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-11-15

    The author studied clinically and radiologically 55 cases which had been diagnosed as odontoma in SNUDH. The obtained results were as follows: 1. In sex distribution, there was no prevalence in both sexes. And the incidence was the highest in the 2nd decade (16 patient, 29%). 2. There were 42 cases of compound odontoma (76%) and 13 cases of complex odontoma (24%). In most cases, compound odontoma was located at the anterior portion (34 cases, 81%) and complex odontoma at the posterior portions (9 cases, 69%). 3. There was no apparent clinical symptom in compound odontoma (83%), but in complex odontoma, 80% of cases show swelling. 4. The adjacent root resorption was not observed in any case. 5. Five cases radiographically diagnosed as cystic odontoma were not confirmed histopathologically.

  2. Radiographic study of the odontoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1983-01-01

    The author studied clinically and radiologically 55 cases which had been diagnosed as odontoma in SNUDH. The obtained results were as follows: 1. In sex distribution, there was no prevalence in both sexes. And the incidence was the highest in the 2nd decade (16 patient, 29%). 2. There were 42 cases of compound odontoma (76%) and 13 cases of complex odontoma (24%). In most cases, compound odontoma was located at the anterior portion (34 cases, 81%) and complex odontoma at the posterior portions (9 cases, 69%). 3. There was no apparent clinical symptom in compound odontoma (83%), but in complex odontoma, 80% of cases show swelling. 4. The adjacent root resorption was not observed in any case. 5. Five cases radiographically diagnosed as cystic odontoma were not confirmed histopathologically.

  3. Visual perception and radiographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorges, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although interpretation errors are common in radiology, their causes are still debated. Perceptual mechanisms appear to be responsible for a large proportion of mistakes made by both neophytes and trained radiologists. Erroneous perception of familiar contours can be triggered by unrelated opacities. Conversely, visual information cannot induce a specific perception if the observer is not familiar with the concept represented or its radiographicappearance. Additionally, the area of acute vision is smaller than is commonly recognized. Other factors, such as the attitude, beliefs,.: preconceptions, and expectations of the viewer, can affect what he or she ''sees'' whenviewing any object, including a radiograph. Familiarity with perceptual mechanisms and the limitations of the visual system as well as multiple readings may be necessary to reduce interpretation errors

  4. Conversion into numerical form of radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappabianca, C.; Della Rocca, A.B.; Ferriani, S.

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic means are widely used for non destructive testing. However, human and technological factors strongly influence reliability of the results and further use of these technique. Image Processing can help to overtake those difficulties if radiographic films are previously digitized. This paper shows methods and equipments used in this field. The system EDI (Enea Digital. Imagery) operating in Casaccia Energy Research Centre is described

  5. Radiographic arthrosis after elbow trauma: interobserver reliability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, A.; Karanicolas, P.J.; Bhandari, M.; Ring, D.; Kampen, A. van; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study measured observer variation in radiographic rating of elbow arthrosis. METHODS: Thirty-seven independent orthopedic surgeons graded the extent of elbow arthrosis in 20 consecutive sets of plain radiographs, according to the Broberg and Morrey rating system (grade 0, normal joint;

  6. Radiographic Arthrosis After Elbow Trauma: Interobserver Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, Anneluuk; Karanicolas, Paul Jack; Bhandari, Mohit; Ring, David; Allan, Cristopher; Axelrod, Terry; Baratz, Mark; Beingessner, Daphne; Cassidy, Charles; Coles, Chad; Conflitti, Joe; Rocca, Gregory Della; van Dijk, C. Niek; Elmans, L. H. G. J.; Feibe, Roger; Frihagen, Frede; Gosens, Taco; Greenberg, Jeffrey; Grosso, Elena; Harness, Neil; van der Heide, Huub; Jeray, Kyle; Kalainov, David; van Kampen, Albert; Kawamura, Sumito; Kloen, Peter; McCormac, Bob; McKee, Michael; Page, Richard; Pesantez, Rodrigo; Peters, Anil; Petrisor, Brad; Poolman, Rudolf; Richardson, Martin; Seiler, John; Swiontkowski, Marc; Trumble, Thomas; Wright, Thomas; Zalavras, Charalampos; Zura, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study measured observer variation in radiographic rating of elbow arthrosis. Methods Thirty-seven independent orthopedic surgeons graded the extent of elbow arthrosis in 20 consecutive sets of plain radiographs, according to the Broberg and Morrey rating system (grade 0, normal joint;

  7. Chest Radiographic Findings in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five hundred newly diagnosed cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis were treated with directly observed short-course treatment and 100 of them had chest radiographic examination done. The various chest radiographic patterns in the 100 subjects were studied and included: Fluffy exudative changes 80(80%), fibrosis 70(70%) ...

  8. Equipment for fully automatic radiographic pipe inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basler, G.; Sperl, H.; Weinschenk, K.

    1977-01-01

    The patent describes a device for fully automatic radiographic testing of large pipes with longitudinal welds. Furthermore the invention enables automatic marking of films in radiographic inspection with regard to a ticketing of the test piece and of that part of it where testing took place. (RW) [de

  9. Dental Radiographs Ordered by Dental Professionals: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Even in resource limited settings dental caries is still the regular indication for taking dental radiographs, and periapical views are the most frequent type of radiograph ordered. Maxillary central incisors and mandibular molars were types of teeth commonly x-rayed mainly due to the aesthetic importance of the ...

  10. Consultant breast radiographers: Where are we now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, Zebby

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to: • Evaluate the current role of the consultant breast radiographer. • Compare current practice with the four key components for consultant practice. • Gauge the support of radiologist colleagues. • Determine the other professional commitments involved with the role. This study could be the precursor for a macro study of all consultant radiographer practice in other specialities. Methodology: Methodology used was a comparative ethnographic study. Questionnaires to the 24 consultant breast radiographers currently in post, and consultant breast radiologists, who work with them, were conducted. Data collection was a qualitative thematic approach. Conclusion: Consultant breast radiographers provide high quality care to patients through excellent clinical practice, leadership and good communication. However, this study shows hospital Trusts emphasis for non medical consultants is for clinical practice first. Some radiologists are still a barrier to progression for consultant breast radiographers, and radiologists have a big influence in recruitment decisions. Consultant breast radiographer posts are well established, their numbers are increasing through recognition of the role and of their abilities and performance. Consultant breast radiographers state that becoming a consultant is the major achievement of their career, proving the Society of Radiographers' vision of the four-tier career structure has been well received by the radiography profession

  11. Radiographic assessment of endodontic working length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama S Alothmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of radiographs for working length determination is usual practice in endodontics. Exposing radiographs following the principles of the paralleling technique allows more accurate length determination compared to the bisecting-angle method. However, it has been reported that up to 28.5% of cases can have the file tip extending beyond the confines of the root canals despite an acceptable radiographic appearance. The accuracy of radiographic working length determination could be affected by the location of the apical foramen, tooth type, canal curvature and superimposition of surrounding structures. Variations among observers by virtue of training and experience may also influence the accuracy of the procedure. The interpretation of radiographs could be affected by film speed and viewing conditions, with the superiority of digital imaging over conventional radiography for working length determination remaining debatable. The combination of several methods is recommended for acquiring the most accurate working length.

  12. Consultant radiographers: Profile of the first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, Lesley J.; Maehle, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this research is to examine the profile of first generation consultant radiographers: their demographics, educational backgrounds, qualifications and training, career experience and progression, teaching, lecturing and research activities. Method: Participant recruitment was drawn from the Society and College of Radiographers consultant radiographer group. Data collection involved a self-administered paper based and web based questionnaire. Results: Participant response rate of 55% (n = 11). Conclusions: The profile of the first consultant radiographer cohort reflects a diverse and eclectic mix. While some aspects of their development such as educational background, clinical training and skills enhancement are comparable to nurse consultants, clinical experience and employment history show some differences. Commitment to development of expert clinical skills is evident within the profile of the first generation cohort of consultant radiographers however research and leadership training are not strong features.

  13. Validity of radiographic assessment of ankylosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenvik, A.; Beyer-Olsen, E.; Aabyholm, F.; Haanaes, H.R.; Gerner, N.W.

    1990-01-01

    The accuracy and sensitivity of radiographic assessments of reactive processes in dental tissues were evaluated by comparison of radiographs and histologic sections. Experimental lesions inflicted on the roots of 10 monkey incisors had been observed by means of serially obtained radiographs over a period of 315 to 370 days. The material was used for evaluation of radiographic assessment of ankylosis. For comparative purposes, assessment of the experimental lesion penetrating to the pulp and periapical radiolucency was added. True and falsely positive or negative recordings formed the basis for calculation of the accuracy and sensitivity of the radiographic assessment. The sensitivity, or the obsevers ability to detect the actual changes, was high for pulp penetration, intermediate for inflammation, and low for ankylosis. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Radiographically Occult and Subtle Fractures: A Pictorial Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarraya, M.; Hayashi, D.; Roemer, F.W.; Crema, M.D.; Conlin, J.; Marra, M.D.; Guermazi, A.; Roemer, F.W.; Crema, M.D.; Diaz, L.; Conlin, J.; Jomaah, N.

    2013-01-01

    Radiographically occult and subtle fractures are a diagnostic challenge. They may be divided into (1) high energy trauma fracture, (2) fatigue fracture from cyclical and sustained mechanical stress, and (3) insufficiency fracture occurring in weakened bone (e.g., in osteoporosis and post radiotherapy). Independently of the cause, the initial radiographic examination can be negative either because the findings seem normal or are too subtle. Early detection of these fractures is crucial to explain the patients symptoms and prevent further complications. Advanced imaging tools such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphy are highly valuable in this context. Our aim is to raise the awareness of radiologists and clinicians in these cases by presenting illustrative cases and a discussion of the relevant literature.

  15. Diagnostic errors in interpretation of pediatric musculoskeletal radiographs at common injury sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisset, George S.; Crowe, James [Texas Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Extremity pain represents one of the most common reasons for obtaining conventional radiographs in childhood. Despite the frequency of these examinations little is known about the incidence of diagnostic errors by interpreting pediatric radiologists. The purpose of this study was to develop a standard error rate of pediatric radiologists by double-reading of extremity radiographs (elbow, wrists, knees and ankles) in children presenting with a history of trauma or pain. During a 6-month period all major extremity radiographs (excluding digits) obtained at a large pediatric referral hospital for evaluation of pain or trauma were reviewed by two senior pediatric radiologists and compared to the official interpretation. All radiographs were interpreted initially by a board-certified pediatric radiologist with a Certificate of Added Qualification (CAQ). We reviewed 3,865 radiographic series in children and young adults 2-20 years of age. We tabulated misses and overcalls. We did not assess the clinical significance of the errors. There were 61 miss errors and 44 overcalls in 1,235 abnormal cases and 2,630 normal cases, for a 1.6% miss rate and a 1.1% overcall rate. Misses and overcalls were most common in the ankle. Interpretive errors by pediatric radiologists reviewing certain musculoskeletal radiographs are relatively infrequent. Diagnostic errors in the form of a miss or overcall occurred in 2.7% of the radiographs. (orig.)

  16. Digital subtraction radiographic evaluation of the standardize periapical intraoral radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Nah, Kyung Soo

    1993-01-01

    The geometrically standardized intraoral radiographs using 5 occlusal registration material were taken serially from immediate, 1 day, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after making the bite blocks. The qualities of those subtracted images were evaluated to check the degree of reproducibility of each impression material. The results were as follows: 1. The standard deviations of the grey scales of the overall subtracted images were 4.9 for Exaflex, 7.2 for Pattern resin, 9.0 for Tooth Shade Acrylic, 12.2 for XCP only, 14.8 for Impregum. 2. The standard deviation of the grey scales of the overall subtracted images were grossly related to those of the localized horizontal line of interest. 3. Exaflex which showed the best subtracted image quality had 15 cases of straight, 14 cases of wave, 1 case of canyon shape. Impregum which showed the worst subtracted image quality had 4 cases of straight, 8 cases of wave, 18 cases of canyon shape respectively.

  17. Radiographic evaluation of AIDS patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blang, S.D.; Witheman, M.L.; Donovan Post, M.J.; Casillas, J.V. [Miami Univ., FL (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1995-09-01

    Morphological imaging, based on the use of various techniques including ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the characterization, diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). While the presence of thoracic infections, the most frequently observed illnesses in AIDS patients, can best be performed by using conventional chest films and CT, the assessment of cerebral involvement in AIDS patients - characterized by the presence of focal masses, demyelination, meningitis, and infarction - is best achieved using MRI. The work-up of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms should include the use of ultrasound for the evaluation of visceral involvement and lymphadenopathy, completed by CT to further characterize pathologic conditions in either the bowel or visceral organs. Ultrasound is the screening exam of choice in AIDS patients with suspected renal disease, but other methods may be necessary for the assessment of the complications due to pharmacological treatment. Musculoskeletal complications may require the combined use of all the above methods, since they may be caused by infections, tumors and rheumatologic illness. The use of the radiographic methods for the detection of the numerous forms of infections and malignancies in AIDS patients is described in detail for the various body districts.

  18. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, Peter; Hogg, Dianne; Henwood, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills

  19. Radiographic evaluation of AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Blang, S.D.; Witheman, M.L.; Donovan Post, M.J.; Casillas, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    Morphological imaging, based on the use of various techniques including ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the characterization, diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). While the presence of thoracic infections, the most frequently observed illnesses in AIDS patients, can best be performed by using conventional chest films and CT, the assessment of cerebral involvement in AIDS patients - characterized by the presence of focal masses, demyelination, meningitis, and infarction - is best achieved using MRI. The work-up of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms should include the use of ultrasound for the evaluation of visceral involvement and lymphadenopathy, completed by CT to further characterize pathologic conditions in either the bowel or visceral organs. Ultrasound is the screening exam of choice in AIDS patients with suspected renal disease, but other methods may be necessary for the assessment of the complications due to pharmacological treatment. Musculoskeletal complications may require the combined use of all the above methods, since they may be caused by infections, tumors and rheumatologic illness. The use of the radiographic methods for the detection of the numerous forms of infections and malignancies in AIDS patients is described in detail for the various body districts

  20. Radiographers and trainee radiologists reporting accident radiographs: A comparative plain film-reading performance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buskov, L.; Abild, A.; Christensen, A.; Holm, O.; Hansen, C.; Christensen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical validity of reporting radiographers with that of trainee radiologists whom they have recently joined in reporting emergency room radiographs at Bispebjerg University Hospital. Materials and methods: Plain radiographs of the appendicular skeleton from 1000 consecutive emergency room patients were included in the study: 500 primarily reported by radiographers and 500 by trainee radiologists. The final reporting was subsequently undertaken by a consultant radiologist in consensus with an orthopaedic surgeon. Two observers classified reports as either true positive/negative or false positive/negative based on the final report, which was considered the reference standard. To evaluate the severity of incorrect primary reports, errors were graded into three categories concerning clinical impact and erroneous reports graded as the most severe category were subsequently analysed. Mann–Whitney and Chi-squared tests were used to compare differences and associations between radiographers versus trainee radiologists regarding film reporting. Results: The sensitivity for correct diagnosis was 99% for reporting radiographers and 94% for trainee radiologists. The specificity was found to be 97% for reporting radiographers and 99% for trainee radiologists. Radiographers missed significantly fewer fractures (n = 2) than trainee radiologists (n = 14; p = 0.006) but had a higher, but not significant, degree of overcalling. No significant difference was found between groups regarding clinical impact of incorrect reporting. Conclusion: Trained radiographers report accident radiographs of the extremities with high accuracy and constitute a qualified resource to help meet increasing workload and demands in quality standards.

  1. Advanced practice for therapy radiographers - A discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this discussion paper is to explore issues related to advanced practice for therapy radiographers. Key themes: The paper will focus on key themes that have impacted on advanced practice for therapy radiographers such as government initiatives and policy, confounding terminology associated with advanced practice such as role extension, role expansion, role development, and expert practice. The theory and development of expert practice is explored and paralleled to existing roles in therapy using the Benner model to define stages of professional development and competence. Evidence for advanced practice, and education and training will also be explored. All of these issues will be considered within the perspective of the current clinical and political environment that therapy radiographers operate in. Conclusions: The application of advanced practice can and should incorporate elements of role extension and role development, with some tangible skills ladder to guide and shape the development of potential consultant practitioners. There is a need to identify the current position of advanced practice nationally, and to monitor existing and emerging roles, possibly though a longitudinal study. The skill mix as a whole within departments need to be part of an ongoing evaluation with close collaboration between the professional body, departmental managers and higher education institutes to develop curricula to support existing and emerging roles. There are also key lessons to be learned from other professions with more experience with advanced practitioners if recruitment and retention is not going to continue to be a problem

  2. Usefulness of chest radiographs in first asthma attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershel, J.C.; Goldman, H.S.; Stein, R.E.K.; Shelov, S.P.; Ziprkowski, M.

    1983-01-01

    To assess the value of routine chest radiography during acute first attacks of asthma, we studied 371 consecutive children over one year of age who presented with an initial episode of wheezing. Three hundred fifty children (94.3%) had radiographic findings that were compatible with uncomplicated asthma and were considered negative. Twenty-one (5.7%) had positive findings: atelectasis and pneumonia were noted in seven, segmental atelectasis in six, pneumonia in five, multiple areas of subsegmental atelectasis in two, and pneumomediastinum in one. The patients with positive films were more likely to have a respiratory rate above 60 or a pulse rate above 160 (P < 0.001), localized rales or localized decreased breath sounds before treatment (P < 0.01), and localized rales (P < 0.005) and localized wheezing (P < 0.02) after treatment; also, these patients were admitted to the hospital more often (P < 0.001). Ninety-five percent (20 of 21) of the children with positive films could be identified before treatment on the basis of a combination of tachypnea, tachycardia, fever, and localized rales or localized decreased breath sounds. Most first-time wheezers will not have positive radiographs; careful clinical evaluation should reveal which patients will have abnormal radiographs and will therefore benefit from the procedure. 20 references, 3 tables

  3. Semiautomatic detection of scoliotic rib borders from posteroanterior chest radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, Frédéric; Cheriet, Farida; Dansereau, Jean

    2012-04-01

    3-D assessment of scoliotic deformities relies on an accurate 3-D reconstruction of bone structures from biplanar X-rays, which requires a precise detection and matching of anatomical structures in both views. In this paper, we propose a novel semiautomated technique for detecting complete scoliotic rib borders from PA-0° and PA-20° chest radiographs, by using an edge-following approach with multiple-path branching and oriented filtering. Edge-following processes are initiated from user starting points along upper and lower rib edges and the final rib border is obtained by finding the most parallel pair among detected edges. The method is based on a perceptual analysis leading to the assumption that no matter how bent a scoliotic rib is, it will always present relatively parallel upper and lower edges. The proposed method was tested on 44 chest radiographs of scoliotic patients and was validated by comparing pixels from all detected rib borders against their reference locations taken from the associated manually delineated rib borders. The overall 2-D detection accuracy was 2.64 ± 1.21 pixels. Comparing this accuracy level to reported results in the literature shows that the proposed method is very well suited for precisely detecting borders of scoliotic ribs from PA-0° and PA-20° chest radiographs.

  4. CT colonography training for radiographers - a formal evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haycock, A.; Burling, D.; Wylie, P.; Muckian, J.; Ilangovan, R.; Thomas-Gibson, S.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of a new intensive 'hands-on' course designed to train small teams of radiographers in computed tomography colonography (CTC) technique and initial interpretation for patient triage. Materials and methods: The course comprised small-group lectures, active participation in the daily CTC service with practical technique and image interpretation training by experienced radiologists and radiographers. Evaluation was by assessment of knowledge using randomized sets of multiple choice questions (MCQ; pre/post-course), practical technique using checklists and expert global scores, and interpretation performance outcomes using randomized pre/post-course test datasets (five validated CTC examinations each). Paired t-tests were used to investigate change in performance for MCQ score and interpretation accuracy. Results: Thirteen courses with 49 participants were evaluated over 2 years. Practical skills were high, with mean (SD) checklist scores of 14/15 (0.85) and global scores of 26/30 (2.3). MCQ scores increased significantly from a mean of 59% pre-course to 69% post-course, p 10 mm) detection rates also improved significantly from 49% to 60%, p = 0.002. Conclusion: Structured training in CTC can significantly improve knowledge and interpretation skills of radiographers, while assessing safe procedural performance. Implementation of similar programmes nationally may help reduce performance gaps between centres.

  5. Clinical and radiographic indications for aortography in blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kram, H B; Wohlmuth, D A; Appel, P L; Shoemaker, W C

    1987-08-01

    To determine which clinical and radiographic findings are valuable in selecting patients with blunt chest trauma for aortography, we analyzed the medical records and admission chest radiographs of 76 consecutive victims of blunt chest trauma with suspected thoracic aortic rupture during the past 7 years. All patients were evaluated by history, physical examination, chest radiography, and aortography; a total of 70 clinical and radiographic findings were independently assessed in each patient. The following occurred with significantly greater frequency in patients with thoracic aortic rupture than in those without: history of significant hypotension (mean arterial pressure less than 80 mm Hg) (p less than 0.04); the presence of upper extremity hypertension, bilateral lower extremity pulse pulse deficits, or an initial chest tube output greater than 750 ml of blood (p less than 0.05); and greater incidence of myocardial contusions, intra-abdominal injuries, and pelvic fractures compared with patients without thoracic aortic rupture (p less than 0.05). Mediastinal widening (equal to or greater than 8 cm) shown on anteroposterior chest radiography occurred in all patients with thoracic aortic rupture; however, its specificity was only 10.6%. Radiographic signs that were helpful in indicating the presence of thoracic aortic rupture included paratracheal stripe greater than 5 mm, rightward deviation of the nasogastric tube or central venous pressure line, blurring of the aortic knob, and an abnormal or absent paraspinous stripe. Upper rib fractures and mediastinal to thoracic cage width ratios at any level did not increase diagnostic accuracy for thoracic aortic rupture in the present series. Six patients in the series died, two of whom had thoracic aortic rupture.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Are routine pelvic radiographs in major pediatric blunt trauma necessary?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagisetty, Jyothi [Memorial Hermann Medical Center, Emergency Medicine Department, Houston, TX (United States); Slovis, Thomas [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Thomas, Ronald [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Detroit, MI (United States); Knazik, Stephen; Stankovic, Curt [Wayne State University of Medicine, Division of Emergency Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Screening pelvic radiographs to rule out pelvic fractures are routinely used for the initial evaluation of pediatric blunt trauma. Recently, the utility of routine pelvic radiographs in certain subsets of patients with blunt trauma has been questioned. There is a growing amount of evidence that shows the clinical exam is reliable enough to obviate the need for routine screening pelvic radiographs in children. To identify variables that help predict the presence or absence of pelvic fractures in pediatric blunt trauma. We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 to January 2010 using the trauma registry at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. We analyzed all level 1 and level 2 trauma victims, evaluating history, exam and mechanism of injury for association with the presence or absence of a pelvic fracture. Of 553 level 1 and 2 trauma patients who presented during the study period, 504 were included in the study. Most of these children, 486/504 (96.4%), showed no evidence of a pelvic fracture while 18/504 (3.6%) had a pelvic fracture. No factors were found to be predictive of a pelvic fracture. However, we developed a pelvic fracture screening tool that accurately rules out the presence of a pelvic fracture P = 0.008, NPV 99, sensitivity 96, 8.98 (1.52-52.8). This screening tool combines eight high-risk clinical findings (pelvic tenderness, laceration, ecchymosis, abrasion, GCS <14, positive urinalysis, abdominal pain/tenderness, femur fracture) and five high-risk mechanisms of injury (unrestrained motor vehicle collision [MVC], MVC with ejection, MVC rollover, auto vs. pedestrian, auto vs. bicycle). Pelvic fractures in pediatric major blunt trauma can reliably be ruled out by using our pelvic trauma screening tool. Although no findings accurately identified the presence of a pelvic fracture, the screening tool accurately identified the absence of a fracture, suggesting that pelvic radiographs are not warranted in this subset of patients. (orig.)

  7. Radiographers and radiologists reporting plain radiograph requests from accident and emergency and general practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brealey, S.D.; King, D.G.; Hahn, S.; Crowe, M.; Williams, P.; Rutter, P.; Crane, S.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess selectively trained radiographers and consultant radiologists reporting plain radiographs for the Accident and Emergency Department (A and E) and general practitioners (GPs) within a typical hospital setting. METHODS: Two radiographers, a group of eight consultant radiologists, and a reference standard radiologist independently reported under controlled conditions a retrospectively selected, random, stratified sample of 400 A and E and 400 GP plain radiographs. An independent consultant radiologist judged whether the radiographer and radiologist reports agreed with the reference standard report. Clinicians then assessed whether radiographer and radiologist incorrect reports affected confidence in their diagnosis and treatment plans, and patient outcome. RESULTS: For A and E and GP plain radiographs, respectively, there was a 1% (95% confidence interval (CI) -2 to 5) and 4% (95% CI -1 to 8) difference in reporting accuracy between the two professional groups. For both A and E and GP cases there was an 8% difference in the clinicians' confidence in their diagnosis based on radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. For A and E and GP cases, respectively, there was a 2% and 8% difference in the clinicians' confidence in their management plans based on radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. For A and E and GP cases, respectively, there was a 1% and 11% difference in effect on patient outcome of radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. CONCLUSION: There is the potential to extend the reporting role of selectively trained radiographers to include plain radiographs for all A and E and GP patients. Further research conducted during clinical practice at a number of sites is recommended

  8. Reflections on the role of consultant radiographers in the UK: what is a consultant radiographer?

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Lisa; Henwood, Suzanne; Miller, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Context: This paper is the second paper from a two year in depth case study, exploring the role of consultant radiographers in the UK.\\ud \\ud Methods: A longitudinal case study approach was used to determine the role of consultant radiographers. Interviews were used to explore experiences of being a consultant, which were analysed using thematic analysis. Eight consultant radiographers participated (Note, two of the consultants withdrew after the first interview due to workload). Therefore tw...

  9. Radiation recommendation series: administratively required dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Administrative requirements for radiographs are found in many segments of the United States health care system. This document presents an FDA radiation recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations. In general, such examinations are not requested to further the patient's dental health, but rather as a means of monitoring claims. However, the administrative use of radiographs that have been taken in the normal course of patient care is usually appropriate, as long as the patient's right to privacy is respected

  10. Modified Newman and Friedman Extraoral Radiographic Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Saberi, Eshagali; Hafezi, Ladan; Farhadmolashahi, Narges; Mokhtari, Manoochehr

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Good radiographs are required for endodontic therapy and because some patient’s are intolerant to intraoral films and/or sensors, this can cause complications in endodontic treatment. Extraoral film placement can be used to obtain clinically diagnostic and working radiographs. Materials and Methods The no. 2 receptor was placed against the model’s cheek and centered in the molar-premolar area. The central beam was directed toward this area from the opposite side. The vertical and...

  11. A radiographic study of pediatric ulnar anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravino, Mattia; Oni, Julius K; Sala, Debra A; Chu, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The adult ulna has a unique bony architecture that has been described in the literature, but, to the best of our knowledge, the ulnar anatomy in children has not been described. We examined 75 anteroposterior (AP) and 64 lateral radiographs (29 were bilateral) of 50, 0.5- to 11-year-old, healthy children's forearms. On AP radiographs, the total ulnar length, the ulnar proximal angle, the ulnar distal angle, and the distance between each angle from the tip of the triceps insertion; and, on lateral radiographs, the ulnar length and bow deviation were measured. The correlation between age and radiographic measurements, differences based on sex, differences compared with adults' measurements, and interobserver/intraobserver reliability were assessed. Age had a very strong/strong positive correlation with length/distance measurements on both AP and lateral radiographs. Only AP ulnar distal angle was significantly different between sexes (females > males). Compared with the adult ulnar studies, the AP proximal angle in children is significantly smaller and the location of this angle is significantly more distal. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were very good for length/distance measurements on AP and lateral radiographs. The knowledge of pediatric ulnar anatomy could be helpful in the treatment of forearm deformities due to multiple hereditary exostosis and osteogenesis imperfecta, and in the treatment of ulnar fractures, particularly in Monteggia variants, where restoration of the correct forearm anatomy is essential to obtain good clinical and functional results. Study of diagnostic test, Level II.

  12. Early characteristic radiographic changes in mucolipidosis II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Lillian M. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital and Stanford University, Pediatric Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Lachman, Ralph S. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital and Stanford University, Pediatric Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States); University of California, International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Although mucolipidosis type II has similar metabolic abnormalities to those found in all the mucopolysaccharidoses and mucolipidoses, there are distinctive diagnostic radiographic changes of mucolipidosis II in the perinatal/newborn/infant period. To describe the early characteristic radiographic changes of mucolipidosis II and to document when these changes manifest and resolve. We retrospectively reviewed radiographs and clinical records of 19 cases of mucolipidosis II from the International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry (1971-present; fetal age to 21/2 years). A radiologist with special expertise in skeletal dysplasias evaluated the radiographs. The most common abnormalities were increased vertebral body height (80%, nonspecific), talocalcaneal stippling (86%), periosteal cloaking (74%) and vertebral body rounding (50%). Unreported findings included sacrococcygeal sclerosis (54%) and vertebral body sclerosis (13%). Rickets and hyperparathyroidism-like (pseudohyperparathyroidism) changes (rarely reported) were found in 33% of cases. These changes invariably started in the newborn period and resolved by 1 year of age. The conversion from these early infantile radiographic features to dysostosis multiplex changes occurred in 41% of cases, and within the first year after birth. Several findings strongly suggest the diagnosis of mucolipidosis II, including cloaking in combination with one or more of the following radiographic criteria: talocalcaneal stippling, sacrococcygeal or generalized vertebral body sclerosis, vertebral body rounding, or rickets/hyperparathyroidism-like changes in the perinatal/newborn/infancy period. These findings are not found in the other two forms of mucolipidosis nor in any of the mucopolysaccharidoses. (orig.)

  13. Radiographic manifestations of arthritis in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Z.S.; Norman, A.; Solomon, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to familiarize the radiologist with a newly discovered association between arthritis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiographic findings in 31 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection referred to their rheumatology clinic with musculoskeletal complaints. The patients carried a wide range of clinical diagnosis including Reiter syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, undifferentiated seronegative arthritis, isolated enthesopathies, rheumatoid arthritis and osteonecrosis. Radiographs were available in 24 of the 31 patients, and in 20 they showed radiographic features of arthritis, which included soft-tissue swelling periarticular osteoporosis, synovial effusions, sacroiliitis, periosteal reaction, joint space narrowing, marginal erosions, and osteonecrosis. Although the radiographic abnormalities were frequently mild, they were significant, given the short duration of disease in many of their patients (weeks to months) at the time radiographs were obtained. The range of radiographic findings in their series was varied and paralleled the wide range of clinical diagnoses. No findings were pathognomonic for HIV-associated arthritis. Nevertheless, HIV infection needs to be considered in any patient belonging to a recognized risk group who presents with musculoskeletal disease. This is particularly important since immunosupressive drugs used for the treatment of arthritis can be detrimental to patients with HIV infection

  14. Radiographic signs and diagnosis of dental disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellows, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dental radiographs are critical for the complete assessment and treatment of dental diseases. Dental radiography is commonly used to evaluate congenital dental defects, periodontal disease, orthodontic manipulations, oral tumors, endodontic treatments, oral trauma, and any situation where an abnormality is suspected. Although standard radiographic equipment and film can be used to produce dental radiographs, dental X-ray equipment and film provide superior quality images and greater convenience of animal patient positioning. An understanding of normal dental radiographic anatomy is important when interpreting dental radiographs. Stage III periodontitis is the earliest stage of periodontal disease at which radiographic abnormalities become apparent. Bone loss associated with periodontal disease can be classified as either horizontal or vertical. Periapical radiolucencies can represent granulomas, cysts, or abscesses, whereas periapical radiodensities may represent sclerotic bone or condensing osteitis. Lytic lesions of the bone of the jaw often represent oral neoplasms. Neoplasms also can displace or disrupt teeth in the dental arch. Resorptive lesions can be external or internal and appear as radiolucent areas involving the external surface of the root or the pulp cavity, respectively. Feline dental resorptive lesions, also known as odontoclastic resorptions, are a specific form of dental resorptive lesions unique to cats

  15. Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children: Chest Radiographic and CT Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min Jeong; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Jee Young; Lee, Kun Song

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chest radiographic and CT findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in children, the population that is more vulnerable to respiratory infection than adults. The study population comprised 410 children who were diagnosed with an H1N1 infection from August 24, 2009 to November 11, 2009 and underwent chest radiography at Dankook University Hospital in Korea. Six of these patients also underwent chest CT. The initial chest radiographs were classified as normal or abnormal. The abnormal chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans were assessed for the pattern and distribution of parenchymal lesions, and the presence of complications such as atelectasis, pleural effusion, and pneumomediastinum. The initial chest radiograph was normal in 384 of 410 (94%) patients and abnormal in 26 of 410 (6%) patients. Parenchymal abnormalities seen on the initial chest radiographs included prominent peribronchial marking (25 of 26, 96%), consolidation (22 of 26, 85%), and ground-glass opacities without consolidation (2 of 26, 8%). The involvement was usually bilateral (19 of 26, 73%) with the lower lung zone predominance (22 of 26, 85%). Atelectasis was observed in 12 (46%) and pleural effusion in 11 (42%) patients. CT (n = 6) scans showed peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (n = 6), ground-glass opacities (n = 5), centrilobular nodules (n = 4), consolidation (n = 3), mediastinal lymph node enlargement (n = 5), pleural effusion (n = 3), and pneumomediastinum (n = 3). Abnormal chest radiographs were uncommon in children with a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection. In children, H1N1 virus infection can be included in the differential diagnosis, when chest radiographs and CT scans show prominent peribronchial markings and ill-defined patchy consolidation with mediastinal lymph node enlargement, pleural effusion and pneumomediastinum

  16. Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children: Chest Radiographic and CT Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Min Jeong; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Jee Young; Lee, Kun Song [Dankook University College of Medicine, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chest radiographic and CT findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in children, the population that is more vulnerable to respiratory infection than adults. The study population comprised 410 children who were diagnosed with an H1N1 infection from August 24, 2009 to November 11, 2009 and underwent chest radiography at Dankook University Hospital in Korea. Six of these patients also underwent chest CT. The initial chest radiographs were classified as normal or abnormal. The abnormal chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans were assessed for the pattern and distribution of parenchymal lesions, and the presence of complications such as atelectasis, pleural effusion, and pneumomediastinum. The initial chest radiograph was normal in 384 of 410 (94%) patients and abnormal in 26 of 410 (6%) patients. Parenchymal abnormalities seen on the initial chest radiographs included prominent peribronchial marking (25 of 26, 96%), consolidation (22 of 26, 85%), and ground-glass opacities without consolidation (2 of 26, 8%). The involvement was usually bilateral (19 of 26, 73%) with the lower lung zone predominance (22 of 26, 85%). Atelectasis was observed in 12 (46%) and pleural effusion in 11 (42%) patients. CT (n = 6) scans showed peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (n = 6), ground-glass opacities (n = 5), centrilobular nodules (n = 4), consolidation (n = 3), mediastinal lymph node enlargement (n = 5), pleural effusion (n = 3), and pneumomediastinum (n = 3). Abnormal chest radiographs were uncommon in children with a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection. In children, H1N1 virus infection can be included in the differential diagnosis, when chest radiographs and CT scans show prominent peribronchial markings and ill-defined patchy consolidation with mediastinal lymph node enlargement, pleural effusion and pneumomediastinum

  17. Shoulder arthroplasty. Part 2: Normal and abnormal radiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheridan, B.D., E-mail: bdsheridan@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom); Ahearn, N.; Tasker, A.; Wakeley, C.; Sarangi, P. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Frequently, the decision made by general practitioners or musculoskeletal triage assessment services to refer patients for specialist review is initiated by a radiological report. Following shoulder arthroplasty it is important to ensure that any patient with asymptomatic evidence of a failing prosthesis is referred for review so that revision surgery can be contemplated and planned before the situation becomes unsalvageable. The first paper in this series described the various types of shoulder arthroplasty and indications for each. This follow-up paper will concentrate on their modes of failure and the associated radiographic features, and is aimed at radiology trainees and non-musculoskeletal specialist radiologists.

  18. Shoulder arthroplasty. Part 2: Normal and abnormal radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, B.D.; Ahearn, N.; Tasker, A.; Wakeley, C.; Sarangi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Frequently, the decision made by general practitioners or musculoskeletal triage assessment services to refer patients for specialist review is initiated by a radiological report. Following shoulder arthroplasty it is important to ensure that any patient with asymptomatic evidence of a failing prosthesis is referred for review so that revision surgery can be contemplated and planned before the situation becomes unsalvageable. The first paper in this series described the various types of shoulder arthroplasty and indications for each. This follow-up paper will concentrate on their modes of failure and the associated radiographic features, and is aimed at radiology trainees and non-musculoskeletal specialist radiologists.

  19. Evaluation of X ray attenuation by means of radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Frieda Saicla; Paredes, Ramon S.C.; Godoi, Walmor C.; Souza, Gabriel Pinto de

    2011-01-01

    This paper's main goal is to adopt a qualitative methodology to evaluate the attenuation of x-radiation through X-ray images in polymeric materials plus residual lead. To determinate the images it was initially used an experimental setup at the Laboratory for Materials Diagnostics LACTEC. These results correspond to a more qualitative analysis, even with quantitative answers. Through analysis of radiographic images we can measure the intensity of radiation that goes through the plate, making possible to establish a relationship between the attenuation coefficient and the thickness of the material. (author)

  20. Radiographic analysis in castor bean seeds (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria Laene Moreira de; Alves, Renato Augusto; Oliveira, Luciana Magda De.

    2010-01-01

    Castor bean cropping has great social and economic value, but its production has been affected by factors such as low quality seeds used for sowing. The quick and precise evaluation of seed quality by x-ray test is known as an effective method to evaluate seed lots, but little is known about the interpretation between of the type of radiographic image and the seed quality correlation. The potential of x-ray analysis as a marker of seed physiological quality and as an initial process for the i...

  1. Caries status in young Colombian children expressed by the ICCMS™ visual/radiographic combined caries staging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Andrea; Ekstrand, Kim Rud; Gamboa, Luis Fernando

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report (1) the caries experience prevalence and mean, and the caries severity and distribution patterns, expressed clinically and combined with radiographs with the conventional and ICCMS™ systems in young children from Bogotá, Colombia; (2) the contribution of including radiographs...... to the clinical caries scoring and (3) in which surfaces the radiograph adds to the clinical caries registration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six hundred children from kindergartens/schools were enrolled: Cohort A: 2-year (n = 200), Cohort B: 4-year (n = 200) and Cohort C: 6-year (n = 200) olds. Radiographs were taken...... of the 4- and 6- year olds. Children were examined clinically using the Clinical (C) and Radiographic (R) ICCMS™-epi Caries Scoring Systems, staging caries lesions (d) as: Initial (Cepi/RA), Moderate (CM/RB) or Extensive (CE/RC). Caries experience including missing (m) and filled (f) surfaces was expressed...

  2. 10 CFR 34.46 - Supervision of radiographers' assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of radiographers' assistants. 34.46 Section 34... REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.46 Supervision of... personal supervision of a radiographer. The personal supervision must include: (a) The radiographer's...

  3. Accuracy of chest radiographs in the emergency diagnosis of heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studler, Ueli; Kretzschmar, Martin; Steinbrich, Wolfgang; Christ, Michael; Breidthardt, Tobias; Noveanu, Markus; Perruchoud, Andre P.; Mueller, Christian; Schoetzau, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of chest radiographic findings of heart failure (HF) in current patients presenting with dyspnea in the emergency department. In a secondary analysis of the BASEL study, initial chest radiographs of 277 patients with acute dyspnea were evaluated by two radiologists blinded to the adjudicated diagnosis (56% had the final diagnosis of HF). Predefined radiographic criteria of HF were used. Statistical analysis included receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and calculation of a logistic regression model including B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. The reader's overall impression showed the highest area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of HF in both supine and erect patient positions (0.855 and 0.857). Among individual radiographic findings, peribronchial cuffing in the supine position (0.829) showed the highest accuracies. The lowest accuracy was found for the vascular pedicle width in the supine position (0.461). Logistic regression analysis showed no significant differences between the reader's overall impression, the radiographic model, and BNP testing. In our study, the combination of radiographic features provided valuable information and was of comparable accuracy as BNP-testing for the diagnosis of HF. (orig.)

  4. In vitro analysis of extracted dens invaginatus using various radiographic imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekharan, S; Martens, L; Vanhove, C; Aps, J

    2014-09-01

    Dens Invaginatus (DI) is a rare malformation of the teeth, showing a broad spectrum of morphologic variations. The aim of this study was to perform in vitro radiographic analyses of three extracted dens invaginatus (DI) teeth with complex root anatomy using plain radiographs, CBCT, MRI and micro CT techniques. Study design: Three maxillary lateral incisors (A, B and C) from two patients were extracted due to poor prognosis and were radiographically analysed. Initially, conventional two dimensional digital radiographs were taken. Subsequently CBCT, micro CT and MRI analyses were performed. According to the Schulze and Brand system of classification, teeth A, B and C were classified as A2, B3 and B2 respectively. To detect the relationship between the invagination to the oral cavity and pulp chamber, conventional two dimensional radiographs were of no help. CBCT and MRI images were found to be complementary to each other but provided lesser structural detail than micro CT images. Reporting on these three DI teeth, normal conventional radiographs did not provide detailed structural information about the malformation due to geometric distortion and lack of information. Even though Oehlers classification system is the most widely used, classification by Schulze and Brand is more applicable in rare and deviant teeth.

  5. Weightbearing vs Gravity Stress Radiographs for Stability Evaluation of Supination-External Rotation Fractures of the Ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Angela; Krause, Fabian; Weber, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Isolated lateral malleolar fractures may result from a supination-external rotation (SER) injury of the ankle. Stable fractures maintain tibiotalar congruence due to competent medial restraints and can be treated nonoperatively with excellent functional results and long-term prognosis. Stability might be assessed with either stress radiographs or weightbearing radiographs. A consecutive series of patients with closed SER fractures (presumed AO 44-B1) were prospectively enrolled from 2008 to 2015. Patients with clearly unstable fractures (medial clear space more than 7 mm) on the initial nonweightbearing radiograph were excluded and operated on. All other patients were examined with a gravity stress and a weightbearing anteroposterior radiograph. Borderline instability of the fracture was assumed when the medial clear space was 4 to 7 mm. Those were treated nonoperatively. Of 104 patients with isolated lateral malleolar fractures of the SER type, 14 patients were treated operatively because of clear instability (displacement) on the initial radiographs. Of the nonoperative patients, 44 patients demonstrated borderline instability on the gravity stress but stability on the weightbearing radiograph ("gravity borderline"); the remaining 46 were stable in both tests ("gravity stable"). At an average follow-up of 23 months, no significant differences were seen in the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society hindfoot score (92 points gravity-borderline group vs 93 points gravity-unstable group), the Foot Functional Index score (11 vs 10 points), the Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical component (86 vs 85 points), and SF-36 mental component (84 vs 81 points). Radiographically, all fractures had healed with anatomic congruity of the ankle. Weightbearing radiographs provided a reliable basis to decide about stability and nonoperative treatment in isolated lateral malleolar fractures of the SER type with excellent clinical and radiographic outcome at short-term follow-up. Gravity

  6. Chest radiograph interpretation by medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, D.R.; Goddard, P.R.; Callaway, M.P.; Greenwood, R.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To assess the ability of final year medical students to interpret conventional chest radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten conventional chest radiographs were selected from a teaching hospital radiology department library that were good radiological examples of common conditions. All were conditions that a medical student should be expected to recognize by the end of their training. One normal radiograph was included. The radiographs were shown to 52 final year medical students who were asked to describe their findings. RESULTS: The median score achieved was 12.5 out of 20 (range 6-18). There was no difference between the median scores of male and female students (12.5 and 12.3, respectively, p=0.82) but male students were more likely to be certain of their answers than female students (median certainty scores 23.0 and 14.0, respectively). The overall degree of certainty was low. On no radiograph were more than 25% of students definite about their answer. Students had received little formal radiology teaching (2-42 h, median 21) and few expressed an interest in radiology as a career. Only two (3.8%) students thought they were good at interpreting chest radiographs, 17 (32.7%) thought they were bad or awful. CONCLUSION: Medical students reaching the end of their training do not perform well at interpreting simple chest radiographs. They lack confidence and have received little formal radiological tuition. Perhaps as a result, few are interested in radiology as a career, which is a matter for concern in view of the current shortage of radiologists in the UK

  7. Radiographic Recurrence of Deformity After Hallux Valgus Surgery in Patients With Metatarsus Adductus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyer, Amiethab; Shub, Jeffery; Shariff, Raheel; Ying, Li; Myerson, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Metatarsus adductus (MA) is a congenital condition that may lead to the development of hallux valgus (HV). The associated anatomic deformities may lead to recurrence of the HV in patients with MA. The goals of the study were to identify radiographic rates of recurrence of HV following surgery for HV in patients with MA. Between 2002 and 2013, 587 patients who underwent HV surgery were retrospectively identified. The radiographic parameters recorded included the hallux valgus angle (HVA), the intermetatarsal angle (IMA), and the metatarsus adductus angle (MAA) obtained from initial radiographs and at final follow-up. The MAA was considered abnormal if the value was greater than 20 degrees. Radiographic recurrence was defined as HV deformity >20 degrees. The rate of radiographic recurrence of HV was 15% in patients without MA and 29.6% in patients with MA (P 31 degrees) were found to have a recurrence rate of 18%, whereas those with less severe MA (MAA < 31 degrees) were found to have a recurrence rate of 82%. Of the patients with severe MA who did not have radiographic recurrence of HV, 60% had undergone a Lapidus arthrodesis and realignment arthrodesis of the second/third tarsometatarsal joints. The rate of radiographic recurrence for patients with MA undergoing HV correction was ~30%. This finding was consistent with our hypothesis that MA increases the risk of radiographic recurrence of HV deformity irrespective of the procedure performed. We believe the lower rate of recurrence of HV among patients with severe MA deformities is suggestive that more complete management of the deformity is warranted. Level III, retrospective comparative series. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Sequential radiographic changes of nodules in patients with miliary pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, Jae Woo; Park, Chan Sup; Bae, In Young; Kwak, Seung Min; Cho, Chul Ho; Kwon, Min Joong; Joo, Ji Soen; Chung, Won Kyun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate sequential changes in miliary nodules, as seen on chest radiographs in patients with miliary tuberculosis. We retrospectively analyzed sequential changes in miliary nodules, as seen on the chest radiographs of 13 patients with miliary tuberculosis who recovered completely after antituberculous medication. Two were children and 11 were adults, and their ages ranged from 2 months to 73 years (mean, 38 years). In cases in which miliary tuberculosis had been diagnosed from initial chest radiographs, follow-up chest radiographs were obtained 5 to 15 (mean, 10) months later. After complete resolution of miliary nodules, as seen on chest radiographs, high-resolution CT scanning was performed in three patients. As seen on follow-up chest radiographs obtained at one week, the number and size of miliary nodules had decreased in eight to nine patients (89%), and on those obtained at one month, these decreases were seen in all 13 patients. The mean duration of complete resolution of miliary nodules was 6.3 months; in children, this was 3.5 (range, 2-5) months, and in adults, 6.8 (range, 3-10) months. In all three patients involved, high-resolution CT scans obtained after complete radiographic resolution of miliary nodules showed no recurrence. In patients with miliary tuberculosis, the size and number of nodules had decreased within one month of adequate chemotherapy and on chest radiographs, complete resolution was seen at 6.3 months, on average. (author). 17 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  9. CT outperforms radiographs at a comparable radiation dose in the assessment for spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadell, Michael F; Gralla, Jane; Bercha, Istiaq; Stewart, Jaime R; Harned, Roger K; Ingram, James D; Miller, Angie L; Strain, John D; Weinman, Jason P

    2015-07-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis, a unilateral or bilateral fracture at pars interarticularis, is a common cause of low back pain in children. The initial imaging study in the diagnosis of lumbar spondylolysis has historically been lumbar spine radiographs; however, radiographs can be equivocal or false-negative. Definitive diagnosis can be achieved with computed tomography (CT), but its use has been limited due to the dose of ionizing radiation to the patient. By limiting the z-axis coverage to the relevant anatomy and optimizing the CT protocol, we are able to provide a definitive diagnosis of fractures of the pars interarticularis at comparable or lower radiation dose than commonly performed lumbar spine radiographs. As there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of spondylolysis besides surgery, we compared interobserver agreement and degree of confidence to determine which modality is preferable. Sixty-two patients with low back pain ages 5-18 years were assessed for the presence of spondylolyis. Forty-seven patients were evaluated by radiography and 15 patients were evaluated by limited field-of-view CT. Both radiographic and CT examinations were assessed anonymously in random order for the presence or absence of spondylolyisis by six raters. Agreement was assessed among raters using a Fleiss Kappa statistic for multiple raters. CT provided a significantly higher level of agreement among raters than radiographs (P < 0.001). The overall Kappa for rater agreement with radiographs was 0.24, 0.34 and 0.40 for 2, 3 or 4 views, respectively, and 0.88 with CT. Interobserver agreement is significantly greater using limited z-axis coverage CT when compared with radiographs. Radiologist confidence improved significantly with CT compared to radiographs regardless of the number of views.

  10. CT outperforms radiographs at a comparable radiation dose in the assessment for spondylolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadell, Michael F.; Stewart, Jaime R.; Harned, Roger K.; Ingram, James D.; Miller, Angie L.; Strain, John D.; Weinman, Jason P. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Gralla, Jane [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); Bercha, Istiaq [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Lumbar spondylolysis, a unilateral or bilateral fracture at pars interarticularis, is a common cause of low back pain in children. The initial imaging study in the diagnosis of lumbar spondylolysis has historically been lumbar spine radiographs; however, radiographs can be equivocal or false-negative. Definitive diagnosis can be achieved with computed tomography (CT), but its use has been limited due to the dose of ionizing radiation to the patient. By limiting the z-axis coverage to the relevant anatomy and optimizing the CT protocol, we are able to provide a definitive diagnosis of fractures of the pars interarticularis at comparable or lower radiation dose than commonly performed lumbar spine radiographs. As there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of spondylolysis besides surgery, we compared interobserver agreement and degree of confidence to determine which modality is preferable. Sixty-two patients with low back pain ages 5-18 years were assessed for the presence of spondylolysis. Forty-seven patients were evaluated by radiography and 15 patients were evaluated by limited field-of-view CT. Both radiographic and CT examinations were assessed anonymously in random order for the presence or absence of spondylolysis by six raters. Agreement was assessed among raters using a Fleiss Kappa statistic for multiple raters. CT provided a significantly higher level of agreement among raters than radiographs (P < 0.001). The overall Kappa for rater agreement with radiographs was 0.24, 0.34 and 0.40 for 2, 3 or 4 views, respectively, and 0.88 with CT. Interobserver agreement is significantly greater using limited z-axis coverage CT when compared with radiographs. Radiologist confidence improved significantly with CT compared to radiographs regardless of the number of views. (orig.)

  11. CT outperforms radiographs at a comparable radiation dose in the assessment for spondylolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadell, Michael F.; Stewart, Jaime R.; Harned, Roger K.; Ingram, James D.; Miller, Angie L.; Strain, John D.; Weinman, Jason P.; Gralla, Jane; Bercha, Istiaq

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis, a unilateral or bilateral fracture at pars interarticularis, is a common cause of low back pain in children. The initial imaging study in the diagnosis of lumbar spondylolysis has historically been lumbar spine radiographs; however, radiographs can be equivocal or false-negative. Definitive diagnosis can be achieved with computed tomography (CT), but its use has been limited due to the dose of ionizing radiation to the patient. By limiting the z-axis coverage to the relevant anatomy and optimizing the CT protocol, we are able to provide a definitive diagnosis of fractures of the pars interarticularis at comparable or lower radiation dose than commonly performed lumbar spine radiographs. As there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of spondylolysis besides surgery, we compared interobserver agreement and degree of confidence to determine which modality is preferable. Sixty-two patients with low back pain ages 5-18 years were assessed for the presence of spondylolysis. Forty-seven patients were evaluated by radiography and 15 patients were evaluated by limited field-of-view CT. Both radiographic and CT examinations were assessed anonymously in random order for the presence or absence of spondylolysis by six raters. Agreement was assessed among raters using a Fleiss Kappa statistic for multiple raters. CT provided a significantly higher level of agreement among raters than radiographs (P < 0.001). The overall Kappa for rater agreement with radiographs was 0.24, 0.34 and 0.40 for 2, 3 or 4 views, respectively, and 0.88 with CT. Interobserver agreement is significantly greater using limited z-axis coverage CT when compared with radiographs. Radiologist confidence improved significantly with CT compared to radiographs regardless of the number of views. (orig.)

  12. Radiographic caries detection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Tzschoppe, Markus; Paris, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    This systematic review aimed at evaluating the accuracy of radiographic caries detection for different lesions at different locations. Studies reporting on the accuracy (sensitivity/specificity) of radiographic detection of natural primary caries lesions under clinical or in vitro conditions were included. Risk of bias was assessed using QUADAS-2. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. Analyses were performed separately for occlusal and proximal lesions, with further discrimination between any kind of lesions, dentine lesions, and cavitated lesions. Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central) and grey literature were systematically searched, complemented by cross-referencing from bibliographies. From 947 identified articles, 442 were analyzed full-text. 117 studies (13,375 teeth, 19,108 surfaces) were included, the majority of them reporting on permanent teeth and having high risk of bias. The detection of any kind (i.e. also initial) lesions had low sensitivities (pooled DOR [95% CI]: 0.24 [0.21/0.26] to 0.42 [0.31/0.34]), but moderate to high specificities (0.70 [0.76/0.84] to 0.97 [0.95/0.98]). For dentine lesions, sensitivities were higher (from 0.36 [0.24/0.49] for proximal to 0.56 [0.53/0.59] for occlusal lesions), and specificities ranged between 0.87 [0.85/0.89] and 0.95 [0.94/0.96]. No studies reported on cavitated occlusal lesions, whilst for cavitated proximal lesions, sensitivities increased above 0.60, whilst sensitivities remained high (above 0.90). Radiographic caries detection is highly accurate for cavitated proximal lesions, and seems also suitable to detect dentine caries lesions. For detecting initial lesions, more sensitive methods could be considered in population with high caries risk and prevalence. Radiographic caries detection is especially suitable for detecting more advanced caries lesions, and has limited risks for false positive diagnoses. For

  13. Radiographic testing - optimum radiographs of plastics and composite materials with dosimeter control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, J.

    1978-01-01

    In view of great differencies in X-ray transmission it is more difficult to get optimum radiographs of plastics and especially of reinforced plastics than for example of metals. A procedure will be reported how to get with little effort optimum radiographs especially also in the range of long wavelength radiation corresponding 10 to 25 kV.P. (orig.) [de

  14. Australian rural radiographers' perspectives on disclosure of their radiographic opinion to patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squibb, Kathryn; Bull, Rosalind M.; Smith, Anthony; Dalton, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The role of Australian rural radiographers in radiographic interpretation, communication and disclosure of their radiographic opinion with a specific focus on plain film radiography was examined in a two phase, exploratory interpretive study. Data were collected using questionnaires and interviews and analysed thematically. This reports one of the key themes identified in the thematic data analysis. ‘Disclosure of Radiographic Opinion to Patients’ comprises the three interrelated sub-themes Acting Ethically, Selective Disclosure and Filtered Truth. It is wholly concerned with the ways in which rural radiographers choose to disclose their radiographic opinion to patients. Without a clear picture of where they stand medico-legally, rural radiographers draw on experience and a strong ethical framework as the basis for these complex decisions. Rural radiographers frame their disclosures to patients in a manner that is governed by the diagnostic, therapeutic and emotional impact the information disclosed may have on the patient. Disclosure to patients was found to be selective, often diagnostically vague and ethically filtered

  15. Radiographic study on temporomandibular joint Arthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Dong Soo [Dept. of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-11-15

    The author analysed the routine radiographic changes and clinical symptoms of 205 cases of temporomandibular joint arthrosis. The clinical symptoms of the patients were classified and the morphological changes of condylar head, articular eminence, and articular fossa were analyzed and discussed from radiographic view point. The positional change of condylar head and articular fossa relation in TMJ arthrosis were observed. The frequencies of coincidence between the site of complaints and the site of the abnormal images which could be detected were examined. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Bone erosion, deformity, marginal proliferation and sclerosis were selected from many abnormal images as the radiographic diagnostic criteria of TMJ arthritic lesions. 2. Abnormal radiographic findings were revealed in 150 cases (73.9%) of 205 total TMJ arthrosis cases and site with abnormal findings coincided with the site of complaints in 105 cases (70.7%) of 150 cases and coincidence rates were higher above fourth decades than below third decades. 3. Sclerosis of the abnormal radiographic findings could be found more often below third decades than above fourth decades. 4. The positional changes of condylar head were revealed in 176 cases (85.9%) of 205 total cases. 5. Pain complaints were revealed in 170 cases(82.9%) and clicking sounds were revealed in 120 cases (58.6%) of clinical symptoms of TMJ arthrosis. 6. No tendency was found so far the differential diagnosis between pain dysfunction syndrome and osteoarthrosis of TMJ.

  16. Radiographic study on temporomandibular joint Arthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Dong Soo

    1980-01-01

    The author analysed the routine radiographic changes and clinical symptoms of 205 cases of temporomandibular joint arthrosis. The clinical symptoms of the patients were classified and the morphological changes of condylar head, articular eminence, and articular fossa were analyzed and discussed from radiographic view point. The positional change of condylar head and articular fossa relation in TMJ arthrosis were observed. The frequencies of coincidence between the site of complaints and the site of the abnormal images which could be detected were examined. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Bone erosion, deformity, marginal proliferation and sclerosis were selected from many abnormal images as the radiographic diagnostic criteria of TMJ arthritic lesions. 2. Abnormal radiographic findings were revealed in 150 cases (73.9%) of 205 total TMJ arthrosis cases and site with abnormal findings coincided with the site of complaints in 105 cases (70.7%) of 150 cases and coincidence rates were higher above fourth decades than below third decades. 3. Sclerosis of the abnormal radiographic findings could be found more often below third decades than above fourth decades. 4. The positional changes of condylar head were revealed in 176 cases (85.9%) of 205 total cases. 5. Pain complaints were revealed in 170 cases(82.9%) and clicking sounds were revealed in 120 cases (58.6%) of clinical symptoms of TMJ arthrosis. 6. No tendency was found so far the differential diagnosis between pain dysfunction syndrome and osteoarthrosis of TMJ.

  17. Radiographers' preconditions for evidence-based radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Liikanen, Eeva

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is essential in today's health care, but its establishment requires several preconditions from individuals and organizations (e.g. knowledge, understanding, attitudes, abilities, self-confidence, support, and resources). Previous studies suggest that radiographers do generate and use evidence in their work, but evidence-based radiography (EBR) is not yet used routinely as established practice, especially in terms of research utilization. This paper aims to describe radiographers' preconditions for EBR, and their participation in research activities. Main focus is on research utilization. Using an electronic questionnaire developed for this study, a survey was conducted: data collected from Finnish radiographers and radiotherapists (N = 438) were analysed both statistically and qualitatively. The final response rate was 39%. The results suggest radiographers' preconditions for EBR to consist of knowledge of research, significance of research activities, research-orientated way of working, and support. In addition, adequate resourcing is essential. Reading scientific journals, participation in research activities, a higher degree of education, and senior post seem to be significant promoters of EBR and research utilization. The results support the notion that EBR, and especially research utilization, are not yet well-established in Finland, and radiographers' viewpoints concerning the role and significance of research evidence and research activities still seem to vary.

  18. Review on radiographic inspection in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Yutaka

    1983-01-01

    This is a report of the activities in the radiographic inspection department of Japanese Society for Non-destructive Inspection. The contents of activities are described about the following 15 items: standards, minimum discernible contrast and image distribution, contrast meter and penetrameter sensitivity, testing conditions, detection limit and simulation, photographing method for tube welding and corner welding, relationship between irradiation direction and flaw detectability, abnormal images, RI sources, X-ray equipment and observing device, sensitive materials, detectors, image processing and X-ray TV and automation, neutron radiography, other application and new techniques, and safety. Concerning the ''standards'', discussion was performed on revising JIS Z 3105 ''Methods of Radiographic Test and Classification of Radiographs for Aluminum Welds''. In ''Abnormal images'', the verification by the author that the abnormal shadows generated in the radiographic images of austenitic steel welded parts are the diffraction phenomenon to satisfy the Bragg's conditions is reported. In ''RI sources'', Yb-169 was found to be a good radiation source for relatively thin steel plates. In ''neutron radiography'', it was confirmed that the neutron radiography using a cyclotron as a neutron source can be used practically by its fundamental tests. ''Application and new techniques'' include a trial to utilize scattered radiation as a source, the testing method of γ shield for spent fuel transportation, the improvement of X-ray radiographic test for titanium thin plates and thin wall tubes, and others. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Radiographic anatomy of juvenile bovine limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, S E; Biedrzycki, A H; Livesey, M J; Drees, R

    2016-11-26

    Juvenile bovine patients who present with clinical signs of lameness are commonly evaluated using radiographic techniques both within a hospital setting and in a farm environment. The radiographic development of the juvenile bovine skeleton is currently poorly documented. In this study, the limbs of four heifer calves were sequentially radiographed to assess development of the juvenile bovine appendicular skeleton in the first 12 months of life. Images were acquired at three weeks, three months, six months, nine months and one year of age. The normal radiographic anatomy of the fore limbs and hindlimbs and the changes over the first 12 months are described. The majority of physes remain open throughout this period, with the exception of the proximal physes of the proximal and middle phalanges, the proximal radial physis, and the proximal humeral physis which close radiographically between 9 months and 12 months of age, and fusion of the fourth and central tarsal bones occurs between 9 months and 12 months of age. The results of this study may aid in differentiating normal and abnormal anatomy in the juvenile bovine limb. British Veterinary Association.

  20. Radiographic abnormalities in tricyclic acid overdose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnell, R.M.; Richardson, M.L.; Vincent, J.M.; Godwin, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Several case reports have described adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to tricyclic acid (TCA) overdose. During a 1-year period 83 patients requiring intubation secondary to drug overdose were evaluated. Abnormalities on chest radiographs occurred in 26 (50%) of the 54 patients with TCA overdose, compared to six (21%) of the 29 patients overdosed with other drugs. In addition, five (9%) of the patients with TCA overdose subsequently had radiographic and clinical abnormalities meeting the criteria for ARDS. Only one (3%) of the patients with non-TCA overdose subsequently had change suggesting ARDS. TCAs should be added to the list of drugs associated with ARDS, and TCA overdose should be considered a major risk factor in the development of radiographically evident abnormalities

  1. The review on radiographic inspection in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Junichiro

    1979-01-01

    This is a review paper on the activities of radiographic inspection performed in 1978. The state of safety management in 1978 is reported. The JIS standards for the radiographic inspection were investigated. Problems concerning the measurement of the height of defects by non-destructive test were studied. The radiographic method with narrow irradiation field was developed. Radiography of the welded parts at corners, fiber reinforced plastics, offshore structures, nozzles, pipes and so on was investigated. Scattering ratio, contrast, and beam quality affect on identification, and these effects were studied. Defect-like patterns seen in X-ray graphs of cast metals and welded parts are due to X-ray diffraction. The relation between exposure and density of pictures was obtained as linear relation. The property of scattering ratio and an empirical formula were deduced. Development of instruments and films have been made. (Kato, T.)

  2. Radiographic indices for lumbar developmental spinal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Ng, Karen Ka Man; Cheung, Prudence Wing Hang; Samartzis, Dino; Cheung, Kenneth Man Chee

    2017-01-01

    Patients with developmental spinal stenosis (DSS) are susceptible to developing symptomatic stenosis due to pre-existing narrowed spinal canals. DSS has been previously defined by MRI via the axial anteroposterior (AP) bony spinal canal diameter. However, MRI is hardly a cost-efficient tool for screening patients. X-rays are superior due to its availability and cost, but currently, there is no definition of DSS based on plain radiographs. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop radiographic indices for diagnosing DSS. This was a prospective cohort of 148 subjects consisting of patients undergoing surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (patient group) and asymptomatic subjects recruited openly from the general population (control group). Ethics approval was obtained from the local institutional review board. All subjects underwent MRI for diagnosing DSS and radiographs for measuring parameters used for creating the indices. All measurements were performed by two independent investigators, blinded to patient details. Intra- and interobserver reliability analyses were conducted, and only parameters with near perfect intraclass correlation underwent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine the cutoff values for diagnosing DSS using radiographs. Imaging parameters from a total of 66 subjects from the patient group and 82 asymptomatic subjects in the control group were used for analysis. ROC analysis suggested sagittal vertebral body width to pedicle width ratio (SBW:PW) as having the strongest sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing DSS. Cutoff indices for SBW:PW were level-specific: L1 (2.0), L2 (2.0), L3 (2.2), L4 (2.2), L5 (2.5), and S1 (2.8). This is the first study to define DSS on plain radiographs based on comparisons between a clinically relevant patient group and a control group. Individuals with DSS can be identified by a simple radiograph using a screening tool allowing for better cost-saving means for clinical diagnosis or research

  3. Radiographic indices for lumbar developmental spinal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Pui Yin Cheung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with developmental spinal stenosis (DSS are susceptible to developing symptomatic stenosis due to pre-existing narrowed spinal canals. DSS has been previously defined by MRI via the axial anteroposterior (AP bony spinal canal diameter. However, MRI is hardly a cost-efficient tool for screening patients. X-rays are superior due to its availability and cost, but currently, there is no definition of DSS based on plain radiographs. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop radiographic indices for diagnosing DSS. Methods This was a prospective cohort of 148 subjects consisting of patients undergoing surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (patient group and asymptomatic subjects recruited openly from the general population (control group. Ethics approval was obtained from the local institutional review board. All subjects underwent MRI for diagnosing DSS and radiographs for measuring parameters used for creating the indices. All measurements were performed by two independent investigators, blinded to patient details. Intra- and interobserver reliability analyses were conducted, and only parameters with near perfect intraclass correlation underwent receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis to determine the cutoff values for diagnosing DSS using radiographs. Results Imaging parameters from a total of 66 subjects from the patient group and 82 asymptomatic subjects in the control group were used for analysis. ROC analysis suggested sagittal vertebral body width to pedicle width ratio (SBW:PW as having the strongest sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing DSS. Cutoff indices for SBW:PW were level-specific: L1 (2.0, L2 (2.0, L3 (2.2, L4 (2.2, L5 (2.5, and S1 (2.8. Conclusions This is the first study to define DSS on plain radiographs based on comparisons between a clinically relevant patient group and a control group. Individuals with DSS can be identified by a simple radiograph using a screening tool allowing for better

  4. Optimizing radiation exposure for CT localizer radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohrer, Evelyn; Maeder, Ulf; Fiebich, Martin [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Giessen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection-IMPS; Schaefer, Stefan; Krombach, Gabriele A. [Univ. Hospital Giessen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Noel, Peter B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2017-08-01

    The trend towards submillisievert CT scans leads to a higher dose fraction of localizer radiographs in CT examinations. The already existing technical capabilities make dose optimization of localizer radiographs worthwhile. Modern CT scanners apply automatic exposure control (AEC) based on attenuation data in such a localizer. Therefore not only this aspect but also the detectability of anatomical landmarks in the localizer for the desired CT scan range adjustment needs to be considered. The effective dose of a head, chest, and abdomen-pelvis localizer radiograph with standard factory settings and user-optimized settings was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. CT examinations of an anthropomorphic phantom were performed using multiple sets of acquisition parameters for the localizer radiograph and the AEC for the subsequent helical CT scan. Anatomical landmarks were defined to assess the image quality of the localizer. CTDI{sub vol} and effective mAs per slice of the helical CT scan were recorded to examine the impact of localizer settings on a helical CT scan. The dose of the localizer radiograph could be decreased by more than 90% while the image quality remained sufficient when selecting the lowest available settings (80 kVp, 20 mA, pa tube position). The tube position during localizer acquisition had a greater impact on the AEC than the reduction of tube voltage and tube current. Except for the use of a pa tube position, all changes of acquisition parameters for the localizer resulted in a decreased total radiation exposure. A dose reduction of CT localizer radiograph is necessary and possible. In the examined CT system there was no negative impact on the modulated helical CT scan when the lowest tube voltage and tube current were used for the localizer.

  5. The one-leg standing radiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsornsak, P.; Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis wa...

  6. Pelvic radiograph in skeletal dysplasias: An approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The bony pelvis is constituted by the ilium, ischium, pubis, and sacrum. The pelvic radiograph is an important component of the skeletal survey performed in suspected skeletal dysplasia. Most of the common skeletal dysplasias have either minor or major radiological abnormalities; hence, knowledge of the normal radiological appearance of bony pelvis is vital for recognizing the early signs of various skeletal dysplasias. This article discusses many common and some uncommon radiological findings on pelvic radiographs along with the specific dysplasia in which they are seen; common differential diagnostic considerations are also discussed.

  7. Pseudoprominent aorta: Radiographic findings and CT correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.T.; Shepard, J.A.O.; Stewart, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of a persistent left-sided superior vena cava (LSVC) in the absence of a right-sided superior vena cava (RSVC) may be suspected on a posteroanterior (PA) chest radiograph because of a prominent-appearing ascending aorta, which results from the absence of the RSVC. In the absence of an RSVC, the right upper lobe abuts and outlines the course of the ascending aorta, allowing better demonstration of its profile. This report describes a patient with this finding on a PA chest radiograph. Computed tomographic correlation is presented

  8. Pseudoprominent aorta: Radiographic findings and CT correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.T.; Shepard, J.A.O.; Stewart, W.J.

    1985-05-01

    The presence of a persistent left-sided superior vena cava (LSVC) in the absence of a right-sided superior vena cava (RSVC) may be suspected on a posteroanterior (PA) chest radiograph because of a prominent-appearing ascending aorta, which results from the absence of the RSVC. In the absence of an RSVC, the right upper lobe abuts and outlines the course of the ascending aorta, allowing better demonstration of its profile. This report describes a patient with this finding on a PA chest radiograph. Computed tomographic correlation is presented.

  9. [Assessment of radiographic investigation in discopathy diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samojedny, A; Guz, W

    1995-01-01

    Based on 262 radiographic examinations done during two years the authors have analyzed the compatibility of the radiographic image with the clinical examinations and with the operation results. In the analysis the most frequently occurring lesion level having the character of hernia of the nucleus pulposus, age, sex, and the duration of the disease symptoms were taken into account. The effectiveness of the method, which was verified by surgery was 86.3%. The result is in good agreement with literature data. Therefore, the method can be still recommended, particularly for the x-ray laboratories, which have no possibility to apply non-invasive techniques.

  10. A radiographic study of the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Karp Shik; Kim, Dong Youn; Sohn, Jeong Ick; Bae, Yong Chul

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs. For this study, panoramic radiographs were obtained from the 200 adults and evaluated the position and shape of mental foramen. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, the author also obtained panoramic radiographs from the 100 adults and then evaluated the positional and shape changes of mental foramen. The following results were obtained : 1. Shapes of mental foramen were observed elliptical (43.3%), round or oval (42.5%), unidentified (7.5%) and diffuse (6.7%) type in descending order of frequency. 2. Horizontal position of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the 2nd premolar area (54.2%), and area between the 1st premolar and 2nd premolar (43.1%), area between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar (2.7%), and at apex (9.7%), overlap with apex (1.9%), superior of apex (0.2%) in descending order of frequency. 4. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, shape changes of mental foramen were more obviously observed at the forward 10 mm and chin down 10 degree positioned panoramic radiographs, And changes of horizontal and vertical position were observed in similar to compared with normal positioned panoramic radiographs.

  11. A comparison of radiographer and radiologist reports on radiographer conducted barium enemas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Loughran, C.F.; Birchenough, H.; Savage, J.; Sutcliffe, C.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To compare radiographer and radiologist reports on radiographer conducted barium enemas. Method: Two specially trained, experienced radiographers performed barium enemas and prepared provisional reports without consulting radiologists. Later, formal radiologist reports were issued. The reports of each were compared and correlated with clinical findings derived from case note review. Results:Seven hundred and eighty eight patients had barium enemas. Males numbered 295 (37.5%) and females 493 (62.5%). Patients ages ranged from 17 to 95 years (mean 62). The radiologist reported 244 as normal, 432 as diverticular change, 70 with polyps (31 of which had co-existent diverticular disease), 31 with carcinomas and 12 with colitis (three of which had co-existent diverticular disease). Taking the radiologist reports as gold-standard radiographer reports were concordant in 753 (95.5%). There were 35 (4.5%) discordant radiographer reports of these 19 were false-positive diagnoses of polyps and six false positive diagnoses of diverticular change. There were seven false-negative diagnoses of polyps (only one of these was found to have a polyp at follow-up endoscopy). There was one false-negative diagnosis of colitis and two false-negative reports of diverticular change. On follow up there were no false negative diagnoses of carcinoma by either radiographer or radiologist. There was one concordant false-positive diagnosis of carcinoma. Conclusion:Radiographers with specialized training can report barium enemas to a high standard

  12. A comparison of radiographer and radiologist reports on radiographer conducted barium enemas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Loughran, C.F.; Birchenough, H.; Savage, J.; Sutcliffe, C

    2002-11-01

    Purpose: To compare radiographer and radiologist reports on radiographer conducted barium enemas. Method: Two specially trained, experienced radiographers performed barium enemas and prepared provisional reports without consulting radiologists. Later, formal radiologist reports were issued. The reports of each were compared and correlated with clinical findings derived from case note review. Results:Seven hundred and eighty eight patients had barium enemas. Males numbered 295 (37.5%) and females 493 (62.5%). Patients ages ranged from 17 to 95 years (mean 62). The radiologist reported 244 as normal, 432 as diverticular change, 70 with polyps (31 of which had co-existent diverticular disease), 31 with carcinomas and 12 with colitis (three of which had co-existent diverticular disease). Taking the radiologist reports as gold-standard radiographer reports were concordant in 753 (95.5%). There were 35 (4.5%) discordant radiographer reports of these 19 were false-positive diagnoses of polyps and six false positive diagnoses of diverticular change. There were seven false-negative diagnoses of polyps (only one of these was found to have a polyp at follow-up endoscopy). There was one false-negative diagnosis of colitis and two false-negative reports of diverticular change. On follow up there were no false negative diagnoses of carcinoma by either radiographer or radiologist. There was one concordant false-positive diagnosis of carcinoma. Conclusion:Radiographers with specialized training can report barium enemas to a high standard.

  13. A radiographic study of the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Karp Shik; Kim, Dong Youn; Sohn, Jeong Ick [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Chul [Dept. of Oral Anatomy, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs. For this study, panoramic radiographs were obtained from the 200 adults and evaluated the position and shape of mental foramen. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, the author also obtained panoramic radiographs from the 100 adults and then evaluated the positional and shape changes of mental foramen. The following results were obtained : 1. Shapes of mental foramen were observed elliptical (43.3%), round or oval (42.5%), unidentified (7.5%) and diffuse (6.7%) type in descending order of frequency. 2. Horizontal position of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the 2nd premolar area (54.2%), and area between the 1st premolar and 2nd premolar (43.1%), area between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar (2.7%), and at apex (9.7%), overlap with apex (1.9%), superior of apex (0.2%) in descending order of frequency. 4. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, shape changes of mental foramen were more obviously observed at the forward 10 mm and chin down 10 degree positioned panoramic radiographs, And changes of horizontal and vertical position were observed in similar to compared with normal positioned panoramic radiographs.

  14. Three-dimensional hindfoot alignment measurements based on biplanar radiographs: comparison with standard radiographic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Buck, Florian M. [University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Espinosa, Norman [University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    To establish a hindfoot alignment measurement technique based on low-dose biplanar radiographs and compare with hindfoot alignment measurements on long axial view radiographs, which is the current reference standard. Long axial view radiographs and low-dose biplanar radiographs of a phantom consisting of a human foot skeleton embedded in acrylic glass (phantom A) and a plastic model of a human foot in three different hindfoot positions (phantoms B1-B3) were imaged in different foot positions (20 internal to 20 external rotation). Two independent readers measured hindfoot alignment on long axial view radiographs and performed 3D hindfoot alignment measurements based on biplanar radiographs on two different occasions. Time for three-dimensional (3D) measurements was determined. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. Hindfoot alignment measurements on long axial view radiographs were characterized by a large positional variation, with a range of 14 /13 valgus to 22 /27 varus (reader 1/2 for phantom A), whereas the range of 3D hindfoot alignment measurements was 7.3 /6.0 to 9.0 /10.5 varus (reader 1/2 for phantom A), with a mean and standard deviation of 8.1 {+-} 0.6/8.7 {+-} 1.4 respectively. Interobserver agreement was high (ICC = 0.926 for phantom A, and ICC = 0.886 for phantoms B1-B3), and agreement between different readouts was high (ICC = 0.895-0.995 for reader 1, and ICC = 0.987-0.994 for reader 2) for 3D measurements. Mean duration of 3D measurements was 84 {+-} 15/113 {+-} 15 s for reader 1/2. Three-dimensional hindfoot alignment measurements based on biplanar radiographs were independent of foot positioning during image acquisition and reader independent. In this phantom study, the 3D measurements were substantially more precise than the standard radiographic measurements. (orig.)

  15. [Radiographic and histological study of a case of apexification in a human molar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, C C

    1989-01-01

    A case of apexification in a lower right second molar is described. Radiographs demonstrate apical closure with a different morphological pattern from that of the lower left second molar. Following extraction, after 15 months, serial histologic sections show calcified tissue obturating the apical foramen, well adapted to the initial dentin and cementum walls. Inside some small areas containing connective tissue with capillaries can be observed. The histologic and radiographic observations indicate that apical closure occurs as a result of differentiation of periodontal apical cells.

  16. Effectiveness of Adalimumab in Non-radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarini, Luca; Fabbroni, Marta; Talarico, Rosaria; Costa, Luisa; Caso, Francesco; Cuneo, Gian Luca; Frediani, Bruno; Faralli, Gabriele; Vitale, Antonio; Brizi, Maria Giuseppina; Sabadini, Luciano; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of adalimumab (ADA) in a cohort of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA), and the secondary aims were to identify predictive factors of response and evaluate radiological progression. We evaluated 37 patients (male/female: 12/25; mean age 49 ± 14; mean disease duration: 6.3 ± 5.8) with active nr-axSpA (Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society criteria), despite the treatment with ≥1 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for at least 3 months, initiating the treatment with ADA 40 mg every other week. Patients were treated for 24 months, and evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. Outcome measures included Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index. Radiograph of the spine and sacroiliac joints and magnetic resonance of the sacroiliac joints were performed at baseline and according to the standard of assessment for the disease. The proportion of patients that achieved a BASDAI50 response at 6, 12 and 24 months was 51.3%, 70.3%, and 76.8%, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated with no unexpected adverse events and/or serious adverse events. All patients remained on treatment for 2 years, with a good compliance. We did not identify any predictive factor of response to therapy. Moreover, modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score and Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada scores showed a trend of improvement during the study period. ADA was effective on clinical and radiological outcomes at 2-year follow-up; thus, early treatment with ADA may prevent radiographic damage and be associated with low disease activity or remission. Moreover, data from this cohort study have confirmed safety and tolerability profile of ADA in nr-axSpA in the long term. PMID:26222847

  17. Radiographic studies on morphological anomalies in artificially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiographic examination revealed anomalies such as hypoplasia and hyperplasia of fins, supernumeracry and agenesis of fins, fin cleft, and fusion of fins, scoliosis and kyphosis. The phenotypic lateral body curvatures and stump body trait were basically due to varying degrees and positions of scoliosis and thus, ...

  18. Algorithms for boundary detection in radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzaga, Adilson; Franca, Celso Aparecido de

    1996-01-01

    Edge detecting techniques applied to radiographic digital images are discussed. Some algorithms have been implemented and the results are displayed to enhance boundary or hide details. An algorithm applied in a pre processed image with contrast enhanced is proposed and the results are discussed

  19. Radiographic analysis of pasteurized autologous bone graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Adel Refaat; Manabe, Jun; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Matsushita, Yasushi

    2003-01-01

    Local malignant bone tumor excision followed by pasteurization and subsequent reimplantation is a unique technique for reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal long-term radiographic findings of intercalary and osteo-chondral pasteurized bone graft/implant composite. The long-term radiographic findings of pasteurized bone grafts used in reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in relation to patients' clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males; age range 7-77 years, mean 30 years) who underwent surgery between April 1990 and January 1997 at the authors' institute constituted the material of this study. They were followed up for at least 3 years or until the patient's death (mean 69 months). The International Society of Limb Salvage graft evaluation method that assesses the fusion, resorption, fracture, graft shortening, fixation, subluxation, joint narrowing and subchondral bone was used for evaluation of the radiographs. Twenty-one patients (68%) showed complete incorporation of graft and eight patients (26%) had partial incorporation. The overall radiographic evaluation rate was 81%. Fracture (10%) and infection (16%) were the main complications. No local recurrence was detected. These results indicate that pasteurization of bone is a useful option for reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors. (orig.)

  20. Radiographic analysis of pasteurized autologous bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adel Refaat; Manabe, Jun; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Matsushita, Yasushi

    2003-08-01

    Local malignant bone tumor excision followed by pasteurization and subsequent reimplantation is a unique technique for reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal long-term radiographic findings of intercalary and osteo-chondral pasteurized bone graft/implant composite. The long-term radiographic findings of pasteurized bone grafts used in reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in relation to patients' clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males; age range 7-77 years, mean 30 years) who underwent surgery between April 1990 and January 1997 at the authors' institute constituted the material of this study. They were followed up for at least 3 years or until the patient's death (mean 69 months). The International Society of Limb Salvage graft evaluation method that assesses the fusion, resorption, fracture, graft shortening, fixation, subluxation, joint narrowing and subchondral bone was used for evaluation of the radiographs. Twenty-one patients (68%) showed complete incorporation of graft and eight patients (26%) had partial incorporation. The overall radiographic evaluation rate was 81%. Fracture (10%) and infection (16%) were the main complications. No local recurrence was detected. These results indicate that pasteurization of bone is a useful option for reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors.

  1. Radiographic analysis of pasteurized autologous bone graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Adel Refaat [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Kamiikebukuro 1-37-1, Toshima-ku, 170-0012, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Manabe, Jun; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Matsushita, Yasushi [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Kamiikebukuro 1-37-1, Toshima-ku, 170-0012, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-08-01

    Local malignant bone tumor excision followed by pasteurization and subsequent reimplantation is a unique technique for reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal long-term radiographic findings of intercalary and osteo-chondral pasteurized bone graft/implant composite. The long-term radiographic findings of pasteurized bone grafts used in reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in relation to patients' clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males; age range 7-77 years, mean 30 years) who underwent surgery between April 1990 and January 1997 at the authors' institute constituted the material of this study. They were followed up for at least 3 years or until the patient's death (mean 69 months). The International Society of Limb Salvage graft evaluation method that assesses the fusion, resorption, fracture, graft shortening, fixation, subluxation, joint narrowing and subchondral bone was used for evaluation of the radiographs. Twenty-one patients (68%) showed complete incorporation of graft and eight patients (26%) had partial incorporation. The overall radiographic evaluation rate was 81%. Fracture (10%) and infection (16%) were the main complications. No local recurrence was detected. These results indicate that pasteurization of bone is a useful option for reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors. (orig.)

  2. Cold neutron radiographic apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    An improved cold neutron radiographic apparatus and method are disclosed wherein neutron temperature is matched to the specific material to be examined. This can be done, in one embodiment, by placing a radioactive source of neutrons, such as californium-252, in a moderator such as solid methane and using a cryogenic refrigeration system to cool the moderator to any preselected cryogenic temperature

  3. Radiographic analysis of ameloblastoma: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramani More

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Radiographs are an important aid for the diagnosis of oral lesions of various types, especially those that involve bone. It is important for the practicing clinicians to know the salient features of ameloblastoma which are peculiar to the local population.

  4. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in ...

  5. Unusual radiographic changes of a gout patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markota, J.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Gout is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperuricemia and accumulation of uric acid crystals (urats) in tissues, especially joint cartilage. The gouty arthritis presents as acute attacks of arthritis leading eventually to chronic gouty arthritis. In 80% of cases it first occurs in the matatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint of the great toe and is more frequent in male population. Case report. We present a case of unusual radiographic changes accompanying gouty arthritis. A 63 year old female complained about swelling of the first MTP joint on the right, right knee, about stiffness of feet and hands' digits and about backache. First symptoms started to appear 30 years ago. In the time of examination radiographs displayed degenerative changes of the majority of presented joints, bilateral sacroiliitis and osseous ankylosis of both insteps. Microscopic examination showed urate crystals in the samples of the synovial fluid aspirated from the knee. The histological findings of the synovial tissue after the synovectomy were also in favour of gouty arthritis. Conclusions. Radiographs are the most important imaging modality in the diagnostic process of gout. However, radiographic differential diagnosis can be difficult, since the findings overlap with other conditions which cause arthritis and osteoarthritis especially in longstanding gout, elderly patients and females. The diagnosis must be often confirmed with the help of laboratory and histological findings. (author)

  6. Plain chest radiographic findings of smoke inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shin Ho; Lee, Eil Weong; Kim, Hyun Suk; Park, Ju Youn; Kim, Soo Hyun; Hong, Sung Hwan; Park, Hong Suk; Lee, Kwan Seop; Kang Ik Won

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the plain chest radiographic findings of smoke inhalation. Our study included 72 burn patients who had suffered smoke inhalation. On admission, all underwent serial portable chest AP radiography. We retrospectively reviewed the plain chest radiographs taken between admission and pootburn day five, evaluating the pattern, distribution, and time onset of direct injury to the respiratory system by smoke inhalation. The lesions were also assessed for change. In 16 of 72 patients (22%), abnormal findings of direct injury to the respiratory system by smoke inhalation were revealed by the radiographs. Abnormal findings were 15 pulmonary lesions and one subglottic tracheal narrowing. Findings of pulmonary lesions were multiple small patchy consolidations (10/15), peribronchial cuffing (8/15), and perivascular fuzziness (6/15). Patterns of pulmonary lesions were mixed alveolar and interstitial lesion (n=3D9), interstitial lesion (n=3D5), and alveolar lesion (n=3D1). No interlobular septal thickening was observed. Pulmonary edema was distributed predominantly in the upper lung zone and perihilar region, with asymmetricity. Its time of onset was within 24 hours in 13 cases, 24-48 hours in two cases, and 48-72 hours in one. Five of 16 patients progressed to ARDS. Chest radiographs showed that pulmonary lesions caused by inhalation injury were due to pulmonary edema, which the pattern of which was commonly mixed alveolar and interstitial. (author)

  7. Comparison of radiographic technique by computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochi, M.A.C.; Ghilardi Neto, T.

    1989-01-01

    A computational algorithm to compare radiographic techniques (KVp, mAs and filters) is developed based in the fixation of parameters that defines the images, such as optical density and constrast. Before the experience, the results were used in a radiography of thorax. (author) [pt

  8. Radiographic and radionuclide findings in Rhizopus osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, P.H. Jr.; McKinney, R.G.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    A case of Rhizopus osteromyelitis is described. The radionuclide and radiographic findings differ from those of osteomyelitis secondary to common pathogens: low-level radionuclide activity is observed, while soft-tissue swelling, periosteal reaction, and loss of fascial margins are absent.

  9. A Tutorial for Performing a Radiographic Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    process in setting up, developing, documenting, and performing industrial radiography . The examples provided within this report are specific to the...equipment selection, (4) developing a technique , (5) verifying image quality, and (6) organizing proper documentation. Each section will provide...SUBJECT TERMS Radiography Munitions X-ray Nondestructive testing (NDT) Radiographic testing (RT) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  10. Detecting objects in radiographs for homeland security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Lakshman; Snyder, Hans

    2005-05-01

    We present a general scheme for segmenting a radiographic image into polygons that correspond to visual features. This decomposition provides a vectorized representation that is a high-level description of the image. The polygons correspond to objects or object parts present in the image. This characterization of radiographs allows the direct application of several shape recognition algorithms to identify objects. In this paper we describe the use of constrained Delaunay triangulations as a uniform foundational tool to achieve multiple visual tasks, namely image segmentation, shape decomposition, and parts-based shape matching. Shape decomposition yields parts that serve as tokens representing local shape characteristics. Parts-based shape matching enables the recognition of objects in the presence of occlusions, which commonly occur in radiographs. The polygonal representation of image features affords the efficient design and application of sophisticated geometric filtering methods to detect large-scale structural properties of objects in images. Finally, the representation of radiographs via polygons results in significant reduction of image file sizes and permits the scalable graphical representation of images, along with annotations of detected objects, in the SVG (scalable vector graphics) format that is proposed by the world wide web consortium (W3C). This is a textual representation that can be compressed and encrypted for efficient and secure transmission of information over wireless channels and on the Internet. In particular, our methods described here provide an algorithmic framework for developing image analysis tools for screening cargo at ports of entry for homeland security.

  11. Identifying murder victims with endodontic radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Franco, Ademir; Mendes, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death. Specifically, when asked for AM data, a relative of the three victims provided periapical radiographs of endodontic treatments. Based on that, forensic dentists reproduced the same imaging acquisition techniques obtaining similar periapical radiographs, enabling a comparative dental identification. All the victims were positively identified based on patterns of dental morphology and treatment intervention. This study draws the attention of general and forensic dentists highlight the importance of properly recording dental treatments and searching for evidence in AM endodontic data, respectively. PMID:28123272

  12. Correlation Of Radiographic Patterns Of Pulmonary Tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with higher CD4+ counts often present in \\"classic\\" fashion (upper zone infiltrates cavities) whereas those with low CD4+ counts are more likely to present atypically. The chest radiographic appearances of HIV-seropositive patients presenting with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are diverse, creating difficulty in ...

  13. incidence of occupational stress among medical radiographers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Biomechanical and Psychosocial stresses are capable of destabilizing any health care professional. The current health sector reform in Nigeria, which lays emphasis on service delivery on a background of very few radiographers, may lead to an increase in stress level. This study investigated the incidence of ...

  14. Effects of rotation radiographic dimensions of metacarpals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armes, F.M.; Horsman, A.; Bentley, H.B.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment is described which shows that small rotations of metacarpals about their long axis produce small systematic changes in the cortical dimensions as measured by radiographic morphometry. The effect is of no significance in cross-sectional studies but is an important source of error in sequential studies. (author)

  15. Thoracic radiographic anatomy in goats | Makungu | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The aorta was not clearly visible on lateral views. The mean ratio of the CVC diameter to the height of the fourth thoracic vertebral body (T4) was 1.08 ± 0.07. Speciesspecific differences exist in the normal radiographic anatomy of the thorax.

  16. Sensitivity and specificity of plain radiographic features of peripheral enthesopathy at major sites in psoriatic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helliwell, P.S.; Porter, G.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed that the defining difference between rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathy (including psoriatic arthritis) is the initial pathological lesion where the emphasis in psoriatic arthritis is on the enthesis and in rheumatoid arthritis on the synovium. Classical radiological descriptions of seronegative spondyloarthropathy include enthesopathy at major entheseal insertions characterised by erosions and exuberant new bone formation. In this study, the plain radiographic features of spondyloarthropathy are compared between psoriatic arthritis, other spondyloarthropathies and rheumatoid arthritis. The CASPAR study collected clinical, radiological and laboratory data on 588 patients with physician diagnosed psoriatic arthritis and 525 controls with other inflammatory arthritis, 70% of which had rheumatoid arthritis. Plain radiographs of the pelvis and heels were part of the study protocol, although radiographs of other potential entheseal sites such as the knee, elbow and shoulder, were interpreted if available. All radiographs were read blind by two observers working in tandem. Significant differences in entheseal erosion and entheseal new bone formation were found between psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, rheumatoid arthritis and other diagnoses (entheseal erosion, chi-squared 20.8, p = 0.008; entheseal new bone formation, chi-squared 24.5, p = 0.001). These differences were mainly due to a higher proportion of these features in ankylosing spondylitis. No differences in the plain radiographic features of enthesopathy were found between psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis except in the case of entheseal new bone formation at sites of attachment of inguinal ligament, sartorius and rectus femoris muscles to the ilium (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.13-8.02). Very few subjects with symptomatic heel involvement had radiographic changes and minimal differences were found between those with and without

  17. Sensitivity and specificity of plain radiographic features of peripheral enthesopathy at major sites in psoriatic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helliwell, P.S. [University of Leeds, Academic Unit of Musculoskeletal and Rehabilitation Medicine, Leeds (United Kingdom); Porter, G. [Airedale Hospital NHS Trust, Keighley, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    It has been proposed that the defining difference between rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathy (including psoriatic arthritis) is the initial pathological lesion where the emphasis in psoriatic arthritis is on the enthesis and in rheumatoid arthritis on the synovium. Classical radiological descriptions of seronegative spondyloarthropathy include enthesopathy at major entheseal insertions characterised by erosions and exuberant new bone formation. In this study, the plain radiographic features of spondyloarthropathy are compared between psoriatic arthritis, other spondyloarthropathies and rheumatoid arthritis. The CASPAR study collected clinical, radiological and laboratory data on 588 patients with physician diagnosed psoriatic arthritis and 525 controls with other inflammatory arthritis, 70% of which had rheumatoid arthritis. Plain radiographs of the pelvis and heels were part of the study protocol, although radiographs of other potential entheseal sites such as the knee, elbow and shoulder, were interpreted if available. All radiographs were read blind by two observers working in tandem. Significant differences in entheseal erosion and entheseal new bone formation were found between psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, rheumatoid arthritis and other diagnoses (entheseal erosion, chi-squared 20.8, p = 0.008; entheseal new bone formation, chi-squared 24.5, p = 0.001). These differences were mainly due to a higher proportion of these features in ankylosing spondylitis. No differences in the plain radiographic features of enthesopathy were found between psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis except in the case of entheseal new bone formation at sites of attachment of inguinal ligament, sartorius and rectus femoris muscles to the ilium (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.13-8.02). Very few subjects with symptomatic heel involvement had radiographic changes and minimal differences were found between those with and without

  18. The glenohumeral offset ratio: A radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, S R; Mallon, W J

    1993-05-01

    A systematic method of component selection for total shoulder arthroplasty is needed. The method must take into account the soft-tissue constraints of a degenerative joint and optimize joint biomechanics by placing the joint line in the best possible position. The purpose of our study was to determine radiographically the normal glenohumeral joint line position based on a ratio of distances between the joint line and fixed landmarks on the humerus and scapula. We studied modified anteroposterior radiographs of the glenohumeral joint in 86 volunteers (51 men and 35 women; ages ranging from 21 to 47 years). Two measurements were made on each radiograph: (1) the perpendicular distance from the most medial portion of the glenoid to the inferior base of the coracoid process at its attachment to the scapular blade, and (2) the perpendicular distance from the midline of the humeral shaft to the most medial point on the humeral head. The joint line position was described as the ratio of the glenoid measurement to the sum of the two measurements (i.e., the glenohumeral offset ratio). The validity and reliability of glenoid offset measurements were determined by comparing radiographic and anatomic measurements of glenoid offset in cadaveric human scapulae. Radiographs were made with rotational error to determine its effects on the measurement of humeral offset. Humeral offsets and glenoid thicknesses of five different total shoulder systems were then determined from template overlays. The mean glenohumeral offset ratio was 0.31 (range 0.18 to 0.39). We detected no significant difference in the ratio between men and women volunteers. There was close agreement between radiographie and direct (anatomic) measurements of glenoid offset in cadaveric scapulae. Values for humeral offset were not significantly affected by radiographic rotational error. The evidence indicates that a fairly constant glenohumeral offset ratio in normal shoulders can be reliably calculated from a single

  19. Image rejects/retakes--radiographic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaler, D; Hofmann, B

    2010-01-01

    A general held position among radiological personnel prior to digitalisation was that the problem of image rejects/retakes should more or less vanish. However, rejects/retakes still impose several challenges within radiographic imaging; they occupy unnecessary resources, expose patients to unnecessary ionizing radiation and may also indicate suboptimal quality management. The latter is the main objective of this paper, which is based on a survey of international papers published both for screen/film and digital technology. The digital revolution in imaging seems to have reduced the percentage of image rejects/retakes from 10-15 to 3-5 %. The major contribution to the decrease appears to be the dramatic reduction of incorrect exposures. At the same time, rejects/retakes due to lack of operator competence (positioning, etc.) are almost unchanged, or perhaps slightly increased (due to lack of proper technical competence, incorrect organ coding, etc.). However, the causes of rejects/retakes are in many cases defined and reported with reference to radiographers' subjective evaluations. Thus, unless radiographers share common views on image quality and acceptance criteria, objective measurements and assessments of reject/retake rates are challenging tasks. Interestingly, none of the investigated papers employs image quality parameters such as 'too much noise' as categories for rejects/retakes. Surprisingly, no reject/retake analysis seems yet to have been conducted for direct digital radiography departments. An increased percentage of rejects/retakes is related to 'digital skills' of radiographers and therefore points to areas for extended education and training. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate the inter-subjectivity of radiographers' perception of, and attitude towards, both technical and clinical image quality criteria. Finally, there may be a need to validate whether reject/retake rate analysis is such an effective quality indicator as has been asserted.

  20. Image rejects/retakes-radiographic challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waaler, D.; Hofmann, B.

    2010-01-01

    A general held position among radiological personnel prior to digitalisation was that the problem of image rejects/retakes should more or less vanish. However, rejects/retakes still impose several challenges within radiographic imaging; they occupy unnecessary resources, expose patients to unnecessary ionizing radiation and may also indicate suboptimal quality management. The latter is the main objective of this paper, which is based on a survey of international papers published both for screen/film and digital technology. The digital revolution in imaging seems to have reduced the percentage of image rejects/retakes from 10-15 to 3-5%. The major contribution to the decrease appears to be the dramatic reduction of incorrect exposures. At the same time, rejects/retakes due to lack of operator competence (positioning, etc.) are almost unchanged, or perhaps slightly increased (due to lack of proper technical competence, incorrect organ coding, etc.). However, the causes of rejects/retakes are in many cases defined and reported with reference to radiographers' subjective evaluations. Thus, unless radiographers share common views on image quality and acceptance criteria, objective measurements and assessments of reject/retake rates are challenging tasks. Interestingly, none of the investigated papers employs image quality parameters such as 'too much noise' as categories for rejects/retakes. Surprisingly, no reject/retake analysis seems yet to have been conducted for direct digital radiography departments. An increased percentage of rejects/retakes is related to 'digital skills' of radiographers and therefore points to areas for extended education and training. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate the inter subjectivity of radiographers' perception of, and attitude towards, both technical and clinical image quality criteria. Finally, there may be a need to validate whether reject/retake rate analysis is such an effective quality indicator as has been asserted

  1. Radiographic patterns of osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Stefano; Mezzoprete, Riccardo; Papalia, Matteo; Arceri, Valerio; Carbone, Andrea; Gumina, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    The objectives of the study were: a) to identify osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures in a large consecutive series of patients; b) to identify radiographic fracture patterns among osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures; and c) to calculate intra- and inter-observer reliability of assessment of osteoporosis and of radiographic fracture patterns. This was a prospective observational study of patients admitted to the emergency department affected by a proximal humerus fracture between June 2014 and June 2016. Three researchers evaluated demographic data and comorbidities, x-rays and CT-scans. A new evaluation method for assessment of osteoporosis was proposed; 7 radiographic fracture patterns were studied. Reliabilities between intra- and inter-tester evaluations, and correlations between the presence of osteoporosis and the 7 radiologic fracture patterns were calculated. Two hundred twenty-five patients with a humeral fracture were recruited. Their mean (26-95, 32) age was 58. Of those, 163 (72.4%) were identified as osteoporotic. Among the three raters, the intra- and inter-observer agreement using the proposed methods were high or excellent. Significant correlations with diagnosis of osteoporosis were found with Codman-Lego type 12(p = 0.041), metaphyseal comminution(p patterns were high. Osteoporosis of the proximal humerus was identified in 72% of patients during a two year period; most of these patients were elderly females sustaining low energy trauma. These fractures showed to have specific radiographic patterns, as comminution of metaphysis and tuberosities, impaction of fragments, and inferior subluxation of the humeral head. These patterns can be assessed with the simple observation of a 2-plan view of a radiograph, without the use of specific software. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting lower third molar eruption on panoramic radiographs after cephalometric comparison of profile and panoramic radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begtrup, Anders; Grønastøð, Halldis Á; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2012-01-01

    and to find a simple and reliable method for predicting the eruption of the mandibular third molar by measurements on panoramic radiographs. The material consisted of profile and panoramic radiographs, taken before orthodontic treatment, of 30 males and 23 females (median age 22, range 18-48 years......Previous studies have suggested methods for predicting third molar tooth eruption radiographically. Still, this prediction is associated with uncertainty. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the association between cephalometric measurements on profile and panoramic radiographs...... the length from the ramus to the incisors (olr-id) showed a statistically significant correlation. By combining this length with the mesiodistal width of the lower second molar, the prediction of eruption of the lower third molar was strengthened. A new formula for calculating the probability of eruption...

  3. Double contrast barium enema sensitivity: A comparison of studies by radiographers and radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culpan, D.G.; Mitchell, A.J.; Hughes, S.; Nutman, M.; Chapman, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: A retrospective study of histologically proven cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) was performed to assess whether the sensitivity of the radiographer-performed double contrast barium enema (DCBE) differed from that of the radiologist-performed study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Histologically proven cases of CRC were reviewed over a 3-year period to ascertain whether: the diagnosis had been made by DCBE in the 3 years before histological diagnosis; the lesion had been correctly diagnosed; the examination had been performed by a radiologist or radiographer. RESULTS: In the 3-year period there were 478 cases with histologically proven CRC. Of these, 239 (50%) had undergone DCBE as the initial radiological investigation of the colon. Sixty-four examinations had been performed by radiographers. A correct diagnosis was made in 58 cases (90.6%), the report was equivocal in one case (1.6%), there were four false-negatives (6.25%), and one case was abandoned (1.6%). One hundred and seventy-five examinations were performed by radiologists. A correct diagnosis was made in 157 cases (89.7%), the report was equivocal in one case (0.6%), there were 16 false-negatives (9.1%), and one case was abandoned (0.6%). CONCLUSION: A sensitivity of 90.6% for radiographer-performed studies compared favourably with 89.7% for radiologist-performed studies and supports the practice of radiographers undertaking barium enemas. Culpan, D.G. et al. (2002)

  4. Recognizing the radiographic features of some common bovine foot problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeid, M.; Steiner, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiographs of an injured or infected bovine foot can be tricky to interpret - the anatomy is complex, and the signs may be subtle. This guide leads you through the classic radiographic features of several common foot conditions

  5. Radiation doses of commonly used dental radiographic surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J P; Brand, J W

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and to compare the radiation dose associated with commonly used dental radiographic surveys including the following: (1) 20 film full-mouth survey, (2) bite-wing radiographs, (3) panoramic survey supplemented with bite-wing radiographs and (4) a common orthodontic radiographic survey (a lateral cephlometric radiograph supplemented with a panoramic radiograph). The effects of collimation and faster radiographic film speeds on dose were also investigated. The effective doses to selected anatomic sites were calculated from measured absorbed doses with the use of an improved, tissue-equivalent phantom fitted with lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters. It was demonstrated that converting from round to rectangular collimation reduced the radiation exposure by a factor of four. A panoramic survey supplemented with bite-wing radiographs uses approximately one third of the radiation exposure needed to expose a full-mouth survey made with E-speed film and rectangular collimation.

  6. Workplace experience of radiographers: impact of structural and interpersonal interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubik-Huch, R.A.; Roempler, M.; Weber, A. [Kantonsspital Baden, Institute of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); Klaghofer, R.; Buddeberg-Fischer, B. [Zurich University Hospital, Department of Psychosocial Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    Within the framework of organisational development, an assessment of the workplace experience of radiographers (RGs) was conducted. The aims of this study were to develop structural and interpersonal interventions and to prove their effectiveness and feasibility. A questionnaire consisting of work-related factors, e.g. time management and communication, and two validated instruments (Workplace Analysis Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale) was distributed to all RGs (n = 33) at baseline (T1). Interventions were implemented and a follow-up survey (T2) was performed 18 months after the initial assessment. At T1, areas with highest dissatisfaction were communication and time management for ambulant patients (bad/very bad, 57% each). The interventions addressed adaptation of work plans, coaching in developing interpersonal and team leadership skills, and regular team meetings. The follow-up survey (T2) showed significantly improved communication and cooperation within the team and improved qualification opportunities, whereas no significant changes could be identified in time management and in the workplace-related scales 'effort' expended at work and 'reward' received in return for the effort. Motivating workplace experience is important for high-level service quality and for attracting well-qualified radiographers to work at a place and to stay in the team for a longer period. (orig.)

  7. Advanced and extended scope practice of radiographers: The Scottish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, I.; Mathers, S.A.; McConnell, J.; Minnoch, D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of changing roles, skill mix and a shortage of consultant radiologists on the profession of diagnostic radiography is not clearly understood in Scotland although the anecdotal perspective suggests the situation in many areas does not equate to that of England. Method: A questionnaire survey was administered to ‘lead diagnostic radiographers’ across all Health Boards in Scotland and this was supplemented with telephone interviews. Results: The implementation of skill mix initiatives and particularly advanced/extended scope practice was found to be geographically variable with limited evidence of change in some areas. Lack of effective funding and backfill for training was found to be a major barrier to change, although it was also acknowledged that opposition from some professional groups could be a major factor. Conclusion: Although there is some optimism and evidence of accelerating change, development of the radiographic workforce in Scotland does not in general compare favourably to the findings of Price et al., in 2007. The reasons are multi-factorial including fiscal, professional and geographical elements. - Highlights: • Implementation of extended scope practice is geographically inconsistent. • AfC banding of radiographers in extended scope roles is inconsistent. • Funding and backfill for training is a recognised difficulty for many managers. • Professional opposition, primarily from radiologists is a barrier to implementation. • Extended scope roles make a notable contribution to enhanced outcomes.

  8. Radiographic study for sympathetic detonation of 500-lb bombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Flash radiography have determined the size and velocity vectors in the near field of fragments from tail- and side-initiated MK 82 MOD 1, general-purpose bombs. Excellent radiographs have been acquired from nine separate tests. Unlike arena tests, the radiographs were taken 75 to 125 cm from the case and show that the fragments peel off the case in long strips. A major concern in the design and execution of the experiments was the protection of the 450-kV x-ray heads and the film cassettes from fragments and blast produced by the 500-lb bombs. The velocity and size data, along with optical and electronic pin data, were used to characterize the fragments of the donor bomb in a donor-acceptor sympathetic detonation system study. The bombs were found to contain large shrink voids, randomly located from bomb to bomb, in the explosive Tritonal fill. Characteristics of the fragments from the void side if the bomb were found to be as much as 10% different from the nonvoid side and were much less reproducible than the fragments characteristics of the nonvoid side. The data collected will be useful in evaluating sympathetic detonation mitigation systems designed for use with the bombs. Such mitigation systems may be required for mass storage methods to meet the evolving insensitive munition requirements. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Workplace experience of radiographers: impact of structural and interpersonal interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubik-Huch, R.A.; Roempler, M.; Weber, A.; Klaghofer, R.; Buddeberg-Fischer, B.

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of organisational development, an assessment of the workplace experience of radiographers (RGs) was conducted. The aims of this study were to develop structural and interpersonal interventions and to prove their effectiveness and feasibility. A questionnaire consisting of work-related factors, e.g. time management and communication, and two validated instruments (Workplace Analysis Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale) was distributed to all RGs (n = 33) at baseline (T1). Interventions were implemented and a follow-up survey (T2) was performed 18 months after the initial assessment. At T1, areas with highest dissatisfaction were communication and time management for ambulant patients (bad/very bad, 57% each). The interventions addressed adaptation of work plans, coaching in developing interpersonal and team leadership skills, and regular team meetings. The follow-up survey (T2) showed significantly improved communication and cooperation within the team and improved qualification opportunities, whereas no significant changes could be identified in time management and in the workplace-related scales 'effort' expended at work and 'reward' received in return for the effort. Motivating workplace experience is important for high-level service quality and for attracting well-qualified radiographers to work at a place and to stay in the team for a longer period. (orig.)

  10. Radiographic visualization of magma dynamics in an erupting volcano

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.; Kusagaya, Taro; Shinohara, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Radiographic imaging of magma dynamics in a volcanic conduit provides detailed information about ascent and descent of magma, the magma flow rate, the conduit diameter and inflation and deflation of magma due to volatile expansion and release. Here we report the first radiographic observation of the ascent and descent of magma along a conduit utilizing atmospheric (cosmic ray) muons (muography) with dynamic radiographic imaging. Time sequential radiographic images show that the top of the mag...

  11. Appearance of the mandibular incisive canal on panoramic radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, R.; Mraiwa, N.; van Steenberghe, D.; Sanderink, G.C.H.; Quirynen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic radiographs are routinely used in the dental office for various diagnostic purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the visibility of neurovascular structures in the mandibular interforaminal region on such radiographs. Panoramic radiographs were obtained with a Cranex Tome (Soredex) from

  12. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used to...

  13. The palmar metric: A novel radiographic assessment of the equine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digital radiographs are often used to subjectively assess the equine digit. Recently, quantitative and objective radiographic measurements have been reported that give new insight into the form and function of the equine digit. We investigated a radio-dense curvilinear profile along the distal phalanx on lateral radiographs ...

  14. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic intensifying screen. 892.1960 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1960 Radiographic intensifying screen. (a) Identification. A radiographic intensifying screen is a device that is a thin radiolucent sheet...

  15. Adaptive predictive coding with applications to radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, M; Ray, L A; Sullivan, J R

    1986-01-01

    Picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) require storage and transmission of vast amounts of data. For design/cost considerations, it is desirable to reduce the size of these data without sacrificing the integrity of the stored information. The major considerations in designing a data-compression scheme for a PACS system are discussed: fidelity of the reconstructed image, bit rate, hardware complexity, and processing time. The basic principles of conventional nonadaptive differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM) are reviewed and compared with adaptive techniques. The effect of adaptive quantization on radiographic images is examined. Special consideration is given to block-adaptive DPCM or the "switched quantizer," which greatly enhances the system performance as compared with nonadaptive techniques, and conservatively has a 5:1 compression ratio. Sample radiographs substantiate the results.

  16. Mediastinal hemorrhage: An evaluation of radiographic manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodring, J.H.; Loh, F.K.; Kryscio, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    Eleven common radiographic signs of mediastinal hemorrhage were evaluated by two observers for the following three patient groups: normal subjects, patients with mediastinal hemorrhage and no arterial injury, and patients with major thoracic arterial injury. Supine chest radiographs were studied in all cases. Four major conclusions can be made based upon these finding. M/C ratio (mediastinal width to chest width), tracheal deviation, left hemothorax, paraspinal line widening, and aorto-pulmonary window opacification do not reliably separate these three groups of patients. The diagnosis of mediastinal hemorrhage may be made if the aortic contour is abnormal or if one of the following signs is positive: abnormal mediastinal width, apical cap, widening of the right paratracheal stripe, or deviation of the nasogastric tube. Due to interobserver variation, there is good agreement between observers for the following four signs only: transverse mediastinal width, tracheal deviation, nasogastric tube deviation, nasogastric tube deviation, and right paratracheal stripe widening.

  17. Digital radiographic assessment of coronary flow reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A method for measuring relative changes in regional blood flow using digital radiographic enhancement of selective coronary arteriography. Coronary flow reserve is measured in individual arterial distributions using the washin ratio of contrast appearance time under baseline and hyperemic conditions. Information is quantitatively presented in functional (parametric) image format. These images, termed contrast medium appearance pictures (CMAP), depict the transit of contrast through the arterial, myocardial and early venous stages. This process can be divided into three general phases: data acquisition, CMAP formation and CMAP analysis. The technique has evolved over its development period from a cine film-based technology which required substantial processing time to a real-time digital radiographic technique

  18. RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION OF TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Suryonegoro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The temporomandibular joint has a very important role in the stomatognathic system. Its main function is for the opening and closing movement, mastication, and speech. It is located anterior to the ear. The temporomandibular joint connects maxilla and mandible through the articular fossa, hence the slightest change that happens would cause serious matters such as pain, exiting, speech disorder, difficulty in opening and closing movement, headache, and even trismus. In a child or an adolescent, the symptoms are often vague; everything is interpreted as “pain”. This is probably why temporomandibular disorder are often undetected by dentists. Therefore, patience and accuracy is needed to determine the actual disorder through means of clinical and radiographic examination. The radiographic examination suitable for child is the transcranial projection. This projection is believed to be more accurate amongst other projection for child patients.

  19. Modified newman and friedman extraoral radiographic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Eshagali; Hafezi, Ladan; Farhadmolashahi, Narges; Mokhtari, Manoochehr

    2012-01-01

    Good radiographs are required for endodontic therapy and because some patient's are intolerant to intraoral films and/or sensors, this can cause complications in endodontic treatment. Extraoral film placement can be used to obtain clinically diagnostic and working radiographs. The no. 2 receptor was placed against the model's cheek and centered in the molar-premolar area. The central beam was directed toward this area from the opposite side. The vertical and horizontal angles that achieved the most accurate radiograph were calculated by trial and error. The best method equated with the patient sitting upright and the Frankfort plane being horizontal to the floor and when the head was tilted 10 degrees toward the side being examined. For the upper posterior teeth the center of the image receptor was placed on the intersection of the ala-tragus and a parasagittal line while the upper border of receptor was parallel to the canthomeatal line; the cone was positioned a negative 25 degrees from the horizontal plane. The central beam was directed from midway between maxillary and mandibular premolars and molars of the opposite side. For the lower posterior teeth, the receptor was placed against the cheek on the side of interest and its lower border was parallel and 2 cm above the inferior border of the mandible. The cone was angled -20 degrees from the horizontal plane while the central beam was directed towards the mandibular molar-premolar region 1 cm below the lower border of the mandibular of the contralateral premolar/molar region. Using this novel technique, high quality images can be acquired for patients who cannot tolerate intraoral radiographs.

  20. Possibilities of radiographic digitalisation in dental clinics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenobio, Madelon A.F.; Zenobio, Elton Goncalves

    2002-01-01

    In the evolution diagnostic processes by image, the improvement of the intrabucal radiographic sensibility generated and digitalized is today, of great expressiveness in the evolution and effectiveness in the odontological area. This methodology applicability as a possibility of a more precise and accurate diagnostic formulation among other advantages, justifies this technique use. This paper intends to, thorough the literature magazine and clinic case presentations to show its applicability in the daily odontological clinic, and specially, in the periodonty area. (author)

  1. Toward automated detection and segmentation of aortic calcifications from radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauze, François; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2007-03-01

    This paper aims at automatically measuring the extent of calcified plaques in the lumbar aorta from standard radiographs. Calcifications in the abdominal aorta are an important predictor for future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Accurate and reproducible measurement of the amount of calcified deposit in the aorta is therefore of great value in disease diagnosis and prognosis, treatment planning, and the study of drug effects. We propose a two-step approach in which first the calcifications are detected by an iterative statistical pixel classification scheme combined with aorta shape model optimization. Subsequently, the detected calcified pixels are used as the initialization for an inpainting based segmentation. We present results on synthetic images from the inpainting based segmentation as well as results on several X-ray images based on the two-steps approach.

  2. Validity and reliability of radiographic knee osteoarthritis measures by arthroplasty surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Daniel L; Jiranek, William A; Hull, Jason R

    2013-01-01

    Most orthopedic surgeons do not routinely use radiographic classification systems to grade the extent of joint space narrowing in patients considered for total knee arthroplasty. The authors compared the validity and reliability of radiographic measures of tibiofemoral osteoarthritis by 2 experienced and 2 inexperienced orthopedic surgeons on individuals who subsequently underwent total knee arthroplasty. The Kellgren-Lawrence and the Osteoarthritis Research Society International classification systems were used by all surgeons to score the radiographs in 116 individuals in the Osteoarthritis Initiative, a federally funded cohort study of individuals with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis. Validity was judged based on comparison with the criterion centrally adjudicated consensus measures obtained by Osteoarthritis Initiative investigators. Weighted kappa, a chance corrected agreement index, was used to describe validity and reliability. Validity and intrarater reliability were substantial to almost perfect for 1 experienced and 1 inexperienced surgeon, with weighted kappas ranging from 0.76 to 0.96 for the surgical knees. The other experienced and inexperienced surgeons demonstrated moderate to substantial validity, with weighted kappas ranging from 0.43 to 0.70 and lower intrarater reliability. Interrater reliability was generally less than intrarater reliability. With minimal training, some surgeons can obtain valid and reliable measurements of knee osteoarthritis status in individuals who eventually undergo total knee arthroplasty. Measurement quality does not appear to be dependent on extent of surgeon experience. Some surgeons require additional training to become proficient in the radiographic classification systems, and future research should examine this issue. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Black Lung Benefits Act: standards for chest radiographs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-17

    Physicians and adjudicators use chest radiographs (X-rays) as a tool in evaluating whether a coal miner suffers from pneumoconiosis (black lung disease). Accordingly, the Department's regulations implementing the Black Lung Benefits Act allow the submission of radiographs in connection with benefit claims and set out quality standards for administering and interpreting film-based chest radiographs. This final rule updates the Department's existing film-radiograph standards and provides parallel standards for digital radiographs. This rule also updates outdated terminology and removes certain obsolete provisions.

  4. Artificial intelligence for analyzing orthopedic trauma radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Jakub; Fahlberg, Niklas; Maki, Atsuto; Razavian, Ali Sharif; Jilert, Anthony; Stark, André; Sköldenberg, Olof; Gordon, Max

    2017-12-01

    Background and purpose - Recent advances in artificial intelligence (deep learning) have shown remarkable performance in classifying non-medical images, and the technology is believed to be the next technological revolution. So far it has never been applied in an orthopedic setting, and in this study we sought to determine the feasibility of using deep learning for skeletal radiographs. Methods - We extracted 256,000 wrist, hand, and ankle radiographs from Danderyd's Hospital and identified 4 classes: fracture, laterality, body part, and exam view. We then selected 5 openly available deep learning networks that were adapted for these images. The most accurate network was benchmarked against a gold standard for fractures. We furthermore compared the network's performance with 2 senior orthopedic surgeons who reviewed images at the same resolution as the network. Results - All networks exhibited an accuracy of at least 90% when identifying laterality, body part, and exam view. The final accuracy for fractures was estimated at 83% for the best performing network. The network performed similarly to senior orthopedic surgeons when presented with images at the same resolution as the network. The 2 reviewer Cohen's kappa under these conditions was 0.76. Interpretation - This study supports the use for orthopedic radiographs of artificial intelligence, which can perform at a human level. While current implementation lacks important features that surgeons require, e.g. risk of dislocation, classifications, measurements, and combining multiple exam views, these problems have technical solutions that are waiting to be implemented for orthopedics.

  5. Nosocomial Legionnaires’ Disease: Clinical and Radiographic Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Marrie

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1981 to 1991, 55 patients (33 males, 22 females, mean age 58.6 years with nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease were studied. The mortality rate was 64%. One-half of the patients developed nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease within three weeks of admission. A surprising clinical feature was the low rate of findings of consolidation on physical examination, despite the fact that 52% of patients had this finding on chest radiograph. More than one-half of patients had pre-existing lung disease, rendering a radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia due to Legionella pneumophila impossible in 16% of cases despite microbiological confirmation. Nineteen per cent of patients who had blood cultures done had a pathogen other than L pneumophila isolated, suggesting dual infection in at least some of the patients. When the clinical and radiographic findings were combined it was noted that 40% of patients had one of three patterns suggestive of nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease: rapidly progressive pneumonia, lobar opacity and multiple peripheral opacities. However, in 60% of patients there were no distinctive features.

  6. Radiographic examination of the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lange, E.E.; Shaffer, H.A. Jr; Croft, B.Y.

    1990-01-01

    We compared retrospectively three groups of 150 patients who had undergone radiologic examinations of the stomach and duodenum. Each group was examined with a different barium suspension and radiographic technique: single-contrast (SC), double-contrast (DC), or biphasiccontrast (BC). The radiographs of each study were evaluated for technical quality and visualization of lesions. The number of X-ray exposures, films, and the amount of fluoroscopic time for each study were tabulated. The total radiation dose and cost for each technique were calculated. The BC examinations required the greatest number of radiographic exposures and X-ray films; however, cost was highest for the DC method. Fluoroscopy was significantly longer during the DC procedures, and the total radiation dose was also highest with this technique. Gaseous distention and barium coating of the stomach were equally good for the BC and DC groups, but X-ray penetration of the barium suspension during compression filming was significantly better in the BC and SC groups. Areae gastricae were most frequently seen during the BC studies and artifacts from excess secretions, barium flocculation or gas bubbles were least commonly present using this technique. Significantly more lesions were demonstrated in the stomach with the BC technique than with the other methods; however, the number of lesions found in the duodenum was the same for each technique. (author). 29 refs.; 6 tabs

  7. Radiographic analysis of extracorporeally irradiated autografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poffyn, Bart; Sys, Gwen; Uyttendaele, Dirk [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ghent (Belgium); Maele, Georges van [Ghent University, Department of Public Health, Ghent (Belgium); Hoorebeke, Luc van [Ghent University, Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, Ghent (Belgium); Forsyth, Ramses [Ghent University Hospital, N. Goormaghtigh Institute of Pathology, Ghent (Belgium); Verstraete, Koenraad [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    To analyse the long-term radiographic findings of intercalary, pure osteoarticular, and composite bone grafts in patients with primary bone sarcoma who were treated by reimplantation of the bone as an orthotopic autograft. For this observational clinical study, 107 patients who presented with 108 malignant or locally aggressive benign bone tumours were treated by resection, extracorporeal irradiation (300 Gy), and reimplantation and fixation of the autograft. Bone healing features were evaluated with the International Society of Limb Salvage (ISOLS) graft evaluation method, which assesses fusion, resorption, fracture, graft shortening, fixation, subluxation, joint narrowing, and subchondral bone. A description of normal and abnormal healing patterns and complications comprised the secondary endpoint. Seventy-seven patients with complete radiographic data were selected for review. The mean ISOLS score was 78.2% (range 25.0-100%, median 79.2%). Three patient subgroups were created: intercalary graft, pure osteoarticular graft, and composite reconstruction consisting of an intercalary graft augmented with a prosthesis; the mean ISOLS scores were 81.3%, 70.7%, and 77.4%, respectively. Each item was scored individually, and no significant difference was observed (P = 0.225). This reconstruction technique is valid for the three methods described; bone stock is retained and, once the graft has healed, it behaves as normal bone. Close radiographic follow-up detects complications early, allowing timely interventions if necessary. (orig.)

  8. Standard reference radiographs for steel fusion welds

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This standard provides reference radiographs for steel fusion welds that contain typical discontinuities with varying severity levels in different thicknesses of material. The reference radiograph films are an adjunct to this standard and must be purchased separately from ASTM International if needed. 1.2 There are three volumes of reference radiographs based on seven nominal weld thicknesses as follows: Vol ISet of 16 plates (81/2 by 11 in.) covering base material up to and including ¼ in. (6.4 mm) in thickness. Vol IISet of 29 plates (8½ by 11 in.) covering base material over ¼ to and including 3 in. (6.4 to 76 mm) in thickness. Vol IIISet of 32 plates (8 ½ by 11 in.) covering base material over 3 to including 8 in. (76 to 203 mm) in thickness. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport t...

  9. Accuracy of radiographer reporting of paediatric brain CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Andrew; Louw, Brand; Dekker, Gerrit; Andronikou, Savvas; Wieselthaler, Nicki; Kilborn, Tracy; Bertelsman, Jessica; Dreyer, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Radiographer reporting has been studied for plain films and for ultrasonography, but not in paediatric brain CT in the emergency setting. To study the accuracy of radiographer reporting in paediatric brain CT. We prospectively collected 100 paediatric brain CT examinations. Films were read from hard copies using a prescribed tick sheet. Radiographers with 12 years' and 3 years' experience, respectively, were blinded to the history and were not trained in diagnostic film interpretation. The radiographers' results were compared with those of a consultant radiologist. Three categories were defined: abnormal scans, significant abnormalities and insignificant abnormalities. Both radiographers had an accuracy of 89.5% in reading a scan correctly as abnormal, and radiographer 1 had a sensitivity of 87.8% and radiographer 2 a sensitivity of 96%. Radiographer 1 had an accuracy in detecting a significant abnormality of 75% and radiographer 2 an accuracy of 48.6%, and the sensitivities for this category were 61.6% and 52.9%, respectively. Results for detecting the insignificant abnormalities were poorer. Selected radiographers could play an effective screening role, but lacking the sensitivity required for detecting significant abnormality, they could not be the final diagnostician. We recommend that the study be repeated after both radiographers have received formal training in interpretation of paediatric brain CT. (orig.)

  10. The forensic radiographer: a new member in the medicolegal team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Benjamin; Chevallier, Christine; Dominguez, Alejandro; Bruguier, Christine; Elandoy, Cristèle; Mangin, Patrice; Grabherr, Silke

    2012-03-01

    Multidetector computed tomography is becoming more widespread in forensic medicine. In most services, autopsy assistants perform the radiological examination. We introduced professional radiographers into the legal medicine service and hypothesized they would also be able to take over duties currently reserved for other specialists. The aims of this study were to evaluate if radiographers could be trained as "forensic radiographers" by (1) integrating graduated medical radiographers into the legal medicine service, (2) investigating the advantages of this collaboration, and (3) defining the duties of the forensic radiographers.The study was performed prospectively on a group of 8 recruited radiographers who underwent a testing period with special training. They learned the basics of medicolegal case treatment, the autonomous execution of postmortem computed tomography angiography, and postprocessing of data. Seven of 8 radiographers finished the training and were integrated into our service. Although all radiographers were able to fulfill the duties demanded after the training period, some radiographers could not enter or complete the program because they were unable to work with dead bodies.Our study presents the advantages of integrating radiographers into the medicolegal team and proposes how to train the forensic radiographers. In addition, the duties and responsibilities of these new specialists are defined.

  11. Identification of entry-level competencies for associate degree radiographers as perceived by primary role definers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify those competencies needed by Associate Degree Radiographers when they assume employment as entry-level practitioners. A second purpose of the study was to rank order the identified competencies within the role delineations recognized by the Essentials and Guidelines of an Accredited Educational Program for the Radiographer. These role delineations include: radiation protection, exercise discretion and judgment, emergency and life saving techniques, patient care and interpersonal communication, and role as professional member. A third purpose of the study was to examine the degree of consensus on role definition of entry-level competencies needed by Associate Degree Radiographers as perceived by primary role definers (such as employers, employees, and educators), and by other selected variables: age, sex, length of experience in radiologic technology, level of formal education, and place of employment. A major finding of this study was that respondents did not differ significantly in their ranking of entry-level competencies needed by Associate Degree Radiographers when the responses were analyzed according to position, age, sex, length of experience, level of education, or place of employment. Another important finding was that respondents considered all of the 63 competencies as important and needed by Associate Degree Radiographers upon initial employment.A major conclusion and recommendation of this study, in view of the high agreement on the rank ordering of competencies, was that these competencies should be included in a competency-based education model. It was further recommended that a three-way system of communication between employers, employees, and educators be considered in order to pool resources and to increase understanding of each position group's contribution and influence on entry-level Associate Degree Radiographers

  12. Aspergillus infection of the respiratory tract after lung transplantation: chest radiographic and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederich, S.; Scadeng, M.; Flower, C.D.R.; Dennis, C.; Stewart, S.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of our study was to assess radiographic and CT findings in lung transplant patients with evidence of Aspergillus colonization or infection of the airways and correlate the findings with clinical, laboratory, bronchoalveolar lavage, biopsy and autopsy findings. The records of 189 patients who had undergone lung transplantation were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of Aspergillus colonization or infection of the airways. Aspergillus was demonstrated by culture or microscopy of sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or histologically from lung biopsies or postmortem studies in 44 patients (23 %). Notes and radiographs were available for analysis in 30 patients. In 12 of the 30 patients (40 %) chest radiographs remained normal. In 11 of 18 patients with abnormal radiographs pulmonary abnormalities were attributed to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in the absence of other causes for pulmonary abnormalities (8 patients) or because of histological demonstration of IPA (3 patients). In these 11 patients initial radiographic abnormalities were focal areas of patchy consolidation (8 patients), ill-defined pulmonary nodules (2 patients) or a combination of both (1 patient). In some of the lesions cavitation was demonstrated subsequently. At CT a ''halo'' of decreased density was demonstrated in some of the nodules and lesion morphology and location were shown more precisely. Demonstration of Aspergillus from the respiratory tract after lung transplantation does not necessarily reflect IPA but may represent colonization of the airways or semi-invasive aspergillosis. The findings in patients with IPA did not differ from those described in the literature in other immunocompromised patients, suggesting that surgical disruption of lymphatic drainage and nervous supply or effects of preservation and transport of the transplant lung do not affect the radiographic appearances. (orig.)

  13. Are We Using Abdominal Radiographs Appropriately in the Management of Pediatric Constipation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinvogl, Beate; Sabharwal, Sabina; McSweeney, Maireade; Nurko, Samuel

    2017-12-01

    To identify the reasons why pediatric gastroenterologists obtain abdominal radiographs in the management of pediatric constipation. This was a prospective study surveying providers regarding their rationale, interpretation, resultant change, and confidence in their management before and after obtaining KUBs in patients seen for suspected constipation. Demographics and clinical findings were obtained from medical records. A total of 24 providers were surveyed after 72 patient encounters. Reasons for obtaining an abdominal radiograph included evaluation of stool burden (70%), need for a clean out (35%), fecal impaction (27%), cause of abdominal pain (24%), demonstration of stool burden to families (14%), assessment of response to therapy (13%), or encopresis (10%). The plan was changed in 47.6% of cases based on radiographic findings. In cases in which a plan was outlined before obtaining the radiograph (69%), the initial plan was implemented on average in 52.5%. In cases with no plans before obtaining the radiograph, previously unconsidered plans were implemented in 8.7%. Provider confidence in the management plan increased from 2.4 ± 2.7 to 4.1 ± 1.8 (P constipation. The majority used it to make a diagnosis, and nearly one-half changed their management based on the imaging findings. Overall, they reported an improved confidence in their management plan, despite evidence that radiographic findings poorly correlate with clinical severity. This study highlights the need for further provider education regarding the recommendations delineated in existing constipation guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiographic risk factors for contralateral rupture in dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Chuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complete cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR is a common cause of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. Dogs with unilateral CR often develop contralateral CR over time. Although radiographic signs of contralateral stifle joint osteoarthritis (OA influence risk of subsequent contralateral CR, this risk has not been studied in detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of client-owned dogs with unilateral CR to determine how severity of radiographic stifle synovial effusion and osteophytosis influence risk of contralateral CR over time. Detailed survival analysis was performed for a cohort of 85 dogs after case filtering of an initial sample population of 513 dogs. This population was stratified based on radiographic severity of synovial effusion (graded on a scale of 0, 1, and 2 and severity of osteophytosis (graded on a scale of 0, 1, 2, and 3 of both index and contralateral stifle joints using a reproducible scoring method. Severity of osteophytosis in the index and contralateral stifles was significantly correlated. Rupture of the contralateral cranial cruciate ligament was significantly influenced by radiographic OA in both the index and contralateral stifles at diagnosis. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral radiographic stifle effusion was 13.4 at one year after diagnosis and 11.4 at two years. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral osteophytosis was 9.9 at one year after diagnosis. These odds ratios were associated with decreased time to contralateral CR. Breed, age, body weight, gender, and tibial plateau angle did not significantly influence time to contralateral CR. CONCLUSION: Subsequent contralateral CR is significantly influenced by severity of radiographic stifle effusion and osteophytosis in the contralateral stifle, suggesting that synovitis and arthritic joint degeneration are

  15. Radiographic follow-up study of Little Leaguer's shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Yoshiji; Iwase, Takenobu [Tokushima National Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokushima (Japan); Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Sairyo, Koichi [University of Tokushima Graduate School, Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Health Bioscience, Tokushima (Japan); Kashiwaguchi, Shinji [Japan Community Health Care Organization, Tokyo Shinjuku Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokyo (Japan); Iwame, Toshiyuki [Tokushima Prefectural Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokushima (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Little Leaguer's shoulder is a syndrome involving the proximal humeral epiphyseal plate. Conservative treatment usually resolves the symptoms. However, there are no reports of a radiographic follow-up study of this disease. The purpose of this study was to show the radiographic healing process of Little Leaguer's shoulder. A total of 19 male baseball players diagnosed as having Little Leaguer's shoulder were retrospectively evaluated. The mean age at first presentation was 12.7 years. External rotation anteroposterior radiographs of the shoulder were taken. All patients were treated with rest from throwing, and no throwing was recommended until remodeling was confirmed. Follow-up radiographs were taken at 1-month intervals to assess healing. All patients were observed until healing was confirmed radiographically, after which they returned to baseball. The mean follow-up period was 8.5 months. In addition to radiography, patients were asked whether they had any symptoms and whether they had been able to return to baseball. At the first examination, radiographs showed a wider epiphyseal plate of the throwing side compared with the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder. Healing was observed in all cases. Healing occurred first along the medial side and was then extended laterally. The mean time required for healing was 4.7 months. All patients were able to return to playing baseball at their pre-injury level of play and were asymptomatic when examined at the final follow-up. The healing process of Little Leaguer's shoulder advanced from medial to lateral, and healing was achieved about 5 months after initial examination. (orig.)

  16. Technical errors in intraoral radiographs performed by undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Laureano da Rosa

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the technical errors in periapical examinations performed by dental students. Methods: Patient record charts at the dental clinic of the dentistry course were analyzed. Of these, the charts that presented at least ten periapical intraoral radiographs were used in the study, therefore a total of 219 patient record charts were selected, totaling 2 821 radiographs. The radiographs were analyzed one by one, using an uniform light negatoscope, in a darkened room, by a professional radiologist, taking into consideration the following evaluation criteria: technically good and unsatisfactory radiographs. The technical errorswere classified as errors in radiographic technique and radiographic processing errors. The data on quality critera stipulated and obtainedin the evaluation were tabulated, intervals of confidence were used to infer the percentage that were suitable and unsuitable in the studied period, and were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test, at the level of significance of 5%. Results: The results were: of the 2 821 radiographs analyzed, only 1 425 (50.51% were technically good. of the 1 396 (49.49% considered inadequat, 1 155 (82.74% presented errors in radiographic technique, while 241 (17.26% presented radiographic processing errors. The most frequently repeated error was image overlapping (32.88%, followed by the underexposure (25.43%, cut of the tooth (9.31%, chemicalcontamination problems (4.51%, cone cut (3.15%, other errors in radiographic technique (1.86% and other radiographic processing errors (1.43%. Conclusion: The conclusion was that steps must be taken to improve the quality of radiographs obtained because, although they did not make it impossible to interpret the radiographs, this was made extremely difficult, and the depreciated the value of the achives of past clinical situations and cases.

  17. Mesiodens: a radiographic study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Kaan; Celenk, Peruze; Zengin, Zeynep; Sümer, Pinar

    2008-09-01

    We analyzed the frequency and radiological features of mesiodens in a group of children in Turkey. The study was based on a radiographic review of 23,000 pediatric patients (male: 12,667 female; 10,333) who visited the Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology during the period 2003-2005 (3 years). The presence of an unerupted supernumerary tooth, or tooth bud between the 2 central incisors or as unilateral or bilateral teeth in the midline of the maxilla was noted as mesiodens on radiographs. Eighty-five cases of mesiodens in 69 patients were found. Complete documentation, including radiographs, for these 69 patients were studied and analyzed. In addition to gender and age, the following information about the mesiodens was recorded: 1) number; 2) shape; 3) position; 4) complications caused by the mesiodens; 5) treatment. Of the 69 patients, the ratio of boys (47 cases) to girls (22 cases) was 2.1:1. Fifty-three (76.8%) of the children had 1 mesiodens, and 16 (23.1%) had 2 mesiodentes bilaterally to the midline. Of the 85 mesiodentes, 67 (78.8%) were fully impacted, 6 (7%) were partially erupted, and 12 (14.1%) were fully erupted. Most of the mesiodentes (55.2%) were found in the vertical position, followed by inverted position (37.6%), and horizontal position (7%). The main complications were delayed eruption of the permanent incisors (38.8%), maxillary midline diastema (17.6%), axial rotation or inclination of erupted permanent incisors (16.4%), and resorption of the adjacent teeth (4.7%) The prevelance of mesiodens has been estimated to be 0.15% to 2.2% of the population.

  18. Artificial intelligence for analyzing orthopedic trauma radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Jakub; Fahlberg, Niklas; Maki, Atsuto; Razavian, Ali Sharif; Jilert, Anthony; Stark, André; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — Recent advances in artificial intelligence (deep learning) have shown remarkable performance in classifying non-medical images, and the technology is believed to be the next technological revolution. So far it has never been applied in an orthopedic setting, and in this study we sought to determine the feasibility of using deep learning for skeletal radiographs. Methods — We extracted 256,000 wrist, hand, and ankle radiographs from Danderyd’s Hospital and identified 4 classes: fracture, laterality, body part, and exam view. We then selected 5 openly available deep learning networks that were adapted for these images. The most accurate network was benchmarked against a gold standard for fractures. We furthermore compared the network’s performance with 2 senior orthopedic surgeons who reviewed images at the same resolution as the network. Results — All networks exhibited an accuracy of at least 90% when identifying laterality, body part, and exam view. The final accuracy for fractures was estimated at 83% for the best performing network. The network performed similarly to senior orthopedic surgeons when presented with images at the same resolution as the network. The 2 reviewer Cohen’s kappa under these conditions was 0.76. Interpretation — This study supports the use for orthopedic radiographs of artificial intelligence, which can perform at a human level. While current implementation lacks important features that surgeons require, e.g. risk of dislocation, classifications, measurements, and combining multiple exam views, these problems have technical solutions that are waiting to be implemented for orthopedics. PMID:28681679

  19. On being dyslexic: Student radiographers' perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to provide an insight into life as a dyslexic student radiographer, identify barriers and risks in clinical training, and develop recommendations for the support of students with dyslexia. The paucity of research into dyslexia within the radiography profession is worrying, with attention focused only on the support provided by Higher Education Institutions (HEI) or inferences drawn from the experiences of other healthcare students. The impact and significance of dyslexia for student radiographers in clinical practice has never been investigated. Results: On a self-reporting scale of clinical tasks there was little or no difference between dyslexic students and non-dyslexics. Some minor traits commonly associated with dyslexics were also reported by students with no learning disabilities and an inclusion support plan for all students was advocated. In-depth interviews of 10 student radiographers revealed six distinct themes of visualising the disability, self-protection, strengths and talents, time, the badge of disability and adjustments and support. Like other healthcare students, some radiography students reported significant difficulties and prejudices and very little structured support in the clinical environment. Despite the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act being in place for several years, the support in clinical departments fell significantly short of that provided in the universities. The dyslexic students took extra responsibility for their own learning and some had developed complex coping strategies to overcome any difficulties. Conclusion: Several inclusive recommendations were developed as a result of this study that could be used to support all students on clinical placement.

  20. Clinical and radiographic degenerative spondylolisthesis (CARDS) classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, Christopher K; Hilibrand, Alan S; Sayadipour, Amir; Koerner, John D; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Radcliff, Kristen E; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Albert, Todd J; Anderson, D Greg

    2015-08-01

    Lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is a common, acquired condition leading to disabling back and/or leg pain. Although surgery is common used to treat patients with severe symptoms, there are no universally accepted treatment guidelines. Wide variation in vertebral translation, disc collapse, sagittal alignment, and vertebral mobility suggests this is a heterogeneous disease. A classification scheme would be useful to differentiate homogenous subgroups that may benefit from different treatment strategies. To develop and test the reliability of a simple, clinically useful classification scheme for lumbar DS. Retrospective case series. One hundred twenty-six patients. Proposed radiographic classification system. A classification system is proposed that considers disc space height, sagittal alignment and translation, and the absence or presence of unilateral or bilateral leg pain. Test cases were graded by six observers to establish interobserver reliability and regraded in a different order 1 month later to establish intraobserver reliability using Kappa analysis. To establish the relative prevalence of each subtype, a series of 100 consecutive patients presenting with L4-L5 DS were classified. Four radiographic subtypes were identified: Type A: advanced Disc space collapse without kyphosis; Type B: disc partially preserved with translation of 5 mm or less; Type C: disc partially preserved with translation of more than 5 mm; and Type D: kyphotic alignment. The leg pain modifier 0 denotes no leg pain, 1 denotes unilateral leg pain, and 2 represents bilateral leg pain. The Kappa value describing interobserver reliability was 0.82, representing near-perfect agreement. Intraobserver reliability analysis demonstrated Kappa=0.83, representing near-perfect agreement. Grading of the consecutive series of 100 patients revealed the following distribution: 16% Type A, 37% Type B, 33% Type C, and 14% Type D. A new radiographic and clinical classification scheme for

  1. Radiographic analysis of temporomandibular joint arthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Dong Soo [Department of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-11-15

    The author analysed the bone changes, the positional relationships between condylar head and articular fossa, and the interrelationship between the bone changes and the abnormal position of condylar head, from 1,036 radiographs of 259 patients with temporomandibular joint arthrosis, which were obtained by the oblique-lateral transcranial projection and orthopantomograms. The results were as follows: 1. Among the radiographic bone changes of the temporomandibular joint arthrosis, deformity was 36..90% (217 cases), sclerosis 34.18% (201 cases), erosive change 25.58% (152 cases) and marginal proliferation 3.06% (18 cases) respectively. 2. In the positional changes between condylar head and articular fossa, the downward positioning of condylar head in centric occlusion was most frequent (36.90%), of which frequency was significantly higher than forward positioning (11.22%) and backward positioning (4.76%) in same condition. Also, radiographs showed that the enlargement of articular space showed higher frequency than its narrowing. In the opening position of mouth, the restrict ed movement of condylar head within articular fossa was most frequent (35.03%). The forward positioning and the downward positioning was 15.65% and 9.52% respectively. Also, radiographs revealed that the incomplete movement or no positional change of condylar head was most frequent. 3. In the interrelationship between bone changes and abnormal position of condylar head, deformity was 42.79% in the cases of downward positioning of condylar head in centric occlusion and 37.50% in those of normal positioning of condylar head in same condition. This revealed that deformity was most frequent bone change in above condylar positionings. However, erosive change was 34.62% in the cases of downward positioning of condylar head in centric occlusion and 33 .33% in those of forward positioning. In opening position of condylar head, and deformity in the cases of norma l positioning, forward positioning and

  2. Radiographic analysis of temporomandibular joint arthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Dong Soo

    1984-01-01

    The author analysed the bone changes, the positional relationships between condylar head and articular fossa, and the interrelationship between the bone changes and the abnormal position of condylar head, from 1,036 radiographs of 259 patients with temporomandibular joint arthrosis, which were obtained by the oblique-lateral transcranial projection and orthopantomograms. The results were as follows: 1. Among the radiographic bone changes of the temporomandibular joint arthrosis, deformity was 36..90% (217 cases), sclerosis 34.18% (201 cases), erosive change 25.58% (152 cases) and marginal proliferation 3.06% (18 cases) respectively. 2. In the positional changes between condylar head and articular fossa, the downward positioning of condylar head in centric occlusion was most frequent (36.90%), of which frequency was significantly higher than forward positioning (11.22%) and backward positioning (4.76%) in same condition. Also, radiographs showed that the enlargement of articular space showed higher frequency than its narrowing. In the opening position of mouth, the restrict ed movement of condylar head within articular fossa was most frequent (35.03%). The forward positioning and the downward positioning was 15.65% and 9.52% respectively. Also, radiographs revealed that the incomplete movement or no positional change of condylar head was most frequent. 3. In the interrelationship between bone changes and abnormal position of condylar head, deformity was 42.79% in the cases of downward positioning of condylar head in centric occlusion and 37.50% in those of normal positioning of condylar head in same condition. This revealed that deformity was most frequent bone change in above condylar positionings. However, erosive change was 34.62% in the cases of downward positioning of condylar head in centric occlusion and 33 .33% in those of forward positioning. In opening position of condylar head, and deformity in the cases of norma l positioning, forward positioning and

  3. Chest radiographic manifestations of scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KPP Abhilash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Rationale: Respiratory system involvement in scrub typhus is seen in 20–72% of patients. In endemic areas, good understanding and familiarity with the various radiologic findings of scrub typhus are essential in identifying pulmonary complications. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to a tertiary care center with scrub typhus between October 2012 and September 2013 and had a chest X ray done were included in the analysis. Details and radiographic findings were noted and factors associated with abnormal X-rays were analyzed. Results: The study cohort contained 398 patients. Common presenting complaints included fever (100%, generalized myalgia (83%, headache (65%, dyspnea (54%, cough (24.3%, and altered sensorium (14%. Almost half of the patients (49.4% had normal chest radiographs. Common radiological pulmonary abnormalities included pleural effusion (14.6%, acute respiratory distress syndrome (14%, airspace opacity (10.5%, reticulonodular opacities (10.3%, peribronchial thickening (5.8%, and pulmonary edema (2%. Cardiomegaly was noted in 3.5% of patients. Breathlessness, presence of an eschar, platelet counts of 2 mg/dL had the highest odds of having an abnormal chest radiograph. Patients with an abnormal chest X-ray had a higher requirement of noninvasive ventilation (odds ratio [OR]: 13.98; 95% confidence interval CI: 5.89–33.16, invasive ventilation (OR: 18.07; 95% CI: 6.42–50.88, inotropes (OR: 8.76; 95% CI: 4.35–17.62, higher involvement of other organ systems, longer duration of hospital stay (3.18 ± 3 vs. 7.27 ± 5.58 days; P< 0.001, and higher mortality (OR: 4.63; 95% CI: 1.54–13.85. Conclusion: Almost half of the patients with scrub typhus have abnormal chest radiographs. Chest radiography should be included as part of basic evaluation at presentation in patients with scrub typhus, especially in those with breathlessness, eschar, jaundice, and severe thrombocytopenia.

  4. Electrophoretic recording of electronically stored radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, H D; Lobl, H

    1985-01-01

    Continuous tone hard copies of electronically stored radiographs are recorded on transparent film with a silverless conductive coating by electrophoretic deposition of toner particles. A stationary experimental print head with a row of 320 electrodes (eight electrodes per mm) was employed. The performance of the recording process with regard to the most important parameters, i.e., toner concentration, width of the gap between recording medium and electrodes, recording voltage, and speed will be described. The process exhibits continuous tone characteristics, because the optical density can be varied continuously by the recording voltage. The image resolution which can be achieved is characterized by a modulation transfer function.

  5. Normal radiographic findings. 4. act. ed.; Roentgennormalbefunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, T.B. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Dillingen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    This book can serve the reader in three ways: First, it presents normal findings for all radiographic techniques including KM. Important data which are criteria of normal findings are indicated directly in the pictures and are also explained in full text and in summary form. Secondly, it teaches the systematics of interpreting a picture - how to look at it, what structures to regard in what order, and for what to look in particular. Checklists are presented in each case. Thirdly, findings are formulated in accordance with the image analysis procedure. All criteria of normal findings are defined in these formulations, which make them an important didactic element. (orig.)

  6. Normal radiographic findings. 4. act. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    This book can serve the reader in three ways: First, it presents normal findings for all radiographic techniques including KM. Important data which are criteria of normal findings are indicated directly in the pictures and are also explained in full text and in summary form. Secondly, it teaches the systematics of interpreting a picture - how to look at it, what structures to regard in what order, and for what to look in particular. Checklists are presented in each case. Thirdly, findings are formulated in accordance with the image analysis procedure. All criteria of normal findings are defined in these formulations, which make them an important didactic element. (orig.)

  7. Radiographic investigations during medico-legal autopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzke, H.; Schneider, V.; Dietz, W.

    1982-01-01

    During the last 13 years (1968-1980), 427 radiographic examinations were carried out during the course of medico-legal autopsies at the Institute of Forensic Medicine at the Free University of Berlin. Important problems were the demonstration of retained foreign bodies resulting from shooting, stabbing or blunt trauma, bone injuries, identification, and the question of life in neonates. An historical survey is given and 12 cases with special forensic problems are illustrated and discussed, and further means of investigations are described. (orig.) [de

  8. General-purpose radiographic and fluoroscopic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Noritaka

    1982-01-01

    A new series of diagnostic tables, Model DT-KEL, was developed for general-purpose radiographic and fluoroscopic systems. Through several investigations, the table was so constructed that the basic techniques be general radiography and GI examination, and other techniques be optionally added. The diagnostic tables involve the full series of the type for various purposes and are systematized with the surrounding equipment. A retractable mechanism of grids was adopted first for general use. The fine grids with a density of 57 lines per cm, which was adopted in KEL-2, reduced the X-ray doses by 16 percent. (author)

  9. Revolutionizing radiographic diagnostic accuracy in periodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective diagnostic accuracy has in some way been the missing link between periodontal diagnosis and treatment. Most of the clinicians rely on the conventional two-dimensional (2D radiographs. But being a 2D image, it has its own limitations. 2D images at times can give an incomplete picture about the severity or type of disease and can further affect the treatment plan. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT has a better potential for detecting periodontal bone defects with accuracy. The purpose here is to describe how CBCT imaging is beneficial in accurate diagnosis and will lead to a precise treatment plan.

  10. Periodontal progression based on radiographic records: An observational study in chronic and aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onabolu, Olanrewaju; Donos, Nikos; Tu, Yu-Kang; Darbar, Ulpee; Nibali, Luigi

    2015-06-01

    The current classification assumes that aggressive periodontitis (AgP) has a faster rate of progression than chronic periodontitis (CP). However, this has not been clearly proven and difficulties exist in establishing progression. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of retrospectively utilising previous records for clinical diagnosis of periodontal diseases and to assess if two different patterns of disease progression exist between AgP and CP. Previous radiographic records of a cohort of 235 patients clinically diagnosed with AgP or CP were requested from the referring general dental practitioners (GDPs). Comparable radiographic records were analysed in order to assess progression patterns and associate these with clinical diagnosis, by multilevel analysis. 43 patients out of the initial 235 had comparable radiographs retrieved from the GDPs. 858 sites were followed for an average 6.6 years. Radiographically, AgP showed a faster linear pattern of progression than CP (0.31mm/year vs. 0.20mm/year, pperiodontal disease progression and may have an impact on the clinical management of aggressive periodontitis, since our findings show that there is continuous destruction in patients with aggressive periodontitis if left untreated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical and radiographic peculiarities of changes in lungs at pneumocystosis in patients with aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kramnoy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The group of causative agents of some infections that associate with comprehensive stage of HIV-infection is strictly distinguished. It is called HIV-associated diseases that must be considered as opportunistic. Pneumocystic pneumonia dominates in clinical presentation of about half of patients, the others have candidal injuries, cytomegaloviral pneumonia, chlamidia trachomatic pneumonia and so on.  An aim of this research is to detect clinic and radiographic peculiarities of changes in lungs at pneumocystosis in patients with AIDS.Materials and methods. Radiographs dates in frontal and additional projections of thorax in 42 patients 18- 56 years old were studied.Results. An analysis of dates allowed group the detected changes into radiographic symptom complexes.Conclusion. 1 Radiography of thorax stays is the main objective method of diagnostics of changes in lungs in patients with AIDS; 2 peculiarities of radiographic manifestations of the modern course of pneumocystic pneumonia from an initial changes of lung pattern to an apparent picture are ascertained, the complications and dynamics of treatment are given

  12. Implementing radiographic CT head reporting: The experiences of students and managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Ruth; Allen, David; Arnold, Paul; Snaith, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the face of growing demand in radiology, skill mix initiatives have sought to improve and expand service provision. Within the UK radiographer reporting is now widespread, although the growth in computerised tomography (CT) head reporting has not been as rapid as anticipated. The literature in this area is limited, but case studies have highlighted the successful implementation of this training through new radiographer roles in practice. Method: A cross-sectional survey was developed to elicit information from radiographers and managers on their experiences before, during and after post-graduate training in CT head reporting. Results: Seventy one responses were received comprising 48 past students (n = 48/111; 43.2%) and 23 service managers (n = 23/67; 34.3%). Key factors for the development were personal continual professional development for students and departmental need for managers. Challenges during training included a lack of study time due to staff shortages and access to radiologist mentors. Only 48.8% of students responding have gone on to use the new skills in practice cited reasons include staff shortages, resistance from radiologists and increase in radiological staffing. Conclusions: This qualitative study has demonstrated that those trusts who have implemented CT head reporting have evidenced perceptible benefits for both the department and individuals. Those radiographers who are successfully reporting have shown themselves to be highly motivated and persistent in their development

  13. A study of ameloblastoma on the relationship between histopathologic patterns and radiographic characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyun Bae; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlationship between histopathologic types of ameloblastoma and their radiographic appearance.The materials for this study consisted of 106 patients diagnosed as ameloblastoma both radiographically and histologically. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The incidence of ameloblastoma in male (60 cases, 56.6%) was slightly higher than that in female (46 cases, 43.4%). The average age was estimated as 30.7 years with a range from 6 to 76 years. The second decade revealed the highest rate. 2. 106 ameloblastomas were histopathologically classified as 36 uicystic, 28 plexiform, 20 follicular, 14 acanthomatous, 7 granular cell, and 1 basalcell ameloblastoma. 3. Unilocular, soap-bubble appearance and scalloped margin were the radiographic appearances frequently seen in unicystic ameloblastoma . The predominant radiographic appearance of plexiform ameloblastoma showed unilocular radiolucency with scalloped margin. 4. 19.8%, 21 cases of ameloblastoma in this study showed containing tooth in their tumor mass by radiography. 5. Root resorption occurred in 37 cases (34.9%) and tooth displacement in 7 cases (6.6%). Root resorption and tooth displacement occurred in same patient were 24 cases (22.6%). 6. Recurrence occurred in 21.7% and average year between initial treatment and recurrence were 2 years.

  14. Neurogenic heterotopic ossification: epidemiology and morphology on conventional radiographs in an early neurological rehabilitation population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seipel, R.; Langner, S.; Lippa, M.; Kuehn, J.P.; Hosten, N.; Platz, T.

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate neurogenic heterotopic ossification in an early neurological rehabilitation population (phases B and C) with respect to epidemiology and morphology on conventional radiographs. Over a 4-year period, 1,463 patients treated at a clinic for early neurological rehabilitation were evaluated for clinical symptoms of neurogenic heterotopic ossification. In case of clinical suspicion, plain radiographs of the expected sites were obtained. If heterotopic ossification was detected, the initial and subsequent radiographs were retrospectively analyzed for sites, size, and morphology. Immature lesions were categorized as small (<10 mm) or large (10-100 mm). The prevalence rate of neurogenic heterotopic ossification was 2.05%. The condition was most common in young male adults. The hip was the most common site accounting for more than half of the cases. Two or more ossifications were seen in 56.7% of the affected patients with approximately two-thirds showing bilateral symmetric involvement of corresponding joint regions. The size of ossifications strongly varied interindividually. Small immature lesions demonstrated less progression in size than large lesions during maturation (P < 0.05). Standard radiographs, as a fast and inexpensive technique, allow the expected size progression of heterotopic ossifications during maturation to be estimated, which is relevant in terms of therapeutic decisions, patient mobilization, and neurological rehabilitation. (orig.)

  15. Radiographic evaluation of coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs part I: New stress-radiographic positioning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phiwipha Kamonrat; Duangdaun Kaenkangploo

    2002-01-01

    Two new stress-radiographic positioning techniques, namely 60 deg and 90 deg stress techniques, were introduced for quantifying hip joint laxity in dogs. The comparative characteristics and efficiency of these new techniques with angled hindlimbs were evaluated relative to the standard hip-extended radiographic technique. Forty, healthy, mongrel dogs with normal hip joint conformation were anesthetized and placed in dorsal recumbency before 3 radiograhps of the standard, 60 deg , and 90 deg stress techniques were taken. For the 60 deg stress technique, hindlimbs were extended in parallel to each other at 60 deg angled to the table top and stifles were slightly rotated inward, femoral heads were manually pushed in a craniodorsal direction during exposure. For the 90 deg stress technique, femurs were positioned perpendicular to the table top, stifles were 90 deg flexed and adducted and femoral heads were manually pushed in a craniodorsal direction during exposure. The subluxation index (SI) and dorsolateral subluxation score (DLS score) were calculated from 3 radiographic views for both hip joints to quantitate the relative degree of joint laxity. Results of the study indicated that the 60 deg (SI = 0.20+-0.045, DLS score = 62.5+-7.96 percent) and 90 deg (SI = 0.23+-0.044, DLS score = 61.2+-9.47 percent) stress-radiographs yielded significantly (p0.001) higher degree of hip joint laxity than the standard technique (SI)

  16. Beschwerden von Menschenrechtskomitee der UNO: Restitution von Nachumsiedlervermögen in Estland / Heinz Gustav Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsepp, Heinz Gustav

    2015-01-01

    1941. aastal ümberasunud baltisakslastel on Eestis kehtivate seaduste järgi restitutsiooniõigus. Kinnisvara tagastamisest baltisakslastele Eestis. Mainitud erinevate valitsuskoosseisude ministrite seisukohti selles küsimuses

  17. Ergebnisse einer Querschnittsstudie zum Zusammenhang von elektromagnetischen Feldern von Mobilfunksendeanlagen und unspezifischen gesundheitlichen Beschwerden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria; Kowall, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    possible adverse health effects caused by the RF-EMF emitted from mobile phone base stations, or they attribute their unspecific health complaints like headache or sleep disturbances to these fields. Method: In the framework of a cross-sectional study a questionnaire was sent to 4150 persons living...... of health complaints was not found, but an association between the attribution of adverse health effects to base stations and the occurrence of health complaints. Conclusions: However, concerns about health and the attribution of adverse health effects to these mobile phone base stations should be taken......Background: Despite the fact that adverse health effects are not confirmed for exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RFEMF) levels below the limit values, as defined in the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, many persons are worried about...

  18. Functional radiographs of the craniocervical region and cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, E.T.; Auberger, T.; Herrmann, G.; Pfaffenrath, W.; Poellmann, W.

    1985-01-01

    Disabilities of the articulation of the head and cervical spine can often be detected only by exact measurement of functional radiographs. From two radiographs, one in flexion and one in extension, not only can the total mobility of the head be measured, but also the mobility of the individual articulations can be evaluated by taking exact measurements of the position of each vertebra. A method for semi-automatic measuring of such pairs of radiographs is presented. Edges and structures of the bones that are clearly visible in both radiographs are digitized on a graphict tablet. Then, by computer program, each vertebra of the first radiograph is shifted and rotated until it fits best to the respective vertebra of the second radiograph. Thus, for each articulation, the mobility angle and the location of the mobility axis relative to the adjacent vertebra, can be computed. First experiences with this method are presented

  19. Commitment of the radiographer - does it matter to the patient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagoeva, D.; Shuleva, L.; Goudeva, V.; Stoinova, V.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Radiographers are responsible for providing safe and accurate imaging examinations in a wide range of clinical environments, using a variety of imaging modalities and techniques so that appropriate management and treatment of patients and clients can proceed. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss: the responsibilities of radiographer in the clinical radiology department; their professional judgment to decide how to achieve a diagnostic outcome; the relationship patient/radiographer; the impact of the radiographer on patient care. Patient care and advocacy has always been an integral part of the radiography profession. The radiographer should respect the patient at all the times, be genuine in nature and empathies with the patient‘s condition. Good listening and observational skills are also very important components. The radiographers are personally accountable for their work and professional conduct

  20. Occupational stress and its predictors in radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutter, D.R.; Lovegrove, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish the level of occupational stress in UK NHS radiographers, and to examine its causes. A total of more than 1600 radiographers sampled nationally completed a postal questionnaire. Four groups were represented - mammography, diagnostics, radiotherapy, and ultrasound - and both junior staff and superintendents were examined. Method: The questionnaire measured role ambiguity, role conflict, work problems, social support from colleagues, and perceived stress. Results: Levels of perceived stress were high in all four groups. The mean was significantly lower in the mammography group than the others, however, and junior staff reported lower levels than superintendents. Role ambiguity, role conflict and work problems all contributed significantly to stress, but the effects were sometimes buffered by social support from colleagues. Conclusion: The implications of the findings are discussed for theory and for policy and practice: occupational stress was predicted by intrinsic features of the job; the levels were similar to those reported by other NHS professionals; and the pattern of findings suggests possible ways to intervene to reduce it

  1. Pixel Strength and Digitization of Radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Aarthi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a pilot study to compare the digitized images of panoramic radiographs with the original film images for perceived clarity and diagnostic quality, and to make comparison amongst the digitized film images captured by a digital camera at different resolution settings to assess if differences in clarity and/or diagnostic quality existed. Eight orthopantomograms were photographed using a digital camera, Nikon Finepix S7000, at four different resolution settings - 1 M pix, 3 M pix, 6M pix and 12 M pix respectively. These thirty two digital images were transferred to a laptop computer, Acer Travelmate 290 E, saved as JPEG files and viewed using ′Planmeca Dimaxis′ software. Five observers made comparison between the film and digitized images and also amongst the images digitized with various pixel strengths. Images were ranked for clarity and diagnostic quality. Data was analyzed using statistical tests. Results indicated no significant difference in clarity and diagnostic quality between conventional radiographs and their corresponding digitized images. The images digitized with the highest resolution were better than those digitized with the other lower resolutions.

  2. Radiographic arthrosis after elbow trauma: interobserver reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenhovius, Anneluuk; Karanicolas, Paul Jack; Bhandari, Mohit; Ring, David

    2012-04-01

    This study measured observer variation in radiographic rating of elbow arthrosis. Thirty-seven independent orthopedic surgeons graded the extent of elbow arthrosis in 20 consecutive sets of plain radiographs, according to the Broberg and Morrey rating system (grade 0, normal joint; grade 1, slight joint-space narrowing with minimum osteophyte formation; grade 2, moderate joint-space narrowing with moderate osteophyte formation; and grade 3, severe degenerative change with gross destruction of the joint). The kappa multirater measure (κ) was used to estimate reliability between observers, with 0 indicating no agreement above chance, and 1 indicating perfect agreement. There was fair agreement in arthrosis ratings between surgeons. Surgeons with more than 10 years of experience had greater agreement than did surgeons with less experience, and surgeons who treated more than 10 elbow fractures per year had better agreement than did those treating fewer fractures. In post hoc analyses, 2 simplified binary rating systems (eg, "none or mild" vs "moderate or severe" arthrosis) resulted in moderate agreement among observers. The 4 grades of the Broberg and Morrey classification system have only fair interobserver reliability that is influenced by subspecialty and experience. Binary rating systems might be more reliable. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. All rights reserved.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation for radiographic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillack, G.R.; Bellon, C.

    2003-01-01

    Standard radiography simulators are based on the attenuation law complemented by built-up-factors (BUF) to describe the interaction of radiation with material. The assumption of BUF implies that scattered radiation reduces only the contrast in radiographic images. This simplification holds for a wide range of applications like weld inspection as known from practical experience. But only a detailed description of the different underlying interaction mechanisms is capable to explain effects like mottling or others that every radiographer has experienced in practice. The application of Monte Carlo models is capable to handle primary and secondary interaction mechanisms contributing to the image formation process like photon interactions (absorption, incoherent and coherent scattering including electron-binding effects, pair production) and electron interactions (electron tracing including X-Ray fluorescence and Bremsstrahlung production). It opens up possibilities like the separation of influencing factors and the understanding of the functioning of intensifying screen used in film radiography. The paper discusses the opportunities in applying the Monte Carlo method to investigate special features in radiography in terms of selected examples. (orig.) [de

  4. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Dae; Park, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Dong Rib [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis.

  5. MRI and radiographic findings in Currarino's triad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfluger, T.; Czekalla, R.; Koletzko, S.; Muensterer, O.; Willemsen, U.F.; Hahn, K.

    1996-01-01

    Currarino's triad is a rare complex of a congential sacral bony abnormality, anorectal malformation and a presacral mass. Intractable constipation since birth is the leading symptom of this triad, which follows an autosomal dominant mode of heredity. We report conventional radiographic and MR findings in one family consisting of a mother and her two daughters. In all three cases, radiography revealed an abnormality of the os sacrum, the so-called scimitar sacrum. MR examination, undertaken next in our institution, was applied with T1-, T2- and proton density weighted sequences in all three orientations before and after i.v. application of gadolinium diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). In two patients we were able to diagnose the complete form of the triad and in one patient an incomplete form. In any case of a radiographically diagnosed scimitar sacrum in combination with constipation. Currarino's triad should be considered. MRI, as the method of choice, should be the next step to detect a presacral mass and any anomalies of the spinal canal. The importance of early recognition lies in the high morbidity and mortality rates resulting from this disorder. (orig.)

  6. Surface dose extrapolation measurements with radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, Martin J; Cheung Tsang; Yu, Peter K N; Currie, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of surface dose delivered from radiotherapy x-ray beams for optimal results should be performed both inside and outside the prescribed treatment fields. An extrapolation technique can be used with radiographic film to perform surface dose assessment for open field high energy x-ray beams. This can produce an accurate two-dimensional map of surface dose if required. Results have shown that the surface percentage dose can be estimated within ±3% of parallel plate ionization chamber results with radiographic film using a series of film layers to produce an extrapolated result. Extrapolated percentage dose assessment for 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm square fields was estimated to be 15% ± 2%, 29% ± 3% and 38% ± 3% at the central axis and relatively uniform across the treatment field. The corresponding parallel plate ionization chamber measurements are 16%, 27% and 37%, respectively. Surface doses are also measured outside the treatment field which are mainly due to scattered electron contamination. To achieve this result, film calibration curves must be irradiated to similar x-ray field sizes as the experimental film to minimize quantitative variations in film optical density caused by varying x-ray spectrum with field size. (note)

  7. Xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.A.; Smith, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an anatomic reference for the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) using xeroradiography† and conventional radiography. The entire body of three adult fish was radiographed using standard xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Two xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy of the channel catfish

  8. Radiographic evaluation for inspection of steel casting and welding parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilge, A.N.; Tugrul, B.

    1986-01-01

    Evaluation of the radiographs is an important stage of the radiography technique. In this study,the basis of the evaluation are defined and related international references are given with examples. Radiographic inspections for steel casting and welding parts are expanded applications. In Turkey,industrial quality controls are realized mostly on this type of the materials. The important points and different types of the discontinuities are explained with some radiographs. (author)

  9. Automated result analysis in radiographic testing of NPPs' welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skomorokhov, A.O.; Nakhabov, A.V.; Belousov, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents development results of algorithms for automated image interpretation of NPP welded joints radiographic inspection. The developed algorithms are based on state-of-the-art pattern recognition methods. The paper covers automatic radiographic image segmentation, defects detection and their parameters evaluation issues. The developed algorithms testing results for actual radiographic images of welded joints with significant variation of defects parameters are given [ru

  10. Radiographic analysis of partial or total vertebral body resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, C.G.; Hammer, G.H.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Hugus, J.; Weinstein, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    Partial and total vertebrectomies are used in the treatment of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the spine. Serial radiographic studies are crucial in the follow-up of patients with vertebrectomies. This paper presents 33 cases and illustrates radiographic examples of both successful and complicated vertebrectomies, including radiographic signs of local tumor recurrence, loosening, migration or fracture of the hardware or methylmethacrylate, bone graft failure, and progressive spinal instability

  11. Reflections on the role of consultant radiographers in the UK: What is a consultant radiographer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.; Henwood, S.; Miller, P.

    2016-01-01

    Context: This paper is the second paper from a two year in depth case study, exploring the role of consultant radiographers in the UK. Methods: A longitudinal case study approach was used to determine the role of consultant radiographers. Interviews were used to explore experiences of being a consultant, which were analysed using thematic analysis. Eight consultant radiographers participated (Note, two of the consultants withdrew after the first interview due to workload). Therefore two consultants were interviewed only once. The remaining six consultants were interviewed twice over a 12 month period. Findings: The data presented in this paper explores the nature of the role, differences between roles, the four domains of practice, and how the role fits into local organisational structures. The study shows wide variation in the types of roles undertaken, reflecting that the creation of these roles were in response to local clinical need and often related to an individual practitioner's skills. The broad scope of the role was shown across all the consultants, with evidence of roles developing into new areas of service delivery. Conclusions: The paper offers insight into the role(s) of consultant radiographers in the UK. The range and scope of their practice is extensive, with much variation. It is evident that the clinical aspect of the role dominates, with research being the least supported domain of practice. There remains a lack of clarity around the role, with concerns about remuneration and other limitations that may restrict the role developing further. - Highlights: • This paper shows the variation in roles between consultant radiographers. • The commonality with medical roles is highlighted. • Problem solving is identified as a core skill in consultant radiography. • Consultants offered evidence of the roles developing service provision. • While all four domains of practice are covered, research is the least well supported.

  12. H1N1 influenza in an Irish population: patterns of chest radiograph abnormality in patients testing positive.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, K

    2012-02-29

    The winter of 2010\\/2011 saw a second peak in the number of H1N1 cases detected in Ireland. The purpose of this study was to investigate the radiological characteristics of patients diagnosed during this period. A retrospective analysis of these cases was performed. Chest radiographs were classified as normal or abnormal. A total of 37 patients were included. Of these, 22 (59%) of chest radiographs were abnormal and 15 (41%) were normal. In the 7 paediatric patients, 4 (57%) had a perihilar distribution of disease, 2 (28%) had peripherally based disease with 1 (14%) having a mixed distribution. A series of radiographs was available for 9 patients, 6 of these showed a radiographic deterioration from the initial study. The majority of chest radiographs of patients with confirmed H1N1 infection will be abnormal. In children, disease is more likely to be perihilar in distribution. Chest radiography is an important initial investigation in patients with H1N1 infection and is useful to track progression of disease in the subset of patients requiring hospitalization for severe disease.

  13. Common pitfalls in radiographic interpretation of the Thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godshalk, C.P.

    1994-01-01

    Errors in radiographic interpretation of the thorax are common. Many mistakes result from interpreting normal anatomic variants as abnormalstructures, such as misdiagnosing dorsal and rightward deviation of the cranial thoracic trachea on lateral radiographs of normal dogs. Some of the more common errors specifically relate to misinterpretation of radiographs made on obese patients. The age of the patient also plays a role in misdiagnosis. Aging cats seem to have a horizontally positioned heart on lateral radiographs, and older dogs, primarily collies,often have pulmonary osteomas that are misdiagnosed as metastatic neoplastic disease or healed pulmonary fungal infections

  14. Radiographic stents: integrating treatment planning and implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kok, Ingeborg J; Thalji, Ghadeer; Bryington, Matthew; Cooper, Lyndon F

    2014-01-01

    The pivotal point in treatment planning for dental implants occurs when the location of bone is viewed radiographically in the context of the planned prosthesis. Radiographic planning for dental implant therapy should be used only after a review of the patient's systemic health, imaging history, oral health, and local oral conditions. The radiological diagnostic and planning procedure for dental implants can only be fully achieved with the use of a well-designed and -constructed radiographic guide. This article reviews several methods for construction of radiographic guides and how they may be utilized for improving implant surgery planning and performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiographic caries diagnosis and restorative treatment decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mileman, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with a single diagnostic technique: the bitewing radiograph, and the way it is used by dentists to decide on patient treatment need for interproximal caries. The variation in caries diagnosis and treatment decisions using bitewing radiographs is described and the radiographic criteria of choice for minimizing over and undertreatment according to a norm are investigated. Three possible diagnostic strategies in interproximal caries diagnosis using a decision analysis approach are described and evaluated, and the effect of the reported diagnostic behaviour and knowledge of practicing Dutch dentists in their use of bitewing radiographs for the diagnosis and treatment of interproximal caries is described and analyzed. (Auth.)

  16. Radiographic anatomy of the medial coronoid process of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Takiguchi, M.; Schrader, S.C.; Biller, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Mediolateral, flexed mediolateral, mediocaudal-laterocranial 15 degrees oblique (extended and supinated mediolateral), and craniolateral-caudomedial 20 degrees to 30 degrees oblique radiographs of 16 elbow-joint specimens were produced to study the radiographic anatomy of the medial coronoid process. On the mediolateral view, the cranial point of the coronoid process was at the level of the distal one-third of the radial epiphysis. Degree of superimposition of the proximal radius and ulna determined how the medial coronoid process was projected on the radiographs. Mediocaudal-laterocranial oblique radiographs best showed the cranial outline of the medial coronoid process with moderate superimposition of the proximal radius and ulna

  17. Computed tomography versus magnetic resonance imaging versus bone scintigraphy for clinically suspected scaphoid fractures in patients with negative plain radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallee, Wouter H.; Wang, Junfeng; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Kloen, Peter; Maas, Mario; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; Doornberg, Job N.

    2015-01-01

    In clinically suspected scaphoid fractures, early diagnosis reduces the risk of non-union and minimises loss in productivity resulting from unnecessary cast immobilisation. Since initial radiographs do not exclude the possibility of a fracture, additional imaging is needed. Computed tomography (CT),

  18. Simulated radiographic bone and joint modeling from 3D ankle MRI: feasibility and comparison with radiographs and 2D MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordeck, Shaun M. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical College, Dallas, TX (United States); University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Koerper, Conrad E.; Adler, Aaron [University of Texas Southwestern Medical College, Dallas, TX (United States); Malhotra, Vidur; Xi, Yin [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Liu, George T. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Orthopaedic Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States); Chhabra, Avneesh [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Orthopaedic Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of this work is to simulate radiographs from isotropic 3D MRI data, compare relationship of angle and joint space measurements on simulated radiographs with corresponding 2D MRIs and real radiographs (XR), and compare measurement times among the three modalities. Twenty-four consecutive ankles were included, eight males and 16 females, with a mean age of 46 years. Segmented joint models simulating radiographs were created from 3D MRI data sets. Three readers independently performed blinded angle and joint space measurements on the models, corresponding 2D MRIs, and XRs at two time points. Linear mixed models and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was ascertained, with p values less than 0.05 considered significant. Simulated radiograph models were successfully created in all cases. Good agreement (ICC > 0.65) was noted among all readers across all modalities and among most measurements. Absolute measurement values differed between modalities. Measurement time was significantly greater (p < 0.05) on 2D versus simulated radiographs for most measurements and on XR versus simulated radiographs (p < 0.05) for nearly half the measurements. Simulated radiographs can be successfully generated from 3D MRI data; however, measurements differ. Good inter-reader and moderate-to-good intra-reader reliability was observed and measurements obtained on simulated radiograph models took significantly less time compared to measurements with 2D and generally less time than XR. (orig.)

  19. Emotional Intelligence Throughout the Lifecycle of Australian Radiographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sarah Jayne; Eccles, Grace Rose; Mackay, Stuart James; Robinson, John

    2017-09-01

    To measure global and domain trait emotional intelligence (EI) throughout the professional lifecycle of Australian radiographers and report the trends. A combination retrospective and prospective cross-sectional multiple-cohort study using the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue-SF) was designed to collect global and domain trait EI scores of several populations, including radiography students (n = 95), inexperienced radiographers (0-5 years' experience; n = 94), experienced radiographers (≥ 6 years' experience; n = 451), chief radiographers (n = 107), clinical educators (n = 24), application specialists (n = 24), and radiographers working in education (n = 15). Mean EI scores were calculated and statistical tests were performed to determine whether significant differences existed among the groups. Statistically significant differences were found among populations for global EI and the domains of self-control and well-being, with students demonstrating consistently lower scores than qualified radiographers ( P ≥ .001). Chief radiographers demonstrated higher scores for well-being than inexperienced radiographers, radiographers working in education, and students ( P < .001). Global EI scores increased steadily throughout the professional lifecycle of Australian radiographers, plateauing at 10 years of clinical experience. Chief radiographers demonstrated the highest scores for well-being, which is consistent with prior research acknowledging the importance of EI in organizational leadership. Students demonstrated lower EI scores likely because they are at the beginning of their careers and might not yet perceive themselves as confident or successful. Higher EI scores are expected in normal career advancement, plateauing at about 10 years of clinical experience. A statistically significant difference exists between global and domain trait EI scores throughout the professional lifecycle of Australian radiologic technologists. Global trait

  20. The Radiographic Union Score for Hip (RUSH) Identifies Radiographic Nonunion of Femoral Neck Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Tym; Osterhoff, Georg; Sprague, Sheila; Garibaldi, Alisha; Bhandari, Mohit; Slobogean, Gerard P

    2016-06-01

    The Radiographic Union Score for Hip (RUSH) is a previously validated outcome instrument designed to improve intra- and interobserver reliability when describing the radiographic healing of femoral neck fractures. The ability to identify fractures that have not healed is important for defining nonunion in clinical trials and predicting patients who will likely require additional surgery to promote fracture healing. We sought to investigate the utility of the RUSH score to define femoral neck fracture nonunion. (1) What RUSH score threshold yields at least 98% specificity to diagnose nonunion at 6 months postinjury? (2) Using the threshold identified, are patients below this threshold at greater risk of reoperation for nonunion and for other indications? A representative sample of 250 out of a cohort of 725 patients with adequate 6-month hip radiographs was analyzed from a multinational elderly hip fracture trial (FAITH). All patients had a femoral neck fracture and were treated with either multiple cancellous screws or a sliding hip screw. Two reviewers independently determined the RUSH score based on the 6-month postinjury radiographs and interrater reliability was assessed with the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). There was substantial reliability between the reviewers assigning the RUSH scores (ICC, 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.85). The RUSH score is a checklist-based system that quantifies four measures of healing: cortical bridging, cortical fracture disappearance, trabecular consolidation, and trabecular fracture disappearance.. Fracture healing was determined by two independent methods: (1) concurrently by the treating surgeon using both clinical and radiographic assessments as per routine clinical care; and (2) retrospectively by a Central Adjudication Committee using complete obliteration of the fracture line on radiographs alone. Receiver operating characteristic tables were used to define a RUSH threshold score that was > 98

  1. High-Throughput Classification of Radiographs Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkomar, Alvin; Lingam, Sneha; Taylor, Andrew G; Blum, Michael; Mongan, John

    2017-02-01

    The study aimed to determine if computer vision techniques rooted in deep learning can use a small set of radiographs to perform clinically relevant image classification with high fidelity. One thousand eight hundred eighty-five chest radiographs on 909 patients obtained between January 2013 and July 2015 at our institution were retrieved and anonymized. The source images were manually annotated as frontal or lateral and randomly divided into training, validation, and test sets. Training and validation sets were augmented to over 150,000 images using standard image manipulations. We then pre-trained a series of deep convolutional networks based on the open-source GoogLeNet with various transformations of the open-source ImageNet (non-radiology) images. These trained networks were then fine-tuned using the original and augmented radiology images. The model with highest validation accuracy was applied to our institutional test set and a publicly available set. Accuracy was assessed by using the Youden Index to set a binary cutoff for frontal or lateral classification. This retrospective study was IRB approved prior to initiation. A network pre-trained on 1.2 million greyscale ImageNet images and fine-tuned on augmented radiographs was chosen. The binary classification method correctly classified 100 % (95 % CI 99.73-100 %) of both our test set and the publicly available images. Classification was rapid, at 38 images per second. A deep convolutional neural network created using non-radiological images, and an augmented set of radiographs is effective in highly accurate classification of chest radiograph view type and is a feasible, rapid method for high-throughput annotation.

  2. The radiographer-patient relationship: Enhancing understanding using a transactional analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Government initiatives such as the NHS Plan, the NHS Key Skills Framework and the NHS Career framework place communication at the centre of effective patient care, and role/career development. All advocate a patient-centred approach to dealing with patients, through open communication styles that encourage patients to become active participants in their care. Previous research, that has investigated communication in diagnostic radiography, demonstrated a preference for practitioner-centred, rather than patient-centred approaches to communication, however, there is little evidence to suggest why this should be the case or how a more patient-centred approach might be encouraged. The present study therefore sought to explore factors that influence communication in diagnostic radiography, with the view to understanding the barriers to patient-centred care. Method: Semi-structured group interviews took place with 12 radiographers, across two NHS trusts, with the aim of understanding their communication with patients and the factors that influence it. An open coding approach was used to analyse the data. Results: Four attitude categories were identified as influencing the communication used by diagnostic radiographers. 1. Characteristics of the radiographer. 2. Characteristics of the patient. 3. The need to produce a diagnostic image. 4. The need to keep the department running. Conclusion: Radiographer-patient communication is evidently influenced by these four attitude categories. If patient-centred styles of communication are to be encouraged, these factors need to be recognised and taken account of in the selection, education/training and workforce planning of diagnostic radiographers

  3. Radiographic imaging study of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in renal transplantation recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chengshui; Li Yuping; Ye Min; Zhang Dongqing; Zheng Shaoling; Xing Lingling; Chen Shaoxian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To improve the understanding of the imaging features of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in renal transplantation recipient. Methods: Twenty-four renal transplantation recipients suffered from PCP. There were 19 males and 5 females, the age ranged from 23 to 62 years (mean 39.2 years). The mean time duration from renal transplantation to onset of illness was 5.6 months, and the mean time from onset of illness to consultation was 5.5 days. All patients had fever and dyspnea. The chest radiographic imaging was reviewed and the dynamic imaging changes were followed up. Results: Pathology showed alveolar exudation, inflammation in the interstitium and alveolar lumen, fibrosis in lung interstitium, and erosion of alveolar epithelium. Initial chest X-ray demonstrated diffuse changes in only 10 patients. Of the 10 patients, 3 showed ground-glass changes, 2 showed ground-glass and reticular changes, and 4 showed consolidation. But all patients had abnormal ill-defined ground-glass findings on thoracic CT images, 9 of them showed reticulum among ground-glass changes, and 12 of them showed consolidation among ground-glass changes. Among patients with clinical deterioration, chest radiographs and CT showed progression of pulmonary infiltrations, and it reached the top level within 1 to 2 weeks. With successful response to therapy, chest radiographs and CT showed resolution of the lung opacities, but the resolution was retarded for about 1 week, complete resolution would need 4 weeks. Conclusion: The radiographic imaging features of PCP in renal transplantation recipient were diffuse interstitial alterations and consolidations, and with fast progression. With successful response to therapy, it showed resolution of the lung opacities, but the resolution was retarded for about 1 week, and complete resolution would need 4 weeks. Chest CT was more sensitive than radiographs. (authors)

  4. Cartilage Thickening in Early Radiographic Human Knee Osteoarthritis –Within-Person, Between-Knee Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotofana, Sebastian; Buck, Robert; Wirth, Wolfgang; Roemer, Frank; Duryea, Jeff; Nevitt, Michael; Eckstein, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the presence of definite osteophytes (in absence of joint space narrowing [JSN]) by radiograph is associated with (subregional) increases in cartilage thickness, in a within-person, between-knee cross-sectional comparison of participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). Based on previous results, external medial (ecMF) and external lateral weight-bearing femoral (ecLF) subregions were selected as primary endpoints. Methods Both knees of 61 (of 4798) OAI participants displayed definite tibial or femoral marginal osteophytes and no JSN in one knee, and no signs of radiographic OA in the contra-lateral knee; this being confirmed by an expert central reader. In these participants, cartilage thickness was measured in 16 femorotibial subregions of each knee, based on sagittal DESSwe magnetic resonance images. Location-specific joint space width from fixed flexion radiographs was determined using dedicated software. Location-specific associations of osteophytes with cartilage thickness were evaluated using paired t-tests and mixed effect models. Results Of the 61 participants, 48% had only medial, 36% only lateral, and 16% bi-compartmental osteophytes. Osteophyte knees had significantly thicker cartilage than contra-lateral non-osteophyte knees in the ecMF (+71±223μm, equivalent to +5.5%, p=0.015) and ecLF (+64±195μm, +4.1%, p=0.013). No significant differences between knees were noted in other subregions, nor in joint space width. Cartilage thickness in ecMF and ecLF was significantly associated with tibial osteophytes in the same (medial or lateral) compartment (p=0.003). Conclusion Knees with early radiographic OA display thicker cartilage than (contra-lateral) knees without radiographic findings of OA, specifically in the external femoral subregions of compartments with marginal osteophytes. PMID:22556039

  5. Determining symptoms for chest radiographs in patients with swine flu (H1N1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Nakshabandi, Nizar A.

    2011-01-01

    The question arises about the chest X-ray findings and clinical symptoms in swine flu and about the most important clinical finding when correlated with the chest radiograph. Should physicians order a chest X-ray in each patient suspected of having swine flu? There were 179 patients with a high suspicion of swine flu. All 179 patients had an initial chest radiograph. As many as 65 males (representing 56% of the projected study population) had a normal chest radiograph, while 35 males (representing 55.6% of the study population) had an abnormal chest X-ray. As many as 51 females (representing 44% of the population) had a normal chest X-ray, while 20 females (representing 44% of the study population) had abnormal chest X-rays. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal chest X-ray (CXR). Rapid antigen test was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Fever was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Cough appears to be a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Sore throat appears to be a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Chest pain was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Presence of cough with PCR was statistically significant. In my opinion, chest radiographs in patients with suspected H1N1 should only be obtained if there is a cough or sore throat. Other symptoms associated with H1N1 do not warrant a chest radiograph unless absolutely necessary

  6. Radiographic studies of the ventricles in syringomyelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, R.J.; Williams, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic investigations of 171 patients with communicating syringomyelia have been reviewed. Hydrocephalus was found in one third of the cases and has occasionally progressed after operation on the posterior fossa, sometimes with accompanying clinical deterioration. The outlets of the fourth ventricle were usually abnormal; tonsillar descent, arachnoiditis and both together were seen. Arachnoiditis correlated strongly with a history of difficult birth. The foramen of Magendie was sometimes patent and sometimes blocked. There was no consistent level of occulusion corresponding to a persistent roof of the fourth ventricle. The cisterna magna was usually small or obliterated but some examples of large cisterns or subarachnoid pouches were found. Radiological demonstration of a communication from the fourth ventricle to the syrinx occurred in only seven patients by positive contrast material and not by air. It is suggested that a sizable communication is rare at the time when patients seek treatment. (orig.)

  7. Chest radiographic findings of tuberculous pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seung Hye; Sung, Dong Wook; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1991-01-01

    When tuberculous pneumonia appears as a segmental or loabr consolidation, its is difficult to differentiate tuberculous pneumonia from nontuberculous bacterial pneumonia radiologically. The object of this study was to define the typical radiographic findings of tuberculous pneumonia through comparative analysis of tuberculous and nontuberculous pneumonia. A review of chest radiolograph in 29 patients with tuberculous pneumonia and in 23 patients with nontuberculous bacterial pneumonia was made with regard to homogeneity, volume loss, air-fluid level within the cavities, air-bronchogram, pleural disease, and predilection sites. The characteristic findings of tuberculous pneumonia are a heterogeneous density of infiltration (66%), evidence of volume loss of infiltrative lesion (52%), and cavity formation (48%) without air - fluid level. An associated parameter of analysis is the relative absence of leukocytosis (76%)

  8. Radiographer perceptions of managerial transformational leadership levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Jeffrey S; Akroyd, Duane; Jackowski, Melissa B

    2010-01-01

    Transformational leadership focuses on the ability of a leader to impact employees by inspiring employees to broaden interests in work as well as to be innovative and creative. It is positively associated with employee satisfaction and commitment to the organization. Characteristics of transformational leaders include confidence, ability to mange and deal with complexity, and belief in their employees and organizations. Considering the importance of leadership skills in radiology departments, this paper addresses directly the empirical evidence concerning radiographer's perception of their radiology managers and supervisors transformational leadership levels in the United States. Leadership can be taught, and we as a profession must begin to implement leadership training programs for our current and future leaders.

  9. Practice patterns in spine radiograph utilization among doctors of chiropractic enrolled in a provider network offering complementary care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussières, André E; Sales, Anne E; Ramsay, Timothy; Hilles, Steven; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2013-01-01

    Nonspecific back pain is associated with high use of diagnostic imaging in primary care, yet current evidence suggests that routine imaging of the spine is unnecessary. The objective of this study is to describe current practice patterns in spine radiograph utilization among doctors of chiropractic enrolled in an American provider network. A cross-sectional analysis of administrative claims data from one of the largest providers of complementary health care networks for health plans in the United States was performed. Survey data containing provider demographics were linked with routinely collected data on spine radiograph utilization and patient characteristics aggregated at the provider level. We calculated rates and variations of spine radiographs over 12 months. Negative binomial regression was performed to identify significant predictors of high radiograph utilization and to estimate the associated incidence risk ratio. Complete data for 6946 doctors of chiropractic and 249193 adult patients were available for analyses. In 2010, claims were paid for a total of 91542 new patient examinations and 23369 spine radiographs (including 17511 ordered within 5 days of initial patient examination). The rate of spine radiographs within 5 days of an initial patient visit was 204 per 1000 new patient examinations. Significant predictors of higher radiograph utilization rates included the following: practicing in the Midwest or South US census regions, practicing in an urban or suburban setting, chiropractic school attended, and being a male provider in full-time practice with more than 20 years of experience. Chiropractic school attended and practice location were the most influential predictors of spine radiograph utilization among network chiropractors. This information may help to inform the development and evaluation of a tailored intervention to address overuse of radiograph utilization. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc

  10. Stereoscopic radiographic images with gamma source encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strocovsky, S.G.; Otero, D

    2012-01-01

    Conventional radiography with X-ray tube has several drawbacks, as the compromise between the size of the focal spot and the fluence. The finite dimensions of the focal spot impose a limit to the spatial resolution. Gamma radiography uses gamma-ray sources which surpass in size, portability and simplicity to X-ray tubes. However, its low intrinsic fluence forces to use extended sources that also degrade the spatial resolution. In this work, we show the principles of a new radiographic technique that overcomes the limitations associated with the finite dimensions of X-ray sources, and that offers additional benefits to conventional techniques. The new technique called coding source imaging (CSI), is based on the use of extended sources, edge-encoding of radiation and differential detection. The mathematical principles and the method of images reconstruction with the new proposed technique are explained in the present work. Analytical calculations were made to determine the maximum spatial resolution and the variables on which it depends. The CSI technique was tested by means of Monte Carlo simulations with sets of spherical objects. We show that CSI has stereoscopic capabilities and it can resolve objects smaller than the source size. The CSI decoding algorithm reconstructs simultaneously four different projections from the same object, while conventional radiography produces only one projection per acquisition. Projections are located in separate image fields on the detector plane. Our results show it is possible to apply an extremely simple radiographic technique with extended sources, and get 3D information of the attenuation coefficient distribution for simple geometry objects in a single acquisition. The results are promising enough to evaluate the possibility of future research with more complex objects typical of medical diagnostic radiography and industrial gamma radiography (author)

  11. Optimizing bone surveys performed for suspected non-accidental trauma with attention to maximizing diagnostic yield while minimizing radiation exposure: utility of pelvic and lateral radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Priyanka; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Seibert, Anthony; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L. [University of California Davis Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Coulter, Kevin [University of California Davis Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Sacramento, CA (United States); Li, Chin-Shang [University of California Davis Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics, Department of Public Health Sciences, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Skeletal surveys for non-accidental trauma (NAT) include lateral spinal and pelvic views, which have a significant radiation dose. To determine whether pelvic and lateral spinal radiographs should routinely be performed during initial bone surveys for suspected NAT. The radiology database was queried for the period May 2005 to May 2011 using CPT codes for skeletal surveys for suspected NAT. Studies performed for skeletal dysplasia and follow-up surveys were excluded. Initial skeletal surveys were reviewed to identify fractures present, including those identified only on lateral spinal and/or pelvic radiographs. Clinical information and MR imaging was reviewed for the single patient with vertebral compression deformities. Of the 530 children, 223 (42.1%) had rib and extremity fractures suspicious for NAT. No fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs. Only one child (<0.2%) had vertebral compression deformities identified on a lateral spinal radiograph. This infant had rib and extremity fractures and was clinically paraplegic. MR imaging confirmed the vertebral body fractures. Since no fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs and on lateral spinal radiographs in children without evidence of NAT, nor in nearly all with evidence of NAT, inclusion of these views in the initial evaluation of children for suspected NAT may not be warranted. (orig.)

  12. Anatomy of the periodontium, a biological basis for radiographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A near-normal radiograph of periradicular tissues was used as the basis for evaluation of some common periradicular radiographic pathologies. Apical periodontitis was 70 (58.33%); alveolar abscess 32 (26.66%); and apical granulomas 15 (12.50%). A background anatomy of the periodontium is advocated as a ...

  13. Inadequate And Improper Labeling Of Plain Radiographic Films Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate how the labeling of radiographic films of the orofacial region met with the minimum requirements in clinical evaluation and patients' management. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of 504 orofacial radiographic films seen at oral and maxillofacial surgery ...

  14. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  15. Radiographic studies of developing calvaria at prenatal stages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study involved the radiographic evaluation of calvaria of different fetuses at first, second and third trimester stages of the gestational ages. Radiographic observations made in this study revealed that the onset of mineralization was recognizable even at the first trimester stage through the radio-opaque appearances of ...

  16. Prediction of osteoporosis using fractal analysis on periapical radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gum Mi; Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    To purpose of this study was to investigate whether the fractal dimension and radiographic image brightness of periapical radiograph were useful in predicting osteoporosis. Ninety-two postmenopausal women were classified as normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis group according to the bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae and periapical radiographs of both mandibular molar areas were taken. The ROIs of 358 areas were selected at periapical and interdental areas and fractal dimension and radiographic image brightness were measured. The fractal dimension in normal group was significantly higher than that in osteoporosis group at periapical ROI (p<0.05). The radiographic image brightness in normal group was higher than that in osteopenia and osteoporosis group. There was significant difference not only between normal and osteopenia group (p<0.05) but also within osteopenia and osteoporosis group (p<0.01) at periapical ROI. Significant difference was observed not only between normal and osteopenia group but also between normal and osteoporosis group at interdental ROI (p<0.01). Positive linear relationship was weakly shown at Pearson correlation analysis between fractal dimension and radiographic image brightness. BMD significantly correlated with fractal dimension at periapical ROI (p<0.01), and BMD and radiographic image brightness significantly correlated at both periapical and interdental ROIs (p<0.01). This study suggests that the fractal dimension and radiographic image brightness of periapical ROI may predict BMD.

  17. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900 Section 892.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used to...

  18. Radiographic studies of developing calvaria at prenatal stages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    This tendency however increased with increase in gestational age of the ... understanding the radiographical anatomy of the developing calvaria in this animal species. Keywords:Calvaria, Camel, prenatal, radiography. Introduction. Camel is an important ... need to establish morphologic and radiographic data of the fetal ...

  19. Flash radiographic technique applied to fuel injector sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    A flash radiographic technique, using 50 ns exposure times, was used to study the pattern and density distribution of a fuel injector spray. The experimental apparatus and method are described. An 85 kVp flash x-ray generator, designed and fabricated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, is utilized. Radiographic images, recorded on standard x-ray films, are digitized and computer processed

  20. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting industrial radiographic operations. 34.41 Section 34.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.41...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 34 - Radiographer Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Pt. 34, App. A Appendix A to Part 34—Radiographer Certification I... of industrial radiography; 2. Make its membership available to the general public nationwide that is...

  2. Evaluation of radiographic features of embedded primary molar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-20

    May 20, 2014 ... such as orthodontics and dental implants. For these reasons, it is important that the situations be assessed using the most recent data and a larger number of subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the radiographic features. Evaluation of radiographic features of embedded primary molar roots in adult ...

  3. Panoramic and conventional radiographs in diagnosis of mandibular fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, S.L. de; Antonini, R.; Souza, L.C.M. de.

    1988-01-01

    Panoramic radiographs of the mandibles are compared with conventional studies for the diagnosis of mandibular fractures. It is considered that panoramic radiographs are extremely useful in the diagnostic of mandibular fractures but also that conventional X ray must be used to detect the osseous shift in the fracture line. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Radiologist perceptions of radiographer role development in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, Lesley J.; Robertson, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To survey the perceptions of the Scottish radiology community in relation to radiographer role development. Methods: A postal questionnaire was sent to all consultant radiologists recorded on the NHS Scotland database of consultants. Results: Response rate was 63%. (i) Respondents considered increased professional standing of radiographers, best use of manpower resources, reduced pressure on the service and improved recruitment and retention, as positive advantages of radiographer development. (ii) The potential impact on radiology specialist registrar training, lack of clear medico-legal responsibilities and radiographers recognising the limitations of their abilities were identified as the main areas of radiologist anxiety. (iii) Fifty-seven percent did not consider current post-registration radiography education and training resources adequate to underpin the requirement of developed roles. (iv) Barriers to radiographer development were identified as lack of radiography and radiology staff, suitable education, financial constraints, traditional views and resistance to change. (v) Eighty-two percent reported support for radiographer role development and willingness to participate actively in developments. Conclusion: Despite reservations Scottish radiologists are supportive of the development of radiography colleagues, however, guidance is required on the medico-legal and accountability aspects of radiographers assuming new roles. Radiologist involvement in education and training for new roles may increase their confidence and trust in radiographers to work within the limitations of their competency and training

  5. Radiographic demonstration of small intestinal villi on routine clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfand, D.W.; Ott, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic demonstration of the small intestinal villi is reported. The villi were demonstrable with both single- and double-contrast methods on routine clinical studies. The primary requirement for their delineation appears to be employment of a high-resolution radiographic system. (orig.) [de

  6. Misdiagnosis of an impacted supernumerary tooth from a panographic radiograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVaney, T P; Kalkwarf, K L

    1976-05-01

    A panographic radiograph of a 31-year-old man revealed the presence of an impacted supernumerary paramolar. Periapical radiographs of the same area failed to confirm the existence of this supernumerary tooth. A review of the inherent distortion factors present in panographic radiography leading to the misdiagnosis is discussed.

  7. Occupational stress among radiographers: the impact of sonagraphy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sonography responsibility on radiographers did not have any significant effect on psychosocial stress. A balance in the extended role could aid efficiency in service delivery while improving the social strength of the individual. Keywords: Occupational stress; radiographers; sonographers. Internet Journal of Medical Update ...

  8. Improving treatment decisions from radiographs: effect of a decision aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mileman, P.A.; van den Hout, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether dental students’ accuracy of treatment decision making for dentine caries using radiographs improved after using a decision aid (DA). Methods: Dental students (n = 227) assessed the need for treatment for proximal surfaces of a test set of radiographs for a scenario patient.

  9. Radiopaque intrahepatic duct stones in plain radiograph: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young; Suh, Chang Hae; Park, Chan Sup; Chung, Won Kyun

    1994-01-01

    We experienced 3 cases of intrahepatic duct stones detected on plain radiographs. The patients had history of multiple episodes of recurrent cholangitis. Radiographic characteristics of these stones included multiple, round or rectangular radiopaque densities surrounded by calcified rim; these densities showed a branching pattern along the intrahepatic ducts

  10. Radiographic studies of developing calvaria at prenatal stages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiographic studies on the fetal heads of 32 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) with 11 fetuses at the first trimester, 12 at the second trimester and 9 at the third trimester levels were conducted in Sokoto Metropolis. The study involved the radiographic evaluation of calvaria of different fetuses at first, second and ...

  11. Tracheal Configuration as a Radiographic Predictor of Difficult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Goiters producing tracheal deviation or tracheal narrowing (TN) or both may cause difficult tracheal intubation (DTI). This study is to determine whether pre-operative assessment of trachea on neck radiograph can serve to predict DTI in goiters. Methods: Pre- thyroidectomy radiographs of 160 patients were ...

  12. The POEMS syndrome: Report of three cases with radiographic abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, O.; Ohsawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    Three cases of a unique multisystemic syndrome with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein, and skin changes (the POEMS syndrome) are presented, along with a review of the literature. Clinical and radiographic features of this syndrome and etiological considerations are discussed. A variety of osteosclerotic lesions, nonspecific pleural effusion and ascites are characteristic radiographic manifestations. (orig.) [de

  13. 21 CFR 892.1950 - Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom. 892.1950 Section 892.1950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... phantom. (a) Identification. A radiographic anthropomorphic phantom is a device intended for medical...

  14. Evaluation of panoramic radiographs taken from 1056 Turkish children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Panoramic radiographs (PRs) play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment planning of a wide range of dental and maxillofacial diseases and conditions. To examine and to determine the status of oral lesions, dental anomalies and pathologies in panoramic radiographs, which were taken at the ...

  15. Clinical and Plain Radiograph Pattern of Joint Dislocations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plain radiograph is an integral part of early assessment of patients' evaluation, though newer imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ... Conclusion: The shoulder joint is the most frequently dislocated and a conventional plain radiograph is still valuable as a first line investigative modality in ...

  16. An exploratory study of radiographer's perceptions of radiographer commenting on musculo-skeletal trauma images in rural community based hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Morag L.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This study sought to explore the perceptions of community hospital based radiographers in North East Scotland regarding the practice of radiographer commenting on musculo-skeletal trauma images. Method: A purposive sample of radiographers (n = 8) were recruited from community hospitals throughout the North-east of Scotland. A qualitative, exploratory study was conducted employing semi-structured interviews consisting of one focus group and two individual interviews. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed in full to allow thematic analysis of the data using a framework adapted from Pope and Mays (2006). Main findings: This study revealed that the practice of radiographer commenting in the community provides a valuable front line opinion on musculo-skeletal trauma image appearances to enhance diagnostic outcomes for patients and streamline their care pathway. The appreciation shown from inter-professional colleagues for this practice induced feelings of professional pride and job satisfaction in the sample group. All participants expressed a desire to undertake additional training to allow progression from radiographer commenting to radiographer reporting of musculo-skeletal trauma images. Perceived barriers to the practice of radiographer commenting were time constraints and a lack of support with regards to continuing professional development (CPD) opportunities and mentorship from radiology colleagues. Conclusion: The practice of radiographer commenting in the community setting should be supported by ongoing training, and radiologist involvement in mentoring could provide radiographers with a valuable support mechanism. The voice of all radiographers regarding this extended role must be heard by professional leaders to ensure that the skills and education required for radiographer commenting are provided and subsequent patient care is not compromised

  17. Detection of radiographically occult-ankle fractures. Positive predictive value of post-traumatic soft-tissue swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Caruana, E.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of soft-tissue swelling on plain radiographs as a predictor of radiographically occult fracture, after acute ankle injury (trauma). Patients with acute ankle trauma and plain radiographic evidence of soft-tissue swelling were included in this study. Patients were excluded if ankle trauma was sustained more than 48 hours previously or if fracture was visible on plain radiographs. All subjects (n=25) underwent computed tomography (CT) of the ankle in sagittal and coronal planes. Size of soft-tissue swelling was measured from initial Antero-posterior (AP) radiographs. The subjects in the study were placed into two groups according to whether a fracture was identified on CT or not. The results identified that those subjects without a fracture demonstrated by CT, had a soft-tissue swelling of less than 12.6 mm, while those with over 17.1mm swelling, showed a fracture on CT. Twelve patients (48 per cent) had radiographically occult fractures identified with CT. Fracture sites included: Talus/Talar Dome (n=9), posterior or lateral malleolos (n=2), distal tibia/fibula (n=1). CT detected significant soft-tissue injuries in six patients (24 per cent), composed of damaged anterior talo-fibular ligament (n=4), torn flexor tendons (n=1), and damaged fibular calcaneal ligament (n=1). One patient also showed gas in the talar dome. This study concludes that presence of a large soft-tissue swelling on plain radiographs after acute ankle trauma suggests an underlying fracture. A soft-tissue swelling of >15 mm is a reasonable threshold to prompt further imaging. Helical computed tomography provides good visualisation of subtle bone injuries and may detect clinically important soft-tissue injuries. While the study has a small sample, there is clear evidence that there is a trend worth investigating. Future research will seek to investigate a larger sample. Copyright (1999) Australian Institute of Radiography

  18. Conventional frontal radiographs compared with frontal radiographs obtained from cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Metin; Kayipmaz, Saadettin; Bayram, Mehmet; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Kilkis, Dogan; Sezgin, Omer Said

    2012-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that there is no difference between measurements performed on conventional frontal radiographs (FRs) and those performed on FRs obtained from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. This study consisted of conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs obtained from 30 young adult patients. Twenty-three landmarks were identified on both types of cephalometric radiographs. Twenty-one widely used cephalometric variables (14 linear distances, 4 angles, and 3 ratios) were calculated. Paired t-tests were performed to compare the means of corresponding measurements on two cephalometric radiographs of the same patient. Reproducibility of measurements ranged from 0.85 to 0.99 for CBCT-constructed FRs, and from 0.78 to 0.96 for conventional FRs. A statistically significant difference was observed between conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs for all linear measurements (eurR-eurL, loR-loL, moR-moL, zygR-zygL, lapR-lapL, mxR-mxL, maR-maL, umR-umL, lmR-lmL, agR-agL, me-ans) (P .05). However, no statistically significant differences were noted between conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs for ratios and angular measurements (P > .05). The hypothesis was rejected. A difference has been noted between measurements performed on conventional FRs and those performed on CBCT-constructed FRs, particularly in terms of linear measurements.

  19. Is the owner entitled to radiographs taken of his animal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, K.

    1990-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany a veterinarian owns radiographs taken of animals in his practice. They have to be filed like any other results of diagnostic procedures. This is important, because evidence is required in the case of a law suit. On the other hand, it has to be stressed that taking radiographs is the subject of a free contract between owner and veterinarian. So it is possible to take the radiographs solely with the purpose of giving them to the owner, who may have them analysed by any other veterinarian of his choice. This is especially true in hip radiographs, which are evaluated and filed by an adjudicator of the breed association. In any case the radiologist has the obligation to lend the radiographs to another veterinarian on request for inspection. The second veterinarian has to give them back as soon as possible

  20. Thoracic radiographic anatomy in vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Aisha N; du Plessis, Wencke M; Rodriguez, Daniel; Beierschmitt, Amy

    2013-12-01

    The vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus) is used commonly in cardiorespiratory biomedical research. This study was performed to establish reference values for thoracic structures and to describe the normal radiographic appearance of the vervet monkey thorax. Right lateral and dorsoventral thoracic radiographs of ten mature vervet monkeys were evaluated. Anatomic structures were characterized using descriptive statistics. Normal measurements of skeletal, pulmonary, mediastinal, and cardiovascular structures are reported herein. Several ratios were calculated to assess the cardiac silhouette, caudal vena cava, and pulmonary arteries and veins. Consistent measurements could be made on the majority of the thoracic structures evaluated. The aorta on lateral radiographs and the pulmonary veins on dorsoventral radiographs were obscured by a mild bronchointerstitial pattern and body conformation. Caudal vena cava-tapering was occasionally noted and attributed to general anesthesia. Species-specific thoracic radiographic reference values should prove useful in vervet monkey disease diagnosis and management. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Intracavitary pulmonary aspergilloma: comparison of CT with plain chest radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chun Hwan; Im, Jung Gi; Yu, Eun Ju; Han, Man Chung

    1991-01-01

    Saprophytic intracavitary fungus ball is the most common form of pulmonary involvement of aspergillosis. Crescent-shaped air shadow surrounded by a creativity wall is known to be a characteristic of pulmonary aspergilloma on plain chest radiograph. However, in case of early lesion in which intracavitary aspergilloma is overlapped with adjacent destroyed lung or mediastinal and hilar density, the air meniscus can not be demonstrated on plain radiograph. In such a case, CT scan might provide additional information that suggests fungus ball. The aim of this study is to describe the variable CT appearances of pulmonary aspergilloma in addition to air meniscus sign and to correlate the findings on CT with those of plain radiograph and pathology. The diagnosis of intracavitary aspergilloma was suggested on both CT and plain radiograph in case that air-meniscus sign was visible. CT scans could add more diagnostic information over chest radiographs such as small peripheral air density or sponge-like air shadow

  2. Clinical and radiographic assessment of approximal carious lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espelid, I.; Tveit, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the radiographic diagnosis of approximal carious lesions with visual observations of the approximal surfaces and within drilled Class II cavities (made into the pulp). Sound (n=28) and carious (n=123) approximal surfaces of extracted premolars and molars were radiographed. The radiographs were studied by seven observers to diagnose caries. Lesions without cavitation were most often classified as sound (61.3%). When lesions had cavities, the rate of detection increased to 89.1%. Sound surfaces were erroneously classified as carious in 15.7% of cases. Statistically, about 6 our of every 10 qualitative assessments of lesion depth on the basis of radiographs, correctly recorded lesions as being in enamel or extending into dentin. The interexaminer variation in radiographic caries diagnosis were mostly due to difference in diagnostic criteria, whereas differences in diagnostic capability were less important

  3. Radiographic heart-volume estimation in normal cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlberg, N.E.; Hansson, K.; Svensson, L.; Iwarsson, K.

    1989-01-01

    Heart volume mensuration was evaluated on conventional radiographs from eight normal cats in different body positions using computed tomography (CT). Heart volumes were calculated from orthogonal thoracic radiographs in ventral and dorsal recumbency and from radiographs exposed with a vertical X-ray beam in dorsal and lateral recumbency using the formula for an ellipsoid body. Heart volumes were also estimated with CT in ventral, dorsal, right lateral and left lateral recumbency. No differences between heart volumes from CT in ventral recumbency and those from CT in right and left lateral recumbency were seen. In dorsal recumbency, however, significantly lower heart volumes were obtained. Heart volumes from CT in ventral recumbency were similar to those from radiographs in ventral and dorsal recumbency and dorsal/left lateral recumbency. Close correlation was also demonstrated between heart volumes from radiographs in dorsal/ left lateral recumbency and body weights of the eight cats

  4. Clinical and Radiographic Assessment of the Efficacy of Calcium Silicate Indirect Pulp Capping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, D.; Mannocci, F.; Patel, S.; Manoharan, A.; Brown, J.E.; Watson, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness of calcium silicate cement (Biodentine) versus glass ionomer cement (GIC; control group) as indirect pulp capping materials in patients with reversible pulpitis and to compare the effectiveness of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) versus periapical (PA) radiographs in detecting PA changes at baseline (T0) and at 12 mo (T12) postoperatively. Seventy-two restorations (36 Biodentine, 36 Fuji IX) were placed randomly in 53 patients. CBCT/PA radiographs were taken at T0 and T12. Two calibrated examiners assessed the presence/absence and increase/decrease in the size of existing PA radiolucencies under standardized conditions. The Kappa coefficient evaluated statistically the effectiveness of CBCT versus PA radiographs in detecting PA changes. Chi-square/Mann-Whitney tests were used to evaluate the association between PA changes in CBCT with various clinical measures. Significance was predetermined at α = 0.05. Clinical success rates for Biodentine and Fuji IX GIC were 83.3%. CBCT was significantly more effective in detecting PA radiolucencies compared with radiographs (P = 0.0069). Of the teeth, 65.4% and 90.4% were deemed healthy using CBCT and PA radiographs, respectively, at T12. Healing/healed rates were 17.3%/0%, while new/progressed radiolucency were 30.8%/9.6% with CBCT/PA radiographs, respectively. Seventy-one percent of healed lesions had received Biodentine; 88% of new/progressed lesions received Fuji IX GIC. Teeth presenting with an initial CBCT PA lesion had a failure rate of 63%, whereas teeth with no initial lesion had a failure rate of 16%. Although no statistically significant difference was detected in the clinical efficacy of Biodentine/Fuji IX when used as indirect pulp capping materials in patients with reversible pulpitis, CBCT showed a significant difference in that most healed CBCT lesions had received Biodentine while most that did not heal received Fuji IX. Longer-term follow-up is

  5. Additional Value of Different Radiographic Views on the Identification of Early Radiographic Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis and Its Progression: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damen, Jurgen; Runhaar, Jos; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Meijer, Rik; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Oei, Edwin H G

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence and progression of early radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee on different radiographic views, to determine whether different radiographic views have additional value in detecting early hip and knee radiographic OA cases or progression. In the Cohort Hip and Cohort Knee (CHECK) study (n = 1,002), 5 different radiographs were obtained: an anteroposterior and faux profile view of the hips, and posteroanterior, mediolateral, and skyline views of the knees. The prevalence of radiographic OA was estimated based on each view separately and in combinations. We determined whether different radiographic views have additional value in detecting and determining the progression of radiographic OA cases, compared to standard projections. In the hip, we found 22.9% more cases when we combined both views. In the knee, we detected 79.7% more radiographic OA cases when we combined information from all 3 different radiographic views than when using only the posteroanterior view. Progression was seen in 33.1% more cases when using 2 hip radiographs, and in 65.1% more cases when using 3 knee radiographs. The use of different radiographic views increased the number of participants classified as having radiographic OA in an early OA cohort, both at baseline and at followup. The progression of early radiographic OA is demonstrated more frequently when multiple different radiographic views are used. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Advanced radiographic scanning, enhancement and electronic data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoie, C.; Rivest, D.

    2003-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that radiographs deteriorate with time. Substantial cost is attributed to cataloguing and storage. To eliminate deterioration issues and save time retrieving radiographs, laser scanning techniques were developed in conjunction with viewing and enhancement software. This will allow radiographs to be successfully scanned and stored electronically for future reference. Todays radiographic laser scanners are capable Qf capturing images with an optical density of up to 4.1 at 256 grey levels and resolutions up to 4096 pixels per line. An industrial software interface was developed for the nondestructive testing industry so that, certain parameters such as scan resolution, number of scans, file format and location to be saved could be adjusted as needed. Once the radiographs have been scanned, the tiff images are stored, or retrieved into Radiance software (developed by Rivest Technologies Inc.), which will help to properly interpret the radiographs. Radiance was developed to allow the user to quickly view the radiographs correctness or enhance its defects for comparison and future evaluation. Radiance also allows the user to zoom, measure and annotate areas of interest. Physical cost associated with cataloguing, storing and retrieving radiographs can be eliminated. You can now successfully retrieve and view your radiographs from CD media or dedicated hard drive at will. For continuous searches and/or field access, dedicated hard drives controlled by a server would be the media of choice. All scanned radiographs will be archived to CD media (CD-R). Laser scanning with a proper acquisition interface and easy to use viewing software will permit a qualified user to identify areas of interest and share this information with his/her colleagues via e-mail or web data access. (author)

  7. Incidental finding of unilateral isolated aplasia of serratus anterior muscle and winged scapula on chest radiograph: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon Sung; Park, Hyun Jin; Ko, Jeong Min [Dept. of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The isolated aplasia of the serratus anterior muscle with winging of scapula is very rare, and only a few cases are reported. Here, we present a case of a 30-year-old Korean male who initially presented with a left flank pain. His physical exam did not show any significant finding in his right shoulder. However, his chest radiograph showed absence of right serratus anterior muscle and slightly elevated and medially rotated right scapula. Subsequent CT scan showed the right serratus anterior muscle aplasia and medial winging of the right scapula. This case is unique in two aspects. First, the combination of abnormalities is different from the typical congenital abnormalities involving shoulder girdle, such as Sprengel deformity or Poland syndrome. Secondly, this was incidentally diagnosed with chest radiograph, without clinical impression. Careful reading of chest radiograph can help the radiologists to detect such clinically silent abnormalities.

  8. Importância da realização de radiografias em posição ortostática na avaliação inicial de pacientes com fraturas toracolombares Importancia de la realización de radiografías en posición ortostática en la evaluación inicial de pacientes con fracturas toraco-lumbares Importance of performing weight-bearing radiographs in the initial evaluation of patients with thoracolumbar fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lúcio Chaves de Resende

    2010-03-01

    early orthostatism. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of weight-bearing radiographs on defining the treatment of patients with thoracolumbar fractures classified as type "A" of AO-ASIF. METHODS: from January 2007 to November 2008, patients with thoracolumbar fractures were evaluated by radiographs in supine position and computed tomography to identify signs of instability. Fractures classified radiographically as type "A" of AO-ASIF, initially treated with nonoperative care, were submitted to weight-bearing radiographs without bracing in acute phase and their radiographic parameters were re-evaluated. RESULTS: 59 patients with stable thoracolumbar fractures (T11 to L4 were included in this study,and all of them tolerated the weight-bearing radiographs. The vertebral kyphosis increased 46.8%. The anterior collapse increased 15.52%. Three of these patients (5.1% were submitted to surgical treatment after weight-bearing radiographs due to instability criteria. CONCLUSIONS: weight-bearing radiographs were efficient in identifying patients with instability not established yet. This exam is able to predict the satisfactory evolution during the nonoperative treatment and it is a safe and low cost diagnostic examination with easy applicability. In this study, a total of 5.1% of the patients had their treatment changed from conservative to surgical.

  9. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Reed, Warren, E-mail: warren.reed@sydney.edu.au [Medical Image Optimisation and Perception Group, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings.

  10. Chest radiographic features of human metapneumovirus infection in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Daniel Dunnavant, F.; Singh, Sudha P.; Ellis, Wendy D. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nashville, TN (United States); Payne, Daniel C. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Zhu, Yuwei [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States); Griffin, Marie R. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Health Policy, Nashville, TN (United States); Edwards, Kathryn M. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Williams, John V. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was identified in 2001 and is a common cause of acute respiratory illness in young children. The radiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed HMPV acute respiratory illness in young children have not been systematically assessed. We systematically evaluated the radiographic characteristics of acute respiratory illness associated with HMPV in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. We included chest radiographs from children <5 years old with acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the prospective New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) study from 2003 to 2009 and were diagnosed with HMPV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Of 215 HMPV-positive subjects enrolled at our tertiary care children's hospital, 68 had chest radiographs obtained by the treating clinician that were available for review. Two fellowship-trained pediatric radiologists, independently and then in consensus, retrospectively evaluated these chest radiographs for their radiographic features. Parahilar opacities were the most commonly observed abnormality, occurring in 87% of children with HMPV. Hyperinflation also occurred frequently (69%). Atelectasis (40%) and consolidation (18%) appeared less frequently. Pleural effusion and pneumothorax were not seen on any radiographs. The clinical presentations of HMPV include bronchiolitis, croup and pneumonia. Dominant chest radiographic abnormalities include parahilar opacities and hyperinflation, with occasional consolidation. Recognition of the imaging patterns seen with common viral illnesses like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and HMPV might facilitate diagnosis and limit unnecessary antibiotic treatment. (orig.)

  11. Quantitative localization of impacted mesiodens using panoramic and periapical radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hang-Moon; Han, Jin-Woo; Park, In-Woo; Baik, Jee-Seon; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Park, Ho-Won

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new technique for localizing impacted mesiodens using its horizontal magnification ratio on panoramic radiographs. Location-magnification equation of a panoramic equipment was obtained from horizontal magnification ratio of a metal ball which was located variable positions from the center of image layer at interval of 2 mm. Panoramic radiographs were obtained from a skull phantom with a metal ball which was a substitute for impacted mesiodens and was embedded 10mm(Group 1), 15mm(Group 2), and 20mm(Group 3) posterior to the central incisor. Each group obtained 7 panoramic radiographs at variable positions and one periapical radiograph. Three methods were used to estimate the actual width of the incisors and the balls which were used to calculate the magnification ratio. The methods included using the actual incisor width and the calculated ball width (Method 1), using the actual incisor width and the ball widths measured on periapical radiograph (Method 2), and using the incisor and the ball widths measured on periapical radiograph (Method 3). The location of the metal ball was calculated by using the location-magnification equation. The smallest difference between the calculated and the actual distance was 0.1±0.7 mm in Group 1/Method 3. The largest difference was -4.2±1.6 mm in Group 3/Method 2. In all groups, method 3 was the most accurate. Quantitative localization of impacted mesiodens is possible by using panoramic radiograph.

  12. Quantitative localization of impacted mesiodens using panoramic and periapical radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Moon; Han, Jin Woo; Park, In Woo; Baik, Jee Seon; Seo, Hyun Woo; Lee, Joo Hyun; Park, Ho Won [College of Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new technique for localizing impacted mesiodens using its horizontal magnification ratio on panoramic radiographs. Location-magnification equation of a panoramic equipment was obtained from horizontal magnification ratio of a metal ball which was located variable positions from the center of image layer at interval of 2 mm. Panoramic radiographs were obtained from a skull phantom with a metal ball which was a substitute for impacted mesiodens and was embedded 10 mm (Group 1), 15 mm (Group 2), and 20 mm (Group 3) posterior to the central incisor. Each group obtained 7 panoramic radiographs at variable positions and one periapical radiograph. Three methods were used to estimate the actual width of the incisors and the balls which were used to calculate the magnification ratio. The methods included using the actual incisor width and the calculated ball width (Method 1), using the actual incisor width and the ball widths measured on periapical radiograph (Method 2), and using the incisor and the ball widths measured on periapical radiograph (Method 3). The location of the metal ball was calculated by using the location-magnification equation. The smallest difference between the calculated and the actual distance was 0.1{+-}0.7 mm in Group 1/Method 3. The largest difference was -4.2{+-}1.6 mm in Group 3/Method 2. In all groups, method 3 was the most accurate. Quantitative localization of impacted mesiodens is possible by using panoramic radiograph.

  13. Image quality preferences among radiographers and radiologists. A conjoint analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ween, Borgny; Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Hamilton, Glenys A.; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the image quality preferences among radiographers and radiologists. The radiographers' preferences are mainly related to technical parameters, whereas radiologists assess image quality based on diagnostic value. Methods: A conjoint analysis was undertaken to survey image quality preferences; the study included 37 respondents: 19 radiographers and 18 radiologists. Digital urograms were post-processed into 8 images with different properties of image quality for 3 different patients. The respondents were asked to rank the images according to their personally perceived subjective image quality. Results: Nearly half of the radiographers and radiologists were consistent in their ranking of the image characterised as 'very best image quality'. The analysis showed, moreover, that chosen filtration level and image intensity were responsible for 72% and 28% of the preferences, respectively. The corresponding figures for each of the two professions were 76% and 24% for the radiographers, and 68% and 32% for the radiologists. In addition, there were larger variations in image preferences among the radiologists, as compared to the radiographers. Conclusions: Radiographers revealed a more consistent preference than the radiologists with respect to image quality. There is a potential for image quality improvement by developing sets of image property criteria

  14. Relationship between stress ankle radiographs and injured ligaments on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Chung, Myung Ki; Won, Sung Hun; Lee, Seung Yeol; Park, Moon Seok [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyungki (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon-Sun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute, Kyungki (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the injured lateral ankle ligaments on MRI and stress ankle radiographs. Two hundred and twenty-nine consecutive patients (mean age 35.5 years, SD 14.6 years; 136 males and 93 females) that underwent ankle stress radiographs and MRI for lateral ankle instability were included. Tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior translation of talus were measured on stress ankle radiographs. Degree of lateral ligaments (anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular, and posterior talofibular) and deltoid ligament injuries were evaluated and scored as intact (0), partial injury (1), and complete injury (2) on MR images. Effusion of ankle joint was also recorded. The effects of gender, age, injuries of ligaments, and ankle joint effusion on stress radiographs were statistically analyzed. Gender (p = 0.010), age (p = 0.020), and anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) injury (p < 0.001) were the factors significantly affecting tibiotalar tilt angle. Posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) injury (p = 0.014) was found to be the only significant factor affecting the anterior translation on the anterior drawer radiographs. ATFL injury and PTFL injury on MRI significantly affected tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior drawer on stress radiographs. Other factors, such as age and gender, need to be considered in evaluating radiographic lateral ankle instability. (orig.)

  15. Relationships between rotator cuff tear types and radiographic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Chun, Kyung Ah; Lee Soo Jung; Kang, Min Ho; Yi, Kyung Sik; Zhang, Ying [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    To determine relationships between different types of rotator cuff tears and radiographic abnormalities. The shoulder radiographs of 104 patients with an arthroscopically proven rotator cuff tear were compared with similar radiographs of 54 age-matched controls with intact cuffs. Two radiologists independently interpreted all radiographs for; cortical thickening with subcortical sclerosis, subcortical cysts, osteophytes in the humeral greater tuberosity, humeral migration, degenerations of the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints, and subacromial spurs. Statistical analysis was performed to determine relationships between each type of rotator cuff tears and radiographic abnormalities. Inter-observer agreements with respect to radiographic findings were analyzed. Humeral migration and degenerative change of the greater tuberosity, including sclerosis, subcortical cysts, and osteophytes, were more associated with full-thickness tears (p < 0.01). Subacromial spurs were more common for full-thickness and bursal-sided tears (p < 0.01). No association was found between degeneration of the acromioclavicular or glenohumeral joint and the presence of a cuff tear. Different types of rotator cuff tears are associated with different radiographic abnormalities.

  16. Magnification of digital hip radiographs differs between clinical workplaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hornová

    Full Text Available Preoperative planning for total hip arthroplasty includes templating on anteroposterior radiographs. It is necessary to consider radiographic magnification in order to scale templates accurately. Studies dealing with hip templating report different values of radiographic magnification. It is not clear if the observed difference in magnification between the studies is caused by variability in studied groups, methodology or instrumentation. We hypothesize that there is a difference in magnification between clinical workplaces. Within this study, radiographic magnification was estimated on 337 radiographs of patients after total hip surgery from five orthopaedic departments in the Czech Republic. Magnification was determined for each patient as a ratio between diameter of implanted femoral head measured on radiogram and its true size. One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in magnification between workplaces (F(4,332 = 132, p≤0.001. These results suggest that radiographic magnification depends on the workplace where it is taken or more precisely on radiographic device. It indicates potential limits in generalizability of results of studies dealing with preoperative planning accuracy to other institutions.

  17. Chest radiographic features of human metapneumovirus infection in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Daniel Dunnavant, F.; Singh, Sudha P.; Ellis, Wendy D.; Payne, Daniel C.; Zhu, Yuwei; Griffin, Marie R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Williams, John V.

    2017-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was identified in 2001 and is a common cause of acute respiratory illness in young children. The radiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed HMPV acute respiratory illness in young children have not been systematically assessed. We systematically evaluated the radiographic characteristics of acute respiratory illness associated with HMPV in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. We included chest radiographs from children <5 years old with acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the prospective New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) study from 2003 to 2009 and were diagnosed with HMPV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Of 215 HMPV-positive subjects enrolled at our tertiary care children's hospital, 68 had chest radiographs obtained by the treating clinician that were available for review. Two fellowship-trained pediatric radiologists, independently and then in consensus, retrospectively evaluated these chest radiographs for their radiographic features. Parahilar opacities were the most commonly observed abnormality, occurring in 87% of children with HMPV. Hyperinflation also occurred frequently (69%). Atelectasis (40%) and consolidation (18%) appeared less frequently. Pleural effusion and pneumothorax were not seen on any radiographs. The clinical presentations of HMPV include bronchiolitis, croup and pneumonia. Dominant chest radiographic abnormalities include parahilar opacities and hyperinflation, with occasional consolidation. Recognition of the imaging patterns seen with common viral illnesses like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and HMPV might facilitate diagnosis and limit unnecessary antibiotic treatment. (orig.)

  18. Conventional versus virtual radiographs of the injured pelvis and acetabulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Julius A.; Rao, Allison J.; Pouliot, Michael A.; Bellino, Michael [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Beaulieu, Christopher [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Evaluation of the fractured pelvis or acetabulum requires both standard radiographic evaluation as well as computed tomography (CT) imaging. The standard anterior-posterior (AP), Judet, and inlet and outlet views can now be simulated using data acquired during CT, decreasing patient discomfort, radiation exposure, and cost to the healthcare system. The purpose of this study is to compare the image quality of conventional radiographic views of the traumatized pelvis to virtual radiographs created from pelvic CT scans. Five patients with acetabular fractures and ten patients with pelvic ring injuries were identified using the orthopedic trauma database at our institution. These fractures were evaluated with both conventional radiographs as well as virtual radiographs generated from a CT scan. A web-based survey was created to query overall image quality and visibility of relevant anatomic structures. This survey was then administered to members of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA). Ninety-seven surgeons completed the acetabular fracture survey and 87 completed the pelvic fracture survey. Overall image quality was judged to be statistically superior for the virtual as compared to conventional images for acetabular fractures (3.15 vs. 2.98, p = 0.02), as well as pelvic ring injuries (2.21 vs. 1.45, p = 0.0001). Visibility ratings for each anatomic landmark were statistically superior with virtual images as well. Virtual radiographs of pelvic and acetabular fractures offer superior image quality, improved comfort, decreased radiation exposure, and a more cost-effective alternative to conventional radiographs. (orig.)

  19. Relationship between stress ankle radiographs and injured ligaments on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Chung, Myung Ki; Won, Sung Hun; Lee, Seung Yeol; Park, Moon Seok; Kwon, Soon-Sun

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the injured lateral ankle ligaments on MRI and stress ankle radiographs. Two hundred and twenty-nine consecutive patients (mean age 35.5 years, SD 14.6 years; 136 males and 93 females) that underwent ankle stress radiographs and MRI for lateral ankle instability were included. Tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior translation of talus were measured on stress ankle radiographs. Degree of lateral ligaments (anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular, and posterior talofibular) and deltoid ligament injuries were evaluated and scored as intact (0), partial injury (1), and complete injury (2) on MR images. Effusion of ankle joint was also recorded. The effects of gender, age, injuries of ligaments, and ankle joint effusion on stress radiographs were statistically analyzed. Gender (p = 0.010), age (p = 0.020), and anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) injury (p < 0.001) were the factors significantly affecting tibiotalar tilt angle. Posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) injury (p = 0.014) was found to be the only significant factor affecting the anterior translation on the anterior drawer radiographs. ATFL injury and PTFL injury on MRI significantly affected tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior drawer on stress radiographs. Other factors, such as age and gender, need to be considered in evaluating radiographic lateral ankle instability. (orig.)

  20. Do general radiographic examinations resemble a person-centred environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayre, C.M.; Blackman, S.; Eyden, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim and objective: It is argued whether general radiographic examinations adhere to a person-centred approach within the direct digital radiography (DDR) environment. General radiographic examinations continue to increase and constitute approximately 90% of all examinations undertaken in the clinical environment. This study explored the potential impact patients experience whilst undergoing general imaging examinations. Method: An ethnographic methodology provided insight of two general radiography environments in the United Kingdom (UK) using participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Findings: The findings highlighted an ‘in and out’ culture whereby patients are ‘hurried’ and ‘rushed’ out of X-ray rooms in response to increasing time pressures experienced by diagnostic radiographers. In addition, this study challenged that patients may begin to rank ‘speed’ and ‘waiting times’ above other elements of radiographic care thus presenting new challenges for radiographers within the clinical environment. Conclusion: It is asserted that radiographers should remain holistic healthcare professionals and not begin to resemble operators on the production line. Further, it challenges whether patients are beginning to rank aspects of radiographic care within contemporary practices. Advances in knowledge: Few studies have explored the radiographer–patient relationship within the DDR environment, yet this study provides insight of person-centred practices within contemporary practices. - Highlights: • Challenges whether the use of DDR conforms to a person-centred approach. • Challenges whether radiographers are ‘treating patients as persons’ using DDR. • Patients may begin to rank ‘speed’ and ‘waiting times’ above other aspects of radiographic care.

  1. Radiographic and tomographic study of the elbow joint in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendyk-Grunkraut, Alessandra; Martin, Claudia M.; Souza, Alexandre N.A.; Patricio, Geni Cristina F.; Lorigados, Carla A.B.; Matera, Julia M.; Fonseca-Pinto, Ana C.B.C.

    2017-01-01

    Elbow dysplasia disease includes an united anconeal process, fragmented medial coronoid process, osteochondrosis of humeral trochlea, articular incongruity and degenerative joint disease. The aim of this study was to present detailed morphologic and morphometric aspects of the elbow joint in dog in clinical and correlate with radiographic and tomographic (CT) exam. Inter-observer variation for articular incongruity measurements by CT, comparative analysis in the radiographic exam, angle in ulnar notch and its comparative analysis between radiographic and tomographic agreement examination in 44 elbow of dogs with different ages were evaluated. The statistics analyses included the kappa coefficient and interclass correlation and Fischer's test and McNemar's test. It was evidenced that individual performance of each radiographic incidence had poor agreement with the tomographic exam, suggesting that the accomplishment of more than two radiograph views are needed. There was no agreement between the three evaluators in the ulnar notch angle at radiographic and tomographic exams. However, there was good/moderate agreement for articular incongruity measurement in the sagittal plane between evaluators. It was possible to conclude that none of the five radiographic incidences was better than the others for radiographic analysis because each incidence had a better identification of a particular elbow compartment; measurements at the tomographic exam to evaluate radioulnar incongruity had no reproductiveness in the frontal plane, but in sagittal plan had a good/moderate agreement between observers and the angle in ulnar notch presented no repeatability at radiographic exam and no reproductiveness at tomographic exam. (author)

  2. Periodontal probing versus radiographs for the diagnosis of furcation involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Christian; Plaumann, Anna; Wiebe, Jan-Frederik; Springer, Claudia; Sälzer, Sonja; Dörfer, Christof E

    2014-10-01

    Decisions in periodontal therapy for multirooted teeth are essentially based on accurate diagnosis of the furcation involvement (FI). Furcation probing (FP) is still the basic diagnostic measure, although the assessment may be difficult. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity of FP and radiographic assessment of FI compared with visual assessment during open flap surgery (OFS). In this retrospective clinical cohort study, 215 participants with periodontal disease and at least one molar treated with OFS were enrolled, and a total of 834 molars were assigned for FI by FP and in radiographs analyzed by an experienced (EE) and less experienced examiner (LE). For the investigation, 143 panoramic radiographs (OPGs) and 77 intra-oral radiographs (I-Os) were evaluated. The Class of FI by FP was confirmed in 56%, whereas 15% were overestimated and 29% underestimated. FI Class 0 and I had been detected with high probability (74% and 54%, respectively). Of all FI Class III, 57% were detected correctly by radiographs and 32% by FP. FP and OFS revealed a weighted κ-coefficient (κw) = 0.588; radiographs and OFS had κw = 0.542 (OPG κw = 0.555 and I-O κw = 0.521). The interrater reliability for radiographs was dependent on the experience of the examiner (EE κw = 0.618; LE κw = 0.426). Experience in analyzing conventional radiographs increases the potential of correct diagnosis of advanced FI. The reliability of FP compared with radiographic assessment depends on the anatomy and location of the tooth. Both diagnostic tools should be used in cases of suspected FI.

  3. Mesiodens: a clinical and radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Gwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2003-01-01

    The term 'mesiodens' refers to a supernumerary tooth present in the midline of the maxilla between the two central incisors. This study seeks to investigate the characteristics of mesiodens among children in Korea. The study population consisted of 40 children whose ages ranged from 4 to-26-years. The characteristics of mesiodens were obtained from radiographs and clinical examination results, and were confirmed by surgical intervention. Results showed that males were affected approximately 4 times as frequendy as females. Twenty-five percent of the patients had more than 1 supernumerary tooth. About 66% of the mesiodens were conical in shape and about 52% of the mesiodens were in the upward position. The age and sex distribution, number of mesiodens per patient, shape, direction, size, and effect on permanent maxillary incisors are also presented in this study. The incidence of mesiodens has been estimated at 0.15% to 1% of the population. It occurs more frequently in boys than in girls, with the ratio being approximately 2:1. In this study, a male:female ratio of 4:1 for the prevalence for mesiodens was found. Ten (25%) out of the 40 patients had 2 mesiodens.

  4. Lung involvement quantification in chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomini, Guilherme; Alvarez, Matheus; Oliveira, Marcela de; Miranda, Jose Ricardo A.; Pina, Diana R.; Pereira, Paulo C.M.; Ribeiro, Sergio M.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an infectious disease which remains a global health problem. The chest radiography is the commonly method employed to assess the TB's evolution. The methods for quantification of abnormalities of chest are usually performed on CT scans (CT). This quantification is important to assess the TB evolution and treatment and comparing different treatments. However, precise quantification is not feasible for the amount of CT scans required. The purpose of this work is to develop a methodology for quantification of lung damage caused by TB through chest radiographs. It was developed an algorithm for computational processing of exams in Matlab, which creates a lungs' 3D representation, with compromised dilated regions inside. The quantification of lung lesions was also made for the same patients through CT scans. The measurements from the two methods were compared and resulting in strong correlation. Applying statistical Bland and Altman, all samples were within the limits of agreement, with a confidence interval of 95%. The results showed an average variation of around 13% between the two quantification methods. The results suggest the effectiveness and applicability of the method developed, providing better risk-benefit to the patient and cost-benefit ratio for the institution. (author)

  5. Advanced radiographic practice - the legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, C.J.; Hogg, P.

    2003-01-01

    Allied health and nursing professionals are continuing to expand their responsibilities into clinical areas outside their traditional spheres of interest; typically, many of these new responsibilities are found within the medical (doctor) domain. Such responsibilities are often at an advanced clinical level and consequently higher demands are placed upon the professionals, not least in terms of clinical updating, competence to practice and also legal liability. This article explores the legal implications of practising at an advanced clinical level with particular reference to legal claims. The first part of the article commences with an outline of pertinent law in England and Wales. The latter part of the article explores actual cases from which allied health professionals (eg radiographers) can gain valuable information. Throughout the article suggestions for good practice are indicated. Examples of good practice include: the need to base your practice on evidence and peer practice; the need to keep detailed records (protocols) of such practice; the need to know when you are at the limit of your ability; and as such when to ask for advice from a medical practitioner/radiologist

  6. Radiographic analysis of shoulder anatomical arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merolla, Giovanni [Unit of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, ' D. Cervesi' Hospital, L. Van Beethoven 46 Street, 47841 Cattolica (Italy)], E-mail: gmerolla@shouldertech.it; Di Pietto, Francesco; Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, Naples (Italy); Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe [Unit of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, ' D. Cervesi' Hospital, L. Van Beethoven 46 Street, 47841 Cattolica (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    Arthroplasty is the standard treatment for advanced shoulder osteoarthritis. Modern prostheses designs have modular features whose size, shaft/head and body morphology can be adjusted. Total Shoulder Arthroplasty (TSA) provides better results. A complete X-ray follow-up is essential to assess the results and evaluate the survival rates of a shoulder prosthesis. Antero-posterior at 40 deg. in both internal and external rotation (true AP view) and axillary view are recommended to assess the following parameters: orientation and translation of the humeral component, offset, size and height of the humeral head, acromio-humeral distance, distribution and fixation of the cement, stress shielding and cortical resorption, radiolucent lines, subsidence and tilt, glenoid wear and 'bone stock', prostheses instability, glenoid component shift. Shoulder hemiarthroplasty can lead to glenoid wear; the true AP film at 40 deg. of internal rotation provides the best profile of gleno-humeral joint to depict glenoid erosion. Shift of the glenoid component in TSA is identified as tilting or medial migration on true AP and axillary views in the early postoperative period (1-2 months) and at minimum of 2 years. An exhaustive radiographic analysis remains essential to monitor the prosthetic implant and detect early and late complications or risk factors of prosthetic loosening.

  7. Neutron radiographic techniques, facilities and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1984-08-01

    This is a collection of three papers, written for presentation on two international conferences. The first paper: ''Neutron radiography. Techniques and facilities'', written by J.P. Barton of N-Ray Engineering Co. La Jolla, CA., USA and J.C. Domanus was presented at the International Symposium on the Use and Development of Low and Medium Flux Research Reactors at the Massachusets Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., USA, 16-19 October 1983. The second paper: ''Neutron radiography with the DR-1 reactor at Risoe National Laboratory'', written by J.C. Domanus, was presented at the same Symposium. The third paper: ''Defects in nuclear fuel revealed by neutron radiography'', written by J.C. Domanus is accepted for presentation on 18 October 1984 to the 3rd European Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Florence, Italy, 15-18 October 1984. While the first paper describes the principles of neutron radiographic techniques and facilities, the second one describes an example of such facility and the third gives an example of application of neutron radiography in the field of nuclear fuel. (author)

  8. Model-Based Analysis of Hand Radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Tod S.; Hedgcock, Marcus W.

    1989-05-01

    As a step toward computer assisted imagery interpretation, we are developing algorithms for computed radiography that allow a computer to recognize specific bones and joints, and to identify variations from normal in size, shape and density. In this paper we report on our approach to model-based computer recognition of hands in radiographs. First, image processing hypotheses of the imaged bones. Multiple hypotheses of the size and orientation of the imaged anatomy are matched against stored 3D models fof the relevant bones, obtained from statistically valid populations studies. Probabilities of the hypotheses are accrued using Bayesian inference techniques whose evaluation is guided by the structure of the hand model and the observed image-derived evidence such as anti-parallel edges, local contrast, etc. High probability matches between the hand model and the image data can cue additional image processing-based ssearch for bones, joints and soft-tissue to confirm hypotheses of the location of the imaged hand. At this point multipule disease detection techniques, automated bone age identification, etc. can be employed.

  9. The radiographic appearance of pulmonary histoplasmosis in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.M.; Green, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of 18 cats with pulmonary histoplasmosis was conducted to evaluate radiographic patterns of disease and to determine age, breed, and sex distributions. All cats had active disease confirmed by biopsy/aspiration cytology (lung, bone marrow, peripheral lymph nodes, pleural fluid) or necropsy examination. Cats 3 years of age or less had the highest incidence of disease; females outnumbered males 2 to 1. Radiographically, most cats had an interstitial pattern which appeared as a fine, diffuse or linear pattern, or as a more distinct nodular pattern. An alveolar pattern was an uncommon radiographic finding. Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy and calcified lymph nodes or pulmonary parenchymal lesions were not identified in these cats

  10. Radiographic differentiation of atypical tuberculosis from mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarver, R.D.; Pearcy, E.A.; Conces, D.J. Jr.; Mathur, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    The chest radiographs of 95 patients with the new diagnosis of atypical turberculosis were reviewed to determine if any significant differences between atypical tuberculosis and that caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis could be discerned. Findings included upper lobe involvement in B4 of the 95 patients and cavities in 76, with nearly equal groups having no, moderate, or extensive surrounding alveolar disease. Nodules were common; in six patients a nodule was the sole manifestation of disease. Adenopathy was seen in 12 of the 95 patients, atlectasis in 45, pleural thickening in 90, and effusions in three. These radiographic findings did not allow the radiographic differentiation of atypical tuberculosis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

  11. The concept of advanced radiographic practice: An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Maryann; Legg, Jeffrey; Smith, Tony; Ween, Borgny; Williams, Imelda; Motto, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Advanced radiographic practice has been the focus of much discussion and debate over the last decade, not only in the United Kingdom where advanced practitioner roles are now recognised within the national career framework, but also internationally. Yet, despite almost simultaneous professional movement towards advanced radiographic practice philosophy and ideals in many countries, international collaboration on this development has been minimal. This paper marks a growing international dialogue in this field. It discusses the theoretical concepts of advanced radiographic practice and the development of advanced practitioner roles, incorporating evidence and ideas from differing international perspectives and debates progress towards a potential unified global advanced practice identity

  12. Digital radiographic imaging: is the dental practice ready?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Edwin T

    2008-04-01

    Digital radiographic imaging is slowly, but surely, replacing film-based imaging. It has many advantages over traditional imaging, but the technology also has some drawbacks. The author presents an overview of the types of digital image receptors available, image enhancement software and the range of costs for the new technology. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. The expenses associated with converting to digital radiographic imaging are considerable. The purpose of this article is to provide the clinician with an overview of digital radiographic imaging technology so that he or she can be an informed consumer when evaluating the numerous digital systems in the marketplace.

  13. Skeletal changes mimicking intrathoracic disease on chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelderen, WFC van

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Various chest radiographs are illustrated to demonstrate features where bony changes may mimic intrathoracic disease. To confirm the skeletal origin and nature, further conventional radiographs often suffice, and the need for CT or scintigraphy may therefore be obviated. At the time of presentation for radiography of the chest, further pertinent clinical details can be obtained from the patient by the department staff, as required. All previous radiographs and radiological reports should be readily available. In order to add to the educational value of the 13 cases illustrated, all are presented in quiz format, with the answers and further images included in the text.

  14. Comparison of radiographic and radionuclide skeletal surveys in battered children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, W.J.; Faleski, E.J.; Chacko, A.; Jarrett, R.V.

    1983-02-01

    A review of 13 cases of suspected child abuse in which radionuclide (RN) scans, radiographic skeletal surveys, and sufficient follow-up were available showed that the RN scans were insensitive, even though fractures were more than 48 hours old at the time of the scan. Frequently missed lesions included skull and extremity fractures. Furthermore, soft tissue and visceral abnormalities that were identified on radiographic examination went undetected on RN scan. We conclude that, although the RN scan may augment the radiographic examination, it should not be used alone to screen for the battered child.

  15. Projection angles of mandibular condyles in panoramic and transcranial radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the true projection angles of film-side mandibular condyles in panoramic and transcranial radiographs. 52 panoramic and transcranial radiographs of 4 condyles from two human dry mandibles with gradual horizontal and vertical angle changes were taken. The results were compared with the standard panoramic and transcranial radiographs and the identical pairs were selected. Panoramic radiography projected 10 degree to the film-sided condyles both horizontally and vertically. Transcranial radiography projected 15 degree to the film-sided condyles vertically. The medical and lateral poles were not forming the outline of condylar images in both projections when the horizontal angles of condyles were not sufficiently big enough

  16. Comparison of radiographic and radionuclide skeletal surveys in battered children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, W.J.; Faleski, E.J.; Chacko, A.; Jarrett, R.V.

    1983-01-01

    A review of 13 cases of suspected child abuse in which radionuclide (RN) scans, radiographic skeletal surveys, and sufficient follow-up were available showed that the RN scans were insensitive, even though fractures were more than 48 hours old at the time of the scan. Frequently missed lesions included skull and extremity fractures. Furthermore, soft tissue and visceral abnormalities that were identified on radiographic examination went undetected on RN scan. We conclude that, although the RN scan may augment the radiographic examination, it should not be used alone to screen for the battered child

  17. Retrospective assessment of thoracic radiographic findings in metastatic canine hemangiosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, A.S.; Bailey, M.Q.; Sagartz, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-one dogs with histopathologically confirmed hemangiosarcoma were evaluated by thoracic radiography for metastatic disease. All dogs had histopathologic examinations of the lungs within two weeks of thoracic radiography. Fourteen dogs had histopathologic evidence of pulmonary hemangiosarcoma; metastatic disease was detected radiographically in eleven of these dogs. The most common radiographic pattern was that of poorly defined small coalescing nodules (8 dogs); other radiographic patterns included well-circumscribed nodules (3 dogs) and alveolar infiltrates secondary to hemorrhage (2 dogs). Differential diagnoses for diffuse, poorly defined, coalescing pulmonary opacities should include hemangiosarcoma in addition to edema, lymphoma, systemic mycoses, fibrosis, allergy, toxicosis, and carcinomas

  18. 28 CFR 549.63 - Initial medical evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (4) Psychological and/or psychiatric evaluation; (5) General medical evaluation; (6) Radiographs as... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial medical evaluation and management... MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.63 Initial medical evaluation and management. (a...

  19. The benefit of accounting for DQE variations in simulated dose reduction of digital radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svalkvist, A.; Baath, M.

    2010-01-01

    Adding noise to clinical radiographs to simulate dose reduction can be used to investigate the relationship between dose level and clinical image quality without exposing patients to additional radiation. The purpose of the present paper was to examine the benefits of using a method that accounts for detective quantum efficiency (DQE) variations that may occur in different dose ranges in the simulated dose reduction process. A method initially intended for simulated dose reduction in tomo-synthesis was applied to extremely low-dose posterio-anterior radiographs of an anthropomorphic chest phantom, selected from a group of projection images included in a tomo-synthesis examination and compared with a previous method that do not account for DQE variations. A comparison of images simulated to be collected at a lower dose level (73% of the original dose level) and images actually collected at this lower dose level revealed that the error in the integrated normalised noise power spectrum was smaller than 4% for the method that accounts for DQE variations in the simulated dose reduction, whereas the error was larger than 20% for the previous method. This indicates that an increased validity in dose reduction simulation of digital radiographic systems is obtained with a method accounting for DQE variations. (authors)

  20. The benefit of accounting for DQE variations in simulated dose reduction of digital radiographic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalkvist, Angelica; Båth, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Adding noise to clinical radiographs to simulate dose reduction can be used to investigate the relationship between dose level and clinical image quality without exposing patients to additional radiation. The purpose of the present paper was to examine the benefits of using a method that accounts for detective quantum efficiency (DQE) variations that may occur in different dose ranges in the simulated dose reduction process. A method initially intended for simulated dose reduction in tomosynthesis was applied to extremely low-dose posterioanterior radiographs of an anthropomorphic chest phantom, selected from a group of projection images included in a tomosynthesis examination and compared with a previous method that do not account for DQE variations. A comparison of images simulated to be collected at a lower dose level (73 % of the original dose level) and images actually collected at this lower dose level revealed that the error in the integrated normalised noise power spectrum was smaller than 4 % for the method that accounts for DQE variations in the simulated dose reduction, whereas the error was larger than 20 % for the previous method. This indicates that an increased validity in dose reduction simulation of digital radiographic systems is obtained with a method accounting for DQE variations.

  1. Computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs in osteoporosis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Agus Zainal; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira; Nakamoto, Takashi; Ohtsuka, Masahiko; Tanimoto, Keiji

    2005-04-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are associated with substantial morbidity, increased medical cost and high mortality risk. Several equipments of bone assessment have been developed to identify individuals, especially postmenopausal women, with high risk of osteoporotic fracture; however, a large segment of women with low skeletal bone mineral density (BMD), namely women with high risk of osteoporotic fractures, cannot be identified sufficiently because osteoporosis is asymptomatic. Recent studies have been demonstrating that mandibular inferior cortical width manually measured on panoramic radiographs may be useful for the identification of women with low BMD. Automatic measurement of cortical width may enable us to identify a large number of asymptomatic women with low BMD. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs. Initially, oral radiologists determined the region of interest based on the position of mental foramen. Some enhancing image techniques were applied so as to measure the cortical width at the best point. Panoramic radiographs of 100 women who had BMD assessments of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were used to confirm the efficacy of our new system. Cortical width measured with our system was compared with skeletal BMD. There were significant correlation between cortical width measured with our system and skeletal BMD. These correlations were similar with those between cortical width manually measured by the dentist and skeletal BMD. Our results suggest that our new system may be useful for mass screening of osteoporosis.

  2. Mandibular asymmetry: A proposal of radiographic analysis with public domain software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Durval Lemos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This preliminary study aimed to propose a new analysis of digital panoramic radiographs for a differential diagnosis between functional and morphological mandibular asymmetry in children with and without unilateral posterior crossbite. METHODS: Analysis is based on linear and angular measurements taken from nine anatomic points, demarcated in sequence directly on digital images. A specific plug-in was developed as part of a larger public domain image processing software (ImageJ to automate and facilitate measurements. Since panoramic radiographs are typically subject to magnification differences between the right and left sides, horizontal linear measurements were adjusted for greater accuracy in both sides by means of a Distortion Factor (DF. In order to provide a preliminary assessment of proposed analysis and the developed plug-in, radiographs of ten patients (5 with unilateral posterior crossbite and 5 with normal occlusion were analyzed. RESULTS: Considerable divergence was found between the right and left sides in the measurements of mandibular length and position of condyles in patients with unilateral posterior crossbite in comparison to individuals with normal occlusion. CONCLUSION: Although there are more effective and accurate diagnostic methods, panoramic radiography is still widespread, especially in emerging countries. This study presented initial evidence that the proposed analysis can be an important resource for planning early orthodontic intervention and, thus, avoid progression of asymmetries and their consequences.

  3. Mandibular asymmetry: a proposal of radiographic analysis with public domain software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Alexandre Durval; Katz, Cintia Regina Tornisiello; Heimer, Mônica Vilela; Rosenblatt, Aronita

    2014-01-01

    This preliminary study aimed to propose a new analysis of digital panoramic radiographs for a differential diagnosis between functional and morphological mandibular asymmetry in children with and without unilateral posterior crossbite. Analysis is based on linear and angular measurements taken from nine anatomic points, demarcated in sequence directly on digital images. A specific plugin was developed as part of a larger public domain image processing software (ImageJ) to automate and facilitate measurements. Since panoramic radiographs are typically subject to magnification differences between the right and left sides, horizontal linear measurements were adjusted for greater accuracy in both sides by means of a Distortion Factor (DF). In order to provide a preliminary assessment of proposed analysis and the developed plugin, radiographs of ten patients (5 with unilateral posterior crossbite and 5 with normal occlusion) were analyzed. Considerable divergence was found between the right and left sides in the measurements of mandibular length and position of condyles in patients with unilateral posterior crossbite in comparison to individuals with normal occlusion. Although there are more effective and accurate diagnostic methods, panoramic radiography is still widespread, especially in emerging countries. This study presented initial evidence that the proposed analysis can be an important resource for planning early orthodontic intervention and, thus, avoid progression of asymmetries and their consequences.

  4. Accuracy of the interpretation of chest radiographs for the diagnosis of paediatric pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A Elemraid

    Full Text Available World Health Organization (WHO radiological classification remains an important entry criterion in epidemiological studies of pneumonia in children. We report inter-observer variability in the interpretation of 169 chest radiographs in children suspected of having pneumonia.An 18-month prospective aetiological study of pneumonia was undertaken in Northern England. Chest radiographs were performed on eligible children aged ≤16 years with clinical features of pneumonia. The initial radiology report was compared with a subsequent assessment by a consultant cardiothoracic radiologist. Chest radiographic changes were categorised according to the WHO classification.There was significant disagreement (22% between the first and second reports (kappa = 0.70, P<0.001, notably in those aged <5 years (26%, kappa = 0.66, P<0.001. The most frequent sources of disagreement were the reporting of patchy and perihilar changes.This substantial inter-observer variability highlights the need for experts from different countries to create a consensus to review the radiological definition of pneumonia in children.

  5. Radiographic findings in late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia: helpful imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzzafar, Sofia; Swischuk, Leonard E.; Jadhav, Siddharth P. [University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Galveston, TX (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Imaging findings in delayed presentation of congenital diaphragmatic hernia can be confusing and misleading, resulting in a delay in diagnosis. To evaluate the often puzzling plain film findings of late-presenting CDH in an effort to determine whether any of the findings could be helpful in arriving at an early diagnosis. We reviewed and documented the plain film findings and clinical data in eight patients seen during the last 20 years with late-presenting CDH. IRB exempt status was obtained in this study. There were five boys and three girls. The age range was 4 months to 12 years with a mean of 2.4 years. Five children presented with acute respiratory problems while three presented with acute abdominal pain. Two children presented with both respiratory and abdominal findings and one also presented with hematemesis. Two children had radiographic findings that were not difficult to analyze while the remaining six had findings that posed initial diagnostic problems. Although not common, late-presenting CDH can result in confusing plain film radiographic findings and a delay in diagnosis. We found that the most important finding in analyzing these radiographs is in evaluating the location and position of the gastric bubble with the more common left-side hernias. (orig.)

  6. Desferrioxamine-induced long bone changes in thalassaemic patients - Radiographic features, prevalence and relations with growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Y.L.; Li, C.K.; Pang, L.M.; Chik, K.W

    2000-08-01

    AIM: To study the radiographic findings of desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia, its prevalence and relation to growth in thalassaemic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 35 thalassaemic patients on a hypertransfusion scheme and chelation therapy at a dose not exceeding 50 mg/kg/day. Radiographs of the left hand taken for bone age assessment in consecutive patients over the past 12 months were evaluated for signs of desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia. The findings were correlated with data on growth, chelation and body iron content. RESULTS: Twelve of 35 patients had evidence of desferrioxamine-induced long bone dysplasia. There was no significant difference in the groups with and without radiographic evidence of bone dysplasia with respect to the height percentile at time of initiation of therapy, height percentile at time of radiography, skeletal age delay, age at starting chelation, chelation dose and duration, units of blood transfused, average chelation dose, and serum ferritin levels at time of radiography. Both groups showed a reduced percentile growth with a significantly greater reduction (P = 0.03) in the patients with dysplastic change. CONCLUSION: Desferrioxamine-induced bone dysplasia is associated with height reduction and can be seen in patients receiving desferrioxamine chelation therapy at doses of less than 50 mg/kg/day. Awareness of the diagnosis is of importance as reduction of the desferrioxamine dose may improve bone growth. Chan, Y. L. (2000)

  7. Primary infantile hyperparathyroidism: Clinical, laboratory, and radiographic features in 21 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, F.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.

    1982-01-01

    Two cases of primary infantile hyperparathyroidism (PIH) are reported. In both cases the diagnosis was initially suspected from chest radiographs which were obtained to assess the etiology of fever and respiratory distress in one case and heart murmur in another. The first case responded well to subtotal parathyroidectomy. The second case had many unique features. (1) She never became overtly symptomatic. (2) She displayed a constellation of findings that are not yet emphasized. (3) Her indisputable radiographic findings of hyperparathyroidism vanished spontaneously by two months of age, whereas her biochemical alterations have persisted up to now, 2 1/2 years after birth. (4) Three members of her family have subclinical hyperparathyroidism (elevated serum parathormone, hypercalcemia, and hypophosphatemia). Our review of 19 more cases showed that PIH has no specific clinical symptoms and/or signs. Of the laboratory findings, hypercalcemia was most consistantly encountered. The radiographic findings, although not identical to those described in hyperparathyroid adults, had the greatest diagnostic specificity. The disorder carried a grave prognosis if not diagnosed promptly and managed surgically. (orig.)

  8. Radiographic femoral varus measurement is affected unpredictably by femoral rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward

    Radiographic measurements of femoral varus are used to determine if intervention to correct femoral deformity is required, and to calculate the required correction. The varus angle is defined as the angle between the proximal femoral long axis (PFLA) and an axis tangential to the distal femoral...... condyles. Ideal positioning of the femur in terms of zero elevation relative to the radiographic plane or zero rotation along the long axis of the femur may be difficult to obtain in practice. The clinician may thus be tempted to determine varus values from less than ideal radiographs. Fourteen isolated...... and externally by 5° and 10° using plastic wedges. Accuracy of rotation was within +1°. Digital radiographs were obtained at each position. Varus angles were measured using ImageJ, employing two definitions of PFLA. Mean varus angles increased with 10° of either internal or external rotation with both PFLA...

  9. Radiographic versus electronic root canal working length determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumnije Kqiku

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The present ex vivo study showed that electronic root canal working length determination is not superior to radiographic methods. Both methods provided a good performance in determining the root canal working length.

  10. Postoperative radiographs after maxillofacial trauma: sense or nonsense?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, B.; Goey, Y.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the necessity of routine postoperative radiographic analysis in patients with maxillofacial trauma. Between January 2000 and January 2010, 579 patients were treated surgically for 646 maxillofacial fractures including complex maxillofacial trauma.

  11. Postoperative radiographs after maxillofacial trauma: Sense or nonsense?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, B.; Goey, Y.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the necessity of routine postoperative radiographic analysis in patients with maxillofacial trauma. Between January 2000 and January 2010, 579 patients were treated surgically for 646 maxillofacial fractures including complex maxillofacial trauma.

  12. Study of scattering in bi-dimensional neutron radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, K.A.M. de; Crispim, V.R.; Silva, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of neutron scattering frequently causes distortions in neutron radiographic images and, thus, reduces the quality. In this project, a type of filter, comprised of cadmium (a neutron absorber), was used in the form of a grid to correct this effect. This device generated image data in the discrete shadow bands of the absorber, components relative to neutron scattering on the test object and surroundings. Scattering image data processing, together with the original neutron radiographic image, resulted in a corrected image with improved edge delineation and, thus, greater definition in the neutron radiographic image of the test object. The objective of this study is to propose a theoretical/experimental methodology that is capable of eliminating the components relative to neutron scattering in neutron radiographic images, coming from the material that composes the test object and the materials that compose the surrounding area. (author)

  13. Radiographic visualization of magma dynamics in an erupting volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K M; Kusagaya, Taro; Shinohara, Hiroshi

    2014-03-10

    Radiographic imaging of magma dynamics in a volcanic conduit provides detailed information about ascent and descent of magma, the magma flow rate, the conduit diameter and inflation and deflation of magma due to volatile expansion and release. Here we report the first radiographic observation of the ascent and descent of magma along a conduit utilizing atmospheric (cosmic ray) muons (muography) with dynamic radiographic imaging. Time sequential radiographic images show that the top of the magma column ascends right beneath the crater floor through which the eruption column was observed. In addition to the visualization of this magma inflation, we report a sequence of images that show magma descending. We further propose that the monitoring of temporal variations in the gas volume fraction of magma as well as its position in a conduit can be used to support existing eruption prediction procedures.

  14. Radiographic features of bisphosphonate therapy in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grissom, L.E.; Theodore Harcke, H. [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Nemours Children' s Clinic, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Background: Pediatric patients are being treated with bisphosphonates for low bone mineral density. Skeletal radiographic findings have been described with bisphosphonates given orally and intravenously. Objective: To determine and describe the radiographic findings of cyclic intravenous bisphosphonate therapy in the growing skeleton. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of radiographs of 32 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta or cerebral palsy treated with intravenous bisphosphonates on a quarterly schedule. Results: Principal observations were metaphyseal bands and increased bone mineral density. The bands varied in spacing according to the age of the patient, rate of growth, and the location of the metaphysis. Fractures continued to be seen in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. Conclusion: Cyclic bisphosphonate therapy results in distinctive radiographic findings in the growing skeleton. (orig.)

  15. Application of digital techniques to the restoration of radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, S.F.

    1980-09-01

    The methods of constrained least squares and maximum entropy have been used to restore digital X and γ-ray radiographs. Both methods require the blurring of the image to be a linear, spatially invariant process. Although the blurring processes in radiography can be complex, situations have been identified where these simplifying assumptions are valid. Algorithms for deriving the point-spread function of each image are discussed. These include a pinhole method for X-ray radiographs, and reconstruction from edge profiles for γ-ray radiographs. The results from the restoration of geometrically blurred radiographs of sparking plugs are given. Maximum entropy gives results superior to those obtained by constrained least squares. The resolution is improved by a factor of about three when maximum entropy is used, and by a factor of about two for constrained least squares. (author)

  16. Influence of the radiographer on the pain felt during mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, M. van; Verslegers, I.; Biltjes, I.; De Schepper, A.; Mortelmans, D.; Bruyninckx, E.; Hove, E. Van

    2003-01-01

    Mammography is the only useful examination in screening for breast cancer. Mortality from breast cancer can be reduced if women go regularly for a screening mammography. Moreover, it is still the key examination in diagnosis of breast diseases and in the follow-up of patients treated for breast cancer. Pain with mammography can deter women from going for regular screening or follow-up; therefore, it is important to reduce pain experience or discomfort from mammography. In this study we evaluate the impact of the ''radiographer'' on the pain risk during mammography by analysing questionnaires filled in by women and radiographers. Study results reveal that the opinion of the radiographer, the information and communication during the examination and the number of years of experience are important factors in pain and discomfort experience. The attitude of the radiographer plays an important role in the pain experience. (orig.)

  17. Sarcoidosis: radiographic manifestations in the nails and distal phalanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, Brittany K.; Garner, Hillary W.; Sluzevich, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease which can affect multiple organ systems. Clinical and radiologic manifestations depend on the organ system involved and the chronicity of disease. Nail involvement in sarcoidosis is rare, but is clinically relevant as it indicates chronic systemic disease. Nail abnormalities can be identified radiographically, and when seen in patients with known or suspected sarcoidosis, should prompt careful evaluation of the underlying bone for osseous involvement. We describe a case of sarcoidosis with radiographic findings in the nails and distal phalangeal tufts, which were indicative of nail and osseous sarcoid involvement and strongly supported the presence of chronic systemic disease. Although the nail findings resolved clinically and on radiographs after treatment, the osseous findings showed only minimal improvement. To our knowledge, the radiographic findings of nail sarcoidosis have not been previously addressed in the literature. (orig.)

  18. Gall bladder infarction: A radiographic mimic of emphysematous cholecystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughran, C.F.; Thind, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    A case is reported in which the typical radiographic appearances of acute emphysematous cholecystitis were due to acute gall bladder infarction following thrombotic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. (orig.)

  19. Gall bladder infarction: A radiographic mimic of emphysematous cholecystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughran, C.F.; Thind, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    A case is reported in which the typical radiographic appearances of acute emphysematous cholecystitis were due to acute gall bladder infarction following thrombotic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery.

  20. Radiographic and scintigraphic evaluation of total knee arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.; Soudry, M.

    1986-01-01

    Various radiographic and scintigraphic methods are used to supplement clinical findings in the evaluation of total knee arthroplasty and its complications. Serial roentgenograms offer reliable information for diagnosing mechanical loosening. Wide and extensive radiolucency at the cement-bone interface and shift in position and alignment of prosthetic components can be seen in almost all cases by the time revision is necessary. Radiographic abnormalities are usually not present in acute infection, but are often present in chronic infection. Bone scanning has a high sensitivity for diagnosis of infection or loosening, but is nonspecific because increased uptake is often present around asymptomatic total knee arthroplasties with normal radiographs. Differential bone and Gallium scanning and scanning with Indium 111-labeled leukocytes have a greater specificity for diagnosis of infection than does bone or Gallium scanning alone. Routine radiographic and scintigraphic studies have shown a high incidence of deep vein thrombosis in the calf after total knee arthroplasty. Clinically significant pulmonary embolization is infrequent

  1. Sarcoidosis: radiographic manifestations in the nails and distal phalanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, Brittany K.; Garner, Hillary W. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Sluzevich, Jason C. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Dermatology, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease which can affect multiple organ systems. Clinical and radiologic manifestations depend on the organ system involved and the chronicity of disease. Nail involvement in sarcoidosis is rare, but is clinically relevant as it indicates chronic systemic disease. Nail abnormalities can be identified radiographically, and when seen in patients with known or suspected sarcoidosis, should prompt careful evaluation of the underlying bone for osseous involvement. We describe a case of sarcoidosis with radiographic findings in the nails and distal phalangeal tufts, which were indicative of nail and osseous sarcoid involvement and strongly supported the presence of chronic systemic disease. Although the nail findings resolved clinically and on radiographs after treatment, the osseous findings showed only minimal improvement. To our knowledge, the radiographic findings of nail sarcoidosis have not been previously addressed in the literature. (orig.)

  2. Measurement of Lumbosacral Angle in Normal Radiographs: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    20] Of all these methods, radiography remains the gold standard and lordotic measurement can accurately be measured in a supine lateral lumbosacral spine radiograph.[21-23] ... the following reasons: (1) To avoid ethical issues like patient's.

  3. Radiographic findings in pulmonary hypertension from unresolved embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, W.W. III; Hoeck, B.E.; Chitwood, W.R. Jr.; Lyerly, H.K.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Chen, J.T.T.

    1985-04-01

    Pulmonary artery hypertension with chronic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon entity that is potentially treatable with pulmonary embolectomy. Although the classic radiographic features have been described, several recent investigators report a significant percentage of these patients with normal chest radiographs. In a series of 22 patients, no normal radiographs were seen. Findings included cardiomegaly (86.4%) with right-sided enlargement (68.4%), right descending pulmonary artery enlargement (54.5%), azygos vein enlargement (27.3%), mosaic oligemia (68.2%), chronic volume loss (27.3%), atelectasis and/or effusion (22.7%), and pleural thickening (13.6%). Good correlation with specific areas of diminished vascularity was seen on chest radiographs compared with pulmonary angiograms.

  4. Radiographic findings in pulmonary hypertension from unresolved embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.W. III; Hoeck, B.E.; Chitwood, W.R. Jr.; Lyerly, H.K.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Chen, J.T.T.

    1985-01-01

    Pulmonary artery hypertension with chronic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon entity that is potentially treatable with pulmonary embolectomy. Although the classic radiographic features have been described, several recent investigators report a significant percentage of these patients with normal chest radiographs. In a series of 22 patients, no normal radiographs were seen. Findings included cardiomegaly (86.4%) with right-sided enlargement (68.4%), right descending pulmonary artery enlargement (54.5%), azygos vein enlargement (27.3%), mosaic oligemia (68.2%), chronic volume loss (27.3%), atelectasis and/or effusion (22.7%), and pleural thickening (13.6%). Good correlation with specific areas of diminished vascularity was seen on chest radiographs compared with pulmonary angiograms

  5. A rig for acquisition of standardized trabecular bone radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podsiadlo, P.; Stachowiak, G.W. [Univ. of Western Australia, Crawley (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    2002-04-01

    To assess osteoarthritic changes in knee joints a radiography rig for acquisition of standardized radiographs of trabecular bone has been developed. The rig contains a steel frame on castors, a turntable, a cassette holder frame, calibration Plexiglas sheets, body supports and points. It is used to lock the patient in a standardized position. A film cassette holder frame was also developed to reduce scattering of X-rays, and consequently the amount of noise in the radiographs. Calibration Plexiglas sheets were mounted on ball bearing slides to obtain radiographs without a calibration pattern (suitable for the analysis of trabecular bone texture) and radiographs containing a calibration pattern (suitable for the measurement of leg alignment)

  6. Detection of corrosion by radiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Ashraf, M.M.; Khurshid, U.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation processing technologies are playing an increasing role during manufacturing and subsequent use of everyday products. These technologies are now well established and are extensively practiced in industries, to ensure quality and safety of machinery. Corrosion reduces the operational life of the component, its efficiency and helps generate waste. There is an increasing need to detect and characterize the formation of corrosion in industrial components and assemblies at an early stage. Radiation methods and techniques are applied worldwide to examine defects and corrosion-formation in industrial components. For safety and economic reason, appropriate monitoring of the machinery and industrial components would help reduce accidental risks during operation and avoid production-losses. In the present study, X-ray and neutron-radiography techniques were applied for the inspection and evaluation of corrosion in metallic samples for thickness values of the order of 5 mm or less. Relative contrast at various degrees of metal corrosion product loss was computed theoretical and also measured experimentally by applying radiographic techniques. The relative contrast-sensitivity was also measured in two different ways by X-ray and neutron radiography, to compare the visibility of coarse and fine features. Thick metallic areas, free from sealant and variable paint thickness, were imaged with thermal neutrons beam. Low KV X-rays were also applied for imaging corrosion in metallic components. To optimize exposure-time at low KV in X-ray radiography, a medical film/screen combination was used. X-ray radiography approved to be the more promising technique for imaging of corrosion, as compared to neutron radiography. (author)

  7. Growing teratoma syndrome: clinical and radiographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dennis J; Djaladat, Hooman; Tadros, Nicholas N; Movassaghi, Mehran; Tejura, Tapas; Duddalwar, Vinay; Daneshmand, Siamak

    2014-09-01

    To present an overview of our surgical experience in the management of growing teratoma syndrome. A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy between November 2005 and February 2012 revealed 15 patients who met the criteria for growing teratoma syndrome. Their clinical data, imaging characteristics, and surgical and oncological outcomes were reviewed. The median age at diagnosis was 23 years. Primary testis tumors included non-seminomatous germ cell tumor in 12 of 15 patients, seminoma in two of 15 patients and hemorrhagic mass in one patient. Mature teratoma was present in just six (40%) of the orchiectomy specimens. All patients received preoperative chemotherapy. On imaging, the median size of the largest retroperitoneal mass was 7 cm (range 3.9-24.5 cm). The median rate of linear growth was 0.5 cm/month (range 0.03-2.9), and the increase in volume was 9.2 cm(3) /month. All tumors were found to have cystic and necrotic components. Median operative time was 6.2 h (range 4.2-15.2 h). Estimated blood loss was 600 mL (range 100-7000 mL), and median length of stay was 5 days (range 3-19 days). Four patients required resection of non-retroperitoneal growing teratoma masses after post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy to achieve tumor-free status. There were two minor (Clavien I-II) and two major postoperative complications (Clavien ≥III). All patients are alive and disease free with a median duration of follow-up of 8 months (range 1-64 months). Growing teratoma syndrome tumors vary in their growth rate, but they all appear to have cystic features with necrosis elements on radiographic evaluation. Aggressive surgical excision is associated with excellent outcomes. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  8. Computed image analysis of neutron radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, M.; Anghel, E.; Preda, M.; Pavelescu, M.

    2008-01-01

    Similar with X-radiography, using neutron like penetrating particle, there is in practice a nondestructive technique named neutron radiology. When the registration of information is done on a film with the help of a conversion foil (with high cross section for neutrons) that emits secondary radiation (β,γ) that creates a latent image, the technique is named neutron radiography. A radiographic industrial film that contains the image of the internal structure of an object, obtained by neutron radiography, must be subsequently analyzed to obtain qualitative and quantitative information about the structural integrity of that object. There is possible to do a computed analysis of a film using a facility with next main components: an illuminator for film, a CCD video camera and a computer (PC) with suitable software. The qualitative analysis intends to put in evidence possibly anomalies of the structure due to manufacturing processes or induced by working processes (for example, the irradiation activity in the case of the nuclear fuel). The quantitative determination is based on measurements of some image parameters: dimensions, optical densities. The illuminator has been built specially to perform this application but can be used for simple visual observation. The illuminated area is 9x40 cm. The frame of the system is a comparer of Abbe Carl Zeiss Jena type, which has been adapted to achieve this application. The video camera assures the capture of image that is stored and processed by computer. A special program SIMAG-NG has been developed at INR Pitesti that beside of the program SMTV II of the special acquisition module SM 5010 can analyze the images of a film. The major application of the system was the quantitative analysis of a film that contains the images of some nuclear fuel pins beside a dimensional standard. The system was used to measure the length of the pellets of the TRIGA nuclear fuel. (authors)

  9. Use your good judgement - Radiographers' knowledge in image production work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, W.; Lundberg, N.; Hillergard, K.

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that the demand for radiography services has markedly increased and radiographers' work has become more complex as their role has changed. More specifically, it entails new activities, new ways of communicating and new responsibilities. This means that radiographers work in new ways and need new ways to learn. The knowledge needed in this learning process is still unexplored. The aim of this study is to identify and present how radiographers use knowledge in image production work using PACS. This is explored by studying how radiographers use their knowledge in practice. The study adopts a qualitative approach, using participant observation of and semi-structured interviews with radiographers at five Swedish hospitals. To identify properties of knowledge, Blackler's theory of knowledge components was applied. The results of this study show that radiographers use the knowledge components in different situations in their image production work. They use embrained knowledge in planning X-ray examinations and in viewing images. Encoded knowledge is required for the use of various kinds of documentation, such as manuals and protocols. Embodied knowledge is action-oriented and involves 'gut feelings'. The study also illustrates that radiographers use their knowledge at different levels as routine actors or as reflective actors, in a more static way or with a flexible attitude, more unreflectively or more as critical reflectors, and finally more as performing automatic action or problem-solving action. This study concludes that radiographers need more reflective actors in the image production process when working with PACS. The study also illustrates that radiographers need to be flexible in their work; there is little room for static work. In work they need to analyze images, it is not enough to 'check them off'; they cannot just read documents, you need to interpret them to optimize work performance. Overall, radiographers need to have a critical and

  10. Intraosseous Benign Lesions of the Jaws: A Radiographic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Javadian Langaroodi, Adineh; Lari, Sima Sadat; Shokri, Abbas; Hoseini Zarch, Seyed Hossein; Jamshidi, Shokofeh; Akbari, Peyman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Benign maxillo-mandibular tumors and cysts, which are relatively common findings on radiographs, namely the ubiquitous panoramic view, have to be dealt with by dentists on a daily basis. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the panoramic radiographic findings pertaining to benign and tumoral lesions in the maxilla and mandible. Patients and Methods: Applying a case series method, panoramic images of 61 patients with cysts, benign tumors and tumor-like lesions in the ja...

  11. Radiographic predictability of cartilage damage in medial ankle osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jeong-Seok; Shim, Jae-Chan; Suh, Jin-Soo; Lee, Woo-Chun

    2010-08-01

    Radiographic grading has been used to assess and select between treatment options for ankle osteoarthritis. To use radiographic grading systems in clinical practice and scientific studies one must have reliable systems that predict the fate of the cartilage. We therefore asked whether (1) radiographic grading of ankle osteoarthritis is reliable and (2) grading reflects cartilage damage observed during arthroscopy. We then (3) determined the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the radiographic findings. We examined 74 ankles with medial osteoarthritis and 24 with normal articular cartilage based on arthroscopy. Arthroscopic findings were graded according to the modified Outerbridge grades and all radiographs were graded using the modified Kellgren-Lawrence, Takakura et al., and van Dijk et al. grading systems. The reliability of each radiographic grading system was evaluated. We correlated the radiographic grades and severity of cartilage damage for each radiographic grading system. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of spurs and joint space narrowing with or without talar tilting then were determined. The interobserver weighted kappa ranged from 0.58 to 0.89 and the intraobserver weighted kappa from 0.51 to 0.85. The correlation coefficients for the Kellgren-Lawrence, Takakura et al., and van Dijk et al. grades were 0.53, 0.42, and 0.42, respectively. Ankles with medial joint space narrowing (Stage 2 of Takakura et al. and van Dijk et al. grades) showed varying severity of cartilage damage. The positive predictive value of cartilage damage increased from 77% for medial joint space narrowing regardless of the presence of talar tilting to 98% for medial joint space narrowing with talar tilting. Our observations suggest the inclusion of talar tilting in grading schemes enhances the assessment of cartilage damage. Level II, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of level of evidence.

  12. Silver impregnation in situ: an aid to radiographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.; Rantanen, N.W.

    1984-01-01

    In evaluating radiographs of the limb joints and head, students encounter difficulty where superimposition occurs. By replacing calcium with silver salts in the bone, enhanced radiopacity can be produced. In this study, silver impregnation was used to increase the radiopacity of individual carpal and tarsal bones, selected bones of the skull and the sinuses, and guttural pouch of the horse. This provides an interpretation aid for teaching radiographic anatomy of these regions

  13. Proton Radiography Imager:Generates Synthetic Proton Radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-12

    ProRad is a computer program that is used to generate synthetic images of proton (or other charged particles) radiographs. The proton radiographs arc images that arc obtained by sending energetic protons (or electrons or positrons, for example) through 11 plasma where electric and/or magnetic fields alter the particles trajectory, Dnd the variations me imaged on RC film, image plate, or equivalent

  14. Reestablishment of radiographic kidney size in Miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jungmin; Yun, Sookyung; Lee, Jeosoon; Chang, Dongwoo; Choi, Mincheol; Yoon, Junghee

    2017-01-10

    Kidney size may be altered in renal diseases, and the detection of kidney size alteration has diagnostic and prognostic values. We hypothesized that radiographic kidney size, the kidney length to the second lumbar vertebra (L2) length ratio, in normal Miniature Schnauzer dogs may be overestimated due to their shorter vertebral length. This study was conducted to evaluate radiographic and ultrasonographic kidney size and L2 length in clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers and other dog breeds to evaluate the effect of vertebral length on radiographic kidney size and to reestablish radiographic kidney size in normal Miniature Schnauzers. Abdominal radiographs and ultrasonograms from 49 Miniature Schnauzers and 54 other breeds without clinical evidence of renal disease and lumbar vertebral abnormality were retrospectively evaluated. Radiographic kidney size, in the Miniature Schnauzer (3.31 ± 0.26) was significantly larger than that in other breeds (2.94 ± 0.27). Relative L2 length, the L2 length to width ratio, in the Miniature Schnauzer (1.11 ± 0.06) was significantly shorter than that in other breeds (1.21 ± 0.09). However, ultrasonographic kidney sizes, kidney length to aorta diameter ratios, were within or very close to normal range both in the Miniature Schnauzer (6.75 ± 0.67) and other breeds (7.16 ± 1.01). Thus, Miniature Schnauzer dogs have breed-specific short vertebrae and consequently a larger radiographic kidney size, which was greater than standard reference in normal adult dogs. Care should be taken when evaluating radiographic kidney size in Miniature Schnauzers to prevent falsely diagnosed renomegaly.

  15. Reestablishment of radiographic kidney size in Miniature Schnauzer dogs

    OpenAIRE

    SOHN, Jungmin; YUN, Sookyung; LEE, Jeosoon; CHANG, Dongwoo; CHOI, Mincheol; YOON, Junghee

    2016-01-01

    Kidney size may be altered in renal diseases, and the detection of kidney size alteration has diagnostic and prognostic values. We hypothesized that radiographic kidney size, the kidney length to the second lumbar vertebra (L2) length ratio, in normal Miniature Schnauzer dogs may be overestimated due to their shorter vertebral length. This study was conducted to evaluate radiographic and ultrasonographic kidney size and L2 length in clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers and other dog breeds ...

  16. Role of a radiographer in mammography- new perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.

    2006-01-01

    giving the background to breast cancer in kenya. The importance of public education. The significance of early detection of breast cancer and patient survival. the emphasis of change of mind set of machine oriented radiographer to a clinically focused role. this involves a better understanding of the breast, the disease pattern, clinical examination of the breast and correlation with radiographic findings. The importance of other imaging modalities used to supplement mammography

  17. In vivo assessment of accuracy of Propex II, Root ZX II, and radiographic measurements for location of the major foramen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Garcia Tampelini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this in vivo study was to assess the accuracy of 2 third-generation electronic apex locators (EALs, Propex II (Dentsply Maillefer and Root ZX II (J. Morita, and radiographic technique for locating the major foramen (MF. Materials and Methods Thirty-two premolars with single canals that required extraction were included. Following anesthesia, access, and initial canal preparation with size 10 and 15 K-flex files and SX and S1 rotary ProTaper files, the canals were irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. The length of the root canal was verified 3 times for each tooth using the 2 apex locators and once using the radiographic technique. Teeth were extracted and the actual WL was determined using size 15 K-files under a × 25 magnification. The Biostat 4.0 program (AnalystSoft Inc. was used for comparing the direct measurements with those obtained using radiographic technique and the apex locators. Pearson's correlation analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA were used for statistical analyses. Results The measurements obtained using the visual method exhibited the strongest correlation with Root ZX II (r = 0.94, followed by Propex II (r = 0.90 and Ingle's technique (r = 0.81; p < 0.001. Descriptive statistics using ANOVA (Tukey's post hoc test revealed significant differences between the radiographic measurements and both EALs measurements (p < 0.05. Conclusions Both EALs presented similar accuracy that was higher than that of the radiographic measurements obtained with Ingle's technique. Our results suggest that the use of these EALs for MF location is more accurate than the use of radiographic measurements.

  18. Serial Radiographs Do Not Change the Clinical Course of Nonoperative Stable OTA/AO 44-B1 Ankle Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Lucas S; Working, Zachary M; Rane, Ajinkya A; Jacobson, Lance G; Kubiak, Erik N; Higgins, Thomas F; Rothberg, David L

    2017-05-01

    To assess radiographic markers of ankle stability in stable OTA/AO 44-B1 ankle fractures. Retrospective review. Academic Level-I trauma hospital. One hundred thirty-four patients with stable OTA/AO 44-B1 (Danis-Weber B, Supination-External Rotation-II) ankle fractures. Analysis of mortise view radiographs at the time of initial evaluation and final follow-up. (1) medial clear space; (2) Mueller-Nose Distance. Change in radiographic measurements resulting in conversion to operative intervention. Patients followed up an average of 2.6 visits in our clinics (SD 1.06). Patients received an average of 11.2 individual radiographic images to evaluate their injury (SD 3.9, maximum 29). No patients progressed to surgery in this cohort. Mean medial clear space at the time of injury was 3.4 mm (SD 0.8) and was 3.3 mm (SD 0.7) at the time of final follow-up (P = 0.1). Mean Mueller-Nose measurement at the time of injury was 3.5 mm (SD 1.0) and was 3.5 mm (SD 0.8) at the time of final follow-up (P = 0.47). No patients with stable OTA/AO 44-B1 fractures proceeded to surgery for loss of tibiotalar reduction or any other cause. Radiographic relationships were conserved during the follow-up, and serial radiographs may not be needed when managing these patients. Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. Normal Foot and Ankle Radiographic Angles, Measurements, and Reference Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Bradley M; Stasko, Paul A; Gesheff, Martin G; Bhave, Anil

    2016-01-01

    The limb deformity-based principles originate from a standard set of lower extremity radiographic angles and reference points. Objective radiographic measures are the building blocks for surgical planning. Critical preoperative planning and intraoperative and postoperative evaluation of radiographs are essential for proper deformity planning and correction of all foot and ankle cases. A total of 33 angles and reference points were measured on 24 healthy feet. The radiographic measurements were performed on standard weightbearing anteroposterior, lateral, and axial views of the right foot. A total of 4 measurements were made from the axial view, 12 from the lateral view, and 17 from the anteroposterior view. All angles were measured by both senior authors twice, independent of each other. The radiographic angles and measurements presented in the present study demonstrate a comprehensive and useful set of standard angles, measures, and reference points that can be used in clinical and perioperative evaluation of the foot and ankle. The standard radiographic measures presented in the present study provide the foundation for understanding the osseous foot and ankle position in a normal population. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dilemma of gonial angle measurement: Panoramic radiograph or lateral cephalogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Pillai Devu; Varma, Nilambur Kovilakam Sapna; Ajith, Vallikat Velath [Dept. of Orthodontics, Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi (India)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of panoramic imaging in measuring the right and left gonial angles by comparing the measured angles with the angles determined using a lateral cephalogram of adult patients with class I malocclusion. The gonial angles of 50 class I malocclusion patients (25 males and 25 females; mean age: 23 years) were measured using both a lateral cephalogram and a panoramic radiograph. In the lateral cephalograms, the gonial angle was measured at the point of intersection of the ramus plane and the mandibular plane. In the panoramic radiographs, the gonial angle was measured by drawing a line tangent to the lower border of the mandible and another line tangent to the distal border of the ascending ramus and the condyle on both sides. The data obtained from both radiographs were statistically compared. No statistically significant difference was observed between the gonial angle measured using the lateral cephalograms and that determined using the panoramic radiographs. Further, there was no statistically significant difference in the measured gonial angle with respect to gender. The results also showed a statistically insignificant difference in the mean of the right and the left gonial angles measured using the panoramic radiographs. As the gonial angle measurements using panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms showed no statistically significant difference, panoramic radiography can be considered in orthodontics for measuring the gonial angle without any interference due to superimposed images.

  1. Radiographic classification of the femoral intercondylar notch posterolateral rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Lutul D; Chen, Michael R; Cooperman, Daniel R; Goodfellow, Donald B; Robbin, Mark S

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether posterolateral rim morphology can be delineated on plain radiographic images. We obtained 20 femora from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History (10 each with distinct and indistinct posterolateral rims). Four blinded reviewers evaluated radiographic posterolateral rim morphology on lateral radiographs. The reviewers included a musculoskeletal radiologist, a fellowship-trained sports medicine surgeon, a pediatric orthopaedic surgeon, and a junior orthopaedic resident. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability was determined. Radiographically, posterolateral rim morphology was classified into 2 types. Type 1 rims have a defined transition from Blumensaat's line to the posterior femoral cortex. Type 2 rims have an indistinct transition. Interobserver reliability showed substantial agreement during the first (kappa = 0.65) and second (kappa = 0.70) sessions. Intraobserver reliability was nearly perfect, with kappa values ranging from 0.8 to 1.0. It has been shown anatomically that the posterolateral rim has variable morphology. We have shown that posterolateral rim morphology can be delineated on lateral plain film images. Radiographic type 1 rims correlate with distinct posterolateral rim morphology. Radiographic type 2 rims correlate with indistinct posterolateral rim morphology. For surgeons who reference the posterolateral rim for femoral tunnel placement during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, indistinct posterolateral rim morphology may result in errant tunnel placement. Improved awareness of posterolateral rim morphology preoperatively may help avoid technical errors with placement of the femoral tunnel.

  2. When disaster strikes; the role of the forensic radiographer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Mary; Reeves, Pauline; Scott, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Forensic radiography is a vital tool utilised in the many facets of Forensic Medicine. This paper investigates the role of the forensic radiographer in a mass disaster situation; it also explores the psychological impact of this type of work on radiographers. A literature review indicated that limited work had been documented on the role of the radiographer in mass disasters. This ultimately creates doubt about whether or not the radiographer is acknowledged for the vital role he/she plays and if proper provisions were in place to assess any emotional damage in the aftermath of an emotionally and physically straining situation. A qualitative method of research was used (semi-structured interviews) in order to elicit radiographers' feelings and perceptions. This method is best suited to this research topic because it is a delicate subject. Four interviews were carried out and the responses are presented in themes including emergency versus mass grave experiences (including issues of time and preparation). Other themes include the role of the radiographer and interaction with other members of the team, as well as a discussion of the aftermath of their experiences, including the feelings of pride experienced

  3. Radiographic localization of impacted maxillary canines: A comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether localization is achievable with a single panoramic radiograph. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients were studied, in varying age groups and were assessed clinically for impacted or erupted malpositioned maxillary canines. In 20 patients with erupted malposed canines, a panoramic radiograph was compared with the clinical visual method; and in the remaining 20 patients with impacted maxillary canines, a panoramic radiograph was compared with the buccal object rule, for localizing the canine. Results: In our study, the patients were in the age group of 11-52 years, with a mean age of 23.47 ± 8.63 years (SD. Kappa statistics revealed good agreement for localization by using panoramic radiographs when compared to the visual method (value-0.684, and they revealed moderate agreement for localization when using panoramic radiographs, as compared to the buccal object rule (value-0.630. A coefficient correlation for reliability of a panoramic radiograph gave a predictive value of P < 0.0001, thus proving that using panoramic radiography for localizing the object is highly significant. Conclusion: Our study suggested that panoramic radiography is a moderately reliable tool for localizing maxillary impacted canines.

  4. Radiographic diagnoses and treatment decisions on approximal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espelid, I.

    1987-01-01

    Mineral loss which represents a threshold value for radiographic diagnosis, cannot be defined exactly. For clinical use 10% mineral loss in the direction of the X-ray beam may constitute a border line lesion for radiographic detection, and caries lesions without cavitation seemed to be beyond this diagnostic threshold. The degree of caries estimated by using radiographs is fairly closely related to the depth of the tissue changes recorded in the prepared cavity. Radiographic examinations more often lead to underestimation than overestimation of the degree of caries. Radiographic caries diagnoses made at different degrees of penetration toward the pulp showed insignificant variations with respect to quality, but the observers were more confident of caries being present (used more strict criterion) when they scored caries in inner dentin. Consensus on diagnostic criteria and improved diagnostic quality are considerably more important to the quality of therapeutic decisions on approximal caries than viewing conditions and film density. A semi-radiopaque material in Class II fillings seems to offer advantages compared to amalgam in respect of the diagnosis of secondary caries and marginal defects. There is a danger that dentists will restore approximal caries lesions too early and before these can be diagnosed in dentin radiographically

  5. Panoramic radiographic findings as predictors of mandibular nerve exposure following third molar extraction: digital versus conventional radiographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Michael James; Cavola, Cameron Frank; Dodson, Thomas B

    2009-03-01

    The aim was to compare digital and conventional panoramic imaging techniques for identifying high-risk radiographic markers associated with mandibular nerve (MN) injury after mandibular third molar (M3) removal. The study used a retrospective cohort model. The predictor variable was the presence or absence of radiographic signs associated with MN exposure during M3 removal. The outcome variable was MN exposure. Intraexaminer variability was estimated using a kappa statistic. Logistic regression modeling was used to measure the association between radiographic signs and MN exposure and determine if imaging technique modified that association. The level of statistical significance was set at P exposure (P technique was a statistically insignificant effect modifying variable (P = .4). The results of this study suggest that imaging technique does not modify the relationship between high-risk panoramic radiographic signs and MN exposure.

  6. Utility of Postoperative Radiographs for Pediatric Scoliosis: Association Between History and Physical Examination Findings and Radiographic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shau, David N; Bible, Jesse E; Gadomski, Stephen P; Samade, Richard; Armaghani, Sheyan; Mencio, Gregory A; Devin, Clinton J

    2014-07-02

    Postoperative radiographs are routinely obtained following surgery for the correction of scoliosis in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the utility of obtaining routine postoperative radiographs in the management of these patients. A total of 1969 clinic notes and corresponding radiographs regarding 451 consecutive patients with scoliosis (age range, ten to eighteen years) who had surgical correction over a ten-year period at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Curve etiology, preoperative curve characteristics, and surgical procedures performed were recorded. All postoperative clinic notes and radiographs were reviewed for abnormalities and changes in treatment course. It was then determined whether clinical signs and symptoms and/or abnormal radiographic findings led to a change in treatment course, which was defined as a therapeutic intervention or further diagnostic testing. Of the 451 patients in this study (average age [and standard deviation], 14.7 ± 2.4 years), 72.5% had adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, 23.3% had neuromuscular scoliosis, and 4.2% had other underlying causes of scoliosis. A change in treatment course occurred in the cases of forty-two patients, all of whom had symptomatic findings on postoperative history and physical examination and only fifteen of whom had supportive abnormal findings on postoperative radiographs. Curve etiology and surgical procedures performed had no impact on radiographic utility. A significant increase in utility was seen for radiographs obtained at visits one year or more following surgery compared with those obtained at visits less than one year following surgery (1.7% compared with 0.3%, p = 0.001). The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of routine postoperative radiographs in guiding treatment course were 35.7%, 98.1%, 28.8%, and 98.6%, respectively. Routine radiographs provide low utility in guiding

  7. 3D reconstruction of the human spine from radiograph(s) using a multi-body statistical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Jonathan; Cheriet, Farida; Pennec, Xavier; Ayache, Nicholas

    2009-02-01

    Three-dimensional models of the spine are very important in diagnosing, assessing, and studying spinal deformities. These models are generally computed using multi-planar radiography, since it minimizes the radiation dose delivered to patients and allows them to assume a natural standing position during image acquisition. However, conventional reconstruction methods require at a minimum two sufficiently distant radiographs (e.g., posterior-anterior and lateral radiographs) to compute a satisfactory model. Still, it is possible to expand the applicability of 3D reconstructions by using a statistical model of the entire spine shape. In this paper, we describe a reconstruction method that takes advantage of a multi-body statistical model to reconstruct 3D spine models. This method can be applied to reconstruct a 3D model from any number of radiographs and can also integrate prior knowledge about spine length or preexisting vertebral models. Radiographs obtained from a group of 37 scoliotic patients were used to validate the proposed reconstruction method using a single posterior-anterior radiograph. Moreover, we present simulation results where 3D reconstructions obtained from two radiographs using the proposed method and using the direct linear transform method are compared. Results indicate that it is possible to reconstruct 3D spine models from a single radiograph, and that its accuracy is improved by the addition of constraints, such as a prior knowledge of spine length or of the vertebral anatomy. Results also indicate that the proposed method can improve the accuracy of 3D spine models computed from two radiographs.

  8. Stereoscopic radiographic images with thermal neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvani, M. I.; Almeida, G. L.; Rogers, J. D.; Lopes, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    Spatial structure of an object can be perceived by the stereoscopic vision provided by eyes or by the parallax produced by movement of the object with regard to the observer. For an opaque object, a technique to render it transparent should be used, in order to make visible the spatial distribution of its inner structure, for any of the two approaches used. In this work, a beam of thermal neutrons at the main port of the Argonauta research reactor of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has been used as radiation to render the inspected objects partially transparent. A neutron sensitive Imaging Plate has been employed as a detector and after exposure it has been developed by a reader using a 0.5 μm laser beam, which defines the finest achievable spatial resolution of the acquired digital image. This image, a radiographic attenuation map of the object, does not represent any specific cross-section but a convoluted projection for each specific attitude of the object with regard to the detector. After taking two of these projections at different object attitudes, they are properly processed and the final image is viewed by a red and green eyeglass. For monochromatic images this processing involves transformation of black and white radiographies into red and white and green and white ones, which are afterwards merged to yield a single image. All the processes are carried out with the software ImageJ. Divergence of the neutron beam unfortunately spoils both spatial and contrast resolutions, which become poorer as object-detector distance increases. Therefore, in order to evaluate the range of spatial resolution corresponding to the 3D image being observed, a curve expressing spatial resolution against object-detector gap has been deduced from the Modulation Transfer Functions experimentally. Typical exposure times, under a reactor power of 170 W, were 6 min for both quantitative and qualitative measurements. In spite of its intrinsic constraints

  9. The radiographic evaluation of endobronchial tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kyu Ok

    1984-01-01

    which 6 with radiographically complete obstruction of endobronchial lesion. This maintenance of lumen patency distal to the obstructing lesion seems to be a characteristics of endobronchial tuberculosis.

  10. Simulated radiographic bone and joint modeling from 3D ankle MRI: feasibility and comparison with radiographs and 2D MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeck, Shaun M; Koerper, Conrad E; Adler, Aaron; Malhotra, Vidur; Xi, Yin; Liu, George T; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to simulate radiographs from isotropic 3D MRI data, compare relationship of angle and joint space measurements on simulated radiographs with corresponding 2D MRIs and real radiographs (XR), and compare measurement times among the three modalities. Twenty-four consecutive ankles were included, eight males and 16 females, with a mean age of 46 years. Segmented joint models simulating radiographs were created from 3D MRI data sets. Three readers independently performed blinded angle and joint space measurements on the models, corresponding 2D MRIs, and XRs at two time points. Linear mixed models and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was ascertained, with p values less than 0.05 considered significant. Simulated radiograph models were successfully created in all cases. Good agreement (ICC > 0.65) was noted among all readers across all modalities and among most measurements. Absolute measurement values differed between modalities. Measurement time was significantly greater (p 3D MRI data; however, measurements differ. Good inter-reader and moderate-to-good intra-reader reliability was observed and measurements obtained on simulated radiograph models took significantly less time compared to measurements with 2D and generally less time than XR.

  11. Radiographic alterations of the frontal sinus morphology according to variations of the vertical angle in posteroanterior radiographs of the skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonan Ferreira Silva

    2014-03-01

    The frontal sinuses play a highly relevant role in comparative human identification processes. Since forensic radiology is a branch in the forensic sciences, adequate radiological analysis of the frontal sinuses is essential for comparative human identifications. The current study investigates radiographic morphological changes in the frontal sinuses according to vertical angle distortions in posteroanterior (PA radiographs. A standard PA radiograph of the skull of an adult was obtained. Eight addition PA radiographs were taken at different vertical angles. Frontal sinuses were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively according to Ribeiro´s (2000 technique. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses revealed significant image distortions. Further, overlapping anatomical structures were reported when PA radiographs were analyzed in negative angulation distortions (from -10° to -40°. Positive and negative angular distortions up to 20º slightly affected the qualitative morphological analysis. However, 10° positive and negative distortions provided a significant interference in quantitative analysis and impaired the measuring process. Most forensic techniques for the analysis of frontal sinuses comprise measurements of morphological distances. Distortions of approximately 10° or over in vertical angulation of cranial PA radiographs should be avoided so that more accurate comparative human identifications could be achieved.

  12. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  13. Radiographic diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia: review of 60 cases in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Changbaig

    2004-06-01

    Sixty cases of diaphragmatic hernia in dogs and cats were radiologically reviewed and categorized by their characteristic radiographic signs. Any particular predilection for age, sex, or breed was not observed. Liver, stomach and small intestine were more commonly herniated. At least two radiographs, at different angles, were required for a valid diagnosis, because some radiographic signs were not visible in a single radiographic view and more clearly detectable in two radiographic views. In addition to previously reported radiographic signs for diaphragmatic hernia, we found that the location of the stomach axis and the displacement of tracheal and bronchial segments were also useful radiographic signs.

  14. Are reporting radiographers fulfilling the role of advanced practitioner?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, R.C.; Snaith, B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Advanced practice roles are emerging in all disciplines at a rapid pace and reporting radiographers are ideally placed to work at such level. Advanced practitioners should demonstrate expert practice and show progression into three other areas of higher level practice. Most existing literature has focussed on the image interpretation aspect of the role, however there is little evidence that plain film reporting radiographers are undertaking activities beyond image interpretation and fulfilling the role of advanced practitioner. Method: Letters were posted to every acute NHS trust in the UK, inviting reporting radiographers to complete an online survey. Both quantitative and qualitative information was sought regarding demographics and roles supplementary to reporting. Results: A total of 205 responses were analysed; 83.3% of reporting radiographers describe themselves as advanced practitioner, however significantly less are showing progression into the four core functions of higher level practice. A total of 97.0% undertake expert practice, 54.7% have a leadership role, 19.8% provide expert lectures and 71.1% have roles encompassing service development or research, though most of these fall into the service development category. 34.5% felt that they were aware of the differences between extended and advanced practice though much less (9.3%) could correctly articulate the difference. Conclusion: Few individuals are aware of the difference between extended and advanced practice. Though the majority of plain film reporting radiographers identify themselves as advanced practitioners, significantly less evidence all four core functions of higher level practice. The number of individuals undertaking research and providing expert-level education is low. - Highlights: • 83.3% of reporting radiographers describe themselves as advanced practitioners. • Only 56.0% undertake all four core functions of higher level practice. • Only 15.4% of reporting

  15. Pulp polyp - A periapical lesion: Radiographic observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandagal V Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulp polyp (PP is a chronic hyperplastic condition resulting in formation of granulation tissue and proliferative mass. The radiographic appearance of PP has innumerable presentations. Diagnosing and treatment planning of periapical lesions, heavily relies on the radiographic changes surrounding the root structures. Objective: To evaluate different radiographic periapical changes in clinically detected PP patients. Materials and Methods: Patients reporting to Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and who were clinically diagnosed with PP by an oral diagnostician were subjected to radiographic examination. Digital intraoral periapical radiographs of 50 patients with PP were taken. Various periapical changes in the digital radiographs were recorded by a skilled oral radiologist. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS ver 17.0 and P-value was set at <0.05 as significant. Result: Periapical changes like periodontal space widening (PDLW, loss of lamina dura, periapical abscess, periapical granuloma, hypercementosis, condensing osteitis and root resorption were noted. Periodontal space widening was seen in all patients (100%, loss of lamina dura was noted in 72%, periapical rarefying osteitis in 56%, condensing osteitis in 8%, hypercementosis, periapical granuloma, and root resorption were seen in 4% of PP patients. Majority of PP were asymptomatic (66%. Pulp polyp was commonly seen in mandibular first molar followed by mandibular second molar and maxillary first molar. Statistically significant difference was noticed between periapical changes in PP patients (P value <0.0001. All PP patients showed definite periapical changes suggesting it to be a periapical lesion. Conclusion: Pulp polyp is confined to the pulpal portion of the tooth which, may or may not cause changes in periapical region. The results of the present study showed that majority of the PP patients were associated with definite periapical

  16. Evaluation of the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, Chandramani B; Asrani, Mukesh K

    2010-01-01

    The styloid process is an anatomical structure, whose clinical importance is not well understood. Proper clinical and radiographic evaluation can detect an elongated styloid process and calcification of the stylohyoid ligament. It has been reported that 2 – 28% of the general population show radiographic evidence of mineralization of a portion of the stylohyoid chain. The elongated styloid process may be symptomatic in many cases. Panoramic radiography is the best imaging modality to view the styloid process bilaterally. To assess the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs. The study was conducted on 500 digital panoramic radiographs available in the archives of our department as soft copies. These radiographs were taken using a digital panoramic system. The radiographic length of the styloid process was measured on both sides using the measurement toolbars on the accompanying analysis software. For statistical analysis we used the unpaired t test, Chi-square test, and one-way ANOVA test, as necessary. The average length of the left styloid was 25.41 ± 6.32 mm and that of the right styloid was 25.53 ± 6.62 mm. The length of both styloids increased with age and males had longer styloids than females. Elongated styloids were present in 19.4% of the panoramic radiographs. Langlais type I elongated styloids and a partial calcification pattern were more common than others. Panoramic radiography is useful for detection of an elongated styloid process and / or ossification of the stylohyoid ligament in patients with or without symptoms, and helps avoid a misdiagnosis of tonsillar pain or pain of dental, pharyngeal, or muscular origin

  17. Evaluation of the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Chandramani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The styloid process is an anatomical structure, whose clinical importance is not well understood. Proper clinical and radiographic evaluation can detect an elongated styloid process and calcification of the stylohyoid ligament. It has been reported that 2 - 28% of the general population show radiographic evidence of mineralization of a portion of the stylohyoid chain. The elongated styloid process may be symptomatic in many cases. Panoramic radiography is the best imaging modality to view the styloid process bilaterally. Aim: To assess the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 500 digital panoramic radiographs available in the archives of our department as soft copies. These radiographs were taken using a digital panoramic system. The radiographic length of the styloid process was measured on both sides using the measurement toolbars on the accompanying analysis software. For statistical analysis we used the unpaired t test, Chi-square test, and one-way ANOVA test, as necessary. Results: The average length of the left styloid was 25.41 ± 6.32 mm and that of the right styloid was 25.53 ± 6.62 mm. The length of both styloids increased with age and males had longer styloids than females. Elongated styloids were present in 19.4% of the panoramic radiographs. Langlais type I elongated styloids and a partial calcification pattern were more common than others. Conclusion: Panoramic radiography is useful for detection of an elongated styloid process and / or ossification of the stylohyoid ligament in patients with or without symptoms, and helps avoid a misdiagnosis of tonsillar pain or pain of dental, pharyngeal, or muscular origin.

  18. Localization of impacted permanent maxillary canine using single panoramic radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : The objective in localization is selection of a suitable technique which has minimal radiation dose, cost and maximum details. Panoramic radiograph, being a screening radiograph, can satisfy the above needs. Taking this into consideration, the present study was done to evaluate the reliability of panoramic radiograph in localization of impacted permanent maxillary canines by applying the criteria suggested by Chaushu et al. and by comparing it with Clark′s rule. Materials and Methods : The study comprised of 114 subjects in the age group of 13-30 years of both the genders with 150 impacted canines visiting Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology during the study period. The study subjects were examined for clinically missing canine, and then confirmed with intra-oral peri-apical radiograph (IOPAR. Panoramic radiographs (for application of Chaushu et al. criteria and IOPAR′s (for application of Clark′s rule of the subjects were made and interpreted for parameters pertaining to the impacted canines. The data obtained was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS software. Results : Determination of the bucco-palatal position from panoramic radiographs, by applying Chaushu, et al. criteria, showed that localization in bucco-palatal position was possible for 96 of the 102 impacted canines placed in the middle and coronal zones. The remaining six impacted canines, three each in the middle and coronal zones, could not be localized as they showed overlapping in their range. By excluding them, the overall agreement worked out to be 94.11%. Localization was not possible for 48 impacted canines that lied in the apical zone. Conclusion : A single panoramic radiograph can serve as a reliable indicator for determining the bucco-palatal position of the impacted canines when they lie in the middle and coronal zones. When they lie in the apical zone it is

  19. Radiographic and spirometric findings in diatomaceous earth workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, P; Dahlgren, J; Bunn, W; Lockey, J; Chase, G

    1998-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth is a noncrystalline form of silica; in processing, calcining leads to formation of cristobalite, a form of crystalline silica. Four hundred ninety-two currently employed diatomaceous earth workers in a large mine and processing facility had chest radiographs performed and interpreted by the International Labour Office (ILO) system. Two hundred sixty-seven subjects underwent spirometry testing. Exposure indices for total dust (largely diatomaceous earth) and cristobalite were reconstructed for each individual based upon personnel records. Analysis demonstrated the following prevalences of radiographic findings: 5% had ILO scores > or = 1/0, and 25% had scores of 0/1 or higher. Regression analyses showed that there was a relationship between both total cristobalite exposure and total dust (largely diatomaceous earth) exposure and the ILO score. Radiographic patterns are not typical of those of classic silicosis. Linear regression analyses for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio did not demonstrate a relationship between cumulative exposure and lung function. Such analyses were performed using all subjects and stratified by smoking status. There were differences in spirometric data according to radiographic ILO category, but the results were inconsistent and did not permit determining if physiologic changes are associated with radiographic change or if this is due to confounding. Overall, the study suggests that diatomaceous earth pneumoconiosis (radiographically defined) is an entity distinct from silicosis. Recent exposure levels may produce radiographic abnormalities but do not lead to demonstrable physiologic effect. The prevalence of the disorder has diminished markedly in response to modern dust control measures. Ongoing medical surveillance is recommended in workers with potential exposure to significant quantity of material.

  20. [X-ray radiographic imaging technique with high dynamic range].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Li-Ming; Su, Xin-Yan

    2014-04-01

    In conventional X-ray radiographic imaging system with a fixed energy parameter, the acquired X-ray images are usually overexposed and have no useful information available. It is due to some constraints, like special structure of component, different attenuation coefficients of materials and dynamic range of optoelectronic devices. When maximum of transmitted X-ray luminous exceed capacity limitation of X-ray radiographic imaging system in one scene, the device up to saturate. Also when minimum of transmitted X-ray luminous is below the thermal noise level of imaging system, no useful information is available for imaging. To solve the problem of difficulties in acquiring transmitted X-ray luminous in a wide dynamic range by conventional X-ray radiographic imaging system, we put forward a new X-ray radiographic imaging technique with high dynamic range based on adjusting tube voltage. In the article, the influence by charge capacity of X-ray radiographic imaging system on effective irradiating thickness is analyzed. Through experiments of some standard samples, we gained the relationship between voltage range of X-ray tube and materials or structure of component for best testing sensitivity. Then we put forward an adjusting strategy of tube voltage and effective subgraphs extraction method from acquired raw X-ray images. By the mentioned method, we carried out X-ray radiographic imaging experiments with high dynamic range for components with thickness from 0 to 20 mm. The results show that X-ray radiographic imaging technique with high dynamic range is effective to realize imaging for some components with different thickness. It is available for us to find more detailed projection information from fusion images.

  1. Factors for lifelong job retention among Swiss radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, P.; Meystre, N. Richli; Mamboury, N.

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, a shortage of radiographers in the three radiology domains, radio-diagnostic, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, is supposed to increase in the upcoming years. As job satisfaction has been shown to contribute to workplace retention, one purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between workplace retention and duration in the profession with job satisfaction. The study was based on two surveys. The institutional survey was addressed to all chiefs of radiology units in hospitals and ambulatory institutes (340, response rate 48%). All radiographers were asked to complete the individual survey (3000, response rate 25%). Two thirds of radiographers had been employed for five or more years in the same workplace, and nearly half intended to stay for 10 more years. The professional lifespan of radiographers is estimated to be approximately 27 years. 75% expressed their satisfaction with key aspects of professional activity, including the content of the work, autonomy, technology and their relationships with professionals and patients. These factors were not linked to a particular workplace, but to the profession itself. The radiographers build their own propitious work environment, even if salary and recognition by physicians are contributing to their dissatisfaction. The retention in the profession, consolidated by a high level of satisfaction, is an essential feature for a workforce policy. However, active measures for reinforcing retention are still necessary when considering that a lifelong career needs challenges and rewards. Additionally, the retention rate does not provide a guarantee adequacy for the future projected needs in the profession. - Highlights: • Retention in the profession, with a high level of satisfaction, is a major point for a workforce policy. • Job satisfaction of radiographers is not linked to a particular workplace, but to the profession itself. • The professional lifespan of radiographers in Switzerland is

  2. Radiographic diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia: review of 60 cases in dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, C.B.

    2004-01-01

    Sixty cases of diaphragmatic hernia in dogs and cats were radiologically reviewed and categorized by their characteristic radiographic signs. Any particular predilection for age, sex, or breed was not observed. Liver, stomach and small intestine were more commonly herniated. At least two radiographs, at different angles, were required for a valid diagnosis, because some radiographic signs were not visible in a single radiographic view and more clearly detectable in two radiographic views

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of Digitized Conventional Radiographs by Camera and Scanner in Detection of Proximal Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Solmaz Valizadeh; Mohammad Amin Tavakoli; Tara Zarabian; Farzad Esmaeili

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims Digital radiographs have some advantages over conventional ones. Application of digital recep-tors is not routine yet. Therefore, there is a need for digitizing conventional radiographs. The aim of the present study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of digitized conventional radiographs by scanner and camera in detection of proximal car-ies. Materials and methods Three hundred and sixteen surfaces of 158 extracted posterior teeth were radiographed. The radiographs wer...

  4. Fatigue stress fractures of the pubic ramus in the army: imaging features with radiographic, scintigraphic and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Chang Hyun [The Armed Forces Capital Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    Although fatigue fractures are not unusual in athletes and military personnel those of the pubic ramus are rare. We report three cases of fatigue fractures of the inferior pubic rami in two male recruits and one female military cadet. On the initial radiograph, most of the lesions were subtle and easy to overlook. However, bone scintigraphy provided more distinct images that allowed easy and early detection of lesion, and MR imaging presented more diagnostic information, which allowed a precise diagnosis.

  5. Injuries of the trochanteric region: can analysis of radiographic indices help in prediction of recurrent osteoporotic hip fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Andrea; Tacci, Fabrizio; Leigheb, Massimiliano; Costantino, Cosimo; Pedrazzini, Alessio; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Vaienti, Enrico; Ceccarelli, Francesco; Pogliacomi, Francesco

    2017-10-18

    In a context of bone fragility, primitive and subsequent fractures are a growing problem in the industrialized countries where the mean age of the population is constantly increasing. Among the various factors that favor a fragility fracture, the most important is osteoporosis, a pathology that can be prevented through diagnostic screenings and treated by pharmacological and rehabilitative therapies. The aim of this study is to identify the subjects who are likely to have a higher risk of subsequent fractures of the trochanteric region through a retrospective radiographic evaluation of patients affected by low-energy trochanteric fractures and operated by intramedullary fixation between June 2013 and June 2015, so they can be targeted for prevention interventions. Three hundred and sixty-one patients yet alive were analyzed 2 years after surgery. Fifty-one (group 1), characterized by another contralateral trochanteric femoral fracture, were included. All subjects were retrospectively examined with the analysis of contralateral femur X-ray performed at the time of initial trauma in order to detect a condition of bone fragility and a predisposition to fractures by evaluating three radiographic indices (Singh index, Dorr's classification and Cortical Thickness Index). Patients of group 1 were compared to the other 310 patients (group 2) affected by isolated trochanteric fracture. Group 1 had all radiographic indices worse than group 2. The results observed suggest that orthopedists can use radiographic indices, in particular Cortical Thickness Index, as a valuable, simple and inexpensive screening tool for prevention of recurrent osteoporotic fractures.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of plain radiographs and cineradiography in diagnosing traumatic scapholunate dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pliefke, Jenny; Eisenschenk, Andreas; Stengel, Dirk; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Rademacher, Grit; Mutze, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Missed tears of the scapholunate ligament (SLL) and scapholunate dissociation (SLD) after wrist injuries pose a high risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the carpus. Plain X-rays and dynamic radiographic studies are frequently used for initial diagnostic work-up. Given the limited evidence of their accuracy, we retrospectively compared the radiographic findings of patients with suspected traumatic SLD with wrist arthroscopy as the accepted reference standard. During a 6-year period, plain radiographs and DSA cineradiography scans were obtained from 198 patients who had sustained a hyperextension injury to their hand. Of those, 102 (72 men, 30 women, mean age of 42 ± 12 years) subsequently underwent diagnostic arthroscopy. Digital images were reevaluated by experienced radiologists unaware of the arthroscopic findings for the presence or absence of SLD. We calculated the sensitivity (SN) and specificity (SP) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and computed areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC/ROC). Arthroscopy revealed 42 SLL ruptures, 13, 10, and 19 of which were classified as grade I (partial), II (complete with dynamic instability), or III (complete with static instability) respectively. Plain radiographs correctly identified 24 injuries (SN 57.1%, 95% CI 41.0-72.3%), and produced 1 false-positive result (SP 98.3%, 95% CI 91.1-100.0%). The scapholunate distance and the SL angle contributed independently to the diagnostic variance, with an AUC/ROC of 85.7% (95% CI 76.8-92.2%). Cineradiography had a sensitivity of 36 out of 42 (85.7%, 95% CI 71.5-94.6%), and a specificity of 57 out of 60 (95.0%, 95% CI 86.1-99.0%). Pathological results on plain radiographs and cineradiography reliably indicate the presence of SLD after wrist trauma. Although non-conclusive, a negative dynamic study markedly reduces the pre-test probability of disease. Both methods remain key elements of primary diagnostic strategies for suspected traumatic SLD, and may

  7. Cost-effectiveness of barium enemas performed by radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lorraine; Desai, Sharad

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To assess the cost-effectiveness of barium enemas performed by radiographers compared to those performed by consultant radiologists. METHOD: Prospective study of 200 barium enemas carried out by a senior radiographer and a consultant radiologist. The sample was a consecutive sample of adult out-patients over a 3-month period, with no exclusion. The length of time of the enema and the numbers and grades of staff involved in the procedure were recorded. This was translated into staffing costs using the appropriate pay scales. RESULTS: The barium enemas performed by the superintendent radiographer were more cost-effective than those performed by the consultant radiologist (1406 pounds for 100 radiographer-performed barium enemas compared to 1787 pounds for 100 carried out by the consultant radiologist). CONCLUSION: In terms of staffing costs, radiographers performing barium enemas not only liberates radiologist time, it is also a cost-effective method of providing an out-patient barium enema service. Brown, L. and Desai, S. (2002)

  8. Mucopolysaccharidosis: radiographic findings in a series of 16 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana Sarmento, Dmitry José; de Carvalho, Sérgio Henrique Gonçalves; Melo, Saulo Leonardo Sousa; Fonseca, Fátima Roneiva Alves; Diniz, Denise Nóbrega; Bento, Patrícia Meira; Mesquita, Germana de Queiroz Tavares Borges; de Melo, Daniela Pita

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the radiographic findings of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) on panoramic radiographs in a series of 16 patients. This retrospective cross-sectional study included panoramic radiographs of 16 patients with cytogenetically diagnosed MPS. Two blinded, previously calibrated observers evaluate the presence or absence of the following features: type of dentition; stage of dental age in comparison with chronologic age; delayed exfoliation of deciduous teeth; supernumerary teeth; teeth impaction; enlarged, cyst-like dental crypt; hypercementosis; taurodontism; generalized enamel hypoplasia; enlargement of the bone marrow spaces; thinning of cortical bone; unusual morphology of condyles; and flattening of the condylar head. The final sample was composed of 8 MPS IV, 7 MPS VI, and 1 MPS I cases. All patients presented unusual morphology of condyles. Cyst-like dental crypt (75%), taurodontism, and teeth impaction (68.75% each) were also overall common findings. Generalized enamel hypoplasia was exclusively identified in patients with MPS IV (75% of those patients). Radiographic features of oral and maxillofacial manifestations in patients with MPS frequently encountered by dentists may help recognize the disorder. However, because of sample size limitations, it was not possible to infer any statistical relationship between the radiographic features and the types of MPS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Construction of a homogeneous phantom for radiographic image standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, Diana Rodrigues de

    1996-01-01

    The principle of radiodiagnosis consists in the fact the X-ray beam is attenuated at different degrees by distinct tissues. For this reason, the anatomical structures have distinct radiological opacities, that produce the radiographic image. The progresses in radiology are related to the development if new radiographic image formation systems that enable an amplification in the quality, with low dose and/or risk to the patient. The objective of this work is the sensitometric valuation of a screen-film combination, that is still the most used, for the standardization, of radiographic images. Thinking about this, were constructed homogeneous phantoms of the chest, skull and pelvis, for the calibration of X-ray beams, with the purpose of obtaining radiographic images of good quality, basing in the routine of a radiodiagnosis service and in the scientific knowledge. Questions were approached about the choice of the suitable equipment, that allow the obtention of k Vp and m As combinations, to produce radiographic images of good quality, and the reproduction of these combinations to any conventional equipment of diagnostic X-rays. Also presented are the comparison of the doses imparted by these combinations and those used in routine of the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto's radiodiagnosis service. (author)

  10. Digital image processing of mandibular trabeculae on radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogino, Toshi

    1987-06-01

    The present study was aimed to reveal the texture patterns of the radiographs of the mandibular trabeculae by digital image processing. The 32 cases of normal subjects and the 13 cases of patients with mandibular diseases of ameloblastoma, primordial cysts, squamous cell carcinoma and odontoma were analyzed by their intra-oral radiographs in the right premolar regions. The radiograms were digitized by the use of a drum scanner densitometry method. The input radiographic images were processed by a histogram equalization method. The result are as follows : First, the histogram equalization method enhances the image contrast of the textures. Second, the output images of the textures for normal mandible-trabeculae radiograms are of network pattern in nature. Third, the output images for the patients are characterized by the non-network pattern and replaced by the patterns of the fabric texture, intertwined plants (karakusa-pattern), scattered small masses and amorphous texture. Thus, these results indicates that the present digital image system is expected to be useful for revealing the texture patterns of the radiographs and in the future for the texture analysis of the clinical radiographs to obtain quantitative diagnostic findings.

  11. Digital image processing of mandibular trabeculae on radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Toshi

    1987-01-01

    The present study was aimed to reveal the texture patterns of the radiographs of the mandibular trabeculae by digital image processing. The 32 cases of normal subjects and the 13 cases of patients with mandibular diseases of ameloblastoma, primordial cysts, squamous cell carcinoma and odontoma were analyzed by their intra-oral radiographs in the right premolar regions. The radiograms were digitized by the use of a drum scanner densitometry method. The input radiographic images were processed by a histogram equalization method. The result are as follows : First, the histogram equalization method enhances the image contrast of the textures. Second, the output images of the textures for normal mandible-trabeculae radiograms are of network pattern in nature. Third, the output images for the patients are characterized by the non-network pattern and replaced by the patterns of the fabric texture, intertwined plants (karakusa-pattern), scattered small masses and amorphous texture. Thus, these results indicates that the present digital image system is expected to be useful for revealing the texture patterns of the radiographs and in the future for the texture analysis of the clinical radiographs to obtain quantitative diagnostic findings. (author)

  12. Surgical crown lengthening: a 12-month study - radiographic results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Eleutério Diniz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to perform a radiographic follow-up evaluation after a 12-month healing period, following crown lengthening surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-three periodontally healthy subjects (mean age 32.5 years that required crown lengthening surgery in premolars were recruited. In a total of 30 premolars, full thickness flaps, osseous resection, and flap suturing were performed. The restorative margin was defined in the pre-surgical phase and maintained unaltered during the healing period, serving as a reference point. Standardized bitewing radiographs were taken before and after osseous reduction, and at 2, 3, 6, and 12-month healing periods. RESULTS: Intact lamina dura was observed at both mesial and distal alveolar crests only from the 3rd month. At 12-months, all alveolar crests presented lamina dura. The overall mean distance from the restorative margin to the alveolar crest achieved after osseous resection was 3.28±0.87 mm at mesial and 2.81±0.51 mm at distal sites. No significant radiographic changes in the bone crest were observed during a 12-month healing period. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that the radiographic proximal bone level observed on bitewing radiographs following crown lengthening surgery can be used as a reference to predict the future level of the healed alveolar crest.

  13. Radiographic features of paediatric pneumocystis pneumonia - a historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, R.D.; Zar, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To determine differences between the plain radiographic features of paediatric pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) recorded before the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1982 and those documented in the HIV era. To establish differences in the radiographic features of PCP documented in HIV-infected children in developed and developing countries. Method: A Medline search of articles was conducted from 1950 to 2006, using the terms 'pneumocystis pneumonia in children' and 'chest radiographic features' or 'bilateral opacification' or 'lobar consolidation' or 'asymmetrical opacification' or 'pneumatocoeles' or 'cavities' or 'pneumothorax' or 'pneumomediastinum' or 'pleural effusion' or 'mediastinal adenopathy' or 'nodules' or 'normal chest radiography'. Appropriate articles were retrieved, radiological data extracted, reference lists examined and hand searches of referenced articles conducted. Results: Diffuse bilateral 'ground-glass' or alveolar pulmonary opacification, which may show some asymmetry, has been consistently documented as the commonest radiographic finding in childhood PCP throughout the period under review. The less common radiological features of PCP in children are similar to those in adults. In developed countries, PCP-related pulmonary air cysts have been reported at an earlier age in HIV-infected children, compared with uninfected children. PCP-related air cysts, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum have been reported in children in developed but not in developing countries. Conclusion: The radiological features of paediatric PCP documented before the HIV epidemic are similar to those recorded in the HIV era. Further study of the determinants of the uncommon radiographic features in children is warranted

  14. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryynaenen, Olli-Pekka; Lehtovirta, Jukka; Soimakallio, Seppo; Takala, Jorma

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination

  15. Evaluation of mental foramen position from panoramic dental radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Muhammed

    2014-07-01

    Evaluate the position of mental foramen by measuring the vertical bone height from digital panoramic radiograph and also the variation of resorption pattern by gender and extraction time frame. Materials and methods/study design: Digital panoramic radiographs of 500 patients were reviewed. The study population was divided into four age groups aged 30 to 70 years as (30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60-70 years of age). Radiographic Position of mental foramen was evaluated in each panoramic radiograph by measuring the distance from the marginal bone to the mental foramen was being measured. Measurements were taken in each radiograph using Clini-view software. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using paired students t-test and chi-square tests. In our study it was noted that the vertical measurements calculated from the superior margin of mental foramen to the crest of alveolar ridge were greater in edentulous men than in women. This measurement decreased significantly with age. We have noted here that resorption pattern between males and females can be used as an early diagnostic tool and for implant analysis. Studies comparing right and left side edentulous mandibular region are needed for further confirmation.

  16. Variability interexaminer of chronic apical periodontitis diagnostics in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Aguilar, Mauricio; Zeledon Mayorga, Rodolfo; Ramirez Mora, Tatiana; Monestel Umana, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The accuracy of radiological diagnosis of Apical Periodontitis (AP) is reported between examiners with differents levels of clinical experience using panoramic radiographs. 1032 teeth in 41 panoramic radiographs have been diagnosed. The evaluation of the x-rays and radiological diagnosis is performed by three independent dentists for AP to each tooth. The teeth have presented without radiological signs of AP in 96.6%. The number of teeth classified with an uncertain diagnosis of AP at the has been inversely proportional to the number of years of experience of the examiner. The examiner A has been used as a reference and compared the diagnoses of other examiners.The percentage agreement for all teeth was 95% for examiner B and 94% for examiner C. Kappa for all has been of 0.44 for examiner B and 0.43 for examiner C. The different categories were analyzed separately, the inferior teeth and the anterior teeth have obtained the best results. The level of clinical experience of the examiner has been indifferent in the diagnosis of AP in panoramic radiographs; however, it is important experience in the number of radiographs extras that will be needed to give a radiological diagnosis definitive. The panoramic radiographs were reliable diagnostic tools for AP. (author) [es

  17. Positioning errors in digital panoramic radiographs: A study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Cicilia Subbulakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Panoramic radiography is a unique and a very useful extraoral film technique that allows the dentist to view the entire dentition and related structures, from condyle to condyle, on one film. Capturing a wide range of structures on a single film grounds the odds of errors in the digital panoramic radiographs. Improper positioning of the patient complicates it more, reducing the diagnostic usefulness of these radiographs. Wide knowledge about the common positioning errors and the ways to rectify it benefits the dentists in interpretation and diagnosis. Aim: This study is aimed at analyzing the 10 common positional errors (anteriorly positioned, posteriorly positioned, head tilted upwards, head tilted downwards, head twisted to one side, head tipped, overlapping of spine in lower anterior region, tongue not placed close to palate, patient movement, and ghost images in 200 digital panoramic radiographs selected randomly. Materials and Methods: Two hundred digital panoramic radiographic images of the patients above 6 years of age were selected randomly from the stored data in the system, projected on the white screen, and studied. The radiographs were analyzed by two oral medicine and radiology specialists, by recording separately, and then the results were analyzed. Results: The most common error was failure to place the tongue close to the palate, which leads to the presence of radiolucent airspace obscuring the roots of the maxillary teeth.

  18. Evaluation of Radiocapitellar Arthritis in Patients with a Second Radiograph at Least 2 Years after Nonoperative Treatment of an Isolated Radial Head Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir R. Kachooei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study if patients that have a second radiograph 2 or more years after nonoperative treatment of an isolated radial head fracture have radiocapitellar osteoarthritis (RC OA. Methods: We used the database of 3 academic hospitals in one health system from 1988 to 2013 to find patients with isolated radial head fractures (no associated ligament injury or fracture that had a second elbow radiograph after more than 2 years from the initial injury. Of 887 patients with isolated radial head fractures, 54 (6% had an accessible second radiograph for reasons of a second injury (57%, pain (30%, or follow-up visit (13%. Two orthopedic surgeons independently classified the radial head fractures on the initial radiographs using the Broberg and Morrey modified Mason classification, and assessed the development of RC OA on the final radiograph using a binary system (yes/no. Results: Four out of 54 (7.5% patients had RC OA, one with isolated RC arthrosis that seemed related to capitellar cartilage injury, and 3 that presented with pain and had global OA (likely primary osteoarthritis. Conclusion: With the caveat that some percentage of patients may have left our health system during the study period, about 1 in 887 patients (0.1% returns with isolated radiocapitellar arthritis after an isolated radial head fracture, and this may relate to capitellar injury rather than attrition. Patients with isolated radial head fractures can consider post-traumatic radiocapitellar arthritis a negligible risk.

  19. Radiographic evaluation of third molar genesis in Greek orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barka G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Georgia Barka,1 Konstantinos Marathiotis,2 Michael Protogerakis,3 Andreas Zafeiriadis4 1Department of Dentoalveolar Surgery, Implant Surgery and Radiology, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 2School of Biology, Faculty of Science and School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Clinical Implant Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK; 4Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece Objectives: The study reported here investigated the first radiographic evidence of third molar (M3 formation, their incidence and distribution as well as their congenital absence on the right or the left side in either the maxilla or the mandible, in both male and female Greek orthodontic patients. Materials and methods: A total of 618 panoramic radiographs were initially examined. After the application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, the group finally selected consisted of 428 patients (mean age 11.64 years, range 5–18: 179 males (mean age 11.73 ± 2.46 and 249 females (mean age 11.57 ± 2.45. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software (IBM, Armonk, New York, NY, USA. The level of significance for all analyses was set to p = 0.05. The chi-square (χ2 test was used to assess the relationships between variables. The Wilcoxon’s signed-rank test and the Mann–Whitney U test were also used for comparisons as well as the Spearman’s rho test for correlations. Results: M3s were first detected in females at the age of 7 years whereas males followed one year later at the age of 8 years. A strong correlation between age and M3 development was revealed for both sexes (Spearman’s rho = 0.177, p = 0.05. Presence of all four M3s was the most common incidence (present in 70.8% of study subjects, followed by the agenesis of two (12.1%, agenesis of all four (8.4%, one (6.8%, and three (1.9% M3s

  20. Radiographic findings of femoroacetabular impingement in National Football League Combine athletes undergoing radiographs for previous hip or groin pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepple, Jeffrey J; Brophy, Robert H; Matava, Matthew J; Wright, Rick W; Clohisy, John C

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of radiographic findings of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in elite football players with a history of hip pain or groin injury who underwent radiographs. We performed a retrospective review of athletes undergoing hip radiography at the National Football League Combine from 2007 to 2009. Radiographs were obtained in athletes with a history of hip pain or injury. Anteroposterior pelvis and frog-lateral radiographs were obtained in 123 hips (107 players) that met our inclusion criteria. Radiographic indicators of cam-type FAI (alpha angle, head-neck offset ratio) and pincer-type FAI (acetabular retroversion, center-edge angle, acetabular inclination) were recorded. Findings were correlated with clinical factors (previous groin/hip pain, position, race, and body mass index). The most common previous injuries included groin strain (n = 57) and sports hernia/abdominal strain (n = 21). Markers of cam- and/or pincer-type FAI were present in 94.3% of hips (116 of 123). Radiographic evidence of combined cam- and pincer-type FAI was the most common (61.8%, 76 hips), whereas isolated cam-type FAI (9.8%, 12 hips) and pincer-type FAI (22.8%, 28 hips) were less common. The most common deformities included acetabular retroversion (71.5%) and an abnormal alpha angle (61.8%). A body mass index greater than 35 was associated with the presence of global overcoverage (46.2% v 17.3%, P = .025). Radiographic indicators of FAI are very common among athletes evaluated at the National Football League Scouting Combine subjected to radiographic examination for the clinical suspicion of hip disease. Elite football athletes with significant or recurrent pain about the hip should be evaluated clinically and radiographically for FAI, because pain from FAI may be falsely attributed to or may be present in addition to other disorders. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America

  1. Observations of radiographer communication: An exploratory study using Transactional Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Lisa A.; Manning, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Communication in medical imaging is a neglected area of research, despite the necessity for good communication if optimum diagnostic images are to be achieved. Methods: The present study has investigated the styles of communication used in medical imaging, using an approach known as Transactional Analysis. This approach has been demonstrated previously as having reliability and validity, using observations and supporting interviews with medical imaging staff, along with inter-rater observations of radiographer-patient interactions. Results: The results indicate that Transactional Analysis can be used effectively for identifying and naming interaction events in diagnostic radiography, with diagnostic radiographers using five styles of communication. Conclusion: Radiographers tend to use Parental styles of communicating; these styles are commonly associated with a practitioner-centred approach to dealing with patients which often result in non-adherence

  2. Erdheim-Chester disease: radiographic findings in five patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bancroft, L.W.; Berquist, T.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    We present the case histories of five patients with Erdheim-Chester disease, a rare lipoidosis that has several typical radiographic features. In all the patients, the diaphyses and metaphyses of the extremities demonstrated a symmetric pattern of diffuse or patchy increased density, a coarsened trabecular pattern, medullary sclerosis, and cortical thickening. The epiphyses were spared in four patients and partially involved in one. The axial skeleton was involved in one patient. Radiotracer {sup 99m}Tc accumulated in areas of radiographic abnormalities in all patients. In one patient, MRI demonstrated an abnormal signal, corresponding to radiographic abnormalities. The signal was hypointense to muscle on T1-weighted sequences and heterogeneously hyperintense and hypointense to normal bone marrow on T2-weighted sequences. Xanthogranulomatous lesions infiltrated the retroperitoneum in one patient, the testes in one patient, the eyelids in one patient, and the orbits in two patients. (orig.) With 10 figs., 12 refs.

  3. Radiographic Assessment of Dental Maturation in Children With Dental Agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Aida Carolina; Pozo, Rodrigo Del; de Cedres, Lucila Blanco

    Dental agenesis is the most common developmental anomaly in humans, frequently associated with disorders in dental development and maturation. The purpose of this study is to determine radiographic variations in dental maturation in a group of Venezuelan children with dental agenesis. 1,188 panoramic radiographs, from healthy patients ages 5 to 12 years old were studied for agenesis of permanent teeth. Dental maturation was assessed by relative eruption and dental age according to Nolla, comparing children affected with dental agenesis to a stratified control group selected from the same population, excluding children with premature loss of primary teeth in the left quadrants and unclear radiographs. Descriptive analysis, and differences between means and medians (Student t test, Kruskall-Wallis p=0.05) were performed. Medians for Nolla stages were similar between groups, with delay in tooth formation in the agenesis group for second molars (pagenesis, with variable significance for tooth formation of studied teeth.

  4. Standard specification for illuminators used for viewing industrial radiographs

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 The function of the illuminator is to provide sufficient illumination and viewing capabilities for the purpose of identification and interpretation of radiographic images. This specification provides the recommended minimum requirements for Industrial Radiographic Illuminators used for viewing industrial radiographic films using transmitted light sources. 1.2 The illuminator has to ensure the same safety for personnel, or users of any electric apparatus, as specified by electrical standards applicable in the country in which the illuminator is used. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.3 Values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parenthesis are provided for information only.

  5. Early diagnosis of atherosclerosis with panoramic radiographs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Landim Borba

    Full Text Available Abstract Carotid artery disease has been linked with cerebral vascular accident, also known as stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, or cerebral ischemia. It is caused by narrowing or obstruction of arteries in the neck (the carotid arteries that are responsible for transporting blood from the aorta to the brain. Panoramic radiographs are used in dentistry to show both dental arches as a supplement to the clinical dental examination. The objective of this study is to highlight the importance of panoramic radiographs for diagnosis of arterial disease, by means of a bibliographic review. The PubMed database was searched using the keywords “atherosclerosis” and “panoramic”, with the filters “last 5 years” and “humans”. Twenty articles were identified, six of which were chosen for this study because they were open access. The review concluded that panoramic radiographs enable early diagnosis of carotid artery calcification, resulting in earlier interventions, and offer an accessible cost.

  6. Subglottic cysts and asymmetrical subglottic narrowing on neck radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holinger, L.D.; Torium, D.M.; Anandappa, E.C.

    1988-01-01

    The congenital subglottic hemangioma typically appears as an asymmetric subglottic narrowing or mass on frontal neck radiograph. Therefore, soft tissue neck radiography has been advocated as a definitive non-operative approach for diagnosing these lesions. However, we have noted similar asymmetric subglottic narrowing in patients with acquired subglottic cysts. These retention cysts occur following long-term intubation in the neonate. The mechanism probably involves subglottic fibrosis which obstructs glands with subsequent cyst formation. Acquired subglottic cysts typically appear as an asymmetric narrowing on frontal or lateral soft tissue neck radiographs. These lesions may produce airway compromise but are effectively treated by forceps or laser removal. Acquired subglottic cysts must be included in the differential diagnosis of asymmetric subglottic narrowing. The definitive diagnosis is made by direct laryngoscopy, not soft tissue neck radiograph. (orig.)

  7. Defects quantization in industrial radiographs by image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briand, F.Y.; Brillault, B.; Philipp, S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper refers to the industrial application of image processing using Non Destructive Testing by radiography. The various problems involved by the conception of a numerical tool are described. This tool intends to help radiograph experts to quantify defects and to follow up their evolution, using numerical techniques. The sequences of processings that achieve defect segmentation and quantization are detailed. They are based on the thorough knowledge of radiographs formation techniques. The process uses various methods of image analysis, including textural analysis and morphological mathematics. The interface between the final product and users will occur in an explicit language, using the terms of radiographic expertise without showing any processing details. The problem is thoroughly described: image formation, digitization, processings fitted to flaw morphology and finally product structure in progress. 12 refs [fr

  8. Educational and experiential effects on radiographers' radiation safety behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilson, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Forty-four radiographers from 11 hospitals in Northern California were observed for radiation safety behaviors in six categories. A multiple regression analysis was performed to determine if there was a significant relationship between the six radiation safety behaviors and the radiographer's age, sex, type of professional training, years since completion of professional training, years of professional practice, time of day, and exposure frequency. The multiple regression analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between use of gonadal shielding and years since completion of professional training, years of professional practice, type of training, and age. The multiple regression analysis also showed that the number of repeated films due to technical error was significantly related to the type of professional training a radiographer received

  9. Correlating intravenous radiographic contrast media reactions with the allergic profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua-Lim, A.; Enright, T.; Duda, E.; Lim, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the relevance of allergy as a predisposing factor in reactions to radiographic contrast media, the authors investigated the incidence of allergy among 100 randomly selected patients undergoing intravenous excretory urography and CT. The study population consisted of 50 reactors and 50 nonreactos to radiographic contrast media. All 100 subjects completed an allergy history, percutaneous allergy tests, and an in vitro specific IgE assay to common allergens. Thirty-four of 50 reactors had a positive allergy history, in contrast to 15 of 50 nonreactors (P < .001). Twenty-seven reactors had positive skin tests, in contrast to 12 of 50 nonreactors (P < .005). In vitro IgE assay results are pending. The results indicate that patients with positive histories or positive skin tests or both are at an increased risk for reactions to radiographic contrast media

  10. Quality of the radiographic image in paper radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.; El Fouly, H.M.

    1981-09-01

    The quality of the radiographic image was investigated by the use of standard ISO wire Image Quality Indicators and ASTM Penetrameters. 10, 20, and 30 mm thick welds on alumunium and steel plates were radiographed using X-ray machines with voltages from 35 to 300 kV. Agfa-Gevaert Structurix IC paper with Structurix IC screens Type II as well as Kodak Industrex 600 and 620 and Rapid 700 paper with Fl and F2 screens were used throughout the investigation. The results reached for radiographic paper were compared with those for a fast X-ray film (Kodak Industrex D). The results of the investigation were presented at the International Conference Joining of Metals JOM-1 in Elsinore, Denmark (9-12.8.1981) and at the Second European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing in Vienna (14-16.9.1981). The texts of both papers are reproduced in this report. (author)

  11. The radiographic appearance of primary liver neoplasia in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The signalment, anamnesis, and histopathologic, gross pathologic, and radiographic findings in 22 dogs with nonvascular, nonhematopoletic primary liver tumors were reviewed. The tumor types represented were hepatoma (8), bile duct cystadenoma (1), hepatocellular carcinoma (5), and cholangiocellular carcinoma (8). The dogs averaged 11.1 years of age. Females were predisposed to cholangiocellular carcinoma. The most common presenting clinical signs were general malaise, anorexia, PU/PD, vomiting, and seizures. Tumors ranged in size from diffuse 0.5-1 cm nodules to an 18-cm solitary mass and were located in any of the liver lobes. Four of the five diffuse tumors were cholangiocellular carcinomas. The most common radiographic appearance for any type of liver tumor was a right cranial abdominal mass causing caudal and left gastric displacement. In 54.5% of the dogs, radiographic evidence of intraperitoneal disease was identified. Nodular interstitial pulmonary masses were seen in 3 of the 22 dogs

  12. Occupational kneeling and radiographic tibiofemoral and patellofemoral osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Søren; Egund, Niels; Jensen, Lilli Kirkeskov

    2009-01-01

    intervals (CI) of TF and PF OA was computed among floor layers compared to graphic designers in three age groups (/= 60 years). Using logistic regression, estimates were adjusted for body mass index and knee-straining sports. In addition, the association between trade seniority and TF OA was assessed in age......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective of our study was to evaluate the association between occupational kneeling and compartment specific radiographic tibiofemoral (TF) and patellofemoral (PF) osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Questionnaire data and bilateral knee radiographs were obtained in 134 male...... floor layers and 120 male graphic designers (referents). Weight-bearing radiographs in three views (postero-anterior, lateral and axial) were classified according to joint space narrowing. After the exclusion of subjects with reports of earlier knee injuries the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence...

  13. Comparisons of NIF convergent ablation simulations with radiograph data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R E; Hicks, D G; Meezan, N B; Koch, J A; Landen, O L

    2012-10-01

    A technique for comparing simulation results directly with radiograph data from backlit capsule implosion experiments will be discussed. Forward Abel transforms are applied to the kappa*rho profiles of the simulation. These provide the transmission ratio (optical depth) profiles of the simulation. Gaussian and top hat blurs are applied to the simulated transmission ratio profiles in order to account for the motion blurring and imaging slit resolution of the experimental measurement. Comparisons between the simulated transmission ratios and the radiograph data lineouts are iterated until a reasonable backlighter profile is obtained. This backlighter profile is combined with the blurred, simulated transmission ratios to obtain simulated intensity profiles that can be directly compared with the radiograph data. Examples will be shown from recent convergent ablation (backlit implosion) experiments at the NIF.

  14. Cauda equina syndrome in the dog: radiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Bailey, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Dogs with clinical signs typical of cauda equina syndrome require careful evaluation to determine the cause of the disease as this strongly influences choice of treatment. Possible aetiologies include congenital or developmental, inflammatory, traumatic, neoplastic, and degenerative lesions that may involve vertebrae, vertebral joints, intervertebral discs, spinal cord, spinal nerves, or meninges. It must be determined whether clinical signs are due to musculoskeletal or neurological disease before performing special radiographic procedures. Non-contrast radiography permits false-positive diagnosis of obvious degenerative changes involving the L-S disc that may be without clinical signs or permits a false-negative diagnosis due to the failure to appreciate soft tissue lesions not seen radiographically. Special radiographic techniques are recommended and include: (1) stress radiography, (2) discography, and (3) epidural myelography. Evaluation of the results of these studies assists in determining the cause of the cauda equina syndrome and the type of therapy required

  15. Radiographers as doctors: A profile of UK doctoral achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaith, B.; Harris, M.A.; Harris, R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Radiography aspires to be a research active profession, but there is limited information regarding the number of individuals with, or studying for, a doctoral award. This study aims to profile UK doctoral radiographers; including their chosen award, approach and employment status. Method: This was a prospective cohort study utilising an electronic survey. No formal database of doctoral radiographers existed therefore a snowball sampling method was adopted. The study sample was radiographers (diagnostic and therapeutic) based in the UK who were registered with the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) and who held, or were studying for, a doctoral award. Results: A total of 90 unique responses were received within the timescale. The respondents comprised 58 females (64.4%) and the majority were diagnostic radiographers (n = 71/90; 78.9%). The traditional PhD was the most common award, although increasing numbers were pursuing Education or Professional Doctorates. An overall increase in doctoral studies is observed over time, but was greatest amongst those working in academic institutions, with 63.3% of respondents (n = 57/90) working solely within a university, and a further 10% employed in a clinical–academic role (n = 9/90). Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that radiography is emerging as a research active profession, with increasing numbers of radiographers engaged in study at a doctoral level. This should provide a platform for the future development of academic and clinical research. - Highlights: • 90 radiographers were identified as holding, or studying for, a doctoral award. • The PhD is the most common award. • EdD and professional doctorates are increasing in popularity. • Academic staff were more likely to pursue such research training.

  16. Reliability and relationship of radiographic measurements in hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Ahn, Soyeon; Chung, Chin Youb; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Park, Moon Seok

    2012-09-01

    Although various radiographic measurements have been developed and used for evaluating hallux valgus, not all are universally believed to be necessary and their relationships have not been clearly established. Determining which are related could provide some insight into which might be useful and which would not. We investigated the reliability of eight radiographic measurements used to evaluate hallux valgus, and determined which were correlated and which predicted the hallux valgus angle. We determined eight radiographic indices for 732 patients (mean age, 51 years; SD, 17 years; 107 males and 625 females) with hallux valgus: hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, hallux interphalangeal angle, distal metatarsal articular angle, proximal phalangeal articular angle, simplified metatarsus adductus angle, first metatarsal protrusion distance, and sesamoid rotation angle. Intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities of each radiographic measurement were analyzed on 36 feet from 36 randomly selected patients. Correlations among the radiographic measurements were analyzed. Radiographic measurements predicting hallux valgus angle were evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Hallux valgus angle had the highest reliability, whereas the distal metatarsal articular angle and simplified metatarsus adductus angle had the lowest. Distal metatarsal articular angle, intermetatarsal angle, and sesamoid rotation angle had the highest correlations with hallux valgus angle. Distal metatarsal articular angle correlated with sesamoid rotation angle. The intermetatarsal angle, interphalangeal angle, distal metatarsal articular angle, first metatarsal protrusion distance, sesamoid rotation angle, and metatarsus adductus angle predicted the hallux valgus angle. We suggest using hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, interphalangeal angle, sesamoid rotation angle, and first metatarsal protrusion distance considering their reliability and prediction of the deformity.

  17. The prevalence of radiographic hip abnormalities in elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Michael B; Romero, Alex A; Silvers, Holly Jacinda; Harris, David J; Watanabe, Diane; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2012-03-01

    Hip injuries, both intra- and extra-articular, are becoming a more commonly recognized, diagnosed, and treated injury in athletes of all competitive levels. Our goal is to establish a previously undefined value in this athletic population--the prevalence of radiographic hip abnormalities in elite soccer athletes. To provide a foundation for the future body of literature regarding hip pathologic abnormalities and "at-risk" hips in athletes of all ages and levels of participation. Descriptive epidemiology study. We retrospectively reviewed the anteroposterior pelvis and frog-leg lateral radiographs of 95 elite male and female soccer players to determine the prevalence of hip abnormalities. Athletes with a history of hip or groin injuries were included. Multiple radiographic parameters were used to assess the presence of cam and pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement. Measurements were conducted by a blinded, sports medicine fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeon with experience in treating hip disorders. In total, 72% (54/75) of male and 50% (10/20) of female players demonstrated some evidence of radiographic hip abnormality. Cam lesions were present in 68% (51/75) of men (76.5% [39/51] bilateral involvement) and 50% (10/20) of women (90% [9/10] bilateral involvement). Pincer lesions were present in 26.7% (20/75) of men and 10% (2/20) of women. The average male alpha angle overall was 65.6°. Cam-positive hips averaged 70.7°. The average female alpha angle overall was 52.9°, with cam-positive hips averaging 60.8°. The prevalence of radiographic hip abnormalities in elite soccer athletes is considerable, particularly in young male athletes. The establishment of the prevalence of these findings represents the first step in identifying the relationship between radiographic abnormalities and injuries of the hip and groin in athletes.

  18. Radiographic patterns and survival of patients with early and late brain metastases in EGFR wild type and mutant non small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Ren; Yamada, Andrew; Weber, Britta

    2016-01-01

    early vs. 38 late). Early and late BM radiographic patterns were similar in EGFR WT patients. In EGFR MT there was a trend towards multiple lesions in the late compared to early BM group. OS from initial diagnosis early BM: WT 7.1 months versus MT 19.9 months (p

  19. Standardized radiographic interpretation of thoracic tuberculosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, Nathan David P; Laya, Bernard F; Andronikou, Savvas; Daltro, Pedro A N; Sanchez, Marion O; Uy, Jacqueline Austine U; Lim, Timothy Reynold U

    2017-09-01

    There is a lack of standardized approach and terminology to classify the diverse spectrum of manifestations in tuberculosis. It is important to recognize the different clinical and radiographic patterns to guide treatment. As a result of changing epidemiology, there is considerable overlap in the radiologic presentations of primary tuberculosis and post-primary tuberculosis. In this article we promote a standardized approach in clinical and radiographic classification for children suspected of having or diagnosed with childhood tuberculosis. We propose standardized terms to diminish confusion and miscommunication, which can affect management. In addition, we present pitfalls and limitations of imaging.

  20. Standardized radiographic interpretation of thoracic tuberculosis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concepcion, Nathan David P.; Laya, Bernard F. [St. Luke' s Medical Center, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Institute of Radiology, Taguig City (Philippines); St. Luke' s Medical Center, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Institute of Radiology, Quezon City (Philippines); Andronikou, Savvas [Bristol Royal Hospital for Children and the University of Bristol, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Bristol (United Kingdom); Daltro, Pedro A.N. [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sanchez, Marion O. [St. Luke' s Medical Center, Section of Pediatric Pulmonology, Institute of Pulmonary Medicine, Quezon City (Philippines); Uy, Jacqueline Austine U. [St. Luke' s Medical Center, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Institute of Radiology, Taguig City (Philippines); Lim, Timothy Reynold U. [St. Luke' s Medical Center, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Institute of Radiology, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2017-09-15

    There is a lack of standardized approach and terminology to classify the diverse spectrum of manifestations in tuberculosis. It is important to recognize the different clinical and radiographic patterns to guide treatment. As a result of changing epidemiology, there is considerable overlap in the radiologic presentations of primary tuberculosis and post-primary tuberculosis. In this article we promote a standardized approach in clinical and radiographic classification for children suspected of having or diagnosed with childhood tuberculosis. We propose standardized terms to diminish confusion and miscommunication, which can affect management. In addition, we present pitfalls and limitations of imaging. (orig.)